Science.gov

Sample records for non-linear dynamics analysis

  1. Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.

    1990-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.

  2. Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.

    1990-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.

  3. Non-linear dynamic analysis of beams with variable stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsikadelis, J. T.; Tsiatas, G. C.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper the analog equation method (AEM), a BEM-based method, is employed to the non-linear dynamic analysis of a Bernoulli-Euler beam with variable stiffness undergoing large deflections, under general boundary conditions which maybe non-linear. As the cross-sectional properties of the beam vary along its axis, the coefficients of the differential equations governing the dynamic equilibrium of the beam are variable. The formulation is in terms of the displacements. The governing equations are derived in both deformed and undeformed configuration and the deviations of the two approaches are studied. Using the concept of the analog equation, the two coupled non-linear hyperbolic differential equations with variable coefficients are replaced by two uncoupled linear ones pertaining to the axial and transverse deformation of a substitute beam with unit axial and bending stiffness, respectively, under fictitious time-dependent load distributions. A significant advantage of this method is that the time history of the displacements as well as the stress resultants are computed at any cross-section of the beam using the respective integral representations as mathematical formulae. Beams with constant and varying stiffness are analyzed under various boundary conditions and loadings to illustrate the merits of the method as well as its applicability, efficiency and accuracy.

  4. DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D

    2008-06-10

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

  5. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.

  6. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations. PMID:25975362

  7. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations.

  8. Non-linear dynamic analysis of a flexible rotor supported on porous oil journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, S. K.; Kakoty, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    In the present paper, the non-linear dynamic analysis of a flexible rotor with a rigid disk under unbalance excitation mounted on porous oil journal bearings at the two ends is carried out. The system equation of motion is obtained by finite element formulation of Timoshenko beam and the disk. The non-linear oil-film forces are calculated from the solution of the modified Reynolds equation simultaneously with Darcy's equation. The system equation of motion is then solved by the Wilson- θ method. Bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré maps, time response, journal trajectories, FFT-spectrum, etc. are obtained to study the non-linear dynamics of the rotor-bearing system. The effect of various non-dimensional rotor-bearing parameters on the bifurcation characteristics of the system is studied. It is shown that the system undergoes Hopf bifurcation as the speed increases. Further, slenderness ratio, material properties of the rotor, ratio of disk mass to shaft mass and permeability of the porous bush are shown to have profound effect on the bifurcation characteristics of the rotor-bearing system.

  9. Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis of Inter-Word Time Intervals in Psychotic Speech.

    PubMed

    Todder, Doron; Avissar, Sofia; Schreiber, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    "Language is a form and not a substance" - Ferdinand de Saussure Objective: Analyses of speech processes in schizophrenia are invariably focused on words as vocal signals. The results of such analyses are, however, strongly related to content, and may be language- and culture-dependent. Little attention has been paid to a pure measure of the form of speech, unrelated to its content: inter-words time intervals. 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy volunteers are recorded spontaneously speaking for 10-15 min. Recordings are analyzed for inter-words time intervals using the following non-linear dynamical methods: unstable periodic orbits, correlation dimension, bi-spectral analysis, and symbolic dynamics. The series of inter-word time intervals in normal speech have the characteristics of a low-dimensional chaotic attractor with a correlation dimension of [Formula: see text]. Deconstruction of the attractor appears in psychosis with re-establishment after anti-psychotic treatment. Shannon entropy, a measure of the complexity in the time series, calculated from symbolic dynamics, is higher for psychotic speech, which is also characterized by higher levels of phase coupling: higher bicoherence, obtained using bi-spectral analysis. Non-linear dynamical methods applied to ITIs thus enable a content-independent, pure measure of the form of normal thought, its distortion in psychosis, and its restoration under treatment.

  10. Dynamic Analysis of Resonance: Bifurcation Characteristics of Non-linear Parametric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortel, M.; Škuderová, A.; Kratochvíl, C.; Houfek, M.

    The dynamic analysis is an important part of basic research of complex planetary transmission systems with split power flow. The bifurcation characteristics of the resonance courses especially for high-speed weakly and strongly non-linear parametric and in the damping time-heteronymous systems are highly sensitive to their parameters, i.e. to the quality and quantity of their bifurcation features and ambiguities. In the case of mass discretization, their analytical—numerical solution leads to complex integro-differential equations with solving kernels in the form of Green's resolventes and complex simulation models in MATLAB/Simulink. The case of one branch of the planetary transmission system with six degrees of freedom is analysed in terms of internal dynamics in this paper, i.e. the causes of the quantity and quality of resonance bifurcation curves and formation of ambiguity characteristics of relative motion in gear meshes.

  11. Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis of Inter-Word Time Intervals in Psychotic Speech

    PubMed Central

    Avissar, Sofia; Schreiber, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    “Language is a form and not a substance” — Ferdinand de Saussure Objective: Analyses of speech processes in schizophrenia are invariably focused on words as vocal signals. The results of such analyses are, however, strongly related to content, and may be language- and culture-dependent. Little attention has been paid to a pure measure of the form of speech, unrelated to its content: inter-words time intervals. Method: 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy volunteers are recorded spontaneously speaking for 10–15 min. Recordings are analyzed for inter-words time intervals using the following non-linear dynamical methods: unstable periodic orbits, correlation dimension, bi-spectral analysis, and symbolic dynamics. Results: The series of inter-word time intervals in normal speech have the characteristics of a low-dimensional chaotic attractor with a correlation dimension of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$3.2\\pm 1.1$\\end{document}. Deconstruction of the attractor appears in psychosis with re-establishment after anti-psychotic treatment. Shannon entropy, a measure of the complexity in the time series, calculated from symbolic dynamics, is higher for psychotic speech, which is also characterized by higher levels of phase coupling: higher bicoherence, obtained using bi-spectral analysis. Conclusion: Non-linear dynamical methods applied to ITIs thus enable a content-independent, pure measure of the form of normal thought, its distortion in psychosis, and its restoration under treatment. PMID:27170852

  12. A novel benzene quantitative analysis method using miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuxiang; Liu, Fuqi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel benzene quantitative analysis method utilizing miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system was investigated. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was installed for electrical current-voltage data measurement. Measurement data was analyzed by non-linear bistable dynamics system. Results demonstrated that this method realized benzene concentration quantitative determination. This method is promising in laboratory safety management in benzene leak detection. PMID:26218927

  13. A novel benzene quantitative analysis method using miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuxiang; Liu, Fuqi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel benzene quantitative analysis method utilizing miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system was investigated. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was installed for electrical current-voltage data measurement. Measurement data was analyzed by non-linear bistable dynamics system. Results demonstrated that this method realized benzene concentration quantitative determination. This method is promising in laboratory safety management in benzene leak detection.

  14. Non-Linear Dynamics Tools for the Motion Analysis and Condition Monitoring of Robot Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, I.; van Brussel, H.

    2001-11-01

    Time series from non-damaged and three types of damaged robot joints are considered and analysed from the viewpoint of non-linear dynamics. The embedding spaces for the four types of signals are recovered. The application of surrogate data tests is used to prove the presence of non-linearities in the joints. The results suggest a rise in unstable behaviour due to the introduction of backlash in robot joints. The chaotic behaviour gets stronger with the increase of the backlash extent. This is confirmed by the increase of the embedding dimension as well as by the increase of the Lyapunov exponents and the correlation dimension with the backlash increase. A straightforward method for condition monitoring using non-linear dynamics characteristics, based on a classification procedure, is suggested.

  15. Dynamic analysis of space-related linear and non-linear structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosela, Paul A.; Shaker, Francis J.; Fertis, Demeter G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to be cost effective, space structures must be extremely light weight, and subsequently, very flexible structures. The power system for Space Station Freedom is such a structure. Each array consists of a deployable truss mast and a split blanket of photovoltaic solar collectors. The solar arrays are deployed in orbit, and the blanket is stretched into position as the mast is extended. Geometric stiffness due to the preload make this an interesting non-linear problem. The space station will be subjected to various dynamic loads, during shuttle docking, solar tracking, attitude adjustment, etc. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the space station components, including the solar arrays, is critical for determining the structural adequacy of the components, and for designing a dynamic controls system. The process used in developing and verifying the finite element dynamic model of the photo-voltaic arrays is documented. Various problems were identified, such as grounding effects due to geometric stiffness, large displacement effects, and pseudo-stiffness (grounding) due to lack of required rigid body modes. Analysis techniques, such as development of rigorous solutions using continuum mechanics, finite element solution sequence altering, equivalent systems using a curvature basis, Craig-Bampton superelement approach, and modal ordering schemes were utilized. The grounding problems associated with the geometric stiffness are emphasized.

  16. Dynamic analysis of space-related linear and non-linear structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosela, Paul A.; Shaker, Francis J.; Fertis, Demeter G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to be cost effective, space structures must be extremely light weight, and subsequently, very flexible structures. The power system for Space Station Freedom is such a structure. Each array consists of a deployable truss mast and a split blanket of photo-voltaic solar collectors. The solar arrays are deployed in orbit, and the blanket is stretched into position as the mast is extended. Geometric stiffness due to the preload make this an interesting non-linear problem. The space station will be subjected to various dynamic loads, during shuttle docking, solar tracking, attitude adjustment, etc. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the space station components, including the solar arrays, is critical for determining the structural adequacy of the components, and for designing a dynamic control system. The process used in developing and verifying the finite element dynamic model of the photo-voltaic arrays is documented. Various problems were identified, such as grounding effects due to geometric stiffness, large displacement effects, and pseudo-stiffness (grounding) due to lack of required rigid body modes. Analysis techniques, such as development of rigorous solutions using continuum mechanics, finite element solution sequence altering, equivalent systems using a curvature basis, Craig-Bampton superelement approach, and modal ordering schemes were utilized. The grounding problems associated with the geometric stiffness are emphasized.

  17. A non-linear mathematical model for dynamic analysis of spur gears including shaft and bearing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüven, H. N.

    1991-03-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom non-linear semi-definite model with time varying mesh stiffness has been developed for the dynamic analysis of spur gears. The model includes a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover, and bearings. As the shaft and bearing dynamics have also been considered in the model, the effect of lateral-torsional vibration coupling on the dynamics of gears can be studied. In the non-linear model developed several factors such as time varying mesh stiffness and damping, separation of teeth, backlash, single- and double-sided impacts, various gear errors and profile modifications have been considered. The dynamic response to internal excitation has been calculated by using the "static transmission error method" developed. The software prepared (DYTEM) employs the digital simulation technique for the solution, and is capable of calculating dynamic tooth and mesh forces, dynamic factors for pinion and gear, dynamic transmission error, dynamic bearing forces and torsions of shafts. Numerical examples are given in order to demonstrate the effect of shaft and bearing dynamics on gear dynamics.

  18. Study on Brain Dynamics by Non Linear Analysis of Music Induced EEG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Archi; Sanyal, Shankha; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Guhathakurta, Tarit; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak; Ghose, Partha

    2016-02-01

    Music has been proven to be a valuable tool for the understanding of human cognition, human emotion, and their underlying brain mechanisms. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of Hindustani music on brain activity during normal relaxing conditions using electroencephalography (EEG). Ten male healthy subjects without special musical education participated in the study. EEG signals were acquired at the frontal (F3/F4) lobes of the brain while listening to music at three experimental conditions (rest, with music and without music). Frequency analysis was done for the alpha, theta and gamma brain rhythms. The finding shows that arousal based activities were enhanced while listening to Hindustani music of contrasting emotions (romantic/sorrow) for all the subjects in case of alpha frequency bands while no significant changes were observed in gamma and theta frequency ranges. It has been observed that when the music stimulus is removed, arousal activities as evident from alpha brain rhythms remain for some time, showing residual arousal. This is analogous to the conventional 'Hysteresis' loop where the system retains some 'memory' of the former state. This is corroborated in the non linear analysis (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) of the alpha rhythms as manifested in values of fractal dimension. After an input of music conveying contrast emotions, withdrawal of music shows more retention as evidenced by the values of fractal dimension.

  19. Non Linear Beam Dynamics Studies at SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Terebilo, A.; Pellegrini, C.; Cornacchia, M.; Corbett, J.; Martin, D.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    The frequency map analysis of a Hamiltonian system recently introduced to accelerators physics in combination with turn-by-turn phase space measurements opens new experimental opportunities for studying non linear dynamic in storage rings. In this paper we report on the experimental program at SPEAR having the goal of measuring the frequency map of the machine. In this paper we discuss the accuracy of the instantaneous tune extraction from experimental data and demonstrate the possibility of the frequency map measurement. The instantaneous tune extraction technique can be applied to experimental tracking data with reasonable accuracy. Frequency map can be experimentally determined using the existing turn-by-turn phase space measurement techniques and NAFF instantaneous tune extraction.

  20. Non-Linear Analysis Indicates Chaotic Dynamics and Reduced Resilience in Model-Based Daphnia Populations Exposed to Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ottermanns, Richard; Szonn, Kerstin; Preuß, Thomas G.; Roß-Nickoll, Martina

    2014-01-01

    In this study we present evidence that anthropogenic stressors can reduce the resilience of age-structured populations. Enhancement of disturbance in a model-based Daphnia population lead to a repression of chaotic population dynamics at the same time increasing the degree of synchrony between the population's age classes. Based on the theory of chaos-mediated survival an increased risk of extinction was revealed for this population exposed to high concentrations of a chemical stressor. The Lyapunov coefficient was supposed to be a useful indicator to detect disturbance thresholds leading to alterations in population dynamics. One possible explanation could be a discrete change in attractor orientation due to external disturbance. The statistical analysis of Lyapunov coefficient distribution is proposed as a methodology to test for significant non-linear effects of general disturbance on populations. Although many new questions arose, this study forms a theoretical basis for a dynamical definition of population recovery. PMID:24809537

  1. An edge-based smoothed triangle element for non-linear explicit dynamic analysis of shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gang; Cui, Xiangyang; Li, Guangyao; Wu, Suzhen

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents an edge-based smoothed triangular element (EST) for nonlinear analysis of shell structures using an explicit dynamic formulation. In order to improve the accuracy and the convergence of the shell element without additional parameters, the gradient smoothing operation is performed to the strain rates in the smoothing domains associated with the edges of triangular elements. An edge coordinate system is defined local on the edges of the triangular element for the strain smoothing operation. The material nonlinearities for the dynamic solution are treated by using the updated Lagrangian description and an elastic-plastic constitutive law. The shear strains in the element formulation are approximated using the discrete shear gap method to mitigate the shear locking, and this element can be applicable for both thin shells and thick shells. Numerical results for elastic and elastic-plastic problems show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed shell element.

  2. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect

    Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-06-14

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.

  3. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2016-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. Stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, that push the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like `straw' that can explain the halo morphology and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; this requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping explains both small and large particles at resonances. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating it as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries

  4. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  5. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-04-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  6. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    Under driving conditions, a typical geared system may be subjected to large dynamic loads. Also, the vibration level of the geared system is directly related to the noise radiated from the gear box. The steady state dynamic behavior of the system is examined in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. The scope is limited to a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type nonlinearities. The internal static transmission error at the gear mesh, which is of importance from high frequency noise and vibration control view point, is considered in the formulation in sinusoidal or periodic form. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and forced vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solutions with the finite element model results. Using the reduced order formulations, a three degree of freedom dynamic model is developed which includes nonlinearities associated with radical clearances in the radial rolling element bearings, backlash between a spur gear pair and periodically varying gear mesh stiffness. As a limiting case, a single degree of freedom model of the spur gear pair with backlash is considered and mathematical conditions for tooth separation and back collision are defined. Both digital simulation technique and analytical models such as method of harmonic balance and the method of multiple scales were used to develop the steady state frequency response characteristics for various nonlinear and/or time varying cases.

  7. Non-linear dynamic compensation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yu-Hwan (Inventor); Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-linear dynamic compensation subsystem is added in the feedback loop of a high precision optical mirror positioning control system to smoothly alter the control system response bandwidth from a relatively wide response bandwidth optimized for speed of control system response to a bandwidth sufficiently narrow to reduce position errors resulting from the quantization noise inherent in the inductosyn used to measure mirror position. The non-linear dynamic compensation system includes a limiter for limiting the error signal within preselected limits, a compensator for modifying the limiter output to achieve the reduced bandwidth response, and an adder for combining the modified error signal with the difference between the limited and unlimited error signals. The adder output is applied to control system motor so that the system response is optimized for accuracy when the error signal is within the preselected limits, optimized for speed of response when the error signal is substantially beyond the preselected limits and smoothly varied therebetween as the error signal approaches the preselected limits.

  8. Non-linear dynamics in parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Darbin, Olivier; Adams, Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony; Naritoku, Leslie; Dees, Daniel; Naritoku, Dean

    2013-12-25

    Over the last 30 years, the functions (and dysfunctions) of the sensory-motor circuitry have been mostly conceptualized using linear modelizations which have resulted in two main models: the "rate hypothesis" and the "oscillatory hypothesis." In these two models, the basal ganglia data stream is envisaged as a random temporal combination of independent simple patterns issued from its probability distribution of interval interspikes or its spectrum of frequencies respectively. More recently, non-linear analyses have been introduced in the modelization of motor circuitry activities, and they have provided evidences that complex temporal organizations exist in basal ganglia neuronal activities. Regarding movement disorders, these complex temporal organizations in the basal ganglia data stream differ between conditions (i.e., parkinsonism, dyskinesia, healthy control) and are responsive to treatments (i.e., l-DOPA, deep brain stimulation). A body of evidence has reported that basal ganglia neuronal entropy (a marker for complexity/irregularity in time series) is higher in hypokinetic state. In line with these findings, an entropy-based model has been recently formulated to introduce basal ganglia entropy as a marker for the alteration of motor processing and a factor of motor inhibition. Importantly, non-linear features have also been identified as a marker of condition and/or treatment effects in brain global signals (EEG), muscular activities (EMG), or kinetic of motor symptoms (tremor, gait) of patients with movement disorders. It is therefore warranted that the non-linear dynamics of motor circuitry will contribute to a better understanding of the neuronal dysfunctions underlying the spectrum of parkinsonian motor symptoms including tremor, rigidity, and hypokinesia.

  9. Homogenized approach for the non linear dynamic analysis of entire masonry buildings by means of rigid plate elements and damaging interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the analysis of entire 3D masonry structures adopting a Rigid Body and Spring-Mass (HRBSM) model. A series of non linear static and dynamic analyses are conducted with respect to two structures with technical relevance. The elementary cell is discretized by means of three-noded plane stress elements and non-linear interfaces. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are performed replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage (RBSM) by means of which both in and out of plane mechanisms are allowed. In order to validate the proposed model for the analyses of full scale structures subjected to seismic actions, two different examples are critically discussed, namely a church façade and an in-scale masonry building, both subjected to dynamic excitation. The results obtained are compared with experimental or numerical results available in literature.

  10. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from

  11. Perspective - Open problems in earth surface dynamics require innovative new methodologies from graph theory and non-linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Schwenk, Jon; Tejedor, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Are the dynamics of meandering rivers non-linear? What information does the shape of an oxbow lake carry about its forming process? How to characterize self-dissimilar landscapes carrying the signature of larger-scale geologic or tectonic controls? Do we have proper frameworks for quantifying the topology and dynamics of deltaic systems? What can the structural complexity of river networks (erosional and depositional) reveal about their vulnerability and response to change? Can the structure and dynamics of river networks reveal potential hotspots of geomorphic change? All of the above problems are at the heart of understanding landscape evolution, relating process to structure and form, and developing methodologies for inferring how a system might respond to future changes. We argue that a new surge of rigorous methodologies is needed to address these problems. The innovations introduced herein are: (1) gradual wavelet reconstruction for depicting threshold nonlinearity (due to cutoffs) versus inherent nonlinearity (due to underlying dynamics) in river meandering, (2) graph theory for studying the topology and dynamics of deltaic river networks and their response to change, and (3) Lagrangian approaches combined with topology and non-linear dynamics for inferring sediment-driven hotspots of geomorphic change.

  12. Determining Stochasticity and Causality of Vegetation Dynamics in the Southwestern Amazon: Non-linear Time Series Analysis and Dynamic Factor Analysis of EVI2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarenberg, G.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure projects such as road paving have proven to bring a variety of (mainly) socio-economic advantages to countries and populations. However, many studies have also highlighted the negative socio-economic and biophysical effects that these developments have at local, regional and even larger scales. The "MAP" area (Madre de Dios in Peru, Acre in Brazil, and Pando in Bolivia) is a biodiversity hotspot in the southwestern Amazon where sections of South America's Inter-Oceanic Highway were paved between 2006 and 2010. We are interested in vegetation dynamics in the area since it plays an important role in ecosystem functions and ecosystem services in socio-ecological systems: it provides information on productivity and structure of the forest. In preparation of more complex and mechanistic simulation of vegetation, non-linear time series analysis and Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA) was conducted on Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series - which is a remote sensing product and provides information on vegetation dynamics as it detects chlorophyll (productivity) and structural change. Time series of 30 years for EVI2 (from MODIS and AVHRR) were obtained for 100 communities in the area. Through specific time series cluster analysis of the vegetation data, communities were clustered to facilitate data analysis and pattern recognition. The clustering is spatially consistent, and appears to be driven by median road paving progress - which is different for each cluster. Non-linear time series analysis (multivariate singular spectrum analysis, MSSA) separates common signals (or low-dimensional attractors) across clusters. Despite the presence of this deterministic structure though, time series behavior is mostly stochastic. Granger causality analysis between EVI2 and possible response variables indicates which variables (and with what lags) are to be included in DFA, resulting in unique Dynamic Factor Models for each cluster.

  13. Non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG time series distinguishes patients with Parkinson's disease from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Hernandez, Manuel E; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to involve altered patterns of neuronal firing and synchronization in cortical-basal ganglia circuits. One window into the nature of the aberrant temporal dynamics in the cerebral cortex of PD patients can come from analysis of the patients electroencephalography (EEG). Rather than using spectral-based methods, we used data models based on delay differential equations (DDE) as non-linear time-domain classification tools to analyze EEG recordings from PD patients on and off dopaminergic therapy and healthy individuals. Two sets of 50 1-s segments of 64-channel EEG activity were recorded from nine PD patients on and off medication and nine age-matched controls. The 64 EEG channels were grouped into 10 clusters covering frontal, central, parietal, and occipital brain regions for analysis. DDE models were fitted to individual trials, and model coefficients and error were used as features for classification. The best models were selected using repeated random sub-sampling validation and classification performance was measured using the area under the ROC curve A'. In a companion paper, we show that DDEs can uncover hidden dynamical structure from short segments of simulated time series of known dynamical systems in high noise regimes. Using the same method for finding the best models, we found here that even short segments of EEG data in PD patients and controls contained dynamical structure, and moreover, that PD patients exhibited a greater dynamic range than controls. DDE model output on the means from one set of 50 trials provided nearly complete separation of PD patients off medication from controls: across brain regions, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves, A', varied from 0.95 to 1.0. For distinguishing PD patients on vs. off medication, classification performance A' ranged from 0.86 to 1.0 across brain regions. Moreover, the generalizability of the model to the second set of 50

  14. Non-Linear Dynamical Analysis of EEG Time Series Distinguishes Patients with Parkinson’s Disease from Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Hernandez, Manuel E.; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known to involve altered patterns of neuronal firing and synchronization in cortical-basal ganglia circuits. One window into the nature of the aberrant temporal dynamics in the cerebral cortex of PD patients can come from analysis of the patients electroencephalography (EEG). Rather than using spectral-based methods, we used data models based on delay differential equations (DDE) as non-linear time-domain classification tools to analyze EEG recordings from PD patients on and off dopaminergic therapy and healthy individuals. Two sets of 50 1-s segments of 64-channel EEG activity were recorded from nine PD patients on and off medication and nine age-matched controls. The 64 EEG channels were grouped into 10 clusters covering frontal, central, parietal, and occipital brain regions for analysis. DDE models were fitted to individual trials, and model coefficients and error were used as features for classification. The best models were selected using repeated random sub-sampling validation and classification performance was measured using the area under the ROC curve A′. In a companion paper, we show that DDEs can uncover hidden dynamical structure from short segments of simulated time series of known dynamical systems in high noise regimes. Using the same method for finding the best models, we found here that even short segments of EEG data in PD patients and controls contained dynamical structure, and moreover, that PD patients exhibited a greater dynamic range than controls. DDE model output on the means from one set of 50 trials provided nearly complete separation of PD patients off medication from controls: across brain regions, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves, A′, varied from 0.95 to 1.0. For distinguishing PD patients on vs. off medication, classification performance A′ ranged from 0.86 to 1.0 across brain regions. Moreover, the generalizability of the model to the second set of

  15. A non-linear mathematical model for dynamic analysis of spur gears including shaft and bearing dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozguven, H. Nevzat

    1991-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear semi-definite model with time varying mesh stiffness has been developed for the dynamic analysis of spur gears. The model includes a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover, and bearings. As the shaft and bearing dynamics have also been considered in the model, the effect of lateral-torsional vibration coupling on the dynamics of gears can be studied. In the nonlinear model developed several factors such as time varying mesh stiffness and damping, separation of teeth, backlash, single- and double-sided impacts, various gear errors and profile modifications have been considered. The dynamic response to internal excitation has been calculated by using the 'static transmission error method' developed. The software prepared (DYTEM) employs the digital simulation technique for the solution, and is capable of calculating dynamic tooth and mesh forces, dynamic factors for pinion and gear, dynamic transmission error, dynamic bearing forces and torsions of shafts. Numerical examples are given in order to demonstrate the effect of shaft and bearing dynamics on gear dynamics.

  16. Characterising dynamic non-linearity in floating wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Fully coupled aero-hydro-control-elastic codes are being developed to cope with the new modelling challenges presented by floating wind turbines, but there is also a place for more efficient methods of analysis. One option is linearisation and analysis in the frequency domain. For this to be an effective method, the non-linearities in the system must be well understood. The present study focusses on understanding the dynamic response of the rotor to the overall platform motion, as would arise from wave loading, by using a simple model of a floating wind turbine with a rigid tower and flexible rotor (represented by hinged rigid blades). First, an equation of motion of the blade is derived and an approximate solution for the blade response is found using the perturbation method. Secondly, the full non-linear solution is found by time- domain simulation. The response is found to be linear at lower platform pitching frequencies, becoming non-linear at higher frequencies, with the approximate solution giving good results for weakly non-linear behaviour. Higher rotor speeds have a stabilising effect on the response. In the context of typical floating turbine parameters, it is concluded that the blade flapwise response is likely to be linear.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the non-linear dynamic viscoplastic response of 2-d structures with respect to material parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Makarand; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the viscoplastic response of structures subjected to dynamic loading. A state of plane stress is assumed to exist in the structure, a velocity strain-Cauchy stress formulation is used, and the geometric non-linearities arising from large strains are incorporated. The Jaumann rate is used as a frame indifferent stress rate. The material model is chosen to be isothermal viscoplasticity, and an associated flow rule is used with a von Mises effective stress. The equations of motion emanating from a finite element semi-discretization are integrated using an explicit central difference scheme with an implicit stress update. The sensitivity coefficients are evaluated using a direct differentiation approach. Since the domain of integration is the current configuration, the sensitivity coefficients of the spatial derivatives of the shape functions must be included. Numerical results are presented for a thin plate with a central cutout subjected to an in-plane compressive loading. The sensitivity coefficients are generated by evaluating the derivatives of the response quantities with respect to Young's modulus, and two of the material parameters characterizing the viscoplastic response. Time histories of the response and sensitivity coefficients, and spatial distributions at selected times are presented.

  18. Non Linear Beam Dynamics at DAPHINE

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, Pantaleo

    2002-08-21

    Studies and measurements have been performed at DAPHINE to improve dynamic aperture, beam lifetime and beam-beam performance. Measured tune scans for different working points are presented. After the measurement of an octupole-like term in the wiggler field, decoherence measurements with wigglers on and off have been performed. The effect of this cubic term on the chromaticity and dynamic aperture is presented.

  19. The analysis of non-linear dynamic behavior (including snap-through) of postbuckled plates by simple analytical solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    Static postbuckling and nonlinear dynamic analysis of plates are usually accomplished by multimode analyses, although the methods are complicated and do not give straightforward understanding of the nonlinear behavior. Assuming single-mode transverse displacement, a simple formula is derived for the transverse load displacement relationship of a plate under in-plane compression. The formula is used to derive a simple analytical expression for the static postbuckling displacement and nonlinear dynamic responses of postbuckled plates under sinusoidal or random excitation. Regions with softening and hardening spring behavior are identified. Also, the highly nonlinear motion of snap-through and its effects on the overall dynamic response can be easily interpreted using the single-mode formula. Theoretical results are compared with experimental results obtained using a buckled aluminum panel, using discrete frequency and broadband point excitation. Some important effects of the snap-through motion on the dynamic response of the postbuckled plates are found.

  20. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,L.; Nash, B.

    2009-05-04

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  1. Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, B.

    2011-09-22

    Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.

  2. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  3. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  4. Size-dependent dynamic pull-in analysis of geometric non-linear micro-plates based on the modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, Amir R.; Tahani, Masoud

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on the size-dependent dynamic pull-in instability in rectangular micro-plates actuated by step-input DC voltage. The present model accounts for the effects of in-plane displacements and their non-classical higher-order boundary conditions, von Kármán geometric non-linearity, non-classical couple stress components and the inherent non-linearity of distributed electrostatic pressure on the micro-plate motion. The governing equations of motion, which are clearly derived using Hamilton's principle, are solved through a novel computationally very efficient Galerkin-based reduced order model (ROM) in which all higher-order non-classical boundary conditions are completely satisfied. The present findings are compared and successfully validated by available results in the literature as well as those obtained by three-dimensional finite element simulations carried out using COMSOL Multyphysics. A detailed parametric study is also conducted to illustrate the effects of in-plane displacements, plate aspect ratio, couple stress components and geometric non-linearity on the dynamic instability threshold of the system.

  5. Non-Linearity in Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors Utilizing a Partial Charge Transfer Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Halin, Izhal Abdul; Hasan, Wan Zuha Wan

    2009-01-01

    The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity with respect to the incident light. In this paper, an analysis of the non-linearity in partial charge transfer technique has been carried, and the relationship between dynamic range and the non-linearity is studied. The results show that the non-linearity is caused by two factors, namely the current diffusion, which has an exponential relation with the potential barrier, and the initial condition of photodiodes in which it shows that the error in the high illumination region increases as the ratio of the long to the short accumulation time raises. Moreover, the increment of the saturation level of photodiodes also increases the error in the high illumination region. PMID:22303133

  6. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  7. Real-Time Monitoring of Non-linear Suicidal Dynamics: Methodology and a Demonstrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fartacek, Clemens; Schiepek, Günter; Kunrath, Sabine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of different authors have stressed the usefulness of non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicide research and suicide prevention. This approach applies specific methods of time series analysis and, consequently, it requires a continuous and fine-meshed assessment of the processes under consideration. The technical means for this kind of process assessment and process analysis are now available. This paper outlines how suicidal dynamics can be monitored in high-risk patients by an Internet-based application for continuous self-assessment with integrated tools of non-linear time series analysis: the Synergetic Navigation System. This procedure is illustrated by data from a patient who attempted suicide at the end of a 90-day monitoring period. Additionally, future research topics and clinical applications of a non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicidology are discussed. PMID:26913016

  8. Left-Right Non-Linear Dynamical Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jing; Yepes, Juan

    2016-12-01

    All the possible CP-conserving non-linear operators up to the p4-order in the Lagrangian expansion are analysed here for the left-right symmetric model in the non-linear electroweak chiral context coupled to a light dynamical Higgs. The low energy effects will be triggered by an emerging new physics field content in the nature, more specifically, from spin-1 resonances sourced by the straightforward extension of the SM local gauge symmetry to the larger local group SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1)B-L. Low energy phenomenology will be altered by integrating out the resonances from the physical spectrum, being manifested through induced corrections onto the left handed operators. Such modifications are weighted by powers of the scales ratio implied by the symmetries of the model and will determine the size of the effective operator basis to be used. The recently observed diboson excess around the invariant mass 1.8 TeV-2 TeV entails a scale suppression that suggests to encode the low energy effects via a much smaller set of effective operators. J. Y. also acknowledges KITPC financial support during the completion of this work

  9. Non-linear dynamic analysis of a multi-mesh gear train using multi-term harmonic balance method: sub-harmonic motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-shyyab, A.; Kahraman, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a non-linear time-varying dynamic model is used to investigate sub-harmonic and chaotic motions exhibited by a typical multi-mesh gear train. The purely torsional system is formed by three rigid shafts connected to each other by two spur gear pairs. The lumped parameter dynamic model includes both gear backlash clearances and parametric gear mesh stiffness fluctuations. Steady state period-one motions of the same system were studied in another by using a multi-term harmonic balance method in conjunction with discrete Fourier transforms. This study expands the same solution technique for an investigation of sub-harmonic resonances of the forced response. The accuracy of the predictions is demonstrated by comparing them to the direct numerical integration results. Effect of several system parameters such as alternating mesh stiffness amplitudes, gear mesh damping and static torque transmitted on sub-harmonic motions are described. It is shown that stable sub-harmonic motions mostly in the form of softening type resonances dictate the frequency ranges in which the period-one motions are unstable due to parametric excitations. Other non-linear phenomena including long sub-harmonic motions and period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaotic behavior are also predicted.

  10. Non-linear analysis of moderately thick sector plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Y.; Sharda, H. B.; Sharma, Ashish

    2005-10-01

    Non-linear static analysis of moderately thick sector plates under uniformly distributed loading is presented. Using the first-order shear deformation theory and Von Karman type non-linearity, the governing equations of equilibrium are developed and expressed in terms of displacement components. The Chebyshev polynomial is used for spatial discretization of the differential equations. An iterative incremental approach based on Newton-Raphson method is used for the solution. Convergence study is carried out. Effects of annularity, thickness ratio, sector angle and boundary conditions are investigated. Results are compared with those available from the literature.

  11. Studying non-linear dynamics with atom-optics billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Nir

    2002-05-01

    The dynamics of particles moving with constant speed in a bounded region and undergoing elastic collisions at the region's boundary (a "billiard") has been extensively investigated both classically and quantum mechanically, since this very simple system exhibits a rich variety of non-linear dynamics phenomena, and is often used as a paradigm for studying the foundations of statistical mechanics. Recently, an "atom-optics billiard" was realized, using a tightly focused laser beam far detuned above the atomic resonance, and rapidly scanning along the desired trap shape(V. Milner, J. L. Hanssen, W. C. Campbell, and M. G. Raizen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86), 1514 (2001)^,(N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, D. Carasso, and N. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86), 1518 (2001). The beam generates a time-averaged potential wall whose shape is varied to create different dynamics of the trapped atoms. Using this system, we demonstrate regular, chaotic and mixed motion, where stickiness close to KAM islands embedded in a chaotic sea yealds Levy flights. We study different mechanisms that affect phase-space structure, e.g. scattering^3, wall softness(A. Kaplan, N. Friedman, M. Andersen, and N. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87), 274101 (2001). and external forces(M. Andersen, A. Kaplan, N. Friedman, and N. Davidson, submitted to J. Phys. B (2002).). Exploiting the long atomic coherence times achievable in the billiards, our experimental system also sheds new light on the interplay between dynamics and coherence.

  12. Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in

  13. Non-linear dynamics of a spur gear pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, A.; Singh, R.

    1990-10-01

    Non-linear frequency response characteristics of a spur gear pair with backlash are examined in this paper for both external and internal excitations. The internal excitation is of importance from the high frequency noise and vibration control viewpoint and it represents the overall kinematic or static transmission error. Such problems may be significantly different from the rattle problems associated with external, low frequency torque excitation. Two solution methods, namely the digital simulation technique and the method of harmonic balance, have been used to develop the steady state solutions for the internal sinusoidal excitation. Difficulties associated with the determination of the multiple solutions at a given frequency in the digital simulation technique have been resolved, as one must search the entire initial conditions map. Such solutions and the transition frequencies for various impact situations are easily found by the method of harmonic balance. Further, the principle of superposition can be employed to analyze the periodic transmission error excitation and/or combined excitation problems provided that the excitation frequencies are sufficiently apart from each other. Our analytical predictions match satisfactorily with the limited experimental data available in the literature. Using the digital simulation, we have also observed that the chaotic and subharmonic resonances may exist in a gear pair depending upon the mean or design load, mean to alternating force ratio, damping and backlash. Specifically, the mean load determines the conditions for no impacts, single-sided impacts and double-sided impacts. Our results are different from the frequency response characteristics of the conventional, single-degree-of-freedom, clearance type non-linear system. Our formulation should form the basis of further analytical and experimental work in the geared rotor dynamics area.

  14. Passive dynamic controllers for non-linear mechanical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Wu, Shih-Chin; Phan, Minh; Longman, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology for model-independent controller design for controlling large angular motion of multi-body dynamic systems is outlined.The controlled system may consist of rigid and flexible components that undergo large rigid body motion and small elastic deformations. Control forces/torques are applied to drive the system, and at the same time suppress the vibrations due to flexibility of the components. The proposed controller consists of passive second-order systems which may be designed with little knowledge of the system parameters, even if the controlled system is non-linear. Under rather general assumptions, the passive design assures that the closed loop system has guaranteed stability properties. Unlike positive real controller design, stabilization can be accomplished without direct velocity feedback. In addition, the second-order passive design allows dynamic feedback controllers with considerable freedom to tune for desired system response, and to avoid actuator saturation. After developing the basic mathematical formulation of the design methodology, simulation results are presented to illustrate the proposed approach applied to a flexible six-degree-of-freedom manipulator.

  15. Passive dynamic controllers for non-linear mechanical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Wu, Shih-Chin; Phan, Minh; Longman, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology for model-independent controller design for controlling large angular motion of multi-body dynamic systems is outlined.The controlled system may consist of rigid and flexible components that undergo large rigid body motion and small elastic deformations. Control forces/torques are applied to drive the system, and at the same time suppress the vibrations due to flexibility of the components. The proposed controller consists of passive second-order systems which may be designed with little knowledge of the system parameters, even if the controlled system is non-linear. Under rather general assumptions, the passive design assures that the closed loop system has guaranteed stability properties. Unlike positive real controller design, stabilization can be accomplished without direct velocity feedback. In addition, the second-order passive design allows dynamic feedback controllers with considerable freedom to tune for desired system response, and to avoid actuator saturation. After developing the basic mathematical formulation of the design methodology, simulation results are presented to illustrate the proposed approach applied to a flexible six-degree-of-freedom manipulator.

  16. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-03-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft's control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland's continuing study of active wing load control.

  17. Non-linear dynamic analysis of a multi-mesh gear train using multi-term harmonic balance method: period-one motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-shyyab, A.; Kahraman, A.

    2005-06-01

    A non-linear time-varying dynamic model of a typical multi-mesh gear train is proposed in this study. The physical system includes three rigid shafts coupled by two gear pairs. The lumped parameter dynamic model includes the gear backlash in the form of clearance-type displacement functions and parametric variation of gear mesh stiffness values dictated by the gear contact ratios. The system is reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom definite model by using the relative gear mesh displacements as the coordinates. Dimensionless equations of motion are solved for the steady-state period-1 response by using a multi-term Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) in conjunction with discrete Fourier Transforms and a Parametric Continuation scheme. The accuracy of the HBM solutions is demonstrated by comparing them to direct numerical integration solutions. Floquet theory is applied to determine the stability of the steady-state harmonic balance solutions. An example gear train is used to investigate the influence of key system parameters including alternating mesh stiffness amplitudes, gear mesh damping, static torque transmitted, and the gear mesh frequency ratio.

  18. Non-linear dynamic modeling of an automobile hydraulic active suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, R. Ben; Levitt, J. A.; Fassois, S. D.

    1994-09-01

    Motived by the strong need for realistically describing the dynamical behaviour of automotive systems through adequate mathematical models, a computer-stimulation-suitable non-linear quarter-car model of a hydraulic active suspension system is developed. Unlike previously available linear models characterised by idealised actuator and component behaviour, the developed model accounts for the dynamics of the main system components, including the suspension bushing, pump, accumulator, power and bypass valves, and hydraulic actuator, while also incorporating preliminary versions of the system controllers. Significant system characteristics, such as non-linear pressure-flow relationships, fluid compressibility, pump and valve non-linearities, leakages, as well as Coulomb friction, are also explicitly accounted for, and the underpinning assumptions are discussed. Simulation results obtained by exercising the model provide insight into the system behavior, illustrate the importance of the actuator/component dynamics and their associated non-linearities and reveal the inadequacy of the idealised linear models in capturing the system behaviour, demonstrate specific effects of valve leakage and fluid bulk modulus, are in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements, and stress the need for proper control law design and tuning. The developed model is particularly suitable for analysis, design, control law optimisation, and diagnostic strategies development.

  19. Non-linear analysis of EEG signals at various sleep stages.

    PubMed

    Acharya U, Rajendra; Faust, Oliver; Kannathal, N; Chua, TjiLeng; Laxminarayan, Swamy

    2005-10-01

    Application of non-linear dynamics methods to the physiological sciences demonstrated that non-linear models are useful for understanding complex physiological phenomena such as abrupt transitions and chaotic behavior. Sleep stages and sustained fluctuations of autonomic functions such as temperature, blood pressure, electroencephalogram (EEG), etc., can be described as a chaotic process. The EEG signals are highly subjective and the information about the various states may appear at random in the time scale. Therefore, EEG signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. The sleep data analysis is carried out using non-linear parameters: correlation dimension, fractal dimension, largest Lyapunov entropy, approximate entropy, Hurst exponent, phase space plot and recurrence plots. These non-linear parameters quantify the cortical function at different sleep stages and the results are tabulated.

  20. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft s control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland s continuing study of active wing load control.

  1. Non-linear dynamics of compound sawteeth in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-H.; Garbet, X.; Lütjens, H.; Marx, A.; Nicolas, T.; Sabot, R.; Luciani, J.-F.; Guirlet, R.; Février, O.; Maget, P.

    2016-05-01

    Compound sawteeth is studied with the XTOR-2F code. Non-linear full 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that the plasma hot core is radially displaced and rotates during the partial crash, but is not fully expelled out of the q = 1 surface. Partial crashes occur when the radius of the q = 1 surface exceeds a critical value, at fixed poloidal beta. This critical value depends on the plasma elongation. The partial crash time is larger than the collapse time of an ordinary sawtooth, likely due to a weaker diamagnetic stabilization. This suggests that partial crashes result from a competition between destabilizing effects such as the q = 1 radius and diamagnetic stabilization.

  2. A non-linear Granger-causality framework to investigate climate-vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannopoulou, Christina; Miralles, Diego G.; Decubber, Stijn; Demuzere, Matthias; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Waegeman, Willem

    2017-05-01

    Satellite Earth observation has led to the creation of global climate data records of many important environmental and climatic variables. These come in the form of multivariate time series with different spatial and temporal resolutions. Data of this kind provide new means to further unravel the influence of climate on vegetation dynamics. However, as advocated in this article, commonly used statistical methods are often too simplistic to represent complex climate-vegetation relationships due to linearity assumptions. Therefore, as an extension of linear Granger-causality analysis, we present a novel non-linear framework consisting of several components, such as data collection from various databases, time series decomposition techniques, feature construction methods, and predictive modelling by means of random forests. Experimental results on global data sets indicate that, with this framework, it is possible to detect non-linear patterns that are much less visible with traditional Granger-causality methods. In addition, we discuss extensive experimental results that highlight the importance of considering non-linear aspects of climate-vegetation dynamics.

  3. Non-linear dynamic response of a wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chopra, I.; Dugundji, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the nonlinear dynamic analysis of an isolated three-degree flap-lag-feather wind turbine blade under a gravity field and with shear flow. Lagrangian equations are used to derive the nonlinear equations of motion of blade for arbitrarily large angular deflections. The limit cycle analysis for forced oscillations and the determination of the principal parametric resonance of the blade due to periodic forces from the gravity field and wind shear are performed using the harmonic balance method. Results are obtained first for a two-degree flap-lag blade, then the effect of the third degree of freedom (feather) is studied. The self-excited flutter solutions are obtained for a uniform wind and with gravity forces neglected. The effects of several parameters on the blade stability are examined, including coning angle, structural damping, Lock number, and feather frequency. The limit cycle flutter solution of a typical configuration shows a substantial nonlinear softening spring behavior.

  4. Non-Linear Vibroisolation Pads Design, Numerical FEM Analysis and Introductory Experimental Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielnica, J.; Ziółkowski, A.; Cempel, C.

    2003-03-01

    Design and theoretical and experimental investigation of vibroisolation pads with non-linear static and dynamic responses is the objective of the paper. The analytical investigations are based on non-linear finite element analysis where the load-deflection response is traced against the shape and material properties of the analysed model of the vibroisolation pad. A new model of vibroisolation pad of antisymmetrical type was designed and analysed by the finite element method based on the second-order theory (large displacements and strains) with the assumption of material's non-linearities (Mooney-Rivlin model). Stability loss phenomenon was used in the design of the vibroisolators, and it was proved that it would be possible to design a model of vibroisolator in the form of a continuous pad with non-linear static and dynamic response, typical to vibroisolation purposes. The materials used for the vibroisolator are those of rubber, elastomers, and similar ones. The results of theoretical investigations were examined experimentally. A series of models made of soft rubber were designed for the test purposes. The experimental investigations of the vibroisolation models, under static and dynamic loads, confirmed the results of the FEM analysis.

  5. Non-linear dynamics of human locomotion: effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on local dynamic stability

    PubMed Central

    Terrier, Philippe; Dériaz, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed that times series of gait parameters [stride length (SL), stride time (ST), and stride speed (SS)], exhibit long-term persistence and fractal-like properties. Synchronizing steps with rhythmic auditory stimuli modifies the persistent fluctuation pattern to anti-persistence. Another non-linear method estimates the degree of resilience of gait control to small perturbations, i.e., the local dynamic stability (LDS). The method makes use of the maximal Lyapunov exponent, which estimates how fast a non-linear system embedded in a reconstructed state space (attractor) diverges after an infinitesimal perturbation. We propose to use an instrumented treadmill to simultaneously measure basic gait parameters (time series of SL, ST, and SS from which the statistical persistence among consecutive strides can be assessed), and the trajectory of the center of pressure (from which the LDS can be estimated). In 20 healthy participants, the response to rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) of LDS and of statistical persistence [assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)] was compared. By analyzing the divergence curves, we observed that long-term LDS (computed as the reverse of the average logarithmic rate of divergence between the 4th and the 10th strides downstream from nearest neighbors in the reconstructed attractor) was strongly enhanced (relative change +73%). That is likely the indication of a more dampened dynamics. The change in short-term LDS (divergence over one step) was smaller (+3%). DFA results (scaling exponents) confirmed an anti-persistent pattern in ST, SL, and SS. Long-term LDS (but not short-term LDS) and scaling exponents exhibited a significant correlation between them (r = 0.7). Both phenomena probably result from the more conscious/voluntary gait control that is required by RAC. We suggest that LDS and statistical persistence should be used to evaluate the efficiency of cueing therapy in patients with neurological gait disorders. PMID

  6. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  7. a Frequency Domain Based NUMERIC-ANALYTICAL Method for Non-Linear Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, S.; Sekar, P.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper a multiharmonic balancing technique is used to develop certain algorithms to determine periodic orbits of non-liner dynamical systems with external, parametric and self excitations. Essentially, in this method the non-linear differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear algebraic equations in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the periodic solutions which are solved by using the Newton-Raphson technique. The method is developed such that both fast Fourier transform and discrete Fourier transform algorithms can be used. It is capable of treating all types of non-linearities and higher dimensional systems. The stability of periodic orbits is investigated by obtaining the monodromy matrix. A path following algorithm based on the predictor-corrector method is also presented to enable the bifurcation analysis. The prediction is done with a cubic extrapolation technique with an arc length incrementation while the correction is done with the use of the least square minimisation technique. The under determined system of equations is solved by singular value decomposition. The suitability of the method is demonstrated by obtaining the bifurcational behaviour of rolling contact vibrations modelled by Hertz contact law.

  8. Non-Linear Dynamic Response of a Spur Gear Pair: Modelling and Experimental Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARKER, R. G.; VIJAYAKAR, S. M.; IMAJO, T.

    2000-10-01

    The dynamic response of a spur gear pair is investigated using a finite element/contact mechanics model that offers significant advantages for dynamic gear analyses. The gear pair is analyzed across a wide range of operating speeds and torques. Comparisons are made to other researchers' published experiments that reveal complex non-linear phenomena. The non-linearity source is contact loss of the meshing teeth, which, in contrast to the prevailing understanding, occurs even for large torques despite the use of high-precision gears. A primary feature of the modelling is that dynamic mesh forces are calculated using a detailed contact analysis at each time step as the gears roll through the mesh; there is no need to externally specify the excitation in the form of time-varying mesh stiffness, static transmission error input, or the like. A semi-analytical model near the tooth surface is matched to a finite element solution away from the tooth surface, and the computational efficiency that results permits dynamic analysis. Two-single-degree-of-freedom models are also studied. While one gives encouragingly good results, the other, which appears to have better mesh stiffness modelling, gives poor comparisons with experiments. The results indicate the sensitivity of such models to the Fourier spectrum of the changing mesh stiffness.

  9. Passive dynamic controllers for non-linear mechanical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Wu, Shih-Chin; Phan, Minh; Longman, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to develop active model-independent controllers for slewing and vibration control of nonlinear multibody flexible systems, including flexible robots. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: passive stabilization; work-energy rate principle; Liapunov theory; displacement feedback; dynamic controller; displacement and acceleration feedback; velocity feedback; displacement feedback; physical interaction; a 6-DOF robot; and simulation results.

  10. Non-linear and unstable flux vortex dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Kunchur, M. N.; Liang, M.; Hua, J.; Xiao, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Vortex dynamics in molybdenum-germanium superconducting films were found to well approximate the ideal unpinned free limit even at low driving forces. This provided a first opportunity to confirm the predictions of time-dependent Ginzburg Landau (TDGL) mean-field theory. At high driving forces the flux flow enters the classic Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) regime and the nonlinear current-voltage response can be well fitted to a hybrid TDGL-LO model.

  11. Derivative pricing with non-linear Fokker-Planck dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Fredrick; Johnson, M. D.

    2003-06-01

    We examine how the Black-Scholes derivative pricing formula is modified when the underlying security obeys non-extensive statistics and Fokker-Planck dynamics. An unusual feature of such securities is that the volatility in the underlying Ito-Langevin equation depends implicitly on the actual market rate of return. This complicates most approaches to valuation. Here we show that progress is possible using variations of the Cox-Ross valuation technique.

  12. Comparison of methods for editing of ectopic beats in measurements of short-term non-linear heart rate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tarkiainen, Tuula H; Kuusela, Tom A; Tahvanainen, Kari U O; Hartikainen, Juha E K; Tiittanen, Pekka; Timonen, Kirsi L; Vanninen, Esko J

    2007-03-01

    Non-linear heart rate (HR) dynamics characterizes the fractal properties and complexity of the variations in HR. Ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats might introduce a mathematical artefact to the analyses on sinus rhythm. We therefore evaluated the effects of different editing practices for ectopic beats such that 753 40-min ECG recordings were (i) not edited for the ectopic beats, or the ectopic beats were edited with (ii) an interpolation or with (iii) a deletion method before the analyses of non-linear HR dynamics. The non-linear HR dynamics analyses included detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), approximate entropy, symbolic dynamics (SymDyn), fractal dimension and return map (RM). We found that the short-term scaling exponent (alpha1) of DFA, forbidden words of SymDyn and RM were sensitive measurements to the ectopic beats and there were strong correlations between these measurements and the number of ectopic beats. In addition, the unedited ectopic beats significantly lowered the stability of these measurements. However, the editing either with interpolation or deletion method corrected the measurements for the bias caused by the ectopic beats. On the contrary, the entropy measurements were not as sensitive to the ectopic beats. In conclusion, the ectopic beats affect the non-linear HR dynamics of sinus rhythm differently, causing a more marked bias in fractal than in complexity measurements of non-linear HR dynamics. This erroneous effect of ectopic beats can be corrected with a proper editing of these measurements. Therefore, there is an obvious need for standardized editing practices for ectopic beats before the analysis of non-linear HR dynamics.

  13. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  14. Non linear dynamics of flame cusps: from experiments to modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarcha, Christophe; Radisson, Basile; Al-Sarraf, Elias; Quinard, Joel; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Denet, Bruno; Joulin, Guy

    2016-11-01

    The propagation of premixed flames in a medium initially at rest exhibits the appearance and competition of elementary local singularities called cusps. We investigate this problem both experimentally and numerically. An analytical solution of the two-dimensional Michelson Sivashinsky equation is obtained as a composition of pole solutions, which is compared with experimental flames fronts propagating between glass plates separated by a thin gap width. We demonstrate that the front dynamics can be reproduced numerically with a good accuracy, from the linear stages of destabilization to its late time evolution, using this model-equation. In particular, the model accounts for the experimentally observed steady distribution of distances between cusps, which is well-described by a one-parameter Gamma distribution, reflecting the aggregation type of interaction between the cusps. A modification of the Michelson Sivashinsky equation taking into account gravity allows to reproduce some other special features of these fronts. Aix-Marseille Univ., IRPHE, UMR 7342 CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Technopole de Château Gombert, 49 rue F. Joliot Curie, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13, France.

