Optimal feedback control of strongly non-linear systems excited by bounded noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W. Q.; Huang, Z. L.; Ko, J. M.; Ni, Y. Q.
2004-07-01
A strategy for non-linear stochastic optimal control of strongly non-linear systems subject to external and/or parametric excitations of bounded noise is proposed. A stochastic averaging procedure for strongly non-linear systems under external and/or parametric excitations of bounded noise is first developed. Then, the dynamical programming equation for non-linear stochastic optimal control of the system is derived from the averaged Itô equations by using the stochastic dynamical programming principle and solved to yield the optimal control law. The Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the fully completed averaged Itô equations is solved to give the response of optimally controlled system. The application and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are illustrated with the control of cable vibration in cable-stayed bridges and the feedback stabilization of the cable under parametric excitation of bounded noise.
Rigatos, Gerasimos G
2016-06-01
It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered. PMID:27187988
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ningfang; Luo, Xinkai; Li, Huipeng; Li, Jiao
2015-10-01
The non-linearity of the phase shifting mechanism in white light interferometry system can seriously affect the measuring accuracy of the system. In this paper, the correcting method is to combine the displacement feedback control technology with the fuzzy PID control technology. Displacement feedback control mechanism and fuzzy PID controller are designed and then try to figure it out through Matlab simulation and experiment.. The result shows that combining the displacement feedback control technology with the fuzzy PID control technology can fulfill decent overall non-linear correction in the white light interferometry measuring system. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the correction is high and the non-linearity drop from 2% to 0.1%.
Output feedback non-linear decoupled control synthesis and observer design for manoeuvring aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, S. N.; Schy, A. A.
1980-01-01
A study of the applicability of nonlinear decoupling theory to the design of control systems using output feedback for maneuvering aircraft is presented. The response variables chosen for decoupled control were angular velocity components along roll, pitch, and yaw axes, angle of attack (p), and angle of sideslip, using aileron, rudder, and elevator controls. An observer design for a class of nonlinear systems was presented and this method was used to estimate angle of attack and sideslip; an approximate observer was obtained by neglecting derivatives of p and aileron deflection angles and it was used in a simulation study. A simulation study showed that precise rapid combined lateral and longitudinal maneuvers can be performed; it was also demonstrated that a bank-angle-command outer loop could be designed for precise bank angles changes and simultaneous large lift maneuvers.
Passive dynamic controllers for non-linear mechanical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Wu, Shih-Chin; Phan, Minh; Longman, Richard W.
1992-01-01
The objective is to develop active model-independent controllers for slewing and vibration control of nonlinear multibody flexible systems, including flexible robots. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: passive stabilization; work-energy rate principle; Liapunov theory; displacement feedback; dynamic controller; displacement and acceleration feedback; velocity feedback; displacement feedback; physical interaction; a 6-DOF robot; and simulation results.
Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator
Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.
2014-04-24
A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.
A non-linear UAV altitude PSO-PD control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlando, Calogero
2015-12-01
In this work, a nonlinear model based approach is presented for the altitude stabilization of a hexarotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The mathematical model and control of the hexacopter airframe is presented. To stabilize the system along the vertical direction, a Proportional Derivative (PD) control is taken into account. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is used in this paper to select the optimal parameters of the control algorithm taking into account different objective functions. Simulation sets are performed to carry out the results for the non-linear system to show how the PSO tuned PD controller leads to zero the error of the position along Z earth direction.
The amazing evolutionary dynamics of non-linear optical systems with feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaroslavsky, Leonid
2013-09-01
Optical systems with feedback are, generally, non-linear dynamic systems. As such, they exhibit evolutionary behavior. In the paper we present results of experimental investigation of evolutionary dynamics of several models of such systems. The models are modifications of the famous mathematical "Game of Life". The modifications are two-fold: "Game of Life" rules are made stochastic and mutual influence of cells is made spatially non-uniform. A number of new phenomena in the evolutionary dynamics of the models are revealed: - "Ordering of chaos". Formation, from seed patterns, of stable maze-like patterns with chaotic "dislocations" that resemble natural patterns, such as skin patterns of some animals and fishes, see shell, fingerprints, magnetic domain patterns and alike, which one can frequently find in the nature. These patterns and their fragments exhibit a remarkable capability of unlimited growth. - "Self-controlled growth" of chaotic "live" formations into "communities" bounded, depending on the model, by a square, hexagon or octagon, until they reach a certain critical size, after which the growth stops. - "Eternal life in a bounded space" of "communities" after reaching a certain size and shape. - "Coherent shrinkage" of "mature", after reaching a certain size, "communities" into one of stable or oscillating patterns preserving in this process isomorphism of their bounding shapes until the very end.
Limit cycle oscillation of missile control fin with structural non-linearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, J. S.; Lee, I.
2004-01-01
Non-linear aeroelastic characteristics of a deployable missile control fin with structural non-linearity are investigated. A deployable missile control fin is modelled as a two-dimensional typical section model. Doublet-point method is used for the calculation of supersonic unsteady aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic forces are approximated by using the minimum-state approximation. For non-linear flutter analysis structural non-linearity is represented by an asymmetric bilinear spring and is linearized by using the describing function method. The linear and non-linear flutter analyses indicate that the flutter characteristics are significantly dependent on the frequency ratio. From the non-linear flutter analysis, various types of limit cycle oscillations are observed in a wide range of air speeds below or above the linear divergent flutter boundary. The non-linear flutter characteristics and the non-linear aeroelastic responses are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ruikun; Hou, Zhongsheng; Ji, Honghai; Yin, Chenkun
2016-04-01
In this paper, an adaptive iterative learning control scheme is proposed for a class of non-linearly parameterised systems with unknown time-varying parameters and input saturations. By incorporating a saturation function, a new iterative learning control mechanism is presented which includes a feedback term and a parameter updating term. Through the use of parameter separation technique, the non-linear parameters are separated from the non-linear function and then a saturated difference updating law is designed in iteration domain by combining the unknown parametric term of the local Lipschitz continuous function and the unknown time-varying gain into an unknown time-varying function. The analysis of convergence is based on a time-weighted Lyapunov-Krasovskii-like composite energy function which consists of time-weighted input, state and parameter estimation information. The proposed learning control mechanism warrants a L2[0, T] convergence of the tracking error sequence along the iteration axis. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the adaptive iterative learning control scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Heavens, A. F.
2015-12-01
We present an optimized variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and wCDM models, the halo-model power is accurate to ≃ 5 per cent for k ≤ 10h Mpc-1 and z ≤ 2. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limits on the range of these halo parameters for feedback models investigated by the OWLS simulations. Accurate predictions to high k are vital for weak-lensing surveys, and these halo parameters could be considered nuisance parameters to marginalize over in future analyses to mitigate uncertainty regarding the details of feedback. Finally, we investigate how lensing observables predicted by our model compare to those from simulations and from HALOFIT for a range of k-cuts and feedback models and quantify the angular scales at which these effects become important. Code to calculate power spectra from the model presented in this paper can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
Non-linear modelling and optimal control of a hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagano, Stefano; Russo, Riccardo; Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario
2013-02-01
This paper investigates the modelling, parameter identification and control of an unidirectional hydraulically actuated seismic isolator test rig. The plant is characterized by non-linearities such as the valve dead zone and frictions. A non-linear model is derived and then employed for parameter identification. The results concerning the model validation are illustrated and they fully confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model. The testing procedure of the isolation systems is based on the definition of a target displacement time history of the sliding table and, consequently, the precision of the table positioning is of primary importance. In order to minimize the test rig tracking error, a suitable control system has to be adopted. The system non-linearities highly limit the performances of the classical linear control and a non-linear one is therefore adopted. The test rig mathematical model is employed for a non-linear control design that minimizes the error between the target table position and the current one. The controller synthesis is made by taking no specimen into account. The proposed approach consists of a non-linear optimal control based on the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE). Numerical simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the soundness of the designed control with and without the specimen under test. The results confirm that the performances of the proposed non-linear controller are not invalidated because of the presence of the specimen.
Non-Linear Dynamics and Chaos Control of a Physical Pendulum with Vibrating and Rotating Support
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GE, Z.-M.; YANG, C.-H.; CHEN, H.-H.; LEE, S.-C.
2001-04-01
The dynamic behavior of a physical pendulum system of which the support is subjected to both rotation and vertical vibration are studied in this paper. Both analytical and computational results are employed to obtain the characteristics of the system. By using Lyapunov's direct method the conditions of stability of the relative equilibrium position can be determined. Melnikov's method is applied to identify the existence of chaotic motion. The incremental harmonic balance method is used to find the stable and unstable periodic solutions for the strong non-linear system. By applying various numerical results such as phase portrait, Pioncaré map, time history and power spectrum analysis, a variety of the periodic solutions and the phenomena of the chaotic motion can be presented. The effects of the changes of parameters in the system could be found in the bifurcation and parametric diagrams. Further, chaotic motion can be verified by using Lyapunov exponent and Lyapunov dimension. The global analysis of basin boundary and fractal structure are observed by the modified interpolated cell mapping method. Besides, non-feedback control, delayed feedback control, adaptive control, and variable structure control are used to control the chaos effectively.
Convergence behaviour and Control in Non-Linear Biological Networks
Karl, Stefan; Dandekar, Thomas
2015-01-01
Control of genetic regulatory networks is challenging to define and quantify. Previous control centrality metrics, which aim to capture the ability of individual nodes to control the system, have been found to suffer from plausibility and applicability problems. Here we present a new approach to control centrality based on network convergence behaviour, implemented as an extension of our genetic regulatory network simulation framework Jimena ( http://stefan-karl.de/jimena). We distinguish three types of network control, and show how these mathematical concepts correspond to experimentally verified node functions and signalling pathways in immunity and cell differentiation: Total control centrality quantifies the impact of node mutations and identifies potential pharmacological targets such as genes involved in oncogenesis (e.g. zinc finger protein GLI2 or bone morphogenetic proteins in chondrocytes). Dynamic control centrality describes relaying functions as observed in signalling cascades (e.g. src kinase or Jak/Stat pathways). Value control centrality measures the direct influence of the value of the node on the network (e.g. Indian hedgehog as an essential regulator of proliferation in chondrocytes). Surveying random scale-free networks and biological networks, we find that control of the network resides in few high degree driver nodes and networks can be controlled best if they are sparsely connected. PMID:26068060
Non linear predictive control of a LEGO mobile robot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merabti, H.; Bouchemal, B.; Belarbi, K.; Boucherma, D.; Amouri, A.
2014-10-01
Metaheuristics are general purpose heuristics which have shown a great potential for the solution of difficult optimization problems. In this work, we apply the meta heuristic, namely particle swarm optimization, PSO, for the solution of the optimization problem arising in NLMPC. This algorithm is easy to code and may be considered as alternatives for the more classical solution procedures. The PSO- NLMPC is applied to control a mobile robot for the tracking trajectory and obstacles avoidance. Experimental results show the strength of this approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnan, K. R.; Horowitz, I. M.
1973-01-01
The problem considered is the design of a feedback system containing a linear, time invariant, minimum phase plant, whose parameters are known only within given bounds, such that the time response of the system remains within specified limits. A quasi-optimal design, for given design constraints, is one which minimizes the effect of white sensor noise on the input to the plant. An investigation was conducted on the use of the non linear device known as the Clegg integrator in the design of such a system. The describing function of the Clegg integrator has the same magnitude characteristic, apart from a scale factor, as the linear integrator, but has 52 deg less phase-lag, at all frequencies, than the linear integrator; thus, when used in a feedback system, it provides a larger stability margin than the linear integrator. This property allows the nonlinear feedback system to be designed so that the sensor noise is attenuated more than in the linear design.
Non-Linear Fuzzy Logic Control for Forced Large Motions of Spinning Shafts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LEI, SHULIANG; PALAZZOLO, ALAN; NA, UHNJOO; KASCAK, ALBERT
2000-08-01
A unique control approach is developed for prescribed large motion control using magnetic bearings in a proposed active stall control test rig. A finite element based, flexible shaft is modeled in a closed loop system with PD controllers that generate the control signals to support and to shake the rotor shaft. A linearized force model of the stall rig with 16 magnetic poles (4 opposing C-cores) yields stability and frequency responses. The non-linear model retains the non-linearities in Ampere's law, Faraday's law and the Maxwell stress tensor. A fuzzy logic control system is then designed to show the advantages over the conventional controllers with the fully non-linear model.
A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.
Stabilization and robustness of non-linear unity-feedback system - Factorization approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.
1988-01-01
The paper is a self-contained discussion of a right factorization approach in the stability analysis of the nonlinear continuous-time or discrete-time, time-invariant or time-varying, well-posed unity-feedback system S1(P, C). It is shown that a well-posed stable feedback system S1(P, C) implies that P and C have right factorizations. In the case where C is stable, P has a normalized right-coprime factorization. The factorization approach is used in stabilization and simultaneous stabilization results.
Solution algorithms for non-linear singularly perturbed optimal control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, M. D.
1983-01-01
The applicability and usefulness of several classical and other methods for solving the two-point boundary-value problem which arises in non-linear singularly perturbed optimal control are assessed. Specific algorithms of the Picard, Newton and averaging types are formally developed for this class of problem. The computational requirements associated with each algorithm are analysed and compared with the computational requirement of the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Approximate solutions to a linear and a non-linear problem are obtained by each method and compared.
Non-linear adaptive sliding mode switching control with average dwell-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Lei; Zhang, Maoqing; Fei, Shumin
2013-03-01
In this article, an adaptive integral sliding mode control scheme is addressed for switched non-linear systems in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. The control law includes two parts: a slide mode controller for the reduced model of the plant and a compensation controller to deal with the non-linear systems with parameter uncertainties. The adaptive updated laws have been derived from the switched multiple Lyapunov function method, also an admissible switching signal with average dwell-time technique is given. The simplicity of the proposed control scheme facilitates its implementation and the overall control scheme guarantees the global asymptotic stability in the Lyapunov sense such that the sliding surface of the control system is well reached. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Model predictive control of non-linear systems over networks with data quantization and packet loss.
Yu, Jimin; Nan, Liangsheng; Tang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ping
2015-11-01
This paper studies the approach of model predictive control (MPC) for the non-linear systems under networked environment where both data quantization and packet loss may occur. The non-linear controlled plant in the networked control system (NCS) is represented by a Tagaki-Sugeno (T-S) model. The sensed data and control signal are quantized in both links and described as sector bound uncertainties by applying sector bound approach. Then, the quantized data are transmitted in the communication networks and may suffer from the effect of packet losses, which are modeled as Bernoulli process. A fuzzy predictive controller which guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system is obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26341070
Intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system based on the adaptive neurocontroller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Kobezhicov, V.
2015-10-01
This paper presents an adaptive neuro-controller for intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system. The formed as the fuzzy selective neural net the adaptive neuro-controller on the base of system's state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed adaptive neuro-controller are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed controller scheme achieves real-time control speed and the competitive performance, as compared to PID, fuzzy logic controllers.
Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.
2006-01-01
In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft s control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland s continuing study of active wing load control.
Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.
Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L
2016-05-01
This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle. PMID:26850752
Physiographic controls on thresholds and non-linearity in rainfall-runoff transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent
2014-05-01
Thresholds are critical points in time or space that eventually express a rapid change in runoff behavior. They have gained increasing attention in recent years. Two types of thresholds are existing: storage and intensity controlled thresholds. Most threshold studies focused on individual catchments which lead to difficulties in identifying the combinations of hydro-climatic and physiographic factors that control catchment thresholds and non-linearities in rainfall-runoff transformations, as well as differences between catchments. The individual influence of the boundary conditions remains poorly understood. Here, we employ a data set from the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). While the climatic conditions are similar throughout the basin, the lithology of individual sub-catchments varies remarkably. We find clean and mixed combinations of distinct geologies: schists, marls, sandstone, dolomite, and limestone. We focus on the role of storage thresholds. The filling of catchment storage plays a critical role on the runoff response and stable isotopes signatures in stream water in the Alzette basin. On seasonal scale the geology leads to distinct non-linearity in the flow duration curve. These changes in the flow duration curve indicate a storage threshold exceedance within a distinct geology that changes streamwater stable isotope behavior. In the catchment with the lowest permeability (e.g. 100% schist), a storage threshold changes the runoff response from a single to a (delayed) double peak hydrograph. On event scale the different geologies control the relation between storage filling and threshold response and the shape of the non-linear relationship between rainfall and runoff. The use of various catchments within the same hydro-climatic region allows a better description of the influence of physiographic properties on thresholds in the rainfall-runoff response. Better understanding of individual influences will further improve our understanding of the
Distributed control of cluster synchronisation in networks with randomly occurring non-linearities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Aihua; Cao, Jinde; Hu, Manfeng; Guo, Liuxiao
2016-08-01
This paper is concerned with the issue of mean square cluster synchronisation in complex networks, which consist of non-identical nodes with randomly occurring non-linearities. In order to guarantee synchronisation, distributed controllers depending on the information from the neighbours in the same cluster are applied to each node, meanwhile, the control gains are supposed to be updated according to the given laws. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the sufficient synchronisation conditions are derived and proved theoretically. Finally, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results.
Non-linear control of the ''clam'' wave energy device. Final report
Not Available
1983-09-01
A promising wave energy device being currently investigated is the ''clam'' device. The clam extracts energy by pumping air through a specially designed (Wells) turbine. Although operation of the Wells turbine does not require a rectified air flow, some additional control will be necessary to optimize the phase of the clam motion for good efficiencies. An examination of the equation of motion in the time domain suggests the possibility of non-linear phase control by mechanical, power take-off, or pneumatic latching. Latching can be shown to increase the efficiency of the device in the longer wavelengths of the wave spectrum, i.e. those of high incident wave power.
A Non-Linear Approach to Spacecraft Trajectory Control in the Vicinity of a Libration Point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luquette, Richard J.; Sanner, Robert M.
2001-01-01
An expanding interest in mission design strategies that exploit libration point regions demands the continued development of enhanced, efficient, control algorithms for station-keeping and formation maintenance. This paper discusses the development of a non-linear, station-keeping, control algorithm for trajectories in the vicinity of a libration point. The control law guarantees exponential convergence, based on a Lyaponov analysis. Controller performance is evaluated using FreeFlyer(R) and MATLAB(R) for a spacecraft stationed near the L2 libration point in the Earth-Moon system, tracking a pre-defined reference trajectory. Evaluation metrics are fuel usage and tracking accuracy. Simulation results are compared with a linear-based controller for a spacecraft tracking the same reference trajectory. Although the analysis is framed in the context of station-keeping, the control algorithm is equally applicable to a formation flying problem with an appropriate definition of the reference trajectory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, Kazuto; Takahashi, Masaki
2015-02-01
A dynamics-based non-linear controller with energy shaping to accelerate a pendulum-type mobility is proposed. The concept of this study is to control translational acceleration of the vehicle in a dynamically reasonable manner. The body angle is controlled to maintain a reference state where the vehicle is statically unstable but dynamically stable, which leads to a constant translational acceleration due to instability of the system. The accelerating motion is like a sprinter moving from crouch start and it fully exploits dynamics of the vehicle. To achieve it, the total energy of the system is shaped to have the minimum at a given reference state and the system is controlled to converge to it. The controller can achieve various properties through the energy shaping procedure. Especially, an energy function that will lead to safe operation of the vehicle is proposed. The effectiveness of the controller is verified in simulations and experiments.
Linear and non-linear control techniques applied to actively lubricated journal bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicoletti, R.; Santos, I. F.
2003-03-01
The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can use the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can use the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurized oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and a non-linear controller, applied to a tilting-pad journal bearing, are analysed and discussed. Important conclusions about the application of integral controllers, responsible for changing the rotor-bearing equilibrium position and consequently the "passive" oil film damping coefficients, are achieved. Numerical results show an effective vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0-80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated, illustrating clearly one of its most promising applications.
Very large space structures: Non-linear control and robustness to structural uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasbarri, Paolo; Monti, Riccardo; Sabatini, Marco
2014-01-01
Very Large Space Structures (VLSS) are challenging systems to be controlled, due to their high flexibility. In particular, rapid attitude maneuvers can determine great oscillations on the flexible elements of a spacecraft (solar wings, antennas, booms). On account of this, in the last decades many researchers have developed different strategies to effectively damp the elastic vibrations by means of active vibration devices (such as piezo-electric patches) or by means of robust control algorithms. The approach suggested in this paper is different, since neither additional devices nor complex control laws are introduced. In fact, the complete model of the system (including rigid, elastic and orbital dynamics, coupled with control actions) is controlled by the non-linear attitude controller named state dependent Riccati equation, which will be based on a simplified version of the spacecraft model. The task to reduce the mutual interaction between rigid attitude and flexible dynamics is entirely transferred to a modification of the desired trajectory that must be tracked. This command shaping technique is based on the knowledge of the parameters (inertial and elastics) of the VLSS. Unfortunately these parameters are not always exactly known and, however, they may change over the time. On account of this a Monte Carlo analysis has been also performed, showing the robustness of the proposed control strategy to the structural uncertainties. The numerical simulations prove that this strategy, based on the joint application of two well-known yet simple techniques, produces accurate and robust results.
Non-linear stochastic optimal control of acceleration parametrically excited systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yong; Jin, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhilong
2016-02-01
Acceleration parametrical excitations have not been taken into account due to the lack of physical significance in macroscopic structures. The explosive development of microtechnology and nanotechnology, however, motivates the investigation of the acceleration parametrically excited systems. The adsorption and desorption effects dramatically change the mass of nano-sized structures, which significantly reduces the precision of nanoscale sensors or can be reasonably utilised to detect molecular mass. This manuscript proposes a non-linear stochastic optimal control strategy for stochastic systems with acceleration parametric excitation based on stochastic averaging of energy envelope and stochastic dynamic programming principle. System acceleration is approximately expressed as a function of system displacement in a short time range under the conditions of light damping and weak excitations, and the acceleration parametrically excited system is shown to be equivalent to a constructed system with an additional displacement parametric excitation term. Then, the controlled system is converted into a partially averaged Itô equation with respect to the total system energy through stochastic averaging of energy envelope, and the optimal control strategy for the averaged system is derived from solving the associated dynamic programming equation. Numerical results for a controlled Duffing oscillator indicate the efficacy of the proposed control strategy.
A non-linear model predictive controller with obstacle avoidance for a space robot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mingming; Luo, Jianjun; Walter, Ulrich
2016-04-01
This study investigates the use of the non-linear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy for a kinematically redundant space robot to approach an un-cooperative target in complex space environment. Collision avoidance, traditionally treated as a high level planning problem, can be effectively translated into control constraints as part of the NMPC. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the predictive controller in a constrained workspace and to investigate the feasibility of imposing additional constraints into the NMPC. In this paper, we reformulated the issue of the space robot motion control by using NMPC with predefined objectives under input, output and obstacle constraints over a receding horizon. An on-line quadratic programming (QP) procedure is employed to obtain the constrained optimal control decisions in real-time. This study has been implemented for a 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) kinematically redundant manipulator mounted on a 6 DOF free-floating spacecraft via simulation studies. Real-time trajectory tracking and collision avoidance particularly demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed NMPC strategy for the space robot.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maboodi, Mohsen; Camacho, Eduardo F.; Khaki-Sedigh, Ali
2015-10-01
This paper presents a non-linear generalised minimum variance (NGMV) controller for a second-order Volterra series model with a general linear additive disturbance. The Volterra series models provide a natural extension of a linear convolution model with the nonlinearity considered in an additive term. The design procedure is entirely carried out in the state space framework, which facilitates the application of other analysis and design methods in this framework. First, the non-linear minimum variance (NMV) controller is introduced and then by changing the cost function, NGMV controller is defined as an extended version of the linear cases. The cost function is used in the simplest form and can be easily extended to the general case. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed non-linear method.
Quantum Process Tomography of an Optically-Controlled Kerr Non-linearity
Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Jordaan, Bertus; Figueroa, Eden
2015-01-01
Any optical quantum information processing machine would be comprised of fully-characterized constituent devices for both single state manipulations and tasks involving the interaction between multiple quantum optical states. Ideally for the latter, would be an apparatus capable of deterministic optical phase shifts that operate on input quantum states with the action mediated solely by auxiliary signal fields. Here we present the complete experimental characterization of a system designed for optically controlled phase shifts acting on single-photon level probe coherent states. Our setup is based on a warm vapor of rubidium atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency with its dispersion properties modified through the use of an optically triggered N-type Kerr non-linearity. We fully characterize the performance of our device by sending in a set of input probe states and measuring the corresponding output via time-domain homodyne tomography and subsequently performing the technique of coherent state quantum process tomography. This method provides us with the precise knowledge of how our optical phase shift will modify any arbitrary input quantum state engineered in the mode of the reconstruction. PMID:26585904
Quantum Process Tomography of an Optically-Controlled Kerr Non-linearity.
Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Jordaan, Bertus; Figueroa, Eden
2015-01-01
Any optical quantum information processing machine would be comprised of fully-characterized constituent devices for both single state manipulations and tasks involving the interaction between multiple quantum optical states. Ideally for the latter, would be an apparatus capable of deterministic optical phase shifts that operate on input quantum states with the action mediated solely by auxiliary signal fields. Here we present the complete experimental characterization of a system designed for optically controlled phase shifts acting on single-photon level probe coherent states. Our setup is based on a warm vapor of rubidium atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency with its dispersion properties modified through the use of an optically triggered N-type Kerr non-linearity. We fully characterize the performance of our device by sending in a set of input probe states and measuring the corresponding output via time-domain homodyne tomography and subsequently performing the technique of coherent state quantum process tomography. This method provides us with the precise knowledge of how our optical phase shift will modify any arbitrary input quantum state engineered in the mode of the reconstruction. PMID:26585904
Quantum Process Tomography of an Optically-Controlled Kerr Non-linearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Jordaan, Bertus; Figueroa, Eden
2015-11-01
Any optical quantum information processing machine would be comprised of fully-characterized constituent devices for both single state manipulations and tasks involving the interaction between multiple quantum optical states. Ideally for the latter, would be an apparatus capable of deterministic optical phase shifts that operate on input quantum states with the action mediated solely by auxiliary signal fields. Here we present the complete experimental characterization of a system designed for optically controlled phase shifts acting on single-photon level probe coherent states. Our setup is based on a warm vapor of rubidium atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency with its dispersion properties modified through the use of an optically triggered N-type Kerr non-linearity. We fully characterize the performance of our device by sending in a set of input probe states and measuring the corresponding output via time-domain homodyne tomography and subsequently performing the technique of coherent state quantum process tomography. This method provides us with the precise knowledge of how our optical phase shift will modify any arbitrary input quantum state engineered in the mode of the reconstruction.
Stable myoelectric control of a hand prosthesis using non-linear incremental learning
Gijsberts, Arjan; Bohra, Rashida; Sierra González, David; Werner, Alexander; Nowak, Markus; Caputo, Barbara; Roa, Maximo A.; Castellini, Claudio
2014-01-01
Stable myoelectric control of hand prostheses remains an open problem. The only successful human–machine interface is surface electromyography, typically allowing control of a few degrees of freedom. Machine learning techniques may have the potential to remove these limitations, but their performance is thus far inadequate: myoelectric signals change over time under the influence of various factors, deteriorating control performance. It is therefore necessary, in the standard approach, to regularly retrain a new model from scratch. We hereby propose a non-linear incremental learning method in which occasional updates with a modest amount of novel training data allow continual adaptation to the changes in the signals. In particular, Incremental Ridge Regression and an approximation of the Gaussian Kernel known as Random Fourier Features are combined to predict finger forces from myoelectric signals, both finger-by-finger and grouped in grasping patterns. We show that the approach is effective and practically applicable to this problem by first analyzing its performance while predicting single-finger forces. Surface electromyography and finger forces were collected from 10 intact subjects during four sessions spread over two different days; the results of the analysis show that small incremental updates are indeed effective to maintain a stable level of performance. Subsequently, we employed the same method on-line to teleoperate a humanoid robotic arm equipped with a state-of-the-art commercial prosthetic hand. The subject could reliably grasp, carry and release everyday-life objects, enforcing stable grasping irrespective of the signal changes, hand/arm movements and wrist pronation and supination. PMID:24616697
Soil Organic Matter Content: A Non-linear Control on Microbial Respiration in Soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnecker, J.; Grandy, S.
2015-12-01
Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and the amount of CO2 respired from soil largely depends on the amount of substrate available to microbes. Soils with high SOM concentrations will have higher respiration rates than soils with low SOM concentrations given similar environmental conditions. It is widely assumed that microbial activity and respiration rates respond linearly to substrate concentrations. This assumption remains however largely untested. In a lab incubation experiment, we amended a mixture of agricultural soil and sand with increasing amounts of one of three plant residues differing in their C/N ratio (clover 14; rye 23 and wheat straw 110). We used 9 levels of organic carbon (OC) content ranging from 0.25% to 5.7%. The mixtures were then incubated at constant temperature and water contents for 63 days. Our results show that across substrates CO2 production increased with increasing OC content following a quadratic function instead of the expected linear one up to 2.2% OC. Above that point CO2 production leveled off and increased linearly. We hypothesize that the probability that a microbe meets a substrate also increases with increasing amounts of plant residues. At all substrate concentrations, samples amended with clover had the highest carbon losses, followed by rye and straw. Differences between the three kinds of plant residue might have been caused by their C/N ratios and thus the amount of available N. High amounts of N might have led to an increase in microbial biomass, which could occupy more space and is thus more likely to meet new substrate. Additional analysis of microbial biomass, enzyme activities and N pools will help to understand the mechanism leading to the observed CO2 patterns. A non-linear relation of CO2 production and OC content indicates that spatial separation as an inherent property of SOM content is an important control on decomposition at low OC contents. Knowledge of this controlling effect could be used to enhance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ripamonti, Francesco; Orsini, Lorenzo; Resta, Ferruccio
2015-04-01
Non-linear behavior is present in many mechanical system operating conditions. In these cases, a common engineering practice is to linearize the equation of motion around a particular operating point, and to design a linear controller. The main disadvantage is that the stability properties and validity of the controller are local. In order to improve the controller performance, non-linear control techniques represent a very attractive solution for many smart structures. The aim of this paper is to compare non-linear model-based and non-model-based control techniques. In particular the model-based sliding-mode-control (SMC) technique is considered because of its easy implementation and the strong robustness of the controller even under heavy model uncertainties. Among the non-model-based control techniques, the fuzzy control (FC), allowing designing the controller according to if-then rules, has been considered. It defines the controller without a system reference model, offering many advantages such as an intrinsic robustness. These techniques have been tested on the pendulum nonlinear system.
Non-Linear Dynamics and Control of Chaos for a Tachometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GE, Z.-M.; SHIUE, J.-S.
2002-06-01
The dynamic behaviors of a rotational tachometer with vibrating support are studied in the paper. Both analytical and computational results are used to obtain the characteristics of the system. The Lyapunov direct method is applied to obtain the conditions of stability of the equilibrium position of the system. The center manifold theorem determines the conditions of stability for the system in a critical case. By applying various numerical analyses such as phase plane, Poincaré map and power spectrum analysis, a variety of periodic solutions and phenomena of the chaotic motion are observed. The effects of the changes of parameters in the system can be found in the bifurcation diagrams and parametric diagrams. By using Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimensions, the periodic and chaotic behaviors are verified. Finally, various methods, such as the addition of a constant torque, the addition of a periodic torque, delayed feedback control, adaptive control, Bang-Bang control, optimal control and the addition of a periodic impulse are used to control chaos effectively.
Zhu, Z. W.; Zhang, W. D. Xu, J.
2014-03-15
The non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of a giant magnetostrictive film (GMF) subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were studied. Non-linear differential items were introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the GMF, and the non-linear dynamic model of the GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The stochastic stability was analysed, and the probability density function was obtained. The condition of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and noise-induced chaotic response were determined, and the fractal boundary of the system's safe basin was provided. The reliability function was solved from the backward Kolmogorov equation, and an optimal control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that the system stability varies with the parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the process; the area of the safe basin decreases when the noise intensifies, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal; the system reliability improved through stochastic optimal control. Finally, the theoretical and numerical results were proved by experiments. The results are helpful in the engineering applications of GMF.
Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Time-Domain Controlled Inversion Source
Newman, Gregory A.; Commer, Michael
2006-11-16
Software that simulates and inverts time-domain electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a step-wise source signal from either galvanic (grounded wires) or inductive (magnetic loops) sources. The inversion process is carried inductive (magnetic loops) sources. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria. The software is an upgrade from the code TEM3D ver. 2.0. The upgrade includes the following components: (1) Improved (faster)memory access during gradient computation. (2) Data parellelization scheme: Multiple transmitters (sources) can be distributed accross several banks of processors (daa-planes). Similarly, the receivers of each source are also distributed accross the corresponding data-plane. (3) Improved data-IO.
Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Time-Domain Controlled Inversion Source
2006-11-16
Software that simulates and inverts time-domain electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a step-wise source signal from either galvanic (grounded wires) or inductive (magnetic loops) sources. The inversion process is carried inductive (magnetic loops) sources. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code TEM3D ver. 2.0. The upgrade includes the following components: (1) Improved (faster)memory access during gradient computation. (2) Data parellelization scheme: Multiple transmitters (sources) can be distributed accross several banks of processors (daa-planes). Similarly, the receivers of each source are also distributed accross the corresponding data-plane. (3) Improved data-IO.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzou, H. S.
1990-12-01
Studies on joint dominated flexible space structures have attracted much interest recently due to the rapid developments in large deployable space systems. This paper describes a study of the non-linear structural dynamics of jointed flexible structures with initial joint clearance and subjected to external excitations. Methods of using viscoelastic and active vibration control technologies, joint actuators, to reduce dynamic contact force and to stabilize the systems are proposed and evaluated. System dynamic equations of a discretized multi-degrees-of-freedom flexible system with initial joint clearances and joint actuators (active and viscoelastic passive) are derived. Dynamic contacts in an elastic joint are simulated by a non-linear joint model comprised of a non-linear spring and damper. A pseudo-force approximation method is used in numerical time-domain integration. Dynamic responses of a jointed flexible structure with and without viscoelastic and active joint actuators are presented and compared. Effectiveness of active/passive joint actuators is demonstrated.
A Non-Linear Approach to Spacecraft Formation Control in the Vicinity of a Collinear Libration Point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luquette, Richard J.; Sanner, Robert M.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
An expanding interest in mission design strategies that exploit libration point regions, demands the continued development of enhanced, efficient, control algorithms for station-keeping and formation maintenance. Linear control strategies have been developed for station-keeping. However, their region of stability is bounded by the assumptions required for linearizing the governing equations of motion. For example, reference [I] discusses the development of a linear control design for maintaining a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 libration point. Trial runs indicated the trajectory was unstable for starting points exceeding 45,000 km from the L2 point. Also, there was significant growth in the control effort required to maintain the orbit as the nominal radius increased. This result is a consequence of the increased influence of the system non-linearities, as the trajectory deviated from the linearization point, L2. As an alternative, this paper presents the development of a non-linear control strategy, based on a Hamiltonian formulation of the equations of motion. The control strategy is applied to the problem of formation maintenance, rather than simple station
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, P. D.; Litvak, M. E.; Harpold, A. A.; Molotch, N. P.; McIntosh, J. C.; Troch, P. A.; Zapata, X.
2011-12-01
Changes in both temperature and the amount and timing of precipitation have the potential to profoundly impact water balance in mountain ecosystems. Although changes in the amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are widely considered in climate change scenarios, less attention has been given to how changes in climate or land cover may affect hydrologic partitioning and plant available water. The focus of this presentation is on how spatial transitions in ecosystem structure and temporal transitions in climate affect the fraction of precipitation potentially available to vegetation. In most temperate mountain environments winter snows are a significant fraction of annual precipitation and understanding the partitioning of snow and snow melt is critical for predicting both ecosystem water availability and stream flow under future climate scenarios. Spatial variability in net snow water input is a function of the interaction of snowfall, wind, and solar radiation with topography and vegetation structure. Integrated over larger scales these interactions may result in between 0% and 40% sublimation of winter snowfall before melt, effectively excluding this water from growing season water balance. Once melt begins, variability in the partitioning of snowmelt is driven by the rate of melt, and somewhat less intuitively, by the timing of snow accumulation the previous fall. Early accumulating snowpacks insulate soils and minimize soil frost increasing infiltration of melt the following spring. In contrast, later snowfall results in colder soils, more soil frost, reduced infiltration, increased runoff during melt, and reduced plant available water during the following growing season. This change in hydrologic partitioning, mediated by the timing of snowpack accumulation, results in lower evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) the following spring. These findings suggest that abiotic controls on the partitioning of precipitation may
A Non-Linear Approach to Spacecraft Formation Control in the Vicinity of a Collinear Libration Point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luquette, Richard J.; Sanner, Robert M.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
An expanding interest in mission design strategies that exploit libration point regions demands the continued development of enhanced, efficient, control algorithms for station-keeping and formation maintenance. This paper discusses the development of a non-linear, formation maintenance, control algorithm for trajectories in the vicinity of a libration point. However, the formulation holds for any trajectory governed by the equations of motion for the restricted three body problem. The control law guarantees exponential convergence, based on a Lyaponov analysis. FreeFlyer and MATLAB provide the simulation environment for controller performance evaluation. The simulation, modeled after the MAXIM Pathfinder mission, maintains the relative position of a "follower" spacecraft with respect to a "leader" spacecraft, stationed near the L2 libration point in the Sun-Earth system. Evaluation metrics are fuel usage and tracking accuracy.
Multi input single output model predictive control of non-linear bio-polymerization process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arumugasamy, Senthil Kumar; Ahmad, Z.
2015-05-01
This paper focuses on Multi Input Single Output (MISO) Model Predictive Control of bio-polymerization process in which mechanistic model is developed and linked with the feedforward neural network model to obtain a hybrid model (Mechanistic-FANN) of lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone (ɛ-CL) for Poly (ɛ-caprolactone) production. In this research, state space model was used, in which the input to the model were the reactor temperatures and reactor impeller speeds and the output were the molecular weight of polymer (Mn) and polymer polydispersity index. State space model for MISO created using System identification tool box of Matlab™. This state space model is used in MISO MPC. Model predictive control (MPC) has been applied to predict the molecular weight of the biopolymer and consequently control the molecular weight of biopolymer. The result shows that MPC is able to track reference trajectory and give optimum movement of manipulated variable.
Multi input single output model predictive control of non-linear bio-polymerization process
Arumugasamy, Senthil Kumar; Ahmad, Z.
2015-05-15
This paper focuses on Multi Input Single Output (MISO) Model Predictive Control of bio-polymerization process in which mechanistic model is developed and linked with the feedforward neural network model to obtain a hybrid model (Mechanistic-FANN) of lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) for Poly (ε-caprolactone) production. In this research, state space model was used, in which the input to the model were the reactor temperatures and reactor impeller speeds and the output were the molecular weight of polymer (M{sub n}) and polymer polydispersity index. State space model for MISO created using System identification tool box of Matlab™. This state space model is used in MISO MPC. Model predictive control (MPC) has been applied to predict the molecular weight of the biopolymer and consequently control the molecular weight of biopolymer. The result shows that MPC is able to track reference trajectory and give optimum movement of manipulated variable.
Apthorp, Deborah; Nagle, Fintan; Palmisano, Stephen
2014-01-01
Visually-induced illusions of self-motion (vection) can be compelling for some people, but they are subject to large individual variations in strength. Do these variations depend, at least in part, on the extent to which people rely on vision to maintain their postural stability? We investigated by comparing physical posture measures to subjective vection ratings. Using a Bertec balance plate in a brightly-lit room, we measured 13 participants' excursions of the centre of foot pressure (CoP) over a 60-second period with eyes open and with eyes closed during quiet stance. Subsequently, we collected vection strength ratings for large optic flow displays while seated, using both verbal ratings and online throttle measures. We also collected measures of postural sway (changes in anterior-posterior CoP) in response to the same visual motion stimuli while standing on the plate. The magnitude of standing sway in response to expanding optic flow (in comparison to blank fixation periods) was predictive of both verbal and throttle measures for seated vection. In addition, the ratio between eyes-open and eyes-closed CoP excursions during quiet stance (using the area of postural sway) significantly predicted seated vection for both measures. Interestingly, these relationships were weaker for contracting optic flow displays, though these produced both stronger vection and more sway. Next we used a non-linear analysis (recurrence quantification analysis, RQA) of the fluctuations in anterior-posterior position during quiet stance (both with eyes closed and eyes open); this was a much stronger predictor of seated vection for both expanding and contracting stimuli. Given the complex multisensory integration involved in postural control, our study adds to the growing evidence that non-linear measures drawn from complexity theory may provide a more informative measure of postural sway than the conventional linear measures. PMID:25462216
Analyzing Feedback Control Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.
1987-01-01
Interactive controls analysis (INCA) program developed to provide user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control. Designed for use with both small- and large-order systems. Using interactive-graphics capability, INCA user quickly plots root locus, frequency response, or time response of either continuous-time system or sampled-data system. Configuration and parameters easily changed, allowing user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in very convenient manner. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durham, Joseph; Moehlis, Jeff
2008-03-01
We present a control mechanism for tuning a fast-slow dynamical system undergoing a supercritical Hopf bifurcation to be in the canard regime, the tiny parameter window between small and large periodic behavior. Our control strategy uses continuous feedback control via a slow control variable to cause the system to drift on average toward canard orbits. We apply this to tune the FitzHugh-Nagumo model to produce maximal canard orbits. When the controller is improperly configured, periodic or chaotic mixed-mode oscillations are found. We also investigate the effects of noise on this control mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that a sensor tuned in this way to operate near the canard regime can detect tiny changes in system parameters.
Feedback control of waiting times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandes, Tobias; Emary, Clive
2016-04-01
Feedback loops are known as a versatile tool for controlling transport in small systems, which usually have large intrinsic fluctuations. Here we investigate the control of a temporal correlation function, the waiting-time distribution, under active and passive feedback conditions. We develop a general formalism and then specify to the simple unidirectional transport model, where we compare costs of open-loop and feedback control and use methods from optimal control theory to optimize waiting-time distributions.
Feedback control of waiting times.
Brandes, Tobias; Emary, Clive
2016-04-01
Feedback loops are known as a versatile tool for controlling transport in small systems, which usually have large intrinsic fluctuations. Here we investigate the control of a temporal correlation function, the waiting-time distribution, under active and passive feedback conditions. We develop a general formalism and then specify to the simple unidirectional transport model, where we compare costs of open-loop and feedback control and use methods from optimal control theory to optimize waiting-time distributions. PMID:27176250
Nam, Myeong-Ryong; Hashimoto, Tatsuaki; Ninomiya, Keiken
1994-12-31
Attitude control system for a satellite using a magnetic bearing momentum wheel (MBMW) with gimballing capability involves double control loops: the inner loop to control the wheel`s gimballing to be stable while it is exchanging the angular momentum with the spacecraft main body, and the outer loop for controlling satellite`s attitude. To cope with the magnetic bearing`s nonlinearity in the inner control loop, a sliding-mode controller is proposed. which is usually known to have simple control structure as well as anti-disturbance robustness. In this case, moreover, the sliding mode controller particularly provides the merit to feedback the wheel`s rotational velocity automatically into the gim-balling control. The designed controller`s performance is validated by numerical simulation. Additionally, a simple analytical form of the closed servo loop transfer function of the inner loop, which is necessary for the outer loop design, is proposed based upon numerical simulations on the system response.
Research on output feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, Anthony J.
1988-01-01
A summary is presented of the main results obtained during the course of research on output feedback control. The term output feedback is used to denote a controller design approach which does not rely on an observer to estimate the states of the system. Thus, the order of the controller is fixed, and can even be zero order, which amounts to constant gain ouput feedback. The emphasis has been on optimal output feedback. That is, a fixed order controller is designed based on minimizing a suitably chosen quadratic performance index. A number of problem areas that arise in this context have been addressed. These include developing suitable methods for selecting an index of performance, both time domain and frequency domain methods for achieving robustness of the closed loop system, developing canonical forms to achieve a minimal parameterization for the controller, two time scale design formulations for ill-conditioned systems, and the development of convergent numerical algorithms for solving the output feedback problem.
Balanced bridge feedback control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.
Feedback control indirect response models.
Zhang, Yaping; D'Argenio, David Z
2016-08-01
A general framework is introduced for modeling pharmacodynamic processes that are subject to autoregulation, which combines the indirect response (IDR) model approach with methods from classical feedback control of engineered systems. The canonical IDR models are modified to incorporate linear combinations of feedback control terms related to the time course of the difference (the error signal) between the pharmacodynamic response and its basal value. Following the well-established approach of traditional engineering control theory, the proposed feedback control indirect response models incorporate terms proportional to the error signal itself, the integral of the error signal, the derivative of the error signal or combinations thereof. Simulations are presented to illustrate the types of responses produced by the proposed feedback control indirect response model framework, and to illustrate comparisons with other PK/PD modeling approaches incorporating feedback. In addition, four examples from literature are used to illustrate the implementation and applicability of the proposed feedback control framework. The examples reflect each of the four mechanisms of drug action as modeled by each of the four canonical IDR models and include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and extracellular serotonin; histamine H2-receptor antagonists and gastric acid; growth hormone secretagogues and circulating growth hormone; β2-selective adrenergic agonists and potassium. The proposed feedback control indirect response approach may serve as an exploratory modeling tool and may provide a bridge for development of more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. PMID:27394724
ASDTIC: A feedback control innovation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lalli, V. R.; Schoenfeld, A. D.
1972-01-01
The ASDTIC (Analog Signal to Discrete Time Interval Converter) control subsystem provides precise output control of high performance aerospace power supplies. The key to ASDTIC operation is that it stably controls output by sensing output energy change as well as output magnitude. The ASDTIC control subsystem and control module were developed to improve power supply performance during static and dynamic input voltage and output load variations, to reduce output voltage or current regulation due to component variations or aging, to maintain a stable feedback control with variations in the loop gain or loop time constants, and to standardize the feedback control subsystem for power conditioning equipment.
ASDTIC - A feedback control innovation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lalli, V. R.; Schoenfeld, A. D.
1972-01-01
The ASDTIC (analog signal to discrete time interval converter) control subsystem provides precise output control of high performance aerospace power supplies. The key to ASDTIC operation is that it stably controls output by sensing output energy change as well as output magnitude. The ASDTIC control subsystem and control module were developed to improve power supply performance during static and dynamic input voltage and output load variations, to reduce output voltage or current regulation due to component variations or aging, to maintain a stable feedback control with variations in the loop gain or loop time constants, and to standardize the feedback control subsystem for power conditioning equipment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benavides, A.; Everett, M. E.
2007-03-01
This work adopts a continuation approach, based on path tracking in model space, to solve the non-linear least-squares problem for discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO) using multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. The forward model corresponds to a stretched-exponential decay of eddy currents induced in a magnetic spheroid. We formulate an over-determined, or under-parameterized, inverse problem. An example using synthetic multi-receiver EMI responses illustrates the efficiency of the method. The fast inversion of actual field multi-receiver EMI responses of inert, buried ordnances is also shown. Software based on the continuation method could be installed within a multi-receiver EMI sensor and used for near-real-time UXO decision-making purposes without the need for a highly-trained operator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.
2015-12-01
We assess the influence of storage dynamics and non-linearities in hydrological connectivity on runoff generation and stream water ages, using a long-term record of daily isotopes in precipitation and stream flow. These were used to test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model for a Scottish catchment. The model tracks tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores representing steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands and deeper groundwater (i.e. the main landscape units involved in runoff generation). Storage is largest in groundwater and on the steep hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in smaller stores in the riparian peat. The model also couples the ecohydrological effects of different vegetation communities in contrasting landscape units, by estimating evaporation, resulting moisture deficits and the ages of evaporated waters, which also affect the generation and age of runoff. Both stream flow and isotope variations are well-captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts the mean age of runoff as ~1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies from ~1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the riparian peatland dominate, to around 4 years in dry periods, when groundwater sustains flow. Hydrological connectivity between the units varies non-linearly with storage which depends upon antecedent conditions and event characteristics. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting non-stationary ages. Improving the representation of storage dynamics and quantifying the ages of water fluxes in such models gives a more complete conceptualisation of the importance of the soil water fluxes in critical zone processes and a framework for tracking diffuse pollutants in water quality assessment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, S.; Maiti, R.; Saha, S.; Das, A. C.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. B. N.; Datta, P. K.
2016-04-01
Graphene Oxide (GO) has been prepared by modified Hummers method and it has been reduced using an IR bulb (800-2000 nm). Both as grown GO and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been characterized using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman spectra shows well documented Dband and G-band for both the samples while blue shift of G-band confirms chemical functionalization of graphene with different oxygen functional group. The XPS result shows that the as-prepared GO contains 52% of sp2 hybridized carbon due to the C=C bonds and 33% of carbon atoms due to the C-O bonds. As for RGO, increment of the atomic % of the sp2 hybridized carbon atom to 83% and rapid decrease in atomic % of C=O bonds confirm an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. UV-Visible absorption spectrum also confirms increment of conjugation with increased reduction. Non-linear optical properties of both GO and RGO are measured using single beam open aperture Z-Scan technique in femtosecond regime. Intensity dependent nonlinear phenomena are observed. Depending upon the intensity, both saturable absorption and two photon absorption contribute to the non-linearity of both the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (~ 127 GW/cm2) while two photon absorption become prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm2 to 302 GW/cm2). We have calculated the two-photon absorption co-efficient and saturation intensity for both the samples. The value of two photon absorption co-efficient (for GO~ 0.0022-0.0037 cm/GW and for RGO~ 0.0128-0.0143 cm/GW) and the saturation intensity (for GO~57 GW/cm2 and for RGO~ 194GW/cm2) is increased with reduction. Increase in two photon absorption coefficient with increasing intensity can also suggest that there may be multi-photon absorption is taking place.
2006-11-17
Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less
Adaptive feedback active noise control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Sen M.; Vijayan, Dipa
Feedforward active noise control (ANC) systems use a reference sensor that senses a reference input to the controller. This signal is assumed to be unaffected by the secondary source and is a good measure of the undesired noise to be cancelled by the system. The reference sensor may be acoustic (e.g., microphone) or non-acoustic (e.g., tachometer, optical transducer). An obvious problem when using acoustic sensors is that the reference signal may be corrupted by the canceling signal generated by the secondary source. This problem is known as acoustic feedback. One way of avoiding this is by using a feedback active noise control (FANC) system which dispenses with the reference sensor. The FANC technique originally proposed by Olson and May employs a high gain negative feedback amplifier. This system suffered from the drawback that the error microphone had to be placed very close to the loudspeaker. The operation of the system was restricted to low frequency range and suffered from instability due to the possibility of positive feedback. Feedback systems employing adaptive filtering techniques for active noise control were developed. This paper presents the FANC system modeled as an adaptive prediction scheme.
Fedota, John R; Matous, Allison L; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Gu, Hong; Ross, Thomas J; Stein, Elliot A
2016-09-01
Deficits in cognitive control processes are a primary characteristic of nicotine addiction. However, while network-based connectivity measures of dysfunction have frequently been observed, empirical evidence of task-based dysfunction in these processes has been inconsistent. Here, in a sample of smokers (n=35) and non-smokers (n=21), a previously validated parametric flanker task is employed to characterize addiction-related alterations in responses to varying (ie, high, intermediate, and low) demands for cognitive control. This approach yields a demand-response curve that aims to characterize potential non-linear responses to increased demand for control, including insensitivities or lags in fully activating the cognitive control network. We further used task-based differences in activation between groups as seeds for resting-state analysis of network dysfunction in an effort to more closely link prior inconsistencies in task-related activation with evidence of impaired network connectivity in smokers. For both smokers and non-smokers, neuroimaging results showed similar increases in activation in brain areas associated with cognitive control. However, reduced activation in right insula was seen only in smokers and only when processing intermediate demand for cognitive control. Further, in smokers, this task-modulated right insula showed weaker functional connectivity with the superior frontal gyrus, a component of the task-positive executive control network. These results demonstrate that the neural instantiation of salience attribution in smokers is both more effortful to fully activate and has more difficulty communicating with the exogenous, task-positive, executive control network. Together, these findings further articulate the cognitive control dysfunction associated with smoking and illustrate a specific brain circuit potentially responsible. PMID:27112116
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackwell, Mark W.; Tutty, Owen R.; Rogers, Eric; Sandberg, Richard D.
2016-01-01
The inclusion of smart devices in wind turbine rotor blades could, in conjunction with collective and individual pitch control, improve the aerodynamic performance of the rotors. This is currently an active area of research with the primary objective of reducing the fatigue loads but mitigating the effects of extreme loads is also of interest. The aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine blade contain periodic and non-periodic components and one approach is to consider the application of iterative learning control algorithms. In this paper, the control design is based on a simple, in relative terms, computational fluid dynamics model that uses non-linear wake effects to represent flow past an airfoil. A representation for the actuator dynamics is included to undertake a detailed investigation into the level of control possible and on how performance can be effectively measured.
Research on output feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, A. J.; Kramer, F. S.
1985-01-01
In designing fixed order compensators, an output feedback formulation has been adopted by suitably augmenting the system description to include the compensator states. However, the minimization of the performance index over the range of possible compensator descriptions was impeded due to the nonuniqueness of the compensator transfer function. A controller canonical form of the compensator was chosen to reduce the number of free parameters to its minimal number in the optimization. In the MIMO case, the controller form requires a prespecified set of ascending controllability indices. This constraint on the compensator structure is rather innocuous in relation to the increase in convergence rate of the optimization. Moreover, the controller form is easily relatable to a unique controller transfer function description. This structure of the compensator does not require penalizing the compensator states for a nonzero or coupled solution, a problem that occurs when following a standard output feedback synthesis formulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Şeker, Murat; Zergeroğlu, Erkan; Tatlicioğlu, Enver
2016-01-01
In this study, a robust backstepping approach for the control problem of the variable-speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator is presented. Specifically, to overcome the negative effects of parametric uncertainties in both mechanical and electrical subsystems, a robust controller with a differentiable compensation term is proposed. The proposed methodology ensures the generator velocity tracking error to uniformly approach a small bound where practical tracking is achieved. Stability of the overall system is ensured by Lyapunov-based arguments. Comparative simulation studies with a standard proportional-integral-type controller are performed to illustrate the effectiveness, feasibility and efficiency of the proposed controller.
Feedback control of resistive instabilities
White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Furth, H.P.; Park, W.; Chen, L.
1985-12-01
Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m greater than or equal to 2 is fairly straightforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles. 20 refs., 3 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, W. W.; Mcneill, W. E.; Stortz, M. W.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear inverse transformation flight control system design method is applied to the Lockheed Ft. Worth Company's E-7D short takeoff and vertical land (STOVL) supersonic fighter/attack aircraft design with a modified General Electric F110 engine which has augmented propulsive lift capability. The system is fully augmented to provide flight path control and velocity control, and rate command attitude hold for angular axes during the transition and hover operations. In cruise mode, the flight control system is configured to provide direct thrust command, rate command attitude hold for pitch and roll axes, and sideslip command with turn coordination. A control selector based on the nonlinear inverse transformation method is designed specifically to be compatible with the propulsion system's physical configuration which has a two dimensional convergent-divergent aft nozzle, a vectorable ventral nozzle, and a thrust augmented ejector. The nonlinear inverse transformation is used to determine the propulsive forces and nozzle deflections, which in combination with the aerodynamic forces and moments (including propulsive induced contributions), and gravitational force, are required to achieve the longitudinal and vertical acceleration commands. The longitudinal control axes are fully decoupled within the propulsion system's performance envelope. A piloted motion-base flight simulation was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center to examine the handling qualities of this design. Based on results of the simulation, refinements to the control system have been made and will also be covered in the report.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Biederman, J. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Litvak, M. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Broxton, P. D.; Reed, D. E.
2013-12-01
Unprecedented levels of tree mortality from insect infestation and wildfire are dramatically altering forest structure and composition in Western North America. Warming temperatures and increased drought stress have been implicated as major factors in the increasing spatial extent and frequency of these forest disturbances, but it is unclear how these changes in forest structure will interact with ongoing climate change to affect snowmelt water resources either for society or for ecosystem recovery following mortality. Because surface discharge, groundwater recharge, and ecosystem productivity all depend on seasonal snowmelt, a critical knowledge gap exists not only in predicting discharge, but in quantifying spatial and temporal variability in the partitioning of snowfall into abiotic vapor loss, plant available water, recharge, and streamflow within the complex mosaic of forest disturbance and topography that characterizes western mountain catchments. This presentation will address this knowledge gap by synthesizing recent work on snowpack dynamics and ecosystem productivity from seasonally snow-covered forests along a climate gradient from Arizona to Wyoming; including undisturbed sites, recently burned forests, and areas of extensive insect-induced forest mortality. Both before-after and control-impacted studies of forest disturbance on snow accumulation and ablation suggest that the spatial scale of snow distribution increases following disturbance, but net snow water input in a warming climate will increase only in topographically sheltered areas. While forest disturbance changes spatial scale of snowpack partitioning, the amount and especially the timing of snow cover accumulation and ablation are strongly related to interannual variability in ecosystem productivity with both earlier snowmelt and later snow accumulation associated with decreased carbon uptake. Empirical analyses and modeling are being developed to identify landscapes most sensitive to
Knoop, P.; Culick, F.E.C.; Zukoski, E.E.
1996-07-01
This report presents the first quantitative data establishing the details of hysteresis whose existence in dynamical behavior was reported by Sterling and Zukoski. The new idea was demonstrated that the presence of dynamical hysteresis provides opportunity for a novel strategy of active nonlinear control of unsteady motions in combustors. A figure shows the hysteresis exhibited for the amplitude of pressure oscillations as a function of equivalence ratio in a combustor having a recirculation zone, in this case a dump combustor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagedorn, P.
The mathematical pendulum is used to provide a survey of free and forced oscillations in damped and undamped systems. This simple model is employed to present illustrations for and comparisons between the various approximation schemes. A summary of the Liapunov stability theory is provided. The first and the second method of Liapunov are explained for autonomous as well as for nonautonomous systems. Here, a basic familiarity with the theory of linear oscillations is assumed. La Salle's theorem about the stability of invariant domains is explained in terms of illustrative examples. Self-excited oscillations are examined, taking into account such oscillations in mechanical and electrical systems, analytical approximation methods for the computation of self-excited oscillations, analytical criteria for the existence of limit cycles, forced oscillations in self-excited systems, and self-excited oscillations in systems with several degrees of freedom. Attention is given to Hamiltonian systems and an introduction to the theory of optimal control is provided.
Experimental Feedback Control of Flow Induced Cavity Tones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cabell, Randolph H.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.
2002-01-01
An experimental study of the application of discrete-time, linear quadratic control design methods to the cavity tone problem is described. State space models of the dynamics from a synthetic jet actuator at the leading edge of the cavity to two pressure sensors in the cavity were computed from experimental data. Variations in model order, control order, control bandwidth, and properties of a Kalman state estimator were studied. Feedback control reduced the levels of multiple cavity tones at Mach 0.275, 0.35, and 0.45. Closed loop performance was often limited by excitation of sidebands of cavity tones, and creation of new tones in the spectrum. State space models were useful for explaining some of these limitations, but were not able to account for non-linear dynamics, such as interactions between tones at different frequencies.
Realizing actual feedback control of complex network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua
2014-06-01
In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.
Hand, M. M.
1999-07-30
Variable-speed, horizontal axis wind turbines use blade-pitch control to meet specified objectives for three regions of operation. This paper focuses on controller design for the constant power production regime. A simple, rigid, non-linear turbine model was used to systematically perform trade-off studies between two performance metrics. Minimization of both the deviation of the rotor speed from the desired speed and the motion of the actuator is desired. The robust nature of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is illustrated, and optimal operating conditions are determined. Because numerous simulation runs may be completed in a short time, the relationship of the two opposing metrics is easily visualized. Traditional controller design generally consists of linearizing a model about an operating point. This step was taken for two different operating points, and the systematic design approach was used. A comparison of the optimal regions selected using the n on-linear model and the two linear models shows similarities. The linearization point selection does, however, affect the turbine performance slightly. Exploitation of the simplicity of the model allows surfaces consisting of operation under a wide range of gain values to be created. This methodology provides a means of visually observing turbine performance based upon the two metrics chosen for this study. Design of a PID controller is simplified, and it is possible to ascertain the best possible combination of controller parameters. The wide, flat surfaces indicate that a PID controller is very robust in this variable-speed wind turbine application.
Modal insensitivity with optimality. [in feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, A. J.; Raman, K. V.
1984-01-01
This paper deals with the design of a constant gain, feedback controller which results in selected modal insensitivity, and at the same time optimizes a quadratic performance index representative of desired system performance for nominal plant parameter values. Both full state and output feedback control are considered. A constraint is established for the feedback gain matrix that results in modal insensitivity, and necessary conditions for optimality subject to this constraint are given. This forms the basis for a numerical algorithm to compute the optimal feedback gain. To illustrate the procedure, a design is carried out using the lateral dynamics of an L-1011 aircraft.
Feedback control of pulsed laser deposition processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laube, S. J. P.; Stark, E. F.
1993-10-01
Implementation of closed loop feedback on PLD (pulsed laser deposition) requires actuators and sensors. Improvements in quality and reproducibility of material depositions are achieved by actuating the process towards desired operating regions. Empirical relationships are experimentally determined for describing the complex dynamical interactions of laser parameters. Feedback control based on this description can then be implemented to reduce process disorder.
Control and diagnostic uses of feedback
Sen, A. K.
2000-05-01
Recent results on multimode feedback control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes and a variety of diagnostic uses of feedback are summarized. First, is the report on reduction and scaling of transport under feedback. By controlling the fluctuation amplitudes and consequently the transport via feedback, it is found that the scaling of the diffusion coefficient is linear with root-mean-square rms fluctuation level. The scaling appears not to agree with any generic theory. A variety of other diagnostic uses of feedback have been developed. The primary goal is an experimental methodology for the determination of dynamic models of plasma turbulence, both for better transport understanding and more credible feedback controller designs. A specific motivation is to search for a low-order dynamic model, suitable for the convenient study of both transport and feedback. First, the time series analysis method is used for the determination of chaotic attractor dimension of plasma fluctuations. For ExB rotational flute modes it is found to be close to three, indicating that a low-order dynamic model may be adequate for transport prediction and feedback controller design. Second, a new method for direct experimental determination of nonlinear dynamical models of plasma turbulence using feedback has been developed. Specifically, the process begins with a standard three-wave coupling model and introduces a variable feedback gain. The power spectrum, delayed power spectrum, and bispectrum of fluctuations are then experimentally obtained. By varying the feedback gain continuously, an arbitrary number of numerical equations for a fixed number of unknowns can be generated. Their numerical solution yields the linear dispersion, as well as nonlinear coupling coefficients. This method has been successfully applied for ExB rotationally driven flute modes. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Control and diagnostic uses of feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, A. K.
2000-05-01
Recent results on multimode feedback control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes and a variety of diagnostic uses of feedback are summarized. First, is the report on reduction and scaling of transport under feedback. By controlling the fluctuation amplitudes and consequently the transport via feedback, it is found that the scaling of the diffusion coefficient is linear with root-mean-square rms fluctuation level. The scaling appears not to agree with any generic theory. A variety of other diagnostic uses of feedback have been developed. The primary goal is an experimental methodology for the determination of dynamic models of plasma turbulence, both for better transport understanding and more credible feedback controller designs. A specific motivation is to search for a low-order dynamic model, suitable for the convenient study of both transport and feedback. First, the time series analysis method is used for the determination of chaotic attractor dimension of plasma fluctuations. For E×B rotational flute modes it is found to be close to three, indicating that a low-order dynamic model may be adequate for transport prediction and feedback controller design. Second, a new method for direct experimental determination of nonlinear dynamical models of plasma turbulence using feedback has been developed. Specifically, the process begins with a standard three-wave coupling model and introduces a variable feedback gain. The power spectrum, delayed power spectrum, and bispectrum of fluctuations are then experimentally obtained. By varying the feedback gain continuously, an arbitrary number of numerical equations for a fixed number of unknowns can be generated. Their numerical solution yields the linear dispersion, as well as nonlinear coupling coefficients. This method has been successfully applied for E×B rotationally driven flute modes.
Non-linear interaction of elastic waves in rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuvshinov, B. N.; Smit, T. J. H.; Campman, X. H.
2013-09-01
We study theoretically the interaction of elastic waves caused by non-linearities of rock elastic moduli, and assess the possibility to use this phenomenon in hydrocarbon exploration and in the analysis of rock samples. In our calculations we use the five-constant model by Gol'dberg. It is shown that the interaction of plane waves in isotropic solids is completely described by five coupling coefficients, which have the same order of magnitude. By considering scattering of compressional waves generated by controlled sources at the Earth surface from a non-linear layer at the subsurface, we conclude that non-linear signals from deep formations are unlikely to be measured with the current level of technology. Our analysis of field tests where non-linear signals were measured, suggests that these signals are generated either in the shallow subsurface or in the vicinity of sources. Non-linear wave interaction might be observable in lab tests with focused ultrasonic beams. In this case, the non-linear response is generated in the secondary parametric array formed by linear beams scattered from inclusions. Although the strength of this response is controlled by non-linearity of the surrounding medium rather than by non-linearity of inclusions, its measurement can help to obtain better images of rock samples.
Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.
1987-01-01
Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.
Experimental Feedback Control of Flow Induced Cavity Tones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cabell, Randolph H.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.
2005-01-01
Discrete-time, linear quadratic methods were used to design feedback controllers for reducing tones generated by flow over a cavity. The dynamics of a synthetic jet actuator mounted at the leading edge of the cavity as observed by two microphones in the cavity were modeled over a broad frequency range using state space models computed from experimental data. Variations in closed loop performance as a function of model order, control order, control bandwidth, and state estimator design were studied using a cavity in the Probe Calibration Tunnel at NASA Langley. The controller successfully reduced the levels of multiple cavity tones at the tested flow speeds of Mach 0.275, 0.35, and 0.45. In some cases, the closed loop results were limited by excitation of sidebands of the cavity tones, or the creation of new tones at frequencies away from the cavity tones. Nonetheless, the results validate the combination of optimal control and experimentally-generated state space models, and suggest this approach may be useful for other flow control problems. The models were not able to account for non-linear dynamics, such as interactions between tones at different frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Ligang; Hu, Changhua; Wang, Zhaoqiang; Gao, Huijun
2014-08-01
By utilising Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy set approach, this paper addresses the robust H∞ dynamic output feedback control for the non-linear longitudinal model of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles (FAHVs). The flight control of FAHVs is highly challenging due to the unique dynamic characteristics, and the intricate couplings between the engine and fight dynamics and external disturbance. Because of the dynamics' enormous complexity, currently, only the longitudinal dynamics models of FAHVs have been used for controller design. In this work, T-S fuzzy modelling technique is utilised to approach the non-linear dynamics of FAHVs, then a fuzzy model is developed for the output tracking problem of FAHVs. The fuzzy model contains parameter uncertainties and disturbance, which can approach the non-linear dynamics of FAHVs more exactly. The flexible models of FAHVs are difficult to measure because of the complex dynamics and the strong couplings, thus a full-order dynamic output feedback controller is designed for the fuzzy model. A robust H∞ controller is designed for the obtained closed-loop system. By utilising the Lyapunov functional approach, sufficient solvability conditions for such controllers are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed T-S fuzzy dynamic output feedback control method is demonstrated by numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manciu, Felicia S.; Manciu, Marian; Sen, Surajit
2000-10-01
We consider a model dilute ferrofluid that is subjected to a strong, homogeneous magnetic field directed perpendicular to the surface of the ferrofluid, such that there is a chain formation in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the liquid. We study the propagation of impulses generated at high-frequency across finite times through the ferrofluid chains. Our numerical analysis shows that a very high-frequency sequence of non-linear acoustic pulses of appropriate magnitudes, initiated at the base of the container, can lead to the ejection of desired number of ferrofluid grains through the liquid-air interface. The proposed mechanism, if successfully realized in the laboratory, could help design a nozzle-free, ultrafast, ink-jet printer of unparalleled resolution.
Non-linear Flood Risk Assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzarella, A.
The genesis of floodings is very complex depending on hydrologic, meteorological and evapo-transpirative factors that are linked among themselves in a non linear way with numerous feedback processes. The Cantor dust and the rank-ordering statistics supply a proper framework for identifying a kind of a non linear order in the time succession of the floodings and so provide a basis for their prediction. When a catalogue is analysed, it is necessary to test its completeness with respect to the size of the recorded events and results obtained from analysis of catalogues that do not take into account such a test are suspect and possibly wrong, or, at least, unreliable. Floodings have no instrumentally determined magnitude scale, like that conventionally used for earthquakes, and this is why they are generally described in qualitative terms. For this reason, a semi-quantitative index, called ASI (Alluvial Strength Index) has been here developed that combines attributes of alluvial triggering mechanisms and effects on the territorial and hydraulic system.The historical succession of alluvial events occurred at high valley of Po river (Northern Italy), mean valley of Calore river (Southern Italy) and at Sarno, near Naples, have been accurately reconstructed on the basis of old documents and classified according to their ASI. The catalogues have been verified to be complete only for events classified at least as moderate and this probably because many of the lowest energetic events, especially in the past, escaped the detection. The identification of scale-invariances in the time clustering of alluvial events, both on short and long time scales, even if indicative of the complexity of their genesis, might be very helpful for the assessment and reduction of the hazard of future disasters. For example, on the basis of the results of the rank-ordering statistics, the most probable occurrence of an alluvial event at Sarno, classified at least as strong, is predicted to occur
Feedback linearization application for LLRF control system
Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.
1999-06-01
The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of the LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose a control law which is based on exact feedback linearization coupled with gain scheduling which reduces the effect of the deterministic klystron cathode voltage ripple that is due to harmonics of the high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points. Also, they propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and the estimates based feedback linearization controller.
Feedback linearization application for LLRF control system
Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.
1998-12-31
The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of the LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose a control law which is based on exact feedback linearization coupled with gain scheduling which reduces the effect of the deterministic klystron cathode voltage ripple that is due to harmonics of the high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points. Also, they propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and the estimates based feedback linearization controller.
Feedback controlled electrostatic and electromagnetic sample positioners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhim, Won-Kyu; Elleman, D. D.
1990-01-01
Four different sample positioners are discussed. The four systems share a common operating principle in that the sample positioning is achieved by feedback controlled forces which can be electrostatic, dielectrophoretic, or electromagnetic. The first system is the electrostatic liquid drop positioner which operates at the near ambient position. The second system is the tetrahedral electrostatic positioner which is being developed for the high temperature materials processing in vacuum. The third system is essentially the the same tetrahedral system above except that the position control is achieved by dielectrophoretic forces in the pressurized gas environment. Finally, the feasibility of a feedback controlled electromagnetic positioner is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Xingcan; Mutlu, Rahim; Alici, Gursel; Li, Weihua
2014-03-01
Conducting polymer actuators have shown significant potential in articulating micro instruments, manipulation devices, and robotics. However, implementing a feedback control strategy to enhance their positioning ability and accuracy in any application requires a feedback sensor, which is extremely large in size compared to the size of the actuators. Therefore, this paper proposes a new sensorless control scheme without the use of a position feedback sensor. With the help of the system identification technique and particle swarm optimization, the control scheme, which we call the simulated feedback control system, showed a satisfactory command tracking performance for the conducting polymer actuator’s step and dynamic displacement responses, especially under a disturbance, without needing a physical feedback loop, but using a simulated feedback loop. The primary contribution of this study is to propose and experimentally evaluate the simulated feedback control scheme for a class of the conducting polymer actuators known as tri-layer polymer actuators, which can operate both in dry and wet media. This control approach can also be extended to other smart actuators or systems, for which the feedback control based on external sensing is impractical.
Nonsmooth feedback controls of nonlocal dispersal models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malaguti, Luisa; Rubbioni, Paola
2016-03-01
The paper deals with a nonlocal diffusion equation which is a model for biological invasion and disease spread. A nonsmooth feedback control term is included and the existence of controlled dynamics is proved, satisfying different kinds of nonlocal condition. Jump discontinuities appear in the process. The existence of optimal control strategies is also shown, under suitably regular control functionals. The investigation makes use of techniques of multivalued analysis and is based on the degree theory for condensing operators in Hilbert spaces.
Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.
1992-01-01
The results of a study of the application of H infinity and mu synthesis techniques to the design of feedback control laws for the longitudinal dynamics of the High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are presented. The objective of this study is to develop methods for the design of feedback control laws which cause the closed loop longitudinal dynamics of the HARV to meet handling quality specifications over the entire flight envelope. Control law designs are based on models of the HARV linearized at various flight conditions. The control laws are evaluated by both linear and nonlinear simulations of typical maneuvers. The fixed gain control laws resulting from both the H infinity and mu synthesis techniques result in excellent performance even when the aircraft performs maneuvers in which the system states vary significantly from their equilibrium design values. Both the H infinity and mu synthesis control laws result in performance which compares favorably with an existing baseline longitudinal control law.
Balanced-Bridge Feedback Control Of Motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lurie, Boris J.
1990-01-01
Sensitivity to variations in electrical and mechanical characteristics reduced. Proposed control system for motor-driven rotary actuator includes three nested feedback loops which, when properly designed, decoupled from each other. Intended to increase accuracy of control by mitigating such degrading effects as vibrations and variations in electrical and mechanical characteristics of structure rotated. Lends itself to optimization of performance via independent optimization of each of three loops. Includes outer, actuator, and driver feedback loops, configured so that actuator is subsystem, and driver is subsystem of actuator.
Applying vision feedback to crane controller design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Lun-Hui; Huang, Pei-Hsiang; Pan, Shing-Tai; Wijaya Lie, Handra; Chiang, Tung-Chien; Chang, Cheng-Yuan
2015-01-01
Encoders are generally used to track the motion of industrial mechanisms. However, the information obtained by encoders may have errors due to encoder aging or mechanism-design problem. Therefore, information by visual feedback is a better way to track the movement of industrial mechanisms. However, image information costs lots of computing effort so it is not easy to be used in real-time control applications. This manuscript derives a simple but effective visual feedback method to follow the target and the image information is obtained only by a general handy camcorder. Besides, the proposed method can track multi-locations in a meantime. Fast image pattern recognition and localisation of the colour histogram by using a moving tracking block is applied to increase the calculation speed. Finally, the obtained locations information by the proposed visual feedback method is applied in an industrial crane control system to verify the effectiveness.