  15. Non-linear modal analysis of structural components subjected to unilateral constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, M.; Karrech, A.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical study of the non-linear dynamics in structural components under unilateral contact constraints. Here, the unilateral term characterises the constitutive law of the restoring force in the constraints as they only sustain elastic reactions in one direction, either compressive or tensile. Thus, the non-differentiability of the contact law at the discontinuity point is the only source of non-linearity. In our approach, the discrete lattice method (DLM) is used to treat the continuous system as a piecewise linear model. Thus, the trajectory of each node in the discrete model would be a sequence of smooth solutions with the switching times between them. The application of the one-step integration scheme allows us to detect the occurrence of contact (i.e. the instants that the lattice nodes cross the discontinuity boundary) and consequently update the active constraints. We also consider embedding the bisection algorithm into the time integration procedure to localise the instants at which the nodes cross the boundary and minimise the accumulative error. Subsequently, the resulting unconditionally stable integration scheme is utilised as the modelling tool in combination with the shooting technique to perform a novel non-smooth modal analysis. In analogy with the smooth non-linear systems, the evolution of non-smooth periodic motions is presented in the frequency-stiffness plots. We apply our method to obtain non-linear normal modes (NNMs) for a number of representative problems, including a bar-obstacle system, a beam-substrate system and a granular chain with tensionless interactions. These numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the solution procedure to trace the family of energy-independent non-linear modes across the range of contact stiffnesses. Moreover, the stability analysis of the modes on the plot backbone reveal that they may become unstable due to the interaction with the higher modes or bifurcation of

  16. Enhanced studies on a composite time integration scheme in linear and non-linear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarmann, S.; Wagner, W.

    2015-03-01

    In Bathe and Baig (Comput Struct 83:2513-2524, 2005), Bathe (Comput Struct 85:437-445, 2007), Bathe and Noh (Comput Struct 98-99:1-6, 2012) Bathe et al. have proposed a composite implicit time integration scheme for non-linear dynamic problems. This paper is aimed at the further investigation of the scheme's behaviour for use in case of linear and non-linear problems. Therefore, the examination of the amplification matrix of the scheme will be extended in order to get in addition the properties for linear calculations. Besides, it will be demonstrated that the integration scheme also has an impact on some of these properties when used for non-linear calculations. In conclusion, a recommendation for the only selectable parameter of the scheme will be given for application in case of geometrically non-linear calculations.

  17. Characterization of memory load in an arithmetic task using non-linear analysis of EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Zarjam, Pega; Epps, Julien; Lovell, Nigel H; Chen, Fang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate non-linear analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to examine changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task with varying difficulty levels. EEG signals were recorded during an arithmetic task while the induced load was varying in seven levels from very easy to extremely difficult. The EEG signals were analyzed using three different non-linear/dynamic measures; namely: correlation dimension, Hurst exponent and approximate entropy. Experimental results show that the values of the measures extracted from the delta frequency band of signals acquired from the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain vary in accordance with the task difficulty level induced. The values of the correlation dimension increased as the task difficulty increased, showing a rise in complexity of the EEG signals, while the values of the Hurst exponent and approximate entropy decreased as task difficulty increased, indicating more regularity and predictability in the signals.

  18. Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Baki, K.; Boitier, F.; Diab, H.; Lanty, G.; Jemli, K.; Lédée, F.; Deleporte, E.; Lauret, J. S.; Garrot, D.

    2016-02-14

    Due to their high potentiality for photovoltaic applications or coherent light sources, a renewed interest in hybrid organic perovskites has emerged for few years. When they are arranged in two dimensions, these materials can be considered as hybrid quantum wells. One consequence of the unique structure of 2D hybrid organic perovskites is a huge exciton binding energy that can be tailored through chemical engineering. We present experimental investigations of the exciton non-linearities by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The exciton dynamics is fitted with a bi-exponential decay with a free exciton life-time of ∼100 ps. Moreover, an ultrafast intraband relaxation (<150 fs) is also reported. Finally, the transient modification of the excitonic line is analyzed through the moment analysis and described in terms of reduction of the oscillator strength and linewidth broadening. We show that excitonic non-linearities in 2D hybrid organic perovskites share some behaviours of inorganic semiconductors despite their high exciton binding energy.

  19. Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Baki, K.; Boitier, F.; Diab, H.; Lanty, G.; Jemli, K.; Lédée, F.; Garrot, D.; Deleporte, E.; Lauret, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high potentiality for photovoltaic applications or coherent light sources, a renewed interest in hybrid organic perovskites has emerged for few years. When they are arranged in two dimensions, these materials can be considered as hybrid quantum wells. One consequence of the unique structure of 2D hybrid organic perovskites is a huge exciton binding energy that can be tailored through chemical engineering. We present experimental investigations of the exciton non-linearities by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The exciton dynamics is fitted with a bi-exponential decay with a free exciton life-time of ˜100 ps. Moreover, an ultrafast intraband relaxation (<150 fs) is also reported. Finally, the transient modification of the excitonic line is analyzed through the moment analysis and described in terms of reduction of the oscillator strength and linewidth broadening. We show that excitonic non-linearities in 2D hybrid organic perovskites share some behaviours of inorganic semiconductors despite their high exciton binding energy.

  20. Non linear approach to study the dynamics of neurodegenerative diseases by Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis-A quantitative assessment on gait disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Samanta, Shukla

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the human gait pattern of normal people and patients suffering from Parkinson's disease using the MFDXA (Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis) methodology. The auto correlation and cross correlation of the time series of the total force under the left foot and right foot were studied. The study reveals that the degree of multifractality (W) and degree of correlation (γ) are generally more for normal patients than the diseased set. It is also observed that the values of W and γ are nearly same for left foot and right. It is also observed that the study of autocorrelation alone is not sufficient, cross correlations should also be studied to get a better concept of neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Differential diagnosis of breast lesions by use of biomagnetic activity and non-linear analysis.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Kotini, A; Koutlaki, N; Adamopoulos, A; Galazios, G; Anastasiadis, P

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates have not changed during the past 60 years despite significant advances in screening methods. It is tempting therefore to use novel technology in order to better understand breast oncology. In this study we investigated the biomagnetic activity obtained in benign and malignant breast lesions using a single channel biomagnetometer SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) in order to assess the method's efficacy in the differential diagnosis of these two types of lesions and its establishment as a screening technique. Magnetic recordings were obtained from 21 patients with palpable breast lumps. Of these 11 were invasive carcinomas and 10 were benign breast lesions. We used non-linear analysis to investigate whether there is any biological differentiation in the dynamics in these two types of lesions. High amplitudes characterized the waveform of a malignant breast lesion whereas in benign breast lesions the corresponding amplitudes were low. Using the application of non-linear analysis we observed a clear saturation value for the dimension of malignant breast lesions and no saturation for benign ones. Biomagnetic measurements with the SQUID and the application of non-linear analysis are promising procedures in assessing and differentiating breast tumors.

  2. The non-linear analysis of multi-support rotor-bearing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kicinski, J.; Drozdowski, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper contains selected parts of the simulation research of large rotor machines (200 MW power turbine-sets). These investigations were based on a non-linear theoretical model and the NLDW computer program, and were carried out in the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of PAS. A trial has been performed of the optimization of system-dynamic properties, through the suitable selection of thermally deformed bearing-bush centers line -- the so called ``hot`` line -- (due to a rotor`s geodesic line), as well as the selection of the external fixing stiffness of bearing supports. Examples are also included of the orbits of selected system nodes for two differently powered turbine-sets. On this basis, an analysis of the stability of those turbines was achieved. A significant objective of this paper is also to point out some possibilities of applying the simulation research, based on a non-linear description of the system, to the diagnostics of rotor-machinery. Non-linear analysis facilitates the possibility of easily generating vibration spectra, as well as creating simulation waterfall graphs. These properties of nonlinear analysis create convenient conditions for gaining specific diagnostic information.

  3. The Creative Chaos: Speculations on the Connection Between Non-Linear Dynamics and the Creative Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zausner, Tobi

    Chaos theory may provide models for creativity and for the personality of the artist. A collection of speculative hypotheses examines the connection between art and such fundamentals of non-linear dynamics as iteration, dissipative processes, open systems, entropy, sensitivity to stimuli, autocatalysis, subsystems, bifurcations, randomness, unpredictability, irreversibility, increasing levels of organization, far-from-equilibrium conditions, strange attractors, period doubling, intermittency and self-similar fractal organization. Non-linear dynamics may also explain why certain individuals suffer mental disorders while others remain intact during a lifetime of sustained creative output.

  4. Black hole hair removal: non-linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sen, Ashoke; Srivastava, Yogesh K.

    2010-02-01

    BMPV black holes in flat transverse space and in Taub-NUT space have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic degeneracies. It has been proposed that this difference can be accounted for by different contribution to the degeneracies of these black holes from hair modes, — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon. In this paper we explicitly construct the hair modes of these two black holes as finite bosonic and fermionic deformations of the black hole solution satisfying the full non-linear equations of motion of supergravity and preserving the supersymmetry of the original solutions. Special care is taken to ensure that these solutions do not have any curvature singularity at the future horizon when viewed as the full ten dimensional geometry. We show that after removing the contribution due to the hair degrees of freedom from the microscopic partition function, the partition functions of the two black holes agree.

  5. The Topology of Non-Linear Global Carbon Dynamics: From Tipping Points to Planetary Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S.; Steffen, W.; Rockstrom, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper develops a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and explores the relationship between nonlinear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover, terrestrial carbon stocks and atmospheric carbon stocks are considered. The goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual earth system, but rather, to construct a conceptually reasonable representation of a feedback system between different carbon stores like that of the actual earth system and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ``safe operating space'' for humans. We explore the topology of our Earth System model using stability analysis and numerical bifurcation techniques. The analysis of the model illustrates the potential complexity of planetary boundaries and highlights some challenges associated with navigating them. More specifically, recent work has focused on planetary boundaries in atmospheric carbon, phosphorous, etc. This paper analyzes how such boundaries interact in an earth system model. We present a simple heuristic model that helps organize questions and explore interactions regarding carbon dynamics and land-use change. The main points that emerge from the analysis are: 1) planetary boundaries can be topologically complex and difficult to measure in practice, 2) Non-linear feedbacks can cause planetary boundaries to move rapidly, 3) Climate change policy should move beyond the simple notion of tipping points and move toward the conceptually richer notion of basin boundaries of attractors consistent with a safe operating space for humans.

  6. Biomagnetic activity and non linear analysis in obstetrics and gynecology in a Greek population.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P; Anastasiadis, P; Adamopoulos, A; Kotini, A

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the application of non-linear analysis to biomagnetic signals recorded from fetal growth restriction, fetal brain activity, ovarian lesions, breast lesions, umbilical arteries, uterine myomas, and uterine arteries in a Greek population. The results were correlated with clinical findings. The biomagnetic measurements and the application of non-linear analysis are promising procedures in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Optimal design of linear and non-linear dynamic vibration absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanov, I. N.; Cheshankov, B. I.

    1988-05-01

    An efficient numerical method is applied to obtain optimal parameters for both linear and non-linear damped dynamic vibration absorbers. The minimization of the vibration response has been carried out for damped as well as undamped force excited primary systems with linear and non-linear spring characteristics. Comparison is made with the optimum absorber parameters that are determined by using Den Hartog's classical results in the linear case. Six optimization criteria by which the response is minimized over narrow and broad frequency bands are examined. Pareto optimal solutions of the multi-objective decision making problem are obtained.

  8. Mathematical modeling suggests that periodontitis behaves as a non-linear chaotic dynamical process.

    PubMed

    Papantonopoulos, G; Takahashi, K; Bountis, T; Loos, B G

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to expand on a previously presented cellular automata model and further explore the non-linear dynamics of periodontitis. Additionally the authors investigated whether their mathematical model could predict the two known types of periodontitis, aggressive (AgP) and chronic periodontitis (CP). The time evolution of periodontitis was modeled by an iterative function, based on the hypothesis that the host immune response level determines the rate of periodontitis progression. The chaotic properties of this function were investigated by direct iteration, and the model was validated by immunologic and clinical parameters derived from two clinical study populations. Periodontitis can be described as chaos with the level of the host immune response determining its progression rate; the dynamics of the proposed model suggest that by increasing the host immune response level, periodontitis progression rate decreases. Renormalization transformations show the presence of two overlapping zones of disease activity corresponding to AgP and CP. By k-means cluster analysis, immunologic parameters corroborated the findings of the renormalization transformations. Periodontitis progression rates are modeled to scale with a power law of 1.3, and the mean exponential speed of the system is found to be 1.85 (metric entropy); clinical datasets confirmed the mathematical estimates. This study introduces a mathematical model that identifies periodontitis as a non-linear chaotic process. It offers a quantitative assessment of the disease progression rate and identifies two zones of disease activity that correspond to the existing classification of periodontitis in the AgP and CP types.

  9. Non-linear dynamics of a geared rotor-bearing system with multiple clearances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, A.; Singh, R.

    1991-02-01

    Non-linear frequency response characteristics of a geared rotor-bearing system are examined in this paper. A three-degree-of-freedom dynamic model is developed which includes non-linearities associated with radial clearances in the radial rolling element bearings and backlash between a spur gear pair; linear time-invariant gear meshing stiffness is assumed. The corresponding linear system problem is also solved, and predicted natural frequencies and modes match with finite element method results. The bearing non-linear stiffness function is approximated for the sake of convenience by a simple model which is identical to that used for the gear mesh. This approximate bearing model has been verified by comparing steady state frequency spectra. Applicability of both analytical and numerical solution techniques to the multi-degree-of-freedom non-linear problem is investigated. Satisfactory agreement has been found between our theory and available experimental data. Several key issues such as non-linear modal interactions and differences between internal static transmission error excitation and external torque excitation are discussed. Additionally, parametric studies are performed to understand the effect of system parameters such as bearing stiffness to gear mesh stiffness ratio, alternating to mean force ratio and radial bearing preload to mean force ratio on the non-linear dynamic behavior. A criterion used to classify the steady state solutions is presented, and the conditions for chaotic, quasi-periodic and subharmonic steady state solutions are determined. Two typical routes to chaos observed in this geared system are also identified.

  10. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part i: Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-08-01

    The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.

  11. Vibration analysis of harmonically excited non-linear system using the method of multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byung-Young; Kang, Beom-Soo

    2003-05-01

    An analytical method is presented for evaluation of the steady state periodic behavior of non-linear systems. This method is based on the substructure synthesis formulation and a multiple scales procedure, which is applied to the analysis of non-linear responses. A complex non-linear system is divided into substructures, of which equations are approximately transformed to modal co-ordinates including non-linear term under the reasonable procedure. Then, the equations are synthesized into the overall system and the solution of the non-linear system can be obtained. Based on the method of multiple scales, the proposed procedure reduces the size of large-degree-of-freedom problem in solving the non-linear equations. Feasibility and advantages of the proposed method are illustrated by the application of the analytic procedure to the non-linear rotating machine system as a large mechanical structure system. Results obtained are reported to be an efficient approach with respect to non-linear response prediction when compared with other conventional methods.

  12. Non-linear dynamics in biological microtubules: solitons and dissipation-free energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2017-08-01

    I review some recent developments concerning soliton solutions in biological microtubules and their significance in transferring energy without dissipation. I discuss various types of soliton solutions, as well as ‘spikes’, of the associated non-linear Lagrange equations describing the dynamics of a ‘pseudo-spin non-linear σ-model’ that models the dynamics of a microtubule system with dipole-dipole interactions. These results will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the functional properties of microtubules, including the motor protein dynamics and the information transfer processes. With regards to the latter we also speculate on the use of microtubules as ‘logical’ gates. Our considerations are classical, but the soliton solutions may have a microscopic quantum origin, which we briefly touch upon.

  13. Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map.

    PubMed

    Li, Jay-Shake; Huston, Joseph P

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to apply non-linear dynamic tools to the analysis of operant behavior revealed some promise for this kind of approach, but also some doubts, since the complexity of animal behavior seemed to be beyond the analyzing ability of the available tools. We here outline a series of studies based on a novel approach. We modified the so-called 'return map' and developed a new method, the 'extended return map' (ERM) to extract information from the highly irregular time series data, the inter-response time (IRT) generated by Skinner-box experiments. We applied the ERM to operant lever pressing data from rats using the four fundamental reinforcement schedules: fixed interval (FI), fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI) and variable ratio (VR). Our results revealed interesting patterns in all experiment groups. In particular, the FI and VI groups exhibited well-organized clusters of data points. We calculated the fractal dimension out of these patterns and compared experimental data with surrogate data sets, that were generated by randomly shuffling the sequential order of original IRTs. This comparison supported the finding that patterns in ERM reflect the dynamics of the operant behaviors under study. We then built two models to simulate the functional mechanisms of the FI schedule. Both models can produce similar distributions of IRTs and the stereotypical 'scalloped' curve characteristic of FI responding. However, they differ in one important feature in their formulation: while one model uses a continuous function to describe the probability of occurrence of an operant behavior, the other one employs an abrupt switch of behavioral state. Comparison of ERMs showed that only the latter was able to produce patterns similar to the experimental results, indicative of the operation of an abrupt switch from one behavioral state to another over the course of the inter-reinforcement period. This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of

  14. Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  15. Learning from Non-Linear Ecosystem Dynamics Is Vital for Achieving Land Degradation Neutrality

    DOE PAGES

    Sietz, Diana; Fleskens, Luuk; Stringer, Lindsay C.

    2017-02-27

    Land Degradation Neutrality is one of the Sustainable Development Goal targets, requiring on-going degradation to be balanced by restoration and sustainable land management. However, restoration and efforts to prevent degradation have often failed to deliver expected benefits,despite enormous investments. Better acknowledging the close relationships between climate, land management and non-linear ecosystem dynamics can help restoration activities to meet their intended goals, while supporting climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper is the first to link ecological theory of non-linear ecosystem dynamics to Land Degradation Neutrality offering essential insights into appropriate timings, climate-induced windows of opportunities and risks and the financialmore » viability of investments. These novel insights are pre-requisites for meaningful o and monitoring of progress towards Land Degradation Neutrality« less

  16. Using Linear and Non-Linear Methods to Study Precipitation-Vegetation Dynamics at Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, A.; Friedl, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Large areas of the Earth's land surface experience significant spatio-temporal variability in precipitation regimes. This variability can result in important perturbations to ecosystem processes. In recent years remote sensing observations have been used to examine large-scale dynamics in ecosystem response to climate. However, because of the complexity of both the processes and data sets involved, analysis of coupled spatio-temporal variability in remote sensing and other earth science data poses a challenging problem. In this paper, linear and non-linear statistical learning techniques are used to perform automated feature extraction and unsupervised data analysis of precipitation and remotely sensed vegetation index data sets at global and inter-annual scales. To examine the joint variability of precipitation and vegetation, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and maximum covariance analysis (MCA) are used. These techniques are designed to isolate coupled modes of different variables in both space and time. Unfortunately, MCA and CCA require fairly strict assumptions concerning the statistical distribution of the input variables. When such assumptions are not met, non-linear techniques can provide additional information that cannot be retrieved using linear techniques. In particular, independent component analysis (ICA) has recently emerged as a novel technique to isolate non-Gaussian signals from multivariate data. While many linear techniques rely on the variance/covariance information contained in a dataset, ICA uses higher order statistical moments to isolate patterns. ICA is particularly powerful for identifying spatial and temporal artifacts that are commonly contained in Earth science data sets and for isolating anomalous events that arise from perturbations in the atmosphere-biosphere system such as droughts and floods associated with El-Niño (and other) events. In this paper, ICA is used to extract information related to the spatial and temporal

  17. Adaptive Mixture Modelling Metropolis Methods for Bayesian Analysis of Non-linear State-Space Models.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Jarad; West, Mike

    2010-06-01

    We describe a strategy for Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of non-linear, non-Gaussian state-space models involving batch analysis for inference on dynamic, latent state variables and fixed model parameters. The key innovation is a Metropolis-Hastings method for the time series of state variables based on sequential approximation of filtering and smoothing densities using normal mixtures. These mixtures are propagated through the non-linearities using an accurate, local mixture approximation method, and we use a regenerating procedure to deal with potential degeneracy of mixture components. This provides accurate, direct approximations to sequential filtering and retrospective smoothing distributions, and hence a useful construction of global Metropolis proposal distributions for simulation of posteriors for the set of states. This analysis is embedded within a Gibbs sampler to include uncertain fixed parameters. We give an example motivated by an application in systems biology. Supplemental materials provide an example based on a stochastic volatility model as well as MATLAB code.

  18. Non-linear longitudinal compression effect on dynamics of the transcription bubble in DNA.

    PubMed

    Shikhovtseva, E S; Nazarov, V N

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of the dynamics of transcription bubble on the parameters of non-linear longitudinal compression is presented on the base of simple model of soliton-like conformational switchings in two-component bistable polymer molecules with energetically non-equivalent stable states. It has been shown that under certain conditions the longitudinal compression may be a trap for a conformational switching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of some bivariate non-linear interpolatory subdivision schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadourian, Karine; Liandrat, Jacques

    2008-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the convergence analysis of a class of bivariate subdivision schemes that can be defined as a specific perturbation of a linear subdivision scheme. We study successively the univariate and bivariate case and apply the analysis to the so called Powerp scheme (Serna and Marquina, J Comput Phys 194:632-658, 2004).

  20. On psychoanalysis and non-linear dynamics: the paradigm of bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Priel, B; Schreiber, G

    1994-09-01

    Some of Freud's main theoretical conceptualizations drew on metaphors from 19th century physics. However, though the physics of Freud's era was based on deterministic Newtonian mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics, his descriptions of the dynamics of instincts, therapeutic change, and even transference, were far beyond this model. Freud's dynamic description of psychic development evokes contemporary theories of irreversible, far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics and non-linear dynamics. The present paper focuses on bifurcation theory, which offers a paradigm for the investigation of unpredictable but deterministic phenomena; this paradigm sheds a retroactive light on the classical psychoanalytical conceptualizations of complemental series, repetition compulsion, transference and cure.

  1. Non-linear time series analysis of intracranial EEG recordings in patients with epilepsy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Lehnertz, K

    1999-10-01

    Deterministic chaos offers a striking explanation for apparently irregular behavior, a characteristic feature of brain electrical activity. The framework of the theory of non-linear dynamics provides new concepts and powerful algorithms to analyze such time series. However, different influencing factors render the use of non-linear measures in a strict sense problematic. Nevertheless, if interpreted with care, particularly the correlation dimension or the Lyapunov-exponents provide a means to reliably characterize different states of normal and pathological brain function. This overview summarizes recent findings applying this concept in the field of epileptology that promise to be important for clinical practice. Non-linear measures extracted from the intra-cranially recorded EEG allow (a) localization of epileptogenic areas in different cerebral regions even during seizure-free intervals, (b) investigation of the influence of anticonvulsive drugs and (c) detection of features predictive of imminent seizure activity. Moreover, particularly the dimensional complexity proves a valuable parameter reflecting spatially distributed neuronal activity during verbal learning and memory processes. Specific changes in time of this non-linear measure allow the prediction of memory performance and, in addition, represent an estimate of the recruitment potency in the anterior mesial temporal lobes. Thus, the application of non-linear time series analysis to brain electrical activity offers new information about the dynamics of the underlying neuronal networks.

  2. Non-linear analysis in Light Water Reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Y.R.; Sharabi, M.N.; Nickell, R.E.; Esztergar, E.P.; Jones, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    The results obtained from a scoping study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Safety Technology Program at Sandia National Laboratories are presented. Basically, this project calls for the examination of the hypothesis that the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR systems and components of interest include such items as: the reactor vessel, vessel internals, nozzles and penetrations, component support structures, and containment structures. Piping systems are excluded because they are being addressed by a separate study. Essentially, the findings were that nonlinear analysis methods are beneficial to LWR design from a technical point of view. However, the costs needed to implement these methods are the roadblock to readily adopting them. In this sense, a cost-benefit type of analysis must be made on the various topics identified by these studies and priorities must be established. This document is the complete report by ANATECH International Corporation.

  3. Impact of quadratic non-linearity on the dynamics of periodic solutions of a wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2002-02-01

    For the non-linear telegraph equation with homogeneous Dirichlet or Neumann conditions at the end-points of a finite interval the question of the existence and the stability of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from the zero equilibrium state is considered. The dynamics of these solutions under a change of the diffusion coefficient (that is, the coefficient of the second derivative with respect to the space variable) is investigated. For the Dirichlet boundary conditions it is shown that this dynamics substantially depends on the presence - or the absence - of quadratic terms in the non-linearity. More precisely, it is shown that a quadratic non-linearity results in the occurrence, under an unbounded decrease of diffusion, of an infinite sequence of bifurcations of each periodic solution. En route, the related issue of the limits of applicability of Yu.S. Kolesov's method of quasinormal forms to the construction of self-oscillations in singularly perturbed hyperbolic boundary value problems is studied.

  4. Impact of quadratic non-linearity on the dynamics of periodic solutions of a wave equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2002-02-28

    For the non-linear telegraph equation with homogeneous Dirichlet or Neumann conditions at the end-points of a finite interval the question of the existence and the stability of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from the zero equilibrium state is considered. The dynamics of these solutions under a change of the diffusion coefficient (that is, the coefficient of the second derivative with respect to the space variable) is investigated. For the Dirichlet boundary conditions it is shown that this dynamics substantially depends on the presence - or the absence - of quadratic terms in the non-linearity. More precisely, it is shown that a quadratic non-linearity results in the occurrence, under an unbounded decrease of diffusion, of an infinite sequence of bifurcations of each periodic solution. En route, the related issue of the limits of applicability of Yu.S. Kolesov's method of quasinormal forms to the construction of self-oscillations in singularly perturbed hyperbolic boundary value problems is studied.

  5. Non-linear dynamics of a one-way clutch in belt-pulley systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Farong; Parker, R. G.

    2005-01-01

    One-way clutches are frequently used in the serpentine belt accessory drives of automobiles and heavy vehicles. The clutch plays a role similar to a vibration absorber in order to reduce belt/pulley vibration and noise and increase belt life. This paper analyzes a two-pulley system where the driven pulley has a one-way clutch between the pulley and accessory shaft that engages only for positive relative displacement between these components. The belt is modelled with linear springs that transmit torque from the driving pulley to the accessory pulley. The one-way clutch is modelled as a piecewise linear spring with discontinuous stiffness that separates the driven pulley into two degrees of freedom. The harmonic balance method combined with arclength continuation is employed to illustrate the non-linear dynamic behavior of the one-way clutch and determine the stable and unstable periodic solutions for given parameters. The results are confirmed by numerical integration and the bifurcation software AUTO. At the first primary resonance, most of the responses are aperiodic, including quasiperiodic and chaotic solutions. At the second primary resonance, the peak bends to the left with classical softening non-linearity because clutch disengagement decouples the pulley and the accessory over portions of the response period. The dependence on clutch stiffness, excitation amplitude, and inertia ratio between the pulley and accessory is studied to characterize the non-linear dynamics across a range of conditions.

  6. Denoising and robust non-linear wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Andrew G.; Donoho, David L.; Gao, Hong-Ye; Martin, R. D.

    1994-04-01

    In a series of papers, Donoho and Johnstone develop a powerful theory based on wavelets for extracting non-smooth signals from noisy data. Several nonlinear smoothing algorithms are presented which provide high performance for removing Gaussian noise from a wide range of spatially inhomogeneous signals. However, like other methods based on the linear wavelet transform, these algorithms are very sensitive to certain types of non-Gaussian noise, such as outliers. In this paper, we develop outlier resistance wavelet transforms. In these transforms, outliers and outlier patches are localized to just a few scales. By using the outlier resistant wavelet transforms, we improve upon the Donoho and Johnstone nonlinear signal extraction methods. The outlier resistant wavelet algorithms are included with the S+Wavelets object-oriented toolkit for wavelet analysis.

  7. Finite element method for non-linear dispersive wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jung-Yu; Kawahara, Mutsuto

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the finite element method for the analysis of the short wave problem expressed by the Boussinesq equation. The Boussinesq equation considers the effect of wave crest curvature. The standard Galerkin finite element method is employed for the spatial discretization using the triangular finite element based on the linear interpolation function. The combination of the explicit and the quasi-explicit schemes-- i.e., the explicit scheme for the continuum equation and the quasi-explicit scheme for the momentum equation--is employed for the discretization in time. To show the applicability of the present method to the practical problem, the simulation of wave propagation in one-dimensional and two-dimensional channel flows is carried out. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results being. The practical example for Miyako Bay is presented.

  8. Non-linear analysis of vibrations of irregular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Mook, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical perturbation method is used to investigate the forced vibrations of irregular plates. Nonlinear terms associated with the midplane stretching are retained in the analysis. The numerical part of the method involves the use of linear, finite element techniques to determine the free oscillation mode shapes and frequencies and to obtain the linear midplane stress resultants caused by the midplane stretching. Representing the solution as an expansion in terms of these linear mode shapes, these modes and the resultants are used to determine the equations governing the time-dependent coefficients of this expansion. These equations are solved by using the method of multiple scales. Specific solutions are given for the main-resonant vibrations of an elliptical plate in the presence of internal resonances. The results indicate that modes other than the driven mode can be drawn into the steady state response. Though the excitation is composed of a single harmonic, the response may not be periodic. Moreover, the particular types of responses that can occur are highly dependent on the mode being excited and are sensitive to small geometrical changes.

  9. Application of non-linear dynamics to the characterization of cardiac electrical instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Beat-to-beat alternation in the morphology of the ECG has been previously observed in hearts susceptible to fibrillation. In addition, fibrillation has been characterized by some as a chaotic state. Period doubling phenomena, such as alternation, and the onset of chaos have been connected by non-linear dynamical systems theory. In this paper, we describe the use of a technique from nonlinear dynamics theory, the construction of a first return nap, to assess the susceptibility to fibrillation threshhold in canine experiments.

  10. Application of non-linear dynamics to the characterization of cardiac electrical instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Beat-to-beat alternation in the morphology of the ECG has been previously observed in hearts susceptible to fibrillation. In addition, fibrillation has been characterized by some as a chaotic state. Period doubling phenomena, such as alternation, and the onset of chaos have been connected by non-linear dynamical systems theory. In this paper, we describe the use of a technique from nonlinear dynamics theory, the construction of a first return nap, to assess the susceptibility to fibrillation threshhold in canine experiments.

  11. Bifurcation analysis of a non-linear hysteretic oscillator under harmonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il Chang, Seo

    2004-09-01

    The steady state oscillations of a system incorporating a non-linear hysteretic damper are studied analytically by applying a perturbation technique. The hysteretic damper of the system subject to harmonic resonant force is modelled by combining a Maxwell's model and Kelvin-Voigt's model in series. The non-linearity is imposed by replacing a spring element by a cubic-non-linear spring. The response of the system is described by two coupled second order differential equations including a non-linear constitutive equation. Proper rescaling of the variables and parameters of the equations of motion leads to a set of weakly non-linear equations of motion to which the method of averaging is applied. The bifurcation analysis of the reduced four-dimensional amplitude- and phase-equations of motion shows typical non-linear behaviors including saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations and separate solution branch. By the stability analysis, the saddle-node and Hopf bifurcation sets are obtained in parameter spaces. The software package AUTO is used to numerically study the bifurcation sets and limit cycle solutions bifurcating from the Hopf bifurcation points. It is shown that the limit cycle responses of the averaged system exist over broad parameter ranges.

  12. Non-linear dynamical classification of short time series of the rössler system in high noise regimes.

    PubMed

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hernandez, Manuel E; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2013-01-01

    Time series analysis with delay differential equations (DDEs) reveals non-linear properties of the underlying dynamical system and can serve as a non-linear time-domain classification tool. Here global DDE models were used to analyze short segments of simulated time series from a known dynamical system, the Rössler system, in high noise regimes. In a companion paper, we apply the DDE model developed here to classify short segments of encephalographic (EEG) data recorded from patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects. Nine simulated subjects in each of two distinct classes were generated by varying the bifurcation parameter b and keeping the other two parameters (a and c) of the Rössler system fixed. All choices of b were in the chaotic parameter range. We diluted the simulated data using white noise ranging from 10 to -30 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Structure selection was supervised by selecting the number of terms, delays, and order of non-linearity of the model DDE model that best linearly separated the two classes of data. The distances d from the linear dividing hyperplane was then used to assess the classification performance by computing the area A' under the ROC curve. The selected model was tested on untrained data using repeated random sub-sampling validation. DDEs were able to accurately distinguish the two dynamical conditions, and moreover, to quantify the changes in the dynamics. There was a significant correlation between the dynamical bifurcation parameter b of the simulated data and the classification parameter d from our analysis. This correlation still held for new simulated subjects with new dynamical parameters selected from each of the two dynamical regimes. Furthermore, the correlation was robust to added noise, being significant even when the noise was greater than the signal. We conclude that DDE models may be used as a generalizable and reliable classification tool for even small segments of noisy data.

  13. Non-Linear Dynamical Classification of Short Time Series of the Rössler System in High Noise Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hernandez, Manuel E.; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Time series analysis with delay differential equations (DDEs) reveals non-linear properties of the underlying dynamical system and can serve as a non-linear time-domain classification tool. Here global DDE models were used to analyze short segments of simulated time series from a known dynamical system, the Rössler system, in high noise regimes. In a companion paper, we apply the DDE model developed here to classify short segments of encephalographic (EEG) data recorded from patients with Parkinson’s disease and healthy subjects. Nine simulated subjects in each of two distinct classes were generated by varying the bifurcation parameter b and keeping the other two parameters (a and c) of the Rössler system fixed. All choices of b were in the chaotic parameter range. We diluted the simulated data using white noise ranging from 10 to −30 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Structure selection was supervised by selecting the number of terms, delays, and order of non-linearity of the model DDE model that best linearly separated the two classes of data. The distances d from the linear dividing hyperplane was then used to assess the classification performance by computing the area A′ under the ROC curve. The selected model was tested on untrained data using repeated random sub-sampling validation. DDEs were able to accurately distinguish the two dynamical conditions, and moreover, to quantify the changes in the dynamics. There was a significant correlation between the dynamical bifurcation parameter b of the simulated data and the classification parameter d from our analysis. This correlation still held for new simulated subjects with new dynamical parameters selected from each of the two dynamical regimes. Furthermore, the correlation was robust to added noise, being significant even when the noise was greater than the signal. We conclude that DDE models may be used as a generalizable and reliable classification tool for even small segments of noisy data. PMID

  14. Dynamics of atom-field probability amplitudes in a coupled cavity system with Kerr non-linearity

    SciTech Connect

    Priyesh, K. V.; Thayyullathil, Ramesh Babu

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated the dynamics of two cavities coupled together via photon hopping, filled with Kerr non-linear medium and each containing a two level atom in it. The evolution of various atom (field) state probabilities of the coupled cavity system in two excitation sub space are obtained numerically. Detailed analysis has been done by taking different initial conditions of the system, with various coupling strengths and by varying the susceptibility of the medium. The role of susceptibility factor, on the dynamics atom field probability has been examined. In a coupled cavity system with strong photon hopping it is found that the susceptibility factor modifies the behaviour of probability amplitudes.

  15. Dynamics of heavy impurities in non-linear MHD simulations of sawtoothing tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jae-H.; Garbet, X.; Lütjens, H.; Guirlet, R.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of sawteeth on impurity dynamics is studied with the XTOR-2F code. Non-linear full 3D MHD simulations including appropriate fluid equations for impurities in the high collisional regime show that the presence of regular sawtooth crashes affects the impurity behaviour. A spatial non-uniformity of 5 % in post-crash impurity density profiles persists due to 2D structures of impurity density which appear during sawtooth crashes. They are shown to be mainly driven by the \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} velocity, and are responsible for the sudden impurity transport in the core plasmas.

  16. A process fault estimation strategy for non-linear dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazera, Marcin; Korbicz, Józef

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of simultaneous state and process fault estimation for non-linear dynamic systems. Instead of estimating the fault directly, its product with state and the state itself are estimated. To derive the fault from the product, a simple algebraic approach is proposed. The estimation strategy is based on the quadratic boundedness approach. The final part of the paper presents an illustrative example concerning a laboratory multi-tank system. The real data experiments clearly exhibit the performance of the proposed approach.

  17. An Identification Technique for Non-Linear Dynamical Systems Under Stochastic Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisiewicz, M.; Iwankiewicz, R.; Piesiak, S.

    1997-02-01

    An identification technique is devised for SDOF dynamical mechanical systems under random excitations. The system is assumed to be governed by a non-linear equation of motion in general form, in which the restoring force and the dissipative terms are given by arbitrary power functions. Algebraic equations are obtained for the expectations of some suitable excitation and response quantities. It is shown that these equations are valid for any stationary random excitations if the system attains the steady state. Based on these equations, an identification technique has been devised and verified experimentally for white noise and coloured (pink) noise random excitations.

  18. Intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system based on the adaptive neurocontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Kobezhicov, V.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an adaptive neuro-controller for intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system. The formed as the fuzzy selective neural net the adaptive neuro-controller on the base of system's state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed adaptive neuro-controller are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed controller scheme achieves real-time control speed and the competitive performance, as compared to PID, fuzzy logic controllers.

  19. Identification of non-linear microbial inactivation kinetics under dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Valdramidis, V P; Geeraerd, A H; Bernaerts, K; Van Impe, J F M

    2008-11-30

    In this study dynamic microbial inactivation experiments are exploited for performing parameter identification of a non-linear microbial model. For that purpose microbial inactivation data are produced and a differential equation exhibiting a shoulder and a loglinear phase is employed. The derived parameter estimates from this method were used to perform predictions on an independent experimental set at fluctuating temperature. Joint confidence regions and asymptotic confidence intervals of the estimated parameters were compared with previous studies originating from parameter identification under isothermal conditions. The developed approach can provide more reliable estimates for realistic conditions compared to the usual or standard two step approach.

  20. Analysis of structural seismic behaviour: from non stationary to non linear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Monaco, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    The change in fundamental frequency of a building is considered the simplest way to detect the onset of damage. Several authors in the past proposed that the difference in periods that can be observed among ambient noise, earthquake weak-motion measurements can be attributed to transient non-linearity due to reversible modification of the building characteristic (e.g. the degree of coupling between frame and infill in reinforced concrete buildings). The necessity of effective and efficient seismic protection of vast and aging structures and infrastructure has increased markedly the interest in the development of structural monitoring techniques. Damage to any structure alters its dynamic properties and for that dynamic monitoring techniques enable the identification of damage by comparing pre and post seismic excitation characteristic. The principle parameters usually monitored are: fundamental period, damping factors and modal shapes. Several damage identification and localization techniques are based on variations in these parameters (see, e.g Ponzo et al. 2010 and reference therein). Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods can be rank on four different levels with the higher levels requiring increased quality and quantity of available information. The most common methods are therefore related to Level 1, due to their simplified and economic implementation. These methods are based mainly upon the variation of vibration frequencies and/or variations in Equivalent Viscous Damping associated with these vibration modes. It is important to underline however that although the presence of damage will lead to alterations in vibration modes the opposite does not necessarily hold true. Two types of frequency variation can be distinguished; long time period variations (due to variations in temperature, foundation soil moisture content etc.) and short period variations (for example due to a seismic event). For short period variations, changes in frequency can be attributed

  1. Non-Linear Dynamics Approach to Assessing Woody-Encroachment in Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, N. A.; Nippert, J. B.; Van Vleck, E.

    2015-12-01

    Woody species are encroaching on grasslands globally. Here, we investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of this encroachment in relation to climate and fire regimes in the central U.S. A low-dimensional model is used to assess stability of species composition. Sixe years of eddy covariance data at a paired grassland and woody encroachment site at the Konza Prairie LTER site are used to verify carbon and water dynamics. Historical aerial photography and remote sensing data are used to quantify the spatial diffusion of woody tree fraction into grasslands. Non-linear dynamics approaches are used to quantify the stability of vegetation and the presence of tipping points in relation to woody fraction, fire frequency and precipitation and temperature variability. Understanding the roles of multiple confounding forcing factors operating at disparate timescales is essential for predicting future woody encroachment and the water and climate implications of land cover transitions.

  2. Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments.

  3. Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments. PMID:25101112

  4. Controlling the non-linear intracavity dynamics of large He-Ne laser gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccato, D.; Beghi, A.; Belfi, J.; Beverini, N.; Ortolan, A.; Di Virgilio, A.

    2014-02-01

    A model based on Lamb's theory of gas lasers is applied to a He-Ne ring laser (RL) gyroscope to estimate and remove the laser dynamics contribution from the rotation measurements. The intensities of the counter-propagating laser beams exiting one cavity mirror are continuously observed together with a monitor of the laser population inversion. These observables, once properly calibrated with a dedicated procedure, allow us to estimate cold cavity and active medium parameters driving the main part of the non-linearities of the system. The quantitative estimation of intrinsic non-reciprocal effects due to cavity and active medium non-linear coupling plays a key role in testing fundamental symmetries of space-time with RLs. The parameter identification and noise subtraction procedure has been verified by means of a Monte Carlo study of the system, and experimentally tested on the G-PISA RL oriented with the normal to the ring plane almost parallel to the Earth's rotation axis. In this configuration the Earth's rotation rate provides the maximum Sagnac effect while the contribution of the orientation error is reduced to a minimum. After the subtraction of laser dynamics by a Kalman filter, the relative systematic errors of G-PISA reduce from 50 to 5 parts in 103 and can be attributed to the residual uncertainties on geometrical scale factor and orientation of the ring.

  5. A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.

  6. Non-linear Dynamics in ETG Mode Saturation and Beam-Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.

    Non-linear mechanisms arise frequently in plasmas and beam-plasma systems resulting in dynamics not predicted by linear theory. The non-linear mechanisms can influence the time evolution of plasma instabilities and can be used to describe their saturation. Furthermore time and space averaged non-linear fields generated by instabilities can lead to collisionless transport and plasma heating. In the case of beam-plasma systems counter-intuitive beam defocusing and scaling behavior which are interesting areas of study for both Low-Temperature and High Energy Density physics. The non-linear mode interactions in form of phase coupling can describe energy transfer to other modes and can be used to describe the saturation of plasma instabilities. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical model was formulated to explain the saturation mechanism of Slab Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode observed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM), based on experimental time-series data collected through probe diagnostics [1]. ETG modes are considered to be a major player in the unexplained high levels of electron transport observed in tokamak fusion experiments and the saturation mechanism of these modes is still an active area of investigation. The data in the frequency space indicated phase coupling between 3 modes, through a higher order spectral correlation coefficient known as bicoherence. The resulting model is similar to [2], which was a treatment for ITG modes observed in the CLM and correctly predicts the observed saturation level of the ETG turbulence. The scenario is further supported by the fact that the observed mode frequencies are in close alignment with those predicted theoretical dispersion relations. Non-linear effects arise frequently in beam-plasma systems and can be important for both low temperature plasma devices commonly used for material processing as well as High Energy Density applications relevant to inertial fusion. The non-linear time averaged

  7. Non-linear dynamics of viscoelastic liquid trilayers subjected to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetsas, George; Bontozoglou, Vasilis

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this work is to investigate the non-linear dynamics of the electro-hydrodynamic instability of a trilayer of immiscible liquids. We consider the case of a polymer film which is separated from the top electrode by two viscous fluids. We develop a computational model and carry out 2D numerical simulations fully accounting for the flow and electric field in all phases. For the numerical solution of the governing equations we employ the mixed finite element method combined with a quasi-elliptic mesh generation scheme which is capable of following the large deformations of the liquid-liquid interface. We model the viscoelastic behavior using the Phan-Thien and Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation taking fully into account the non-linear elastic effects as well as a varying shear and extensional viscosity. We perform a thorough parametric study and investigate the influence of the electric properties of fluids, applied voltage and various rheological parameters. The authors acknowledge the support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant Number PE8/906), co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources.

  8. Non-linear dynamics and instability of a rotating shaft-disk system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. O.; Cheng, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The instability and non-linear dynamics of a slender rotating shaft with a rigid disk at the mid-span are analyzed. The shaft is simply supported at both ends and is made of a viscoelastic material. The stability criteria are determined from the linear equations of motion based on the small strain assumption. The bifurcation of the double zero eigenvalue point on the stability boundaries in the parametric space is analyzed by using center manifold theory on the non-linear equations of motion, for which a large transverse displacement of the shaft is assumed. Analytical expressions for the radius of synchronous whirling and the radius and precession rate of non-synchronous whirling near the double zero eigenvalue point are obtained explicitly. The behaviors of the parametric points away from the stability boundaries are analyzed numerically. The general effects on the precession rate for these points are somewhat different from those for the parametric points in the vicinity of the double zero eigenvalue.

  9. Design curves for non-linear analysis of simply-supported, uniformly-loaded rectangular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D.

    1979-01-01

    Design curves for the non-linear analysis of simply-supported rectangular plates subjected to uniform normal pressure loads have been developed. These curves yield the center deflection, center stress and corner stress in non-dimensionalized form plotted against a dimensionless parameter describing the load intensity. The results presented are based on extensive non-linear finite element analysis employing the ARGUS structural analysis program. Plates with length to width ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 are included. The load range considered extends to 1000 times the load at which the behavior of the plate becomes significantly non-linear. Over the load range considered, the analysis shows that the ratio of center deflection to plate thickness for a square plate is less than 16 to 1, whereas linear theory would predict a center deflection 400 times the plate thickness. Likewise, the stress is markedly lower than would be predicted by linear theory. The present results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the classical linear theory up to a central deflection to plate thickness ratio of about one-half. In the non-linear regime the present results for deflection and stress are in very good agreement with the analytical and experimental work of other investigators.

  10. Stochastic cooperativity in non-linear dynamics of genetic regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Simon

    2007-11-01

    Two major approaches are known in the field of stochastic dynamics of genetic regulatory networks (GRN). The first one, referred here to as the Markov Process Paradigm (MPP), places the focus of attention on the fact that many biochemical constituents vitally important for the network functionality are present only in small quantities within the cell, and therefore the regulatory process is essentially discrete and prone to relatively big fluctuations. The Master Equation of Markov Processes is an appropriate tool for the description of this kind of stochasticity. The second approach, the Non-linear Dynamics Paradigm (NDP), treats the regulatory process as essentially continuous. A natural tool for the description of such processes are deterministic differential equations. According to NDP, stochasticity in such systems occurs due to possible bistability and oscillatory motion within the limit cycles. The goal of this paper is to outline a third scenario of stochasticity in the regulatory process. This scenario is only conceivable in high-dimensional, highly non-linear systems, and thus represents an adequate framework for conceptually modeling the GRN. We refer to this framework as the Stochastic Cooperativity Paradigm (SCP). In this approach, the focus of attention is placed on the fact that in systems with the size and link density of GRN ( approximately 25000 and approximately 100, respectively), the confluence of all the factors which are necessary for gene expression is a comparatively rare event, and only massive redundancy makes such events sufficiently frequent. An immediate consequence of this rareness is 'burstiness' in mRNA and protein concentrations, a well known effect in intracellular dynamics. We demonstrate that a high-dimensional non-linear system, despite the absence of explicit mechanisms for suppressing inherent instability, may nevertheless reside in a state of stationary pseudo-random fluctuations which for all practical purposes may be

  11. Non-linear dynamics models characterizing long-term virological data from AIDS clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Verotta, Davide; Schaedeli, Franziska

    2002-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dynamics represent a complicated variant of the text-book case of non-linear dynamics: predator-prey interaction. The interaction can be described as naturally reproducing T-cells (prey) hunted and killed by virus (predator). Virus reproduce and increase in number as a consequence of successful predation; this is countered by the production of T-cells and the reaction of the immune system. Multi-drug anti-HIV therapy attempts to alter the natural dynamics of the predator-prey interaction by decreasing the reproductive capability of the virus and hence predation. These dynamics are further complicated by varying compliance to treatment and insurgence of resistance to treatment. When following the temporal progression of viral load in plasma during therapy one observes a short-term (1-12 weeks) decrease in viral load. In the long-term (more than 12 weeks from the beginning of therapy) the reduction in viral load is either sustained, or it is followed by a rebound, oscillations and a new (generally lower than at the beginning of therapy) viral load level. Biomathematicians have investigated these dynamics by means of simulations. However the estimation of the parameters associated with the dynamics from real data has been mostly limited to the case of simplified, in particular linearized, models. Linearized model can only describe the short-term changes of viral load during therapy and can only predict (apparent) suppression. In this paper we put forward relatively simple models to characterize long-term virus dynamics which can incorporate different factors associated with resurgence: (Fl) the intrinsic non-linear HIV-1 dynamics, (F2) drug exposure and in particular compliance to treatment, and (F3) insurgence of resistant HIV-1 strains. The main goal is to obtain models which are mathematically identifiable given only measurements of viral load, while retaining the most crucial features of HIV dynamics. For the purpose of

  12. AN EFFICIENT, NON-LINEAR STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR DETECTING PATTERN FORMATION IN REACTION DIFFUSION SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    HOLMES, WILLIAM R.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction diffusion systems are often used to study pattern formation in biological systems. However, most methods for understanding their behavior are challenging and can rarely be applied to complex systems common in biological applications. I present a relatively simple and efficient, non-linear stability technique that greatly aids such analysis when rates of diffusion are substantially different. This technique reduces a system of reaction diffusion equations to a system of ordinary differential equations tracking the evolution of a large amplitude, spatially localized perturbation of a homogeneous steady state. Stability properties of this system, determined using standard bifurcation techniques and software, describe both linear and non-linear patterning regimes of the reaction diffusion system. I describe the class of systems this method can be applied to and demonstrate its application. Analysis of Schnakenberg and substrate inhibition models is performed to demonstrate the methods capabilities in simplified settings and show that even these simple models have non-linear patterning regimes not previously detected. The real power of this technique however is its simplicity and applicability to larger complex systems where other non-linear methods become intractable. This is demonstrated through analysis of a chemotaxis regulatory network comprised of interacting proteins and phospholipids. In each case, predictions of this method are verified against results of numerical simulation, linear stability, asymptotic, and / or full PDE bifurcation analyses. PMID:24158538

  13. Non-linear intensification of Sahel rainfall as a possible dynamic response to future warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, Jacob; Levermann, Anders

    2017-07-01

    Projections of the response of Sahel rainfall to future global warming diverge significantly. Meanwhile, paleoclimatic records suggest that Sahel rainfall is capable of abrupt transitions in response to gradual forcing. Here we present climate modeling evidence for the possibility of an abrupt intensification of Sahel rainfall under future climate change. Analyzing 30 coupled global climate model simulations, we identify seven models where central Sahel rainfall increases by 40 to 300 % over the 21st century, owing to a northward expansion of the West African monsoon domain. Rainfall in these models is non-linearly related to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic and Mediterranean moisture source regions, intensifying abruptly beyond a certain SST warming level. We argue that this behavior is consistent with a self-amplifying dynamic-thermodynamical feedback, implying that the gradual increase in oceanic moisture availability under warming could trigger a sudden intensification of monsoon rainfall far inland of today's core monsoon region.

  14. Does the Cerebral Cortex Exploit High-Dimensional, Non-linear Dynamics for Information Processing?

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Wolf; Lazar, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of stimulus induced synchronization in the visual cortex suggested the possibility that the relations among low-level stimulus features are encoded by the temporal relationship between neuronal discharges. In this framework, temporal coherence is considered a signature of perceptual grouping. This insight triggered a large number of experimental studies which sought to investigate the relationship between temporal coordination and cognitive functions. While some core predictions derived from the initial hypothesis were confirmed, these studies, also revealed a rich dynamical landscape beyond simple coherence whose role in signal processing is still poorly understood. In this paper, a framework is presented which establishes links between the various manifestations of cortical dynamics by assigning specific coding functions to low-dimensional dynamic features such as synchronized oscillations and phase shifts on the one hand and high-dimensional non-linear, non-stationary dynamics on the other. The data serving as basis for this synthetic approach have been obtained with chronic multisite recordings from the visual cortex of anesthetized cats and from monkeys trained to solve cognitive tasks. It is proposed that the low-dimensional dynamics characterized by synchronized oscillations and large-scale correlations are substates that represent the results of computations performed in the high-dimensional state-space provided by recurrently coupled networks. PMID:27713697

  15. Alteration of the P-wave non-linear dynamics near the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Arturo; Abásolo, Daniel; Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José J

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of P-wave variability from the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been suggested as an early predictor of the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Hence, a preventive treatment could be used to avoid the loss of normal sinus rhythm, thus minimising health risks and improving the patient's quality of life. In these previous studies the variability of different temporal and morphological P-wave features has been only analysed in a linear fashion. However, the electrophysiological alteration occurring in the atria before the onset of PAF has to be considered as an inherently complex, chaotic and non-stationary process. This work analyses the presence of non-linear dynamics in the P-wave progression before the onset of PAF through the application of the central tendency measure (CTM), which is a non-linear metric summarising the degree of variability in a time series. Two hour-length ECG intervals just before the arrhythmia onset belonging to 46 different PAF patients were analysed. In agreement with the invasively observed inhomogeneous atrial conduction preceding the onset of PAF, CTM for all the considered P-wave features showed higher variability when the arrhythmia was closer to its onset. A diagnostic accuracy around 80% to discern between ECG segments far from PAF and close to PAF was obtained with the CTM of the metrics considered. This result was similar to previous P-wave variability methods based on linear approaches. However, the combination of linear and non-linear methods with a decision tree improved considerably their discriminant ability up to 90%, thus suggesting that both dynamics could coexist at the same time in the fragmented depolarisation of the atria preceding the arrhythmia.

  16. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  17. The amazing evolutionary dynamics of non-linear optical systems with feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, Leonid

    2013-09-01

    Optical systems with feedback are, generally, non-linear dynamic systems. As such, they exhibit evolutionary behavior. In the paper we present results of experimental investigation of evolutionary dynamics of several models of such systems. The models are modifications of the famous mathematical "Game of Life". The modifications are two-fold: "Game of Life" rules are made stochastic and mutual influence of cells is made spatially non-uniform. A number of new phenomena in the evolutionary dynamics of the models are revealed: - "Ordering of chaos". Formation, from seed patterns, of stable maze-like patterns with chaotic "dislocations" that resemble natural patterns, such as skin patterns of some animals and fishes, see shell, fingerprints, magnetic domain patterns and alike, which one can frequently find in the nature. These patterns and their fragments exhibit a remarkable capability of unlimited growth. - "Self-controlled growth" of chaotic "live" formations into "communities" bounded, depending on the model, by a square, hexagon or octagon, until they reach a certain critical size, after which the growth stops. - "Eternal life in a bounded space" of "communities" after reaching a certain size and shape. - "Coherent shrinkage" of "mature", after reaching a certain size, "communities" into one of stable or oscillating patterns preserving in this process isomorphism of their bounding shapes until the very end.