Structural learning in feedforward and feedback control
Diedrichsen, Jörn
2012-01-01
For smooth and efficient motor control, the brain needs to make fast corrections during the movement to resist possible perturbations. It also needs to adapt subsequent movements to improve future performance. It is important that both feedback corrections and feedforward adaptation need to be made based on noisy and often ambiguous sensory data. Therefore, the initial response of the motor system, both for online corrections and adaptive responses, is guided by prior assumptions about the likely structure of perturbations. In the context of correcting and adapting movements perturbed by a force field, we asked whether these priors are hard wired or whether they can be modified through repeated exposure to differently shaped force fields. We found that both feedback corrections to unexpected perturbations and feedforward adaptation to a new force field changed, such that they were appropriate to counteract the type of force field that participants had experienced previously. We then investigated whether these changes were driven by a common mechanism or by two separate mechanisms. Participants experienced force fields that were either temporally consistent, causing sustained adaptation, or temporally inconsistent, causing little overall adaptation. We found that the consistent force fields modified both feedback and feedforward responses. In contrast, the inconsistent force field modified the temporal shape of feedback corrections but not of the feedforward adaptive response. These results indicate that responses to force perturbations can be modified in a structural manner and that these modifications are at least partly dissociable for feedback and feedforward control. PMID:22896725
Sensory Feedback Control of Mammalian Vocalizations
Smotherman, Michael S.
2007-01-01
Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in particular are unique in their absolute dependence on voice control for survival: these animals must constantly adjust the acoustic and temporal patterns of their orientation sounds to efficiently navigate and forage for insects at high speeds under the cover of darkness. Many species of bats also utter a broad repertoire of communication sounds. The functional neuroanatomy of the bat vocal motor pathway is basically identical to other mammals, but the acute significance of sensory feedback in echolocation has made this a profitable model system for studying general principles of sensorimotor integration with regard to vocalizing. Bats and humans are similar in that they both maintain precise control of many different voice parameters, both exhibit a similar suite of responses to altered auditory feedback, and for both the efficacy of sensory feedback depends upon behavioral context. By comparing similarities and differences in the ways sensory feedback influences voice in humans and bats, we may shed light on the basic architecture of the mammalian vocal motor system and perhaps be able to better distinguish those features of human vocal control that evolved uniquely in support of speech and language. PMID:17449116
Sensory feedback control of mammalian vocalizations.
Smotherman, Michael S
2007-09-01
Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in particular are unique in their absolute dependence on voice control for survival: these animals must constantly adjust the acoustic and temporal patterns of their orientation sounds to efficiently navigate and forage for insects at high speeds under the cover of darkness. Many species of bats also utter a broad repertoire of communication sounds. The functional neuroanatomy of the bat vocal motor pathway is basically identical to other mammals, but the acute significance of sensory feedback in echolocation has made this a profitable model system for studying general principles of sensorimotor integration with regard to vocalizing. Bats and humans are similar in that they both maintain precise control of many different voice parameters, both exhibit a similar suite of responses to altered auditory feedback, and for both the efficacy of sensory feedback depends upon behavioral context. By comparing similarities and differences in the ways sensory feedback influences voice in humans and bats, we may shed light on the basic architecture of the mammalian vocal motor system and perhaps be able to better distinguish those features of human vocal control that evolved uniquely in support of speech and language. PMID:17449116
Bihemispheric network dynamics coordinating vocal feedback control.
Kort, Naomi S; Cuesta, Pablo; Houde, John F; Nagarajan, Srikantan S
2016-04-01
Modulation of vocal pitch is a key speech feature that conveys important linguistic and affective information. Auditory feedback is used to monitor and maintain pitch. We examined induced neural high gamma power (HGP) (65-150 Hz) using magnetoencephalography during pitch feedback control. Participants phonated into a microphone while hearing their auditory feedback through headphones. During each phonation, a single real-time 400 ms pitch shift was applied to the auditory feedback. Participants compensated by rapidly changing their pitch to oppose the pitch shifts. This behavioral change required coordination of the neural speech motor control network, including integration of auditory and somatosensory feedback to initiate change in motor plans. We found increases in HGP across both hemispheres within 200 ms of pitch shifts, covering left sensory and right premotor, parietal, temporal, and frontal regions, involved in sensory detection and processing of the pitch shift. Later responses to pitch shifts (200-300 ms) were right dominant, in parietal, frontal, and temporal regions. Timing of activity in these regions indicates their role in coordinating motor change and detecting and processing of the sensory consequences of this change. Subtracting out cortical responses during passive listening to recordings of the phonations isolated HGP increases specific to speech production, highlighting right parietal and premotor cortex, and left posterior temporal cortex involvement in the motor response. Correlation of HGP with behavioral compensation demonstrated right frontal region involvement in modulating participant's compensatory response. This study highlights the bihemispheric sensorimotor cortical network involvement in auditory feedback-based control of vocal pitch. PMID:26917046
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Yanbing; Zhang, Hongbin
2014-05-01
This paper deals with stability and robust H∞ control of discrete-time switched non-linear systems with time-varying delays. The T-S fuzzy models are utilised to represent each sub-non-linear system. Thus, with two level functions, namely, crisp switching functions and local fuzzy weighting functions, we introduce a discrete-time switched fuzzy systems, which inherently contain the features of the switched hybrid systems and T-S fuzzy systems. Piecewise fuzzy weighting-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (PFLKFs) and average dwell-time approach are utilised in this paper for the exponentially stability analysis and controller design, and with free fuzzy weighting matrix scheme, switching control laws are obtained such that H∞ performance is satisfied. The conditions of stability and the control laws are given in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that are numerically feasible. The state decay estimate is explicitly given. A numerical example and the control of delayed single link robot arm with uncertain part are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Time-Delayed Quantum Feedback Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimsmo, Arne L.
2015-08-01
A theory of time-delayed coherent quantum feedback is developed. More specifically, we consider a quantum system coupled to a bosonic reservoir creating a unidirectional feedback loop. It is shown that the dynamics can be mapped onto a fictitious series of cascaded quantum systems, where the system is driven by past versions of itself. The derivation of this model relies on a tensor network representation of the system-reservoir time propagator. For concreteness, this general theory is applied to a driven two-level atom scattering into a coherent feedback loop. We demonstrate how delay effects can qualitatively change the dynamics of the atom and how quantum control can be implemented in the presence of time delays.
Time-Delayed Quantum Feedback Control.
Grimsmo, Arne L
2015-08-01
A theory of time-delayed coherent quantum feedback is developed. More specifically, we consider a quantum system coupled to a bosonic reservoir creating a unidirectional feedback loop. It is shown that the dynamics can be mapped onto a fictitious series of cascaded quantum systems, where the system is driven by past versions of itself. The derivation of this model relies on a tensor network representation of the system-reservoir time propagator. For concreteness, this general theory is applied to a driven two-level atom scattering into a coherent feedback loop. We demonstrate how delay effects can qualitatively change the dynamics of the atom and how quantum control can be implemented in the presence of time delays. PMID:26296104
Impedance feedback control for scanning electrochemical microscopy.
Alpuche-Aviles, M A; Wipf, D O
2001-10-15
A new constant-distance imaging method based on the relationship between tip impedance and tip-substrate separation has been developed for the scanning electrochemical microscope. The tip impedance is monitored by application of a high-frequency ac voltage bias between the tip and auxiliary electrode. The high-frequency ac current is easily separated from the dc-level faradaic electrochemistry with a simple RC filter, which allows impedance measurements during feedback or generation/collection experiments. By employing a piezo-based feedback controller, we are able to maintain the impedance at a constant value and, thus, maintain a constant tip-substrate separation. Application of the method to feedback and generation/collection experiments with tip electrodes as small as 2 microm is presented. PMID:11681463
Nonholonomic feedback control among moving obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, Stephen Gregory
A feedback controller is developed for navigating a nonholonomic vehicle in an area with multiple stationary and possibly moving obstacles. Among other applications the developed algorithms can be used for automatic parking of a passenger car in a parking lot with complex configuration or a ground robot in cluttered environment. Several approaches are explored which combine nonholonomic systems control based on sliding modes and potential field methods.
Optimal Feedback Control of Thermal Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papalexandris, Miltiadis
2003-01-01
An improved approach to the mathematical modeling of feedback control of thermal networks has been devised. Heretofore software for feedback control of thermal networks has been developed by time-consuming trial-and-error methods that depend on engineers expertise. In contrast, the present approach is a systematic means of developing algorithms for feedback control that is optimal in the sense that it combines performance with low cost of implementation. An additional advantage of the present approach is that a thermal engineer need not be expert in control theory. Thermal networks are lumped-parameter approximations used to represent complex thermal systems. Thermal networks are closely related to electrical networks commonly represented by lumped-parameter circuit diagrams. Like such electrical circuits, thermal networks are mathematically modeled by systems of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) that is, ordinary differential equations subject to a set of algebraic constraints. In the present approach, emphasis is placed on applications in which thermal networks are subject to constant disturbances and, therefore, integral control action is necessary to obtain steady-state responses. The mathematical development of the present approach begins with the derivation of optimal integral-control laws via minimization of an appropriate cost functional that involves augmented state vectors. Subsequently, classical variational arguments provide optimality conditions in the form of the Hamiltonian equations for the standard linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR) problem. These equations are reduced to an algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) with respect to the augmented state vector. The solution of the ARE leads to the direct computation of the optimal proportional- and integral-feedback control gains. In cases of very complex networks, large numbers of state variables make it difficult to implement optimal controllers in the manner described in the preceding paragraph.
Cell shape regulation through mechanosensory feedback control
Mohan, Krithika; Luo, Tianzhi; Robinson, Douglas N.; Iglesias, Pablo A.
2015-01-01
Cells undergo controlled changes in morphology in response to intracellular and extracellular signals. These changes require a means for sensing and interpreting the signalling cues, for generating the forces that act on the cell's physical material, and a control system to regulate this process. Experiments on Dictyostelium amoebae have shown that force-generating proteins can localize in response to external mechanical perturbations. This mechanosensing, and the ensuing mechanical feedback, plays an important role in minimizing the effect of mechanical disturbances in the course of changes in cell shape, especially during cell division, and likely in other contexts, such as during three-dimensional migration. Owing to the complexity of the feedback system, which couples mechanical and biochemical signals involved in shape regulation, theoretical approaches can guide further investigation by providing insights that are difficult to decipher experimentally. Here, we present a computational model that explains the different mechanosensory and mechanoresponsive behaviours observed in Dictyostelium cells. The model features a multiscale description of myosin II bipolar thick filament assembly that includes cooperative and force-dependent myosin–actin binding, and identifies the feedback mechanisms hidden in the observed mechanoresponsive behaviours of Dictyostelium cells during micropipette aspiration experiments. These feedbacks provide a mechanistic explanation of cellular retraction and hence cell shape regulation. PMID:26224568
Cell shape regulation through mechanosensory feedback control.
Mohan, Krithika; Luo, Tianzhi; Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A
2015-08-01
Cells undergo controlled changes in morphology in response to intracellular and extracellular signals. These changes require a means for sensing and interpreting the signalling cues, for generating the forces that act on the cell's physical material, and a control system to regulate this process. Experiments on Dictyostelium amoebae have shown that force-generating proteins can localize in response to external mechanical perturbations. This mechanosensing, and the ensuing mechanical feedback, plays an important role in minimizing the effect of mechanical disturbances in the course of changes in cell shape, especially during cell division, and likely in other contexts, such as during three-dimensional migration. Owing to the complexity of the feedback system, which couples mechanical and biochemical signals involved in shape regulation, theoretical approaches can guide further investigation by providing insights that are difficult to decipher experimentally. Here, we present a computational model that explains the different mechanosensory and mechanoresponsive behaviours observed in Dictyostelium cells. The model features a multiscale description of myosin II bipolar thick filament assembly that includes cooperative and force-dependent myosin-actin binding, and identifies the feedback mechanisms hidden in the observed mechanoresponsive behaviours of Dictyostelium cells during micropipette aspiration experiments. These feedbacks provide a mechanistic explanation of cellular retraction and hence cell shape regulation. PMID:26224568
Local feedback control of light honeycomb panels.
Hong, Chinsuk; Elliott, Stephen J
2007-01-01
This paper summarizes theoretical and experimental work on the feedback control of sound radiation from honeycomb panels using piezoceramic actuators. It is motivated by the problem of sound transmission in aircraft, specifically the active control of trim panels. Trim panels are generally honeycomb structures designed to meet the design requirement of low weight and high stiffness. They are resiliently mounted to the fuselage for the passive reduction of noise transmission. Local coupling of the closely spaced sensor and actuator was observed experimentally and modeled using a single degree of freedom system. The effect of the local coupling was to roll off the response between the actuator and sensor at high frequencies, so that a feedback control system can have high gain margins. Unfortunately, only relatively poor global performance is then achieved because of localization of reduction around the actuator. This localization prompts the investigation of a multichannel active control system. Globalized reduction was predicted using a model of 12-channel direct velocity feedback control. The multichannel system, however, does not appear to yield a significant improvement in the performance because of decreased gain margin. PMID:17297778
Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium Systems with Feedback Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagawa, Takahiro
2015-03-01
In modern nonequilibrium physics, ``Maxwell's demon'' has attracted renewed attentions in both terms of theory and experiment. The demon plays a key role to unify thermodynamics and information theory, which can extract the useful work from a heat bath by using the obtained information via feedback control. In this talk, I will talk about the recent development of thermodynamics of information. In particular, I will focus on the generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics and the Jarzynski equality in the presence of feedback control, where information contents and thermodynamic quantities are treated on an equal footing. I will also discuss recent experimental results that realized Maxwell's demon by colloidal particles and single electrons.
Feedback control during voluntary motor actions.
Scott, Stephen H; Cluff, Tyler; Lowrey, Catherine R; Takei, Tomohiko
2015-08-01
Humans possess an impressive ability to generate goal-oriented motor actions to move and interact with the environment. The planning and initiation of these body movements is supported by highly distributed cortical and subcortical circuits. Recent studies, inspired by advanced control theory, highlight similar sophistication when we make online corrections to counter small disturbances of the limb or altered visual feedback. Such goal-directed feedback is likely generated by the same neural circuits associated with motor planning and initiation. These common neural substrates afford a highly responsive system to maintain goal-directed control and rapidly select new motor actions as required to deftly move and interact in a complex world. PMID:25827274
Non-linearity in clinical practice.
Petros, Peter
2003-05-01
The whole spectrum of medicine consists of complex non-linear systems that are balanced and interact with each other. How non-linearity confers stability on a system and explains variation and uncertainty in clinical medicine is discussed. A major theme is that a small alteration in initial conditions may have a major effect on the end result. In the context of non-linearity, it is argued that 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) as it exists today can only ever be relevant to a small fraction of the domain of medicine, that the 'art of medicine' consists of an intuitive 'tuning in' to these complex systems and as such is not so much an art as an expression of non-linear science. The main cause of iatrogenic disease is interpreted as a failure to understand the complexity of the systems being treated. Case study examples are given and analysed in non-linear terms. It is concluded that good medicine concerns individualized treatment of an individual patient whose body functions are governed by non-linear processes. EBM as it exists today paints with a broad and limited brush, but it does promise a fresh new direction. In this context, we need to expand the spectrum of scientific medicine to include non-linearity, and to look upon the 'art of medicine' as a historical (but unstated) legacy in this domain. PMID:12787180
Channel Capacity of Non-Linear Transmission Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Andrew D.; Zhao, Jian
Since their introduction in the late 1970s, the capacity of optical communication links has grown exponentially, fuelled by a series of key innovations including movement between the three telecommunication windows of 850 nm, 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm, distributed feedback laser, erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs), dispersion-shifted and dispersion-managed fibre links, external modulation, wavelength division multiplexing, optical switching, forward error correction (FEC), Raman amplification, and most recently, coherent detection, electronic signal processing and optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Throughout this evolution, one constant factor has been the use of single-mode optical fibre, whose fundamental principles dated back to the 1800s, when Irish scientist, John Tyndall demonstrated in a lecture to the Royal Society in London that light could be guided through a curved stream of water [1]. Following many developments, including the proposal for waveguides by J.J. Thompson [2], the presentation of detailed calculations for dielectric waveguides by Snitzer [3], the proposal [4] and fabrication [5] of ultra low loss fibres, single-mode fibres were first adopted for non-experimental use in Dorset, UK in 1975, and are still in use today, despite the evolving designs to control chromatic dispersion and non-linearity.
Adaptive output feedback control of flexible systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Bong-Jun
Neural network-based adaptive output feedback approaches that augment a linear control design are described in this thesis, and emphasis is placed on their real-time implementation with flexible systems. Two different control architectures that are robust to parametric uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics are presented. The unmodelled effects can consist of minimum phase internal dynamics of the system together with external disturbance process. Within this context, adaptive compensation for external disturbances is addressed. In the first approach, internal model-following control, adaptive elements are designed using feedback inversion. The effect of an actuator limit is treated using control hedging, and the effect of other actuation nonlinearities, such as dead zone and backlash, is mitigated by a disturbance observer-based control design. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated through simulation and experimental testing with a three-disk torsional system, which is subjected to control voltage limit and stiction. While the internal model-following control is limited to minimum phase systems, the second approach, external model-following control, does not involve feedback linearization and can be applied to non-minimum phase systems. The unstable zero dynamics are assumed to have been modelled in the design of the existing linear controller. The laboratory tests for this method include a three-disk torsional pendulum, an inverted pendulum, and a flexible-base robot manipulator. The external model-following control architecture is further extended in three ways. The first extension is an approach for control of multivariable nonlinear systems. The second extension is a decentralized adaptive control approach for large-scale interconnected systems. The third extension is to make use of an adaptive observer to augment a linear observer-based controller. In this extension, augmenting terms for the adaptive observer can be used to achieve adaptation in
Control of parallel manipulators using force feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nanua, Prabjot
1994-01-01
Two control schemes are compared for parallel robotic mechanisms actuated by hydraulic cylinders. One scheme, the 'rate based scheme', uses the position and rate information only for feedback. The second scheme, the 'force based scheme' feeds back the force information also. The force control scheme is shown to improve the response over the rate control one. It is a simple constant gain control scheme better suited to parallel mechanisms. The force control scheme can be easily modified for the dynamic forces on the end effector. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of both the rate and force control schemes. The gains in the force based scheme can be individually adjusted in all three directions, whereas the adjustment in just one direction of the rate based scheme directly affects the other two directions.
Implicit Flux Feedback Control for Magnetic Bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keith, Frederick Joseph
Design and implementation of a dynamic system that includes magnetic bearings is dependent on knowledge of the relationship between the command input to the magnetic actuator and the force that the bearing actually applies to the rotor (or other structure) being controlled. Traditional designs relate the bearing coil current to the developed bearing force; unfortunately, the current-to-force relationship is not invariant to magnetic hysteresis, magnetic saturation, eddy current effects, or changes in the bearing air gap length. To overcome these limitations, an approach known as implicit flux feedback is explored. Since the gap force in a magnetic circuit is directly related to the flux in that gap, measuring the gap flux and employing it as a feedback state results in a bearing with an improved command -to-force relation which is less subject to the error sources mentioned above. Confirmation of the flux-to-force relationship is accomplished via experiments on a test apparatus specifically designed to allow simultaneous force and flux measurements on a single-axis magnetic bearing (using both laminated and solid magnetic components). Successful implementation of the flux feedback algorithm simplifies the control system design of magnetic bearing systems by providing a more accurate, well characterized actuator model, and, by overcoming such effects as hysteresis, saturation, eddy currents and gap dependence, this approach provides magnetic bearings which exhibit significantly improved dynamic performance.
Wide power range microwave feedback controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Titus, L. E. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
A substantially constant power level is derived over a predetermined frequency band, in each of a plurality of relatively widely spaced power ranges, from a microwave load having a predetermined amplitude versus frequency response, such as an antenna. A microwave source of substantially constant amplitude drives a forward path connected between the source and the load. A feedback path responsive to the microwave power level in the forward path derives a control voltage for the PIN attenuator. The equalizer attenuator drives a linear, crystal amplitude detector. Attenuating means included in the forward and feedback paths are selectively connected in circuit to maintain the power level of the microwave input to the amplitude detector substantially constant, even though different power ranges are supplied to the load by the forward path.
Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Santosh K.
This work was motivated by the problem of computing optimal commonly-agreeable thermal settings in spaces with multiple occupants. In this work we propose algorithms that take into account each occupant's preferences along with the thermal correlations between different zones in a building, to arrive at optimal thermal settings for all zones of the building in a coordinated manner. In the first part of this work we incorporate active occupant feedback to minimize aggregate user discomfort and total energy cost. User feedback is used to estimate the users comfort range, taking into account possible inaccuracies in the feedback. The control algorithm takes the energy cost into account, trading it off optimally with the aggregate user discomfort. A lumped heat transfer model based on thermal resistance and capacitance is used to model a multi-zone building. We provide a stability analysis and establish convergence of the proposed solution to a desired temperature that minimizes the sum of energy cost and aggregate user discomfort. However, for convergence to the optimal, sufficient separation between the user feedback frequency and the dynamics of the system is necessary; otherwise, the user feedback provided do not correctly reflect the effect of current control input value on user discomfort. The algorithm is further extended using singular perturbation theory to determine the minimum time between successive user feedback solicitations. Under sufficient time scale separation, we establish convergence of the proposed solution. Simulation study and experimental runs on the Watervliet based test facility demonstrates performance of the algorithm. In the second part we develop a consensus algorithm for attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all occupants of a zone in a typical multi-occupant space. The information on the comfort range functions is indeed held privately by each occupant. Using occupant differentiated dynamically adjusted prices as
Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Santosh K.
This work was motivated by the problem of computing optimal commonly-agreeable thermal settings in spaces with multiple occupants. In this work we propose algorithms that take into account each occupant's preferences along with the thermal correlations between different zones in a building, to arrive at optimal thermal settings for all zones of the building in a coordinated manner. In the first part of this work we incorporate active occupant feedback to minimize aggregate user discomfort and total energy cost. User feedback is used to estimate the users comfort range, taking into account possible inaccuracies in the feedback. The control algorithm takes the energy cost into account, trading it off optimally with the aggregate user discomfort. A lumped heat transfer model based on thermal resistance and capacitance is used to model a multi-zone building. We provide a stability analysis and establish convergence of the proposed solution to a desired temperature that minimizes the sum of energy cost and aggregate user discomfort. However, for convergence to the optimal, sufficient separation between the user feedback frequency and the dynamics of the system is necessary; otherwise, the user feedback provided do not correctly reflect the effect of current control input value on user discomfort. The algorithm is further extended using singular perturbation theory to determine the minimum time between successive user feedback solicitations. Under sufficient time scale separation, we establish convergence of the proposed solution. Simulation study and experimental runs on the Watervliet based test facility demonstrates performance of the algorithm. In the second part we develop a consensus algorithm for attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all occupants of a zone in a typical multi-occupant space. The information on the comfort range functions is indeed held privately by each occupant. Using occupant differentiated dynamically adjusted prices as
Non-linear electrohydrodynamics in microfluidic devices.
Zeng, Jun
2011-01-01
Since the inception of microfluidics, the electric force has been exploited as one of the leading mechanisms for driving and controlling the movement of the operating fluid and the charged suspensions. Electric force has an intrinsic advantage in miniaturized devices. Because the electrodes are placed over a small distance, from sub-millimeter to a few microns, a very high electric field is easy to obtain. The electric force can be highly localized as its strength rapidly decays away from the peak. This makes the electric force an ideal candidate for precise spatial control. The geometry and placement of the electrodes can be used to design electric fields of varying distributions, which can be readily realized by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication methods. In this paper, we examine several electrically driven liquid handling operations. The emphasis is given to non-linear electrohydrodynamic effects. We discuss the theoretical treatment and related numerical methods. Modeling and simulations are used to unveil the associated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. The modeling based investigation is interwoven with examples of microfluidic devices to illustrate the applications. PMID:21673912
Non-Linear Electrohydrodynamics in Microfluidic Devices
Zeng, Jun
2011-01-01
Since the inception of microfluidics, the electric force has been exploited as one of the leading mechanisms for driving and controlling the movement of the operating fluid and the charged suspensions. Electric force has an intrinsic advantage in miniaturized devices. Because the electrodes are placed over a small distance, from sub-millimeter to a few microns, a very high electric field is easy to obtain. The electric force can be highly localized as its strength rapidly decays away from the peak. This makes the electric force an ideal candidate for precise spatial control. The geometry and placement of the electrodes can be used to design electric fields of varying distributions, which can be readily realized by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication methods. In this paper, we examine several electrically driven liquid handling operations. The emphasis is given to non-linear electrohydrodynamic effects. We discuss the theoretical treatment and related numerical methods. Modeling and simulations are used to unveil the associated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. The modeling based investigation is interwoven with examples of microfluidic devices to illustrate the applications. PMID:21673912
Optogenetic feedback control of neural activity
Newman, Jonathan P; Fong, Ming-fai; Millard, Daniel C; Whitmire, Clarissa J; Stanley, Garrett B; Potter, Steve M
2015-01-01
Optogenetic techniques enable precise excitation and inhibition of firing in specified neuronal populations and artifact-free recording of firing activity. Several studies have suggested that optical stimulation provides the precision and dynamic range requisite for closed-loop neuronal control, but no approach yet permits feedback control of neuronal firing. Here we present the ‘optoclamp’, a feedback control technology that provides continuous, real-time adjustments of bidirectional optical stimulation in order to lock spiking activity at specified targets over timescales ranging from seconds to days. We demonstrate how this system can be used to decouple neuronal firing levels from ongoing changes in network excitability due to multi-hour periods of glutamatergic or GABAergic neurotransmission blockade in vitro as well as impinging vibrissal sensory drive in vivo. This technology enables continuous, precise optical control of firing in neuronal populations in order to disentangle causally related variables of circuit activation in a physiologically and ethologically relevant manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07192.001 PMID:26140329
Proceedings of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Logan, Michael J. (Editor)
1994-01-01
The purpose of the Non-Linear Aero Prediction Requirements Workshop, held at NASA Langley Research Center on 8-9 Dec. 1993, was to identify and articulate requirements for non-linear aero prediction capabilities during conceptual/preliminary design. The attendees included engineers from industry, government, and academia in a variety of aerospace disciplines, such as advanced design, aerodynamic performance analysis, aero methods development, flight controls, and experimental and theoretical aerodynamics. Presentations by industry and government organizations were followed by panel discussions. This report contains copies of the presentations and the results of the panel discussions.