  18. Polynomial elimination theory and non-linear stability analysis for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennon, S. R.; Dulikravich, G. S.; Jespersen, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical methods are presented that exploit the polynomial properties of discretizations of the Euler equations. It is noted that most finite difference or finite volume discretizations of the steady-state Euler equations produce a polynomial system of equations to be solved. These equations are solved using classical polynomial elimination theory, with some innovative modifications. This paper also presents some preliminary results of a new non-linear stability analysis technique. This technique is applicable to determining the stability of polynomial iterative schemes. Results are presented for applying the elimination technique to a one-dimensional test case. For this test case, the exact solution is computed in three iterations. The non-linear stability analysis is applied to determine the optimal time step for solving Burgers' equation using the MacCormack scheme. The estimated optimal time step is very close to the time step that arises from a linear stability analysis.

  19. Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-05-15

    Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Wavelet shrinkage of a noisy dynamical system with non-linear noise impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Matthieu; Guégan, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    By filtering wavelet coefficients, it is possible to construct a good estimate of a pure signal from noisy data. Especially, for a simple linear noise influence, Donoho and Johnstone (1994) have already defined an optimal filter design in the sense of a minimization of the error made when estimating the pure signal. We set here a different framework where the influence of the noise is non-linear. In particular, we propose a method to filter the wavelet coefficients of a discrete dynamical system disrupted by a weak noise, in order to construct good estimates of the pure signal, including Bayes' estimate, minimax estimate, oracular estimate or thresholding estimate. We present the example of a logistic and a Lorenz chaotic dynamical system as well as an adaptation of our technique in order to show empirically the robustness of the thresholding method in presence of leptokurtic noise. Moreover, we test both the hard and the soft thresholding and also another kind of smoother thresholding which seems to have almost the same reconstruction power as the hard thresholding. Finally, besides the tests on an estimated dataset, the method is tested on financial data: oil prices and NOK/USD exchange rate.

  1. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  2. Extraction and restoration of hippocampal spatial memories with non-linear dynamical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong; Harway, Madhuri; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    To build a cognitive prosthesis that can replace the memory function of the hippocampus, it is essential to model the input-output function of the damaged hippocampal region, so the prosthetic device can stimulate the downstream hippocampal region, e.g., CA1, with the output signal, e.g., CA1 spike trains, predicted from the ongoing input signal, e.g., CA3 spike trains, and the identified input-output function, e.g., CA3-CA1 model. In order for the downstream region to form appropriate long-term memories based on the restored output signal, furthermore, the output signal should contain sufficient information about the memories that the animal has formed. In this study, we verify this premise by applying regression and classification modelings of the spatio-temporal patterns of spike trains to the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 data recorded from rats performing a memory-dependent delayed non-match-to-sample (DNMS) task. The regression model is essentially the multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) non-linear dynamical model of spike train transformation. It predicts the output spike trains based on the input spike trains and thus restores the output signal. In addition, the classification model interprets the signal by relating the spatio-temporal patterns to the memory events. We have found that: (1) both hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spike trains contain sufficient information for predicting the locations of the sample responses (i.e., left and right memories) during the DNMS task; and more importantly (2) the CA1 spike trains predicted from the CA3 spike trains by the MIMO model also are sufficient for predicting the locations on a single-trial basis. These results show quantitatively that, with a moderate number of unitary recordings from the hippocampus, the MIMO non-linear dynamical model is able to extract and restore spatial memory information for the formation of long-term memories and thus can serve as the computational basis of the hippocampal memory prosthesis. PMID

  3. Non-Linear Analysis of Mode II Fracture in the end Notched Flexure Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizov, V.

    2016-03-01

    Analysis is carried-out of fracture in the End Notched Flex- ure (ENF) beam configuration, taking into account the material nonlin- earity. For this purpose, the J-integral approach is applied. A non-linear model, based on the Classical beam theory is used. The mechanical be- haviour of the ENF configuration is described by the Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain curve. It is assumed that the material possesses the same properties in tension and compression. The influence is evaluated of the material constants in the Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain equation on the fracture behaviour. The effect of the crack length on the J-integral value is investigated, too. The analytical approach, developed in the present paper, is very useful for parametric analyses, since the simple formulae obtained capture the essentials of the non-linear fracture in the ENF con- figuration.

  4. Non-linear dynamics of human periodic breathing and implications for sleep apnea therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, S M

    2007-04-01

    A mathematical model of non-obstructive human periodic breathing (Cheyne-Stokes respiration) or central sleep apnea (CSA) is described which focused on explaining recently reported non-linear behavior. Evidence was presented that CHF (chronic heart failure)-CSA and ICSA (idiopathic central sleep apnea) both involved limit cycle oscillations. The validity of applying linear control theory for stabilization must then be re-examined. Critical threshold values and ranges of parameters were predicted which caused a change (bifurcation) from limit cycle periodic breathing to stable breathing. Changes in lung volume were predicted to form a bifurcation during CHF-CSA where stability and instability can involve a lung volume change as small as 0.1 l. CSA therapy based on reducing control loop gain was predicted to be relatively ineffective during stable limit cycle oscillation. The relative ratios of durations of ventilation to apnea (T(v)/T(a)) during periodic breathing were primarily determined by peripheral chemoreceptor dynamics during crescendo, de-crescendo, and apnea phases of CSA.

  5. Observing (non)linear lattice dynamics in graphite by ultrafast Kikuchi diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenxi; Vanacore, Giovanni M.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    In materials, the nature of the strain–stress relationship, which is fundamental to their properties, is determined by both the linear and nonlinear elastic responses. Whereas the linear response can be measured by various techniques, the nonlinear behavior is nontrivial to probe and to reveal its nature. Here, we report the methodology of time-resolved Kikuchi diffraction for mapping the (non)linear elastic response of nanoscale graphite following an ultrafast, impulsive strain excitation. It is found that the longitudinal wave propagating along the c-axis exhibits echoes with a frequency of 9.1 GHz, which indicates the reflections of strain between the two surfaces of the material with a speed of ∼4 km/s. Because Kikuchi diffraction enables the probing of strain in the transverse direction, we also observed a higher-frequency mode at 75.5 GHz, which has a relatively long lifetime, on the order of milliseconds. The fluence dependence and the polarization properties of this nonlinear mode are entirely different from those of the linear, longitudinal mode, and here we suggest a localized breather motion in the a-b plane as the origin of the nonlinear shear dynamics. The approach presented in this contribution has the potential for a wide range of applications because most crystalline materials exhibit Kikuchi diffraction. PMID:24706785

  6. How does non-linear dynamics affect the baryon acoustic oscillation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-02-01

    We study the non-linear behavior of the baryon acoustic oscillation in the power spectrum and the correlation function by decomposing the dark matter perturbations into the short- and long-wavelength modes. The evolution of the dark matter fluctuations can be described as a global coordinate transformation caused by the long-wavelength displacement vector acting on short-wavelength matter perturbation undergoing non-linear growth. Using this feature, we investigate the well known cancellation of the high-k solutions in the standard perturbation theory. While the standard perturbation theory naturally satisfies the cancellation of the high-k solutions, some of the recently proposed improved perturbation theories do not guarantee the cancellation. We show that this cancellation clarifies the success of the standard perturbation theory at the 2-loop order in describing the amplitude of the non-linear power spectrum even at high-k regions. We propose an extension of the standard 2-loop level perturbation theory model of the non-linear power spectrum that more accurately models the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillation than the standard perturbation theory. The model consists of simple and intuitive parts: the non-linear evolution of the smoothed power spectrum without the baryon acoustic oscillations and the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillations due to the large-scale velocity of dark matter and due to the gravitational attraction between dark matter particles. Our extended model predicts the smoothing parameter of the baryon acoustic oscillation peak at z = 0.35 as ∼ 7.7Mpc/h and describes the small non-linear shift in the peak position due to the galaxy random motions.

  7. Non-linear analysis and calculation of the performance of a shelving protection system by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Nieto, P. J.; del Coz Díaz, J. J.; Vilán Vilán, J. A.; Suárez Sierra, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper consists on the study, analysis and calculation of the efficiency of a shelving protection system by means of the finite element method (FEM). These shelving protection systems are intended to prevent the eventual damage due to the impacts of transport elements in motion, such as: forklifts, dumpers, hand pallet trucks, and so on. The impact loads may threaten the structural integrity of the shelving system. The present structural problem is highly non-linear, due to the simultaneous presence of the following nonlinearities: material non-linearity (plasticity in this case), geometrical non-linearity (large displacements) and contact-type boundary conditions (between the rigid body and the protection system). A total of forty eight different FEM models are built varying the thickness of the steel plate (4, 5 and 6 mm), the impact height (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 meters) and the impact direction (head-on collision and side impact). Once the models are solved, the stress distribution, the overall displacements and the absorbed impact energy were calculated. In order to determine the best shelving protection's candidate, some constraints must be taken into account: the maximum allowable stress (235 MPa), the maximum displacement (0.05 m) and the absorbed impact energy (400 J according to the European Standard Rule PREN-15512). Finally, the most important results are shown and conclusions of this study are exposed.

  8. Multivariate meta-analysis for non-linear and other multi-parameter associations

    PubMed Central

    Gasparrini, A; Armstrong, B; Kenward, M G

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we formalize the application of multivariate meta-analysis and meta-regression to synthesize estimates of multi-parameter associations obtained from different studies. This modelling approach extends the standard two-stage analysis used to combine results across different sub-groups or populations. The most straightforward application is for the meta-analysis of non-linear relationships, described for example by regression coefficients of splines or other functions, but the methodology easily generalizes to any setting where complex associations are described by multiple correlated parameters. The modelling framework of multivariate meta-analysis is implemented in the package mvmeta within the statistical environment R. As an illustrative example, we propose a two-stage analysis for investigating the non-linear exposure–response relationship between temperature and non-accidental mortality using time-series data from multiple cities. Multivariate meta-analysis represents a useful analytical tool for studying complex associations through a two-stage procedure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22807043

  9. A non-linear dynamical approach to belief revision in cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kronemyer, David; Bystritsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a non-linear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic space, which can be represented as a phase plane comprising all of the brain's attentional, cognitive, affective and physiological resources. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point. A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another. In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated. Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three (and only three) fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones. Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action. PMID:24860491

  10. Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.

    2003-04-01

    Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.

  11. Comments on "arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Amit; Zambreno, Joseph; Mohapatra, Prasant

    2012-12-01

    Nagaraj et al. [1,2] present a skewed-non-linear generalized Luroth Series (s-nGLS) framework. S-nGLS uses non-linear maps for GLS to introduce a security parameter a which is used to build a keyspace for image or data encryption. The map introduces non-linearity to the system to add an "encryption key parameter". The skew is added to achieve optimal compression efficiency. s-nGLS used as such for joint encryption and compression is a weak candidate, as explained in this communication. First, we show how the framework is vulnerable to known plaintext based attacks and that a key of size 256 bits can be broken within 1000 trials. Next, we demonstrate that the proposed non-linearity exponentially increases the hardware complexity of design. We also discover that s-nGlS cannot be implemented as such for large bitstreams. Finally, we demonstrate how correlation of key parameter with compression performance leads to further key vulnerabilities.

  12. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  13. Non-linear dynamic analyses of 3D masonry structures by means of a homogenized rigid body and spring model (HRBSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele; Casolo, Siro

    2016-12-01

    A simple homogenized rigid body and spring model (HRBSM) is presented and applied for the non-linear dynamic analysis of 3D masonry structures. The approach, previously developed by the authors for the modeling of in-plane loaded walls is herein extended to real 3D buildings subjected to in- and out-of-plane deformation modes. The elementary cell is discretized by means of three-noded plane stress elements and non-linear interfaces. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are performed replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage (RBSM) by means of which both in and out of plane mechanisms are allowed. All the simulations here presented are performed using the commercial software Abaqus. In order to validate the proposed model for the analyses of full scale structures subjected to seismic actions, two different examples are critically discussed, namely a church façade and an in-scale masonry building, both subjected to dynamic excitation. The results obtained are compared with experimental or numerical results available in literature.

  14. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R(2) = 0 .99396.

  15. Bayesian analysis of non-linear differential equation models with application to a gut microbial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Daniel J; Holtrop, Grietje; Flint, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Process models specified by non-linear dynamic differential equations contain many parameters, which often must be inferred from a limited amount of data. We discuss a hierarchical Bayesian approach combining data from multiple related experiments in a meaningful way, which permits more powerful inference than treating each experiment as independent. The approach is illustrated with a simulation study and example data from experiments replicating the aspects of the human gut microbial ecosystem. A predictive model is obtained that contains prediction uncertainty caused by uncertainty in the parameters, and we extend the model to capture situations of interest that cannot easily be studied experimentally. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Non-linear canonical correlation for joint analysis of MEG signals from two subjects.

    PubMed

    Campi, Cristina; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2013-01-01

    Traditional stimulus-based analysis methods of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data are often dissatisfactory when applied to naturalistic experiments where two or more subjects are measured either simultaneously or sequentially. To uncover the commonalities in the brain activity of the two subjects, we propose a method that searches for linear transformations that output maximally correlated signals between the two brains. Our method is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which provides linear transformations, one for each subject, such that the temporal correlation between the transformed MEG signals is maximized. Here, we present a non-linear version of CCA which measures the correlation of energies and allows for a variable delay between the time series to accommodate, e.g., leader-follower changes. We test the method with simulations and with MEG data from subjects who received the same naturalistic stimulus sequence. The method may help analyse future experiments where the two subjects are measured simultaneously while engaged in social interaction.

  17. Non-linear EEG analysis in children with epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES).

    PubMed

    Ferri, R; Elia, M; Musumeci, S A; Stam, C J

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study the non-linear aspects of electroencephalography (EEG) in children with epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES). In this study, we recorded the sleep EEG in 5 subjects with ESES (4 males and one female, aged 6.5-10 years) who were also mentally retarded and affected by cerebral palsy (3 subjects) and hydrocephalus (two subjects). The signals were sampled at 128Hz and stored on hard disk. All the subsequent computational steps were performed on EEG epochs (4096 data points) selected from wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) (with ESES) or REM sleep. The dynamic properties of the EEG were assessed by means of the non-linear cross prediction (NLCP) test which uses 3 different 'model' time series in order to predict non-linearly the original data set (Pred, Ama and Tir). Pred is a measure of the predictability of the time series and Ama and Tir are measures of asymmetry, indicating non-linear structure. Moreover, the correlation dimension (D2) was estimated by means of the algorithm by for the epochs showing non-linear nature. The NLCP test provided evidence of significant non-linear dynamics in all epochs of non-REM sleep, when ESES was evident. Only during this stage, the possible presence of low-dimensional chaos could also be suspected (average D2=4.02; range 3.16-6.21). EEG without ESES could not be distinguished from linearly filtered noise. The results of the present study seem to indicate that subjects with ESES show a profound modification of their EEG dynamics with the occurrence, during sleep, of long periods characterized by non-linear dynamics and, probably, low-dimensional chaotic structure able to modify in a substantial way their brain functioning during sleep.

  18. Non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of giant magnetostrictive film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z. W.; Zhang, W. D.; Xu, J.

    2014-03-01

    The non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of a giant magnetostrictive film (GMF) subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were studied. Non-linear differential items were introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the GMF, and the non-linear dynamic model of the GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The stochastic stability was analysed, and the probability density function was obtained. The condition of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and noise-induced chaotic response were determined, and the fractal boundary of the system's safe basin was provided. The reliability function was solved from the backward Kolmogorov equation, and an optimal control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that the system stability varies with the parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the process; the area of the safe basin decreases when the noise intensifies, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal; the system reliability improved through stochastic optimal control. Finally, the theoretical and numerical results were proved by experiments. The results are helpful in the engineering applications of GMF.

  19. Non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of giant magnetostrictive film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. W.; Zhang, W. D. Xu, J.

    2014-03-15

    The non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of a giant magnetostrictive film (GMF) subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were studied. Non-linear differential items were introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the GMF, and the non-linear dynamic model of the GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The stochastic stability was analysed, and the probability density function was obtained. The condition of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and noise-induced chaotic response were determined, and the fractal boundary of the system's safe basin was provided. The reliability function was solved from the backward Kolmogorov equation, and an optimal control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that the system stability varies with the parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the process; the area of the safe basin decreases when the noise intensifies, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal; the system reliability improved through stochastic optimal control. Finally, the theoretical and numerical results were proved by experiments. The results are helpful in the engineering applications of GMF.

  20. Three dimensional, non-linear, finite element analysis of compactable soil interaction with a hyperelastic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiroux, Robert Charles

    The objective of this research was to produce a three dimensional, non-linear, dynamic simulation of the interaction between a hyperelastic wheel rolling over compactable soil. The finite element models developed to produce the simulation utilized the ABAQUS/Explicit computer code. Within the simulation two separate bodies were modeled, the hyperelastic wheel and a compactable soil-bed. Interaction between the bodies was achieved by allowing them to come in contact but not to penetrate the contact surface. The simulation included dynamic loading of a hyperelastic, rubber tire in contact with compactable soil with an applied constant angular velocity or torque, including a tow load, applied to the wheel hub. The constraints on the wheel model produced a straight and curved path. In addition the simulation included a shear limit between the tire and soil allowing for the introduction of slip. Soil properties were simulated using the Drucker-Prager, Cap Plasticity model available within the ABAQUS/Explicit program. Numerical results obtained from the three dimensional model were compared with related experimental data and showed good correlation for similar conditions. Numerical and experimental data compared well for both stress and wheel rut formation depth under a weight of 5.8 kN and a constant angular velocity applied to the wheel hub. The simulation results provided a demonstration of the benefit of three-dimensional simulation in comparison to previous two-dimensional, plane strain simulations.

  1. Non-linear Dynamics Of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, M; Crocker, N A; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; Heidbrink, W W; Kubota, S; LeBlanc, B P

    2011-04-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]) routinely operates with neutral beam injection as the primary system for heating and current drive. The resulting fast ion population is super-Alfv enic, with velocities 1 < vfast=vAlfven < 5. This provides a strong drive for toroidicity-induced Alfv en eigenmodes (TAEs). As the discharge evolves, the fast ion population builds up and TAEs exhibit increasing bursts in amplitude and down-chirps in frequency, which eventually lead to a so-called TAE avalanche. Avalanches cause large (≤ 30%) fast ion losses over ~ 1 ms, as inferred from the neutron rate. The increased fast ion losses correlate with a stronger activity in the TAE band. In addition, it is shown that a n = 1 mode with frequency well below the TAE gap appears in the Fourier spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as a result of non-linear mode coupling between TAEs during avalanche events. The non-linear coupling between modes, which leads to enhanced fast ion transport during avalanches, is investigated.

  2. Helical waves and non-linear dynamics of fluid/structure interactions in a tube row

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, F.C.; Thothadri, M.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study has been to investigate low-dimensional models for fluid-structure dynamics of flow across a row of cylindrical tubes. Four principle results of this experimental-theoretical study are discussed. (i) Experimental evidence has shown that the dynamic instability of the tube row is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. (ii) The critical flow velocity decreases as the number of flexible cylinders increases. (iii) The linear model exhibits coupled helical wave solutions in the tube dynamics. (iv) A nonlinear model of the tube motions shows a complex subcritical Hopf bifurcation with a secondary bifurcation to a torus or quasi-periodic oscillation. In this analysis the tools of center manifolds, normal forms and numerical simulation are used.

  3. Applying Differential Transforms and ADER to Multi-Dimensional Atmospheric Transport and Non-Linear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Differential Transforms (DTs), a core component of so-called "automatic" or "algorithmic" differentiation, offer significant flexibility and efficiency to any numerical method. The i-th and j-th DT, U(i,j), of a function, u(x,y), is simply U(i,j)=1/(i!j!)*∂(i+j)u/∂xi∂yj. Being a term in the Taylor series of u(x,y) makes the reverse transform trivial. This relation also computes initial DTs from known spatial derivatives. What is novel about DTs is how they simplify a complex PDE system, transforming most arithmetic, trigonometric, and other operators into simple recurrence relations in derivative space. This allows one to simply and quickly compute analytical derivatives of highly complex and non-linear functions. Consider a pseudo-conservation law system, u(x)t+f(u,x)x=s(u,x), for instance. The fluxes and source terms could be (and often are) highly complex, non-linear functions of the state vector and independent variables. Regardless of the spatial discretization (variational / finite-element, weak / finite-volume, or strong / finite-difference), one nearly always must resort to tensored quadrature to evaluate face fluxes and body source terms, and this treatment is expensive. However, if one uses DTs to analytically compute spatial derivatives of the flux and source terms, given spatial derivatives of u, then the fluxes and source terms are directly expanded as polynomials, allowing for significantly cheaper, quadrature-free integration, sampling, and differentiation with a single dot product. Besides being simpler, this also allows flexibility for Galerkin methods in particular to analytically and cheaply compute body integrals, which are often approximated inexactly with quadrature. Computing Nth-order DTs in D dimensions is of O(D2*N) complexity, and whether for transport or non-linear compressible Euler equations, they are cheaper to compute and integrate analytically than quadrature. Further, because time-dependent PDE systems relate spatial

  4. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA) models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Results Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC) models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Conclusions Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task. PMID:21867520

  5. Non-linear quantum-classical scheme to simulate non-equilibrium strongly correlated fermionic many-body dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kreula, J. M.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a non-linear, hybrid quantum-classical scheme for simulating non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated fermions described by the Hubbard model in a Bethe lattice in the thermodynamic limit. Our scheme implements non-equilibrium dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) and uses a digital quantum simulator to solve a quantum impurity problem whose parameters are iterated to self-consistency via a classically computed feedback loop where quantum gate errors can be partly accounted for. We analyse the performance of the scheme in an example case. PMID:27609673

  6. Linear and non-linear deflection analysis of thick rectangular plates. 2: Numerical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencharif, N.; Ng, S. F.

    1994-03-01

    Variational methods are widely used for the solution of complex differential equations in mechanics for which exact solutions are not possible. The finite difference method, although well known as an efficient numerical method, was applied in the past only for the analysis of linear and non-linear thin plates. In this paper the suitability of the method for the analysis of non-linear deflection of thick plates is studied for the first time. While there are major differences between small deflection and large deflection plate theories, the former can be treated as a particular case of the latter, when the centre deflection of the plate is less than or equal to 0.2-0.25 of the thickness of the plate. The finite difference method as applied here is a modified finite difference approach to the ordinary finite difference method generally used for the solution of thin plate problems. In this analysis thin plates are treated as a particular case of the corresponding thick plate when the boundary conditions of the plates are taken into account. The method is first applied to investigate the deflection behaviour of clamped and simply supported square isotropic thick plates. After the validity of the method is established, it is then extended to the solution of rectangular thick plates of various aspect ratios and thicknesses. Generally, beginning with the use of a limited number of mesh sizes for a given plate aspect ratio and boundary conditions, a general solution of the problem including the investigation of accuracy and convergence was extended to rectangular thick plates by providing more detailed functions satisfying the rectangular mesh sizes generated automatically by the program. Whenever possible results obtained by the present method are compared with existing solutions in the technical literature obtained by much more laborious methods and close agreements are found. The significant number of results presented here are not currently available in the technical

  7. Applying non-linear dynamics to atrial appendage flow data to understand and characterize atrial arrhythmia

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Grimm, R.A.; Katz, R.; Thomas, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand and characterize left atrial appendage flow in atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation and flutter are the most common cardiac arrhythmias affecting 15% of the older population. The pulsed Doppler velocity profile data was recorded from the left atrial appendage of patients using transesophageal echocardiography. The data was analyzed using Fourier analysis and nonlinear dynamical tools. Fourier analysis showed that appendage mechanical frequency ({ital f{sub f}}) for patients in sinus rhythm was always lower (around1 Hz) than that in atrial fibrillation (5-8 Hz). Among patients with atrial fibrillation spectral power below {ital f{sub f}} was significantly different suggesting variability within this group of patients. Results that suggested the presence of nonlinear dynamics were: a) the existence of two arbitrary peak frequencies {ital f{sub 1}, f{sub 2}}, and other peak frequencies as linear combinations thereof ({ital mf{sub 1}{+-}nf{sub 2}}), and b) the similarity between the spectrum of patient data and that obtained using the Lorenz equation. Nonlinear analysis tools, including Phase plots and differential radial plots, were also generated from the velocity data using a delay of 10. In the phase plots, some patients displayed a torus-like structure, while others had a more random-like pattern. In the differential radial plots, the first set of patients (with torus-like phase plots) showed fewer values crossing an arbitrary threshold of 10 than did the second set (8 vs. 27 in one typical example). The outcome of cardioversion was different for these two set of patients. Fourier analysis helped to: differentiate between sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation, understand the characteristics of the wide range of atrial fibrillation patients, and provide hints that atrial fibrillation could be a nonlinear process. Nonlinear dynamical tools helped to further characterize and sub-classify atrial fibrillation.

  8. The behaviour of PM10 and ozone in Malaysia through non-linear dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sapini, Muhamad Luqman; Rahim, Nurul Zahirah binti Abd; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md.

    2015-10-22

    Prediction of ozone (O3) and PM10 is very important as both these air pollutants affect human health, human activities and more. Short-term forecasting of air quality is needed as preventive measures and effective action can be taken. Therefore, if it is detected that the ozone data is of a chaotic dynamical systems, a model using the nonlinear dynamic from chaos theory data can be made and thus forecasts for the short term would be more accurate. This study uses two methods, namely the 0-1 Test and Lyapunov Exponent. In addition, the effect of noise reduction on the analysis of time series data will be seen by using two smoothing methods: Rectangular methods and Triangle methods. At the end of the study, recommendations were made to get better results in the future.

  9. The behaviour of PM10 and ozone in Malaysia through non-linear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapini, Muhamad Luqman; Rahim, Nurul Zahirah binti Abd; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md.

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of ozone (O3) and PM10 is very important as both these air pollutants affect human health, human activities and more. Short-term forecasting of air quality is needed as preventive measures and effective action can be taken. Therefore, if it is detected that the ozone data is of a chaotic dynamical systems, a model using the nonlinear dynamic from chaos theory data can be made and thus forecasts for the short term would be more accurate. This study uses two methods, namely the 0-1 Test and Lyapunov Exponent. In addition, the effect of noise reduction on the analysis of time series data will be seen by using two smoothing methods: Rectangular methods and Triangle methods. At the end of the study, recommendations were made to get better results in the future.

  10. Turning the tide or riding the waves? Impacts of antibiotic stewardship and infection control on MRSA strain dynamics in a Scottish region over 16 years: non-linear time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawes, Timothy; López-Lozano, José-María; Nebot, César; Macartney, Gillian; Subbarao-Sharma, Rashmi; Dare, Ceri R J; Edwards, Giles F S; Gould, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore temporal associations between planned antibiotic stewardship and infection control interventions and the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Design Retrospective ecological study and time-series analysis integrating typing data from the Scottish MRSA reference laboratory. Setting Regional hospital and primary care in a Scottish Health Board. Participants General adult (N=1 051 993) or intensive care (18 235) admissions and primary care registrations (460 000 inhabitants) between January 1997 and December 2012. Interventions Hand-hygiene campaign; MRSA admission screening; antibiotic stewardship limiting use of macrolides and ‘4Cs’ (cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones). Outcome measures Prevalence density of MRSA clonal complexes CC22, CC30 and CC5/Other in hospital (isolates/1000 occupied bed days, OBDs) and community (isolates/10 000 inhabitant-days). Results 67% of all clinical MRSA isolates (10 707/15 947) were typed. Regional MRSA population structure was dominated by hospital epidemic strains CC30, CC22 and CC45. Following declines in overall MRSA prevalence density, CC5 and other strains of community origin became increasingly important. Reductions in use of ‘4Cs’ and macrolides anticipated declines in sublineages with higher levels of associated resistances. In multivariate time-series models (R2=0.63–0.94) introduction of the hand-hygiene campaign, reductions in mean length of stay (when >4 days) and bed occupancy (when >74 to 78%) predicted declines in CC22 and CC30, but not CC5/other strains. Lower importation pressures, expanded MRSA admission screening, and reductions in macrolide and third generation cephalosporin use (thresholds for association: 135–141, and 48–81 defined daily doses/1000 OBDs, respectively) were followed by declines in all clonal complexes. Strain-specific associations with fluoroquinolones and clindamycin reflected

  11. Turning the tide or riding the waves? Impacts of antibiotic stewardship and infection control on MRSA strain dynamics in a Scottish region over 16 years: non-linear time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Timothy; López-Lozano, José-María; Nebot, César; Macartney, Gillian; Subbarao-Sharma, Rashmi; Dare, Ceri R J; Edwards, Giles F S; Gould, Ian M

    2015-03-26

    To explore temporal associations between planned antibiotic stewardship and infection control interventions and the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective ecological study and time-series analysis integrating typing data from the Scottish MRSA reference laboratory. Regional hospital and primary care in a Scottish Health Board. General adult (N=1,051,993) or intensive care (18,235) admissions and primary care registrations (460,000 inhabitants) between January 1997 and December 2012. Hand-hygiene campaign; MRSA admission screening; antibiotic stewardship limiting use of macrolides and '4Cs' (cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones). Prevalence density of MRSA clonal complexes CC22, CC30 and CC5/Other in hospital (isolates/1000 occupied bed days, OBDs) and community (isolates/10,000 inhabitant-days). 67% of all clinical MRSA isolates (10,707/15,947) were typed. Regional MRSA population structure was dominated by hospital epidemic strains CC30, CC22 and CC45. Following declines in overall MRSA prevalence density, CC5 and other strains of community origin became increasingly important. Reductions in use of '4Cs' and macrolides anticipated declines in sublineages with higher levels of associated resistances. In multivariate time-series models (R(2)=0.63-0.94) introduction of the hand-hygiene campaign, reductions in mean length of stay (when >4 days) and bed occupancy (when >74 to 78%) predicted declines in CC22 and CC30, but not CC5/other strains. Lower importation pressures, expanded MRSA admission screening, and reductions in macrolide and third generation cephalosporin use (thresholds for association: 135-141, and 48-81 defined daily doses/1000 OBDs, respectively) were followed by declines in all clonal complexes. Strain-specific associations with fluoroquinolones and clindamycin reflected resistance phenotypes of clonal complexes. Infection control measures and changes in population

  12. Dynamics of Non-Linear Optical Systems - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesquera, L.; Bermejo, F. J.

    1989-04-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Invited Lectures * An Overview of Optical Instabilities and Chaos and an Introduction to some Models and Current Areas of Research in Laser Instabilities * Dynamical Instabilities, Noise-driven Systems and Squeezing: Links, Overlaps and Common Ground * The Production of Bright Squeezed Light by Cooperative Fluorescence in a Cavity * Thermofields, Quantum Correlations and Squeezing * Phase in Quantum Optics * Dynamics of Passive Nonlinear Optical Systems * Atomic Processes in the Dynamics of Passive Nonlinear Optical Systems * Phase Instability and Squeezing in Two-Photon Optical Bistability * Kuramoto-Sivashinski Equation for the Laser * Contributed Lectures * Modelling of Coherently Pumped Laser Instabilities * NH3-lasers and the Lorenz Model * Frequency Locking of Two Transverse Optical Modes of a Laser * Dynamical Instabilities in Opto-Thermal Bistable Systems with Localized Absorption * Multimode Thermofields; Quantum Correlations in Optical Fields * Two-Photon Absorption of Nonclassical Light * Output Properties of Nondegenerate Parametric Amplifiers * Phase Space Dynamics of Quantized Modes in the Parametric Oscillator: Quasiprobability Distributions in Quadrature Amplitudes * Nonlinear Response of an Ionizing Atom to a very Intense Laser * Influence of Beam Structure and Statistics in Two and Three Wave Mixing * Fluctuations and Symmetry Restoring in the Turing Optical Instability * Scaling Theory for Relaxation near Marginality in Optical Bistability * Anomalous Fluctuations in Optical Bistable Systems * Statistical Properties of Gas Ring Lasers with Backscattering * Gain Noise in Dye Lasers: Intensity Fluctuations and Correlation Functions * What is a Photon? * Gaussian Pure States in Quantum Optics * Analysis of Nonlinear Optical System Composed by Two Amplifying Sections with Different Saturation Parameters * Optical Pulse Propagation in a Semiconductor Medium * List of Participants

  13. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XX. Third harmonic experiments of non-linear dielectric effects versus a phenomenological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pyeongeun; Young-Gonzales, Amanda R.; Richert, Ranko

    2016-08-01

    We have re-measured the third harmonic non-linear dielectric response of supercooled glycerol using zero-bias sinusoidal electric fields, with the aim of comparing the resulting susceptibilities with a phenomenological model of non-linear dielectric responses. In the absence of known chemical effects in this liquid, the present model accounts for three sources of non-linear behavior: dielectric saturation, field induced entropy reduction, and energy absorption from the time dependent field. Using parameters obtained from static high field results, the present model reproduces the characteristic features observed in the third harmonic susceptibility spectra: a low frequency plateau originating from dielectric saturation and a peak positioned below the loss peak frequency whose amplitude increases with decreasing temperature. Semi-quantitative agreement is achieved between experiment and the present model, which does not involve spatial scales or dynamical correlations explicitly. By calculating the three contributions separately, the model reveals that the entropy effect is the main source of the "hump" feature of this third harmonic response.

  14. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Valente, Marco

    2015-12-31

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/− and Y+/− directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  15. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Valente, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/- and Y+/- directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  16. Non-linear programming in shakedown analysis with plasticity and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, A.; Terzano, M.; Barber, J. R.; Klarbring, A.

    2017-07-01

    Complete frictional contacts, when subjected to cyclic loading, may sometimes develop a favourable situation where slip ceases after a few cycles, an occurrence commonly known as frictional shakedown. Its resemblance to shakedown in plasticity has prompted scholars to apply direct methods, derived from the classical theorems of limit analysis, in order to assess a safe limit to the external loads applied on the system. In circumstances where zones of plastic deformation develop in the material (e.g., because of the large stress concentrations near the sharp edges of a complete contact), it is reasonable to expect an effect of mutual interaction of frictional slip and plastic strains on the load limit below which the global behaviour is non dissipative, i.e., both slip and plastic strains go to zero after some dissipative load cycles. In this paper, shakedown of general two-dimensional discrete systems, involving both friction and plasticity, is discussed and the shakedown limit load is calculated using a non-linear programming algorithm based on the static theorem of limit analysis. An illustrative example related to an elastic-plastic solid containing a frictional crack is provided.

  17. Non-linear dynamics of the wall touching kink mode and Hiro current simulation with DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. A.; Svidzinski, V. A.; Evstatiev, E. G.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2011-10-01

    The Disruption Simulation Code (DSC) was initially implemented in 2D (single helicity) with all basic MHD components of the full 3D version. It performs adaptive, meshless free-boundary ideal one-fluid MHD simulations of plasma separated from conducting in-vessel structures by a vacuum region. Vacuum fields, the plasma surface and wall currents are calculated using both Green's functions and Poisson equation methods. Two non-linear regimes of the wall touching kink mode were simulated for the first time: (a) a fast ideal MHD regime till the saturation due to excitation of the Hiro currents in a tile covered plasma facing surface, and (b) a slower regime of the current quench due to resistive decay of the Hiro currents. Corresponding sideways forces applied to the plasma facing components and to the vacuum vessel were calculated. Progress on the 3D DSC extension of ideal one fluid MHD is presented. Implementation of the full 3D resistive MHD will be outlined. Together with realistic wall model this will enable DSC to address the MHD issues of the entire disruption problem and to move forward for understanding opportunities for mitigation and prediction of disruptions in ITER. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant.

  18. Analysis of non linear land subsidence in Mexico city lacustrine plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Quiroz, P.; Doin, M.; Carreon-Freyre, D.; Cerca, M.

    2012-12-01

    Mexico city, one of the biggest cities in the world, faces a subsidence problem mostly caused by heavy groundwater extraction from its aquifer. To monitor subsidence, from 2002 to 2007, we developed time series using InSAR and the Small Baseline interferograms (SBAS) approach. Results showed that subsidence rates can reach up to 40 cm/yr and that most of the subsidence in Mexico city's plain can be explained almost perfectly using a linear model. In fact, most of the previous studies focus mainly on linear subsidence processes. However, we detected some areas distributed on the plain showing two clear patterns of non-linear behavior: acceleration and deceleration. The spatial and temporal distribution of these areas can be related with geological features and rates of groundwater withdrawal taking place in the surrounding areas. In this work, results are presented over an area of the most populated district of the city where subsidence velocity appears to be increasing rapidly. The phenomenon is analyzed through the integration of InSAR results with different field monitoring techniques including Ground Penetrating Radar and geomechanical analysis in selected points.

  19. Motor variability in sports: a non-linear analysis of race walking.

    PubMed

    Preatoni, Ezio; Ferrario, Manuela; Donà, Giulia; Hamill, Joseph; Rodano, Renato

    2010-10-01

    This aim of this study was to analyse the nature of movement variability and to assess whether entropy measures may represent a valuable synthetic index of neuromuscular organization. The regularity of kinematic/kinetic time series during race walking, the changes in the structure of intra-individual variability over the test session, and the influence of athletic skill in (inter)national rank athletes were investigated. Motion analysis techniques were used. Sample entropy (SampEn) was adopted to examine fluctuations in lower limb angles and ground reaction forces. The regularity of both original and surrogate time series was assessed and compared, by estimating SampEn, to verify the presence of non-linear features in movement variability. SampEn was statistically lower in the original data than in surrogates. In contrast, the regularity of time series did not change significantly throughout the subsequent intra-individual repetitions. Hip and ankle joint angles and vertical ground reaction force manifested increased entropy for skilled athletes. Results suggest that race walking variability was not only the product of random noise but also contained information about the inherent propriety of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Furthermore, they provide some indications about neuromuscular control of the lower limb joints during race walking gait, and about the differences between more and less skilled individuals.

  20. Analysis of non-linear response of the human body to vertical whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Tarabini, Marco; Solbiati, Stefano; Moschioni, Giovanni; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The human response to vibration is typically studied using linear estimators of the frequency response function, although different literature works evidenced the presence of non-linear effects in whole-body vibration response. This paper analyses the apparent mass of standing subjects using the conditioned response techniques in order to understand the causes of the non-linear behaviour. The conditioned apparent masses were derived considering models of increasing complexity. The multiple coherence function was used as a figure of merit for the comparison between the linear and the non-linear models. The apparent mass of eight male subjects was studied in six configurations (combinations of three vibration magnitudes and two postures). The contribution of the non-linear terms was negligible and was endorsed to the change of modal parameters during the test. Since the effect of the inter-subject variability was larger than that due to the increase in vibration magnitude, the biodynamic response should be more meaningfully modelled using a linear estimator with uncertainty rather than looking for a non-linear modelling.

  1. Modeling and analysis of aircraft non-linear components for harmonics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, K.J.; Voss, J.

    1995-12-31

    Modern commercial aircraft Electric Power Systems (EPS) include many nonlinear components which produce harmonics. The addition of all the current harmonics could result in a power system with unacceptable levels of voltage distortion. It is important to be able to predict the levels of voltage distortion at early program stages to correct any potential problems and avoid costly redesigns. In this paper the nature and sources of harmonic producing equipment are described. These sources of harmonics and their effect on aircraft power system operation are described. Models for various aircraft non-linear components are developed in this paper. These component models are used in a model of the Boeing 777 EPS which is used to calculate voltage harmonics for various airplane configurations and flight conditions. A description of this model and the models used for various components are given. Tests performed to validate these models are described. Comparison of experimental results with analytical model predictions are given.

  2. Influence of shear in the non-linear analysis of RC members

    SciTech Connect

    Diotallevi, Pier Paolo; Landi, Luca; Cardinetti, Filippo

    2008-07-08

    The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model characterized by a beam-column finite element which is able to reproduce the non-linear flexural-shear behavior of RC structures. The paper shows a brief description of the finite element formulation, the theory used for modeling the constitutive relationship and the scheme of the algorithm, transformed in a computer program, which was developed for implementing the theoretical model. Finally it illustrates a comparison with available experimental results for the calibration and validation of the model and a study on the influence of the non-linear shear response.

  3. Transonic and Low-Supersonic Aeroelastic Analysis of a Two-Degree Airfoil with a Freeplay Non-Linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, DONG-HYUN; LEE, IN

    2000-07-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom airfoil with a freeplay non-linearity in the pitch and plunge directions has been analyzed in the transonic and low-supersonic flow region, where aerodynamic non-linearities also exist. The primary purpose of this study is to show aeroelastic characteristics due to freeplay structural non-linearity in the transonic and low-supersonic regions. The unsteady aerodynamic forces on the airfoil were evaluated using two-dimensional unsteady Euler code, and the resulting aeroelastic equations are numerically integrated to obtain the aeroelastic time responses of the airfoil motions and to investigate the dynamic instability. The present model has been considered as a simple aeroelastic model, which is equivalent to the folding fin of an advanced generic missile. From the results of the present study, characteristics of important vibration responses and aeroelastic instabilities can be observed in the transonic and supersonic regions, especially considering the effect of structural non-linearity in the pitch and plunge directions. The regions of limit-cycle oscillation are shown at much lower velocities, especially in the supersonic flow region, than the divergent flutter velocities of the linear structure model. It is also shown that even small freeplay angles can lead to severe dynamic instabilities and dangerous fatigue conditions for the flight vehicle wings and control fins.

  4. Cold gas in cluster cores: global stability analysis and non-linear simulations of thermal instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Prakriti Pal; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-04-01

    We perform global linear stability analysis and idealized numerical simulations in global thermal balance to understand the condensation of cold gas from hot/virial atmospheres (coronae), in particular the intracluster medium (ICM). We pay particular attention to geometry (e.g. spherical versus plane-parallel) and the nature of the gravitational potential. Global linear analysis gives a similar value for the fastest growing thermal instability modes in spherical and Cartesian geometries. Simulations and observations suggest that cooling in haloes critically depends on the ratio of the cooling time to the free-fall time (tcool/tff). Extended cold gas condenses out of the ICM only if this ratio is smaller than a threshold value close to 10. Previous works highlighted the difference between the nature of cold gas condensation in spherical and plane-parallel atmospheres; namely, cold gas condensation appeared easier in spherical atmospheres. This apparent difference due to geometry arises because the previous plane-parallel simulations focused on in situ condensation of multiphase gas but spherical simulations studied condensation anywhere in the box. Unlike previous claims, our non-linear simulations show that there are only minor differences in cold gas condensation, either in situ or anywhere, for different geometries. The amount of cold gas depends on the shape of tcool/tff; gas has more time to condense if gravitational acceleration decreases towards the centre. In our idealized plane-parallel simulations with heating balancing cooling in each layer, there can be significant mass/energy/momentum transfer across layers that can trigger condensation and drive tcool/tff far beyond the critical value close to 10.

  5. Discriminative analysis of non-linear brain connectivity for leukoaraiosis with resting-state fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Youzhi; Xu, Lele; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2015-03-01

    Leukoaraiosis (LA) describes diffuse white matter abnormalities on CT or MR brain scans, often seen in the normal elderly and in association with vascular risk factors such as hypertension, or in the context of cognitive impairment. The mechanism of cognitive dysfunction is still unclear. The recent clinical studies have revealed that the severity of LA was not corresponding to the cognitive level, and functional connectivity analysis is an appropriate method to detect the relation between LA and cognitive decline. However, existing functional connectivity analyses of LA have been mostly limited to linear associations. In this investigation, a novel measure utilizing the extended maximal information coefficient (eMIC) was applied to construct non-linear functional connectivity in 44 LA subjects (9 dementia, 25 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 10 cognitively normal (CN)). The strength of non-linear functional connections for the first 1% of discriminative power increased in MCI compared with CN and dementia, which was opposed to its linear counterpart. Further functional network analysis revealed that the changes of the non-linear and linear connectivity have similar but not completely the same spatial distribution in human brain. In the multivariate pattern analysis with multiple classifiers, the non-linear functional connectivity mostly identified dementia, MCI and CN from LA with a relatively higher accuracy rate than the linear measure. Our findings revealed the non-linear functional connectivity provided useful discriminative power in classification of LA, and the spatial distributed changes between the non-linear and linear measure may indicate the underlying mechanism of cognitive dysfunction in LA.

  6. Identifiability of large-scale non-linear dynamic network models applied to the ADM1-case study.

    PubMed

    Nimmegeers, Philippe; Lauwers, Joost; Telen, Dries; Logist, Filip; Impe, Jan Van

    2017-06-01

    In this work, both the structural and practical identifiability of the Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1 (ADM1) is investigated, which serves as a relevant case study of large non-linear dynamic network models. The structural identifiability is investigated using the probabilistic algorithm, adapted to deal with the specifics of the case study (i.e., a large-scale non-linear dynamic system of differential and algebraic equations). The practical identifiability is analyzed using a Monte Carlo parameter estimation procedure for a 'non-informative' and 'informative' experiment, which are heuristically designed. The model structure of ADM1 has been modified by replacing parameters by parameter combinations, to provide a generally locally structurally identifiable version of ADM1. This means that in an idealized theoretical situation, the parameters can be estimated accurately. Furthermore, the generally positive structural identifiability results can be explained from the large number of interconnections between the states in the network structure. This interconnectivity, however, is also observed in the parameter estimates, making uncorrelated parameter estimations in practice difficult. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Transverse beam dynamics in non-linear Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Haj, Tahar M.; Meot, F.

    2016-03-02

    In this paper, we present some aspects of the transverse beam dynamics in Fixed Field Ring Accelerators (FFRA): we start from the basic principles in order to derive the linearized transverse particle equations of motion for FFRA, essentially FFAGs and cyclotrons are considered here. This is a simple extension of a previous work valid for linear lattices that we generalized by including the bending terms to ensure its correctness for FFAG lattice. The space charge term (contribution of the internal coulombian forces of the beam) is contained as well, although it is not discussed here. The emphasis is on the scaling FFAG type: a collaboration work is undertaken in view of better understanding the properties of the 150 MeV scaling FFAG at KURRI in Japan, and progress towards high intensity operation. Some results of the benchmarking work between different codes are presented. Analysis of certain type of field imperfections revealed some interesting features about this machine that explain some of the experimental results and generalize the concept of a scaling FFAG to a non-scaling one for which the tune variations obey a well-defined law.

  8. Gain optimization with non-linear controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, G. L.; Kandadai, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for the analysis and design of controls for non-linear systems. The technical approach is to use statistical linearization to model the non-linear dynamics of a system by a quasi-Gaussian model. A covariance analysis is performed to determine the behavior of the dynamical system and a quadratic cost function. Expressions for the cost function and its derivatives are determined so that numerical optimization techniques can be applied to determine optimal feedback laws. The primary application for this paper is centered about the design of controls for nominally linear systems but where the controls are saturated or limited by fixed constraints. The analysis is general, however, and numerical computation requires only that the specific non-linearity be considered in the analysis.

  9. Storage Dynamics and Non-Linear Connectivity between Landscape Units Control Runoff Generation and Stream Water Age Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the influence of storage dynamics and non-linearities in hydrological connectivity on runoff generation and stream water ages, using a long-term record of daily isotopes in precipitation and stream flow. These were used to test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model for a Scottish catchment. The model tracks tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores representing steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands and deeper groundwater (i.e. the main landscape units involved in runoff generation). Storage is largest in groundwater and on the steep hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in smaller stores in the riparian peat. The model also couples the ecohydrological effects of different vegetation communities in contrasting landscape units, by estimating evaporation, resulting moisture deficits and the ages of evaporated waters, which also affect the generation and age of runoff. Both stream flow and isotope variations are well-captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts the mean age of runoff as ~1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies from ~1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the riparian peatland dominate, to around 4 years in dry periods, when groundwater sustains flow. Hydrological connectivity between the units varies non-linearly with storage which depends upon antecedent conditions and event characteristics. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting non-stationary ages. Improving the representation of storage dynamics and quantifying the ages of water fluxes in such models gives a more complete conceptualisation of the importance of the soil water fluxes in critical zone processes and a framework for tracking diffuse pollutants in water quality assessment.

  10. Non-linear astrophysical fluid dynamics; Proceedings of the Fifth Florida Workshop in Non-Linear Astronomy, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Oct. 5-7, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T. )

    1990-12-01

    Recent advances in nonlinear analytical and numerical approaches to astrophysical problems are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include the hot bubble and SN calculations, thermonuclear ignition and runaway in type Ia SN, chaotic pulsations in stellar models, classical Cepheid pulsations, bifurcation and unfolding in systems with two time-scales, and discrete map simulations of nonlinear pulsations. Consideration is given to the extended atmospheres of pulsating stars, nonlinear MHD models of astrophysical winds, hydrodynamical simulations of collisions between interstellar clouds, stellar and Jovian vortices, the fluid dynamics of astrophysical jets, and the simulation and visualization of compressible convection in two and three dimensions.

  11. Analysis and Evaluation of Technical Data on the Photochromic and Non-Linear Optical Properties of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-25

    t ,, A FILE C’D AD-A2 23 855 Sixth Quarterly Technical Report Analysis and Evaluation of Technical Data on the Photochromic and Non-Linear Optical...the back surface of a transparent support and place an absorbing beam dump behind and at an angle to that of the reflective coating . In this

  12. Exact Adjustment of Dynamic Forces in Presence of Non-Linear Feedback and SINGULARITY—THEORY and Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, I.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes the theory and algorithm allowing one to tune a multi-exciter system in order to obtain specified temporal and spatial structural response properties. Considerable effort is being put upon the desire to overcome practical difficulties and limitations as found in real-world systems. The main application that was envisaged for this algorithm is the creation of travelling vibration waves in structures. Such waves may be useful in testing and diagnostic applications or in ultrasonic motors for generating motion. The proposed method adaptively modifies a set of perturbations applied to the model so that an increasing amount of information is extracted from the system. The algorithm strives to overcome the following difficulties: (a) singular model inversion, (b) poor signal to noise ratio, (c) feedback, and (d) certain types of non-linear behaviour. High response levels, exciter-structure coupling and the inherent feedback existing in electro-mechanical systems are demonstrated to cause singularity, poor signal to noise levels and, to some extent, non linear behaviour. These phenomena pose some difficulties under operating conditions commonly encountered during dynamic testing of structures. The tuning of the multi-shaker system is approached in this work, as a non-linear optimisation problem where insight into the physical behaviour is emphasised in choosing the algorithmic strategy. The system's unknown model is inverted in an implicit manner using an automatic orthogonal and adaptive search direction. This adaptation uses the measured responses and forces at each step in order to determine the direction of progression during the tuning process. The non-linear behaviour of the exciters is compensated, in this work, by identification of the high-order (Volterra-like) transfer functions. This high-order model is than inverted allowing one to create a signal that cancels the unwanted harmonics. The proposed approach is analytically shown to converge

  13. Linking point scale process non-linearity, catchment organization and linear system dynamics in a thermodynamic state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Erwin; Loritz, Ralf; Ehret, Uwe; Westhoff, Martijn; Kleidon, Axel; Savenije, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    It is flabbergasting to note that catchment systems often behave almost linearly, despite of the strong non-linearity of point scale soil water characteristics. In the present study we provide evidence that a thermodynamic treatment of environmental system dynamics is the key to understand how particularly a stronger spatial organization of catchments leads to a more linear rainfall runoff behavior. Our starting point is that water fluxes in a catchment are associated with fluxes of kinetic and potential energy while changes in subsurface water stocks go along with changes in potential energy and chemical energy of subsurface water. Steady state/local equilibrium of the entire system can be defined as a state of minimum free energy, reflecting an equilibrium subsurface water storage, which is determined catchment topography, soil water characteristics and water levels in the stream. Dynamics of the entire system, i.e. deviations from equilibrium storage, are 'pseudo' oscillations in a thermodynamic state space. Either to an excess potential energy in case of wetting while subsequent relaxation back to equilibrium requires drainage/water export. Or to an excess in capillary binding energy in case of driving, while relaxation back to equilibrium requires recharge of the subsurface water stock. While system dynamics is highly non-linear on the 'too dry branch' it is essentially linear on the 'too wet branch' in case of potential energy excess. A steepened topography, which reflects a stronger spatial organization, reduces the equilibrium storage of the catchment system to smaller values, thereby it increases the range of states where the systems behaves linearly due to an excess in potential energy. Contrarily to this a shift to finer textured soils increases the equilibrium storage, which implies that the range of states where the systems behaves linearly is reduced. In this context it is important to note that an increased internal organization of the system due to

  14. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.; Haven, E.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the interest of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call the decision functions is deduced by introducing a suitable Hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their environments, which are generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear idea for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The Hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same Hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  15. Linear to non linear analysis for positron acceleration in plasma hollow channel wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Ligia Diana; An, Weiming; Mori, Warren B.; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Plasma wakefield accelerators are promising candidates for future generation compact accelerators. The standard regime of operation, non-linear or blowout regime, is reached when a particle bunch space charge or laser pulse ponderomotive force radially expels plasma electrons forming a bucket of ions that defocus positron bunches, thus preventing their acceleration. To avoid defocusing, hollow plasma channels have been considered. The corresponding wakefields have been examined in the linear and non-linear excitation regimes for electrons. It is therefore important to extend the theory for positron acceleration, particularly in the nonlinear regime where the wakefields strongly differ. In this work we explore the wakefield structure, examine the differences between the electron and positron beam cases, and explore positron acceleration in nonlinear regimes. We support our findings with multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations performed with OSIRIS and quasi-3D and QuickPIC.

  16. Negative feedback regulation is responsible for the non-linear modulation of photosynthetic activity in plants and cyanobacteria exposed to a dynamic light environment.