Optimal feedback control of turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bewley, Thomas; Choi, Haecheon; Temam, Roger; Moin, Parviz
1993-01-01
Feedback control equations were developed and tested for computing wall normal control velocities to control turbulent flow in a channel with the objective of reducing drag. The technique used is the minimization of a 'cost functional' which is constructed to represent some balance of the drag integrated over the wall and the net control effort. A distribution of wall velocities is found which minimizes this cost functional some time shortly in the future based on current observations of the flow near the wall. Preliminary direct numerical simulations of the scheme applied to turbulent channel flow indicates it provides approximately 17 percent drag reduction. The mechanism apparent when the scheme is applied to a simplified flow situation is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young Woo; Matsuzaki, Sinya; Narikiyo, Tatsuo
In this paper, we propose a non-analytical but effective self-organizing modeling method, where system dynamics of interest are constructed in a polynomial affine formation with high granularity. The conventional data mining technique has the assessment scheme for representativeness of the developed model. However, if the model is applied to extract the desired values without considering the structural peculiarities such as input pattern used for constructing the dynamics, hardware specification used for data acquisition, and so on, it possibly shows substantial margin of modeling error. In order to correspond this type of control paradigm, we define the permissible set of state and input variables in order to characterize the data used for developing the model. The developed model is then applied to the programming based optimal control scheme where the optimal inputs are selected among the permissible set of the input variable, considering all the limitations specified by linear inequalities.
Speech Production as State Feedback Control
Houde, John F.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.
2011-01-01
Spoken language exists because of a remarkable neural process. Inside a speaker's brain, an intended message gives rise to neural signals activating the muscles of the vocal tract. The process is remarkable because these muscles are activated in just the right way that the vocal tract produces sounds a listener understands as the intended message. What is the best approach to understanding the neural substrate of this crucial motor control process? One of the key recent modeling developments in neuroscience has been the use of state feedback control (SFC) theory to explain the role of the CNS in motor control. SFC postulates that the CNS controls motor output by (1) estimating the current dynamic state of the thing (e.g., arm) being controlled, and (2) generating controls based on this estimated state. SFC has successfully predicted a great range of non-speech motor phenomena, but as yet has not received attention in the speech motor control community. Here, we review some of the key characteristics of speech motor control and what they say about the role of the CNS in the process. We then discuss prior efforts to model the role of CNS in speech motor control, and argue that these models have inherent limitations – limitations that are overcome by an SFC model of speech motor control which we describe. We conclude by discussing a plausible neural substrate of our model. PMID:22046152
Feedback Error Learning in neuromotor control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishihara, Abraham K.
This thesis is concerned with adaptive human motor control. Adaptation is a highly desirable characteristic of any biological system. Failure is an undesirable, yet very real, characteristic of the human motor control systems. Variability is a ubiquitous observation in human movements that has no direct analogue in the design and analysis of robotic control algorithms. This thesis attempts to link these three aspects of motor control under the constraints of a biologically inspired control framework termed Feedback Error Learning (FEL). Utilizing nonlinear and adaptive control methods we prove conditions for which the FEL framework is stable and successful learning can occur. Utilizing singular perturbation methods, we derive conditions for which the system is guaranteed to fail. Variability is analyzed using Ito Calculus and stochastic Lyapunov functionals where signal dependent noise, a commonly observed phenomenon, enters in the learning algorithm. We also show how signal dependent noise might benefit biological control systems despite the inherent variability introduced into the motor control loops. Lastly, we investigate a force tracking control task, where subjects are asked to track a time-varying plant. Using basic control and system identification techniques, we probe the human motor learning system and extract learning rates with respect to the FEL model.
Learner Control of Feedback in a Computer Lesson.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pridemore, Doris R.; Klein, James D.
This study assessed whether learner control of feedback has a beneficial effect in student performance and attitude, focusing on whether the degree of elaboration feedback needed for high performance could be determined. Program and learner control were used at three levels of feedback, verification, correct answer, and elaboration. Subjects were…
Feedback controlled hybrid fast ferrite tuners
Remsen, D.B.; Phelps, D.A.; deGrassie, J.S.; Cary, W.P.; Pinsker, R.I.; Moeller, C.P.; Arnold, W.; Martin, S.; Pivit, E.
1993-09-01
A low power ANT-Bosch fast ferrite tuner (FFT) was successfully tested into (1) the lumped circuit equivalent of an antenna strap with dynamic plasma loading, and (2) a plasma loaded antenna strap in DIII-D. When the FFT accessible mismatch range was phase-shifted to encompass the plasma-induced variation in reflection coefficient, the 50 {Omega} source was matched (to within the desired 1.4 : 1 voltage standing wave ratio). The time required to achieve this match (i.e., the response time) was typically a few hundred milliseconds, mostly due to a relatively slow network analyzer-computer system. The response time for the active components of the FFT was 10 to 20 msec, or much faster than the present state-of-the-art for dynamic stub tuners. Future FFT tests are planned, that will utilize the DIII-D computer (capable of submillisecond feedback control), as well as several upgrades to the active control circuit, to produce a FFT feedback control system with a response time approaching 1 msec.
Neural network modelling of non-linear hydrological relationships
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrahart, R. J.; See, L. M.
2007-09-01
Two recent studies have suggested that neural network modelling offers no worthwhile improvements in comparison to the application of weighted linear transfer functions for capturing the non-linear nature of hydrological relationships. The potential of an artificial neural network to perform simple non-linear hydrological transformations under controlled conditions is examined in this paper. Eight neural network models were developed: four full or partial emulations of a recognised non-linear hydrological rainfall-runoff model; four solutions developed on an identical set of inputs and a calculated runoff coefficient output. The use of different input combinations enabled the competencies of solutions developed on a reduced number of parameters to be assessed. The selected hydrological model had a limited number of inputs and contained no temporal component. The modelling process was based on a set of random inputs that had a uniform distribution and spanned a modest range of possibilities. The initial cloning operations permitted a direct comparison to be performed with the equation-based relationship. It also provided more general information about the power of a neural network to replicate mathematical equations and model modest non-linear relationships. The second group of experiments explored a different relationship that is of hydrological interest; the target surface contained a stronger set of non-linear properties and was more challenging. Linear modelling comparisons were performed against traditional least squares multiple linear regression solutions developed on identical datasets. The reported results demonstrate that neural networks are capable of modelling non-linear hydrological processes and are therefore appropriate tools for hydrological modelling.
Optimal haptic feedback control of artificial muscles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Daniel; Besier, Thor; Anderson, Iain; McKay, Thomas
2014-03-01
As our population ages, and trends in obesity continue to grow, joint degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) are becoming increasingly prevalent. With no cure currently in sight, the only effective treatments for OA are orthopaedic surgery and prolonged rehabilitation, neither of which is guaranteed to succeed. Gait retraining has tremendous potential to alter the contact forces in the joints due to walking, reducing the risk of one developing hip and knee OA. Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) are being explored as a potential way of applying intuitive haptic feedback to alter a patient's walking gait. The main challenge with the use of DEAs in this application is producing large enough forces and strains to induce sensation when coupled to a patient's skin. A novel controller has been proposed to solve this issue. The controller uses simultaneous capacitive self-sensing and actuation which will optimally apply a haptic sensation to the patient's skin independent of variability in DEAs and patient geometries.
Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator
Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab
2011-09-01
The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.
Non-linear Post Processing Image Enhancement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, Shawn; Lopez, Alex; Torres, Angel
1997-01-01
A non-linear filter for image post processing based on the feedforward Neural Network topology is presented. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of "smart" filters in image post processing. The filter has shown to be useful in recovering high frequencies, such as those lost during the JPEG compression-decompression process. The filtered images have a higher signal to noise ratio, and a higher perceived image quality. Simulation studies comparing the proposed filter with the optimum mean square non-linear filter, showing examples of the high frequency recovery, and the statistical properties of the filter are given,
Design of turbofan engine controls using output feedback regulator theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merrill, W. C.
1977-01-01
A multivariable control design procedure based on output feedback regulator (OFR) theory is applied to the F100 turbofan engine. Results for the OFR design are compared to a design based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. The OFR feedback control is designed in the full order state space and thus eliminates any need for model reduction techniques. Using the performance measure and control structure of the LQR design, an equivalent OFR feedback control is obtained. The flexibility of the OFR as a control design procedure is demonstrated, and differing feedback control structures are evaluated.
Sample-Clock Phase-Control Feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy
2012-01-01
To demodulate a communication signal, a receiver must recover and synchronize to the symbol timing of a received waveform. In a system that utilizes digital sampling, the fidelity of synchronization is limited by the time between the symbol boundary and closest sample time location. To reduce this error, one typically uses a sample clock in excess of the symbol rate in order to provide multiple samples per symbol, thereby lowering the error limit to a fraction of a symbol time. For systems with a large modulation bandwidth, the required sample clock rate is prohibitive due to current technological barriers and processing complexity. With precise control of the phase of the sample clock, one can sample the received signal at times arbitrarily close to the symbol boundary, thus obviating the need, from a synchronization perspective, for multiple samples per symbol. Sample-clock phase-control feedback was developed for use in the demodulation of an optical communication signal, where multi-GHz modulation bandwidths would require prohibitively large sample clock frequencies for rates in excess of the symbol rate. A custom mixedsignal (RF/digital) offset phase-locked loop circuit was developed to control the phase of the 6.4-GHz clock that samples the photon-counting detector output. The offset phase-locked loop is driven by a feedback mechanism that continuously corrects for variation in the symbol time due to motion between the transmitter and receiver as well as oscillator instability. This innovation will allow significant improvements in receiver throughput; for example, the throughput of a pulse-position modulation (PPM) with 16 slots can increase from 188 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s.
DTRC electromagnetic launcher with feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emad, F. P.; Borraccini, J. P.; Waltman, D. J.; Fikse, T. H.; Ruby, W. R.; Superczynski, M. J.; Whitestone, R. C.; Thomas, E. V.
1993-01-01
Emad et al. (1989) described the development of an analytical model used to simulate, and aid in the design and construction, of a coaxial launcher. Attention is here given to a more powerful launcher, improved design methods, and the use of feedback to control the forces as the launch is taking place. The model is based on a variable set of differential equations that represent the electromagnetics of the system coupled with the mechanical equations of motion. This approach in modeling results in excellent accuracy, numerical stability, and efficiency. The simulation can be performed on a desktop computer. The resulting design was used to build a full scale model, which was then instrumented and tested. Both simulation and actual test results of the new launcher are presented.
Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control
Green, Jr., Johney Boyd; Daw, Charles Stuart; Wagner, Robert Milton
2007-10-02
This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.
Non-linear cord-rubber composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.
1989-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the stress-strain relations in a multi-layer composite made up of materials whose individual stress-strain characteristics are non-linear and possibly different. The method is applied to the case of asymmetric tubes in tension, and comparisons with experimentally measured data are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, Mark J.; McKellar, Bruce H. J.
1991-04-01
A simple, non-linear generalization of the MSW equation is presented and its analytic solution is outlined. The orbits of the polarization vector are shown to be periodic, and to lie on a sphere. Their non-trivial flow patterns fall into two topological categories, the more complex of which can become chaotic if perturbed.
Feedback control of an ensemble of self-propelled particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jian-chun; Chen, Qun; Wang, Rang; Ai, Bao-quan
2015-06-01
Rectified transport of self-propelled particles in an asymmetric period potential is numerically investigated by employing a feedback control protocol. The feedback control is switched on and off depending on the direction of the self-propelled speed. It is found that the direction of the transport is determined by the asymmetry of the potential and the feedback control strength. In the presence of feedback control, the directed transport can be improved significantly by increasing the feedback control strength under appropriate conditions. For large ensembles of particles, however, the feedback control will not obviously affect the transport of self-propelled particles. The present studies may be relevant to some applications in biology and nanotechnology, and provide the predicting results in experiments of active particles.
Optimal Feedback Controlled Assembly of Perfect Crystals.
Tang, Xun; Rupp, Bradley; Yang, Yuguang; Edwards, Tara D; Grover, Martha A; Bevan, Michael A
2016-07-26
Perfectly ordered states are targets in diverse molecular to microscale systems involving, for example, atomic clusters, protein folding, protein crystallization, nanoparticle superlattices, and colloidal crystals. However, there is no obvious approach to control the assembly of perfectly ordered global free energy minimum structures; near-equilibrium assembly is impractically slow, and faster out-of-equilibrium processes generally terminate in defective states. Here, we demonstrate the rapid and robust assembly of perfect crystals by navigating kinetic bottlenecks using closed-loop control of electric field mediated crystallization of colloidal particles. An optimal policy is computed with dynamic programming using a reaction coordinate based dynamic model. By tracking real-time stochastic particle configurations and adjusting applied fields via feedback, the evolution of unassembled particles is guided through polycrystalline states into single domain crystals. This approach to controlling the assembly of a target structure is based on general principles that make it applicable to a broad range of processes from nano- to microscales (where tuning a global thermodynamic variable yields temporal control over thermal sampling of different states via their relative free energies). PMID:27387146
[Feedback control mechanisms of plant cell expansion
Cosgrove, D.J.
1992-01-01
We have generated considerable evidence for the significance of wall stress relaxation in the control of plant growth and found that several agents (gibberellin, light, genetic loci for dwarf stature) influence growth rate via alteration of wall relaxation. We have refined our methods for measuring wall relaxation and, moreover, have found that wall relaxation properties bear only a distance relationship to wall mechanical properties. We have garnered novel insights into the nature of cell expansion mechanisms by analyzing spontaneous fluctuations of plant growth rate in seedlings. These experiments involved the application of mathematical techniques for analyzing growth rate fluctuations and the development of new instrumentation for measuring and forcing plant growth in a controlled fashion. These studies conclude that growth rate fluctuations generated by the plant as consequence of a feedback control system. This conclusion has important implications for the nature of wall loosening processes and demands a different framework for thinking about growth control. It also implies the existence of a growth rate sensor.
BISMAC control using SMA resistance feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank
2010-04-01
Recently, bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite (BISMAC) actuators have been shown to be promising for the design of medusae rowing propulsion. BISMAC actuators were able to recreate bell deformation of Aurelia aurita by controlling shape memory alloy (SMA) deformation that allowed matching the contraction-relaxation deformation profile. In this study, we improve upon the control system and demonstrate feedback control using SMA wire resistance to decrease contraction time and power consumption. The controller requires the knowledge of threshold resistance and safe current inputs which were determined experimentally. The overheating effect of SMA wires was analyzed for BioMetal Fiber (BMF) and Flexinol 100 μm diameter wires revealing an increase in resistance as the wires overheated. The controller was first characterized on a SMA wire with bias spring system for a BMF 100 using Ihi = 0.5 A and Ilow = 0.2 A, where hi corresponds to peak current for fast actuation and low corresponds to the safe current which prevents overheating and maintains desired deformation. A contraction of 4.59% was achieved in 0.06 s using the controller and the deformation was maintained for 2 s at low current. The BISMAC actuator was operated using the controller with Ihi = 1.1 A and Ilow = 0.65 A achieving a 67% decrease in contraction time compared to using a constant driving current of Ilow = 0.2 A and a 60% decrease in energy consumption compared to using constant Ihi = 0.5 A while still exceeding the contraction requirements of the Aurelia aurita.
Autonomous benthic algal cultivator under feedback control of ecosystem metabolism
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An autonomous and internally-controlled techno-ecological hybrid was developed that controls primary production of algae in a laboratory-scale cultivator. The technoecosystem is based on an algal turf scrubber (ATS) system that combines engineered feedback control programming with internal feedback...
Design of turbofan engine controls using output feedback regulator theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merrill, W. C.
1977-01-01
A multivariable control design procedure based on output feedback regulator (OFR) theory is applied to the F100 turbofan engine. Results for the OFR design are compared to a design based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. This LQR design was obtained as part of the F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis (MVCS) program. In the MVCS program the LQR feedback control was designed in a reduced dimension state space and then applied to the original system. However, the OFR feedback control is designed in the full order state space and thus eliminates any need for model reduction techniques. Using the performance measure and control structure of the MVCS program LQR design, an equivalent OFR feedback control is obtained. The flexibility of the OFR as a control design procedure is demonstrated and differing feedback control structures are evaluated.
Disrupting vagal feedback affects birdsong motor control
Méndez, Jorge M.; Dall'Asén, Analía G.; Goller, Franz
2010-01-01
Coordination of different motor systems for sound production involves the use of feedback mechanisms. Song production in oscines is a well-established animal model for studying learned vocal behavior. Whereas the online use of auditory feedback has been studied in the songbird model, very little is known about the role of other feedback mechanisms. Auditory feedback is required for the maintenance of stereotyped adult song. In addition, the use of somatosensory feedback to maintain pressure during song has been demonstrated with experimentally induced fluctuations in air sac pressure. Feedback information mediating this response is thought to be routed to the central nervous system via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Here, we tested the effects of unilateral vagotomy on the peripheral motor patterns of song production and the acoustic features. Unilateral vagotomy caused a variety of disruptions and alterations to the respiratory pattern of song, some of which affected the acoustic structure of vocalizations. These changes were most pronounced a few days after nerve resection and varied between individuals. In the most extreme cases, the motor gestures of respiration were so severely disrupted that individual song syllables or the song motif were atypically terminated. Acoustic changes also suggest altered use of the two sound generators and upper vocal tract filtering, indicating that the disruption of vagal feedback caused changes to the motor program of all motor systems involved in song production and modification. This evidence for the use of vagal feedback by the song system with disruption of song during the first days after nerve cut provides a contrast to the longer-term effects of auditory feedback disruption. It suggests a significant role for somatosensory feedback that differs from that of auditory feedback. PMID:21113000
Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel
2008-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…
Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir
2004-01-01
An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment
Feedback linearization for control of air breathing engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Stephen; Mattern, Duane
1991-01-01
The method of feedback linearization for control of the nonlinear nozzle and compressor components of an air breathing engine is presented. This method overcomes the need for a large number of scheduling variables and operating points to accurately model highly nonlinear plants. Feedback linearization also results in linear closed loop system performance simplifying subsequent control design. Feedback linearization is used for the nonlinear partial engine model and performance is verified through simulation.
Adaptive tuning of feedback gain in time-delayed feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehnert, J.; Hövel, P.; Flunkert, V.; Guzenko, P. Yu.; Fradkov, A. L.; Schöll, E.
2011-12-01
We demonstrate that time-delayed feedback control can be improved by adaptively tuning the feedback gain. This adaptive controller is applied to the stabilization of an unstable fixed point and an unstable periodic orbit embedded in a chaotic attractor. The adaptation algorithm is constructed using the speed-gradient method of control theory. Our computer simulations show that the adaptation algorithm can find an appropriate value of the feedback gain for single and multiple delays. Furthermore, we show that our method is robust to noise and different initial conditions.
Adaptive tuning of feedback gain in time-delayed feedback control.
Lehnert, J; Hövel, P; Flunkert, V; Guzenko, P Yu; Fradkov, A L; Schöll, E
2011-12-01
We demonstrate that time-delayed feedback control can be improved by adaptively tuning the feedback gain. This adaptive controller is applied to the stabilization of an unstable fixed point and an unstable periodic orbit embedded in a chaotic attractor. The adaptation algorithm is constructed using the speed-gradient method of control theory. Our computer simulations show that the adaptation algorithm can find an appropriate value of the feedback gain for single and multiple delays. Furthermore, we show that our method is robust to noise and different initial conditions. PMID:22225348
Sparse feedback structures for wireless control of civil systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verdoljak, Reuben D.; Linderman, Lauren E.
2015-03-01
Although originally popularized for structural health monitoring, wireless smart sensors are an attractive alternative to traditional tethered systems for structural control. Their onboard sensing, processing, and wireless communication offer all the components of a feedback control system. However, wireless smart sensors pose unique challenges for the application of centralized control, which is common in most modern control systems. Decentralized control offers several advantages to wireless structural control, including limiting the wireless communication required and the associated slow sampling rate and time delays in the control system. Previous decentralized structural control algorithms, both Ad-Hoc and Heuristic, enforce a spatial sparsity pattern during the design, which is assumed a priori. Therefore, the optimal feedback structure is not considered in the design. This work explores a decentralized optimal LQR design algorithm where the sparsity of the feedback gain is incorporated into the objective function. The control approach is compared to previous decentralized control techniques on the 20-Story control benchmark structure. Sparsity and control requirements are compared to centralized designs. The optimal sparse feedback design offers the best balance of performance, measurement feedback, and control effort. Additionally, the feedback structure identified is not easily identifiable a priori; thus, highlighting the significance of particular measurements in this feedback framework.
Non-linear dark energy clustering
Anselmi, Stefano; Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pietroni, Massimo E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it
2011-11-01
We consider a dark energy fluid with arbitrary sound speed and equation of state and discuss the effect of its clustering on the cold dark matter distribution at the non-linear level. We write the continuity, Euler and Poisson equations for the system in the Newtonian approximation. Then, using the time renormalization group method to resum perturbative corrections at all orders, we compute the total clustering power spectrum and matter power spectrum. At the linear level, a sound speed of dark energy different from that of light modifies the power spectrum on observationally interesting scales, such as those relevant for baryonic acoustic oscillations. We show that the effect of varying the sound speed of dark energy on the non-linear corrections to the matter power spectrum is below the per cent level, and therefore these corrections can be well modelled by their counterpart in cosmological scenarios with smooth dark energy. We also show that the non-linear effects on the matter growth index can be as large as 10–15 per cent for small scales.
Phototube non-linearity correction technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riboldi, S.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.
2015-06-01
Scintillation light is often detected by photo-multiplier tube (PMT) technology. PMTs are however intrinsically non linear devices, especially when operated with high light yield scintillators and high input photon flux. Many physical effects (e.g. inter-dynode field variation, photocathode resistivity, etc.) can spoil the ideal PMT behavior in terms of gain, ending up in what are addressed as the under-linearity and over-linearity effects. Established techniques implemented in the PMT base (e.g. increasing bleeding current, active voltage divider, etc.) can mitigate these effects, but given the unavoidable spread in manufacturing and materials, it turns out that, with respect to linearity at the percent level, every PMT sample is a story of its own. The residual non linearity is usually accounted for with polynomial correction of the spectrum energy scale, starting from the position of a few known energy peaks of calibration sources, but uncertainly remains in between of calibration peaks. We propose to retrieve the calibration information from the entire energy spectrum and not only the position of full energy peaks (FEP), by means of an automatic procedure that also takes into account the quality (signal/noise ratio) of the information about the non-linearity extracted from the various regions of the spectrum.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, P.
1985-01-01
A design technique is proposed for linear regulators in which a feedback controller of fixed structure is chosen to minimize an integral quadratic objective function subject to the satisfaction of integral quadratic constraint functions. Application of a non-linear programming algorithm to this mathematically tractable formulation results in an efficient and useful computer-aided design tool. Particular attention is paid to computational efficiency and various recommendations are made. Two design examples illustrate the flexibility of the approach and highlight the special insight afforded to the designer.
Control of force through feedback in small driven systems.