    PubMed

    Nedbal, Ladislav; Brezina, Vítezslav; Adamec, Frantisek; Stys, Dalibor; Oja, Vello; Laisk, Agu; Govindjee

    2003-10-17

    Photosynthetic organisms exposed to a dynamic light environment exhibit complex transients of photosynthetic activities that are strongly dependent on the temporal pattern of the incident irradiance. In a harmonically modulated light of intensity I approximately const.+sin(omegat), chlorophyll fluorescence response consists of a steady-state component, a component modulated with the angular frequency of the irradiance omega and several upper harmonic components (2omega, 3omega and higher). Our earlier reverse engineering analysis suggests that the non-linear response can be caused by a negative feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Here, we present experimental evidence that the negative feedback regulation of the energetic coupling between phycobilisome and Photosystem II (PSII) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 indeed results in the appearance of upper harmonic modes in the chlorophyll fluorescence emission. Dynamic changes in the coupling of the phycobilisome to PSII are not accompanied by corresponding antiparallel changes in the Photosystem I (PSI) excitation, suggesting a regulation limited to PSII. Strong upper harmonic modes were also found in the kinetics of the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence, of the P700 redox state and of the CO(2) assimilation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) exposed to harmonically modulated light. They are ascribed to negative feedback regulation of the reactions of the Calvin-Benson cycle limiting the photosynthetic electron transport. We propose that the observed non-linear response of photosynthesis may also be relevant in a natural light environment that is modulated, e.g., by ocean waves, moving canopy or by varying cloud cover. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the non-linear photosynthetic response provides a new insight into dynamics of the regulatory processes.

  17. Finite element analysis of the non-linear vibrations of moderately thick unsymmetrically laminated composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gajbir; Venkateswara Rao, G.; Iyengar, N. G. R.

    1995-03-01

    The influence of finite amplitudes on the free flexural vibration response of moderately thick laminated plates is investigated. For this purpose, a simple higher order theory involving only four unknowns and satisfying the stress free conditions at the top and bottom surface of the composite plate is proposed. The proposed theory eliminates the use of shear correction factors which are otherwise required in Mindlin's plate theory. A rectangular four-node[formula]continuous finite element is developed based on this theory. The non-linear finite element equations are reduced to two non-linear ordinary differential equations governing the response of positive and negative deflection cycles. Direct numerical integration method is then employed to obtain the periods or non-linear frequencies. The finite element developed and the direct numerical integration method employed are validated for the case of isotropic rectangular plates. It is found that unsymmetrically laminated rectangular plates with hinged-hinged edge conditions oscillate with different amplitudes in the positive and negative deflection cycles. Furthermore, such plates would oscillate with a frequency less than the fundamental frequency for finite small amplitudes of oscillation. It is shown that this behaviour is strongly influenced by the boundary conditions. Results are presented for many configurations of composite plates.

  18. Reservoir computing and extreme learning machines for non-linear time-series data analysis.

    PubMed

    Butcher, J B; Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; Day, C R; Haycock, P W

    2013-02-01

    Random projection architectures such as Echo state networks (ESNs) and Extreme Learning Machines (ELMs) use a network containing a randomly connected hidden layer and train only the output weights, overcoming the problems associated with the complex and computationally demanding training algorithms traditionally used to train neural networks, particularly recurrent neural networks. In this study an ESN is shown to contain an antagonistic trade-off between the amount of non-linear mapping and short-term memory it can exhibit when applied to time-series data which are highly non-linear. To overcome this trade-off a new architecture, Reservoir with Random Static Projections (R(2)SP) is investigated, that is shown to offer a significant improvement in performance. A similar approach using an ELM whose input is presented through a time delay (TD-ELM) is shown to further enhance performance where it significantly outperformed the ESN and R(2)SP as well other architectures when applied to a novel task which allows the short-term memory and non-linearity to be varied. The hard-limiting memory of the TD-ELM appears to be best suited for the data investigated in this study, although ESN-based approaches may offer improved performance when processing data which require a longer fading memory.

  19. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  20. Quantifying non-linear dynamics of mass-springs in series oscillators via asymptotic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Roman; Sypniewska-Kamińska, Grażyna; Awrejcewicz, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Dynamical regular response of an oscillator with two serially connected springs with nonlinear characteristics of cubic type and governed by a set of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) is studied. The classical approach of the multiple scales method (MSM) in time domain has been employed and appropriately modified to solve the governing DAEs of two systems, i.e. with one- and two degrees-of-freedom. The approximate analytical solutions have been verified by numerical simulations.

  1. Dynamic characteristics of a jacket type offshore structure considering non-linear behavior of pile foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Aaghaakouchak, A.A.; Asgarian, B.

    1996-12-31

    Dynamic characteristics of a typical six legged jacket type platform in Persian Gulf have been studied. An equivalent linearized pile stub has been used to model the pile-soil system. The properties of pile stub have been calculated for different levels of the pile-head deformations resulting from the action of different waves. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of resulting linear models have been determined and compared to each other.

  2. Identification and Control of Non-Linear Time-Varying Dynamical Systems Using Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    linear and adaptive control were used to select a proper network structure for the task, as was done by Narendra and Parthasarathy for emulation of...related topics is presented, as well as motivations for extensions in this work. Narendra and Parthasarathy have presented extensive work, [NP90] and...SYSTEMS Four classes of unknown nonlinear discrete dynamical systems were suggested by Narendra and Parthasarathy [NP90]. The models are extended here for

  3. Prediction of Dynamic Stall Characteristics Using Advanced Non-Linear Panel Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-04

    three- dimensional method , incorporating the techniques that are being examined in the two-dimensional pilot code. r.• - t... . .. -..-. .°.- S °"°"° I...RD-Ai48 453 PREDICTION OF DYNAMIC STRLL CHARACTERISTICS USING 1/1 RDVRNCED NON-LINERR PAN..(U) ANALYTICAL METHODS INC REDMOND WA B MRSKEW ET AL. 84...1 2.0 micROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART hAyl0#dM. @UAU M STAUIOAPOI A VOSR-TR 84.0 97 5 Analytical methods Report 8406 FINAL REPORT Tw. ’ PREDICITON OF

  4. Non-linear dynamics of viscous bilayers subjected to an electric field: 3D phase field simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dritselis, Christos; Karapetsas, George; Bontozoglou, Vasilis

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this work is to investigate the non-linear dynamics of the electro-hydrodynamic instability of a bilayer of immiscible liquids. We consider the case of two viscous films which is separated from the top electrode by air. We assume that the liquids are perfect dielectrics and consider the case of both flat and patterned electrodes. We develop a computational model using the diffuse interface method and carry out 3D numerical simulations fully accounting for the flow and electric field in all phases. We perform a parametric study and investigate the influence of the electric properties of fluids, applied voltage and various geometrical characteristics of the mask. The authors acknowledge the support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant Number PE8/906), co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources.

  5. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIX. Rise and decay of field induced anisotropy in the non-linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young-Gonzales, Amanda R.; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

    2015-09-01

    For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility.

  6. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIX. Rise and decay of field induced anisotropy in the non-linear regime.

    PubMed

    Young-Gonzales, Amanda R; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

    2015-09-14

    For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility.

  7. Chaotic dynamics of the size-dependent non-linear micro-beam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysko, A. V.; Awrejcewicz, J.; Pavlov, S. P.; Zhigalov, M. V.; Krysko, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a size-dependent model of a Sheremetev-Pelekh-Reddy-Levinson micro-beam is proposed and validated using the couple stress theory, taking into account large deformations. The applied Hamilton's principle yields the governing PDEs and boundary conditions. A comparison of statics and dynamics of beams with and without size-dependent components is carried out. It is shown that the proposed model results in significant, both qualitative and quantitative, changes in the nature of beam deformations, in comparison to the so far employed standard models. A novel scenario of transition from regular to chaotic vibrations of the size-dependent Sheremetev-Pelekh model, following the Pomeau-Manneville route to chaos, is also detected and illustrated, among others.

  8. Non-linearity dynamics in ecosystem response to climate change: Case studies and policy implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Wilcox, D.A.; Stottlemyer, R.; Barrow, W.; Fagre, D.; Baron, J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Allen, C.D.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggerone, G.; Doyle, T.

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate cna lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  9. Extreme responses of non-linear dynamic systems using constrained simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Harland, L.A.; Vugts, J.H.; Jonathan, P.; Taylor, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    The dynamic behavior of structures in the offshore environment is complex, especially in extreme storm conditions. The most accurate methods for estimating structural behavior are based on extensive random time domain simulations of the ocean surface to obtain statistics of the extreme response in (typically) a 3 hour period of a severe storm. However, random time domain simulation is time-consuming and expensive for both the computer and the engineer. In this work the authors use a method to determine the distribution of the extreme structural response in a robust, faster and cheaper way than with full random simulations. This method, which is based on constrained random simulations, has been successfully developed using a grossly simplified model of a jack-up. The aim of this study is now to include more realistic modelling parameters in order to demonstrate that the method can be successfully applied to real problems and that accurate results can be obtained with relatively little effort.

  10. Non-linear QCD dynamics and exclusive production in ep collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.; Meneses, A. R.

    2010-07-01

    The exclusive processes in electron-proton ( ep) interactions are an important tool to investigate the QCD dynamics at high energies as they are in general driven by the gluon content of proton which is strongly subject to parton saturation effects. In this paper we compute the cross sections for the exclusive vector meson production as well as the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) relying on the color dipole approach and considering the numerical solution of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation including running coupling corrections. We show that the small- x evolution given by this evolution equation is able to describe the DESY-HERA data and is relevant for the physics of the exclusive observables in future electron-proton colliders and in photoproduction processes to be measured in coherent interactions at the LHC.

  11. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself.

  12. Non-linear QCD dynamics in two-photon interactions at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Kugeratski, M. S.; Cazaroto, E. R.; Carvalho, F.; Navarra, F. S.

    2011-10-01

    Perturbative QCD predicts that the growth of the gluon density at high energies should saturate, forming a Color Glass Condensate (CGC), which is described in mean field approximation by the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation. In this paper we study the γγ interactions at high energies and estimate the main observables which will be probed at future linear colliders using the color dipole picture. We discuss in detail the dipole-dipole cross section and propose a new relation between this quantity and the dipole scattering amplitude. The total γγ, γ ∗ γ ∗ cross sections and the real photon structure function F2^{γ }(x,Q2) are calculated using the recent solution of the BK equation with running coupling constant and the predictions are compared with those obtained using phenomenological models for the dipole-dipole cross section and scattering amplitude. We demonstrate that these models are able to describe the LEP data at high energies, but predict a very different behavior for the observables at higher energies. Therefore we conclude that the study of γγ interactions can be useful to constrain the QCD dynamics.

  13. Non-linear dynamics in recurrently connected neural circuits implement Bayesian inference by sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticchi, Alessandro; Faisal, Aldo A.; Brain; Behaviour Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    Experimental evidence at the behavioural-level shows that the brains are able to make Bayes-optimal inference and decisions (Kording and Wolpert 2004, Nature; Ernst and Banks, 2002, Nature), yet at the circuit level little is known about how neural circuits may implement Bayesian learning and inference (but see (Ma et al. 2006, Nat Neurosci)). Molecular sources of noise are clearly established to be powerful enough to pose limits to neural function and structure in the brain (Faisal et al. 2008, Nat Rev Neurosci; Faisal et al. 2005, Curr Biol). We propose a spking neuron model where we exploit molecular noise as a useful resource to implement close-to-optimal inference by sampling. Specifically, we derive a synaptic plasticity rule which, coupled with integrate-and-fire neural dynamics and recurrent inhibitory connections, enables a neural population to learn the statistical properties of the received sensory input (prior). Moreover, the proposed model allows to combine prior knowledge with additional sources of information (likelihood) from another neural population, and to implement in spiking neurons a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm which generates samples from the inferred posterior distribution.

  14. Investigating the appropriate mode of expressing lysine requirement of fish through non-linear mixed model analysis and multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Katheline

    2013-03-28

    Accurate estimates of lysine requirement are essential to fish feed formulation. However, controversy exists regarding the most appropriate mode to express lysine requirement. In the fish nutrition literature, essential amino acid (AA) requirement has been expressed as a percentage of diet, a percentage of dietary crude protein or a ratio to dietary digestible energy (DE). The controversy lies in the different assumptions regarding the effects of dietary protein and DE on lysine requirement. Non-linear mixed model analysis and multilevel analysis were carried out to investigate whether dietary protein or DE affected lysine requirement of fish. The non-linear mixed model analysis suggests that expressing lysine requirement as a percentage of dietary protein provides a better goodness of fit to the modelling dataset than expressing requirement as a fixed concentration of diet, which in turn is generally better than expressing requirement as a ratio to DE. Results from the multilevel analysis confirm that dietary protein content has a significant effect on lysine requirement, while DE does not. The findings of the present study could contribute to a better understanding of the underlying dietary factors that affect AA requirements of fish. The results of the present study could also be useful for developing nutritional guidelines and feed formulations for fish.

  15. Comparison of Linear and Non-linear Regression Analysis to Determine Pulmonary Pressure in Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Scarneciu, Camelia C.; Sangeorzan, Livia; Rus, Horatiu; Scarneciu, Vlad D.; Varciu, Mihai S.; Andreescu, Oana; Scarneciu, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) at newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and at finding a simple model showing the complex functional relation between pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroidism and the factors causing it. Methods: The 53 hyperthyroid patients (H-group) were evaluated mainly by using an echocardiographical method and compared with 35 euthyroid (E-group) and 25 healthy people (C-group). In order to identify the factors causing pulmonary hypertension the statistical method of comparing the values of arithmetical means is used. The functional relation between the two random variables (PAPs and each of the factors determining it within our research study) can be expressed by linear or non-linear function. By applying the linear regression method described by a first-degree equation the line of regression (linear model) has been determined; by applying the non-linear regression method described by a second degree equation, a parabola-type curve of regression (non-linear or polynomial model) has been determined. We made the comparison and the validation of these two models by calculating the determination coefficient (criterion 1), the comparison of residuals (criterion 2), application of AIC criterion (criterion 3) and use of F-test (criterion 4). Results: From the H-group, 47% have pulmonary hypertension completely reversible when obtaining euthyroidism. The factors causing pulmonary hypertension were identified: previously known- level of free thyroxin, pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac output; new factors identified in this study- pretreatment period, age, systolic blood pressure. According to the four criteria and to the clinical judgment, we consider that the polynomial model (graphically parabola- type) is better than the linear one. Conclusions: The better model showing the functional relation between the pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroidism and the factors identified in this study is

  16. Comparison of Linear and Non-linear Regression Analysis to Determine Pulmonary Pressure in Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Scarneciu, Camelia C; Sangeorzan, Livia; Rus, Horatiu; Scarneciu, Vlad D; Varciu, Mihai S; Andreescu, Oana; Scarneciu, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) at newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and at finding a simple model showing the complex functional relation between pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroidism and the factors causing it. The 53 hyperthyroid patients (H-group) were evaluated mainly by using an echocardiographical method and compared with 35 euthyroid (E-group) and 25 healthy people (C-group). In order to identify the factors causing pulmonary hypertension the statistical method of comparing the values of arithmetical means is used. The functional relation between the two random variables (PAPs and each of the factors determining it within our research study) can be expressed by linear or non-linear function. By applying the linear regression method described by a first-degree equation the line of regression (linear model) has been determined; by applying the non-linear regression method described by a second degree equation, a parabola-type curve of regression (non-linear or polynomial model) has been determined. We made the comparison and the validation of these two models by calculating the determination coefficient (criterion 1), the comparison of residuals (criterion 2), application of AIC criterion (criterion 3) and use of F-test (criterion 4). From the H-group, 47% have pulmonary hypertension completely reversible when obtaining euthyroidism. The factors causing pulmonary hypertension were identified: previously known- level of free thyroxin, pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac output; new factors identified in this study- pretreatment period, age, systolic blood pressure. According to the four criteria and to the clinical judgment, we consider that the polynomial model (graphically parabola- type) is better than the linear one. The better model showing the functional relation between the pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroidism and the factors identified in this study is given by a polynomial equation of second

  17. Stability of cool flux tubes in the solar chromosphere. II - Non-linear dynamical behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, S. S.; Kneer, F.

    1990-06-01

    A single vertical cool flux tube in the solar chromosphere is focused upon for stability studies. The analysis of a previous study by Hasan and Kneer (1986) is extended to the nonlinear regime with a view to examining the consequences of having self-exciting mechanisms of oscillations above the photosphere. In particular, the possibility of whether the motions driven by the convective instability caused by the presence of CO could extract sufficient energy from the radiation field near the Tmin region of empirical models and deposit it in higher layers to produce chromospheric heating is investigated. The time evolution of this instability is followed by solving the MHD equations in the thin flux tube approximation. The analysis includes energy exchange with the radiation field. The simulations of a flux tube with a transmitting upper boundary show that the average energy flux in the oscillations is inadequate for chromospheric heating.

  18. Assessing the performance of linear and non-linear soil carbon dynamics models using the Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm Borg-MOEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramcharan, A. M.; Kemanian, A.; Richard, T.

    2013-12-01

    The largest terrestrial carbon pool is soil, storing more carbon than present in above ground biomass (Jobbagy and Jackson, 2000). In this context, soil organic carbon has gained attention as a managed sink for atmospheric CO2 emissions. The variety of models that describe soil carbon cycling reflects the relentless effort to characterize the complex nature of soil and the carbon within it. Previous works have laid out the range of mathematical approaches to soil carbon cycling but few have compared model structure performance in diverse agricultural scenarios. As interest in increasing the temporal and spatial scale of models grows, assessing the performance of different model structures is essential to drawing reasonable conclusions from model outputs. This research will address this challenge using the Evolutionary Algorithm Borg-MOEA to optimize the functionality of carbon models in a multi-objective approach to parameter estimation. Model structure performance will be assessed through analysis of multi-objective trade-offs using experimental data from twenty long-term carbon experiments across the globe. Preliminary results show a successful test of this proof of concept using a non-linear soil carbon model structure. Soil carbon dynamics were based on the amount of carbon inputs to the soil and the degree of organic matter saturation of the soil. The degree of organic matter saturation of the soil was correlated with the soil clay content. Six parameters of the non-linear soil organic carbon model were successfully optimized to steady-state conditions using Borg-MOEA and datasets from five agricultural locations in the United States. Given that more than 50% of models rely on linear soil carbon decomposition dynamics, a linear model structure was also optimized and compared to the non-linear case. Results indicate linear dynamics had a significantly lower optimization performance. Results show promise in using the Evolutionary Algorithm Borg-MOEA to assess

  19. Automated diagnosis of coronary artery diseased patients by heart rate variability analysis using linear and non-linear methods.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Monappa Gundappa; Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Yash Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a highly considered dangerous disease which may lead to myocardial infarction and even sudden cardiac death. The objective of this work is to evaluate the diagnostic performance features derived from linear and non-linear methods of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis for classification software modules with Normal (NOR) subjects and CAD patients. The proposed methodology follows the recording of electrocardiogram from 60 NOR subjects and 64 CAD patients, RR interval tachogram generation, computing the features from time domain, frequency domain, non-linear methods and its analysis, feature dimension reduction by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification by probabilistic neural network, K nearest neighbour and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. The results of the study indicate a clear difference in NOR subjects and CAD affected patients by using PCA-SVM classifier with an accuracy of 91.67%, sensitivity of 86.67% and 96.67% for NOR and CAD classes, respectively.

  20. A multi-step transversal linearization (MTL) method in non-linear structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2005-10-01

    An implicit family of multi-step transversal linearization (MTL) methods is proposed for efficient and numerically stable integration of nonlinear oscillators of interest in structural dynamics. The presently developed method is a multi-step extension and further generalization of the locally transversal linearization (LTL) method proposed earlier by Roy (Proceedings of the Academy of the Royal Society (London) 457 (2001) 539-566), Roy and Ramachandra (Journal of Sound and Vibration 41 (2001a) 653-679, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 51 (2001b) 203-224) and Roy (International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 61 (2004) 764). The MTL-based linearization is achieved through a non-unique replacement of the nonlinear part of the vector field by a conditionally linear interpolating expansion of known accuracy, whose coefficients contain the discretized state variables defined at a set of grid points. In the process, the nonlinear part of the vector field becomes a conditionally determinable equivalent forcing function. The MTL-based linearized differential equations thus become explicitly integrable. Based on the linearized solution, a set of algebraic, constraint equations are so formed that transversal intersections of the linearized and nonlinearized solution manifolds occur at the multiple grid points. The discretized state vectors are thus found as the zeros of the constraint equations. Simple error estimates for the displacement and velocity vectors are provided and, in particular, it is shown that the formal accuracy of the MTL methods as a function of the time step-size depends only on the error of replacement of the nonlinear part of the vector field. Presently, only two different polynomial-based interpolation schemes are employed for transversal linearization, viz. the Taylor-like interpolation and the Lagrangian interpolation. While the Taylor-like interpolation leads to numerical ill-conditioning as the order of

  1. Social inequality, lifestyles and health - a non-linear canonical correlation analysis based on the approach of Pierre Bourdieu.

    PubMed

    Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Janssen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theoretical and empirical approach of Pierre Bourdieu, a multivariate non-linear method is introduced as an alternative way to analyse the complex relationships between social determinants and health. The analysis is based on face-to-face interviews with 695 randomly selected respondents aged 30 to 59. Variables regarding socio-economic status, life circumstances, lifestyles, health-related behaviour and health were chosen for the analysis. In order to determine whether the respondents can be differentiated and described based on these variables, a non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was performed. The results can be described on three dimensions; Eigenvalues add up to the fit of 1.444, which can be interpreted as approximately 50 % of explained variance. The three-dimensional space illustrates correspondences between variables and provides a framework for interpretation based on latent dimensions, which can be described by age, education, income and gender. Using non-linear canonical correlation analysis, health characteristics can be analysed in conjunction with socio-economic conditions and lifestyles. Based on Bourdieus theoretical approach, the complex correlations between these variables can be more substantially interpreted and presented.

  2. Higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions for the analysis of non-linear systems with harmonic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuij, P. W. J. M.; Bosgra, O. H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-11-01

    For high-precision motion systems, modelling and control design specifically oriented at friction effects is instrumental. The sinusoidal input describing function theory represents an approximative mathematical framework for analysing non-linear system behaviour. This theory, however, limits the description of the non-linear system behaviour to a quasi-linear amplitude-dependent relation between sinusoidal excitation and sinusoidal response. In this paper, an extension to higher-order describing functions is realised by introducing the concept of the harmonics generator. The resulting higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions (HOSIDFs) relate the magnitude and phase of the higher harmonics of the periodic response of the system to the magnitude and phase of a sinusoidal excitation. Based on this extension two techniques to measure HOSIDFs are presented. The first technique is FFT based. The second technique is based on IQ (in-phase/quadrature-phase) demodulation. In a simulation, the measurement techniques have been tested by comparing the simulation results to analytically derived results from a known (backlash) non-linearity. In a subsequent practical case study both techniques are used to measure the changes in dynamic behaviour as a function of drive level due to friction in an electric motor. Both methods prove successful for measuring HOSIDFs.

  3. Exciton Dynamics and Many Body Interactions in Layered Semiconducting Materials Revealed with Non-linear Coherent Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Prasenjit

    understanding the basic unexplored science as well as creating technological developments. The dephasing dynamics in semiconductors typically occur in the picosecond to femtosecond timescale, thus the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a potential route to probe such excitonic responses. The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, to develop the necessary instrumentation to accurately probe the aforementioned parameters and secondly, to explore the quantum dynamics and the underlying many-body interactions in different layered semiconducting materials. A custom-built multidimensional optical non-linear spectrometer was developed in order to perform two-dimensional spectroscopic (2DFT) measurements. The advantages of this technique are multifaceted compared to regular one-dimensional and non-linear incoherent techniques. 2DFT technique is based on an enhanced version of Four wave mixing experiments. This powerful tool is capable of identifying the resonant coupling, probing the coherent pathways, unambiguously extracting the homogeneous linewidth in the presence of inhomogeneity and decomposing a complex spectra into real and imaginary parts. It is not possible to uncover such crucial features by employing one dimensional non-linear technique. Monolayers as well as bulk TMDs and group III-VI bulk layered materials are explored in this dissertation. The exciton quantum dynamics is explored with three pulse four-wave mixing whereas the phase sensitive measurements are obtained by employing two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy. Temperature and excitation density dependent 2DFT experiments unfold the information associated with the many-body interactions in the layered semiconducting samples.

  4. 3D non-linear analysis of the acetabular construct following impaction grafting.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A T M; Pankaj, P; Howie, C R; Usmani, A S; Simpson, A H R W

    2006-06-01

    The study investigates the short-term behaviour of the acetabular construct following revision hip arthroplasty, carried out using the Slooff-Ling impaction grafting technique; using 3D finite element analyses. An elasto-plastic material model is used to describe the constitutive behaviour of morsellised cortico-cancellous bone (MCB) graft, since it has been shown that MCB undergoes significant plastic deformation under normal physiological loads. Based on previous experimental studies carried out by the authors and others, MCB is modelled using non-linear elasticity and Drucker Prager Cap (DPC) plasticity. Loading associated with walking, sitting down, and standing up is applied to the acetabular cup through a femoral head using smooth sliding surfaces. The analyses yield distinctive patterns of migration and rotation due to different activities. These are found to be similar to those observed in the clinical setting.

  5. Non-linear visco-elastic analysis and the design of super-pressure balloons : stress, strain and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, David

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures. Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite, these activities have broadened to encompass ‘lighter than air' structures such as aerostats, hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons. Since 2004 Tensys have acted as consultants to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. Early implementations of the super-pressure balloon design chosen for ULDB have shown problems of geometric instability, characterised by improper deployment and the potential for overall geometric instability once deployed. The latter has been reproduced numerically using inTENS, and the former are better understood following a series of large-scale hangar tests simulating launch and ascent. In both cases the solution lies in minimising the film lobing between the tendons. These tendons, which span between base and apex end fittings, cause the characteristic pumpkin shape of the balloons and also provide valuable constraint against excessive film deformation. There is also the requirement to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness. A consequence of reduced lobing between tendons is the development of higher stresses in the balloon film under pressure. The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film lead to further significant meridional stress under low temperature flight conditions. The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate excessive stress and local concentrations. However, creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations sufficient to compromise the geometric stability of the balloon. The design of a balloon requires an analysis approach that addresses the questions of stress and stability over the duration of a flight by time stepping analyses using an appropriate material model. This paper summarises the Dynamic Relaxation

  6. Methods for accurate analysis of galaxy clustering on non-linear scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, Mohammadjavad

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of galaxy clustering with the low-redshift galaxy surveys provide sensitive probe of cosmology and growth of structure. Parameter inference with galaxy clustering relies on computation of likelihood functions which requires estimation of the covariance matrix of the observables used in our analyses. Therefore, accurate estimation of the covariance matrices serves as one of the key ingredients in precise cosmological parameter inference. This requires generation of a large number of independent galaxy mock catalogs that accurately describe the statistical distribution of galaxies in a wide range of physical scales. We present a fast method based on low-resolution N-body simulations and approximate galaxy biasing technique for generating mock catalogs. Using a reference catalog that was created using the high resolution Big-MultiDark N-body simulation, we show that our method is able to produce catalogs that describe galaxy clustering at a percentage-level accuracy down to highly non-linear scales in both real-space and redshift-space.In most large-scale structure analyses, modeling of galaxy bias on non-linear scales is performed assuming a halo model. Clustering of dark matter halos has been shown to depend on halo properties beyond mass such as halo concentration, a phenomenon referred to as assembly bias. Standard large-scale structure studies assume that halo mass alone is sufficient in characterizing the connection between galaxies and halos. However, modeling of galaxy bias can face systematic effects if the number of galaxies are correlated with other halo properties. Using the Small MultiDark-Planck high resolution N-body simulation and the clustering measurements of Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 main galaxy sample, we investigate the extent to which the dependence of galaxy bias on halo concentration can improve our modeling of galaxy clustering.

  7. Beading instability in soft cylindrical gels with capillary energy: Weakly non-linear analysis and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffetani, M.; Ciarletta, P.

    2015-08-01

    Soft cylindrical gels can develop a long-wavelength peristaltic pattern driven by a competition between surface tension and bulk elastic energy. In contrast to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for viscous fluids, the macroscopic shape in soft solids evolves toward a stable beading, which strongly differs from the buckling arising in compressed elastic cylinders. This work proposes a novel theoretical and numerical approach for studying the onset and the non-linear development of the elasto-capillary beading in soft cylinders, made of neo-Hookean hyperelastic material with capillary energy at the free surface, subjected to axial stretch. Both a theoretical study, deriving the linear and the weakly non-linear stability analyses for the problem, and numerical simulations, investigating the fully non-linear evolution of the beaded morphology, are performed. The theoretical results prove that an axial elongation can not only favour the onset of beading, but also determine the nature of the elastic bifurcation. The fully non-linear phase diagrams of the beading are also derived from finite element numerical simulations, showing two peculiar morphological transitions when varying either the axial stretch or the material properties of the gel. Since the bifurcation is found to be subcritical for very slender cylinders, an imperfection sensitivity analysis is finally performed. In this case, it is shown that a surface sinusoidal imperfection can resonate with the corresponding marginally stable solution, thus selecting the emerging beading wavelength. In conclusion, the results of this study provide novel guidelines for controlling the beaded morphology in different experimental conditions, with important applications in micro-fabrication techniques, such as electrospun fibres.

  8. A non linear analysis of human gait time series based on multifractal analysis and cross correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed databases with gait time series of adults and persons with Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseases. We obtained the staircase graphs of accumulated events that can be bounded by a straight line whose slope can be used to distinguish between gait time series from healthy and ill persons. The global Hurst exponent of these series do not show tendencies, we intend that this is because some gait time series have monofractal behavior and others have multifractal behavior so they cannot be characterized with a single Hurst exponent. We calculated the multifractal spectra, obtained the spectra width and found that the spectra of the healthy young persons are almost monofractal. The spectra of ill persons are wider than the spectra of healthy persons. In opposition to the interbeat time series where the pathology implies loss of multifractality, in the gait time series the multifractal behavior emerges with the pathology. Data were collected from healthy and ill subjects as they walked in a roughly circular path and they have sensors in both feet, so we have one time series for the left foot and other for the right foot. First, we analyzed these time series separately, and then we compared both results, with direct comparison and with a cross correlation analysis. We tried to find differences in both time series that can be used as indicators of equilibrium problems.

  9. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelebi, E.; Göktepe, F.; Karahan, N.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of wave transmission along the truncated interface of the semi-infinite space, are adopted in the non-linear finite element formulation in the time domain along with Newmark's integration. The slenderness ratio of the superstructure and the local soil conditions as well as the characteristics of input excitations are important parameters for the numerical simulation in this research. The mechanical behavior of the underlying soil medium considered in this prediction model is simulated by an undrained elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model under plane-strain conditions. To emphasize the important findings of this type of problems to civil engineers, systematic calculations with different controlling parameters are accomplished to evaluate directly the structural response of the vibrating soil-structure system. When the underlying soil becomes stiffer, the frequency content of the seismic motion has a major role in altering the seismic response. The sudden increase of the dynamic response is more pronounced for resonance case, when the frequency content of the seismic ground motion is close to that of the SSI system. The SSI effects under different seismic inputs are different for all considered soil conditions and structural types.

  10. A new non-linear parameter Q from FT-Rheology under nonlinear dynamic oscillatory shear for polymer melts system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Kyu; Kim, Wonho

    2011-12-01

    Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) is a test method for the characterization of complex fluids. Varying independently both strain amplitude (γ0) and frequency (ω) allows covering a broad spectrum of rheological responses with respect to time scales and involved non-linearity. Moreover, it is experimentally relatively simple to generate LAOS flow, because dynamic oscillatory shear does not involve any sudden jump in either strain or strain rate. There are several methods to analyze the resulting torque data received from the LAOS test protocol: (1) the G' and G″ as a function of strain amplitude (2) Stress shape (stress vs. time) or Lissajous pattern (stress vs. strain or stress vs. strain rate) (3) Fourier transform (4) generalized "storage" and "loss" modulus when decomposing the nonlinear stress data (5) Chebyschev polynomials using decomposing stress data and further development of Chebyschev polynomials. The Fourier Transform (FT)-Rheology is perhaps the most sensitive method of those discussed above. A new nonlinear parameter Q established from FT-Rheolgy under LAOS flow, i.e. Q( ω,γ 0) ≡ I 3/1/ γ {0/2}, as well as the zero-strain nonlinearity or intrinsic nonlinearity Q_0 ( ω ) equiv lim _{γ _0 to 0} Q( {ω ,γ _0 } ) by Hyun and Wilhelm (2009). In this study, therefore recent experiment and simulation results of nonlinear parameter Q from FT-Rheology for polymer melt and polymer composite systemsare reviewed.

  11. Evaluating Basins of Attraction in Non-Linear Dynamical Systems Using AN Improved Recursive Boundary Enhancement (rbe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    An improvement to the computational algorithm known as Recursive boundary enhancement (RBE) is described. This updated algorithm produces global stability phase space diagrams in periodically forced differential systems. These equations being derived from the dynamics of engineering structures with non-linear responses. The algorithm uses a process of boundary grid refinement to produce a greatly enhanced procedure which is accurate and less computationally expensive than the standardgrid of starts(GOS) method. The algorithm focuses on the boundaries of the catchment basins which need the most attention. This concentration on the boundaries cannot be made in ana priorimanner as the boundaries are initially unknown. While the algorithm is proceeding concepts of parent cells, child cells and cell division are used to determine the location of the boundaries. The role of cell neighbourhood comparison is modified, in the improved algorithm, to provide a handle to control accuracy and computational speed. The necessity for recursion in the algorithm is discussed. The procedure is valid for both non-fractal and fractal boundaries. A comparison of the old and new RBE algorithms and other methods such as GOS, SCM and ICM mapping methods are made to evaluate computational efficiency and accuracy.

  12. Non-Linear Analysis of the Elastic Behaviour of a Translation Device for X-Ray Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, G.; Vattaneo, F.; Zosi, G.

    1989-01-01

    A tridimensional, non-linear, finite-element analysis, supplementing a previous bidimensional linear analysis, was applied to characterize the performance of a zerodur translation device for X-ray fringe scanning. The effects of errors deriving from machining tolerances or of parasitic force components are taken into account. Optimization criteria indicate that residual tilt angles can be reduced to less than 1 nrad over a displacement of 120 μm, obtained with a driving force of about 1 N. Each point of the upper platform moves in the vertical plane along an almost circular trajectory.

  13. A continuum three-dimensional, fully coupled, dynamic, non-linear finite element formulation for magnetostrictive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Aparicio, José L.; Sosa, Horacio

    2004-06-01

    Magnetostriction is a phenomenon observed in all ferromagnetic materials. It couples elastic, electric, magnetic and in some situations also thermal fields and is of great industrial interest for use in sensors, actuators, adaptive or functional structures, robotics, transducers and MEMS. In this work, the governing equations of the three-field problem (i.e., the interactions of elastic, electric and magnetic effects) are formulated in three dimensions, accounting for non-linear (through magnetic body forces represented by the Maxwell tensor) and dynamic effects, and with constitutive equations resembling those of piezoelectricity. Through manipulation of Maxwell equations it is possible to find suitable expressions for developing the numerical weak, Galerkin and matrix forms in a natural way, including seven residuals (one for each nodal degree of freedom) and non-symmetric tangent, 'capacity' and mass consistent matrices. Simple backward Euler and central difference schemes can be used for the time domain integration. The only assumption made in this work for simplification is that the time variation of electric induction is negligible. This is justified by the relatively low frequencies ({\\ll }1 GHz) under which magnetostrictive materials usually work. The principal feature of the equations is the use of a magnetic potential (without much physical meaning) that allows a complete 'displacement' finite element formulation: all elastic, electric and magnetic nodal unknowns are zero derivatives. This allows the algorithm to be treated in a standard way, and important effects such as eddy currents can be obtained naturally. The formulation is implemented in the research finite element code FEAP. Although seven degrees of freedom per node is computer expensive to solve (especially for 3D problems), the current trend in the performance of computers, even personal ones, makes it worthwhile to build complete finite elements following the well-established (in mechanics

  14. A step-by-step guide to non-linear regression analysis of experimental data using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.

    PubMed

    Brown, A M

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this present study was to introduce a simple, easily understood method for carrying out non-linear regression analysis based on user input functions. While it is relatively straightforward to fit data with simple functions such as linear or logarithmic functions, fitting data with more complicated non-linear functions is more difficult. Commercial specialist programmes are available that will carry out this analysis, but these programmes are expensive and are not intuitive to learn. An alternative method described here is to use the SOLVER function of the ubiquitous spreadsheet programme Microsoft Excel, which employs an iterative least squares fitting routine to produce the optimal goodness of fit between data and function. The intent of this paper is to lead the reader through an easily understood step-by-step guide to implementing this method, which can be applied to any function in the form y=f(x), and is well suited to fast, reliable analysis of data in all fields of biology.

  15. Some Considerations on Simple Non-Linear Magnetic Analysis-Based Optimum Design of Multi-Pole Permanent Magnet Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Yoshiaki; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents a simple non-linear magnetic analysis-based optimum design of a multi-pole permanent magnet machine as an assistant design tool of 3D-FEM. The proposed analysis is based on the equivalent magnetic circuit and the air gap permeance model between the stator and rotor teeth of the motor, taking into account the local magnetic saturation in the pointed end of teeth. The availability of the proposed analysis is verified by comparing with 3D-FEM analysis from the standpoints of the torque calculation accuracy for the variations of design free parameter and the computation time. After verification, the proposed analysis-based optimum design of the dimensions of permanent magnet is examined, by which the minimization of magnet volume is realized while keeping torque/current ratio at the specified value.

  16. Surprisal analysis of rotational-translational energy transfer - Non-linear versus linear rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1979-01-01

    Surprisal versus energy gap analyses of state-to-state cross sections are presented for a number of linear rigid rotors excited by collisions with atoms for H2-H, H2-He, HCl-He, HCl-Ar, CO-He, CS-H2 (j=0) OCS-H2 (j=0) and HN2(+)-He, where (j=0) indicates that the hydrogen molecule was constrained to remain in its lowest level. Different systems exhibit wide variations in the slope of the surprisal plot and in certain cases, enough to indicate that the energy gap may not be the static dynamical constraint. Similar analyses are presented for nonlinear rotors excited by atoms for H2CO-He and H2O-He. For these, the data show a great deal of scatter, indicating that the reduced energy gap is probably not the appropriate independent variable.

  17. Linear and Non-linear Analysis of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Bridge Deck due to Vehicle Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Chaitali; Mandal, Bibekananda

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with linear and nonlinear static analysis of fibre reinforced plastics composite bridge deck structures using the finite element method. The nonlinear static analysis has been carried out considering geometric nonlinearity. The analysis of bridge deck has been carried out under vehicle load as specified by IRC Class B wheel load classification. The formulation has been carried out using the finite element software package ANSYS 14.0 and the SHELL281 element is used to model the bridge deck. The bridge deck has also been modeled as a plate stiffened with closely spaced hollow box sections and a computer code is developed based on this formulation. The results obtained from the present formulation are compared with those available in the published literature. A parametric study on the stiffened bridge deck has also been carried out with varying dimensions of the stiffeners under vehicle loads.

  18. Applicability of some statistical tools to predict optimum adsorption isotherm after linear and non-linear regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ncibi, Mohamed Chaker

    2008-05-01

    In any single component isotherm study, determining the best-fitting model is a key analysis to mathematically describe the involved sorption system and, therefore, to explore the related theoretical assumptions. Hence, several error calculation functions have been widely used to estimate the error deviations between experimental and theoretically predicted equilibrium adsorption values (Q(e,exp)vs.Q(e,theo) as X- and Y-axis, respectively), including the average relative error deviation, the Marquardt's percent standard error deviation, the hybrid fractional error function, the sum of the squares of the errors, the correlation coefficient and the residuals. In this study, five other statistical functions are analysed to investigate their applicability as suitable tools to evaluate isotherm model fitness, namely the Pearson correlation coefficient, the coefficient of determination, the Chi-square test, the F-test and the Student's T-test, using the commonly-used functions as references. The adsorption of textile dye onto Posidonia oceanica seagrass fibres was carried out, as study case, in batch mode at 20 degrees C. Besides, and in order to get an overall approach of the possible utilization of these statistical functions within the studied item, the examination was realized for both linear and non-linear regression analysis. The related results showed that, among the five studied statistical tools, the chi(2) and Student's T-tests were suitable to determine the best-fitting isotherm model for the case of linear modelling approach. On the other hand, dealing with the non-linear analysis, despite the Student's T-test, all the other functions gave satisfactorily results, by agreeing the commonly-used error functions calculation.

  19. Non-linear buffeting response analysis of long-span suspension bridges with central buckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Aiqun; Zhao, Gengwen; Li, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The rigid central buckle employed in the Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB) was the first time it was used in a suspension bridge in China. By using a spectral representation method and FFT technique combined with measured data, a 3D fluctuating wind field considering the tower wind effect is simulated. A novel FE model for buffeting analysis is then presented, in which a specific user-defined Matrix27 element in ANSYS is employed to simulate the aeroelastic forces and its stiffness or damping matrices are parameterized by wind velocity and vibration frequency. A nonlinear time history analysis is carried out to study the influence of the rigid central buckle on the wind-induced buffeting response of a long-span suspension bridge. The results can be used as a reference for wind resistance design of long-span suspension bridges with a rigid central buckle in the future.

  20. Discrimination between descriptive models of L-glutamate uptake by the retina using non-linear regression analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Neal, M J; White, R D

    1978-01-01

    1. The uptake of labelled L-glutamate by the isolated rat retina was measured over a large range of external concentrations (1 micron to 1 mM). 2. The results obtained from measurements of the initial velocity of L-glutamate uptake at different concentrations did not follow simple hyperbolic kinetics. 3. The error structure of replicate velocity measurements was examined and found to be normally distributed and heteroscedastic. 4. Descriptive models were fitted directly to data, weighted by the invariance, using non-linear regression analysis. 5. The most suitable suitable descriptive model consisted of a saturable hyperbola (Vm = 285 n-mole.(g wet wt.)-1.min-1, Km = 252 micron) and a linear term (b = 0.45 min-1). PMID:650545

  1. Label-Free Analysis of Cellular Lipid Droplet Formation by Non-Linear Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schie, Iwan W.

    Cellular lipid droplets (LD) are cellular organelles that can be found in every cell type. Recent research indicates that cellular LD are involved in a large number of cellular metabolic functions, such as lipid metabolism, protection from lipotoxicity, protein storage and degradation, and many more. LD formation is frequently associated with adverse health effects, i.e. alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes type-2, as well as many cardiovascular disorders. Despite their wide presence, LDs are the least studied and most poorly understood cellular organelles. Typically, LDs are investigated using fluorescence-based techniques that require staining with exogenous fluorophores. Other techniques, e.g. biochemical assays, require the destruction of cells that prohibit the analysis of living cells. Therefore, in my thesis research I developed a novel compound fast-scanning nonlinear optical microscope equipped with the ability to also acquire Raman spectra at specific image locations. This system allows us to image label-free cellular LD formation in living cells and analyze the composition of single cellular LDs. Images can be acquired at near video-rate (˜16 frames/s). Furthermore, the system has the ability to acquire very large images of tissue of up to 7.5x15 cm2 total area by stitching together scans with dimensions of 1x1 mm2 in less than 1 minute. The system also enables the user to acquire Raman spectra from points of interest in the multiphoton images and provides chemically-specific data from sample volumes as small as 1 femtoliter. In my thesis I used this setup to determine the effects of VLDL lipolysis products on primary rat hepatocytes. By analyzing the Raman spectra and comparing the peak ratios for saturated and unsaturated fatty acid it was determined that the small cellular LD are highly saturated, while large cellular LDs contain mostly unsaturated lipids. Furthermore, I established a method to determine the specific contribution

  2. Input-Output Stability Analysis with Magnetic Hysteresis Non-Linearity - A Class of Multipliers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-08

    Circuit Theory, Vol. CT-17. that the same properties hold for yl(t). i.e.. p. 564. Nov. 1970. YI(t)ELa, is continuous, and go to zero as t--. [12] Desoer ...inductor (trans- former), but from circuit analysis point of view. zero as t . the input and output of the model replaced for N U as shown in Fig. (2...output [I. I],"Lumped- Circuit Models for Non-linearcof Industors Exhibiting Hysteresis Loop.’therefore, eEL., and el(t)- 0 as t- . imply IEEE Trans. on

  3. Simple quasi-analytical holonomic homogenization model for the non-linear analysis of in-plane loaded masonry panels: Part 1, meso-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, G.; Bertolesi, E.

    2017-07-01

    A simple quasi analytical holonomic homogenization approach for the non-linear analysis of masonry walls in-plane loaded is presented. The elementary cell (REV) is discretized with 24 triangular elastic constant stress elements (bricks) and non-linear interfaces (mortar). A holonomic behavior with softening is assumed for mortar. It is shown how the mechanical problem in the unit cell is characterized by very few displacement variables and how homogenized stress-strain behavior can be evaluated semi-analytically.

  4. Trace analysis of acids and bases by conductometric titration with multiparametric non-linear regression.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Lúcia H G; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2006-03-15

    A chemometric method for analysis of conductometric titration data was introduced to extend its applicability to lower concentrations and more complex acid-base systems. Auxiliary pH measurements were made during the titration to assist the calculation of the distribution of protonable species on base of known or guessed equilibrium constants. Conductivity values of each ionized or ionizable species possibly present in the sample were introduced in a general equation where the only unknown parameters were the total concentrations of (conjugated) bases and of strong electrolytes not involved in acid-base equilibria. All these concentrations were adjusted by a multiparametric nonlinear regression (NLR) method, based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. This first conductometric titration method with NLR analysis (CT-NLR) was successfully applied to simulated conductometric titration data and to synthetic samples with multiple components at concentrations as low as those found in rainwater (approximately 10 micromol L(-1)). It was possible to resolve and quantify mixtures containing a strong acid, formic acid, acetic acid, ammonium ion, bicarbonate and inert electrolyte with accuracy of 5% or better.

  5. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Deepak

    Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design through extensive experimental testing is not practical. Predictive tools are needed to perform virtual experiments of various options. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of linear elastic response, plasticity and material damage induced nonlinear behavior and mechanics of load flow in textile composites. Textile composites exhibit multiple scales of complexity. The various textile behaviors are analyzed using a two-scale finite element modeling. A framework to allow use of a wide variety of damage initiation and growth models is proposed. Plasticity induced non-linear behavior of 2x2 braided composites is investigated using a modeling approach based on Hill's yield function for orthotropic materials. The mechanics of load flow in textile composites is demonstrated using special non-standard postprocessing techniques that not only highlight the important details, but also transform the extensive amount of output data into comprehensible modes of behavior. The investigations show that the damage models differ from each other in terms of amount of degradation as well as the properties to be degraded under a particular failure mode. When compared with experimental data, predictions of some models match well for glass/epoxy composite whereas other's match well for carbon/epoxy composites. However, all the models predicted very similar response when damage factors were made similar, which shows that the magnitude of damage factors are very important. Full 3D as well as equivalent tape laminate predictions lie within the range of the experimental data for a wide variety of braided composites with different material systems, which validated the plasticity analysis. Conclusions about the effect of

  6. Non-linear numerical analysis of the Iosipescu specimen for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Henjen; Morton, John; Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear elastic finite element analysis is presented of the Iosipescu shear specimen tested in the modified Wyoming fixture for unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites. It is shown that the nonlinear effects due to specimen-to-fixture contact interactions and specimen geometry on the overall shear response are negligible. It is proposed that the tangential shear modulus should be used to characterize the shear resistance of composite materials with highly nonlinear shear response. The correction factors, which are needed to compensate for the nonuniformity of the shear stress or strain distribution in the specimen test section for shear modulus measurement, have to be defined carefully. Strain contours in the nonlinear response ranges are presented and the initiation of failure in the notch regions is investigated.

  7. Analysis of non linear thermo-mechanical behavior of thin rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveri, M.; Anvesh, Ch. Venkata; Babu, R. Art; Vinutha, A.

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical model is developed for geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis of thin rectangular plates subjected to transverse mechanical loads and exposed to non-uniform thermal gradients over their depth. Two types of support conditions are considered for the plate based on assuming that in-plane displacements are either restrained or unrestrained against lateral translation. Several numerical examples including two examples for rectangular plates are presented to assess the accuracy and performance of the proposed method. The evolution of the true shape of the compressive zone supporting tensile membrane action in laterally unrestrained plates under large displacements is graphically illustrated for the two non-uniform thermal gradients. It is shown that the effect of the short hot fire on the plate behavior is more pronounced.

  8. Non-Linear Time Series Analysis of Dissolved Oxygen in Five Diverse Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, K. E.; Barton, C. C.; Smigelski, J. R.; Tebbens, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    Temporal variations in the concentration of Dissolved oxygen (DO) can create catastrophic conditions for organisms that rely on aerobic metabolic processes for survival. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an aquatic parameter whose concentration is controlled by physical, biological, and chemical processes. The concentration of DO in an aquatic system is important to organisms that rely on aerobic metabolic processes for survival. A power-spectral-density analysis of time series of DO concentration is used to quantify persistence (the degree of internal correlation) over durations of 3 months to 19 years. The interval between data points was either 15 minutes or one hour. The data are from ten different water bodies throughout the United States. Four of these sites are large, slow moving bodies of water including three estuaries: Chesapeake Bay (Virginia), Winyah Bay (North Carolina) and Elkhorn Slough (California); and one reservoir: the Cheney Reservoir in Kansas. The other six sites are small, fast moving water bodies. They included four rivers: Christina River (Delaware), St. Croix River (Maine), Ramapo River (New Jersey), and Passaic River, New Jersey; one stream: Green Pond Brook (New Jersey); and one man-made channel: Reynolds Channel (New York). The analysis quantifies persistence as the power scaling exponent (β), which for all ten water bodies β ranges between 1.2 and 1.6 meaning that the signal is persistent and non-stationary. Rivers and streams, exhibit higher β-values of 1.5 < β<1.6 (greater persistence) than estuaries and lakes, which have β-values of 1.2< β <1.4t.

  9. Response of Non-Linear Shock Absorbers-Boundary Value Problem Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. A.; Ahmed, U.; Uddin, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    A nonlinear boundary value problem of two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) untuned vibration damper systems using nonlinear springs and dampers has been numerically studied. As far as untuned damper is concerned, sixteen different combinations of linear and nonlinear springs and dampers have been comprehensively analyzed taking into account transient terms. For different cases, a comparative study is made for response versus time for different spring and damper types at three important frequency ratios: one at r = 1, one at r > 1 and one at r <1. The response of the system is changed because of the spring and damper nonlinearities; the change is different for different cases. Accordingly, an initially stable absorber may become unstable with time and vice versa. The analysis also shows that higher nonlinearity terms make the system more unstable. Numerical simulation includes transient vibrations. Although problems are much more complicated compared to those for a tuned absorber, a comparison of the results generated by the present numerical scheme with the exact one shows quite a reasonable agreement

  10. Direct Forecasting of Subsurface Flow Response from Non-Linear Dynamic Data By Linear Least-Squares in Canonical Functional Principal Component Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satija, A.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogeological forecasting problems, like many subsurface forecasting problems, often suffer from the scarcity of reliable data yet complex prior information about the underlying earth system. Assimilating and integrating this information into an earth model requires using iterative parameter space exploration techniques or Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques. Since such an earth model needs to account for many large and small scale features of the underlying system, as the system gets larger, iterative modeling can become computationally prohibitive, in particular when the forward model would allow for only a few hundred model evaluations. In addition, most modeling methods do not include the purpose for which inverse method are built, namely, the actual forecast and usually focus only on data and model. In this study, we present a technique to extract features of the earth system informed by time-varying dynamic data (data features) and those that inform a time-varying forecasting variable (forecast features) using Functional Principal Component Analysis. Canonical Coefficient Analysis is then used to examine the relationship between these features using a linear model. When this relationship suggests that the available data informs the required forecast, a simple linear regression can be used on the linear model to directly estimate the posterior of the forecasting problem, without any iterative inversion of model parameters. This idea and method is illustrated using an example of contaminant flow in an aquifer with complex prior, large dimension and non-linear flow & transport model.

  11. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iv: Large-Amplitude Vibrations with Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of a shell conveying fluid to harmonic excitation, in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies, is investigated for different flow velocities. The theoretical model has already been presented in Part I of the present study. Non-linearities due to moderately large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction by using the model proposed by Paı̈doussis and Denise. For different amplitudes and frequencies of the excitation and for different flow velocities, the following are investigated numerically: (1) periodic response of the system; (2) unsteady and stochastic motion; (3) loss of stability by jumps to bifurcated branches. The effect of the flow velocity on the non-linear periodic response of the system has also been investigated. Poincaré maps and bifurcation diagrams are used to study the unsteady and stochastic dynamics of the system. Amplitude modulated motions, multi-periodic solutions, chaotic responses, cascades of bifurcations as the route to chaos and the so-called “blue sky catastrophe” phenomenon have all been observed for different values of the system parameters; the latter two have been predicted here probably for the first time for the dynamics of circular cylindrical shells.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of parameter confidence intervals for non-linear regression analysis of biological data using Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ronald J W; Mytilinaios, Ioannis; Maitland, Luke; Brown, Angus M

    2012-08-01

    This study describes a method to obtain parameter confidence intervals from the fitting of non-linear functions to experimental data, using the SOLVER and Analysis ToolPaK Add-In of the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Previously we have shown that Excel can fit complex multiple functions to biological data, obtaining values equivalent to those returned by more specialized statistical or mathematical software. However, a disadvantage of using the Excel method was the inability to return confidence intervals for the computed parameters or the correlations between them. Using a simple Monte-Carlo procedure within the Excel spreadsheet (without recourse to programming), SOLVER can provide parameter estimates (up to 200 at a time) for multiple 'virtual' data sets, from which the required confidence intervals and correlation coefficients can be obtained. The general utility of the method is exemplified by applying it to the analysis of the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, the growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by chlorhexidine and the further analysis of the electrophysiological data from the compound action potential of the rodent optic nerve.

  13. VRF ("Visual RobFit") — nuclear spectral analysis with non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasche, George; Coldwell, Robert; Metzger, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A new application (known as "VRF", or "Visual RobFit") for analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra has been developed using non-linear fitting techniques to fit full-spectrum nuclide shapes. In contrast to conventional methods based on the results of an initial peak-search, the VRF analysis method forms, at each of many automated iterations, a spectrum-wide shape for each nuclide and, also at each iteration, it adjusts the activities of each nuclide, as well as user-enabled parameters of energy calibration, attenuation by up to three intervening or self-absorbing materials, peak width as a function of energy, full-energy peak efficiency, and coincidence summing until no better fit to the data can be obtained. This approach, which employs a new and significantly advanced underlying fitting engine especially adapted to nuclear spectra, allows identification of minor peaks that are masked by larger, overlapping peaks that would not otherwise be possible. The application and method are briefly described and two examples are presented.

  14. booc.io: An Education System with Hierarchical Concept Maps and Dynamic Non-linear Learning Plans.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Michail; Strobelt, Hendrik; Tompkin, James; Fredericks, Colin; Huff, Connor; Higgins, Dana; Strezhnev, Anton; Komisarchik, Mayya; King, Gary; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Information hierarchies are difficult to express when real-world space or time constraints force traversing the hierarchy in linear presentations, such as in educational books and classroom courses. We present booc.io, which allows linear and non-linear presentation and navigation of educational concepts and material. To support a breadth of material for each concept, booc.io is Web based, which allows adding material such as lecture slides, book chapters, videos, and LTIs. A visual interface assists the creation of the needed hierarchical structures. The goals of our system were formed in expert interviews, and we explain how our design meets these goals. We adapt a real-world course into booc.io, and perform introductory qualitative evaluation with students.

  15. Detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals based on time-frequency and non-linear analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gajic, Dragoljub; Djurovic, Zeljko; Gligorijevic, Jovan; Di Gennaro, Stefano; Savic-Gajic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique for detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. After preprocessing of EEG signals we extract representative features in time, frequency and time-frequency domain as well as using non-linear analysis. The features are extracted in a few frequency sub-bands of clinical interest since these sub-bands showed much better discriminatory characteristics compared with the whole frequency band. Then we optimally reduce the dimension of feature space to two using scatter matrices. A decision about the presence of epileptiform activity in EEG signals is made by quadratic classifiers designed in the reduced two-dimensional feature space. The accuracy of the technique was tested on three sets of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded at the University Hospital Bonn: surface EEG signals from healthy volunteers, intracranial EEG signals from the epilepsy patients during the seizure free interval from within the seizure focus and intracranial EEG signals of epileptic seizures also from within the seizure focus. An overall detection accuracy of 98.7% was achieved. PMID:25852534

  16. Application of correlation dimension and pointwise dimension for non-linear topographical analysis of focal onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Feucht, M; Möller, U; Witte, H; Benninger, F; Asenbaum, S; Prayer, D; Friedrich, M H

    1999-03-01

    For many patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, non-invasive evaluation fails to provide sufficient information to permit surgical treatment. Since there are also definite risks and considerable costs associated with invasive procedures, new (non-invasive) techniques are required. This study provides empirical evidence that a non-linear approach applied to ictal surface electroencephalograms (EEGs) can help to delineate the area of seizure onset and may prove useful in complementing visual analysis of the EEG. Multichannel EEGs, recorded from eight patients with different drug-resistant localisation-related epilepsies, were analysed using the concept of correlation dimension and two extensions based on the pointwise dimension. The latter also provided results in cases where assessment of the correlation dimension was not feasible. Comparative values between 2 and 6 were accepted as the result of the algorithms, mostly 3-4 for the EEG channels strongly reflecting epileptic activity, and 4-6 for the other signals. The proportion of accepted pointwise values was usually 200-800% for strong epileptic EEG activity compared to the other data. The approach permitted the characterisation of the scalp area reflecting epileptic activity. The results obtained were in perfect concordance with those obtained during pre-surgical work-up and confirmed by the post-operative outcome.

  17. A Study of Care Work in Welfare Facilities for the Elderly, Using Non Linear Analysis of Finger Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohashi, Yoko; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Lee, Sangjae

    2011-06-01

    The fingertip pulse waves of a number of staff working in a daycare center for the elderly and a special nursing home for the elderly were measured several times throughout the day for a period of one or two days, and the chaotic information gained was analyzed using a non linear analysis method. As a result, a relation between the staff's length of career and the change of Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) of the fingertip pulse waves that synchronized with the mental revitalization degrees and the tension of the sympathetic nerve was evident. The LLE of the staff with short careers dramatically changed and also took a long time to settle down again. In addition, staff LLE changed greatly after sessions of bathing assistance and watching residents with dementia. LLE measurements showed drops in some staff after a period of rest, but this was not the case for other staff. It can be concluded that the LLE is related to the length of the staff member's career and what is actually done during working hours and rest periods. A high level of sympathetic nerve was seen in almost all of the care workers. On this basis, the authors propose that improvements are needed in the content of the care work.

  18. Detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals based on time-frequency and non-linear analysis.

    PubMed

    Gajic, Dragoljub; Djurovic, Zeljko; Gligorijevic, Jovan; Di Gennaro, Stefano; Savic-Gajic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique for detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. After preprocessing of EEG signals we extract representative features in time, frequency and time-frequency domain as well as using non-linear analysis. The features are extracted in a few frequency sub-bands of clinical interest since these sub-bands showed much better discriminatory characteristics compared with the whole frequency band. Then we optimally reduce the dimension of feature space to two using scatter matrices. A decision about the presence of epileptiform activity in EEG signals is made by quadratic classifiers designed in the reduced two-dimensional feature space. The accuracy of the technique was tested on three sets of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded at the University Hospital Bonn: surface EEG signals from healthy volunteers, intracranial EEG signals from the epilepsy patients during the seizure free interval from within the seizure focus and intracranial EEG signals of epileptic seizures also from within the seizure focus. An overall detection accuracy of 98.7% was achieved.

  19. [Non linear principal component analysis and clues for a differential approach of five groups experiencing social precariousness].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C

    2008-01-01

    We wished to develop an original way of taking care of people experiencing great social precariousness. Our purpose was to develop communication and relational skills, to stimulate expression of emotions and feelings, to bring out personal resources, to increase well-being, motivation and self-esteem, and thus favour rehabilitation. Our sample is composed of long-term unemployed people, of people benefiting from measures of integration into the working process, of people living in community homes, of drug addicts, and of drug-addicted female prisoners. Our research is based on an integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology, with rating scales for the artistic production and observational frames for items of verbal and non-verbal behaviour completing the psychometric questionnaires. It is an action research; we use art therapy, which is a common practice in the health sector, especially with subjects having problems expressing there feelings through words. We have carried out a non linear principal component analysis (PRINCALS) on the data of the projective test (Rotter), as well as a between groups comparison of the responses to the questionnaire on life satisfaction (FLZ), with the help of the Mann-Whitney test. It is from these comparisons that we are able to draw out a few clues for differential treating strategies, depending on the inclusion into the five sub-groups that we have followed.

  20. A non-linear regression analysis program for describing electrophysiological data with multiple functions using Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Brown, Angus M

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this present study was to demonstrate a method for fitting complex electrophysiological data with multiple functions using the SOLVER add-in of the ubiquitous spreadsheet Microsoft Excel. SOLVER minimizes the difference between the sum of the squares of the data to be fit and the function(s) describing the data using an iterative generalized reduced gradient method. While it is a straightforward procedure to fit data with linear functions, and we have previously demonstrated a method of non-linear regression analysis of experimental data based upon a single function, it is more complex to fit data with multiple functions, usually requiring specialized expensive computer software. In this paper we describe an easily understood program for fitting experimentally acquired data, in this case the stimulus-evoked compound action potential from the mouse optic nerve, with multiple Gaussian functions. The program is flexible and can be applied to describe data with a wide variety of user-input functions.

  1. Applicational possibilities of linear and non-linear (polynomial) regressions and analysis of variance: kinetics of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Arambasić, M B; Ristanović, D; Djordjević, A

    2002-01-01

    The dependance of the content and microbiological activity of Chloramphenicol (active substance) at dissolution on time and on pH, as well as that of the content and microbiological activity of Chloramphenicol (250 mg capsules) at release, on time, in in-vitro conditions, was determined using linear and non-linear (polynomial and generalized dilution) regressions. Based on the square error value, the dependance of the content and microbiological activity of Chloramphenicol (active substance) at dissolution on time and different pH values, as well as the dependance of the content and microbiological activity of Chloramphenicol (capsules) at release on time were best described by polynomial function. The comparison of the content and microbiological activity of Chloramphenicol (active substance) at dissolution at different pH values, as well as of Chloramphenicol (capsules) at release showed the significant correlation between these parameters (r = 0.999, P < 0.001). The comparision of the content, on one hand, and microbiological activity of Chloramphenicol (active substance), on the other, at dissolution at different pH values, as a function of time, was done using a modified method of one-way analysis of variance for linear regression comparisons. Based on the value of Fischer's coefficient (F), there is a statistically very significant difference between the contents and between the microbiological activities of chloramphenicol (active substance) at dissolution and different pH as a function of time (P < 0.005).

  2. Integrating real-time and manual monitored data to predict hillslope soil moisture dynamics with high spatio-temporal resolution using linear and non-linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Zhiwen; Duncan, Emily W.; Lv, Ligang; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui

    2017-02-01

    Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture (θ) is a challenge that remains to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time θ monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of θ dynamics. In this study, we integrated the manual and real-time monitored data to depict the hillslope θ dynamics with good spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Linear (stepwise multiple linear regression-SMLR) and non-linear (support vector machines-SVM) models were used to predict θ at 39 manual sites (collected 1-2 times per month) with θ collected at three real-time monitoring sites (collected every 5 mins). By comparing the accuracies of SMLR and SVM for each depth and manual site, an optimal prediction model was then determined at this depth of this site. Results showed that θ at the 39 manual sites can be reliably predicted (root mean square errors <0.028 m3 m-3) using both SMLR and SVM. The linear or non-linear relationship between θ at each manual site and at the three real-time monitoring sites was the main reason for choosing SMLR or SVM as the optimal prediction model. The subsurface flow dynamics was an important factor that determined whether the relationship was linear or non-linear. Depth to bedrock, elevation, topographic wetness index, profile curvature, and θ temporal stability influenced the selection of prediction model since they were related to the subsurface soil water distribution and movement. Using this approach, hillslope θ spatial distributions at un-sampled times and dates can be predicted. Missing information of hillslope θ dynamics can be acquired successfully.

  3. Multi-disease analysis of maternal antibody decay using non-linear mixed models accounting for censoring.

    PubMed

    Goeyvaerts, Nele; Leuridan, Elke; Faes, Christel; Van Damme, Pierre; Hens, Niel

    2015-09-10

    Biomedical studies often generate repeated measures of multiple outcomes on a set of subjects. It may be of interest to develop a biologically intuitive model for the joint evolution of these outcomes while assessing inter-subject heterogeneity. Even though it is common for biological processes to entail non-linear relationships, examples of multivariate non-linear mixed models (MNMMs) are still fairly rare. We contribute to this area by jointly analyzing the maternal antibody decay for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella, allowing for a different non-linear decay model for each infectious disease. We present a general modeling framework to analyze multivariate non-linear longitudinal profiles subject to censoring, by combining multivariate random effects, non-linear growth and Tobit regression. We explore the hypothesis of a common infant-specific mechanism underlying maternal immunity using a pairwise correlated random-effects approach and evaluating different correlation matrix structures. The implied marginal correlation between maternal antibody levels is estimated using simulations. The mean duration of passive immunity was less than 4 months for all diseases with substantial heterogeneity between infants. The maternal antibody levels against rubella and varicella were found to be positively correlated, while little to no correlation could be inferred for the other disease pairs. For some pairs, computational issues occurred with increasing correlation matrix complexity, which underlines the importance of further developing estimation methods for MNMMs.

  4. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  5. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  6. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  7. How to include the nonlinear Cox-Voinov law into sloshing dynamics? A weakly non linear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Gallaire, Francois

    2015-11-01

    Fluid sloshing in a glass is a common example of damped oscillator, with the frequency derived in the potential flow limit. The damping rate is then evaluated considering the viscous dissipation at the wall, in the bulk and at the free surface, respectively. This classical theoretical result however differs from what is often seen in the laboratory when the attenuation of gravity waves happens in a small basin. In particular, the damping rate is found to increase as the sloshing amplitude decreases. Here we show that this enhanced damping is due to capillary forces at the contact line between the liquid and the container. The angle θd made by the liquid interface with the container walls (contact angle) is modeled as a non-linear function of the interface speed U, (Cox-Voinov law θd3 α U). We propose a multiple scale expansion scheme to consistently derive an amplitude equation using the Cox-Voinov law as boundary condition at the moving interface. The zero order problem reduces to the classical static meniscus problem, while the first order problem yields an eigenvalue problem defining the viscous sloshing modes. At an higher order, a compatibility condition has to be enforced, yielding an amplitude equation. Solving the later, we recover the expected increase of the damping rate as the sloshing amplitude decreases, an effect thus attributed to capillary effects.

  8. On non-linear dynamics and control designs applied to the ideal and non-ideal variants of the Fitzhugh Nagumo (FN) mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarette, Fábio Roberto; Balthazar, José Manoel; Peruzzi, Nelson José; Rafikov, Marat

    2009-03-01

    The Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FH) mathematical model is considered a simplification of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model. This paper analyzes the non-linear dynamics of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FN) mathematical model, and still presents some modifications in the governing equations of the system in order to transform it into a non-ideal one (taking into account that an energy source has limited power supply). We also developed an optimal linear control design and used Sinhas's theory for the membrane's action potential in order to stabilize the variation of this potential.

  9. Non-Linear finite element analysis of cone penetration in layered sandy loam soil-considering precompression stress state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Axisymmetric finite element (FE) method was developed using a commercial computer program to simulate cone penetration process in layered granular soil. Soil was considered as a non-linear elastic plastic material which was modeled using variable elastic parameters of Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s r...

  10. Non-linear osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  11. The linear and non-linear characterization of dust ion acoustic mode in complex plasma in presence of dynamical charging of dust

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav Das, Nilakshi

    2015-10-15

    A systematic theoretical investigation has been carried out on the role of dust charging dynamics on the nature and stability of DIA (Dust Ion Acoustic) mode in complex plasma. The study has been made for both linear and non-linear scale regime of DIA mode. The observed results have been characterized in terms of background plasma responses towards dust surface responsible for dust charge fluctuation, invoking important dusty plasma parameters, especially the ion flow speed and dust size. The linear analyses confirm the nature of instability in DIA mode in presence of dust charge fluctuation. The instability shows a damping of DIA mode in subsonic flow regime followed by a gradual growth in instability in supersonic limit of ion flow. The strength of non-linearity and their existence domain is found to be driven by different dusty plasma parameters. As dust is ubiquitous in interstellar medium with plasma background, the study also addresses the possible effect of dust charging dynamics in gravito-electrostatic characterization and the stability of dust molecular clouds especially in proto-planetary disc. The observations are influential and interesting towards the understanding of dust settling mechanism and formation of dust environments in different regions in space.

  12. [Non-linear System Dynamics Simulation Modeling of Adolescent Obesity: Using Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Eun Suk; Yu, Jae Kook; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for adolescent obesity in Korea that could be used for obesity policy analysis. On the basis of the casual loop diagram, a model was developed by converting to stock and flow diagram. The Vensim DSS 5.0 program was used in the model development. We simulated method of moments to the calibration of this model with data from The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey 2005 to 2013. We ran the scenario simulation. This model can be used to understand the current adolescent obesity rate, predict the future obesity rate, and be utilized as a tool for controlling the risk factors. The results of the model simulation match well with the data. It was identified that a proper model, able to predict obesity probability, was established. These results of stock and flow diagram modeling in adolescent obesity can be helpful in development of obesity by policy planners and other stakeholders to better anticipate the multiple effects of interventions in both the short and the long term. In the future we suggest the development of an expanded model based on this adolescent obesity model.

  13. Atomic force microscopy indentation and inverse analysis for non-linear viscoelastic identification of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhung; Shao, Yue; Wineman, Alan; Fu, Jianping; Waas, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MCF-10A) are studied through indentation with spherical borosilicate glass particles in atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode in fluid. Their mechanical properties are obtained by analyzing the recorded reaction force-time response. The analysis is based on comparing experimental data with predictions from finite element (FE) simulation. Here, FE modeling is employed to simulate the AFM indentation experiment which is neither a displacement nor a force controlled test. This approach is expected to overcome many underlying problems of the widely used models such as Hertz contact model due to its capability to capture the contact behaviors between the spherical indentor and the cell, account for cell geometry, and incorporate with large strain theory. In this work, a non-linear viscoelastic (NLV) model in which the viscoelastic part is described by Prony series terms is used for the constitutive model of the cells. The time-dependent material parameters are extracted through an inverse analysis with the use of a surrogate model based on a Kriging estimator. The purpose is to automatically extract the NLV properties of the cells with a more efficient process compared to the iterative inverse technique that has been mostly applied in the literature. The method also allows the use of FE modeling in the analysis of a large amount of experimental data. The NLV parameters are compared between MCF-7 and MCF-10A and MCF-10A treated and untreated with the drug Cytochalasin D to examine the possibility of using relaxation properties as biomarkers for distinguishing these types of breast cancer cells. The comparisons indicate that malignant cells (MCF-7) are softer and exhibit more relaxation than benign cells (MCF-10A). Disrupting the cytoskeleton using the drug Cytochalasin D also results in a larger amount of relaxation in the cell's response. In addition, relaxation properties indicate larger differences as compared to the elastic moduli

  14. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  15. Development of a Probabilistic Technique for On-line Parameter and State Estimation in Non-linear Dynamic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tunc Aldemir; Don W. Miller; Brian k. Hajek; Peng Wang

    2002-04-01

    The DSD (Dynamic System Doctor) is a system-independent, interactive software under development for on-line state/parameter estimation in dynamic systems (1), partially supported through a Nuclear Engineering Education (NEER) grant during 1998-2001. This paper summarizes the recent accomplishments in improving the user-friendliness and computational capability of DSD

  16. Non-linear associations between laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clues from artificial intelligence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, E

    2006-01-01

    Summary The relationship between the different symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease remain markedly obscure due to the high underlying non-linearity and the lack of studies focusing on the problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the hidden relationships between the triad of symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using advanced mathematical techniques, borrowed from the artificial intelligence field, in a cohort of patients with oesophagitis. A total of 388 patients (from 60 centres) with endoscopic evidence of oesophagitis were recruited. The severity of oesophagitis was scored by means of the Savary-Miller classification. PST algorithm was employed. This study shows that laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are correlated even if in a non-linear way. PMID:17345935

  17. A comparative study of linear and non-linear regression analysis for ammonium exchange by clinoptilolite zeolite.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Dogan; Koc, Yunus; Turan, Mustafa; Ozturk, Mustafa

    2007-06-01

    Ammonium ion exchange from aqueous solution using clinoptilolite zeolite was investigated at laboratory scale. Batch experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, zeolite dosage, contact time, initial ammonium concentration and temperature. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models and pseudo-second-order model were fitted to experimental data. Linear and non-linear regression methods were compared to determine the best fitting of isotherm and kinetic model to experimental data. The rate limiting mechanism of ammonium uptake by zeolite was determined as chemical exchange. Non-linear regression has better performance for analyzing experimental data and Freundlich model was better than Langmuir to represent equilibrium data.

  18. Non-linear associations between laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clues from artificial intelligence analysis.

    PubMed

    Grossi, E

    2006-10-01

    The relationship between the different symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease remain markedly obscure due to the high underlying non-linearity and the lack of studies focusing on the problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the hidden relationships between the triad of symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using advanced mathematical techniques, borrowed from the artificial intelligence field, in a cohort of patients with oesophagitis. A total of 388 patients (from 60 centres) with endoscopic evidence of oesophagitis were recruited. The severity of oesophagitis was scored by means of the Savary-Miller classification. PST algorithm was employed. This study shows that laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are correlated even if in a non-linear way.

  19. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Gregory A.; Commer, Michael

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria. The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.

  20. Detector response and intensity cross-contribution as contributing factors to the observed non-linear calibration curves in mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sie, Meng-Jie; Chen, Bud-Gen; Chang, Chiung Dan; Lin, Chia-Han; Liu, Ray H

    2011-01-21

    It is a common knowledge that detector fatigue causes a calibration curve to deviate from the preferred linear relationship at the higher concentration end. With the adaptation of an isotopically labeled analog of the analyte as the internal standard (IS), cross-contribution (CC) of the intensities monitored for the ions designating the analyte and the IS can also result in a non-linear relationship at both ends. A novel approach developed to assess 'the extent and the effect of [CC]… in quantitative GC-MS analysis' can be extended (a) to examine whether a specific set of CC values is accurate; and (b) to differentiate whether the observed non-linear calibration curve is caused by detector fatigue or the CC phenomenon. Data derived from the exemplar secobarbital (SB)/SB-d(5) system (as di-butyl-derivatives) are used to illustrate this novel approach. Comparing the non-linear nature of calibration data that are empirically observed to that derived from theoretical calculation (with the incorporation of adjustment resulting from the ion CC phenomenon), supports the conclusions that (a) both CC and detector fatigue contribute significantly to the observed non-linear nature of the calibration curve based on ion-pair m/z 207/212; and (b) detector fatigue is the dominating contributor when the calibration curve is based on ion-pair m/z 263/268.

  1. Non-linear dynamics of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures based on a biological kinetic model of aerobic enzymatic methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V; Shim, Natalia; Vogt, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear dynamics of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures during methane oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus sporium strain 5 (NCIMB 11126) and Methylocaldum gracile strain 14 L (NCIMB 11912) under copper-rich (8.9 µM Cu(2+)), copper-limited (0.3 µM Cu(2+)) or copper-regular (1.1 µM Cu(2+)) conditions has been described mathematically. The model was calibrated by experimental data of methane quantities and carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of methane measured previously in laboratory microcosms reported by Feisthauer et al. [ 1 ] M. gracile initially oxidizes methane by a particulate methane monooxygenase and assimilates formaldehyde via the ribulose monophosphate pathway, whereas M. sporium expresses a soluble methane monooxygenase under copper-limited conditions and uses the serine pathway for carbon assimilation. The model shows that during methane solubilization dominant carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation occurs. An increase of biomass due to growth of methanotrophs causes an increase of particulate or soluble monooxygenase that, in turn, decreases soluble methane concentration intensifying methane solubilization. The specific maximum rate of methane oxidation υm was proved to be equal to 4.0 and 1.3 mM mM(-1) h(-1) for M. sporium under copper-rich and copper-limited conditions, respectively, and 0.5 mM mM(-1) h(-1) for M. gracile. The model shows that methane oxidation cannot be described by traditional first-order kinetics. The kinetic isotope fractionation ceases when methane concentrations decrease close to the threshold value. Applicability of the non-linear model was confirmed by dynamics of carbon isotope signature for carbon dioxide that was depleted and later enriched in (13)C. Contrasting to the common Rayleigh linear graph, the dynamic curves allow identifying inappropriate isotope data due to inaccurate substrate concentration analyses. The non-linear model pretty adequately described experimental

  2. Dynamic topology and flux rope evolution during non-linear tearing of 3D null point current sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Wyper, P. F. Pontin, D. I.

    2014-10-15

    In this work, the dynamic magnetic field within a tearing-unstable three-dimensional current sheet about a magnetic null point is described in detail. We focus on the evolution of the magnetic null points and flux ropes that are formed during the tearing process. Generally, we find that both magnetic structures are created prolifically within the layer and are non-trivially related. We examine how nulls are created and annihilated during bifurcation processes, and describe how they evolve within the current layer. The type of null bifurcation first observed is associated with the formation of pairs of flux ropes within the current layer. We also find that new nulls form within these flux ropes, both following internal reconnection and as adjacent flux ropes interact. The flux ropes exhibit a complex evolution, driven by a combination of ideal kinking and their interaction with the outflow jets from the main layer. The finite size of the unstable layer also allows us to consider the wider effects of flux rope generation. We find that the unstable current layer acts as a source of torsional magnetohydrodynamic waves and dynamic braiding of magnetic fields. The implications of these results to several areas of heliophysics are discussed.

  3. A wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) dynamic neural network model for real-time flood forecasting using satellite-based rainfall products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Trushnamayee; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi; Beria, Harsh; Chatterjee, Chandranath

    2016-08-01

    Although flood forecasting and warning system is a very important non-structural measure in flood-prone river basins, poor raingauge network as well as unavailability of rainfall data in real-time could hinder its accuracy at different lead times. Conversely, since the real-time satellite-based rainfall products are now becoming available for the data-scarce regions, their integration with the data-driven models could be effectively used for real-time flood forecasting. To address these issues in operational streamflow forecasting, a new data-driven model, namely, the wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) is proposed and evaluated in comparison with four other data-driven models, viz., the linear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (ARMAX), static artificial neural network (ANN), wavelet-based ANN (WANN), and dynamic nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) models. First, the quality of input rainfall products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), viz., TRMM and TRMM-real-time (RT) rainfall products is assessed through statistical evaluation. The results reveal that the satellite rainfall products moderately correlate with the observed rainfall, with the gauge-adjusted TRMM product outperforming the real-time TRMM-RT product. The TRMM rainfall product better captures the ground observations up to 95 percentile range (30.11 mm/day), although the hit rate decreases for high rainfall intensity. The effect of antecedent rainfall (AR) and climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) temperature product on the catchment response is tested in all the developed models. The results reveal that, during real-time flow simulation, the satellite-based rainfall products generally perform worse than the gauge-based rainfall. Moreover, as compared to the existing models, the flow forecasting by the WNARX model is way better than the other four models studied herein with the

  4. Analog implementation of radix-2, 16-FFT processor for OFDM receivers: non-linearity behaviours and system performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtarian, N.; Hodtani, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Analog implementations of decoders have been widely studied by considering circuit complexity, as well as power and speed, and their integration with other analog blocks is an extension of analog decoding research. In the front-end blocks of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, combination of an analog fast Fourier transform (FFT) with an analog decoder is suitable. In this article, the implementation of a 16-symbol FFT processor based on analog complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor current mirrors within circuit and system levels is presented, and the FFT is implemented using a butterfly diagram, where each node is implemented using analog circuits. Implementation details include consideration of effects of transistor mismatch and inherent noises and effects of circuit non-linearity in OFDM system performance. It is shown that not only can transistor inherent noises be measured but also transistor mismatch can be applied as an input-referred noise source that can be used in system- and circuit-level studies. Simulations of a radix-2, 16-symbol FFT show that proposed circuits consume very low power, and impacts of noise, mismatch and non-linearity for each node of this processor are very small.

  5. On the complex non-linear interaction between bacteria and redox dynamics in sediments and its effects on water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rubol, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the prognoses on the availability of resources related to different climate scenarios have been already formulated, the complex hydrological and biogeochemical reactions taking place in different compartments in natural environmental media are poorly understood, especially regarding the interactions between water bodies, and the reactions taking place at soil-water interfaces. Amongst them, the inter-relationship between hydrology, chemistry and biology has important implications in natural (rivers, lakes) and man-made water facilities (lagoons, artificial recharge pounds, reservoirs, slow infiltration systems, etc). The consequences involve environment, economic, social and health-risk aspects. At the current stage, only limited explanations are available to understand the implications of these relationships on ecosystem services, water quality and water quantity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek a full understanding of these physical-biogeochemical processes in water-bodies, sediments and biota and its implications in ecological and health risk. We present a soil column experiment and a mathematical model which aim to study the mutual interplay between water and bacteria activity in porous media, the corresponding dynamics and the feedback on nutrient cycling by using a multidisciplinary approach.

  6. A mathematical model of psychotherapy: an investigation using dynamic non-linear equations to model the therapeutic relationship.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Paul R; Liebovitch, Larry S; Gottman, John M; Norman, Michael D; Su, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models, such as the one developed by Gottman et al. (1998, 2000, 2002) to understand the interaction between husbands and wives, can provide novel insights into the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship. A set of nonlinear equations were used to model the changing emotional state of a therapist and client. The results suggest: (1) The person that is most responsive to the other achieves the most positive state, (2) the emotional state of the client oscillates before reaching its final state, (3) therapy is least successful when the therapist starts from a negative state, and (4) there is an inverse relationship between models that change only the influence parameter and models that change only the inertia parameter, creating a series of four basic models to work with. These theoretical models require further, empirical investigation to test the derived parameters. If validated, or revised based on observations of therapist-client relationships in development, they could provide specific direction in creating successful therapeutic relationships for training clinicians and those already in practice.

  7. State-resolved molecular photoionization dynamics of polyatomic systems: Effects of non-linear changes in molecular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James Scott

    An important topic in the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet photons by molecules is the correlation between electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom during photoionization. However, no previous investigations have probed the correlation between bending excitation and photoejection dynamics over a wide spectral range. We present the first such studies by reporting the influence of bending excitation following CO2 3σu -1 and N2O 7σ-1 photoionization over the photon energy range (15 eV < hvexc < 200 eV). Using dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy in conjunction with synchrotron radiation, we determine the vibrational branching ratio v+ = (0,1,0)( 0,0,0) for the CO2+ (B 2Σu+) and N2O+ (A 2Σ+) electronic states. The relative rate of production of the υ2 = 1 upper vibrational state varies over a broad ionization energy range, and in ways that are largely unanticipated. These branching ratios exhibit a strong thermal dependence, and we are able to separate out effects due to hot-band excitation from those that are due to vibronic coupling. The data indicate that the continuum electron is responsible for the observed energy dependence in CO2 3σ u-1 photoionization. This is a previously unobserved result. Additional studies examine the influence of simultaneous excitation in the bending and symmetric stretching modes in N2O+ [A 2Σ+, v + = (1,1,0)] to determine the effect of changing the energy separation of vibronically coupled potential surfaces. Finally, the CF4 + [D 2A1, v+ = (1,0,0,0)/(0,0,0,0)] branching ratio is studied, which provides the first experimental observation of a predicted low-energy shape resonance in this photoionization pathway.

  8. The impact of geometric non-linearities on the fatigue analysis of trailing edge bond lines in wind turbine rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noever Castelos, Pablo; Balzani, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    The accurate prediction of stress histories for the fatigue analysis is of utmost importance for the design process of wind turbine rotor blades. As detailed, transient, and geometrically non-linear three-dimensional finite element analyses are computationally weigh too expensive, it is commonly regarded sufficient to calculate the stresses with a geometrically linear analysis and superimpose different stress states in order to obtain the complete stress histories. In order to quantify the error from geometrically linear simulations for the calculation of stress histories and to verify the practical applicability of the superposition principal in fatigue analyses, this paper studies the influence of geometric non-linearity in the example of a trailing edge bond line, as this subcomponent suffers from high strains in span-wise direction. The blade under consideration is that of the IWES IWT-7.5-164 reference wind turbine. From turbine simulations the highest edgewise loading scenario from the fatigue load cases is used as the reference. A 3D finite element model of the blade is created and the bond line fatigue assessment is performed according to the GL certification guidelines in its 2010 edition, and in comparison to the latest DNV GL standard from end of 2015. The results show a significant difference between the geometrically linear and non-linear stress analyses when the bending moments are approximated via a corresponding external loading, especially in case of the 2010 GL certification guidelines. This finding emphasizes the demand to reconsider the application of the superposition principal in fatigue analyses of modern flexible rotor blades, where geometrical nonlinearities become significant. In addition, a new load application methodology is introduced that reduces the geometrically non-linear behaviour of the blade in the finite element analysis.

  9. Three-dimensional finite element stress analysis: the technique and methodology of non-linear property simulation and soft tissue loading behavior for different partial denture designs.

    PubMed

    Kanbara, Ryo; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Ochiai, Kent T; Kawai, Tatsushi; Tanaka, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and report upon a methodology for a non-linear capacity 3D modeling finite element analysis evaluating the loading behavior of different partial denture designs. A 3D finite element model using human CT data was constructed. An original material constant conversion program was implemented in the data simulation of non-linear tissue behavior. The finite element method material properties of residual ridge mucosa were found to have seven material constants and six conversion points of stress values. Periodontal tissues were found to have three constants, and two conversion points. Three magnetic attachment partial denture designs with different bracing elements were evaluated. Technical procedures for finite element model simulation of nonlinear tissue behavior properties evaluating the oral behavior of prosthetic device designs are reported for prosthodontic testing. The use of horizontal cross-arch bracing positively impacts upon the comparative stability of the partial denture designs tested.

  10. Complementary use of partial least-squares and artificial neural networks for the non-linear spectrophotometric analysis of pharmaceutical samples.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Héctor C; Collado, María S; Satuf, María L; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2002-10-01

    The complementary use of partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate calibration and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of three active components in a pharmaceutical formulation has been explored. The presence of non-linearities caused by chemical interactions was confirmed by a recently discussed methodology based on Mallows augmented partial residual plots. Ternary mixtures of chlorpheniramine, naphazoline and dexamethasone in a matrix of excipients have been resolved by using PLS for the two major analytes (chlorpheniramine and naphazoline) and ANNs for the minor one (dexamethasone). Notwithstanding the large number of constituents, their high degree of spectral overlap and the occurrence of non-linearities, rapid and simultaneous analysis has been achieved, with reasonably good accuracy and precision. No extraction procedures using non-aqueous solvents are required.

  11. Non-linear optical imaging and quantitative analysis of the pathological changes in normal and carcinomatous human colorectal muscularis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guowei; Zhi, Weijia; Zou, Yong; Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Changzhen; Peng, Ruiyun; Hu, Xiangjun

    2017-10-01

    Non-linear optical (NLO) imaging based on two-photon excitation (2PE) and second harmonic generation (SHG) has been widely used to image microstructures of biomedical specimens over the last two decades. We employed NLO imaging technology to investigate the histology of normal and carcinomatous human colorectal muscularis in transverse and longitudinal views. Results show there are different patterns of pathological changes of muscularis in tissue structure and cell morphology from both views. The NLO imaging provides identical histological information as the H&E images but requires neither stain nor tissue processing. Our study indicates that NLO imaging technology shows more detailed microstructure, which is a critical complementary tool in pathological diagnosis of colorectal tumours. It suggests that NLO imaging could be a very important diagnostic tool to help pathologists realise the real time early detection of human colorectal tumours in the foreseeable future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. High Reynolds number analysis of flat plate and separated afterbody flow using non-linear turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, John R.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method, PAB3D, to simulate the effect of Reynolds number variation using non-linear explicit algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence modeling was assessed. Subsonic flat plate boundary-layer flow parameters such as normalized velocity distributions, local and average skin friction, and shape factor were compared with DNS calculations and classical theory at various local Reynolds numbers up to 180 million. Additionally, surface pressure coefficient distributions and integrated drag predictions on an axisymmetric nozzle afterbody were compared with experimental data from 10 to 130 million Reynolds number. The high Reynolds data was obtained from the NASA Langley 0.3m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. There was generally good agreement of surface static pressure coefficients between the CFD and measurement. The change in pressure coefficient distributions with varying Reynolds number was similar to the experimental data trends, though slightly over-predicting the effect. The computational sensitivity of viscous modeling and turbulence modeling are shown. Integrated afterbody pressure drag was typically slightly lower than the experimental data. The change in afterbody pressure drag with Reynolds number was small both experimentally and computationally, even though the shape of the distribution was somewhat modified with Reynolds number.

  13. Performance analysis of an all-optical OFDM system in presence of non-linear phase noise.

    PubMed

    Hmood, Jassim K; Harun, Sulaiman W; Emami, Siamak D; Khodaei, Amin; Noordin, Kamarul A; Ahmad, Harith; Shalaby, Hossam M H

    2015-02-23

    The potential for higher spectral efficiency has increased the interest in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. However, the sensitivity of all-optical OFDM to fiber non-linearity, which causes nonlinear phase noise, is still a major concern. In this paper, an analytical model for estimating the phase noise due to self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an all-optical OFDM system is presented. The phase noise versus power, distance, and number of subcarriers is evaluated by implementing the mathematical model using Matlab. In order to verify the results, an all-optical OFDM system, that uses coupler-based inverse fast Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform without any nonlinear compensation, is demonstrated by numerical simulation. The system employs 29 subcarriers; each subcarrier is modulated by a 4-QAM or 16-QAM format with a symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s. The results indicate that the phase variance due to FWM is dominant over those induced by either SPM or XPM. It is also shown that the minimum phase noise occurs at -3 dBm and -1 dBm for 4-QAM and 16-QAM, respectively. Finally, the error vector magnitude (EVM) versus subcarrier power and symbol rate is quantified using both simulation and the analytical model. It turns out that both EVM results are in good agreement with each other.

  14. Error-rate estimation in discriminant analysis of non-linear longitudinal data: A comparison of resampling methods.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Rolando; Fuentes, Claudio; Meza, Cristian; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2016-07-08

    Consider longitudinal observations across different subjects such that the underlying distribution is determined by a non-linear mixed-effects model. In this context, we look at the misclassification error rate for allocating future subjects using cross-validation, bootstrap algorithms (parametric bootstrap, leave-one-out, .632 and [Formula: see text]), and bootstrap cross-validation (which combines the first two approaches), and conduct a numerical study to compare the performance of the different methods. The simulation and comparisons in this study are motivated by real observations from a pregnancy study in which one of the main objectives is to predict normal versus abnormal pregnancy outcomes based on information gathered at early stages. Since in this type of studies it is not uncommon to have insufficient data to simultaneously solve the classification problem and estimate the misclassification error rate, we put special attention to situations when only a small sample size is available. We discuss how the misclassification error rate estimates may be affected by the sample size in terms of variability and bias, and examine conditions under which the misclassification error rate estimates perform reasonably well.

  15. The biopsychology-nonlinear analysis toolbox: a free, open-source Matlab-toolbox for the non-linear analysis of time series data.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Otto, Tobias; Hoffmann, Sven

    2010-10-01

    We provide a free, open-source toolbox for non-linear time series analyses. The major goal of this project was to provide a toolbox for nonlinear time series analyses that is easily accessible to a wide range of neuroscientists. The toolbox offers modular, powerful and flexible algorithms embedded in an easy to handle graphical user interface (GUI). The toolbox can be run within the Matlab environment, but also as stand-alone solution without reference to a programming environment that is also usable for different PC operating systems (Windows and Linux). The Biopsychology--Nonlinear Analysis Toolbox and documentation are available freely and open-source from http://biopsynltoolbox.sourceforge.net.

  16. Non-linear finite element stress analysis of plastic deformation in Co-Cr wrought-wire clasps.

    PubMed

    Shirasu, Kenichiro; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa

    2008-11-01

    The purpose was to assess the influence of plastic deformation by bending on stress, flexibility and permanent deformation in wrought-wire clasps. A three-dimensional finite element model of a straight wire (120 mm in length and 1.0mm in diameter) was created. The non-linear stress-strain relationship of a commercial Co-Cr alloy straight wrought-wire, measured by means of tensile test (n = 5) was put into the program. Bending to an angle of 90 degrees or 120 degrees and subsequent unloading processes with spring back phenomenon, were simulated in the clasp shoulder and arm. The stress distributions were analyzed at loading and unloading. Thereafter, the clasp models were deflected outwardly 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mm at the clasp tip, to simulate the removal and insertion of a denture. Under the bending force, the maximum tensile stress was recorded at the outside surface of the bending corner; while after unloading, the maximum tensile stress appeared at the inside of the bending angle. By deflection of the clasp tip, this stress increased up to 203% of that before deflection. The change of stress by deflection was larger at the shoulder than at the arm. The load required for deflection was approximately 43% larger in the models with the arm angle of 120 degrees than those with an angle of 90 degrees . The results suggest that the permanent deformation of wrought-wire clasps is likely to initiate at the clasp shoulder, while clasp flexibility is dependent on the bending angle of the clasp arm.

  17. Direct forecasting of subsurface flow response from non-linear dynamic data by linear least-squares in canonical functional principal component space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satija, Aaditya; Caers, Jef

    2015-03-01

    Inverse modeling is widely used to assist with forecasting problems in the subsurface. However, full inverse modeling can be time-consuming requiring iteration over a high dimensional parameter space with computationally expensive forward models and complex spatial priors. In this paper, we investigate a prediction-focused approach (PFA) that aims at building a statistical relationship between data variables and forecast variables, avoiding the inversion of model parameters altogether. The statistical relationship is built by first applying the forward model related to the data variables and the forward model related to the prediction variables on a limited set of spatial prior models realizations, typically generated through geostatistical methods. The relationship observed between data and prediction is highly non-linear for many forecasting problems in the subsurface. In this paper we propose a Canonical Functional Component Analysis (CFCA) to map the data and forecast variables into a low-dimensional space where, if successful, the relationship is linear. CFCA consists of (1) functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for dimension reduction of time-series data and (2) canonical correlation analysis (CCA); the latter aiming to establish a linear relationship between data and forecast components. If such mapping is successful, then we illustrate with several cases that (1) simple regression techniques with a multi-Gaussian framework can be used to directly quantify uncertainty on the forecast without any model inversion and that (2) such uncertainty is a good approximation of uncertainty obtained from full posterior sampling with rejection sampling.

  18. Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

  19. The association between ambient temperature and preterm birth in Shenzhen, China: a distributed lag non-linear time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhijiang; Lin, Yan; Ma, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue; Li, Li; Zhang, Shaoqiang; Cheng, Yuli; Zhou, Xiaomei; Lin, Hualiang; Miao, Huazhang; Zhao, Qingguo

    2016-08-08

    A few studies have examined the association between ambient temperature and preterm birth (PTB), and the results have been inconsistent. This study explored the association between ambient temperature and PTB in Shenzhen, China. Data of daily singleton PTB, air pollution and meteorological variables from 2005 to 2011 were collected in Shenzhen. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to investigate the association of the low and high temperatures (1st, 5th, 95th, and 99th percentiles) with PTB. The median temperature was 24.5 °C and the 1st, 5th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of daily mean temperatures were 9, 12.5, 29.9 and 30.7 °C, respectively. The prevalence of singleton PTB was 5.61 % in Shenzhen. The association between temperature and PTB was not linear. There was an immediate positive association of low temperature (1st and 5th percentiles) and a negative association of high temperature (95th and 99th percentiles) with PTB. The effect of low temperature 9 °C (1st) on PTB on the current day was stronger than that of 12.5 °C (5th), with a relative risk (RR) of 1.54 (95 % CI: 1.36-1.75) and 1.49 (95 % CI: 1.35-1.63), respectively. The cumulative RR (up to 30 days) of 9 and 12.5 °C was 1.72 (95 % CI: 1.28-2.33) and 1.96 (95 % CI: 1.60-2.39), respectively. The cumulative effects (up to 30 days) of high temperature (95th and 99th percentiles) on PTB were 0.69 (95 % CI: 0.60-0.80) and 0.62 (95 % CI: 0.52-0.74), respectively. The cumulative effect (up to 30 days) of low temperatures on vaginal delivery PTB was lower than that of the cesarean section PTB with an RR of 1.58 (95 % CI: 1.12-2.22) and 1.93 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.08), respectively. This study suggests that low temperature might be a risk factor, while high temperature might be a protective factor of PTB in Shenzhen.

  20. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis Method and Brain Functional Connectivity: Its Application to the Study of the Non-linear Relationships of Motor Cortex and Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of basal ganglia (BG) interactions is often condensed into simple models mainly based on animal data and that present BG in closed-loop cortico-subcortical circuits of excitatory/inhibitory pathways which analyze the incoming cortical data and return the processed information to the cortex. This study was aimed at identifying functional relationships in the BG motor-loop of 24 healthy-subjects who provided written, informed consent and whose BOLD-activity was recorded by MRI methods. The analysis of the functional interaction between these centers by correlation techniques and multiple linear regression showed non-linear relationships which cannot be suitably addressed with these methods. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), an unsupervised multivariable procedure which can identify non-linear interactions, was used to study the functional connectivity of BG when subjects were at rest. Linear methods showed different functional interactions expected according to current BG models. MCA showed additional functional interactions which were not evident when using lineal methods. Seven functional configurations of BG were identified with MCA, two involving the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, one involving the deepest BG (external-internal globus pallidum, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigral), one with the input-output BG centers (putamen and motor thalamus), two linking the input-output centers with other BG (external pallidum and subthalamic nucleus), and one linking the external pallidum and the substantia nigral. The results provide evidence that the non-linear MCA and linear methods are complementary and should be best used in conjunction to more fully understand the nature of functional connectivity of brain centers. PMID:28676738

  1. Social complexity, modernity and suicide: an assessment of Durkheim's suicide from the perspective of a non-linear analysis of complex social systems.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Can we share even today the same vision of modernity which Durkheim left us by its suicide analysis? or can society 'surprise us'? The answer to these questions can be inspired by several studies which found that beginning the second half of the twentieth century suicides in western countries more industrialized and modernized do not increase in a constant, linear way as modernization and social fragmentation process increases, as well as Durkheim's theory seems to lead us to predict. Despite continued modernizing process, they found stabilizing or falling overall suicide rate trends. Therefore, a gradual process of adaptation to the stress of modernization associated to low social integration levels seems to be activated in modern society. Assuming this perspective, the paper highlights as this tendency may be understood in the light of the new concept of social systems as complex adaptive systems, systems which are able to adapt to environmental perturbations and generate as a whole surprising, emergent effects due to nonlinear interactions among their components. So, in the frame of Nonlinear Dynamical System Modeling, we formalize the logic of suicide decision-making process responsible for changes at aggregate level in suicide growth rates by a nonlinear differential equation structured in a logistic way, and in so doing we attempt to capture the mechanism underlying the change process in suicide growth rate and to test the hypothesis that system's dynamics exhibits a restrained increase process as expression of an adaptation process to the liquidity of social ties in modern society. In particular, a Nonlinear Logistic Map is applied to suicide data in a modern society such as the Italian one from 1875 to 2010. The analytic results, seeming to confirm the idea of the activation of an adaptation process to the liquidity of social ties, constitutes an opportunity for a more general reflection on the current configuration of modern society, by relating the

  2. Non-linear elastic three-dimensional finite element analysis on the effect of endocrown material rigidity on alveolar bone remodeling process.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Raffaella; Apicella, Davide; Perillo, Letizia; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Ferrari, Marco; Apicella, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    In healthy conditions, modeling and remodeling collaborate to obtain a correct shape and function of bones. Loads on bones cause bone strains which generate signals that some cells can detect and respond to. Threshold ranges of such signals are genetically determined and are involved in the control of modeling and remodeling. The present study aimed at assessing the deformations transferred to surrounding bone by endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with endocrowns made up of high or low elastic modulus materials. The solid model consisted of a maxillary central incisor, the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the surrounding cortical and cancellous bone. Both composite and alumina endocrowns were simulated under load and compared to a sound tooth. Dynamic non-linear analyses were performed to validate discretization processes. Non-linear analyses were performed on teeth and surrounding bone to estimate strain variations according to restorative techniques. Strain values in cortical bone, spongy bone, alveolar cortex and tooth were evaluated. PDL allowed models to homogeneously transfer loads to bone. Strains developing in highly rigid restorations were estimated to activate bone modeling and remodeling. The higher deformability of composites could enable restorative systems to transfer limited strains to compact and spongy bone of tooth socket. Although composites could not prevent the physiological resorption of the alveolar bone, they could successfully reduce strain arising in tooth socket when compared to alumina. The PDL prevented bone to undergo high deformations, resulting in natural flexural movements of teeth.

  3. Comparative study of different weighting methods in non-linear regression analysis: implications in the parametrization of carebastine after intravenous administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jansat, J M; Lastra, C F; Mariño, E L

    1998-06-01

    The influence of different weighting methods in non-linear regression analysis was evaluated in the pharmacokinetics of carebastine after a single intravenous dose of 10 mg in 8 healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations were measured by HPLC using an on-line solid-phase extraction method and automated injection. The analytical method was fully validated and the function of the analytical error subsequently determined. The parametric approach was performed using different weighting methods, including the homoscedastic method (W = 1) and heteroscedastic methods using weights of 1/C, 1/C2, and the inverse of the concentration variance calculated through the analytical error function (1/V), and the results were statistically evaluated according to the normal distribution. Statistically significant differences were observed in the representative parameters of the disposition kinetics of carebastine. The use of a multiple comparison test for statistical analysis of all differences among group means indicated that differences were generated between the homoscedastic method (W = 1) and the heteroscedastic methods (1/C, 1/C2, and 1/V). The results obtained in the present study confirmed the utility of the analytical error function as a weighting method in non-linear regression analysis and reinforced the importance of the correct choice of weights to avoid the estimation of imprecise or erroneous pharmacokinetic parameters.

  4. Determination of tartrazine in beverage samples by stopped-flow analysis and three-way multivariate calibration of non-linear kinetic-spectrophotometric data.

    PubMed

    Schenone, Agustina V; Culzoni, María J; Marsili, Nilda R; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2013-06-01

    The performance of MCR-ALS was studied in the modeling of non-linear kinetic-spectrophotometric data acquired by a stopped-flow system for the quantitation of tartrazine in the presence of brilliant blue and sunset yellow FCF as possible interferents. In the present work, MCR-ALS and U-PCA/RBL were firstly applied to remove the contribution of unexpected components not included in the calibration set. Secondly, a polynomial function was used to model the non-linear data obtained by the implementation of the algorithms. MCR-ALS was the only strategy that allowed the determination of tartrazine in test samples accurately. Therefore, it was applied for the analysis of tartrazine in beverage samples with minimum sample preparation and short analysis time. The proposed method was validated by comparison with a chromatographic procedure published in the literature. Mean recovery values between 98% and 100% and relative errors of prediction values between 4% and 9% were indicative of the good performance of the method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non Linear Step By Step Seismic Response and the Push Over Analysis Comparison of a Reinforced Concrete of Ductile Frames 25 Level Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Jorge A.; Martinez, Eduardo

    2008-07-01

    Based on a ductile frames 25 level building, a non-linear analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads (Push-Over) was made in order to determine its collapse and its principal responses were compared against the time-history seismic responses determined with the SCT-EW-85 record. The seismic-resistance design and faced to gravitational loads was made according to the Complementary Technical Norms of Concrete Structures Design (NTC-Concrete) and the NTC-Seismic of the Mexico City Code (RDF-04), satisfying the limit service states (relative lateral displacement between story height maximum relations, story drifts ⩽0.012) and failure (seismic behavior factor, Q = 3). The compressible (soft) seismic zone IIIb and the office use type (group B) were considered. The non-lineal responses were determined with nominal and over-resistance effects. The comparison were made with base shear force-roof lateral displacement relations, global distribution of plastic hinges, failure mechanics tendency, lateral displacements and story drift and its distribution along the height of the building, local and global ductility demands, etc. For the non-linear static analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads, was important to select the type of lateral forces distribution.

  6. Non Linear Step By Step Seismic Response and the Push Over Analysis Comparison of a Reinforced Concrete of Ductile Frames 25 Level Building

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jorge A.; Martinez, Eduardo

    2008-07-08

    Based on a ductile frames 25 level building, a non-linear analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads (Push-Over) was made in order to determine its collapse and its principal responses were compared against the time-history seismic responses determined with the SCT-EW-85 record. The seismic-resistance design and faced to gravitational loads was made according to the Complementary Technical Norms of Concrete Structures Design (NTC-Concrete) and the NTC-Seismic of the Mexico City Code (RDF-04), satisfying the limit service states (relative lateral displacement between story height maximum relations, story drifts {<=}0.012) and failure (seismic behavior factor, Q = 3). The compressible (soft) seismic zone III{sub b} and the office use type (group B) were considered. The non-lineal responses were determined with nominal and over-resistance effects. The comparison were made with base shear force-roof lateral displacement relations, global distribution of plastic hinges, failure mechanics tendency, lateral displacements and story drift and its distribution along the height of the building, local and global ductility demands, etc. For the non-linear static analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads, was important to select the type of lateral forces distribution.

  7. Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.

    2007-05-01

    Current industrial practice for the prediction and analysis of flutter relies heavily on linear methods and this has led to overly conservative design and envelope restrictions for aircraft. Although the methods have served the industry well, it is clear that for a number of reasons the inclusion of non-linearity in the mathematical and computational aeroelastic prediction tools is highly desirable. The increase in available and affordable computational resources, together with major advances in algorithms, mean that non-linear aeroelastic tools are now viable within the aircraft design and qualification environment. The Partnership for Unsteady Methods in Aerodynamics (PUMA) Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP) was sponsored in 2002 to conduct research into non-linear aeroelastic prediction methods and an academic, industry, and government consortium collaborated to address the following objectives: To develop useable methodologies to model and predict non-linear aeroelastic behaviour of complete aircraft. To evaluate the methodologies on real aircraft problems. To investigate the effect of non-linearities on aeroelastic behaviour and to determine which have the greatest effect on the flutter qualification process. These aims have been very effectively met during the course of the programme and the research outputs include: New methods available to industry for use in the flutter prediction process, together with the appropriate coaching of industry engineers. Interesting results in both linear and non-linear aeroelastics, with comprehensive comparison of methods and approaches for challenging problems. Additional embryonic techniques that, with further research, will further improve aeroelastics capability. This paper describes the methods that have been developed and how they are deployable within the industrial environment. We present a thorough review of the PUMA aeroelastics programme together with a comprehensive review of the relevant research

  8. Simple quasi-analytical holonomic homogenization model for the non-linear analysis of in-plane loaded masonry panels: Part 2, structural implementation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, G.; Bertolesi, E.

    2017-07-01

    The simple quasi analytical holonomic homogenization approach for the non-linear analysis of in-plane loaded masonry presented in Part 1 is here implemented at a structural leveland validated. For such implementation, a Rigid Body and Spring Mass model (RBSM) is adopted, relying into a numerical modelling constituted by rigid elements interconnected by homogenized inelastic normal and shear springs placed at the interfaces between adjoining elements. Such approach is also known as HRBSM. The inherit advantage is that it is not necessary to solve a homogenization problem at each load step in each Gauss point, and a direct implementation into a commercial software by means of an external user supplied subroutine is straightforward. In order to have an insight into the capabilities of the present approach to reasonably reproduce masonry behavior at a structural level, non-linear static analyses are conducted on a shear wall, for which experimental and numerical data are available in the technical literature. Quite accurate results are obtained with a very limited computational effort.