Dieterich, E; Camunas-Soler, J; Ribezzi-Crivellari, M; Seifert, U; Ritort, F
2016-07-01
Controlling a time-dependent force applied to single molecules or colloidal particles is crucial for many types of experiments. Since in optical tweezers the primary controlled variable is the position of the trap, imposing a target force requires an active feedback process. We analyze this feedback process for the paradigmatic case of a nonequilibrium steady state generated by a dichotomous force protocol, first theoretically for a colloidal particle in a harmonic trap and then with both simulations and experiments for a long DNA hairpin. For the first setup, we find there is an optimal feedback gain separating monotonic from oscillatory response, whereas a too strong feedback leads to an instability. For the DNA molecule, reaching the target force requires substantial feedback gain since weak feedback cannot overcome the tendency to relax towards the equilibrium force. PMID:27575077
Control of force through feedback in small driven systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieterich, E.; Camunas-Soler, J.; Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Seifert, U.; Ritort, F.
2016-07-01
Controlling a time-dependent force applied to single molecules or colloidal particles is crucial for many types of experiments. Since in optical tweezers the primary controlled variable is the position of the trap, imposing a target force requires an active feedback process. We analyze this feedback process for the paradigmatic case of a nonequilibrium steady state generated by a dichotomous force protocol, first theoretically for a colloidal particle in a harmonic trap and then with both simulations and experiments for a long DNA hairpin. For the first setup, we find there is an optimal feedback gain separating monotonic from oscillatory response, whereas a too strong feedback leads to an instability. For the DNA molecule, reaching the target force requires substantial feedback gain since weak feedback cannot overcome the tendency to relax towards the equilibrium force.
Lyapunov optimal feedback control of a nonlinear inverted pendulum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grantham, W. J.; Anderson, M. J.
1989-01-01
Liapunov optimal feedback control is applied to a nonlinear inverted pendulum in which the control torque was constrained to be less than the nonlinear gravity torque in the model. This necessitates a control algorithm which 'rocks' the pendulum out of its potential wells, in order to stabilize it at a unique vertical position. Simulation results indicate that a preliminary Liapunov feedback controller can successfully overcome the nonlinearity and bring almost all trajectories to the target.
An improved output feedback control of flexible large space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Y. H.; Lin, J. G.
1980-01-01
A special output feedback control design technique for flexible large space structures is proposed. It is shown that the technique will increase both the damping and frequency of selected modes for more effective control. It is also able to effect integrated control of elastic and rigid-body modes and, in particular, closed-loop system stability and robustness to modal truncation and parameter variation. The technique is seen as marking an improvement over previous work concerning large space structures output feedback control.
Spin waves cause non-linear friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magiera, M. P.; Brendel, L.; Wolf, D. E.; Nowak, U.
2011-07-01
Energy dissipation is studied for a hard magnetic tip that scans a soft magnetic substrate. The dynamics of the atomic moments are simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation numerically. The local energy currents are analysed for the case of a Heisenberg spin chain taken as substrate. This leads to an explanation for the velocity dependence of the friction force: The non-linear contribution for high velocities can be attributed to a spin wave front pushed by the tip along the substrate.
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, L. W.
2015-10-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, Larry W.
2015-04-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon
Non-linear Models for Longitudinal Data
Serroyen, Jan; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Davidian, Marie
2009-01-01
While marginal models, random-effects models, and conditional models are routinely considered to be the three main modeling families for continuous and discrete repeated measures with linear and generalized linear mean structures, respectively, it is less common to consider non-linear models, let alone frame them within the above taxonomy. In the latter situation, indeed, when considered at all, the focus is often exclusively on random-effects models. In this paper, we consider all three families, exemplify their great flexibility and relative ease of use, and apply them to a simple but illustrative set of data on tree circumference growth of orange trees. PMID:20160890
Heating power feedback control for CO2 laser fusion splicers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Wenxin; Sugawara, Hiroshi; Mizushima, Toshirou; Klimowych, William
2013-02-01
A novel feedback control method has been developed for an automated splicer using a CO2 laser as the heating element. The feedback method employs a sensor for laser beam power and CMOS cameras as sensors for fiber luminescence which is directly related to glass temperature. The CO2 laser splicer with this type of feedback system provides a consistent platform for the fiber laser and bio-medical industry for fabrication of fused glass components such as tapers, couplers, combiners, mode-field adaptors, and fusion splices. With such a closed loop feedback system, both splice loss and peak-to-peak taper ripple are greatly reduced.
Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control.
Loveday, P W; Rogers, C A
1998-01-01
A method for analyzing the effect of feedback control on the dynamics of piezoelectric resonators used in vibratory gyroscopes has been developed. This method can be used to determine the feasibility of replacing the traditional mechanical balancing operations, used to adjust the resonant frequency, by displacement feedback and for determining the velocity feedback required to produce a particular bandwidth. Experiments were performed on a cylindrical resonator with discrete piezoelectric actuation and sensing elements to demonstrate the principles. Good agreement between analysis and experiment was obtained, and it was shown that this type of resonator could be balanced by displacement feedback. The analysis method presented also is applicable to micromachined piezoelectric gyroscopes. PMID:18244281
Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.
2007-05-01
in this domain. This is set within the context of a generic industrial process and the requirements of UK and US aeroelastic qualification. A range of test cases, from simple small DOF cases to full aircraft, have been used to evaluate and validate the non-linear methods developed and to make comparison with the linear methods in everyday use. These have focused mainly on aerodynamic non-linearity, although some results for structural non-linearity are also presented. The challenges associated with time domain (coupled computational fluid dynamics-computational structural model (CFD-CSM)) methods have been addressed through the development of grid movement, fluid-structure coupling, and control surface movement technologies. Conclusions regarding the accuracy and computational cost of these are presented. The computational cost of time-domain methods, despite substantial improvements in efficiency, remains high. However, significant advances have been made in reduced order methods, that allow non-linear behaviour to be modelled, but at a cost comparable with that of the regular linear methods. Of particular note is a method based on Hopf bifurcation that has reached an appropriate maturity for deployment on real aircraft configurations, though only limited results are presented herein. Results are also presented for dynamically linearised CFD approaches that hold out the possibility of non-linear results at a fraction of the cost of time coupled CFD-CSM methods. Local linearisation approaches (higher order harmonic balance and continuation method) are also presented; these have the advantage that no prior assumption of the nature of the aeroelastic instability is required, but currently these methods are limited to low DOF problems and it is thought that these will not reach a level of maturity appropriate to real aircraft problems for some years to come. Nevertheless, guidance on the most likely approaches has been derived and this forms the basis for ongoing
Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control
Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.
2002-01-01
A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.
Coherent controllers for optical-feedback cooling of quantum oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo
2013-01-01
We study the cooling performance of optical-feedback controllers for open optical and mechanical resonators in the linear quadratic Gaussian setting of stochastic control theory. We utilize analysis and numerical optimization of closed-loop models based on quantum stochastic differential equations to show that coherent control schemes, where we embed the resonator in an interferometer to achieve all-optical feedback, can outperform optimal measurement-based feedback control schemes in the quantum regime of low steady-state excitation number. These performance gains are attributed to the coherent controller's ability to simultaneously process both quadratures of an optical probe field without measurement or loss of fidelity, and may guide the design of coherent feedback schemes for more general problems of robust nonlinear and robust control.
Coherent feedback control of a single qubit in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, Masashi; Cappellaro, Paola
2016-04-01
Engineering desired operations on qubits subjected to the deleterious effects of their environment is a critical task in quantum information processing, quantum simulation and sensing. The most common approach relies on open-loop quantum control techniques, including optimal-control algorithms based on analytical or numerical solutions, Lyapunov design and Hamiltonian engineering. An alternative strategy, inspired by the success of classical control, is feedback control. Because of the complications introduced by quantum measurement, closed-loop control is less pervasive in the quantum setting and, with exceptions, its experimental implementations have been mainly limited to quantum optics experiments. Here we implement a feedback-control algorithm using a solid-state spin qubit system associated with the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, using coherent feedback to overcome the limitations of measurement-based feedback, and show that it can protect the qubit against intrinsic dephasing noise for milliseconds. In coherent feedback, the quantum system is connected to an auxiliary quantum controller (ancilla) that acquires information about the output state of the system (by an entangling operation) and performs an appropriate feedback action (by a conditional gate). In contrast to open-loop dynamical decoupling techniques, feedback control can protect the qubit even against Markovian noise and for an arbitrary period of time (limited only by the coherence time of the ancilla), while allowing gate operations. It is thus more closely related to quantum error-correction schemes, although these require larger and increasing qubit overheads. Increasing the number of fresh ancillas enables protection beyond their coherence time. We further evaluate the robustness of the feedback protocol, which could be applied to quantum computation and sensing, by exploring a trade-off between information gain and decoherence protection, as measurement of the ancilla
Coherent feedback control of a single qubit in diamond.
Hirose, Masashi; Cappellaro, Paola
2016-04-01
Engineering desired operations on qubits subjected to the deleterious effects of their environment is a critical task in quantum information processing, quantum simulation and sensing. The most common approach relies on open-loop quantum control techniques, including optimal-control algorithms based on analytical or numerical solutions, Lyapunov design and Hamiltonian engineering. An alternative strategy, inspired by the success of classical control, is feedback control. Because of the complications introduced by quantum measurement, closed-loop control is less pervasive in the quantum setting and, with exceptions, its experimental implementations have been mainly limited to quantum optics experiments. Here we implement a feedback-control algorithm using a solid-state spin qubit system associated with the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, using coherent feedback to overcome the limitations of measurement-based feedback, and show that it can protect the qubit against intrinsic dephasing noise for milliseconds. In coherent feedback, the quantum system is connected to an auxiliary quantum controller (ancilla) that acquires information about the output state of the system (by an entangling operation) and performs an appropriate feedback action (by a conditional gate). In contrast to open-loop dynamical decoupling techniques, feedback control can protect the qubit even against Markovian noise and for an arbitrary period of time (limited only by the coherence time of the ancilla), while allowing gate operations. It is thus more closely related to quantum error-correction schemes, although these require larger and increasing qubit overheads. Increasing the number of fresh ancillas enables protection beyond their coherence time. We further evaluate the robustness of the feedback protocol, which could be applied to quantum computation and sensing, by exploring a trade-off between information gain and decoherence protection, as measurement of the ancilla-qubit correlation
Neural mechanisms underlying auditory feedback control of speech
Reilly, Kevin J.; Guenther, Frank H.
2013-01-01
The neural substrates underlying auditory feedback control of speech were investigated using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modeling. Neural responses were measured while subjects spoke monosyllabic words under two conditions: (i) normal auditory feedback of their speech, and (ii) auditory feedback in which the first formant frequency of their speech was unexpectedly shifted in real time. Acoustic measurements showed compensation to the shift within approximately 135 ms of onset. Neuroimaging revealed increased activity in bilateral superior temporal cortex during shifted feedback, indicative of neurons coding mismatches between expected and actual auditory signals, as well as right prefrontal and Rolandic cortical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed increased influence of bilateral auditory cortical areas on right frontal areas during shifted speech, indicating that projections from auditory error cells in posterior superior temporal cortex to motor correction cells in right frontal cortex mediate auditory feedback control of speech. PMID:18035557
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, L. W.
2015-12-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from
Cortical feedback control of olfactory bulb circuits.
Boyd, Alison M; Sturgill, James F; Poo, Cindy; Isaacson, Jeffry S
2012-12-20
Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells integrate sensory input from olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and project axons back to the bulb. However, the impact of cortical feedback projections on olfactory bulb circuits is unclear. Here, we selectively express channelrhodopsin-2 in olfactory cortex pyramidal cells and show that cortical feedback projections excite diverse populations of bulb interneurons. Activation of cortical fibers directly excites GABAergic granule cells, which in turn inhibit M/T cells. However, we show that cortical inputs preferentially target short axon cells that drive feedforward inhibition of granule cells. In vivo, activation of olfactory cortex that only weakly affects spontaneous M/T cell firing strongly gates odor-evoked M/T cell responses: cortical activity suppresses odor-evoked excitation and enhances odor-evoked inhibition. Together, these results indicate that although cortical projections have diverse actions on olfactory bulb microcircuits, the net effect of cortical feedback on M/T cells is an amplification of odor-evoked inhibition. PMID:23259951
Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control.
Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt
2014-04-01
The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback. PMID:24827219
Identification and feedback control in structures with piezoceramic actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Ito, K.; Wang, Y.
1992-01-01
In this lecture we give fundamental well-posedness results for a variational formulation of a class of damped second order partial differential equations with unbounded input or control coefficients. Included as special cases in this class are structures with piezoceramic actuators. We consider approximation techniques leading to computational methods in the context of both parameter estimation and feedback control problems for these systems. Rigorous convergence results for parameter estimates and feedback gains are discussed.
Adaptive method with intercessory feedback control for an intelligent agent
Goldsmith, Steven Y.
2004-06-22
An adaptive architecture method with feedback control for an intelligent agent provides for adaptively integrating reflexive and deliberative responses to a stimulus according to a goal. An adaptive architecture method with feedback control for multiple intelligent agents provides for coordinating and adaptively integrating reflexive and deliberative responses to a stimulus according to a goal. Re-programming of the adaptive architecture is through a nexus which coordinates reflexive and deliberator components.
A variable-gain output feedback control design methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halyo, Nesim; Moerder, Daniel D.; Broussard, John R.; Taylor, Deborah B.
1989-01-01
A digital control system design technique is developed in which the control system gain matrix varies with the plant operating point parameters. The design technique is obtained by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic output feedback control law with variable gains. This approach provides a control theory framework within which the operating range of a control law can be significantly extended. Furthermore, the approach avoids the major shortcomings of the conventional gain-scheduling techniques. The optimal variable gain output feedback control problem is solved by embedding the Multi-Configuration Control (MCC) problem, previously solved at ICS. An algorithm to compute the optimal variable gain output feedback control gain matrices is developed. The algorithm is a modified version of the MCC algorithm improved so as to handle the large dimensionality which arises particularly in variable-gain control problems. The design methodology developed is applied to a reconfigurable aircraft control problem. A variable-gain output feedback control problem was formulated to design a flight control law for an AFTI F-16 aircraft which can automatically reconfigure its control strategy to accommodate failures in the horizontal tail control surface. Simulations of the closed-loop reconfigurable system show that the approach produces a control design which can accommodate such failures with relative ease. The technique can be applied to many other problems including sensor failure accommodation, mode switching control laws and super agility.
Orbit stability and feedback control in synchrotron radiation rings
Yu, L.H.
1989-01-01
Stability of the electron orbit is essential for the utilization of a low emittance storage ring as a high brightness radiation source. We discuss the development of the measurement and feedback control of the closed orbit, with emphasis on the activities as the National Synchrotron Light Source of BNL. We discuss the performance of the beam position detectors in use and under development: the PUE rf detector, split ion chamber detector, photo-emission detector, solid state detector, and the graphite detector. Depending on the specific experiments, different beamlines require different tolerances on the orbit motion. Corresponding to these different requirements, we discuss two approaches to closed orbit feedback: the global and local feedback systems. Then we describe a new scheme for the real time global feedback by implementing a feedback system based upon a harmonic analysis of both the orbit movements and the correction magnetic fields. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Control, Transport Reduction and Diagnostic use of Feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, A. K.
1999-11-01
In the past we have reported on feedback suppression of a variety of micro-instabilities in the Columbia Linear Machine via an electron/ion beam suppressor. These include a curvature driven trapped particle mode, an E×B flute mode and an ITG mode; sometimes two of them simultaneously. We now report on reduction and scaling of transport under feedback. The anomalous particle transport due to an E×B centrifugally driven mode has been measured via cross-correlation of density and potential fluctuations. The transport is found to be reduced by up to a factor of three under feedback. By controlling the fluctuation amplitudes and consequently the transport via feedback, we find the scaling of diffusion coefficient to be linear with RMS fluctuation level. The scaling appears not to agree with any generic theory. Recently, we have performed a numerical experiment on feedback control of dissipative drift wave instability in collaboration with ETP, University of Marseille. The preliminary result is that even a highly chaotic state of the instability can be suppressed, if the feedback delay is less than the correlation time of fluctuations. We will explore the implication of these results for the remote prospect of reduction of micro-turbulence and associated transport. We are also persuing a variety of diagnostic uses of feedback. The primary goal is an experimental methodology for the determination of dynamic models of plasma turbulence, both for better transport understanding and more credible feedback controller designs. A specific motivation is to search for a low order dynamic model, suitable for the convenient study of both transport and feedback. First, we use time series analysis method for the determination of chaotic attractor dimension of plasma fluctuations. For E×B rotational flute modes it is found to be close to three, indicating that a model of three coupled modes may be adequate for transport prediction and feedback controller design. Secondly, we have
Control of resistance plug welding using quantitative feedback theory
Bentley, A.E.; Horowitz, I. ||; Chait, Y.; Rodrigues, J.
1996-12-01
Resistance welding is used extensively throughout the manufacturing industry. Variations in weld quality often result in costly post-weld inspections. Applications of feed-back control to such processes have been limited by the lack of accurate models describing the nonlinear dynamics of this process. A new system based on electrode displacement feedback is developed that greatly improves quality control of the resistance plug welding process. The system is capable of producing repeatable welds of consistent displacement (and thus consistent quality), with wide variations in weld parameters. This paper describes the feedback design of a robust controller using Quantitative Feedback Theory for this highly complex process, and the experimental results of the applied system.
Invariant poles feedback control of flexible, highly variable spacecraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mendel, J. M.
1972-01-01
This paper describes a technique for single-axis control of a model of a highly flexible Space Station. Active damping of lower frequency flexibility modes is employed. In the control technique, referred to as invariant poles feedback control (IPFC), feedback gains are adjusted so that the closed-loop system's characteristic equation is matched to that of a reference model; hence, closed-loop system's poles will not move - they will be invariant (provided bending frequencies and parameters can be identified accurately). This is accomplished by obtaining the system's characteristic equation in closed form; equating respective coefficients between terms of like powers in s in the system and reference model characteristic equations; and, solving for the feedback gains. The feedback gains are explicit functions of system plant parameters and the coefficients of the reference model's characteristic equation, and are easily programmed for the digital computer.
Invariant poles feedback control of flexible highly variable spacecraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mendel, J. M.
1972-01-01
Description of a technique for single-axis control of a model of a highly flexible space station. Active damping of lower frequency flexibility modes is employed. In the control technique, referred to as invariant poles feedback control, feedback gains are adjusted so that the closed-loop system characteristic equation is matched to that of a reference model. Hence closed-loop system poles will not move; they will be invariant (provided that bending frequencies and parameters can be identified accurately). This is accomplished by obtaining the system characteristic equation in closed form; equating respective coefficients between terms of like powers in s in the system and reference model characteristic equations; and solving for the feedback gains. The feedback gains are explicit functions of system plant parameters and the coefficients of the reference model characteristic equation, and are easily programmed for the digital computer.
Virtual Grasping: Closed-Loop Force Control Using Electrotactile Feedback
Jorgovanovic, Nikola; Dosen, Strahinja; Djozic, Damir J.; Krajoski, Goran; Farina, Dario
2014-01-01
Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously “unseen” objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control. PMID:24516504
Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aerts, Johan
The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and
A force-feedback control system for micro-assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhe; Chen, Peter C. Y.; Ganapathy, Anand; Zhao, Guoyong; Nam, Joohoo; Yang, Guilin; Burdet, Etienne; Teo, Cheeleong; Meng, Qingnian; Lin, Wei
2006-09-01
In this paper, we report the development of an explicit force-feedback control system for micro-assembly, focusing on the key issues of force transmission and control. The force-feedback system is incorporated with a compound flexure stage, which is driven by a voice-coil actuator and designed to provide frictionless translation motion along one axis. A force sensor measures the interaction force between the micromanipulator and its environment, while an explicit force controller controls the interaction force to follow a desired force trajectory. The effectiveness of this prototype force-control system has been demonstrated in an experimental application, where parts (with dimensions in microns) were picked up and assembled under explicit force-feedback control.
Feedback Control Systems Loop Shaping Design with Practical Considerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopsakis, George
2007-01-01
This paper describes loop shaping control design in feedback control systems, primarily from a practical stand point that considers design specifications. Classical feedback control design theory, for linear systems where the plant transfer function is known, has been around for a long time. But it s still a challenge of how to translate the theory into practical and methodical design techniques that simultaneously satisfy a variety of performance requirements such as transient response, stability, and disturbance attenuation while taking into account the capabilities of the plant and its actuation system. This paper briefly addresses some relevant theory, first in layman s terms, so that it becomes easily understood and then it embarks into a practical and systematic design approach incorporating loop shaping design coupled with lead-lag control compensation design. The emphasis is in generating simple but rather powerful design techniques that will allow even designers with a layman s knowledge in controls to develop effective feedback control designs.
Sampled-Data State Feedback Stabilization of Boolean Control Networks.
Liu, Yang; Cao, Jinde; Sun, Liangjie; Lu, Jianquan
2016-04-01
In this letter, we investigate the sampled-data state feedback control (SDSFC) problem of Boolean control networks (BCNs). Some necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the global stabilization of BCNs by SDSFC. Different from conventional state feedback controls, new phenomena observed the study of SDSFC. Based on the controllability matrix, we derive some necessary and sufficient conditions under which the trajectories of BCNs can be stabilized to a fixed point by piecewise constant control (PCC). It is proved that the global stabilization of BCNs under SDSFC is equivalent to that by PCC. Moreover, algorithms are given to construct the sampled-data state feedback controllers. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results. PMID:26890349
Delayed feedback control of self-mobile cavity solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pimenov, A.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Gurevich, S. V.; Panajotov, K.; Huyet, G.; Tlidi, M.
2013-11-01
Control of the motion of cavity solitons is one the central problems in nonlinear optical pattern formation. We report on the impact of the phase of the time-delayed optical feedback and carrier lifetime on the self-mobility of localized structures of light in broad-area semiconductor cavities. We show both analytically and numerically that the feedback phase strongly affects the drift instability threshold as well as the velocity of cavity soliton motion above this threshold. In addition we demonstrate that the noninstantaneous carrier response of the semiconductor medium is responsible for the increase of the critical feedback rate corresponding to the drift instability.
A speed feedback control strategy for car-following model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wen-Xing; Zhang, Li-Dong
2014-11-01
A speed feedback control mechanism was introduced into the system to improve the dynamical performance of the traffic flow. The modern control theory was used to analyze the stability of the system. It is found that the stability region varies with the feedback coefficient proportionally. In addition, the unit step responses in time domain and phase-frequency curves in frequency domain were given with different feedback coefficients in step response diagram and Bode diagram respectively. The overshoot and phase margins are inversely proportional to the speed feedback coefficients in an underdamped condition. The simulations were conducted to verify the validity of the improvement. The conclusion can be drawn that the analytical result and the simulation result are in good agreement with each other.
Control of Cardiac Arrhythmia by Nonlinear Spatiotemporal Delayed Feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boroujeni, Forough Rezaei; Vasegh, Nastaran; Sedigh, Ali Khaki
The dynamic feedback control of the cardiac pacing interval has been widely used to suppress alternans. In this paper, temporally and spatially suppressing the alternans for cardiac tissue consisting of a one-dimensional chain of cardiac units is investigated. The model employed is a nonlinear partial difference equation. The model's fixed points and their stability conditions are determined, and bifurcations and chaos phenomenon have been studied by numerical simulations. The main objective of this paper is to stabilize the unstable fixed point of the model. The proposed approach is nonlinear spatiotemporal delayed feedback, and the appropriate interval for controller feedback gain is calculated using the linear stability analysis. It is proven that the proposed approach is robust with respect to all bifurcation parameter variations. Also, set point tracking is achieved by employing delayed feedback with an integrator. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Dissipative preparation of multibody entanglement via quantum feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jie; Xia, Yan; Sun, Xiu-Dong; Song, He-Shan
2012-09-01
We investigate the generation of a multibody Dicke state in a coupled cavity system subject to environmental noise. Based on quantum feedback control, cavity decay may play a constructive role in obtaining the intended state. The required interaction time need not be accurately controlled. In addition, the feedback operations are only applied to a single atom in one cavity during the whole evolution process, and it is not necessary to change the control strategy as the number of atoms increases. Thus, our proposal can exploit the core advantage of coupled cavities to implement a scalable control scheme for preparing multibody entanglement.
Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.
1995-01-01
During this year, we concentrated our efforts on the design of controllers for lateral/directional control using mu synthesis. This proved to be a more difficult task than we anticipated and we are still working on the designs. In the lateral-directional control problem, the inputs are pilot lateral stick and pedal commands and the outputs are roll rate about the velocity vector and side slip angle. The control effectors are ailerons, rudder deflection, and directional thrust vectoring vane deflection which produces a yawing moment about the body axis. Our math model does not contain any provision for thrust vectoring of rolling moment. This has resulted in limitations of performance at high angles of attack. During 1994-95, the following tasks for the lateral-directional controllers were accomplished: (1) Designed both inner and outer loop dynamic inversion controllers. These controllers are implemented using accelerometer outputs rather than an a priori model of the vehicle aerodynamics; (2) Used classical techniques to design controllers for the system linearized by dynamics inversion. These controllers acted to control roll rate and Dutch roll response; (3) Implemented the inner loop dynamic inversion and classical controllers on the six DOF simulation; (4) Developed a lateral-directional control allocation scheme based on minimizing required control effort among the ailerons, rudder, and directional thrust vectoring; and (5) Developed mu outer loop controllers combined with classical inner loop controllers.