  9. Inverse analysis of thermal conductivities in transient non-homogeneous and non-linear heat conductions using BEM based on complex variable differentiation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, XiaoChun; Bai, YuGuang; Cui, Miao; Gao, XiaoWei

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a new inverse analysis approach to sensitivity analysis and material property identification in transient non-homogeneous and non-linear heat conduction Boundary Element Method (BEM) analysis based on Complex Variable Differentiation Method (CVDM). In this approach, the material properties are taken as the optimization variables, and the sensitivity coefficients are computed by CVDM. The advantages of using CVDM are that the computation of partial derivatives of an implicit function is reduced to function calculation in a complex domain, and the parameter sensitivity coefficients can be determined in a more accurate way than the traditional Finite Difference Method (FDM). Based on BEM and CVDM in evaluation of the sensitivity matrix of heat flux, the parameter such as thermal conductivity can be accurately identified. Six numerical examples are given to demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the presented method is efficient for identifying the thermal conductivity with single or multiple parameters.

  10. nonlinMIP contribution to CMIP6: model intercomparison project for non-linear mechanisms: physical basis, experimental design and analysis principles (v1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Peter; Andrews, Timothy; Chadwick, Robin; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Lowe, Jason A.; Schaller, Nathalie; Shiogama, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    nonlinMIP provides experiments that account for state-dependent regional and global climate responses. The experiments have two main applications: (1) to focus understanding of responses to CO2 forcing on states relevant to specific policy or scientific questions (e.g. change under low-forcing scenarios, the benefits of mitigation, or from past cold climates to the present day), or (2) to understand the state dependence (non-linearity) of climate change - i.e. why doubling the forcing may not double the response. State dependence (non-linearity) of responses can be large at regional scales, with important implications for understanding mechanisms and for general circulation model (GCM) emulation techniques (e.g. energy balance models and pattern-scaling methods). However, these processes are hard to explore using traditional experiments, which explains why they have had so little attention in previous studies. Some single model studies have established novel analysis principles and some physical mechanisms. There is now a need to explore robustness and uncertainty in such mechanisms across a range of models (point 2 above), and, more broadly, to focus work on understanding the response to CO2 on climate states relevant to specific policy/science questions (point 1). nonlinMIP addresses this using a simple, small set of CO2-forced experiments that are able to separate linear and non-linear mechanisms cleanly, with a good signal-to-noise ratio - while being demonstrably traceable to realistic transient scenarios. The design builds on the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and CMIP6 DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) protocols, and is centred around a suite of instantaneous atmospheric CO2 change experiments, with a ramp-up-ramp-down experiment to test traceability to gradual forcing scenarios. In all cases the models are intended to be used with CO2 concentrations rather than CO2 emissions as the input. The understanding

  11. USE OF WEIBULL FUNCTION FOR NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF LOW LEVELS OF SIMULATED HERBICIDE DRIFT ON PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared two regression models, which are based on the Weibull and probit functions, for the analysis of pesticide toxicity data from laboratory studies on Illinois crop and native plant species. Both mathematical models are continuous, differentiable, strictly positive, and...

  12. A Bayesian Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Model in Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis of Clustered Continuous Diagnostic Data

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Kelly H.; O’Malley, A. James

    2005-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a useful evaluative method of diagnostic accuracy. A Bayesian hierarchical nonlinear regression model for ROC analysis was developed. A validation analysis of diagnostic accuracy was conducted using prospective multi-center clinical trial prostate cancer biopsy data collected from three participating centers. The gold standard was based on radical prostatectomy to determine local and advanced disease. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of PSA level at fixed levels of Gleason score, a normality transformation was applied to the outcome data. A hierarchical regression analysis incorporating the effects of cluster (clinical center) and cancer risk (low, intermediate, and high) was performed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated. PMID:16161801

  13. USE OF WEIBULL FUNCTION FOR NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF LOW LEVELS OF SIMULATED HERBICIDE DRIFT ON PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared two regression models, which are based on the Weibull and probit functions, for the analysis of pesticide toxicity data from laboratory studies on Illinois crop and native plant species. Both mathematical models are continuous, differentiable, strictly positive, and...

  14. Non-linear waveform analysis for water-layer response and its application to high-frequency receiver function analysis using OBS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuhara, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2016-09-01

    Determination of a response of the sea water column to teleseismic plane wave is important to suppress adverse effects of water reverberations in calculating receiver functions (RFs) using ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) records. We present a novel non-linear waveform analysis method using the simulated annealing algorithm to determine such a water-layer response recorded by an OBS array. We then demonstrate its usefulness for the RF estimation through its application to synthetic and observed data. Synthetic experiments suggest that the water-layer response constrained in this way has a potential to improve RFs of OBS records drastically even in the high-frequency range (to 4 Hz). By applying it to data observed by the OBS array around the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, we identified a low-velocity zone at the top of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. This zone may represent the incoming fluid-rich sediment layer that has been reported by active-source seismic survey.

  15. A meta-analysis of cambium phenology and growth: linear and non-linear patterns in conifers of the northern hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Čufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E.; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gričar, Jožica; Gruber, Andreas; King, Gregory M.; Krause, Cornelia; Morin, Hubert; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routinely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-linear patterns according to limiting factors that generate shifts and discontinuities, or contain thresholds beyond which responses change abruptly. This study investigates to what extent cambium phenology is associated with xylem growth and differentiation across conifer species of the northern hemisphere. Methods Xylem cell production is compared with the periods of cambial activity and cell differentiation assessed on a weekly time scale on histological sections of cambium and wood tissue collected from the stems of nine species in Canada and Europe over 1–9 years per site from 1998 to 2011. Key Results The dynamics of xylogenesis were surprisingly homogeneous among conifer species, although dispersions from the average were obviously observed. Within the range analysed, the relationships between the phenological timings were linear, with several slopes showing values close to or not statistically different from 1. The relationships between the phenological timings and cell production were distinctly non-linear, and involved an exponential pattern Conclusions The trees adjust their phenological timings according to linear patterns. Thus, shifts of one phenological phase are associated with synchronous and comparable shifts of the successive phases. However, small increases in the duration of xylogenesis could correspond to a substantial increase in cell production. The findings suggest that the length of the growing season and the resulting amount of growth could respond

  16. NEW REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NON LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF DOUBLY CURVED SHALLOW SHELL UNDER A THERMAL GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, S.

    2004-10-06

    The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented.

  17. Two-dimensional finite element analysis of flexible pavements considering non-linear materials and interface conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, C.R.; Salami, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Two-dimensional finite element analysis of a flexible pavement section was performed using a special purpose finite element method (FEM) code and a commercial general purpose FEM. Viscoelastic, plastic, and hyperbolic-elastic materials models were used in the analyses. One-dimensional interface elements were used in both analyses. The results of the analyses were compared with predictions using current evaluation/design models.

  18. An Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Coherent Detection in Atmospheric Noise at Very Low Frequency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    Bestimmte Integrale (Integral Table, Second Part , Definite Integrals), Fourth Edition, Springer-Verlag, Vienna (Austria), 1966. 20. Hall, Harry M., "A New...close agreement with the computational results of the analyses. The first part of the analysis is a survey of atmospheric noise representations. This...derived error rate perfomance data is presented which shows close agreement with the computational results of the analyses. The first part of the

  19. A linear and non-linear polynomial neural network modeling of dissolved oxygen content in surface water: Inter- and extrapolation performance with inputs' significance analysis.

    PubMed

    Šiljić Tomić, Aleksandra; Antanasijević, Davor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Pocajt, Viktor

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of water quality parameters (WQPs) is an important task in the management of water resources. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are frequently applied for dissolved oxygen (DO) prediction, but often only their interpolation performance is checked. The aims of this research, beside interpolation, were the determination of extrapolation performance of ANN model, which was developed for the prediction of DO content in the Danube River, and the assessment of relationship between the significance of inputs and prediction error in the presence of values which were of out of the range of training. The applied ANN is a polynomial neural network (PNN) which performs embedded selection of most important inputs during learning, and provides a model in the form of linear and non-linear polynomial functions, which can then be used for a detailed analysis of the significance of inputs. Available dataset that contained 1912 monitoring records for 17 water quality parameters was split into a "regular" subset that contains normally distributed and low variability data, and an "extreme" subset that contains monitoring records with outlier values. The results revealed that the non-linear PNN model has good interpolation performance (R(2)=0.82), but it was not robust in extrapolation (R(2)=0.63). The analysis of extrapolation results has shown that the prediction errors are correlated with the significance of inputs. Namely, the out-of-training range values of the inputs with low importance do not affect significantly the PNN model performance, but their influence can be biased by the presence of multi-outlier monitoring records. Subsequently, linear PNN models were successfully applied to study the effect of water quality parameters on DO content. It was observed that DO level is mostly affected by temperature, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorus concentration, while in extreme conditions the importance of alkalinity and bicarbonates rises over p

  20. Non-linear finite element analysis of the failure progression of fiber-reinforced ceramics produced by tape casting technique.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nemoto, Kimiya; Nishiwaki, Tsuyoshi

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the failure progression process of fiber-reinforced ceramic by finite element (FE) analysis. The three-dimensional FE model for three-point bending simulation was 40 mm long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm thick, and with a span length of 30 mm. Nodal force with load increment of 20 N was applied at the center of the upper surface of the beam. To evaluate matrix fracture and fiber fracture, von Mises criterion and Tsai-Hill criterion were used respectively. Consequently, the stress-deflection curve obtained from FE simulation agreed with that obtained from the experimental testing. Differences in flexural strength and modulus between the analytical and experimental results were 1.3 and -2.9% respectively--demonstrating a close agreement between both results. In conclusion, the FE model applied in the present study was shown to be valid for predicting the failure progression of fiber-reinforced ceramics.

  1. White noise analysis of pace-maker-response interactions and non-linearities in slowly adapting crayfish stretch receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Buño, W; Bustamante, J; Fuentes, J

    1984-01-01

    Input-output relations were investigated in the slowly adapting stretch receptor organ of crayfish using a Gaussian white noise length input with a 0.03-12.5 Hz band width and the resulting action potential output. The noise input was presented to the de-efferented receptor in situ, at three mean elongations and at four different amplitudes. The three mean elongations were set within the normal range in vivo, two at the extremes close to the minimum and maximum physiological lengths and the other in the mid-range. With white noise inputs there is a finite probability that the system will be tested in all possible conditions within the chosen band width because white noise has the advantage that it contains, with a finite probability, all possible stimulus wave forms at random. The analysis indicated similarities between the effects of the input variables, namely white noise amplitude and mean elongation. With low input variables the activity was periodic. With larger inputs, impulse rates were higher and irregular. The average length trajectories leading to a spike (i.e. the average stimulus) were either biphasic with high inputs or multiphasic and periodic with lower input variables. The frequency of periodicity increased with mean elongation. Although for a given length and noise amplitude a variety of individual length trajectories preceded spikes, the final biphasic shortening-lengthening average stimulus sequence before a spike was similar in all cases irrespective of the input variables. The number of possible trajectories decreased with increments in the input variables. The standard deviation of length values for each average stimulus was computed and displayed as a function of time relative to the spike. It was first constant, and decreased gradually to a minimum value at the spike reference. Standard deviation values were lower for higher white noise amplitudes and mean elongation. Simple, short-lasting stimulus wave forms in the white noise were isolated

  2. Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.

  3. Non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashin, Z.; Bagchi, D.; Rosen, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    The non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates which results from lamina non-linear characteristics was examined. The analysis uses a Ramberg-Osgood representation of the lamina transverse and shear stress strain curves in conjunction with deformation theory to describe the resultant laminate non-linear behavior. A laminate having an arbitrary number of oriented layers and subjected to a general state of membrane stress was treated. Parametric results and comparison with experimental data and prior theoretical results are presented.

  4. Non-linear resonance in relativistic preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Bret; Zhai, Yunxiao E-mail: zhaiya@plu.edu

    2014-04-01

    Inflation in the early Universe can be followed by a brief period of preheating, resulting in rapid and non-equilibrium particle production through the dynamics of parametric resonance. However, the parametric resonance effect is very sensitive to the linearity of the reheating sector. Additional self-interactions in the reheating sector, such as non-canonical kinetic terms like the DBI Lagrangian, may enhance or frustrate the parametric resonance effect of preheating. In the case of a DBI reheating sector, preheating is described by parametric resonance of a damped relativistic harmonic oscillator. In this paper, we illustrate how the non-linear terms in the relativistic oscillator shut down the parametric resonance effect. This limits the effectiveness of preheating when there are non-linear self-interactions.

  5. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  6. Quantitative methods for stochastic high frequency spatio-temporal and non-linear analysis: Assessing health effects of exposure to extreme ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Alexander

    Extreme weather events, such as heat waves and cold spells, cause substantial excess mortality and morbidity in the vulnerable elderly population, and cost billions of dollars. The accurate and reliable assessment of adverse effects of extreme weather events on human health is crucial for environmental scientists, economists, and public health officials to ensure proper protection of vulnerable populations and efficient allocation of scarce resources. However, the methodology for the analysis of large national databases is yet to be developed. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to examine the effect of extreme weather on the elderly population of the Conterminous US (ConUS) with respect to seasonality in temperature in different climatic regions by utilizing heterogeneous high frequency and spatio-temporal resolution data. To achieve these goals the author: 1) incorporated dissimilar stochastic high frequency big data streams and distinct data types into the integrated data base for use in analytical and decision support frameworks; 2) created an automated climate regionalization system based on remote sensing and machine learning to define climate regions for the Conterminous US; 3) systematically surveyed the current state of the art and identified existing gaps in the scientific knowledge; 4) assessed the dose-response relationship of exposure to temperature extremes on human health in relatively homogeneous climate regions using different statistical models, such as parametric and non-parametric, contemporaneous and asynchronous, applied to the same data; 5) assessed seasonal peak timing and synchronization delay of the exposure and the disease within the framework of contemporaneous high frequency harmonic time series analysis and modification of the effect by the regional climate; 6) modeled using hyperbolic functional form non-linear properties of the effect of exposure to extreme temperature on human health. The proposed climate

  7. Non-linear curve fitting using Microsoft Excel solver.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S; Diamond, D

    1995-04-01

    Solver, an analysis tool incorporated into Microsoft Excel V 5.0 for Windows, has been evaluated for solving non-linear equations. Test and experimental data sets have been processed, and the results suggest that solver can be successfully used for modelling data obtained in many analytical situations (e.g. chromatography and FIA peaks, fluorescence decays and ISE response characteristics). The relatively simple user interface, and the fact that Excel is commonly bundled free with new PCs makes it an ideal tool for those wishing to experiment with solving non-linear equations without having to purchase and learn a completely new package. The dynamic display of the iterative search process enables the user to monitor location of the optimum solution by the search algorithm. This, together with the almost universal availability of Excel, makes solver an ideal vehicle for teaching the principles of iterative non-linear curve fitting techniques. In addition, complete control of the modelling process lies with the user, who must present the raw data and enter the equation of the model, in contrast to many commercial packages bundled with instruments which perform these operations with a 'black-box' approach.

  8. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iii: Truncation Effect Without Flow and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies is investigated by using improved mode expansions with respect to those assumed in Parts I and II of the present study. Two cases are studied: (1) shells in vacuo; and (2) shells filled with stagnant water. The improved expansions allow checking the accuracy of the solutions previously obtained and giving definitive results within the limits of Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. The improved mode expansions include: (1) harmonics of the circumferential mode number n under consideration, and (2) only the principal n, but with harmonics of the longitudinal mode included. The effect of additional longitudinal modes is absolutely insignificant in both the driven and companion mode responses. The effect of modes with 2 n circumferential waves is very limited on the trend of non-linearity, but is significant in the response with companion mode participation in the case of lightly damped shells (empty shells). In particular, the travelling wave response appears for much lower vibration amplitudes and presents a frequency range without stable responses, corresponding to a beating phenomenon. A liquid (water) contained in the shell generates a much stronger softening behaviour of the system. Experiments with a water-filled circular cylindrical shell made of steel are in very good agreement with the present theory.

  9. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid, Part II: Large-Amplitude Vibrations Without Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-12-01

    The non-linear response of empty and fluid-filled circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitations is investigated. Both modal and point excitations have been considered. The model is suitable to study simply supported shells with and without axial constraints. Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory is used. The boundary conditions on radial displacement and the continuity of circumferential displacement are exactly satisfied. The radial deflection of the shell is expanded by using a basis of seven linear modes. The effect of internal quiescent, incompressible and inviscid fluid is investigated. The equations of motion, obtained in Part I of this study, are studied by using a code based on the collocation method. The validation of the present model is obtained by comparison with other authoritative results. The effect of the number of axisymmetric modes used in the expansion on the response of the shell is investigated, clarifying questions open for a long time. The results show the occurrence of travelling wave response in the proximity of the resonance frequency, the fundamental role of the first and third axisymmetric modes in the expansion of the radial deflection with one longitudinal half-wave, and limit cycle responses. Modes with two longitudinal half-waves are also investigated.

  10. Study of the subduction zone in central Mexico by using non-linear and non-stationary analysis (Empirical Mode Decomposition) on receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montealegre, C.; Perez-Campos, X.

    2016-12-01

    The subduction of Cocos plate under the North America plate presents a complex behavior; e.g., it has a variable geometry and a slow-velocity layer between plates. The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a non-linear and non-stationary signal analysis method that has been successfully used in several research fields. Thanks to its adaptive nature, the components resulting from the decomposition can be related to physical properties. In this work, we modify the EMD original method, calling it Automatic Complementary Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (ACompEEMD), and apply it on receiver functions (RF). This automatic bandpass-filter process allows us to enhance images of the subduction zone in central and southern Mexico. We obtain images with different frequency contents for profiles of backprojected RF, making seismic discontinuities within the crust and the upper mantle easily trackable. In addition, we use the ACompEEMD to perform a high-resolution time-frequency analysis, which shows a frequency-dependent response related to physical properties of the media. The different response from continental mantle and oceanic mantle confirms their different composition. Also, the mantle wedge and an anomalous zone beneath the subducted slab have been highlighted, which suggest they have particular physical properties when comparing with their surroundings.

  11. Strain modelling of extensional fault-propagation folds based on an improved non-linear trishear model: A numerical simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haonan; Guo, Zhaojie; Yu, Xiangjiang

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on the strain modelling of extensional fault-propagation folds to reveal the effects of key factors on the strain accumulation and the relationship between the geometry and strain distribution of fault-related folds. A velocity-geometry-strain method is proposed for the analysis of the total strain and its accumulation process within the trishear zone of an extensional fault-propagation fold. This paper improves the non-linear trishear model proposed by Jin and Groshong (2006). Based on the improved model, the distribution of the strain rate within the trishear zone and the total strain are obtained. The numerical simulations of different parameters performed in this study indicate that the shape factor R, the total apical angle, and the P/S ratio control the final geometry and strain distribution of extensional fault-propagation folds. A small P/S ratio, a small apical angle, and an R value far greater or far smaller than 1 produce an asymmetric, narrow, and strongly deformed trishear zone. The velocity-geometry-strain analysis method is applied to two natural examples from Big Brushy Canyon in Texas and the northwestern Red Sea in Egypt. The strain distribution within the trishear zone is closely related to the geometry of the folds.

  12. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been associated with human health issues; however, findings regarding the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory disease remain inconsistent. The short-term, population-based association between the respiratory clinic visits of children and PM2.5 exposure levels were investigated by considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. This analysis was separately performed on three respiratory disease categories that were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance database, which includes 41 districts in the Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (<6 years old) and schoolchildren (6-14 years old). In preschool children, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.44 μg/m(3), and in schoolchildren, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.52 μg/m(3). Changes in PM2.5 levels generally exhibited no significant association with same-day respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air

  13. How can we explain the frontal presentation of insular lobe epilepsy? The impact of non-linear analysis of insular seizures.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Koichi; Jung, Julien; Bouet, Romain; Abdallah, Chifaou; Guénot, Marc; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Mauguière, François; Rheims, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean

    2017-05-01

    For a decade it has been known that the insular lobe epilepsy can mimic frontal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to clarify the pattern of functional coupling occurring during the frontal presentation. We analyzed five insular lobe epilepsy patients. Frontal semiology was predominant for three of them, whereas insular semiology was predominant for the two others. We applied the non-linear regression analysis to stereoelectroencephalography-recorded seizures. A directed functional coupling index was calculated during clonic discharge periods that were accompanied either with frontal or insular semiology. We found significant functional coupling between the insula and mesial frontal/cingulate regions, with the former being a leader region for seizures propagation. Extra-insular regions showed significantly less or even no coupling with the mesial hemispheric regions. The three patients with frontal semiology showed strong couplings with the mesial frontal as well as cingulate regions, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, pre-SMA/SMA, and the anterior to posterior cingulate. The two patients with the insular semiology only showed couplings between the insula and cingulate regions. The frontal semiology was expressed by strong functional couplings between the insula and mesial frontal regions. The insular origin of seizure should be considered in cryptogenic mesial frontal epilepsies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bispectrum Analysis of Non-linear wave-wave Interaction between VLF Transmitter signal and ELF emission on the Basis of DEMETER satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Kasde, Satish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Symmetric sidebands are observed in the ionosphere by the DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Radiation Transmitted through Earthquake Region) satellite, when it passes above the Indian VLF transmitter, named VTX (18.2 kHz), located near Kanyakumari, India. The spectral boarding phenomena may be divided into two types: (1) spectrally broadened components occurring without any association with ELF/VLF emissions under disturbed ionospheric condition, (2) Spectrally broadened components with predominant side band structure in association with ELF emission. Generally spectral analysis at second order (Power spectrum) is used to analyze the frequency component of signal, but it losses the phase information among the different Fourier components. To retain this information the bispectrum (third order) and/or the bicoherence (normalized bispectrum) are used. Results suggest a non-linear mode coupling between the transmitter signal and ELF emission which produces sidebands that are quasi-electrostatic in nature. However, faint spectral broadened components in both types 1 and 2 may be connected with Doppler shift of quasi-electrostatic, whistler mode waves with a broad spectrum near resonance cone, due to scattering of the transmitter signals from ionospheric irregularities in the F-region. Keywords: spectral boarding, wave-wave Interaction, whistler mode waves and Doppler shift

  15. Quantitative analysis of Fe and Co in Co-substituted magnetite using XPS: The application of non-linear least squares fitting (NLLSF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongmei; Wei, Gaoling; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Peng; Li, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of Co and Fe using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is of important for the evaluation of the catalytic ability of Co-substituted magnetite. However, the overlap of XPS peaks and Auger peaks for Co and Fe complicate quantification. In this study, non-linear least squares fitting (NLLSF) was used to calculate the relative Co and Fe contents of a series of synthesized Co-substituted magnetite samples with different Co doping levels. NLLSF separated the XPS peaks of Co 2p and Fe 2p from the Auger peaks of Fe and Co, respectively. Compared with a control group without fitting, the accuracy of quantification of Co and Fe was greatly improved after elimination by NLLSF of the disturbance of Auger peaks. A catalysis study confirmed that the catalytic activity of magnetite was enhanced with the increase of Co substitution. This study confirms the effectiveness and accuracy of the NLLSF method in XPS quantitative calculation of Fe and Co coexisting in a material.

  16. Strain Transient Detection Techniques: A Comparison of Source Parameter Inversions of Signals Isolated through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Non-Linear PCA, and Rotated PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, B.; Funning, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    We compare several techniques for the analysis of geodetic time series with the ultimate aim to characterize the physical processes which are represented therein. We compare three methods for the analysis of these data: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Non-Linear PCA (NLPCA), and Rotated PCA (RPCA). We evaluate each method by its ability to isolate signals which may be any combination of low amplitude (near noise level), temporally transient, unaccompanied by seismic emissions, and small scale with respect to the spatial domain. PCA is a powerful tool for extracting structure from large datasets which is traditionally realized through either the solution of an eigenvalue problem or through iterative methods. PCA is an transformation of the coordinate system of our data such that the new "principal" data axes retain maximal variance and minimal reconstruction error (Pearson, 1901; Hotelling, 1933). RPCA is achieved by an orthogonal transformation of the principal axes determined in PCA. In the analysis of meteorological data sets, RPCA has been seen to overcome domain shape dependencies, correct for sampling errors, and to determine principal axes which more closely represent physical processes (e.g., Richman, 1986). NLPCA generalizes PCA such that principal axes are replaced by principal curves (e.g., Hsieh 2004). We achieve NLPCA through an auto-associative feed-forward neural network (Scholz, 2005). We show the geophysical relevance of these techniques by application of each to a synthetic data set. Results are compared by inverting principal axes to determine deformation source parameters. Temporal variability in source parameters, estimated by each method, are also compared.

  17. Unexpected hollows: numerical modeling of soil production and non-linear soil transport and the initiation, persistence, and dynamics of unchanneled valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Roering, J. J.; Heimsath, A. M.; Bellugi, D.; Sklar, L.; Stock, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Mechanistic modeling of the tectonic and climate controls, sediment discharge and hillslope form and evolution requires field calibrated geomorphic transport laws. Through the use of various dating tools and models, our studies in the Oregon Coast Range have led to calibrated equations for soil production and non-linear soil transport. The calibration suggested that local erosion rates are highly variable but there is a tendency for topographic steady state. To test the calibrated laws and the notion of steady state we performed a number of numerical experiments using high-resolution lidar-derived digital elevation data (roughly 2.5 m data spacing) as the initial surface. Our hypothesis was that if the erosion laws are correct, that the topography should remain unchanged as channel incision and hillslope erosion occurred. We ran the model with a 2 m grid and 1 year time step for 1 million years on a 0.5 km2 area and mapped changes in elevation, curvature, slope and soil depth through time. While areas we hypothesized to be closest to steady state showed relatively small topographic change, we noticed an unexpected form and behavior emerge. We found that unchanneled valleys persisted for the entire period despite the absence of any water-driven erosion process to maintain them, and that new valleys formed on hillslopes bordered by channels with sinuous paths. These valleys also underwent periodic accumulation of soil and then thinning to exposed bedrock, despite the constant incision and production rates. This instability was driven by the emergence of bedrock, which locally slowed erosion, and by the upslope advance of a steepened surface, which temporarily accelerated sediment delivery to the lower bedrock exposed area, eventually burying it and setting off the another incision cycle. This model shows that hollows, topographic features that have long been assumed to be indicative of periodic advective or concentrative erosion processes, can also emerge if the

  18. A novel stress-accurate FE technology for highly non-linear analysis with incompressibility constraint. Application to the numerical simulation of the FSW process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiumenti, M.; Cervera, M.; Agelet de Saracibar, C.; Dialami, N.

    2013-05-01

    In this work a novel finite element technology based on a three-field mixed formulation is presented. The Variational Multi Scale (VMS) method is used to circumvent the LBB stability condition allowing the use of linear piece-wise interpolations for displacement, stress and pressure fields, respectively. The result is an enhanced stress field approximation which enables for stress-accurate results in nonlinear computational mechanics. The use of an independent nodal variable for the pressure field allows for an adhoc treatment of the incompressibility constraint. This is a mandatory requirement due to the isochoric nature of the plastic strain in metal forming processes. The highly non-linear stress field typically encountered in the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process is used as an example to show the performance of this new FE technology. The numerical simulation of the FSW process is tackled by means of an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. The computational domain is split into three different zones: the work.piece (defined by a rigid visco-plastic behaviour in the Eulerian framework), the pin (within the Lagrangian framework) and finally the stirzone (ALE formulation). A fully coupled thermo-mechanical analysis is introduced showing the heat fluxes generated by the plastic dissipation in the stir-zone (Sheppard rigid-viscoplastic constitutive model) as well as the frictional dissipation at the contact interface (Norton frictional contact model). Finally, tracers have been implemented to show the material flow around the pin allowing a better understanding of the welding mechanism. Numerical results are compared with experimental evidence.

  19. Testing procedures for non-stationarity and non-linearity in physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A

    1999-03-15

    Most of the physiological signals (EEG, ECG, blood flow, human gait, etc.) characterize by complex dynamics including both non-stationarities and non-linearities. These time series resemble red noise with long-range correlation and 1/(f beta) power spectrum. A question arises as to how to distinguish the characteristics of the process underlying the signal dynamics from the properties of the observed time series. The classical methods to determine possible non-linear (chaotic) dynamics (e.g. correlation dimension) often fail in such signals because of relatively short data records containing stochastic components and non-stationarities. We report an application of several approaches, aimed at (1) determining of the non-stationarities in the signals and (2) testing whether non-linear dynamics exists. Assessment of the intrinsic correlation properties of the dynamic process and distinguishing the same from external trends was performed using singular spectra and detrended fluctuation analysis. The existence of non-linear dynamics was tested by correlation dimension (modified algorithm of re-embedding) and by correlation integrals of real and surrogate data. The correlation integrals of real signal and surrogate data sets were statistically compared using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. The procedures were tested on EEG and laser-Doppler (LD) blood flow. Our suggestion is that no one approach taken alone is the best for our aims. Instead, a battery of methods should be used.

  20. NICMOS non-linearity tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Roelof

    2005-07-01

    This program incorporates a number of tests to analyse the count rate dependent non-linearity seen in NICMOS spectro-photometric observations. In visit 1 we will observe a few fields with stars of a range in luminosity in NGC1850 with NICMOS in NIC1 in F090M, F110W and F160W and NIC2 F110W, F160W, and F180W. We will repeat the observations with flatfield lamp on, creating artificially high count-rates, allowing tests of NICMOS linearity as function of count rate. To access the effect of charge trapping and persistence, we first take darks {so there is not too much charge already trapped}, than take exposures with the lamp off, exposures with the lamp on, and repeat at the end with lamp off. Finally, we continue with taking darks during occultation. In visit 2 we will observe spectro-photometric standard P041C using the G096 and G141 grisms in NIC3, and repeat the lamp off/on/off test to artificially create a high background. In visits 3&4 we repeat photometry measurements of faint standard stars SNAP-2 and WD1657+343, on which the NICMOS non-linearity was originally discovered using grism observations. These measurements are repeated, because previous photometry was obtained with too short exposure times, hence substantially affected by charge trapping non-linearity. Measurements will be made with NIC1: Visit 5 forms the persistence test of the program. The bright star GL-390 {used in a previous persistence test} will iluminate the 3 NICMOS detectors in turn for a fixed time, saturating the center many times, after which a series of darks will be taken to measure the persistence {i.e. trapped electrons and the decay time of the traps}. To determine the wavelength dependence of the trap chance, exposures of the bright star in different filters will be taken, as well as one in the G096 grism with NIC3. Most exposures will be 128s long, but two exposures in the 3rd orbit will be 3x longer, to seperate the effects of count rate versus total counts of the trap

  1. Polarised Raman and infrared spectral analysis of L-alanine oxalate (C5H9NO6)--a non-linear optical single crystal.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, V; Nagalakshmi, R

    2006-06-01

    L-alanine oxalate (C5H9NO6), a promising material for effective frequency conversion, was grown by standard slow evaporation technique. Solubility studies were carried out at different temperatures. Unambiguous assignments of fundamental modes of various molecular groups were made from the recorded infrared and polarised Raman spectra. The non-linear optical property has been confirmed from the optical transmission and fluorescence spectra.

  2. The Association between Ambient Temperature and Childhood Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Chengdu, China: A Distributed Lag Non-linear Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has recently been recognized as a critical challenge to disease control and public health response in China. This study aimed to quantify the association between temperature and HFMD in Chengdu. Daily HFMD cases and meteorological variables in Chengdu between January 2010 and December 2013 were obtained to construct the time series. A distributed lag non-linear model was performed to investigate the temporal lagged association of daily temperature with age- and gender-specific HFMD. A total of 76,403 HFMD cases aged 0–14 years were reported in Chengdu during the study period, and a bimodal seasonal pattern was observed. The temperature-HFMD relationships were non-linear in all age and gender groups, with the first peak at 14.0–14.1 °C and the second peak at 23.1–23.2 °C. The high temperatures had acute and short-term effects and declined quickly over time, while the effects in low temperature ranges were persistent over longer lag periods. Males and children aged <1 year were more vulnerable to temperature variations. Temperature played an important role in HFMD incidence with non-linear and delayed effects. The success of HFMD intervention strategies could benefit from giving more consideration to local climatic conditions. PMID:27248051

  3. Hybrid fusion of linear, non-linear and spectral models for the dynamic modeling of sEMG and skeletal muscle force: an application to upper extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Chandrasekhar; Anugolu, Madhavi; Schoen, Marco P; Subbaram Naidu, D; Urfer, Alex; Chiu, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Estimating skeletal muscle (finger) forces using surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals poses many challenges. In general, the sEMG measurements are based on single sensor data. In this paper, two novel hybrid fusion techniques for estimating the skeletal muscle force from the sEMG array sensors are proposed. The sEMG signals are pre-processed using five different filters: Butterworth, Chebychev Type II, Exponential, Half-Gaussian and Wavelet transforms. Dynamic models are extracted from the acquired data using Nonlinear Wiener Hammerstein (NLWH) models and Spectral Analysis Frequency Dependent Resolution (SPAFDR) models based system identification techniques. A detailed comparison is provided for the proposed filters and models using 18 healthy subjects. Wavelet transforms give higher mean correlation of 72.6 ± 1.7 (mean ± SD) and 70.4 ± 1.5 (mean ± SD) for NLWH and SPAFDR models, respectively, when compared to the other filters used in this work. Experimental verification of the fusion based hybrid models with wavelet transform shows a 96% mean correlation and 3.9% mean relative error with a standard deviation of ± 1.3 and ± 0.9 respectively between the overall hybrid fusion algorithm estimated and the actual force for 18 test subjects' k-fold cross validation data.

  4. Fourier imaging of non-linear structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-04-01

    We perform a Fourier space decomposition of the dynamics of non-linear cosmological structure formation in ΛCDM models. From N-body simulations involving only cold dark matter we calculate 3-dimensional non-linear density, velocity divergence and vorticity Fourier realizations, and use these to calculate the fully non-linear mode coupling integrals in the corresponding fluid equations. Our approach allows for a reconstruction of the amount of mode coupling between any two wavenumbers as a function of redshift. With our Fourier decomposition method we identify the transfer of power from larger to smaller scales, the stable clustering regime, the scale where vorticity becomes important, and the suppression of the non-linear divergence power spectrum as compared to linear theory. Our results can be used to improve and calibrate semi-analytical structure formation models.

  5. Asymptotic Stability of Interconnected Passive Non-Linear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isidori, A.; Joshi, S. M.; Kelkar, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of stabilization of a class of internally passive non-linear time-invariant dynamic systems. A class of non-linear marginally strictly passive (MSP) systems is defined, which is less restrictive than input-strictly passive systems. It is shown that the interconnection of a non-linear passive system and a non-linear MSP system is globally asymptotically stable. The result generalizes and weakens the conditions of the passivity theorem, which requires one of the systems to be input-strictly passive. In the case of linear time-invariant systems, it is shown that the MSP property is equivalent to the marginally strictly positive real (MSPR) property, which is much simpler to check.

  6. Comparison of various error functions in predicting the optimum isotherm by linear and non-linear regression analysis for the sorption of basic red 9 by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Porkodi, K; Rocha, F

    2008-01-15

    A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of basic red 9 sorption by activated carbon. The r(2) was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions namely coefficient of determination (r(2)), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), the average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. Non-linear regression was found to be a better way to obtain the parameters involved in the isotherms and also the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r(2) was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K(2) was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm.

  7. Controllability of non-linear biochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Ervadi-Radhakrishnan, Anandhi; Voit, Eberhard O

    2005-07-01

    Mathematical methods of biochemical pathway analysis are rapidly maturing to a point where it is possible to provide objective rationale for the natural design of metabolic systems and where it is becoming feasible to manipulate these systems based on model predictions, for instance, with the goal of optimizing the yield of a desired microbial product. So far, theory-based metabolic optimization techniques have mostly been applied to steady-state conditions or the minimization of transition time, using either linear stoichiometric models or fully kinetic models within biochemical systems theory (BST). This article addresses the related problem of controllability, where the task is to steer a non-linear biochemical system, within a given time period, from an initial state to some target state, which may or may not be a steady state. For this purpose, BST models in S-system form are transformed into affine non-linear control systems, which are subjected to an exact feedback linearization that permits controllability through independent variables. The method is exemplified with a small glycolytic-glycogenolytic pathway that had been analyzed previously by several other authors in different contexts.

  8. Integrating real-time and manual monitored data to predict hillslope soil moisture dynamics with high spatio-temporal resolution using linear and non-linear models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture (') is a challenge that remains to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time ' monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of ' dynamic...

  9. Isotherms and thermodynamics by linear and non-linear regression analysis for the sorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon: comparison of various error functions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Porkodi, K; Rocha, F

    2008-03-01

    A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of methylene blue sorption by activated carbon. The r2 was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions, namely coefficient of determination (r2), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r2 was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K2 was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm.

  10. Investigation of Non-Linear Dynamics of the Rock Massive,Using Seismological Catalogue data and Induction Electromagnetic Monitoring Data in a Rock Burst Mine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Y.; Klimko, V. K.; Shipeev, O. V.

    2012-04-01

    Geological medium is an open dynamical system, which is influenced on different scales by natural and man-made impacts, which change the medium state and lead as a result to a complicated many ranked hierarchic evolution. That is the subject of geo synergetics. Paradigm of physical mesomechanics, which was advanced by academician Panin V.E. and his scientific school, which includes the synergetic approach is a constructive method for research and changing the state of heterogenic materials [1]. That result had been obtained on specimens of different materials. In our results of research of no stationary geological medium in a frame of natural experiments in real rock massifs, which are under high man-made influence it was shown, that the state dynamics can be revealed with use synergetics in hierarchic medium. Active and passive geophysical monitoring plays a very important role for research of the state of dynamical geological systems. It can be achieved by use electromagnetic and seismic fields. Our experience of that research showed the changing of the system state reveals on the space scales and times in the parameters, which are linked with the peculiarities of the medium of the second or higher ranks [2-5]. Results of seismological and electromagnetic information showed the mutual additional information on different space-time levels of rock massive state, which are energetic influenced by explosions, used in mining technology. It is revealed a change of nonlinearity degree in time of the massive state by active influence on it. The description of massive movement in a frame of linear dynamical system does not satisfy the practical situation. The received results are of great significance because for the first time we could find the coincidences with the mathematical theory of open systems and experimental natural results with very complicated structure. On that base we developed a new processing method for the seismological information which can be used in

  11. Analytical calculation of critical perturbation amplitudes and critical densities by non-linear stability analysis of a simple traffic flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.; Moussaid, M.

    2009-06-01

    Driven many-particle systems with nonlinear interactions are known to often display multi-stability, i.e. depending on the respective initial condition, there may be different outcomes. Here, we study this phenomenon for traffic models, some of which show stable and linearly unstable density regimes, but areas of metastability in between. In these areas, perturbations larger than a certain critical amplitude will cause a lasting breakdown of traffic, while smaller ones will fade away. While there are common methods to study linear instability, non-linear instability had to be studied numerically in the past. Here, we present an analytical study for the optimal velocity model with a stepwise specification of the optimal velocity function and a simple kind of perturbation. Despite various approximations, the analytical results are shown to reproduce numerical results very well.

  12. Memristive non-linear system and hidden attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Saha, D. C.; Ray, A.; Chowdhury, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of memristor on non-linear dynamical systems exhibiting chaos are analysed both form the view point of theory and experiment. It is observed that the memristive system has always fewer number of fixed points than the original one. Sometimes there is no fixed point in the memristive system. But its chaotic properties are retained. As such we have a situation known as hidden attractor because if it is a stable fixed point then the attractor does not evolve from its basin of attraction(obtained from its stable fixed point) or if there is no fixed point, the question of basin of attraction from fixed point does not arise at all [1, 2]. Our analysis gives a detailed accounts of properties related to its chaotic behavior. Important observations are also obtained with the help of electronic circuits to support the numerical simulations.

  13. Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.

  14. Non-linear dynamics and pattern selection at the crystal-melt interface. Final report, September 1, 1984--February 28, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, H.Z.

    1998-07-01

    Pattern formation at the solidifying crystal-melt interface was investigated with a model binary alloy system of the molecular crystal succinonitrile doped with the laser dye Coumarin 152. Videomicroscopy and computerized digital image analysis provided detailed data for quantitative comparison with theoretical predictions. Application of a single localized laser pulse or a row of UV spots to the interface during solidification allowed for direct measurements of pattern stability. These thermal perturbations also resulted in dramatic modifications of the observed solidification patterns, suggesting that the controlled thermal perturbation approach may allow the microstructure of metallic alloys to be controlled during solidification.

  15. A two dimensional interface element for coupling of independently modeled three dimensional finite element meshes and extensions to dynamic and non-linear regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aminpour, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The work reported here pertains only to the first year of research for a three year proposal period. As a prelude to this two dimensional interface element, the one dimensional element was tested and errors were discovered in the code for built-up structures and curved interfaces. These errors were corrected and the benchmark Boeing composite crown panel was analyzed successfully. A study of various splines led to the conclusion that cubic B-splines best suit this interface element application. A least squares approach combined with cubic B-splines was constructed to make a smooth function from the noisy data obtained with random error in the coordinate data points of the Boeing crown panel analysis. Preliminary investigations for the formulation of discontinuous 2-D shell and 3-D solid elements were conducted.

  16. Non-linear Flood Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, A.

    The genesis of floodings is very complex depending on hydrologic, meteorological and evapo-transpirative factors that are linked among themselves in a non linear way with numerous feedback processes. The Cantor dust and the rank-ordering statistics supply a proper framework for identifying a kind of a non linear order in the time succession of the floodings and so provide a basis for their prediction. When a catalogue is analysed, it is necessary to test its completeness with respect to the size of the recorded events and results obtained from analysis of catalogues that do not take into account such a test are suspect and possibly wrong, or, at least, unreliable. Floodings have no instrumentally determined magnitude scale, like that conventionally used for earthquakes, and this is why they are generally described in qualitative terms. For this reason, a semi-quantitative index, called ASI (Alluvial Strength Index) has been here developed that combines attributes of alluvial triggering mechanisms and effects on the territorial and hydraulic system.The historical succession of alluvial events occurred at high valley of Po river (Northern Italy), mean valley of Calore river (Southern Italy) and at Sarno, near Naples, have been accurately reconstructed on the basis of old documents and classified according to their ASI. The catalogues have been verified to be complete only for events classified at least as moderate and this probably because many of the lowest energetic events, especially in the past, escaped the detection. The identification of scale-invariances in the time clustering of alluvial events, both on short and long time scales, even if indicative of the complexity of their genesis, might be very helpful for the assessment and reduction of the hazard of future disasters. For example, on the basis of the results of the rank-ordering statistics, the most probable occurrence of an alluvial event at Sarno, classified at least as strong, is predicted to occur

  17. Non-linearity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Petros, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The whole spectrum of medicine consists of complex non-linear systems that are balanced and interact with each other. How non-linearity confers stability on a system and explains variation and uncertainty in clinical medicine is discussed. A major theme is that a small alteration in initial conditions may have a major effect on the end result. In the context of non-linearity, it is argued that 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) as it exists today can only ever be relevant to a small fraction of the domain of medicine, that the 'art of medicine' consists of an intuitive 'tuning in' to these complex systems and as such is not so much an art as an expression of non-linear science. The main cause of iatrogenic disease is interpreted as a failure to understand the complexity of the systems being treated. Case study examples are given and analysed in non-linear terms. It is concluded that good medicine concerns individualized treatment of an individual patient whose body functions are governed by non-linear processes. EBM as it exists today paints with a broad and limited brush, but it does promise a fresh new direction. In this context, we need to expand the spectrum of scientific medicine to include non-linearity, and to look upon the 'art of medicine' as a historical (but unstated) legacy in this domain.

  18. Using non-linear analogue of Nyquist diagrams for analysis of the equation describing the hemodynamics in blood vessels near pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Bord, E. E.; Khe, A. K.; Panarin, V. A.; Orlov, K. J.; Chupakhin, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    This article considers method of describing the behaviour of hemodynamic parameters near vascular pathologies. We study the influence of arterial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations on the vascular system. The proposed method involves using generalized model of Van der Pol-Duffing to find out the characteristic behaviour of blood flow parameters. These parameters are blood velocity and pressure in the vessel. The velocity and pressure are obtained during the neurosurgery measurements. It is noted that substituting velocity on the right side of the equation gives good pressure approximation. Thus, the model reproduces clinical data well enough. In regard to the right side of the equation, it means external impact on the system. The harmonic functions with various frequencies and amplitudes are substituted on the right side of the equation to investigate its properties. Besides, variation of the right side parameters provides additional information about pressure. Non-linear analogue of Nyquist diagrams is used to find out how the properties of solution depend on the parameter values. We have analysed 60 cases with aneurysms and 14 cases with arteriovenous malformations. It is shown that the diagrams are divided into classes. Also, the classes are replaced by another one in the definite order with increasing of the right side amplitude.

  19. Linear and non-linear optics of nano-scale 2‧,7‧dichloro-fluorescein/FTO optical system: Bandgap and dielectric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Javed; Yahia, I. S.; Zahran, H. Y.; AlFaify, S.; AlBassam, A. M.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    2‧,7‧ dichloro-Fluorescein (DCF) is a promising organic semiconductor material in different technological aspects such as solar cell, photodiode, Schottky diode. DCF thin film/conductive glass (FTO glass) was prepared by a low-cost spin coating technique. The spectrophotometric data such as the absorbance, reflectance and transmittance were cogitated in the 350-2500 nm wavelength range, at the normal incidence. The absorption (n) and linear refractive indices (k) were computed using the Fresnel's equations. The optical band gap was evaluated and it was found that there is two band gap described as follows: (1) It is related to the band gap of FTO/glass which is equal 3.4 eV and (2) the second one is related to the absorption edge of DCF equals 2.25 eV. The non-linear parameters such as the refractive index (n2) and optical susceptibility χ(3) were evaluated by the spectroscopic method based on the refractive index. Both (n2) and χ(3) increased rapidly on increasing the wavelength with redshift absorption. Our work represents a new idea about using FTO glass for a new generation of the optical device and technology.

  20. Sources of error in external calibration ICP-MS analysis of geological samples and an improved non-linear drift correction procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheatham, Michael M.; Sangrey, William F.; White, William M.

    1993-02-01

    The primary factors limiting accuracy and precision using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in matrix-matched external standardization are machine drift and variation of the instrument response as a function of mass. Because drift is usually non-linear, the degree of drift differs from one mass to the next, and the direction of drift can change frequently when analyzing over large mass ranges. Internal standardization results in minimal improvement of data quality. An analytical procedure and an off-line data reduction algorithm have been developed that correct for these variations and produce a significant improvement in analytical accuracy and precision. In this technique, a "drift correction" standard is analyzed after every four or five samples. A polynomial curve is fitted to each isotope analyzed, and a correction based on this curve is applied to the measured intensity of the respective isotopes in the samples and standards. This data reduction algorithm has been developed into a Microsoft Excel ™ 3.0 Macro that completely automates all calculations. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with the Excel macro for the Macintosh computer and sufficient instructions for its use. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the macro.

  1. Non-linear dynamics in photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimienta, V.; Lévy, G.; Lavabre, D.; Laplante, J. P.; Micheau, J. C.

    1992-09-01

    The rate law of an elementary photochemical reaction: A → B ( hv), contains 4 independent factors: the quantum yield, the photon flux, the concentration of the photosensitive substrate and the photokinetic factor. This type of reaction will always slow down. However, by increasing one of these 4 factors artificially, the reaction can be made to speed up. Using kinetic models comprising one or more photochemical reactions, we show that appropriate coupling between two or more elementary processes gives rise to a cooperative effect. This effect increases one or more of these 4 factors, and makes the coupled photochemical model bistable in a CSTR. The values of the parameters for which one observes bistability are experimentally realistic. One of these models provides a simplified simulation of the stages underlying the bistable photochemical behavior of the TPID/CHCl 3, system.

  2. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes T; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Thang, Tran Binh; An, Do Dang; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Long, Tran Thanh; Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Honda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model). Results High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13-3.52), females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14-4.21), people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91-6.63), and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15-2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92-4.28). Conclusions In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases). These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City.

  3. Structural identifiability for a class of non-linear compartmental systems using linear/non-linear splitting and symbolic computation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Michael J; Godfrey, Keith R; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D

    2003-05-01

    Under certain controllability and observability restrictions, two different parameterisations for a non-linear compartmental model can only have the same input-output behaviour if they differ by a locally diffeomorphic change of basis for the state space. With further restrictions, it is possible to gain valuable information with respect to identifiability via a linear analysis. Examples are presented where non-linear identifiability analyses are substantially simplified by means of an initial linear analysis. For complex models, with four or more compartments, this linear analysis can prove lengthy to perform by hand and so symbolic computation has been employed to aid this procedure.

  4. Noise and non-linearities in high-throughput data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet-Anh; Koukolíková-Nicola, Zdena; Bagnoli, Franco; Lió, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput data analyses are becoming common in biology, communications, economics and sociology. The vast amounts of data are usually represented in the form of matrices and can be considered as knowledge networks. Spectra-based approaches have proved useful in extracting hidden information within such networks and for estimating missing data, but these methods are based essentially on linear assumptions. The physical models of matching, when applicable, often suggest non-linear mechanisms, that may sometimes be identified as noise. The use of non-linear models in data analysis, however, may require the introduction of many parameters, which lowers the statistical weight of the model. According to the quality of data, a simpler linear analysis may be more convenient than more complex approaches. In this paper, we show how a simple non-parametric Bayesian model may be used to explore the role of non-linearities and noise in synthetic and experimental data sets.

  5. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes T.; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Thang, Tran Binh; An, Do Dang; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Long, Tran Thanh; Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Honda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model). Results High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52), females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21), people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63), and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28). Conclusions In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases). These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City. PMID:26781954

  6. Kinome-wide interaction modelling using alignment-based and alignment-independent approaches for kinase description and linear and non-linear data analysis techniques

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein kinases play crucial roles in cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Abnormal function of protein kinases can lead to many serious diseases, such as cancer. Kinase inhibitors have potential for treatment of these diseases. However, current inhibitors interact with a broad variety of kinases and interfere with multiple vital cellular processes, which causes toxic effects. Bioinformatics approaches that can predict inhibitor-kinase interactions from the chemical properties of the inhibitors and the kinase macromolecules might aid in design of more selective therapeutic agents, that show better efficacy and lower toxicity. Results We applied proteochemometric modelling to correlate the properties of 317 wild-type and mutated kinases and 38 inhibitors (12,046 inhibitor-kinase combinations) to the respective combination's interaction dissociation constant (Kd). We compared six approaches for description of protein kinases and several linear and non-linear correlation methods. The best performing models encoded kinase sequences with amino acid physico-chemical z-scale descriptors and used support vector machines or partial least- squares projections to latent structures for the correlations. Modelling performance was estimated by double cross-validation. The best models showed high predictive ability; the squared correlation coefficient for new kinase-inhibitor pairs ranging P2 = 0.67-0.73; for new kinases it ranged P2kin = 0.65-0.70. Models could also separate interacting from non-interacting inhibitor-kinase pairs with high sensitivity and specificity; the areas under the ROC curves ranging AUC = 0.92-0.93. We also investigated the relationship between the number of protein kinases in the dataset and the modelling results. Using only 10% of all data still a valid model was obtained with P2 = 0.47, P2kin = 0.42 and AUC = 0.83. Conclusions Our results strongly support the applicability of proteochemometrics for kinome-wide interaction modelling

  7. Model updating of locally non-linear systems based on multi-harmonic extended constitutive relation error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isasa, I.; Hot, A.; Cogan, S.; Sadoulet-Reboul, E.

    2011-10-01

    Improving the fidelity of numerical simulations using available test data is an important activity in the overall process of model verification and validation. While model updating or calibration of linear elastodynamic behaviors has been extensively studied for both academic and industrial applications over the past three decades, methodologies capable of treating non-linear dynamics remain relatively immature. The authors propose a novel strategy for updating an important subclass of non-linear models characterized by globally linear stiffness and damping behaviors in the presence of local non-linear effects. The approach combines two well-known methods for structural dynamic analysis. The first is the multi-harmonic balance (MHB) method for solving the non-linear equations of motion of a mechanical system under periodic excitation. This approach has the advantage of being much faster than time domain integration procedures while allowing a wide range of non-linear effects to be taken into account. The second method is the extended constitutive relation error (ECRE) that has been used in the past for error localization and updating of linear elastodynamic models. The proposed updating strategy will be illustrated using academic examples.

  8. Proceedings of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop, held at NASA Langley Research Center on 8-9 Dec. 1993, was to identify and articulate requirements for non-linear aero prediction capabilities during conceptual/preliminary design. The attendees included engineers from industry, government, and academia in a variety of aerospace disciplines, such as advanced design, aerodynamic performance analysis, aero methods development, flight controls, and experimental and theoretical aerodynamics. Presentations by industry and government organizations were followed by panel discussions. This report contains copies of the presentations and the results of the panel discussions.

  9. Using Non-Linear Statistical Methods with Laboratory Kinetic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anicich, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate the usefulness of standard non-linear statistical analysis on ICR and SIFT kinetic data. The specific systems used in the demonstration are the isotopic and change transfer reactions in the system of H2O+/D2O, H30+/D2O, and other permutations.

  10. Non-linear Post Processing Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shawn; Lopez, Alex; Torres, Angel

    1997-01-01

    A non-linear filter for image post processing based on the feedforward Neural Network topology is presented. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of "smart" filters in image post processing. The filter has shown to be useful in recovering high frequencies, such as those lost during the JPEG compression-decompression process. The filtered images have a higher signal to noise ratio, and a higher perceived image quality. Simulation studies comparing the proposed filter with the optimum mean square non-linear filter, showing examples of the high frequency recovery, and the statistical properties of the filter are given,

  11. Dynamic analysis of process reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Lawson, L.O.; Noel, S.D.

    1995-06-01

    The approach and methodology of conducting a dynamic analysis is presented in this poster session in order to describe how this type of analysis can be used to evaluate the operation and control of process reactors. Dynamic analysis of the PyGas{trademark} gasification process is used to illustrate the utility of this approach. PyGas{trademark} is the gasifier being developed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) by Jacobs-Siffine Engineering and Riley Stoker. In the first step of the analysis, process models are used to calculate the steady-state conditions and associated sensitivities for the process. For the PyGas{trademark} gasifier, the process models are non-linear mechanistic models of the jetting fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and the fixed-bed gasifier. These process sensitivities are key input, in the form of gain parameters or transfer functions, to the dynamic engineering models.

  12. Global search of non-linear systems periodic solutions: A rotordynamics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrouy, E.; Thouverez, F.

    2010-08-01

    Introducing non-linearities into models contributes towards a better reality description but leads to systems having multiple solutions. It is then legitimate to look for all the solutions of such systems, that is to have a global analysis approach. However no effective method can be found in literature for systems described by more than two or three degrees of freedom. We propose in this paper a way to find all T-periodic solutions—where T is known—of a non-linear dynamical system. This method is compared to three other approaches and is shown to be the most efficient on a Duffing oscillator. As a more complex example, a rotor model including a squeeze-film damper is studied and a second branch of solutions is exhibited.

  13. Multispectral face recognition using non linear dimensionality reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, Moulay A.; Bendada, Abdelhakim; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2009-05-01

    Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis). In this work, we introduce non linear dimensionality reduction approaches for multispectral face recognition. For this purpose, the following techniques were developed: global non linear techniques (Kernel-PCA, Kernel-LDA) and local non linear techniques (Local Linear Embedding, Locality Preserving Projection). The performances of these techniques were compared to classical linear techniques for face recognition like PCA and LDA. Two multispectral face recognition databases were used in our experiments: Equinox Face Recognition Database and Laval University Database. Equinox database contains images in the Visible, Short, Mid and Long waves infrared spectrums. Laval database contains images in the Visible, Near, Mid and Long waves infrared spectrums with variations in time and metabolic activity of the subjects. The obtained results are interesting and show the increase in recognition performance using local non linear dimensionality reduction techniques for infrared face recognition, particularly in near and short wave infrared spectrums.

  14. Non-linear cord-rubber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the stress-strain relations in a multi-layer composite made up of materials whose individual stress-strain characteristics are non-linear and possibly different. The method is applied to the case of asymmetric tubes in tension, and comparisons with experimentally measured data are given.

  15. Possibilities Of Optically Non Linear Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Micheli, Marc; Zyss, Joseph; Azema, Alain

    1983-11-01

    Efficient integrated frequency doubling devices transparent in the visible and near I.R. are demanded by a number of applications. The optimization of both wave interaction configurations and material intrinsic nonlinear susceptibility are successively discussed within this scope. Basic features such as power confinement, interaction length dependence, phase matching techniques, underlying the second harmonic generation conversion rate in bulk and waveguided structures are compared. Undoped Ga As film epitaxied over n+ doped Ga As substrate and TIPE Lithium Lobate waveguides exemplify the possibilities of non linear thin films. The higher non linear susceptibility of certain organic molecular single crys-tals should help raise the efficiency of doubling devices. We report the definition and bulk performances of two non linear organic crystals, namely POM (3-methyl-4 nitropyridine-1-oxyde) and MAP (methyl-(2,4-dinitropheny1)-aminopropanoate) with a figure of merit up to one order of magnitude above that of Li Nb 03. The combination of organic materials and waveguided configuration should lead to a new generation of non linear devices.

  16. A single-degree-of-freedom model for non-linear soil amplification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdik, Mustafa Ozder

    1979-01-01

    For proper understanding of soil behavior during earthquakes and assessment of a realistic surface motion, studies of the large-strain dynamic response of non-linear hysteretic soil systems are indispensable. Most of the presently available studies are based on the assumption that the response of a soil deposit is mainly due to the upward propagation of horizontally polarized shear waves from the underlying bedrock. Equivalent-linear procedures, currently in common use in non-linear soil response analysis, provide a simple approach and have been favorably compared with the actual recorded motions in some particular cases. Strain compatibility in these equivalent-linear approaches is maintained by selecting values of shear moduli and damping ratios in accordance with the average soil strains, in an iterative manner. Truly non-linear constitutive models with complete strain compatibility have also been employed. The equivalent-linear approaches often raise some doubt as to the reliability of their results concerning the system response in high frequency regions. In these frequency regions the equivalent-linear methods may underestimate the surface motion by as much as a factor of two or more. Although studies are complete in their methods of analysis, they inevitably provide applications pertaining only to a few specific soil systems, and do not lead to general conclusions about soil behavior. This report attempts to provide a general picture of the soil response through the use of a single-degree-of-freedom non-linear-hysteretic model. Although the investigation is based on a specific type of nonlinearity and a set of dynamic soil properties, the method described does not limit itself to these assumptions and is equally applicable to other types of nonlinearity and soil parameters.

  17. Perspective on quantifying electron localization/delocalization, non-linear optical response and vibrational analysis of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde-2,4-dinitroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Sasi, B. S.; Jebin, R. P.; Suthan, T.; James, C.

    2017-10-01

    An organic nonlinear optical material 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde-2,4-dinitroaniline (DMBDNA) has been grown by slow evaporation technique. Vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out using FT Raman, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The influence of intramolecular charge transfer within the molecule has been studied on the basis of NBO analysis. Vibrational frequencies have been calculated and scaled, which has been compared with the experimental FT-IR and FT Raman spectra. The effect of electronic localization and delocalization within the molecule is conceded on the basis of electron density partitioning paradigm.

  18. Understanding climate impacts on vegetation using a spatiotemporal non-linear Granger causality framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannopoulou, Christina; Decubber, Stijn; Miralles, Diego; Demuzere, Matthias; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko; Waegeman, Willem

    2017-04-01

    Satellite data provide an abundance of information about crucial climatic and environmental variables. These data - consisting of global records, spanning up to 35 years and having the form of multivariate time series with different spatial and temporal resolutions - enable the study of key climate-vegetation interactions. Although methods which are based on correlations and linear models are typically used for this purpose, their assumptions for linearity about the climate-vegetation relationships are too simplistic. Therefore, we adopt a recently proposed non-linear Granger causality analysis [1], in which we incorporate spatial information, concatenating data from neighboring pixels and training a joint model on the combined data. Experimental results based on global data sets show that considering non-linear relationships leads to a higher explained variance of past vegetation dynamics, compared to simple linear models. Our approach consists of several steps. First, we compile an extensive database [1], which includes multiple data sets for land surface temperature, near-surface air temperature, surface radiation, precipitation, snow water equivalents and surface soil moisture. Based on this database, high-level features are constructed and considered as predictors in our machine-learning framework. These high-level features include (de-trended) seasonal anomalies, lagged variables, past cumulative variables, and extreme indices, all calculated based on the raw climatic data. Second, we apply a spatiotemporal non-linear Granger causality framework - in which the linear predictive model is substituted for a non-linear machine learning algorithm - in order to assess which of these predictor variables Granger-cause vegetation dynamics at each 1° pixel. We use the de-trended anomalies of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to characterize vegetation, being the target variable of our framework. Experimental results indicate that climate strongly (Granger

  19. Two-year record of trace gas (CO2, CH4, O2, and Hg0) concentrations and dynamics in arctic tundra soils of northern Alaska - seasonality, non-linear temperature controls, and effects of soil diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Agnan, Y.; Hedge, C.; Moore, C. W.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Paxton, D.

    2016-12-01

    deposition of mercury to arctic ecosystems was the main source for soil accumulation. In conclusion, these results indicate a highly heterogeneous pattern of soil trace gas dynamics in tundra soils, with strong changes in diffusivity imposed by freeze-thaw cycles and strong and non-linear responses of trace gas dynamics to soil temperatures.

  20. Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay

    2013-04-01

    The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components

  1. Statistical analysis of Amenamevir (ASP2151) between pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacies with non-linear effect model for the treatment of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Takada, Akitsugu; Katashima, Masataka; Kaibara, Atsunori; Sawamoto, Taiji; Zhang, Wenhui; Keirns, James

    2014-09-01

    Amenamevir is the international non-proprietary name for ASP2151 synthesized by Astellas Pharma, Inc. It is a structurally novel class of helicase-primase inhibitor and demonstrated more potency in vitro anti-viral activity with low cytotoxicity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) than acyclovir (ACV). Phase II randomized trial assessed the safety and efficacy of ASP2151 for episodic therapy of recurrent genital herpes was conducted. Participants self-initiated with ASP2151 (100, 200, or 400 mg daily for 3 days), ASP2151 (1,200 mg as a single dose), placebo for 3 days, or Valacyclovir (500 mg twice daily for 3 days). We present a first population pharmacokinetic (PPK) modeling analysis of Amenamevir for genital herpes patients. The final model retained the effect of Weight and Albumin on CL. Statistical analysis between pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacies was done by using the time above 200 ng/mL (T200 ). T200 derived from the final PPK model to consider the correlation with Time to lesion healing and viral shedding. This finding suggested that it could be necessary to maintain the Amenamevir concentration above the threshold level to prevent the virus replication.

  2. Aeroelastic analysis for helicopter rotor blades with time-variable, non-linear structural twist and multiple structural redundancy: Mathematical derivation and program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of a nonlinearly twisted rotor blade in steady flight conditions together with those additional aeroelastic features germane to composite bearingless rotors are derived. The differential equations are formulated in terms of uncoupled (zero pitch and twist) vibratory modes with exact coupling effects due to finite, time variable blade pitch and, to second order, twist. Also presented are derivations of the fully coupled inertia and aerodynamic load distributions, automatic pitch change coupling effects, structural redundancy characteristics of the composite bearingless rotor flexbeam - torque tube system in bending and torsion, and a description of the linearized equations appropriate for eigensolution analyses. Three appendixes are included presenting material appropriate to the digital computer program implementation of the analysis, program G400.

  3. Cosmological non-linearities as an effective fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Nicolis, Alberto E-mail: nicolis@phys.columbia.edu E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2012-07-01

    The universe is smooth on large scales but very inhomogeneous on small scales. Why is the spacetime on large scales modeled to a good approximation by the Friedmann equations? Are we sure that small-scale non-linearities do not induce a large backreaction? Related to this, what is the effective theory that describes the universe on large scales? In this paper we make progress in addressing these questions. We show that the effective theory for the long-wavelength universe behaves as a viscous fluid coupled to gravity: integrating out short-wavelength perturbations renormalizes the homogeneous background and introduces dissipative dynamics into the evolution of long-wavelength perturbations. The effective fluid has small perturbations and is characterized by a few parameters like an equation of state, a sound speed and a viscosity parameter. These parameters can be matched to numerical simulations or fitted from observations. We find that the backreaction of small-scale non-linearities is very small, being suppressed by the large hierarchy between the scale of non-linearities and the horizon scale. The effective pressure of the fluid is always positive and much too small to significantly affect the background evolution. Moreover, we prove that virialized scales decouple completely from the large-scale dynamics, at all orders in the post-Newtonian expansion. We propose that our effective theory be used to formulate a well-defined and controlled alternative to conventional perturbation theory, and we discuss possible observational applications. Finally, our way of reformulating results in second-order perturbation theory in terms of a long-wavelength effective fluid provides the opportunity to understand non-linear effects in a simple and physically intuitive way.

  4. Pharmaceutical applications of non-linear imaging.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Clare J; Windbergs, Maike; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2011-09-30

    Non-linear optics encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including two- and three-photon fluorescence, second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), difference frequency generation (DFG), third harmonic generation (THG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The combined advantages of using these phenomena for imaging complex pharmaceutical systems include chemical and structural specificities, high optical spatial and temporal resolutions, no requirement for labels, and the ability to image in an aqueous environment. These features make such imaging well suited for a wide range of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical investigations, including material and dosage form characterisation, dosage form digestion and drug release, and drug and nanoparticle distribution in tissues and within live cells. In this review, non-linear optical phenomena used in imaging will be introduced, together with their advantages and disadvantages in the pharmaceutical context. Research on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical applications is discussed, and potential future applications of the technology are considered.

  5. The use of non-linear regression analysis and the F test for model discrimination with dose-response curves and ligand binding data.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, W G; McGinlay, P B

    1987-05-21

    Computer fitting of binding data is discussed and it is concluded that the main problem is the choice of starting estimates and internal scaling parameters, not the optimization software. Solving linear overdetermined systems of equations for starting estimates is investigated. A function, Q, is introduced to study model discrimination with binding isotherms and the behaviour of Q as a function of model parameters is calculated for the case of 2 and 3 sites. The power function of the F test is estimated for models with 2 to 5 binding sites and necessary constraints on parameters for correct model discrimination are given. The sampling distribution of F test statistics is compared to an exact F distribution using the Chi-squared and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. For low order modes (n less than 3) the F test statistics are approximately F distributed but for higher order models the test statistics are skewed to the left of the F distribution. The parameter covariance matrix obtained by inverting the Hessian matrix of the objective function is shown to be a good approximation to the estimate obtained by Monte Carlo sampling for low order models (n less than 3). It is concluded that analysis of up to 2 or 3 binding sites presents few problems and linear, normal statistical results are valid. To identify correctly 4 sites is much more difficult, requiring very precise data and extreme parameter values. Discrimination of 5 from 4 sites is an upper limit to the usefulness of the F test.

  6. Non-linear dark energy clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Stefano; Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pietroni, Massimo E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it

    2011-11-01

    We consider a dark energy fluid with arbitrary sound speed and equation of state and discuss the effect of its clustering on the cold dark matter distribution at the non-linear level. We write the continuity, Euler and Poisson equations for the system in the Newtonian approximation. Then, using the time renormalization group method to resum perturbative corrections at all orders, we compute the total clustering power spectrum and matter power spectrum. At the linear level, a sound speed of dark energy different from that of light modifies the power spectrum on observationally interesting scales, such as those relevant for baryonic acoustic oscillations. We show that the effect of varying the sound speed of dark energy on the non-linear corrections to the matter power spectrum is below the per cent level, and therefore these corrections can be well modelled by their counterpart in cosmological scenarios with smooth dark energy. We also show that the non-linear effects on the matter growth index can be as large as 10–15 per cent for small scales.

  7. The Prognostic Value of Non-Linear Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure—A Pilot Study of Multiscale Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Lwun; Lin, Chen; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Aims The influences of nonstationarity and nonlinearity on heart rate time series can be mathematically qualified or quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE). The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of parameters derived from MSE in the patients with systolic heart failure. Methods and Results Patients with systolic heart failure were enrolled in this study. One month after clinical condition being stable, 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram was recording. MSE as well as other standard parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were assessed. A total of 40 heart failure patients with a mea age of 56±16 years were enrolled and followed-up for 684±441 days. There were 25 patients receiving β-blockers treatment. During follow-up period, 6 patients died or received urgent heart transplantation. The short-term exponent of DFA and the slope of MSE between scale 1 to 5 were significantly different between patients with or without β-blockers (p = 0.014 and p = 0.028). Only the area under the MSE curve for scale 6 to 20 (Area6–20) showed the strongest predictive power between survival (n = 34) and mortality (n = 6) groups among all the parameters. The value of Area6–2021.2 served as a significant predictor of mortality or heart transplant (p = 0.0014). Conclusion The area under the MSE curve for scale 6 to 20 is not relevant to β-blockers and could further warrant independent risk stratification for the prognosis of CHF patients. PMID:21533258

  8. Radiation damping of near-shore oscillations created by sudden wind set-down: a new approach with non-linear analysis of run-up and run-down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, M. S.; Postacioglu, N.; Canli, U.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we are developing an analytical approach to the radiation damping of the oscillations created due to sudden cessation of the wind blowing from the coast towards the open ocean . For the shoreline slope we follow Carrier-Greenspan approach to treat the non-linear problem. This approach is based on a particular hodograph transformation of the shallow water equations using two auxiliary variables, both function of time and space. This analysis is valid over a constant slope in one-dimensional propagation. In the far-field, the wave equation is linearized. A matching between the linear solution off-shore and the non-linear solution near the shore is performed at the point of bathymetric discontinuity where the constant-slope part of the bathymetry reaches its deepest point. Our aim is to quantify the radiation damping, namely the energy loss of the system due to the waves propagating towards open-ocean as a function of the magnitude of bathymetric discontinuity. We calculate the response to a wind forcing that is logarithmic in space and periodic in time using Green's functions. A sudden cessation of the forcing is a linear combination of these type of excitations. The radiation condition off-shore renders the natural frequencies of oscillations of the system complex. Accordingly, the integration over the continuous frequency spectrum becomes a series of complex residues. We calculate these residues numerically. Solutions indicate that the radiation damping can be significant if the bathymetric discontinuity is negligible. However when the non-dimensional discontinuity is 20 (all depths are normalized using the deepest point at the end of the constant-slope part) the amplitude of the oscillations is reduced about 20% over one period of oscillation.

  9. Localization of non-linearly modeled autonomous mobile robots using out-of-sequence measurements.

    PubMed

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost.

  10. Localization of Non-Linearly Modeled Autonomous Mobile Robots Using Out-of-Sequence Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A.; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost. PMID:22736962

  11. Non-linear memristor switching model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A. A.; Islamov, D. R.; Pik'nik, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a thermodynamical model of filament growing when a current pulse via memristor flows. The model is the boundary value problem, which includes nonstationary heat conduction equation with non-linear Joule heat source, Poisson equation, and Shockley- Read-Hall equations taking into account strong electron-phonon interactions in trap ionization and charge transport processes. The charge current, which defines the heating in the model, depends on the rate of the oxygen vacancy generation. The latter depends on the local temperature. The solution of the introduced problem allows one to describe the kinetics of the switch process and the final filament morphology.

  12. Thinking about Non-Linear Smoothers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    interesting possibilities for future study . These seem at the moment to fall into 3 categories: 1) Do we need the step that works on ends of abutting swooshes...Unear’smoothers to00 31. Recent work at Stanford 100 32. Coments an ocaly-lnear ttu.ng 101 .’ .. 33. Qevelnd’s i.ow 102 34. smelting 103 APPENDIX C: A...limited degree, with "Benchmarks’. We are, in most subareas, early in our study of non-linear smoothers. As as consequence, we often have to emphasize

  13. Study of the effect of static/dynamic Coulomb friction variation at the tape-head interface of a spacecraft tape recorder by non-linear time response simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of six simulation cases investigating the effect of the variation of static-dynamic Coulomb friction on servo system stability/performance. The upper and lower levels of dynamic Coulomb friction which allowed operation within requirements were determined roughly to be three times and 50% respectively of nominal values considered in a table. A useful application for the nonlinear time response simulation is the sensitivity analysis of final hardware design with respect to such system parameters as cannot be varied realistically or easily in the actual hardware. Parameters of the static/dynamic Coulomb friction fall in this category.

  14. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-15

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum.

  15. Non-linear micromechanics of soft tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan

    2013-01-01

    Microstructure-based constitutive models have been adopted in recent studies of non-linear mechanical properties of biological soft tissues. These models provide more accurate predictions of the overall mechanical responses of tissues than phenomenological approaches. Based on standard approximations in non-linear mechanics, we classified the microstructural models into three categories: (1) uniform-field models with solid-like matrix, (2) uniform-field models with fluid-like matrix, and (3) second-order estimate models. The first two categories assume affine deformation field where the deformation of microstructure is the same as that of the tissue, regardless of material heterogeneities; i.e., they represent the upper bounds of the exact effective strain energy and stress of soft tissues. In addition, the first type is not purely structurally motivated and hence cannot accurately predict the microscopic mechanical behaviors of soft tissues. The third category considers realistic geometrical features, material properties of microstructure and interactions among them and allows for flexible deformation in each constituent. The uniform-field model with fluid-like matrix and the second-order estimate model are microstructure-based, and can be applied to different tissues based on micro-structural features. PMID:24817769

  16. A survey on non-linear oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, D. P.; Dorrah, H. T.

    1980-06-01

    This survey paper presents a comprehensive review of work in the field of non-linear oscillations. A brief discussion of second-order systems is followed by a presentation of exact criteria, approximate analytical methods and computational techniques for limit cycles in single variable systems. Multivariable systems are then covered from an analogous viewpoint which allows the reader to clearly identify both how single variable methods have been extended and the possibilities for further research. Particular emphasis is placed on describing function methods since it is believed that, where exact solutions are not possible, the approach may not only give approximate solutions but provides good insight for further computational or simulation studies. The coverage is essentially restricted to continuous lumped parameter systems and includes both free and forced oscillations. Several applications of the theories in various fields of engineering and science are discussed and indicate the broad interest in non-linear oscillatory phenomena. Finally, a detailed bibliography on the subject is provided.

  17. Simulation of magnetisation switching by non-linear resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirion, C.; Wernsdorfer, W.

    2004-05-01

    The sub-nanosecond dynamics have recently been probed via non-linear resonance on single magnetic nanoparticles using the micro-SQUID technique. In the presence of a magnetic field considerably smaller than the switching field, the magnetisation of a nanoparticle can be reversed by the application of a small RF field. The experimental determination of the most effective frequency is a direct probe of the small oscillations of the magnetisation in the metastable energy well. We present here a simulation of this experiment using the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equation.

  18. Non-linear viscoelastic behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Evelyne A; Dams, Susanne D; Peters, Gerrit W M; Rutten, Marcel C M; Schurink, Geert Willem H; Buth, Jaap; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the linear and non-linear viscoelastic behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus and to study the changes in mechanical properties throughout the thickness of the thrombus. Samples are gathered from thrombi of seven patients. Linear viscoelastic data from oscillatory shear experiments show that the change of properties throughout the thrombus is different for each thrombus. Furthermore the variations found within one thrombus are of the same order of magnitude as the variation between patients. To study the non-linear regime, stress relaxation experiments are performed. To describe the phenomena observed experimentally, a non-linear multimode model is presented. The parameters for this model are obtained by fitting this model successfully to the experiments. The model cannot only describe the average stress response for all thrombus samples but also the highest and lowest stress responses. To determine the influence on the wall stress of the behavior observed the model proposed needs to implemented in the finite element wall stress analysis.

  19. Validation of a non-linear model of health.

    PubMed

    Topolski, Stefan; Sturmberg, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the veracity of a theoretically derived model of health that describes a non-linear trajectory of health from birth to death with available population data sets. The distribution of mortality by age is directly related to health at that age, thus health approximates 1/mortality. The inverse of available all-cause mortality data from various time periods and populations was used as proxy data to compare with the theoretically derived non-linear health model predictions, using both qualitative approaches and quantitative one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis with Monte Carlo simulation. The mortality data's inverse resembles a log-normal distribution as predicted by the proposed health model. The curves have identical slopes from birth and follow a logarithmic decline from peak health in young adulthood. A majority of the sampled populations had a good to excellent quantitative fit to a log-normal distribution, supporting the underlying model assumptions. Post hoc manipulation showed the model predictions to be stable. This is a first theory of health to be validated by proxy data, namely the inverse of all-cause mortality. This non-linear model, derived from the notion of the interaction of physical, environmental, mental, emotional, social and sense-making domains of health, gives physicians a more rigorous basis to direct health care services and resources away from disease-focused elder care towards broad-based biopsychosocial interventions earlier in life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Kinetics independent spectrometric analysis using non-linear calibration modelling and exploitation of concentration gradients generated by a flow-batch system for albumin and total protein determination in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Souza, Margarida C; Martins, Valdomiro L; Almeida, Luciano F; Pessoa Neto, Osmundo D; Gaião, Edvaldo N; Araujo, Mario Cesar U

    2010-08-15

    An automatic method for kinetics independent spectrometric analysis is proposed in this study. It uses a non-linear calibration model that explores concentration gradients generated by a flow-batch analyser (FBA) for the samples, dye, and the single standard solution. The procedure for obtaining the gradients of the dye and standard solution is performed once at the beginning of analysis. The same procedure is applied thereafter for each sample. For illustration, the proposed automatic methodology was applied to determine total protein and albumin in blood serum by using the Biuret and Bromocresol Green (BCG) methods. The measurements were made by using a laboratory-made photometer based on a red and green bicolour LED (Light-Emitting Diode) and a phototransistor, coupled to a "Z" form flow cell. The sample throughput was about 50 h(-1) for albumin and 60 h(-1) for total protein, consuming about 7 microL of sample, 2.6 mL of BCG and 1.2 mL of biuret reagents for each determination. Applying the paired t-test for results from the proposed analyser and the reference method, no statistic differences at 95% confidence level were found. The absolute standard deviation was usually smaller than 0.2 g dL(-1). The proposed method is valuable for the determination of total protein and albumin; and can also be used in other determinations where kinetic effects may or may not exist.

  1. Mechanisms for Non-Linear Optical Behaviour in Molecular Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, Kenneth J.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis describes a study of the non-linear optical mechanisms that allow high power laser radiation to interact and change the optical properties of fluid based media. Attention is focused on understanding the finite time-scale of the microscopic response and its influence on the experimental observation. Two classes of material are studied: liquid crystalline fluids in their isotropic phase and suspensions of particles capable of absorbing the laser radiation. In the former case a quantitative description of the optical transients seen in two experiments, degenerate four wave mixing and "z-scan" (self-focusing), is obtained. This description is based upon an analysis of refractive index changes associated with laser-induced molecular reorientation and with thermal effects, for molecules that absorb the laser radiation. Material parameters for a large range of nematogens are obtained by applying this description to experimental data. In the absorbing colloidal suspensions a novel mechanism for degenerate four wave mixing is identified and studied. The experimental results are suggestive of a mechanism in which vapour bubbles nucleate explosively around the colloidal particles and drive a coherent sound -wave excitation of the fluid. Theoretical studies confirm that rapid bubble nucleation is possible by a process of spinodal decomposition under the experimental conditions and it is shown that this mechanism can be expected to give rise to transient behaviour of the type observed. Finally laser-induced refractive index changes in a colloidal suspension in a solid matrix are studied. The dynamics of the formation of refractive index gratings is examined and correlated with microscopically observed structural changes in the matrix. ftn*Funded by DRA, Electronics Division (formerly RSRE).

  2. Non-linear sequencing and cognizant failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Erann

    1999-01-01

    Spacecraft are traditionally commanded using linear sequences of time-based commands. Linear sequences work fairly well, but they are difficult and expensive to generate, and are usually not capable of responding to contingencies. Any anomalous behavior while executing a linear sequence generally results in the spacecraft entering a safe mode. Critical sequences like orbit insertions which must be able to respond to faults without going into safe mode are particularly difficult to design and verify. The effort needed to generate command sequences can be reduced by extending the vocabulary of sequences to include more sophisticated control constructs. The simplest extensions are conditionals and loops. Adding these constructs would make a sequencing language look more or less like a traditional programming language or scripting language, and would come with all the difficulties associated with such a language. In particular, verifying the correctness of a sequence would be tantamount to verifying the correctness of a program, which is undecidable in general. We describe an extended vocabulary for non-linear sequencing based on the architectural notion of cognizant failure. A cognizant failure architecture is divided into components whose contract is to either achieve (or maintain) a certain condition, or report that they have failed to do so. Cognizant failure is an easier condition to verify than correctness, but it can provide high confidence in the safety of the spacecraft. Because cognizant failure inherently implies some kind of representation of the intent of an action, the system can respond to contingencies in more robust and general ways. We will describe an implemented non-linear sequencing system that is being flown on the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission as part of the Remote Agent Experiment.

  3. Travelling and standing envelope solitons in discrete non-linear cyclic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grolet, Aurelien; Hoffmann, Norbert; Thouverez, Fabrice; Schwingshackl, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Envelope solitons are demonstrated to exist in non-linear discrete structures with cyclic symmetry. The analysis is based on the Non-Linear Schrodinger Equation for the weakly non-linear limit, and on numerical simulation of the fully non-linear equations for larger amplitudes. Envelope solitons exist for parameters in which the wave equation is focussing and they have the form of shape-conserving wave packages propagating roughly with group velocity. For the limit of maximum wave number, where the group velocity vanishes, standing wave packages result and can be linked via a bifurcation to the non-localised non-linear normal modes. Numerical applications are carried out on a simple discrete system with cyclic symmetry which can be seen as a reduced model of a bladed disk as found in turbo-machinery.

  4. Computational models of signalling networks for non-linear control.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Luis A; Lones, Michael A; Turner, Alexander P; Stepney, Susan; Caves, Leo S; Tyrrell, Andy M

    2013-05-01

    Artificial signalling networks (ASNs) are a computational approach inspired by the signalling processes inside cells that decode outside environmental information. Using evolutionary algorithms to induce complex behaviours, we show how chaotic dynamics in a conservative dynamical system can be controlled. Such dynamics are of particular interest as they mimic the inherent complexity of non-linear physical systems in the real world. Considering the main biological interpretations of cellular signalling, in which complex behaviours and robust cellular responses emerge from the interaction of multiple pathways, we introduce two ASN representations: a stand-alone ASN and a coupled ASN. In particular we note how sophisticated cellular communication mechanisms can lead to effective controllers, where complicated problems can be divided into smaller and independent tasks.

  5. Non-linearities in Holocene floodplain sediment storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Nils, Broothaerts; Jean-François, Berger; Gert, Verstraeten

    2013-04-01

    that a strong multifractality is present in the scaling relationship between sediment storage and catchment area, depending on geomorphic landscape properties. Extrapolation of data from one spatial scale to another inevitably leads to large errors: when only the data of the upper floodplains are considered, a regression analysis results in an overestimation of total floodplain deposition for the entire catchment of circa 115%. This example demonstrates multifractality and related non-linearity in scaling relationships, which influences extrapolations beyond the initial range of measurements. These different examples indicate how traditional extrapolation techniques and assumptions in sediment budget studies can be challenged by field data, further complicating our understanding of these systems. Although simplifications are often necessary when working on large spatial scale, such non-linearities may form challenges for a better understanding of system behavior.

  6. Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy of microbiological suspensions.

    PubMed

    Treo, Ernesto F; Felice, Carmelo J

    2009-09-22

    Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) of microorganism was characterized by the generation of harmonics in the polarization current when a microorganism suspension was exposed to a sinusoidal electric field. The biological nonlinear response initially described was not well verified by other authors and the results were susceptible to ambiguous interpretation. In this paper NLDS was performed to yeast suspension in tripolar and tetrapolar configuration with a recently developed analyzer. Tripolar analysis was carried out by applying sinusoidal voltages up to 1 V at the electrode interface. Tetrapolar analysis was carried on with sinusoidal field strengths from 0.1 V cm(-1) to 70 V cm(-1). Both analyses were performed within a frequency range from 1 Hz through 100 Hz. The harmonic amplitudes were Fourier-analyzed and expressed in dB. The third harmonic, as reported previously, was investigated. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was used to test the effect of inhibitor an activator of the plasma membrane enzyme in the measured response. No significant non-linearities were observed in tetrapolar analysis, and no observable changes occurred when inhibitor and activator were added to the suspension. Statistical analysis confirmed these results.When a pure sinus voltage was applied to an electrode-yeast suspension interface, variations higher than 25 dB for the 3rd harmonic were observed. Variation higher than 20 dB in the 3rd harmonics has also been found when adding an inhibitor or activator of the membrane-bounded enzymes. These variations did not occur when the suspension was boiled. The lack of result in tetrapolar cells suggest that there is no, if any, harmonic generation in microbiological bulk suspension. The non-linear response observed was originated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The frequency and voltage windows observed in previous tetrapolar analysis were repeated in the tripolar measurements, but maximum were not observed at the same values

  7. Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy of microbiological suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Treo, Ernesto F; Felice, Carmelo J

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) of microorganism was characterized by the generation of harmonics in the polarization current when a microorganism suspension was exposed to a sinusoidal electric field. The biological nonlinear response initially described was not well verified by other authors and the results were susceptible to ambiguous interpretation. In this paper NLDS was performed to yeast suspension in tripolar and tetrapolar configuration with a recently developed analyzer. Methods Tripolar analysis was carried out by applying sinusoidal voltages up to 1 V at the electrode interface. Tetrapolar analysis was carried on with sinusoidal field strengths from 0.1 V cm-1 to 70 V cm-1. Both analyses were performed within a frequency range from 1 Hz through 100 Hz. The harmonic amplitudes were Fourier-analyzed and expressed in dB. The third harmonic, as reported previously, was investigated. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was used to test the effect of inhibitor an activator of the plasma membrane enzyme in the measured response. Results No significant non-linearities were observed in tetrapolar analysis, and no observable changes occurred when inhibitor and activator were added to the suspension. Statistical analysis confirmed these results. When a pure sinus voltage was applied to an electrode-yeast suspension interface, variations higher than 25 dB for the 3rd harmonic were observed. Variation higher than 20 dB in the 3rd harmonics has also been found when adding an inhibitor or activator of the membrane-bounded enzymes. These variations did not occur when the suspension was boiled. Discussion The lack of result in tetrapolar cells suggest that there is no, if any, harmonic generation in microbiological bulk suspension. The non-linear response observed was originated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The frequency and voltage windows observed in previous tetrapolar analysis were repeated in the tripolar measurements, but maximum were not

  8. Optimal control of a satellite-robot system using direct collocation with non-linear programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coverstone-Carroll, V. L.; Wilkey, N. M.

    1995-08-01

    The non-holonomic behavior of a satellite-robot system is used to develop the system's equations of motion. The resulting non-linear differential equations are transformed into a non-linear programming problem using direct collocation. The link rates of the robot are minimized along optimal reorientations. Optimal solutions to several maneuvers are obtained and the results are interpreted to gain an understanding of the satellite-robot dynamics.

  9. Non-linear structure in modified action theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marcos V.

    We study the effects and carry out a suite of cosmological simulations of modified action f(R) models where cosmic acceleration arises from an alteration of gravity instead of dark energy. These models introduce an extra scalar degree of freedom which enhances the force of gravity below the Compton scale of the scalar. The simulations exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, necessary for satisfying local constraints on gravity, where this scale depends on environment, in particular the depth of the local gravitational potential. We find that the chameleon mechanism can substantially suppress the enhancement of power spectrum in the non-linear regime if the background field value is comparable to or smaller than the depth of the gravitational potentials of typical structures. Nonetheless power spectrum enhancements at intermediate scales remain at a measurable level even when the expansion history is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant, cold dark matter model. We also investigate the effects of the modified dynamics on halo properties such as their abundance and clustering. We find that the f(R) effects on the halo mass- function and bias depend mostly on the linear power spectrum modifications, but that the chameleon mechanism suppresses the modifications at high-mass halos with deep potential wells. The f(R) modifications also affect the threshold density for collapse, or similarly the overdensity for virialization and therefore can change halo definitions from those of ACDM. As a result, simple scaling relations that take the linear matter power spectrum into a non-linear spectrum fail to capture the modifications of f(R) due to the change in collapsed structures, the chameleon mechanism, and the time evolution of the modifications. A quantification of these effects, including modifications on halo profiles, is necessary to accurately describe halo properties and potentially construct a halo model of the non-linear power spectrum.

  10. Optimization of Passive and Active Non-Linear Vibration Mounting Systems Based on Vibratory Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.

    1996-07-01

    While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.

  11. A study of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mount systems with emphasis on non-linear characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G.; Singh, R.

    1995-01-01

    Passive hydraulic mounts exhibit excitation frequency variant and deflection amplitude sensitive stiffness and damping properties. Such non-linear dynamic characteristics are examined by using analytical and experimental methods, both at the device level and within the context of a simplified vehicle model. A new lumped parameter non-linear mathematical model of the hydraulic mount is developed by simulating its decoupler switching mechanism and inertia track dynamics. The low frequency performance features and limitations of several passive mounts are made clear through the non-linear vehicle model simulation and comparable laboratory vibration tests. The high frequency performance problems of the passive hydraulic mount are identified by applying the quasi-linear analysis method. Based on these results, a new adaptive mount system is developed which exhibits broad bandwidth performance features up to 250 Hz. It implements an on-off damping control mode by using engine intake manifold vacuum and a microprocessor based solenoid valve controller. A laboratory bench set-up has already demonstrated its operational feasibility. Through analytical methods, it is observed that our adaptive mount provides superior dynamic performance to passive engine mounts and comparable performance to a small scale active mount over a wide frequency range, given the engine mounting resonance control, shock absorption and vibration isolation performance requirements. Although technical prospects of the proposed adaptive system appear promising, the in situperformance needs to be evaluated.

  12. Non-linear modelling and control of semi-active suspensions with variable damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huang; Long, Chen; Yuan, Chao-Chun; Jiang, Hao-Bin

    2013-10-01

    Electro-hydraulic dampers can provide variable damping force that is modulated by varying the command current; furthermore, they offer advantages such as lower power, rapid response, lower cost, and simple hardware. However, accurate characterisation of non-linear f-v properties in pre-yield and force saturation in post-yield is still required. Meanwhile, traditional linear or quarter vehicle models contain various non-linearities. The development of a multi-body dynamics model is very complex, and therefore, SIMPACK was used with suitable improvements for model development and numerical simulations. A semi-active suspension was built based on a belief-desire-intention (BDI)-agent model framework. Vehicle handling dynamics were analysed, and a co-simulation analysis was conducted in SIMPACK and MATLAB to evaluate the BDI-agent controller. The design effectively improved ride comfort, handling stability, and driving safety. A rapid control prototype was built based on dSPACE to conduct a real vehicle test. The test and simulation results were consistent, which verified the simulation.

  13. In situ characterisation of non linear capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudebat, L.; Bley, V.; Lebey, T.; Schneider, H.; Tounsi, P.

    2001-05-01

    Multilayers ceramic capacitors (MLCC) presenting non linear behaviours of their C(V) characteristics may have interesting applications in power electronics. Most of them have already been described. Nevertheless, the choice of a particular type instead of another one is all the more so difficult since, on one hand the physical mechanisms able to explain this behaviour is far from being understood. On the other hand, C(V) characteristics are in general obtained for low voltage values different from the ones they are going to be involved in. In this paper, direct in situ characterisations of different BaTiO3 based capacitors commercially available are achieved. The role of the capacitors' type (X7R,Z5U), of the temperature and of the voltage waveform (and more particularly its polarity) is demonstrated. Temperature values up to 200 oC are measured during normal operations in a RCD dissipative snubber without any alterations of the C(V) characteristics. All these results are discussed as regards the main physical properties of the constitutive materials in order to reach an optimisation of their use through an appropriate dimensioning.

  14. Non-Linear Electrohydrodynamics in Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Since the inception of microfluidics, the electric force has been exploited as one of the leading mechanisms for driving and controlling the movement of the operating fluid and the charged suspensions. Electric force has an intrinsic advantage in miniaturized devices. Because the electrodes are placed over a small distance, from sub-millimeter to a few microns, a very high electric field is easy to obtain. The electric force can be highly localized as its strength rapidly decays away from the peak. This makes the electric force an ideal candidate for precise spatial control. The geometry and placement of the electrodes can be used to design electric fields of varying distributions, which can be readily realized by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication methods. In this paper, we examine several electrically driven liquid handling operations. The emphasis is given to non-linear electrohydrodynamic effects. We discuss the theoretical treatment and related numerical methods. Modeling and simulations are used to unveil the associated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. The modeling based investigation is interwoven with examples of microfluidic devices to illustrate the applications. PMID:21673912

  15. The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavela, M. B.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P. A. N.; Saa, S.

    2016-12-01

    The minimal SO(5) / SO(4) σ -model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators.

  16. The linear -- non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Gavela, M. B.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P. A. N.; ...

    2016-12-01

    The minimalmore » $SO(5)/SO(4)$ sigma model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone boson ancestry. Varying the $$\\sigma$$ mass allows to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators.« less

  17. The linear -- non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Gavela, M. B.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P. A. N.; Saa, S.

    2016-12-01

    The minimal $SO(5)/SO(4)$ sigma model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone boson ancestry. Varying the $\\sigma$ mass allows to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators.

  18. Non-linear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in NLME using differential equations.

    PubMed

    Tornøe, Christoffer W; Agersø, Henrik; Jonsson, E Niclas; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik A

    2004-10-01

    The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as long as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlmeODE package for population PK/PD analysis using the available data analysis tools in R for model inspection and validation. The nlmeODE package is numerically stable and provides accurate parameter estimates which are consistent with NONMEM estimates.

  19. Effect of a national 4C antibiotic stewardship intervention on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections in a region of Scotland: a non-linear time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Timothy; Lopez-Lozano, José-María; Nebot, Cesar A; Macartney, Gillian; Subbarao-Sharma, Rashmi; Wares, Karen D; Sinclair, Carolyn; Gould, Ian M

    2017-02-01

    Whereas many antibiotics increase risk of Clostridium difficile infection through dysbiosis, epidemic C difficile ribotypes characterised by multidrug resistance might depend on antibiotic selection pressures arising from population use of specific drugs. We examined the effect of a national antibiotic stewardship intervention limiting the use of 4C antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, co-amoxiclav, and cephalosporins) and other infection prevention and control strategies on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of C difficile infections in northeast Scotland. We did a non-linear time-series analysis and quasi-experimental study to explore ecological determinants of clinical burdens from C difficile infections and ribotype distributions in a health board serving 11% of the Scottish population. Study populations were adults (aged ≥16 years) registered with primary carer providers in the community (mean 455 508 inhabitants) or admitted to tertiary level, district general, or geriatric hospitals (mean 33 049 total admissions per month). A mixed persuasive-restrictive 4C antibiotic stewardship intervention was initiated in all populations on May 1, 2009. Other population-specific interventions considered included limiting indications for macrolide prescriptions, introduction of alcohol-based hand sanitiser, a national hand-hygiene campaign, national auditing and inspections of hospital environment cleanliness, and reminders to reduce inappropriate use of proton-pump inhibitors. The total effect of interventions was defined as the difference between observations and projected scenarios without intervention. Primary outcomes were prevalence density of C difficile infection per 1000 occupied bed-days in hospitals or per 100 000 inhabitant-days in the community. Between Jan 1, 1997, and Dec 31, 2012, we identified 4885 cases of hospital-onset C difficile infection among 1 289 929 admissions to study hospitals, and a further 1625 cases of community

  20. Non linear anthropometric predictors in swimming.

    PubMed

    Sekulić, Damir; Zenić, Natasa; Zubcević, Nada Grcić

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we have tried to identify the significance and character of the linear and non-linear relations between simple anthropometric predictors: body height (BH), body weight (BW), and body mass index, and swimming performance: freestyle swimming 50 (FS50) and 400 meters (FS400), in a sample of young (15 years old on average) male (N = 40) and female (N = 28) swimmers. Linear (general model: y = a+bx) and nonlinear regression (general model: y = a+bx+cx2) were calculated simultaneously. Morphological variables are a significantly better predictor of the FS50 in males (BH mostly), and FS400 in females (BW mostly). This study emphasized some of the main advantages in the nonlinear regression calculation (including an interpretation of the relationships at a more superior level), and consequently allowed a precise anthropometric modeling in swimming using simple and easily measurable variables. For example, the best results in FS400 can be expected for the subjects that are average in BW (which guarantees solid muscle mass--the generator of force), but above average in BH (because of the physical law of lever). In conclusion, nonlinear regressions allow one to define the real nature of the relationships between variables, but only if compared with the linear ones. Additionally, this study emphasized one of the most important factors in defining possible specification-equation (e.g. structure of the influence of the different dimensions on the sport achievement) in different sports. In short, it underlines the importance of sampling the appropriate sample of the subject--highly skilled athletes exclusively.

  1. Non-linear rotation-free shell finite-element models for aortic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Stolarski, Henryk; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2017-01-04

    Hyperelastic material models have been incorporated in the rotation-free, large deformation, shell finite element (FE) formulation of (Stolarski et al., 2013) and applied to dynamic simulations of aortic heart valve. Two models used in the past in analysis of such problem i.e. the Saint-Venant and May-Newmann-Yin (MNY) material models have been considered and compared. Uniaxial tests for those constitutive equations were performed to verify the formulation and implementation of the models. The issue of leaflets interactions during the closing of the heart valve at the end of systole is considered. The critical role of using non-linear anisotropic model for proper dynamic response of the heart valve especially during the closing phase is demonstrated quantitatively. This work contributes an efficient FE framework for simulating biological tissues and paves the way for high-fidelity flow structure interaction simulations of native and bioprosthetic aortic heart valves.

  2. Integration of Attributes from Non-Linear Characterization of Cardiovascular Time-Series for Prediction of Defibrillation Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Sharad; Kurz, Michael C; Ward, Kevin R; Najarian, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    The timing of defibrillation is mostly at arbitrary intervals during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rather than during intervals when the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) patient is physiologically primed for successful countershock. Interruptions to CPR may negatively impact defibrillation success. Multiple defibrillations can be associated with decreased post-resuscitation myocardial function. We hypothesize that a more complete picture of the cardiovascular system can be gained through non-linear dynamics and integration of multiple physiologic measures from biomedical signals. Retrospective analysis of 153 anonymized OOH-CA patients who received at least one defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation (VF) was undertaken. A machine learning model, termed Multiple Domain Integrative (MDI) model, was developed to predict defibrillation success. We explore the rationale for non-linear dynamics and statistically validate heuristics involved in feature extraction for model development. Performance of MDI is then compared to the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) technique. 358 defibrillations were evaluated (218 unsuccessful and 140 successful). Non-linear properties (Lyapunov exponent > 0) of the ECG signals indicate a chaotic nature and validate the use of novel non-linear dynamic methods for feature extraction. Classification using MDI yielded ROC-AUC of 83.2% and accuracy of 78.8%, for the model built with ECG data only. Utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, at 80% specificity level, MDI (74% sensitivity) outperformed AMSA (53.6% sensitivity). At 90% specificity level, MDI had 68.4% sensitivity while AMSA had 43.3% sensitivity. Integrating available end-tidal carbon dioxide features into MDI, for the available 48 defibrillations, boosted ROC-AUC to 93.8% and accuracy to 83.3% at 80% sensitivity. At clinically relevant sensitivity thresholds, the MDI provides improved performance as compared to AMSA, yielding fewer unsuccessful defibrillations. Addition

  3. Integration of Attributes from Non-Linear Characterization of Cardiovascular Time-Series for Prediction of Defibrillation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shandilya, Sharad; Kurz, Michael C.; Ward, Kevin R.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The timing of defibrillation is mostly at arbitrary intervals during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rather than during intervals when the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) patient is physiologically primed for successful countershock. Interruptions to CPR may negatively impact defibrillation success. Multiple defibrillations can be associated with decreased post-resuscitation myocardial function. We hypothesize that a more complete picture of the cardiovascular system can be gained through non-linear dynamics and integration of multiple physiologic measures from biomedical signals. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of 153 anonymized OOH-CA patients who received at least one defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation (VF) was undertaken. A machine learning model, termed Multiple Domain Integrative (MDI) model, was developed to predict defibrillation success. We explore the rationale for non-linear dynamics and statistically validate heuristics involved in feature extraction for model development. Performance of MDI is then compared to the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) technique. Results 358 defibrillations were evaluated (218 unsuccessful and 140 successful). Non-linear properties (Lyapunov exponent > 0) of the ECG signals indicate a chaotic nature and validate the use of novel non-linear dynamic methods for feature extraction. Classification using MDI yielded ROC-AUC of 83.2% and accuracy of 78.8%, for the model built with ECG data only. Utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, at 80% specificity level, MDI (74% sensitivity) outperformed AMSA (53.6% sensitivity). At 90% specificity level, MDI had 68.4% sensitivity while AMSA had 43.3% sensitivity. Integrating available end-tidal carbon dioxide features into MDI, for the available 48 defibrillations, boosted ROC-AUC to 93.8% and accuracy to 83.3% at 80% sensitivity. Conclusion At clinically relevant sensitivity thresholds, the MDI provides improved performance as compared to AMSA

  4. Mississippi River Delta front loading mechanisms using non-linear wave modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, I. Y.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Maloney, J. M.; Miner, M. D.; Keller, G. P.; Obelcz, J.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas often exhibit submarine slides caused by the nature of weak unconsolidated clays deposited through rapid fine grained sedimentation. The role of waves as trigger mechanisms has been suggested and studied by many previous efforts, highlighting among others; the effect of cyclic loading from large hurricane waves shoaling on the delta front seafloor, high near-bed orbital velocities resulting from these waves that can exceed 2m/s, and the development of a pressure gradient across a wave crest that can differentially load the seabed. With declines in suspended sediment load over recent time (1700-present) delta front degradation is inevitable, and recent works suggest that the MRDF is nearing that phase. The impacts of delta front degradation and the potential increase in submarine failures pose an important economic and societal risk to delta populations and infrastructure. Here, we revisit the pressure gradient as a possible loading mechanism for triggering submarine slides and failures. We extend previous studies by hindcasting waves from known hurricanes that influenced the delta using a fully non-linear fluid dynamics model. By controlling the wave properties at the seaward boundary (wave height, length, period) and the type of waves that are forced (linear-sinusoidal, and non-linear-cnoidal, higher order stokes) we examine the pressure gradients along a wave crest and compare with measured shear strength of delta front soils. We further our analysis by evaluating the potential increase in pressure gradients near the bed resulting from shoaling waves on the delta front, in combination with variations in delta-front slopes. Results suggest that the presence of non-linear waves creates larger pressure gradients over shorter wave lengths (or periods), which produce differential loading of the seabed due to transient pressures. Furthermore, our results suggest that the resulting transient pressures may be higher than previously reported, due to the rapid

  5. Non-linear analyses of heart rate variability during heavy exercise and recovery in cyclists.

    PubMed

    Casties, J-F; Mottet, D; Le Gallais, D

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the time course of RR interval variability during exercise and subsequent 50 minutes of recovery in seven well-trained male cyclists who performed an exercise with 3 successive 8 min stages at 40 %, 70 % and 90 % of their maximal oxygen uptake. The goal of the study was to check whether the decrease in the amplitude of heart rate variability during heavy exercise was accompanied by changes in the chaotic structure of the fluctuations. Heart rate variability was analysed in the temporal and frequency domain using traditional tools and using non-linear methods (Largest Lyapunov Exponent, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Minimum Embedding Dimension). When compared to rest, variability at the heaviest exercise intensity was significantly lower (RR: 0.94 +/- 0.22 vs. 0.34 +/- 0.01 ms; SDRR: 0.11 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.01 +/- 0.00 ms) due to a decrease in both LF (2101 +/- 1450 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.09 ms (2) . Hz (-1)) and HF spectral energy (1148 +/- 1126 vs. 7.88 +/- 9.24 ms (2) . Hz (-1)). Non-linear analyses showed that heart rate variability remained chaotic whatever the exercise intensity (the largest Lyapunov exponent was positive at 90 % of the maximal oxygen uptake), with a fractal organisation that tended towards white noise (DFA value close to 0.5) during heavy exercise. During recovery, temporal and spectral variables came back to their rest values within about 30 minutes following an exponential pattern. Non-linear analyses revealed that heartbeat dynamics were disorganised at the beginning of recovery, and involved more regulating systems than at rest, even after 50 minutes of recovery. We concluded that, during heavy exercise, heart rate variability was mainly influenced by other factors than autonomous nervous system, and suggest that mechanical or neurological couplings between the cardiac, locomotor and respiratory systems could play an important part in the observed changes.

  6. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of AN Automatic Dynamic Balancer for Rotating Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHUNG, J.; RO, D. S.

    1999-12-01

    Dynamic stability and behavior of an automatic dynamic balance (ADB) are analyzed by a theoretical approach. Using Lagrange's equation, we derive the non-linear equations of motion for an autonomous system with respect to the polar co-ordinate system. From the equations of motion for the autonomous system, the equilibrium positions and the linear variational equations are obtained by the perturbation method. Based on the variational equations, the dynamic stability of the system in the neighborhood of the equilibrium positions is investigated by the Routh-Hurwitz criteria. The results of the stability analysis provide the design requirements for the ADB to achieve balancing of the system. In addition, in order to verify the stability of the system, time responses are computed by the generalized-α method. We also investigate the dynamic behavior of the system and the effects of damping on balancing.

  8. Direct determination of the non-linear connection between tension and transverse amplitude for a vibrating string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Henrik B.; Langeland Knudsen, Jeppe

    2017-07-01

    A vibrating stretched string is one of the most fundamental physical systems where non-linear effects play a central role. We describe results obtained with a new, dedicated experimental setup that allows unverified details of the dynamics of this classical problem to be addressed experimentally. The setup uniquely allows simultaneous registration of the transverse motion of the string as well as the longitudinal tension in the string during oscillation over extended times. The explicit non-linear connection between the string tension and the transverse oscillation amplitude is thus directly experimentally determined, allowing us to distinguish between previously reported diverging descriptions. For forced vibrations, frequency response curves for the transverse amplitudes are obtained, and found to be in good agreement with predictions from a simplified model, while the model only qualitatively reproduces the observed phases of transverse oscillation relative to the phase of the driving force. A frequency analysis of the observed string tension reveals a richer dynamics than anticipated from a simple model, and from the observed frequency response curves alone. For free oscillations, the setup is used to demonstrate the variation of the normal mode frequency with the transverse amplitudes. The reported setup is well-suited as a demonstration experiment on non-linear oscillatory phenomena, as well as a student project in either introductory or advanced mechanics teaching.

  9. Renormalization and non-linear symmetries in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velenich, Andrea

    Most of the phenomena we experience, from the microscopic world to the universe at its largest scales, are out of equilibrium and their comprehensive formalization is one of the open problems in theoretical physics. Fluids of interacting particles cooled down or compressed quickly enough to become amorphous solids are an example of rich out-of-equilibrium systems with very slow relaxation dynamics. Even though the equilibrium phases are ordered, these systems remain trapped in glassy metastable states, with disordered microscopic structures. As a realistic model of this phenomenology, in the first part of this work I focused on a field theory of particles obeying a Brownian dynamics. The field-theoretic action displays a time-reversal symmetry leading to Fluctuation-Dissipation relations. For non-interacting particles I solved the field theory exactly, providing the explicit form of all the correlation functions, with their space and time dependence. As a non-perturbative result, the distribution of the density field has been proven to be Poissonian and not Gaussian. For interacting particles the field theory presents two major challenges: its apparent non-renormalizability and a non-linear implementation of the time-reversal symmetry. Non-linear field redefinitions can be used to make the symmetry linear and might even lead to the solution of the interacting equations of motion. However they also alter the renormalizability properties of a field theory. These challenges inspired the second part of the work, where a more abstract approach was taken. Using algebraic methods I investigated the effect of non-linear field redefinitions both on symmetry and on renormalization by focusing on simple scalar field theories as toy models. In the formal setting of the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams, symmetries take the form of Hopf ideals and enforce relations among scattering amplitudes; such relations can drastically reduce the number of independent couplings in a field

  10. New holographic dark energy model with non-linear interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveros, A.; Acero, Mario A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the cosmological evolution of a holographic dark energy model with a non-linear interaction between the dark energy and dark matter components in a FRW type flat universe is analysed. In this context, the deceleration parameter q and the equation state w Λ are obtained. We found that, as the square of the speed of sound remains positive, the model is stable under perturbations since early times; it also shows that the evolution of the matter and dark energy densities are of the same order for a long period of time, avoiding the so-called coincidence problem. We have also made the correspondence of the model with the dark energy densities and pressures for the quintessence and tachyon fields. From this correspondence we have reconstructed the potential of scalar fields and their dynamics.