Predictive Feedback and Feedforward Control for Systems with Unknown Disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Eure, Kenneth W.
1998-01-01
Predictive feedback control has been successfully used in the regulation of plate vibrations when no reference signal is available for feedforward control. However, if a reference signal is available it may be used to enhance regulation by incorporating a feedforward path in the feedback controller. Such a controller is known as a hybrid controller. This paper presents the theory and implementation of the hybrid controller for general linear systems, in particular for structural vibration induced by acoustic noise. The generalized predictive control is extended to include a feedforward path in the multi-input multi-output case and implemented on a single-input single-output test plant to achieve plate vibration regulation. There are cases in acoustic-induce vibration where the disturbance signal is not available to be used by the hybrid controller, but a disturbance model is available. In this case the disturbance model may be used in the feedback controller to enhance performance. In practice, however, neither the disturbance signal nor the disturbance model is available. This paper presents the theory of identifying and incorporating the noise model into the feedback controller. Implementations are performed on a test plant and regulation improvements over the case where no noise model is used are demonstrated.
Human hip-ankle coordination emerging from multisensory feedback control.
Hettich, Georg; Assländer, Lorenz; Gollhofer, Albert; Mergner, Thomas
2014-10-01
Human sensorimotor control involves inter-segmental coordination to cope with the complexity of a multi-segment system. The combined activation of hip and ankle muscles during upright stance represents the hip-ankle coordination. This study postulates that the coordination emerges from interactions on the sensory levels in the feedback control. The hypothesis was tested in a model-based approach that compared human experimental data with model simulations. Seven subjects were standing with eyes closed on an anterior-posterior tilting motion platform. Postural responses in terms of angular excursions of trunk and legs with respect to vertical were measured and characterized using spectral analysis. The presented control model consists of separate feedback modules for the hip and ankle joints, which exchange sensory information with each other. The feedback modules utilize sensor-derived disturbance estimates rather than 'raw' sensory signals. The comparison of the human data with the simulation data revealed close correspondence, suggesting that the model captures important aspects of the human sensory feedback control. For verification, the model was re-embodied in a humanoid robot that was tested in the human laboratory. The findings show that the hip-ankle coordination can be explained by interactions between the feedback control modules of the hip and ankle joints. PMID:25150802
Dynamic output feedback H ∞ control for affine fuzzy systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Huimin; Yang, Guang-Hong
2013-06-01
This article investigates the problem of designing H ∞ dynamic output feedback controllers for nonlinear systems, which are described by affine fuzzy models. The system outputs have been chosen as premise variables, which can guarantee that the plant and the controller always switch to the same region. By using a piecewise Lyapunov function and adding slack matrix variables, a piecewise-affine dynamic output feedback controller design method is obtained in the formulation of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be efficiently solved numerically. In contrast to the existing work, the proposed approach needs less LMI constraints and leads to less conservatism. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the new result.
Dynamical singularities in adaptive delayed-feedback control.
Saito, Asaki; Konishi, Keiji
2011-09-01
We demonstrate the dynamical characteristics of adaptive delayed-feedback control systems, exploiting a discrete-time adaptive control method derived for carrying out detailed analysis. In particular, the systems exhibit singularities such as power-law decay of the distribution of transient times and almost zero finite-time Lyapunov exponents. We can explain these results by characterizing such systems as having (1) a Jacobian matrix with unity eigenvalue in the whole phase space, and (2) parameters approaching a stability boundary proven to be identical with that of (nonadaptive) delayed-feedback control. PMID:22060398
Event-triggered output feedback control for distributed networked systems.
Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of output-feedback communication and control with event-triggered framework in the context of distributed networked control systems. The design problem of the event-triggered output-feedback control is proposed as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility problem. The scheme is developed for the distributed system where only partial states are available. In this scheme, a subsystem uses local observers and share its information to its neighbors only when the subsystem's local error exceeds a specified threshold. The developed method is illustrated by using a coupled cart example from the literature. PMID:26708304
Hybrid Feedforward-Feedback Noise Control Using Virtual Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bean, Jacob; Fuller, Chris; Schiller, Noah
2016-01-01
Several approaches to active noise control using virtual sensors are evaluated for eventual use in an active headrest. Specifically, adaptive feedforward, feedback, and hybrid control structures are compared. Each controller incorporates the traditional filtered-x least mean squares algorithm. The feedback controller is arranged in an internal model configuration to draw comparisons with standard feedforward control theory results. Simulation and experimental results are presented that illustrate each controllers ability to minimize the pressure at both physical and virtual microphone locations. The remote microphone technique is used to obtain pressure estimates at the virtual locations. It is shown that a hybrid controller offers performance benefits over the traditional feedforward and feedback controllers. Stability issues associated with feedback and hybrid controllers are also addressed. Experimental results show that 15-20 dB reduction in broadband disturbances can be achieved by minimizing the measured pressure, whereas 10-15 dB reduction is obtained when minimizing the estimated pressure at a virtual location.
Effect of motor dynamics on nonlinear feedback robot arm control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Zuofeng; Bejczy, Antal K.; Yun, Xiaoping
1991-01-01
A nonlinear feedback robot controller that incorporates the robot manipulator dynamics and the robot joint motor dynamics is proposed. The manipulator dynamics and the motor dynamics are coupled to obtain a third-order-dynamic model, and differential geometric control theory is applied to produce a linearized and decoupled robot controller. The derived robot controller operates in the robot task space, thus eliminating the need for decomposition of motion commands into robot joint space commands. Computer simulations are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed robot controller. The controller is further experimentally evaluated on the PUMA 560 robot arm. The experiments show that the proposed controller produces good trajectory tracking performances and is robust in the presence of model inaccuracies. Compared with a nonlinear feedback robot controller based on the manipulator dynamics only, the proposed robot controller yields conspicuously improved performance.
Nonlinear feedback control of highly manoeuvrable aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrard, William L.; Enns, Dale F.; Snell, S. A.
1992-01-01
This paper describes the application of nonlinear quadratic regulator (NLQR) theory to the design of control laws for a typical high-performance aircraft. The NLQR controller design is performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation of optimal control theory. The performance of the NLQR controller is compared with the performance of a conventional P + I gain scheduled controller designed by applying standard frequency response techniques to the equations of motion of the aircraft linearized at various angles of attack. Both techniques result in control laws which are very similar in structure to one another and which yield similar performance. The results of applying both control laws to a high-g vertical turn are illustrated by nonlinear simulation.
Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.
1994-01-01
During the first half of the year, the investigators concentrated their efforts on completing the design of control laws for the longitudinal axis of the HARV. During the second half of the year they concentrated on the synthesis of control laws for the lateral-directional axes. The longitudinal control law design efforts can be briefly summarized as follows. Longitudinal control laws were developed for the HARV using mu synthesis design techniques coupled with dynamic inversion. An inner loop dynamic inversion controller was used to simplify the system dynamics by eliminating the aerodynamic nonlinearities and inertial cross coupling. Models of the errors resulting from uncertainties in the principal longitudinal aerodynamic terms were developed and included in the model of the HARV with the inner loop dynamic inversion controller. This resulted in an inner loop transfer function model which was an integrator with the modeling errors characterized as uncertainties in gain and phase. Outer loop controllers were then designed using mu synthesis to provide robustness to these modeling errors and give desired response to pilot inputs. Both pitch rate and angle of attack command following systems were designed. The following tasks have been accomplished for the lateral-directional controllers: inner and outer loop dynamic inversion controllers have been designed; an error model based on a linearized perturbation model of the inner loop system was derived; controllers for the inner loop system have been designed, using classical techniques, that control roll rate and Dutch roll response; the inner loop dynamic inversion and classical controllers have been implemented on the six degree of freedom simulation; and lateral-directional control allocation scheme has been developed based on minimizing required control effort.
Stabilising falling liquid film flows using feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Alice B.; Gomes, Susana N.; Pavliotis, Grigorios A.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.
2016-01-01
Falling liquid films become unstable due to inertial effects when the fluid layer is sufficiently thick or the slope sufficiently steep. This free surface flow of a single fluid layer has industrial applications including coating and heat transfer, which benefit from smooth and wavy interfaces, respectively. Here, we discuss how the dynamics of the system are altered by feedback controls based on observations of the interface height, and supplied to the system via the perpendicular injection and suction of fluid through the wall. In this study, we model the system using both Benney and weighted-residual models that account for the fluid injection through the wall. We find that feedback using injection and suction is a remarkably effective control mechanism: the controls can be used to drive the system towards arbitrary steady states and travelling waves, and the qualitative effects are independent of the details of the flow modelling. Furthermore, we show that the system can still be successfully controlled when the feedback is applied via a set of localised actuators and only a small number of system observations are available, and that this is possible using both static (where the controls are based on only the most recent set of observations) and dynamic (where the controls are based on an approximation of the system which evolves over time) control schemes. This study thus provides a solid theoretical foundation for future experimental realisations of the active feedback control of falling liquid films.
A magnetic bearing control approach using flux feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groom, Nelson J.
1989-01-01
A magnetic bearing control approach using flux feedback is described and test results for a laboratory model magnetic bearing actuator are presented. Test results were obtained using a magnetic bearing test fixture, which is also described. The magnetic bearing actuator consists of elements similar to those used in a laboratory test model Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD).
Control design for a wind turbine-generator using output feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Javid, S. H.; Murdoch, A.; Winkelman, J. R.
1981-01-01
The modeling and approach to control design for a large horizontal axis wind turbine (WT) generator are presented. The control design is based on a suboptimal output regulator which allows coordinated control of WT blade pitch angle and field voltage for the purposes of regulating electrical power and terminal voltage. Results of detailed non-linear simulation tests of this controller are shown.
Feedback controlled optics with wavefront compensation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breckenridge, William G. (Inventor); Redding, David C. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
The sensitivity model of a complex optical system obtained by linear ray tracing is used to compute a control gain matrix by imposing the mathematical condition for minimizing the total wavefront error at the optical system's exit pupil. The most recent deformations or error states of the controlled segments or optical surfaces of the system are then assembled as an error vector, and the error vector is transformed by the control gain matrix to produce the exact control variables which will minimize the total wavefront error at the exit pupil of the optical system. These exact control variables are then applied to the actuators controlling the various optical surfaces in the system causing the immediate reduction in total wavefront error observed at the exit pupil of the optical system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buoso, Stefano; Palacios, Rafael
2016-04-01
This work presents a numerical framework for the simulation and design of integrally actuated membrane wings with feedback control. The performance of the aeroelastic system are evaluated using a high-fidelity model. It consists in a fluid solver based on the direct numerical integration of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations implicitly coupled with a geometrically non-linear dynamic structural model which has been calibrated using experimental data. The rate-dependent constitutive law for the dielectric elastomer considered for the integral wing actuation is based on a non-linear formulation. The framework also includes a methodology for the model reduction of the fully-coupled system. The resulting low-order description showed to retain the main system dynamics, and can therefore be used for the design of the control scheme for the wing. Results highlights the potential to achieve on-demand aerodynamics using the actuation concept proposed. In particular, it is shown that the wing aerodynamic performance is noticeably enhanced through the actuation and the disturbances on the lift in case of gusts can be reduced up to 60%.
Effects on non-linearities on aircraft poststall motion
Rohacs, J.; Thomasson, P.; Mosehilde, E.
1994-12-31
The poststall maneuverability controlled by thrust vectoring has become one of the important aspects of new fighter development projects. In simplified case, the motion of aircraft can be described by 6DOF nonlinear system. The lecture deals with the longitudinal motion of poststall maneuverable aircraft. The investigation made about the effects of non-linearities in aerodynamic coefficients having considerable non-linearities and hysteresisis an the poststall motions. There were used some different models of aerodynamic coefficients. The results of investigation have shown that the poststall domain of vectored aircraft can be divided into five different pHs in field of thrust - pitch vector angle, and the chaotic motions of aircraft can be found at the different frequencies of thrust deflection. There were defined an unstable right domain with an unstable oscillation and a field of overpulling at poststall motion. The certain frequency chaotic attractors were got at frequencies of Oxitation between the 0.15 and 0.65 rad/sec. The pitching moment derivatives had the big influence on the chaotic motions, while the lift coefficient derivatives bad the reasonable effects, only.
Second law of thermodynamics with discrete quantum feedback control.
Sagawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Masahito
2008-02-29
A new thermodynamic inequality is derived which leads to the maximum work that can be extracted from multi-heat-baths with the assistance of discrete quantum feedback control. The maximum work is determined by the free-energy difference and a generalized mutual information content between the thermodynamic system and the feedback controller. This maximum work can exceed that in conventional thermodynamics and, in the case of a heat cycle with two heat baths, the heat efficiency can be greater than that of the Carnot cycle. The consistency of our results with the second law of thermodynamics is ensured by the fact that work is needed for information processing of the feedback controller. PMID:18352605
Optimal feedback control of a bioreactor with a remote sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niranjan, S. C.; San, K. Y.
1988-01-01
Sensors used to monitor bioreactor conditions directly often perform poorly in the face of adverse nonphysiological conditions. One way to circumvent this is to use a remote sensor block. However, such a configuration usually causes a significant time lag between measurements and the actual state values. Here, the problem of implementing feedback control strategies for such systems, described by nonlinear equations, is addressed. The problem is posed as an optimal control problem with a linear quadratic performance index. The linear control law so obtained is used to implement feedback. A global linearization technique as well as an expansion using Taylor series is used to linearize the nonlinear system, and the feedback is subsequently implemented.
Feedback Linearized Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgensen, C. C.
1998-01-01
A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS ) Neural Network was developed which learns a topology representing network (TRN) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is combined with a feedback linearized tracking controller to produce a robust control architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off-nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes network and its performance for accident scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control, stability derivative variation, and turbulence.
Feedback Implementation of Zermelo's Optimal Control by Sugeno Approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clifton, C.; Homaifax, A.; Bikdash, M.
1997-01-01
This paper proposes an approach to implement optimal control laws of nonlinear systems in real time. Our methodology does not require solving two-point boundary value problems online and may not require it off-line either. The optimal control law is learned using the original Sugeno controller (OSC) from a family of optimal trajectories. We compare the trajectories generated by the OSC and the trajectories yielded by the optimal feedback control law when applied to Zermelo's ship steering problem.
A multi-time scale, non-linear approach to understanding soil respiration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickerson, N. R.; Phillips, C.; Risk, D. A.
2010-12-01
To understand the processes that drive soil respiration and to make accurate predictions about global carbon cycling and potential climate feedbacks, it is critical that we develop accurate models that are useful on a range of timescales. There is, however, little agreement on the functional form and parameters that should be associated with modeling total soil respiration. Field data provides the most realistic platform for this assessment, but the environmental controls on soil respiration have been difficult to estimate in the field with good accuracy due to a combination of factors, including: (1) physical and biological uncertainties that are present in the field (ie. heat and gas diffusion, nutrient and substrate limitation); (2) the absence of a standardized and theoretically sound method for calculating model parameters using field data, and; (3) the absence of suitable long term, high temporal resolution respiration data from field studies, which is now becoming more available. This research focuses on multi-time scale non-linear analysis techniques, and their role in guiding the development of new soil respiration models that accurately predict respiration on a range of timescales. Using a physical model as a proxy of real world conditions, we focus on the confounding effect of physical factors, such as heat and gas diffusion and CO2 production depth, which have been found to be the cause of a considerable amount of error in past studies. Preliminary results show that for estimating temperature sensitivity, the non-linear approach is the best (compared to the typical log transform linear approach) in all circumstances, although caution should be exercised when analyzing short time series (i.e. diel) data because the lag and damping cause by gas diffusion may affect estimates. This work also examines moisture sensitivity parameters and the confounding effects of moisture on temperature sensitivity estimates. Finally we provide an evaluation of temporal
Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Brian R.
2011-01-01
This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.
Stabilization and feedback control of weak measurement monitored quantum oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uys, Hermann; Du Toit, Pieter; Burd, Shaun; Konrad, Thomas
2016-05-01
We study feedback control of quantum oscillators, monitored through periodic weak measurement. By implementing reversals of measurement perturbations based on a Bayesian estimate of the state dynamics, we demonstrate suppressed measurement noise leading to greater oscillator stability and improved quantum feedback control. The work in this paper was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South Africa through Grant No. 93602 as well as an award by the United States Airforce Office of Scientific Research, Award No. FA9550-14-1-0151.
Output feedback regulator design for jet engine control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merrill, W. C.
1977-01-01
A multivariable control design procedure based on the output feedback regulator formulation is described and applied to turbofan engine model. Full order model dynamics, were incorporated in the example design. The effect of actuator dynamics on closed loop performance was investigaged. Also, the importance of turbine inlet temperature as an element of the dynamic feedback was studied. Step responses were given to indicate the improvement in system performance with this control. Calculation times for all experiments are given in CPU seconds for comparison purposes.
Output feedback regulator design for jet engine control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merrill, W.
1977-01-01
A multivariable control design procedure based on the output feedback regulator formulation is described and applied to an F100 turbofan engine model. Full order model dynamics, are incorporated in the example design. The effect of actuator dynamics on closed loop performance is investigated. Also, the importance of turbine inlet temperature as an element of the dynamic feedback is studied. Step responses are given to indicate the improvement in system performance with this control. Calculation times for all experiments are given in CPU seconds for comparison purposes.
Mode control of semiconductor laser with diffraction and dispersion feedback
Xu, G.; Tsuji, R.; Fujii, K.; Nakayama, S.; Amano, M.; Kiyono, H.; Uchiyama, Y.; Tokita, Y.; Hanasawa, Y.; Mirov, S.B.; McCutcheon, M.J.; Whinnery, J.R.
1996-05-01
We have constructed two kinds of external cavity semiconductor laser. The first one is a diffraction feedback system consisting of a collimating lens, a diffraction grating and a mirror controlled by a PZT element. The second one is a dispersion feedback system in which the diffraction grating is replaced with a prism. Changing the angle of the external mirror by controlling the voltage to be supplied to the PZT, we have succeeded to tune the longitudinal mode of semiconductor laser continuously in the range of about 1 GHz. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
A biopsychosocial model based on negative feedback and control
Carey, Timothy A.; Mansell, Warren; Tai, Sara J.
2014-01-01
Although the biopsychosocial model has been a popular topic of discussion for over four decades it has not had the traction in fields of research that might be expected of such an intuitively appealing idea. One reason for this might be the absence of an identified mechanism or a functional architecture that is authentically biopsychosocial. What is needed is a robust mechanism that is equally important to biochemical processes as it is to psychological and social processes. Negative feedback may be the mechanism that is required. Negative feedback has been implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitters as well as important psychological and social processes such as emotional regulation and the relationship between a psychotherapist and a client. Moreover, negative feedback is purported to also govern the activity of all other organisms as well as humans. Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) describes the way in which negative feedback establishes control at increasing levels of perceptual complexity. Thus, PCT may be the first biopsychosocial model to be articulated in functional terms. In this paper we outline the working model of PCT and explain how PCT provides an embodied hierarchical neural architecture that utilizes negative feedback to control physiological, psychological, and social variables. PCT has major implications for both research and practice and, importantly, provides a guide by which fields of research that are currently separated may be integrated to bring about substantial progress in understanding the way in which the brain alters, and is altered by, its behavioral and environmental context. PMID:24616685
Linearizing feedforward/feedback attitude control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E.
1991-01-01
An approach to attitude control theory is introduced in which a linear form is postulated for the closed-loop rotation error dynamics, then the exact control law required to realize it is derived. The nonminimal (four-component) quaternion form is used to attitude because it is globally nonsingular, but the minimal (three-component) quaternion form is used for attitude error because it has no nonlinear constraints to prevent the rotational error dynamics from being linearized, and the definition of the attitude error is based on quaternion algebra. This approach produces an attitude control law that linearizes the closed-loop rotational error dynamics exactly, without any attitude singularities, even if the control errors become large.
Feedback controllers for broadband active noise reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petitjean, Benoit; Legrain, Isabelle
1994-09-01
The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the efficiency of an LQG-based controller for the active control of the acoustic field radiated by a rectangular panel. This topic has been of interest for numerous researchers in the past 10 or 15 years, but very little attention has been paid to broadband disturbances occurring in a relatively high frequency range. These are unfortunately common features of noise perturbations in realistic structures such as airplanes or helicopters. The few articles that deal with this problem provide very scarce experimental results and are related to frequency bands where the structure dynamics is rather poor. From the outset, the problem at hand involves numerous difficulties, such as the modeling of the active structure itself and the possible large size of the controller. In the following, the experimental setup is described, then the controller design procedure is developed and finally some experimental results are shown that prove the efficiency of the method.
Is feedback control effective for ecosystem-based fisheries management?
Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Abrams, Peter A
2013-12-21
We investigate the effects of species interactions on the robustness of feedback control of the harvesting of prey species. We consider the consequences of feedback control of fishing effort. If a prey species is exploited, increasing fishing effort decreases predator abundance more than it does the prey abundance. Feedback control of fishing effort may cause the extinction of the predator, even if the prey population is well controlled. Even when fishing effort is controlled by predator density, it is difficult for the fishery and the predator to coexist, and, if they do so, the system exhibits complex dynamic behaviors. If the predator and fishery coexist, feedback control of fishing effort converges to a stable equilibrium, a synchronous cycle, or an asynchronous cycle. In the last case, the system undergoes more complex cycling with a longer period than that when the fishing effort is kept constant. These analyses suggest that there is no effective strategy that is robust against measurement errors, process errors and complex interactions in ecosystem dynamics. PMID:23792332
Feedback control as a framework for understanding tradeoffs in biology.
Cowan, Noah J; Ankarali, Mert M; Dyhr, Jonathan P; Madhav, Manu S; Roth, Eatai; Sefati, Shahin; Sponberg, Simon; Stamper, Sarah A; Fortune, Eric S; Daniel, Thomas L
2014-07-01
Control theory arose from a need to control synthetic systems. From regulating steam engines to tuning radios to devices capable of autonomous movement, it provided a formal mathematical basis for understanding the role of feedback in the stability (or change) of dynamical systems. It provides a framework for understanding any system with regulation via feedback, including biological ones such as regulatory gene networks, cellular metabolic systems, sensorimotor dynamics of moving animals, and even ecological or evolutionary dynamics of organisms and populations. Here, we focus on four case studies of the sensorimotor dynamics of animals, each of which involves the application of principles from control theory to probe stability and feedback in an organism's response to perturbations. We use examples from aquatic (two behaviors performed by electric fish), terrestrial (following of walls by cockroaches), and aerial environments (flight control by moths) to highlight how one can use control theory to understand the way feedback mechanisms interact with the physical dynamics of animals to determine their stability and response to sensory inputs and perturbations. Each case study is cast as a control problem with sensory input, neural processing, and motor dynamics, the output of which feeds back to the sensory inputs. Collectively, the interaction of these systems in a closed loop determines the behavior of the entire system. PMID:24893678
A stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback control methodology for superagility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halyo, Nesim; Direskeneli, Haldun; Taylor, Deborah B.
1992-01-01
A new control design methodology is developed: Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology (SOFFT). Traditional design techniques optimize a single cost function (which expresses the design objectives) to obtain both the feedforward and feedback control laws. This approach places conflicting demands on the control law such as fast tracking versus noise atttenuation/disturbance rejection. In the SOFFT approach, two cost functions are defined. The feedforward control law is designed to optimize one cost function, the feedback optimizes the other. By separating the design objectives and decoupling the feedforward and feedback design processes, both objectives can be achieved fully. A new measure of command tracking performance, Z-plots, is also developed. By analyzing these plots at off-nominal conditions, the sensitivity or robustness of the system in tracking commands can be predicted. Z-plots provide an important tool for designing robust control systems. The Variable-Gain SOFFT methodology was used to design a flight control system for the F/A-18 aircraft. It is shown that SOFFT can be used to expand the operating regime and provide greater performance (flying/handling qualities) throughout the extended flight regime. This work was performed under the NASA SBIR program. ICS plans to market the software developed as a new module in its commercial CACSD software package: ACET.
Tollmien-Schlichting wave cancellation by feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vemuri, Hari; Morrison, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Eric
2015-11-01
Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves are primary instabilities in the boundary layer and, by actively interfering with their growth, the transition process can be delayed. In this study the experimental results of both open-loop and real-time feedback control will be shown for 3D TS waves excited within a flat-plate boundary layer. They are excited at a 0.75mm pin-hole source driven by a speaker. A 0.75 mm thin, dual slot geometry is used for actuation by another speaker and a wall hot-wire sensor manufactured in-house is used as the sensor for feedback control. The spatial transfer function models between the source and sensor (Gs) and the actuator and sensor (Ga) obtained by classic frequency sweep techniques are used to synthesize various types of robust, stabilizing controllers (K). The transfer function Gs determines the unstable range of frequencies whereas Ga together with K determines the stability of the closed-loop. A second traversing hot-wire is used to record the performance of the controller downstream. It is shown that the experimental transfer functions agree remarkably well with numerical calculations as do the predicted results from feedback control. Preliminary experimental feedback control results for various other actuator configurations will also be presented. This work is supported by EADS (support agreement number IW203591) and LFC-UK.
Theory of feedback controlled brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanzeni, A.; Celani, A.; Tiana, G.; Vergassola, M.
2016-01-01
Limb tremor and other debilitating symptoms caused by the neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease are currently treated by administering drugs and by fixed-frequency deep brain stimulation. The latter interferes directly with the brain dynamics by delivering electrical impulses to neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. While deep brain stimulation has shown therapeutic benefits in many instances, its mechanism is still unclear. Since its understanding could lead to improved protocols of stimulation and feedback control, we have studied a mathematical model of the many-body neural network dynamics controlling the dynamics of the basal ganglia. On the basis of the results obtained from the model, we propose a new procedure of active stimulation, that depends on the feedback of the network and that respects the constraints imposed by existing technology. We show by numerical simulations that the new protocol outperforms the standard ones for deep brain stimulation and we suggest future experiments that could further improve the feedback procedure.
Non linear processes modulated by low doses of radiation exposure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Alloni, Daniele; Babini, Gabriele; Morini, Jacopo; Baiocco, Giorgio
The perturbation induced by radiation impinging on biological targets can stimulate the activation of several different pathways, spanning from the DNA damage processing to intra/extra -cellular signalling. In the mechanistic investigation of radiobiological damage this complex “system” response (e.g. omics, signalling networks, micro-environmental modifications, etc.) has to be taken into account, shifting from a focus on the DNA molecule solely to a systemic/collective view. An additional complication comes from the finding that the individual response of each of the involved processes is often not linear as a function of the dose. In this context, a systems biology approach to investigate the effects of low dose irradiations on intra/extra-cellular signalling will be presented, where low doses of radiation act as a mild perturbation of a robustly interconnected network. Results obtained through a multi-level investigation of both DNA damage repair processes (e.g. gamma-H2AX response) and of the activation kinetics for intra/extra cellular signalling pathways (e.g. NFkB activation) show that the overall cell response is dominated by non-linear processes - such as negative feedbacks - leading to possible non equilibrium steady states and to a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Together with experimental data of radiation perturbed pathways, different modelling approaches will be also discussed.
The non-linear initiation of diapirs and plume heads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bercovici, David; Kelly, Amanda
1997-04-01
A simple theory is devised to describe the non-linear feedback mechanisms involved in the initial growth of a single diapir or plume head from a low viscosity channel overlain by a much more viscous layer. Such feedbacks arise primarily from the relation between the growth of a proto-diapir (i.e. an undulation on the upper boundary of the low viscosity channel) and the draining of the low viscosity channel. In the period of time between its initial exponential growth (characterized by linear stability analysis) and its separation from the low viscosity channel as a fully formed diapir, the proto-diapir can undergo a significant cessation in its development due to deflation of the low viscosity channel; i.e. the proto-diapir's growth can essentially stall for a long period of time before it separates and begins its ascent through the overlying medium. The theory is used to determine a criterion for separation of the diapir from the low viscosity channel that is in terms of the geometrical and mechanical properties of the channel, instead of the ad hoc volume flux widely used in many models of mantle plumes and plume heads (e.g. Whitehead and Luther, 1975; Richards et al., 1989; Olson, 1990; Sleep, 1990; Bercovici and Mahoney, 1994). From this separation criterion, self-consistent scaling laws can be formulated to relate the size of the fully developed diapir and its trailing conduit to the properties of the initial channel, instead of to the ad hoc volume flux. Basic laboratory experiments involving highly viscous fluids are presented and demonstrate that the so-called 'stalling' period between initial growth and separation does indeed occur. These results suggest that nascent mantle plume heads may stall for extended periods at the base of the mantle and thereby contribute to variations in thickness of the D″ layer.
Multiple feedback control apparatus for power conditioning equipment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biess, John (Inventor); Yu, Yuan (Inventor)
1977-01-01
An improved feedback control system to govern the cyclic operation of the power switch of a non-dissipative power conditioning equipment. The apparatus includes two or three control loops working in unison. The first causes the output DC level to be compared with a reference, and the error amplified for control purposes. The second utilizes the AC component of the voltage across the output filter inductor or the current through the output filter capacitor, and the third loop senses the output transients.
Discrete-time infinity control problem with measurement feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoorvogel, A. A.; Saberi, A.; Chen, B. M.
1992-01-01
The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with measurement feedback. The authors extend previous results by having weaker assumptions on the system parameters. The authors also show explicitly the structure of H(sub infinity) controllers. Finally, they show that it is in certain cases possible, without loss of performance, to reduce the dynamical order of the controllers.
Robust Feedback Control of Flow Induced Structural Radiation of Sound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heatwole, Craig M.; Bernhard, Robert J.; Franchek, Matthew A.
1997-01-01
A significant component of the interior noise of aircraft and automobiles is a result of turbulent boundary layer excitation of the vehicular structure. In this work, active robust feedback control of the noise due to this non-predictable excitation is investigated. Both an analytical model and experimental investigations are used to determine the characteristics of the flow induced structural sound radiation problem. The problem is shown to be broadband in nature with large system uncertainties associated with the various operating conditions. Furthermore the delay associated with sound propagation is shown to restrict the use of microphone feedback. The state of the art control methodologies, IL synthesis and adaptive feedback control, are evaluated and shown to have limited success for solving this problem. A robust frequency domain controller design methodology is developed for the problem of sound radiated from turbulent flow driven plates. The control design methodology uses frequency domain sequential loop shaping techniques. System uncertainty, sound pressure level reduction performance, and actuator constraints are included in the design process. Using this design method, phase lag was added using non-minimum phase zeros such that the beneficial plant dynamics could be used. This general control approach has application to lightly damped vibration and sound radiation problems where there are high bandwidth control objectives requiring a low controller DC gain and controller order.
Time optimal feedback control of discrete systems with bounded inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Xin; Longman, Richard W.; Klein, George
1990-01-01
Deadbeat control theory gives a feedback solution to the time optimal control of discrete time systems. Experience has shown the results to be impractical because they ignore bounds on the actuator strength. This paper develops two algorithms for generating time optimal control in feedback form for discrete systems with bounded controls. The results are also applicable for generating recovery regions and the set of reachable states. For multiple control problems a method of generating sublayers is developed which decreases off-line and on-line computational effort. Two algorithms are presented with somewhat different computational and storage requirements. The algorithms are practical within certain dimension constraints, and are natural for implementation with parallel processing.
Microgravity vibration isolation: Optimal preview and feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Grodsinsky, C. M.; Allaire, P. E.; Lewis, D. W.
1992-01-01
In order to achieve adequate low-frequency vibration isolation for certain space experiments an active control is needed, due to inherent passive-isolator limitations. Proposed here are five possible state-space models for a one-dimensional vibration isolation system with a quadratic performance index. The five models are subsets of a general set of nonhomogeneous state space equations which includes disturbance terms. An optimal control is determined, using a differential equations approach, for this class of problems. This control is expressed in terms of constant, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) feedback gains and constant feedforward (preview) gains. The gains can be easily determined numerically. They result in a robust controller and offers substantial improvements over a control that uses standard LQR feedback alone.
Note: Pneumatically modulated liquid delivery with feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Field, C. R.; Terray, A. V.; Lubrano, A. L.; Rogers, D. A.; Hart, S. J.; Rose-Pehrsson, S. L.
2012-07-01
We present the design and characterization of a pneumatically driven liquid delivery system using an embedded microcontroller with feedback control capable of maintaining a stable, constant flow rate over several hours of operation. Flow rates with relative standard deviations less than 1% were achieved and compared to a typical laboratory syringe pump.
Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements.
Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C
2014-03-01
We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226-35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear-quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. PMID:24343165
Design of multivariable feedback control systems via spectral assignment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielke, R. R.; Tung, L. J.; Marefat, M.
1983-01-01
The applicability of spectral assignment techniques to the design of multivariable feedback control systems was investigated. A fractional representation design procedure for unstable plants is presented and illustrated with an example. A computer aided design software package implementing eigenvalue/eigenvector design procedures is described. A design example which illustrates the use of the program is explained.
Ultrashort pulse laser microsurgery system with plasma luminescence feedback control
Kim, B.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Gold, D.M.; Darrow, C.B.; Da Silva, L.B.
1997-11-10
Plasma luminescence spectroscopy was used for precise ablation of bone tissue during ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) micro-spinal surgery. Strong contrast of the luminescence spectra between bone marrow and spinal cord provided the real time feedback control so that only bone tissue can be selectively ablated while preserving the spinal cord.
Feedback and Modularity in Cell Cycle Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skotheim, Jan
2009-03-01
Underlying the wonderful diversity of natural forms is the ability of an organism to grow into its appropriate shape. Regulation ensures that cells grow, divide and differentiate so that the organism and its constitutive parts are properly proportioned and of suitable size. Although the size-control mechanism active in an individual cell is of fundamental importance to this process, it is difficult to isolate and study in complex multi-cellular systems and remains poorly understood. This motivates our use of the budding yeast model organism, whose Start checkpoint integrates multiple internal (e.g. cell size) and external signals into an irreversible decision to enter the cell cycle. We have endeavored to address the following two questions: What makes the Start transition irreversible? How does a cell compute its own size? I will report on the progress we have made. Our work is part of an emerging framework for understanding biological control circuits, which will allow us to discern the function of natural systems and aid us in engineering synthetic systems.
Nonlinear feedback control for high alpha flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stalford, Harold
1990-01-01
Analytical aerodynamic models are derived from a high alpha 6 DOF wind tunnel model. One detail model requires some interpolation between nonlinear functions of alpha. One analytical model requires no interpolation and as such is a completely continuous model. Flight path optimization is conducted on the basic maneuvers: half-loop, 90 degree pitch-up, and level turn. The optimal control analysis uses the derived analytical model in the equations of motion and is based on both moment and force equations. The maximum principle solution for the half-loop is poststall trajectory performing the half-loop in 13.6 seconds. The agility induced by thrust vectoring capability provided a minimum effect on reducing the maneuver time. By means of thrust vectoring control the 90 degrees pitch-up maneuver can be executed in a small place over a short time interval. The agility capability of thrust vectoring is quite beneficial for pitch-up maneuvers. The level turn results are based currently on only outer layer solutions of singular perturbation. Poststall solutions provide high turn rates but generate higher losses of energy than that of classical sustained solutions.
Toward broadband electroacoustic resonators through optimized feedback control strategies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulandet, R.; Lissek, H.
2014-09-01
This paper presents a methodology for the design of broadband electroacoustic resonators for low-frequency room equalization. An electroacoustic resonator denotes a loudspeaker used as a membrane resonator, the acoustic impedance of which can be modified through proportional feedback control, to match a target impedance. However, such impedance matching only occurs over a limited bandwidth around resonance, which can limit its use for the low-frequency equalization of rooms, requiring an effective control at least up to the Schroeder frequency. Previous experiments have shown that impedance matching can be achieved over a range of a few octaves using a simple proportional control law. But there is still a limit to the feedback gain, beyond which the feedback-controlled loudspeaker becomes non-dissipative. This paper evaluates the benefits of using PID control and phase compensation techniques to improve the overall performance of the electroacoustic resonator. More specifically, it is shown that some adverse effects due to high-order dynamics in the moving-coil transducer can be mitigated. The corresponding control settings are also identified with equivalent electroacoustic resonator parameters, allowing a straightforward design of the controller. Experimental results using PID control and phase compensation are finally compared in terms of sound absorption performances. As a conclusion the overall performances of electroacoustic resonators for damping the modal resonances inside a duct are presented, along with general discussions on practical implementation and the extension to actual room modes damping.
Discriminative analysis of non-linear brain connectivity in schizophrenia: an fMRI Study
Su, Longfei; Wang, Lubin; Shen, Hui; Feng, Guiyu; Hu, Dewen
2013-01-01
Background: Dysfunctional integration of distributed brain networks is believed to be the cause of schizophrenia, and resting-state functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Unfortunately, existing functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have been mostly limited to linear associations. Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the discriminative power of non-linear functional connectivity and identify its changes in schizophrenia. Method: A novel measure utilizing the extended maximal information coefficient was introduced to construct non-linear functional connectivity. In conjunction with multivariate pattern analysis, the new functional connectivity successfully discriminated schizophrenic patients from healthy controls with relative higher accuracy rate than the linear measure. Result: We found that the strength of the identified non-linear functional connections involved in the classification increased in patients with schizophrenia, which was opposed to its linear counterpart. Further functional network analysis revealed that the changes of the non-linear and linear connectivity have similar but not completely the same spatial distribution in human brain. Conclusion: The classification results suggest that the non-linear functional connectivity provided useful discriminative power in diagnosis of schizophrenia, and the inverse but similar spatial distributed changes between the non-linear and linear measure may indicate the underlying compensatory mechanism and the complex neuronal synchronization underlying the symptom of schizophrenia. PMID:24155713
Detecting non-linearities in neuro-electrical signals: A study of synchronous local field potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller-Gerking, Johannes; Martinerie, Jacques; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Pezard, Laurent; Renault, Bernard; Varela, Francisco J.
The question of the presence and detection of non-linear dynamics and possibly low-dimensional chaos in the brain is still an open question, with recent results indicating that initial claims for low dimensionality were faulted by incomplete statistical testing. To make some progress on this question, our approach was to use stringent data analysis of precisely controlled and behaviorally significant neuroelectric data. There are strong indications that functional brain activity is correlated with synchronous local field potentials. We examine here such synchronous episodes in data recorded from the visual system of behaving cats and pigeons. Our purpose was to examine under these ideal conditions whether the time series showed any evidence of non-linearity concommitantly with the arising of synchrony. To test for non-linearity we have used surrogate sets for non-linear forecasting, the false nearest strands method, and an examination of deterministic vs stochastic modeling. Our results indicate that the time series under examination do show evidence for traces of non-linear dynamics but weakly, since they are not robust under changes of parameters. We conclude that low-dimensional chaos is unlikely to be found in the brain, and that a robust detection and characterization of higher-dimensional non-linear dynamics is beyond the reach of current analytical tools.
L1 adaptive output-feedback control architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharisov, Evgeny
This research focuses on development of L 1 adaptive output-feedback control. The objective is to extend the L1 adaptive control framework to a wider class of systems, as well as obtain architectures that afford more straightforward tuning. We start by considering an existing L1 adaptive output-feedback controller for non-strictly positive real systems based on piecewise constant adaptation law. It is shown that L 1 adaptive control architectures achieve decoupling of adaptation from control, which leads to bounded away from zero time-delay and gain margins in the presence of arbitrarily fast adaptation. Computed performance bounds provide quantifiable performance guarantees both for system output and control signal in transient and steady state. A noticeable feature of the L1 adaptive controller is that its output behavior can be made close to the behavior of a linear time-invariant system. In particular, proper design of the lowpass filter can achieve output response, which almost scales for different step reference commands. This property is relevant to applications with human operator in the loop (for example: control augmentation systems of piloted aircraft), since predictability of the system response is necessary for adequate performance of the operator. Next we present applications of the L1 adaptive output-feedback controller in two different fields of engineering: feedback control of human anesthesia, and ascent control of a NASA crew launch vehicle (CLV). The purpose of the feedback controller for anesthesia is to ensure that the patient's level of sedation during surgery follows a prespecified profile. The L1 controller is enabled by anesthesiologist after he/she achieves sufficient patient sedation level by introducing sedatives manually. This problem formulation requires safe switching mechanism, which avoids controller initialization transients. For this purpose, we used an L1 adaptive controller with special output predictor initialization routine
Feedback control of major disruptions in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor
Sen, A. K.
2011-08-15
It is argued that major disruptions in ITER can be avoided by the feedback control of the causative MHD precursors. The sensors will be 2D-arrays of ECE detectors and the suppressors will be modulated ECH beams injected radially to produce non-thermal radial pressures to counter the radial dynamics of MHD modes. The appropriate amplitude and phase of this signal can stabilize the relevant MHD modes and prevent their evolution to a major disruption. For multimode MHD precursors, an optimal feedback scheme with a Kalman filter is discussed.
Ferrite core non-linearity in coils for magnetic neurostimulation
Lazzi, Gianluca
2014-01-01
The need to correctly predict the voltage across terminals of mm-sized coils, with ferrite core, to be employed for magnetic stimulation of the peripheral neural system is the motivation for this work. In such applications, which rely on a capacitive discharge on the coil to realise a transient voltage curve of duration and strength suitable for neural stimulation, the correct modelling of the non-linearity of the ferrite core is critical. A demonstration of how a finite-difference model of the considered coils, which include a model of the current-controlled inductance in the coil, can be used to correctly predict the time-domain voltage waveforms across the terminals of a test coil is presented. Five coils of different dimensions, loaded with ferrite cores, have been fabricated and tested: the measured magnitude and width of the induced pulse are within 10% of simulated values. PMID:26609390
Influence of Vibrotactile Feedback on Controlling Tilt Motion After Spaceflight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, S. J.; Rupert, A. H.; Vanya, R. D.; Esteves, J. T.; Clement, G.
2011-01-01
We hypothesize that adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the vestibular system are integrated with other sensory information leads to perceptual disturbances and impaired manual control following transitions between gravity environments. The primary goals of this ongoing post-flight investigation are to quantify decrements in manual control of tilt motion following short-duration spaceflight and to evaluate vibrotactile feedback of tilt as a sensorimotor countermeasure. METHODS. Data is currently being collected on 9 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s, <20 cm radius) in a darkened room is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant canal or visual cues. A Tilt-Translation Sled (TTS) is capable of synchronizing pitch tilt with fore-aft translation to align the resultant gravitoinertial vector with the longitudinal body axis, thereby eliciting canal reflexes without concordant otolith or visual cues. A simple 4 tactor system was implemented to provide feedback when tilt position exceeded predetermined levels in either device. Closed-loop nulling tasks are performed during random tilt steps or sum-of-sines (TTS only) with and without vibrotactile feedback of chair position. RESULTS. On landing day the manual control performance without vibrotactile feedback was reduced by >30% based on the gain or the amount of tilt disturbance successfully nulled. Manual control performance tended to return to baseline levels within 1-2 days following landing. Root-mean-square position error and tilt velocity were significantly reduced with vibrotactile feedback. CONCLUSIONS. These preliminary results are consistent with our hypothesis that adaptive changes in vestibular processing corresponds to reduced manual control performance following G-transitions. A simple vibrotactile prosthesis improves the ability to null out tilt motion within a
Feedback Control of Two-Component Regulatory Systems.
Groisman, Eduardo A
2016-09-01
Two-component systems are a dominant form of bacterial signal transduction. The prototypical two-component system consists of a sensor that responds to a specific input(s) by modifying the output of a cognate regulator. Because the output of a two-component system is the amount of phosphorylated regulator, feedback mechanisms may alter the amount of regulator, and/or modify the ability of a sensor or other proteins to alter the phosphorylation state of the regulator. Two-component systems may display intrinsic feedback whereby the amount of phosphorylated regulator changes under constant inducing conditions and without the participation of additional proteins. Feedback control allows a two-component system to achieve particular steady-state levels, to reach a given steady state with distinct dynamics, to express coregulated genes in a given order, and to activate a regulator to different extents, depending on the signal acting on the sensor. PMID:27607549
Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks.
Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2010-01-01
In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture. PMID:19963698
Feedback control of solid oxide fuel cell spatial temperature variation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fardadi, Mahshid; Mueller, Fabian; Jabbari, Faryar
A high performance feedback controller has been developed to minimize SOFC spatial temperature variation following significant load perturbations. For thermal management, spatial temperature variation along SOFC cannot be avoided. However, results indicate that feedback control can be used to manipulate the fuel cell air flow and inlet fuel cell air temperature to maintain a nearly constant SOFC electrode electrolyte assembly temperature profile. For example temperature variations of less than 5 K are obtained for load perturbations of ±25% from nominal. These results are obtained using a centralized control strategy to regulate a distributed temperature profile and manage actuator interactions. The controller is based on H-infinity synthesis using a physical based dynamic model of a single co-flow SOFC repeat cell. The model of the fuel cell spatial temperature response needed for control synthesis was linearized and reduced from nonlinear model of the fuel cell assembly. A single 11 state feedback linear system tested in the full nonlinear model was found to be effective and stable over a wide fuel cell operating envelope (0.82-0.6 V). Overall, simulation of the advanced controller resulted in small and smooth monotonic temperature response to rapid and large load perturbations. This indicates that future SOFC systems can be designed and controlled to have superb load following characteristic with less than previously expected thermal stresses.
Acceleration and torque feedback for robotic control - Experimental results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclnroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.
1990-01-01
Gross motion control of robotic manipulators typically requires significant on-line computations to compensate for nonlinear dynamics due to gravity, Coriolis, centripetal, and friction nonlinearities. One controller proposed by Luo and Saridis avoids these computations by feeding back joint acceleration and torque. This study implements the controller on a Puma 600 robotic manipulator. Joint acceleration measurement is obtained by measuring linear accelerations of each joint, and deriving a computationally efficient transformation from the linear measurements to the angular accelerations. Torque feedback is obtained by using the previous torque sent to the joints. The implementation has stability problems on the Puma 600 due to the extremely high gains inherent in the feedback structure. Since these high gains excite frequency modes in the Puma 600, the algorithm is modified to decrease the gain inherent in the feedback structure. The resulting compensator is stable and insensitive to high frequency unmodeled dynamics. Moreover, a second compensator is proposed which uses acceleration and torque feedback, but still allows nonlinear terms to be fed forward. Thus, by feeding the increment in the easily calculated gravity terms forward, improved responses are obtained. Both proposed compensators are implemented, and the real time results are compared to those obtained with the computed torque algorithm.
Design and evaluation of a state-feedback vibration controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Du Val, R. W.; Gregory, C. Z., Jr.; Gupta, N. K.
1981-01-01
The effectiveness and practicality of the state-feedback vibration controller is demonstrated by computer simulations. It is shown that: (1) the required measurements can be reduced to fuselage accelerations; (2) the system is stable over a wide range of flight conditions; (3) a discrete design for the controller provides effective digital implementation at 80-Hz sampling; (4) attenuation produced by the actuators does not create a problem, and a simple lead compensator provides vibration reduction; and (5) a design based on a hover model worked well at five knots. At 40 and 120 knots, vibrations in all but the vertical acceleration were effectively suppressed. The state-feedback vibration controller has a rapid convergence time and implementation is easier than with multicyclic control since no on-line harmonic analysis or identification algorithms are required.
Delayed feedback control of synchronization in weakly coupled oscillator networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novičenko, Viktor
2015-08-01
We study control of synchronization in weakly coupled oscillator networks by using a phase-reduction approach. Starting from a general class of limit-cycle oscillators we derive a phase model, which shows that delayed feedback control changes effective coupling strengths and effective frequencies. We derive the analytical condition for critical control gain, where the phase dynamics of the oscillator becomes extremely sensitive to any perturbations. As a result the network can attain phase synchronization even if the natural interoscillatory couplings are small. In addition, we demonstrate that delayed feedback control can disrupt the coherent phase dynamic in synchronized networks. The validity of our results is illustrated on networks of diffusively coupled Stuart-Landau and FitzHugh-Nagumo models.
Nonlinear feedback method of robot control - A preliminary experimental study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarn, T. J.; Ganguly, S.; Li, Z.; Bejczy, A. K.
1990-01-01
The nonlinear feedback method of robot control has been experimentally implemented on two PUMA 560 robot arms. The feasibility of the proposed controller, which was shown viable through simulation results earlier, is stressed. The servomechanism operates in task space, and the nonlinear feedback takes care of the necessary transformations to compute the necessary joint currents. A discussion is presented of the implementation with details of the experiments performed. The performance of the controller is encouraging but was limited to 100-Hz sampling frequency and to derived velocity information at the time of the experimentation. The setup of the lab, the software aspects, results, and the control hardware architecture that has recently been implemented are discussed.
Low Order Empirical Galerkin Models for Feedback Flow Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadmor, Gilead; Noack, Bernd
2005-11-01
Model-based feedback control restrictions on model order and complexity stem from several generic considerations: real time computation, the ability to either measure or reliably estimate the state in real time and avoiding sensitivity to noise, uncertainty and numerical ill-conditioning are high on that list. Empirical POD Galerkin models are attractive in the sense that they are simple and (optimally) efficient, but are notoriously fragile, and commonly fail to capture transients and control effects. In this talk we review recent efforts to enhance empirical Galerkin models and make them suitable for feedback design. Enablers include `subgrid' estimation of turbulence and pressure representations, tunable models using modes from multiple operating points, and actuation models. An invariant manifold defines the model's dynamic envelope. It must be respected and can be exploited in observer and control design. These ideas are benchmarked in the cylinder wake system and validated by a systematic DNS investigation of a 3-dimensional Galerkin