  11. Attractor reconstruction for non-linear systems: a methodological note

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.M.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction is an important step in the process of making predictions for non-linear time-series and in the computation of certain invariant quantities used to characterize the dynamics of such series. The utility of computed predictions and invariant quantities is dependent on the accuracy of attractor reconstruction, which in turn is determined by the methods used in the reconstruction process. This paper suggests methods by which the delay and embedding dimension may be selected for a typical delay coordinate reconstruction. A comparison is drawn between the use of the autocorrelation function and mutual information in quantifying the delay. In addition, a false nearest neighbor (FNN) approach is used in minimizing the number of delay vectors needed. Results highlight the need for an accurate reconstruction in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum and in prediction algorithms.

  12. Non-linearities in Theory-of-Mind Development

    PubMed Central

    Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) has mainly focused on ages of core ToM development. This article follows a quantitative approach focusing on the level of ToM understanding on a measurement scale, the ToM Storybooks, in 324 typically developing children between 3 and 11 years of age. It deals with the eventual occurrence of developmental non-linearities in ToM functioning, using smoothing techniques, dynamic growth model building and additional indicators, namely moving skewness, moving growth rate changes and moving variability. The ToM sum-scores showed an overall developmental trend that leveled off toward the age of 10 years. Within this overall trend two non-linearities in the group-based change pattern were found: a plateau at the age of around 56 months and a dip at the age of 72–78 months. These temporary regressions in ToM sum-score were accompanied by a decrease in growth rate and variability, and a change in skewness of the ToM data, all suggesting a developmental shift in ToM understanding. The temporary decreases also occurred in the different ToM sub-scores and most clearly so in the core ToM component of beliefs. It was also found that girls had an earlier growth spurt than boys and that the underlying developmental path was more salient in girls than in boys. The consequences of these findings are discussed from various theoretical points of view, with an emphasis on a dynamic systems interpretation of the underlying developmental paths. PMID:28101065

  13. Non-linearities in Theory-of-Mind Development.

    PubMed

    Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M A; van Geert, Paul L C

    2016-01-01

    Research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) has mainly focused on ages of core ToM development. This article follows a quantitative approach focusing on the level of ToM understanding on a measurement scale, the ToM Storybooks, in 324 typically developing children between 3 and 11 years of age. It deals with the eventual occurrence of developmental non-linearities in ToM functioning, using smoothing techniques, dynamic growth model building and additional indicators, namely moving skewness, moving growth rate changes and moving variability. The ToM sum-scores showed an overall developmental trend that leveled off toward the age of 10 years. Within this overall trend two non-linearities in the group-based change pattern were found: a plateau at the age of around 56 months and a dip at the age of 72-78 months. These temporary regressions in ToM sum-score were accompanied by a decrease in growth rate and variability, and a change in skewness of the ToM data, all suggesting a developmental shift in ToM understanding. The temporary decreases also occurred in the different ToM sub-scores and most clearly so in the core ToM component of beliefs. It was also found that girls had an earlier growth spurt than boys and that the underlying developmental path was more salient in girls than in boys. The consequences of these findings are discussed from various theoretical points of view, with an emphasis on a dynamic systems interpretation of the underlying developmental paths.

  14. Non-linear dimensionality reduction of signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Ivakhno, Sergii; Armstrong, J Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Background Systems wide modeling and analysis of signaling networks is essential for understanding complex cellular behaviors, such as the biphasic responses to different combinations of cytokines and growth factors. For example, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can act as a proapoptotic or prosurvival factor depending on its concentration, the current state of signaling network and the presence of other cytokines. To understand combinatorial regulation in such systems, new computational approaches are required that can take into account non-linear interactions in signaling networks and provide tools for clustering, visualization and predictive modeling. Results Here we extended and applied an unsupervised non-linear dimensionality reduction approach, Isomap, to find clusters of similar treatment conditions in two cell signaling networks: (I) apoptosis signaling network in human epithelial cancer cells treated with different combinations of TNF, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin and (II) combination of signal transduction pathways stimulated by 21 different ligands based on AfCS double ligand screen data. For the analysis of the apoptosis signaling network we used the Cytokine compendium dataset where activity and concentration of 19 intracellular signaling molecules were measured to characterise apoptotic response to TNF, EGF and insulin. By projecting the original 19-dimensional space of intracellular signals into a low-dimensional space, Isomap was able to reconstruct clusters corresponding to different cytokine treatments that were identified with graph-based clustering. In comparison, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares – Discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were unable to find biologically meaningful clusters. We also showed that by using Isomap components for supervised classification with k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), apoptosis intensity can be predicted for different combinations of TNF, EGF

  15. Non-linear dimensionality reduction of signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Ivakhno, Sergii; Armstrong, J Douglas

    2007-06-08

    Systems wide modeling and analysis of signaling networks is essential for understanding complex cellular behaviors, such as the biphasic responses to different combinations of cytokines and growth factors. For example, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can act as a proapoptotic or prosurvival factor depending on its concentration, the current state of signaling network and the presence of other cytokines. To understand combinatorial regulation in such systems, new computational approaches are required that can take into account non-linear interactions in signaling networks and provide tools for clustering, visualization and predictive modeling. Here we extended and applied an unsupervised non-linear dimensionality reduction approach, Isomap, to find clusters of similar treatment conditions in two cell signaling networks: (I) apoptosis signaling network in human epithelial cancer cells treated with different combinations of TNF, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin and (II) combination of signal transduction pathways stimulated by 21 different ligands based on AfCS double ligand screen data. For the analysis of the apoptosis signaling network we used the Cytokine compendium dataset where activity and concentration of 19 intracellular signaling molecules were measured to characterise apoptotic response to TNF, EGF and insulin. By projecting the original 19-dimensional space of intracellular signals into a low-dimensional space, Isomap was able to reconstruct clusters corresponding to different cytokine treatments that were identified with graph-based clustering. In comparison, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares - Discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were unable to find biologically meaningful clusters. We also showed that by using Isomap components for supervised classification with k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), apoptosis intensity can be predicted for different combinations of TNF, EGF and insulin. Prediction

  16. Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems progresses to new approaches in assessing hazard and risk of the extreme catastrophic events. In particular, a series of interrelated step-by-step studies of seismic process along with its non-stationary though self-organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake forecast/prediction technique that has passed control in forward real-time applications during the last two decades. The observed seismic dynamics prior to and after many mega, great, major, and strong earthquakes demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course durable phase transitions in complex hierarchical non-linear system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space and time implies that many traditional estimations of seismic hazard (from term-less to short-term ones) are usually based on erroneous assumptions of easy tractable analytical models, which leads to widespread practice of their deceptive application. The consequences of underestimation of seismic hazard propagate non-linearly into inflicted underestimation of risk and, eventually, into unexpected societal losses due to earthquakes and associated phenomena (i.e., collapse of buildings, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction, etc.). The studies aimed at forecast/prediction of extreme events (interpreted as critical transitions) in geophysical and socio-economical systems include: (i) large earthquakes in geophysical systems of the lithosphere blocks-and-faults, (ii) starts and ends of economic recessions, (iii) episodes of a sharp increase in the unemployment rate, (iv) surge of the homicides in socio-economic systems. These studies are based on a heuristic search of phenomena preceding critical transitions and application of methodologies of pattern recognition of infrequent events. Any study of rare

  17. Analysis of uterine contractions: a dynamical approach.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, R; Eswaran, H; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Lowery, C; Preissl, H

    2003-07-01

    The development of suitable techniques for quantifying mechanical and electrophysiological aspects of uterine contractions has been an active area of research. The uterus is a physiological system consisting of a large number of interacting muscle cells. The activity of these cells evolves with time, a trait characteristic of a dynamical system. While such complex physiological systems are non-linear by their very nature, whether this non-linearity is exhibited in the external recording is far from trivial. Traditional techniques such as spectral analysis have been used in the past, but these techniques implicitly assume that the process generating the contractions is linear and hence may be biased. In this tutorial review, a systematic approach using a hierarchy of surrogate algorithms is used to determine the nature of the process generating the contractions produced during labor. The results reveal that uterine contractions are probably generated by non-linear processes. The contraction segments were obtained through simultaneous recordings of the electrical and magnetic signals corresponding to the electrophysiological activity of the uterus and then analyzed. The electrical activity was recorded by placement of non-invasive electrodes onto the maternal abdomen and magnetic activity was recorded non-invasively using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

  18. Measurement of non-linear distortions in the vibration of acoustic transducers and acoustically driven membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, J. R. M.; Dirckx, J. J. J.; Pintelon, R.

    2009-03-01

    Different methods exist to quantify non-linearity, and recently a new method was proposed that uses multisines to determine output response level, noise level, and level of non-linear distortions simultaneously from one single short experiment. We used heterodyne vibrometry to measure the vibration of a membrane while it is stimulated acoustically, and to determine the non-linear distortions in its response with this new method of analysis. We demonstrate the method on an electrically driven earphone. Analysis of the sound output and optically measured vibration deliver comparable results, and clearly detect non-linear distortions. Next, we apply the method on an acoustically driven elastic membrane. At vibration amplitudes of the same magnitude as on the earphone, non-linear distortions are much smaller, as to be expected on an elastic membrane, but they can still be detected with the vibrometer. This technique can be used to investigate the non-linearity of acoustically driven systems such as the middle ear.

  19. BMI and all cause mortality: systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of 230 cohort studies with 3.74 million deaths among 30.3 million participants.

    PubMed

    Aune, Dagfinn; Sen, Abhijit; Prasad, Manya; Norat, Teresa; Janszky, Imre; Tonstad, Serena; Romundstad, Pål; Vatten, Lars J

    2016-05-04

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all cause mortality, and to clarify the shape and the nadir of the dose-response curve, and the influence on the results of confounding from smoking, weight loss associated with disease, and preclinical disease. PubMed and Embase databases searched up to 23 September 2015. Cohort studies that reported adjusted risk estimates for at least three categories of BMI in relation to all cause mortality. Summary relative risks were calculated with random effects models. Non-linear associations were explored with fractional polynomial models. 230 cohort studies (207 publications) were included. The analysis of never smokers included 53 cohort studies (44 risk estimates) with >738 144 deaths and >9 976 077 participants. The analysis of all participants included 228 cohort studies (198 risk estimates) with >3 744 722 deaths among 30 233 329 participants. The summary relative risk for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.21; I(2)=95%, n=44) among never smokers, 1.21 (1.18 to 1.25; I(2)=93%, n=25) among healthy never smokers, 1.27 (1.21 to 1.33; I(2)=89%, n=11) among healthy never smokers with exclusion of early follow-up, and 1.05 (1.04 to 1.07; I(2)=97%, n=198) among all participants. There was a J shaped dose-response relation in never smokers (Pnon-linearity <0.001), and the lowest risk was observed at BMI 23-24 in never smokers, 22-23 in healthy never smokers, and 20-22 in studies of never smokers with ≥20 years' follow-up. In contrast there was a U shaped association between BMI and mortality in analyses with a greater potential for bias including all participants, current, former, or ever smokers, and in studies with a short duration of follow-up (<5 years or <10 years), or with moderate study quality scores. Overweight and obesity is associated with increased risk of all cause mortality and the nadir of the curve

  20. BMI and all cause mortality: systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of 230 cohort studies with 3.74 million deaths among 30.3 million participants

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Abhijit; Prasad, Manya; Norat, Teresa; Janszky, Imre; Tonstad, Serena; Romundstad, Pål; Vatten, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all cause mortality, and to clarify the shape and the nadir of the dose-response curve, and the influence on the results of confounding from smoking, weight loss associated with disease, and preclinical disease. Data sources PubMed and Embase databases searched up to 23 September 2015. Study selection Cohort studies that reported adjusted risk estimates for at least three categories of BMI in relation to all cause mortality. Data synthesis Summary relative risks were calculated with random effects models. Non-linear associations were explored with fractional polynomial models. Results 230 cohort studies (207 publications) were included. The analysis of never smokers included 53 cohort studies (44 risk estimates) with >738 144 deaths and >9 976 077 participants. The analysis of all participants included 228 cohort studies (198 risk estimates) with >3 744 722 deaths among 30 233 329 participants. The summary relative risk for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.21; I2=95%, n=44) among never smokers, 1.21 (1.18 to 1.25; I2=93%, n=25) among healthy never smokers, 1.27 (1.21 to 1.33; I2=89%, n=11) among healthy never smokers with exclusion of early follow-up, and 1.05 (1.04 to 1.07; I2=97%, n=198) among all participants. There was a J shaped dose-response relation in never smokers (Pnon-linearity <0.001), and the lowest risk was observed at BMI 23-24 in never smokers, 22-23 in healthy never smokers, and 20-22 in studies of never smokers with ≥20 years’ follow-up. In contrast there was a U shaped association between BMI and mortality in analyses with a greater potential for bias including all participants, current, former, or ever smokers, and in studies with a short duration of follow-up (<5 years or <10 years), or with moderate study quality scores. Conclusion Overweight and obesity is associated

  1. Solute transport under non-linear sorption and decay.

    PubMed

    Serrano, S E

    2001-04-01

    Contaminant transport in aquifers is usually represented by a solution to the advective-dispersive differential equation. When the contaminant is subject to non-linear degradation or decay, or it is characterized by a chemical constituent that follows a non-linear sorption isotherm, the resulting differential equation is non-linear. Using the method of decomposition, series solutions were obtained for the non-linear equation. The series were used to derive and test "simulant" solutions that aries using the concept of double decomposition. Simulant solutions are closed-form analytic expressions that approximate part of the series These expression are simple, stable, and flexible. They permit an accurate forecasting of contaminant propagation .under non-linearity in laboratory or field investigations at early or prolonged times after the spill. In this article, the practical scenario of an instantaneous spill, and that of a constant concentration boundary condition, is studied for situations of non-linear decay, non-linear Freundlich isotherm, and non-linear Langmuir isotherm. The solutions are verified with limited well-known analytical solutions of the linear reactive and non-reactive equations with excellent agreement, and with limited finite difference solutions. Plumes undergoing non-linear decay experience a profile re-scaling with respect to that of linear decay, the degree of which is controlled by magnitude of the non-linear parameter b. The direction of the scaling (scaling up or scaling down with respect to the linear decay plume) is controlled by the magnitude of C (whether greater or less than 1) in relation to the magnitude of b (whether greater or less than 1). When C>1, values of b<1 produce plumes that experience less decay (i.e., are scaled up) than that of the linear decay, whereas values of b> 1 produce non-linear plumes that experience more decay (i.e., are scaled down) than that of the linear decay. The opposite effect is observed when

  2. Analysis of second order harmonic distortion due to transmitter non-linearity and chromatic and modal dispersion of optical OFDM SSB modulated signals in SMF-MMF fiber links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dhananjay; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-01-01

    Single mode fibers (SMF) are typically used in Wide Area Networks (WAN), Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) and also find applications in Radio over Fiber (RoF) architectures supporting data transmission in Fiber to the Home (FTTH), Remote Antenna Units (RAUs), in-building networks etc. Multi-mode fibers (MMFs) with low cost, ease of installation and low maintenance are predominantly (85-90%) deployed in-building networks providing data access in local area networks (LANs). The transmission of millimeter wave signals through the SMF in WAN and MAN, along with the reuse of MMF in-building networks will not levy fiber reinstallation cost. The transmission of the millimeter waves experiences signal impairments due to the transmitter non-linearity and modal dispersion of the MMF. The MMF exhibiting large modal dispersion limits the bandwidth-length product of the fiber. The second and higher-order harmonics present in the optical signal fall within the system bandwidth. This causes degradation in the received signal and an unwanted radiation of power at the RAU. The power of these harmonics is proportional to the non-linearity of the transmitter and the modal dispersion of the MMF and should be maintained below the standard values as per the international norms. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for Second-order Harmonic Distortion (HD2) generated due to non-linearity of the transmitter and chromatic-modal dispersion of the SMF-MMF optic link. This is also verified using a software simulation. The model consists of a Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM) that generates two m-QAM OFDM Single Sideband (SSB) signals based on phase shift of the hybrid coupler (90° and 120°). Our results show that the SSB signal with 120° hybrid coupler has suppresses the higher-order harmonics and makes the system more robust against the HD2 in the SMF-MMF optic link.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Non-linear Convective-Radiative Hyperbolic Lumped Systems with Simultaneous Variation of Temperature-Dependent Specific Heat and Surface Emissivity by MsDTM and BPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, Mohsen; Yaghoobi, Hessameddin; Boubaker, Karem

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of temperatures near absolute zero, it is often claimed that at very low temperatures the effect of thermal wave propagation must be included by the hyperbolic heat conduction equation (HHCE). In this paper the non-linear convective-radiative HHCE is investigated. Opposite to common numerical analyses, analytical expressions are obtained for the temperature variations by the multi-step differential transformation method. Some conclusions about alteration of the specific heat of the material, temperature steeping, and Vernotte number have been formulated.

  4. Construction of the wave operator for non-linear dispersive equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Kai Erik

    In this thesis, we will study non-linear dispersive equations. The primary focus will be on the construction of the positive-time wave operator for such equations. The positive-time wave operator problem arises in the study of the asymptotics of a partial differential equation. It is a map from a space of initial data X into itself, and is loosely defined as follows: Suppose that for a solution ψlin to the dispersive equation with no non-linearity and initial data ψ +, there exists a unique solution ψ to the non-linear equation with initial data ψ0 such that ψ behaves as ψ lin as t → infinity. Then the wave operator is the map W+ that takes ψ + to ψ0. By its definition, W+ is injective. An important additional question is whether or not the map is also surjective. If so, then every non-linear solution emanating from X behaves, in some sense, linearly as it evolves (this is known as asymptotic completeness). Thus, there is some justification for treating these solutions as their much simpler linear counterparts. The main results presented in this thesis revolve around the construction of the wave operator(s) at critical non-linearities. We will study the "semi-relativistic" Schrodinger equation as well as the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system on R2 . In both cases, we will impose fairly general quadratic non-linearities for which conservation laws cannot be relied upon. These non-linearities fall below the scaling required to employ such tools as the Strichartz estimates. We instead adapt the "first iteration method" of Jang, Li, and Zhang to our setting which depends crucially on the critical decay of the non-linear interaction of the linear evolution. To see the critical decay in our problem, careful analysis is needed to treat the regime where one has spatial and/or time resonance.

  5. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  6. The mathematics of non-linear metrics for nested networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Jie; Shi, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    Numerical analysis of data from international trade and ecological networks has shown that the non-linear fitness-complexity metric is the best candidate to rank nodes by importance in bipartite networks that exhibit a nested structure. Despite its relevance for real networks, the mathematical properties of the metric and its variants remain largely unexplored. Here, we perform an analytic and numeric study of the fitness-complexity metric and a new variant, called minimal extremal metric. We rigorously derive exact expressions for node scores for perfectly nested networks and show that these expressions explain the non-trivial convergence properties of the metrics. A comparison between the fitness-complexity metric and the minimal extremal metric on real data reveals that the latter can produce improved rankings if the input data are reliable.

  7. Model of intermodulation distortion in non-linear multicarrier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigo, Nicholas J.

    1994-02-01

    A heuristic model is proposed which allows calculation of the individual spectral components of the intermodulation distortion present in a non-linear system with a multicarrier input. Noting that any given intermodulation product (IMP) can only be created by a subset of the input carriers, we partition them into 'signal' carriers (which create the IMP) and 'noise' carriers, modeled as a Gaussian process. The relationship between an input signal and the statistical average of its output (averaged over the Gaussian noise) is considered to be an effective transfer function. By summing all possible combinations of signal carriers which create power at the IMP frequencies, the distortion power can be calculated exactly as a function of frequency. An analysis of clipping in lightwave CATV links for AM-VSB signals is used to introduce the model, and is compared to a series of experiments.

  8. Non-linear electro-optical effects in the study of the helical smectic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicka, K.; Kuczyński, W.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the non-linear electro-optical effects for the well-known prototype liquid crystal material (MHPOBC) are presented. The method to identify liquid crystalline phases and to determine temperatures of phase transitions based on the analysis of the second harmonic component of electro-optical response spectra is used. Applying that method, the values of the frequency (?) at which the second harmonic electro-optic response (EOR) possesses an extremum are determined for each smectic phase. We suggest that this characteristic frequency correspond to the phase-type mode processes. Furthermore, we show that the usually neglected results on heating can be useful in discussions of dynamical behaviour of second harmonic EOR in case of smectic phases.

  9. Numerical solution of non-linear dual-phase-lag bioheat transfer equation within skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, P; Rai, K N

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with numerical modeling and simulation of heat transfer in skin tissues using non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bioheat transfer model under periodic heat flux boundary condition. The blood perfusion is assumed temperature-dependent which results in non-linear DPL bioheat transfer model in order to predict more accurate results. A numerical method of line which is based on finite difference and Runge-Kutta (4,5) schemes, is used to solve the present non-linear problem. Under specific case, the exact solution has been obtained and compared with the present numerical scheme, and we found that those are in good agreement. A comparison based on model selection criterion (AIC) has been made among non-linear DPL models when the variation of blood perfusion rate with temperature is of constant, linear and exponential type with the experimental data and it has been found that non-linear DPL model with exponential variation of blood perfusion rate is closest to the experimental data. In addition, it is found that due to absence of phase-lag phenomena in Pennes bioheat transfer model, it achieves steady state more quickly and always predict higher temperature than thermal and DPL non-linear models. The effect of coefficient of blood perfusion rate, dimensionless heating frequency and Kirchoff number on dimensionless temperature distribution has also been analyzed. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fault-tolerant control for a class of non-linear systems with dead-zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mou; Jiang, Bin; Guo, William W.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed for a class of single-input and single-output non-linear systems with the unknown time-varying system fault and the dead-zone. The non-linear state observer is designed for the non-linear system using differential mean value theorem, and the non-linear fault estimator that estimates the unknown time-varying system fault is developed. On the basis of the designed fault estimator, the observer-based fault-tolerant tracking control is then developed using the backstepping technique for non-linear systems with the dead-zone. The stability of the whole closed-loop system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking control performance is guaranteed in the presence of the unknown time-varying system fault and the dead-zone. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed backstepping fault-tolerant control scheme for non-linear systems.

  11. Discriminant power analyses of non-linear dimension expansion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seongyoun; Lee, Chulhee

    2016-05-01

    Most non-linear classification methods can be viewed as non-linear dimension expansion methods followed by a linear classifier. For example, the support vector machine (SVM) expands the dimensions of the original data using various kernels and classifies the data in the expanded data space using a linear SVM. In case of extreme learning machines or neural networks, the dimensions are expanded by hidden neurons and the final layer represents the linear classification. In this paper, we analyze the discriminant powers of various non-linear classifiers. Some analyses of the discriminating powers of non-linear dimension expansion methods are presented along with a suggestion of how to improve separability in non-linear classifiers.

  12. Non-linear dielectric monitoring of biological suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treo, E. F.; Felice, C. J.

    2007-11-01

    Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy as a tool for in situ monitoring of enzyme assumes a non-linear behavior of the sample when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to it. Even many attempts have been made to improve the original experiments, all of them had limited success. In this paper we present upgrades made to a non-linear dielectric spectrometer developed and the results obtained when using different cells. We emphasized on the electrode surface, characterizing the grinding and polishing procedure. We found that the biological medium does not behave as expected, and the non-linear response is generated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The electrochemistry of this interface can bias unpredictably the measured non-linear response.

  13. Influence of non-linear flow on the pumping tests in karstified and fractured aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas-Karay, Gyöngyi; Birk, Steffen; Vasvári, Vilmos; Hajnal, Géza; Mayaud, Cyril

    2017-04-01

    When evaluating pumping test data in karstified or fractured aquifers remarkable deviations from the theoretically estimated curves can be observed. The assumptions of the commonly used evaluation methods (Theis, Cooper-Jacob, Papadopulus-Cooper) usually do not fit to properties in hard rock aquifers, where often non-linear, heterogeneous and non-isotropic conditions can appear. The analysis of the effect of these conditions helps to better evaluate the pumping test data and to avoid the mistakes caused by the use of traditional methods. In this study the influence of non-linear flow was analysed based on field data and computer-generated time series. Using Non-Linear Flow Process for MODFLOW (Mayaud, C., Walker, P., Hergarten, S. and Birk, S., 2015, Nonlinear Flow Process: A New Package to Compute Nonlinear Flow in MODFLOW. Groundwater, 53: 645-650) allowed the simulation of non-linear flow in aquifers based on the Forchheimer equation. The analysis showed that the detection of non-linear flow can be subserved by separate evaluation of drawdown and recovery time series or by using additional observation wells. Recovery data and data from observation wells far enough from the pumped well are not disturbed by nonlinearity; the comparison with drawdown data of observation wells and the pumped well therefore can show whether or not non-linear flow appears. In particular, proper results of aquifer parameters can be obtained from recovery data. If only drawdown data from the pumped well are available it is helpful to replace the losses caused by non-linear flow by non-linear well losses (see also Mathias, S. A., and L. C. Todman, 2010, Step-drawdown tests and the Forchheimer equation, Water Resour. Res., 46, W07514). The applicability of the Jacob's step-drawdown-test evaluation in Forchheimer-flow cases is demonstrated by comparison with the numerical non-linear flow model. Inaccurate parameter estimates resulting from neglecting non-linear flow demonstrate the

  14. Filtering of non-linear instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosla, P. K.; Rubin, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    For Courant numbers larger than one and cell Reynolds numbers larger than two, oscillations and in some cases instabilities are typically found with implicit numerical solutions of the fluid dynamics equations. This behavior has sometimes been associated with the loss of diagonal dominance of the coefficient matrix. It is shown that these problems can be related to the choice of the spatial differences, with the resulting instability related to aliasing or nonlinear interaction. Appropriate filtering can reduce the intensity of these oscillations and possibly eliminate the instability. These filtering procedures are equivalent to a weighted average of conservation and nonconservation differencing. The entire spectrum of filtered equations retains a three point character as well as second order spatial accuracy. Burgers equation was considered as a model.

  15. Non-linear generalization of the relativistic Schrödinger equations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, U.; Sorg, M.

    1996-09-01

    The theory of the relativistic Schrödinger equations is further developped and extended to non-linear field equations. The technical advantage of the relativistic Schroedinger approach is demonstrated explicitly by solving the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations including a non-linear Higgs potential in case of a Robertson-Walker universe. The numerical results yield the effect of dynamical self-diagonalization of the Hamiltonian which corresponds to a kind of quantum de-coherence being enabled by the inflation of the universe.

  16. Non-linear conduction in LaCaMnO 3 thin films: interface tunneling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, V. S.; Araújo, J. P.; Lourenço, A. A. C. S.; Tavares, P. B.; Pogorelov, Yu. G.; Sousa, J. B.; Vieira, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    Non-linear resistivity in La 0.78Ca 0.25MnO 3 epitaxial thin films is studied using 2-contact dynamic measurements. Non-linear V- I is obtained below Tc (˜220 K). Evaporated gold or direct silver-paste contacts give similar results. d V/d I at high voltages (˜1 V) follows the usual four-point resistance results, but at lower voltages an additional contribution up to 2 orders of magnitude higher develops at low temperatures. These effects are associated with tunneling processes at the metal/manganite interface.

  17. Characteristic-based non-linear simulation of large-scale standing-wave thermoacoustic engine.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahman, Ahmed I; Abdel-Rahman, Ehab

    2014-08-01

    A few linear theories [Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84(4), 1145-1180 (1988); Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92(3), 1551-1563 (1992); Olson and Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95(3), 1405-1412 (1994)] and numerical models, based on low-Mach number analysis [Worlikar and Knio, J. Comput. Phys. 127(2), 424-451 (1996); Worlikar et al., J. Comput. Phys. 144(2), 199-324 (1996); Hireche et al., Canadian Acoust. 36(3), 164-165 (2008)], describe the flow dynamics of standing-wave thermoacoustic engines, but almost no simulation results are available that enable the prediction of the behavior of practical engines experiencing significant temperature gradient between the stack ends and thus producing large-amplitude oscillations. Here, a one-dimensional non-linear numerical simulation based on the method of characteristics to solve the unsteady compressible Euler equations is reported. Formulation of the governing equations, implementation of the numerical method, and application of the appropriate boundary conditions are presented. The calculation uses explicit time integration along with deduced relationships, expressing the friction coefficient and the Stanton number for oscillating flow inside circular ducts. Helium, a mixture of Helium and Argon, and Neon are used for system operation at mean pressures of 13.8, 9.9, and 7.0 bars, respectively. The self-induced pressure oscillations are accurately captured in the time domain, and then transferred into the frequency domain, distinguishing the pressure signals into fundamental and harmonic responses. The results obtained are compared with reported experimental works [Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92(3), 1551-1563 (1992); Olson and Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95(3), 1405-1412 (1994)] and the linear theory, showing better agreement with the measured values, particularly in the non-linear regime of the dynamic pressure response.

  18. Linear and non-linear methods for automatic seizure detection in scalp electro-encephalogram recordings.

    PubMed

    McSharry, P E; He, T; Smith, L A; Tarassenko, L

    2002-07-01

    The electro-encephalogram is a time-varying signal that measures electrical activity in the brain. A conceptually intuitive non-linear technique, multi-dimensional probability evolution (MDPE), is introduced. It is based on the time evolution of the probability density function within a multi-dimensional state space. A synthetic recording is employed to illustrate why MDPE is capable of detecting changes in the underlying dynamics that are invisible to linear statistics. If a non-linear statistic cannot outperform a simple linear statistic such as variance, then there is no reason to advocate its use. Both variance and MDPE were able to detect the seizure in each of the ten scalp EEG recordings investigated. Although MDPE produced fewer false positives, there is no firm evidence to suggest that MDPE, or any other non-linear statistic considered, outperforms variance-based methods at identifying seizures.

  19. Computer modeling of batteries from non-linear circuit elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waaben, S.; Federico, J.; Moskowitz, I.

    1983-01-01

    A simple non-linear circuit model for battery behavior is given. It is based on time-dependent features of the well-known PIN change storage diode, whose behavior is described by equations similar to those associated with electrochemical cells. The circuit simulation computer program ADVICE was used to predict non-linear response from a topological description of the battery analog built from advice components. By a reasonable choice of one set of parameters, the circuit accurately simulates a wide spectrum of measured non-linear battery responses to within a few millivolts.

  20. Design of an Internal Model Control strategy for single-phase grid-connected PWM inverters and its performance analysis with a non-linear local load and weak grid.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Eric N; Coelho, Ernane A A; Carvalho, Henrique T M; Freitas, Luiz C G; Júnior, João B V; Freitas, Luiz C

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design of a controller based on Internal Model Control (IMC) applied to a grid-connected single-phase PWM inverter. The mathematical modeling of the inverter and the LCL output filter, used to project the 1-DOF IMC controller, is presented and the decoupling of grid voltage by a Feedforward strategy is analyzed. A Proportional - Resonant Controller (P+Res) was used for the control of the same plant in the running of experimental results, thus moving towards the discussion of differences regarding IMC and P+Res performances, which arrived at the evaluation of the proposed control strategy. The results are presented for typical conditions, for weak-grid and for non-linear local load, in order to verify the behavior of the controller against such situations.

  1. Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.

    2016-09-01

    We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.

  2. Linear and Non-Linear Forecasts of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, H.

    2016-12-01

    Variations in thermospheric density play a major role in perturbing the orbits of objects in low Earth orbit. These variations are strongly influenced by changes in the solar irradiance at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths that are ultimately driven by changing levels of solar magnetic activity. Thus predicting the conjunction of operational satellites with orbital debris requires accurate forecasts of solar activity. Current operational models rely on forecasts of proxies for solar activity based on simple linear extrapolation methods. In this poster we present a systematic study of these methods applied to the 10.7 cm solar radio flux, a composite Mg core-to-wing ratio, the total unsigned solar magnetic flux, and the He II 304 irradiance observed by the EVE instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We find that although RMS errors in these forecasts appear to be small, the corresponding errors in very simple models, such as the persistence of the last measurement, are also small, and the formal skill scores are relatively modest. The use of these proxies and measurements in non-linear methods, such Gaussian process regression and recurrent neural networks, will also be discussed.

  3. Searching for Non-linearities in Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribarov, Kiril; Smrz, Otakar

    2003-08-01

    Inspired by wide range of applicability of what is commonly referred to as chaos theories, we explore the nature of energy series of a signal of human speech in the light of nonlinear dynamics. Using the TISEAN software package, analyses on various recordings of the language energy series were carried out (single speaker — different speeches; single speech - different speakers; dialogues; talkshows). Also correlated to other tenths of experiments conveyed on different linguistic inputs as written and morphologically analyzed texts, the presented experiment outputs (up to our knowledge, similar experiments have not been performed yet) reveal the complex and tricky nature of the language and are in favor of certain linguistic hypotheses. However, without further research, they do not encourage us to make explicit claims about the language signal such as dimension estimations (although probably possible) or attractor reconstruction. Our main considerations include: (a) a look into the stochastic nature of the language aiming towards reduction of the currently very large number of parameters present in language models based on Hidden Markov Models on language n-grams; (b) visualization of the behavior of the language and revelation of what could possibly be behind the `noisy' stream of sounds/letters/word-classes observed in our experiments; and last but not least (c) presentation of a new type of signal to the community exploring natural non-linear phenomena.

  4. Organic non-linear optics and opto-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Santillán, R.; Farfán, N.

    2010-12-01

    π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers are of great importance in physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. It is expected that, in the near future, organic materials will find widespread use in many technological applications. In the case of organic opto-electronic systems, the list of devices includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), field-effect transistors (OFET), photorefractive materials for light manipulation, among others. These materials are also used for photonic applications: all-optical switching, modulators, optical correlators, plastic waveguides, all polymeric integrated circuits, solid-state lasers, and for biophotonic applications as in the case of the development of organic labels for multiphoton microscopy and photodynamic therapy. The advances in the developing of organic compounds with better mechanical, electrical, and optical (linear and non-linear) characteristics are of a great importance for this field. Here, we present the research on this area carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óp-tica (CIO), in collaboration with Chemistry Departments of different institutions. This work focuses on the optical characterization of materials through several techniques such as TOF, FWM, TBC, THG Maker Fringes, HRS, Z-scan, and TPEF. Additionally, some applications, such as dynamic holography by using photorefractive polymers, and OPVs cells will be discussed.

  5. Non-linear evolution of the cosmic neutrino background

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Peña-Garay, Carlos E-mail: spb@ias.edu E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the non-linear evolution of the relic cosmic neutrino background by running large box-size, high resolution N-body simulations which incorporate cold dark matter (CDM) and neutrinos as independent particle species. Our set of simulations explore the properties of neutrinos in a reference ΛCDM model with total neutrino masses between 0.05-0.60 eV in cold dark matter haloes of mass 10{sup 11}−10{sup 15} h{sup −1}M{sub s}un, over a redshift range z = 0−2. We compute the halo mass function and show that it is reasonably well fitted by the Sheth-Tormen formula, once the neutrino contribution to the total matter is removed. More importantly, we focus on the CDM and neutrino properties of the density and peculiar velocity fields in the cosmological volume, inside and in the outskirts of virialized haloes. The dynamical state of the neutrino particles depends strongly on their momentum: whereas neutrinos in the low velocity tail behave similarly to CDM particles, neutrinos in the high velocity tail are not affected by the clustering of the underlying CDM component. We find that the neutrino (linear) unperturbed momentum distribution is modified and mass and redshift dependent deviations from the expected Fermi-Dirac distribution are in place both in the cosmological volume and inside haloes. The neutrino density profiles around virialized haloes have been carefully investigated and a simple fitting formula is provided. The neutrino profile, unlike the cold dark matter one, is found to be cored with core size and central density that depend on the neutrino mass, redshift and mass of the halo, for halos of masses larger than ∼ 10{sup 13.5}h{sup −1}M{sub s}un. For lower masses the neutrino profile is best fitted by a simple power-law relation in the range probed by the simulations. The results we obtain are numerically converged in terms of neutrino profiles at the 10% level for scales above ∼ 200 h{sup −1}kpc at z = 0, and are stable with

  6. Non-Linear Dielectrics and Ferrites in ICEPIC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    in-cell code ICEPIC. The non-linear dielectric model includes a relaxation term to account for the physical response time of the material, which may...Andrew D. Greenwood, David M. French, Brad W. Hoff, Susan L. Heidger Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117...ICEPIC. The non-linear dielectric model includes a relaxation term to account for the physical response time of the material, which may be longer than an

  7. Valuation of financial models with non-linear state spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Nick

    2001-02-01

    A common assumption in valuation models for derivative securities is that the underlying state variables take values in a linear state space. We discuss numerical implementation issues in an interest rate model with a simple non-linear state space, formulating and comparing Monte Carlo, finite difference and lattice numerical solution methods. We conclude that, at least in low dimensional spaces, non-linear interest rate models may be viable.

  8. Blow-up of ion-sound waves in plasma with non-linear sources on the boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpusov, Maxim O.

    2012-04-01

    We consider a model equation of ion-sound waves in 'non-magnetized' plasma taking account of non-linear sources localized on the boundary. This generates a non-linear dynamical boundary condition which is 'close' to the non-linear Neumann-Dirichlet condition. We prove the existence of a weak generalized solution of this initial-boundary value problem and obtain sufficient conditions for the blow-up of this solution in finite time. We give an upper bound for the time of existence of the solution, which equals its blow-up time. We also obtain sufficient conditions for the existence of a strong generalized solution.

  9. A Quantitative and Combinatorial Approach to Non-Linear Meanings of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik; Gatza, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of how combinatorics problems have the potential to support students to establish non-linear meanings of multiplication (NLMM). The problems we analyze we have used in a series of studies with 6th, 8th, and 10th grade students. We situate the analysis in prior work on students' quantitative and multiplicative…

  10. A Quantitative and Combinatorial Approach to Non-Linear Meanings of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik; Gatza, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of how combinatorics problems have the potential to support students to establish non-linear meanings of multiplication (NLMM). The problems we analyze we have used in a series of studies with 6th, 8th, and 10th grade students. We situate the analysis in prior work on students' quantitative and multiplicative…

  11. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D.

    PubMed

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2015-05-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals' budget set created by the famous "donut hole," where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from "filling" the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that "filling" the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects "anticipatory" behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows - in a highly stylized way - for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year.

  12. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals’ budget set created by the famous “donut hole,” where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from “filling” the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that “filling” the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects “anticipatory” behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows – in a highly stylized way – for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year. PMID:26769984

  13. Bifurcation and Resonance of a Mathematical Model for Non-Linear Motion of a Flooded Ship in Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashige, S.; Aihara, K.; Komuro, M.

    1999-02-01

    A flooded ship can exhibit undesirable non-linear roll motion even in waves of moderate amplitude. In order to understand the mechanism of this non-linear phenomenon, the non-linearly coupled dynamics of a ship and flood water are considered using a mathematical model for the simplified motion of a flooded ship in regular beam waves. This paper describes bifurcation and resonance of this coupled system. A bifurcation diagram shows that large-amplitude subharmonic motion exists in a wide range of parameters, and that the Hopf bifurcation is observed due to the dynamic effects of flood water. Resonance frequencies can be determined by linearization of this model. Comparison between the resonant points and the bifurcation curves suggests that non-linear resonance of this model can bring about large-amplitude subharmonic motion, even if it is in the non-resonate state of the linearized system.

  14. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  15. Visual discrimination and adaptation using non-linear unsupervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Sandra; Laparra, Valero; Malo, Jesus

    2013-03-01

    Understanding human vision not only involves empirical descriptions of how it works, but also organization principles that explain why it does so. Identifying the guiding principles of visual phenomena requires learning algorithms to optimize specific goals. Moreover, these algorithms have to be flexible enough to account for the non-linear and adaptive behavior of the system. For instance, linear redundancy reduction transforms certainly explain a wide range of visual phenomena. However, the generality of this organization principle is still in question:10 it is not only that and additional constraints such as energy cost may be relevant as well, but also, statistical independence may not be the better solution to make optimal inferences in squared error terms. Moreover, linear methods cannot account for the non-uniform discrimination in different regions of the image and color space: linear learning methods necessarily disregard the non-linear nature of the system. Therefore, in order to account for the non-linear behavior, principled approaches commonly apply the trick of using (already non-linear) parametric expressions taken from empirical models. Therefore these approaches are not actually explaining the non-linear behavior, but just fitting it to image statistics. In summary, a proper explanation of the behavior of the system requires flexible unsupervised learning algorithms that (1) are tunable to different, perceptually meaningful, goals; and (2) make no assumption on the non-linearity. Over the last years we have worked on these kind of learning algorithms based on non-linear ICA,18 Gaussianization, 19 and principal curves. In this work we stress the fact that these methods can be tuned to optimize different design strategies, namely statistical independence, error minimization under quantization, and error minimization under truncation. Then, we show (1) how to apply these techniques to explain a number of visual phenomena, and (2) suggest the

  16. Non-Linear System Identification for Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2008-01-01

    Representation and identification of a non-linear aeroelastic pitch-plunge system as a model of the NARMAX class is considered. A non-linear difference equation describing this aircraft model is derived theoretically and shown to be of the NARMAX form. Identification methods for NARMAX models are applied to aeroelastic dynamics and its properties demonstrated via continuous-time simulations of experimental conditions. Simulation results show that (i) the outputs of the NARMAX model match closely those generated using continuous-time methods and (ii) NARMAX identification methods applied to aeroelastic dynamics provide accurate discrete-time parameter estimates. Application of NARMAX identification to experimental pitch-plunge dynamics data gives a high percent fit for cross-validated data.

  17. Non-linear optical measurements using a scanned, Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.

    2015-03-01

    Oftentimes cells are removed from the body for disease diagnosis or cellular research. This typically requires fluorescent labeling followed by sorting with a flow cytometer; however, possible disruption of cellular function or even cell death due to the presence of the label can occur. This may be acceptable for ex vivo applications, but as cells are more frequently moving from the lab to the body, label-free methods of cell sorting are needed to eliminate these issues. This is especially true of the growing field of stem cell research where specialized cells are needed for treatments. Because differentiation processes are not completely efficient, cells must be sorted to eliminate any unwanted cells (i.e. un-differentiated or differentiated into an unwanted cell type). In order to perform label-free measurements, non-linear optics (NLO) have been increasingly utilized for single cell analysis because of their ability to not disrupt cellular function. An optical system was developed for the measurement of NLO in a microfluidic channel similar to a flow cytometer. In order to improve the excitation efficiency of NLO, a scanned Bessel beam was utilized to create a light-sheet across the channel. The system was tested by monitoring twophoton fluorescence from polystyrene microbeads of different sizes. Fluorescence intensity obtained from light-sheet measurements were significantly greater than measurements made using a static Gaussian beam. In addition, the increase in intensity from larger sized beads was more evident for the light-sheet system.

  18. Non Linear Force Free Field Modeling for a Pseudostreamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Nishu; Savcheva, Antonia; Gibson, Sarah; Tassev, Svetlin V.

    2017-08-01

    In this study we present a magnetic configuration of a pseudostreamer observed on April 18, 2015 on southern west limb embedding a filament cavity. We constructed Non Linear Force Free Field (NLFFF) model using the flux rope insertion method. The NLFFF model produces the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field constrained by observed coronal structures and photospheric magnetogram. SDO/HMI magnetogram was used as an input for the model. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the SDO/AIA allows us to select best-fit models that match the observations. The MLSO/CoMP observations provide full-Sun observations of the magnetic field in the corona. The primary observables of CoMP are the four Stokes parameters (I, Q, U, V). In addition, we perform a topology analysis of the models in order to determine the location of quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). QSLs are used as a proxy to determine where the strong electric current sheets can develop in the corona and also provide important information about the connectivity in complicated magnetic field configuration. We present the major properties of the 3D QSL and FLEDGE maps and the evolution of 3D coronal structures during the magnetofrictional process. We produce FORWARD-modeled observables from our NLFFF models and compare to a toy MHD FORWARD model and the observations.

  19. Primordial Black Holes in non-linear perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan Carlos

    2009-10-01

    This thesis begins with a study of the origin of cosmological fluctuations with special attention to those cases in which the non-Gaussian correlation functions are large. The analysis shows that perturbations from an almost massless auxiliary field generically produce large values of the non-linear parameter f_NL. The effects of including non-Gaussian correlation functions in the statistics of cosmological structure are explored by constructing a non-Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF). Such PDF is derived for the comoving curvature perturbation from first principles in the context of quantum field theory, with n-point correlation functions as the only input. The non-Gaussian PDF is then used to explore two important problems in the physics of primordial black holes (PBHs): First, to compute non-Gaussian corrections to the number of PBHs generated from the primordial curvature fluctuations. The second application concerns new cosmological observables. The formation of PBHs is known to depend on two main physical characteristics: the strength of the gravitational field produced by the initial curvature inhomogeneity and the pressure gradient at the edge of the curvature configuration. We account for the probability of finding these configurations by using two parameters: The amplitude of the inhomogeneity and its second radial derivative, evaluated at the centre of the configuration. The implications of the derived probability for the fraction of mass in the universe in the form of PBHs are discussed.

  20. Non-Linear Optical Microscopy Sheds Light on Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Caorsi, Valentina; Toepfer, Christopher; Sikkel, Markus B.; Lyon, Alexander R.; MacLeod, Ken; Ferenczi, Mike A.

    2013-01-01

    Many cardiac diseases have been associated with increased fibrosis and changes in the organization of fibrillar collagen. The degree of fibrosis is routinely analyzed with invasive histological and immunohistochemical methods, giving a limited and qualitative understanding of the tissue's morphological adaptation to disease. Our aim is to quantitatively evaluate the increase in fibrosis by three-dimensional imaging of the collagen network in the myocardium using the non-linear optical microscopy techniques Two-Photon Excitation microscopy (TPE) and Second Harmonic signal Generation (SHG). No sample staining is needed because numerous endogenous fluorophores are excited by a two-photon mechanism and highly non-centrosymmetric structures such as collagen generate strong second harmonic signals. We propose for the first time a 3D quantitative analysis to carefully evaluate the increased fibrosis in tissue from a rat model of heart failure post myocardial infarction. We show how to measure changes in fibrosis from the backward SHG (BSHG) alone, as only backward-propagating SHG is accessible for true in vivo applications. A 5-fold increase in collagen I fibrosis is detected in the remote surviving myocardium measured 20 weeks after infarction. The spatial distribution is also shown to change markedly, providing insight into the morphology of disease progression. PMID:23409139

  1. Non-linear material characterisation using the noncollinear method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croxford, Anthony J.; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2010-04-01

    Conventional ultrasonic NDT techniques are limited in their ability to detect small defects by the diffraction limit, that is there is much reduced sensitivity to defects smaller than the wavelength of the interrogating ultrasonic wave. While not a major issue for most inspection, this problem becomes particularly significant for the detection of fatigue damage prior to crack formation. In this regime conventional NDT has proven to be inadequate. For this reason significant effort has been expended on the development of non-linear techniques. These techniques rely on deviations of the material from linear stress strain behaviour which create harmonics in the resulting frequency response. Evidence suggests that changes to a materials condition, such as fatigue damage, change this non-linear response. This paper presents a non-linear inspection method using a non-collinear interaction. This technique has several advantages over other harmonic approaches in that there is spatial separation, modal separation and frequency separation of the non-linear signal. This allows the origin of the non-linear signal and underlying noise levels to be well defined. The capability of the technique is demonstrated using plastically strained material and samples subjected to low cycle fatigue.

  2. Isolating Non-Linear Signatures of Two Colliding Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Rita

    2012-03-01

    The early and late stages of the binary-black-hole collision can be approximated by perturbations to a background, solutions to linearization of the Einstein's equations. However, once the two black holes are within several radii of each other, and ultimately collide, the solution is intrinsically non-linear. The main objective is to intuitively understand the non-linear portion of the solution to the Einstein equation by performing simulations of such mergers. I will identify the non-linear regime through a process of elimination. The early stages of the coalescence are well known by post-Newtonian theory. The end state is approximated very well by perturbation theory, the waveforms decay as a damped sinusoidal with a frequency and decay time uniquely determined by the mass and spin of the final black hole in theory. I will isolate the non-linear portion of the waveform by fitting the early stages to the post-Newtonian solution and the late stages to the perturbative solution. What remains is the non-linear region. Once isolated, we will search through the physics parameter space of the binary black holes for bulk features. These features can then be used to fine-tune the search algorithms hunting for these collisions with LIGO.

  3. Static compressive strength prediction of open-hole structure based on non-linear shear behavior and micro-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wangnan; Cai, Hongneng; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of the strength of the constituents of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (CFRP), and a prediction of the static compressive strength of open-hole structure of polymer composites. The approach combined with non-linear analysis in macro-level and a linear elastic micromechanical failure analysis in microlevel (non-linear MMF) is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy. A face-centered cubic micromechanics model is constructed to analyze the stresses in fiber and matrix in microlevel. Non-interactive failure criteria are proposed to characterize the strength of fiber and matrix. The non-linear shear behavior of the laminate is studied experimentally, and a novel approach of cubic spline interpolation is used to capture significant non-linear shear behavior of laminate. The user-defined material subroutine UMAT for the non-linear share behavior is developed and combined in the mechanics analysis in the macro-level using the Abaqus Python codes. The failure mechanism and static strength of open-hole compressive (OHC) structure of polymer composites is studied based on non-linear MMF. The UTS50/E51 CFRP is used to demonstrate the application of theory of non-linear MMF.

  4. Non-linear EEG measures during sleep: effects of the different sleep stages and cyclic alternating pattern.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Parrino, Liborio; Smerieri, Arianna; Terzano, Mario G; Elia, Maurizio; Musumeci, Sebastiano A; Pettinato, Salvatore; Stam, Cornelis J

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the non-linear aspects of sleep EEG, taking into account the different sleep stages and the peculiar organization of its phasic events in ordered sequences (CAP) by applying a series of new non-linear measures (non-linear cross prediction or NLCP), which appear more reliable for the detection and characterization of non-linear structures in experimental data than the commonly used correlation dimension. Eight healthy subjects aged 18-20 years participated in this study. Polysomnography was performed in all subjects; signals were sampled at 128 Hz and stored on hard disk. The C3 or C4 derivation was used for all the subsequent computational steps, which were performed on EEG epochs (4096 data points) selected from sleep stage 2 (S2) and slow-wave sleep (SWS), in both CAP and non-CAP (NCAP) conditions. Also, epochs from sleep stage 1 (S1), REM and wakefulness preceding sleep were recorded. The dynamic properties of the EEG were assessed by means of the non-linear cross-prediction test, which uses three different 'model' time series in order to predict non-linearly the original data set (Pred, Ama, and Tir). Pred is a measure of the predictability of the time series, and Ama and Tir are measures of asymmetry, indicating non-linear structure. The non-linear measures applied in this study indicate that sleep EEG tends to show non-linear structure only during CAP periods, both during S2 and SWS. Moreover, during CAP periods, non-linearity can only be detected during the phase A1 subtypes (and partially A2) of CAP. The A3 phases show characteristics of non-stationarity and bear some resemblance to wakefulness. Based on the results of this study, sleep might be considered as a dynamically evolving sequence of different states of the EEG, which we could track by detecting non-linearity, mostly in association with CAP. Our results clearly show that detectable non-linearity in the EEG is closely related to the occurrence of the phase A

  5. Trade-off analysis in the Northern Andes to study the dynamics in agricultural land use.

    PubMed

    Stoorvogel, J J; Antle, J M; Crissman, C C

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that land use change can be induced by non-linearities and thresholds in production systems that impact farmers' decision making. Tradeoffs between environmental and economic indicators is a useful way to represent dynamic properties of agricultural systems. The Tradeoff Analysis (TOA) System is software designed to implement the integrated analysis of tradeoffs in agricultural systems. The TOA methodology is based on spatially explicit econometric simulation models linked to spatially referenced bio-physical simulation models to simulate land use and input decisions. The methodology has been applied for the potato-pasture production system in the Ecuadorian Andes. The land use change literature often describes non-linearity in land use change as a result of sudden changes in the political (e.g. new agricultural policies) or environmental setting (e.g. earthquakes). However, less attention has been paid to the non-linearities in production systems and their consequences for land use change. In this paper, we use the TOA system to study agricultural land use dynamics and to find the underlying processes for non-linearities. Results show that the sources of non-linearities are in the properties of bio-physical processes and in the decision making-process of farmers.

  6. One-point remapping of Lagrangian perturbation theory in the mildly non-linear regime of cosmic structure formation

    SciTech Connect

    Leclercq, Florent; Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin; Gil-Marín, Héctor E-mail: jasche@iap.fr E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr

    2013-11-01

    On the smallest scales, three-dimensional large-scale structure surveys contain a wealth of cosmological information which cannot be trivially extracted due to the non-linear dynamical evolution of the density field. Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT) is widely applied to the generation of mock halo catalogs and data analysis. In this work, we compare topological features of the cosmic web such as voids, sheets, filaments and clusters, in the density fields predicted by LPT and full numerical simulation of gravitational large-scale structure formation. We propose a method designed to improve the correspondence between these density fields, in the mildly non-linear regime. We develop a computationally fast and flexible tool for a variety of cosmological applications. Our method is based on a remapping of the approximately-evolved density field, using information extracted from N-body simulations. The remapping procedure consists of replacing the one-point distribution of the density contrast by one which better accounts for the full gravitational dynamics. As a result, we obtain a physically more pertinent density field on a point-by-point basis, while also improving higher-order statistics predicted by LPT. We quantify the approximation error in the power spectrum and in the bispectrum as a function of scale and redshift. Our remapping procedure improves one-, two- and three-point statistics at scales down to 8 Mpc/h.

  7. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalen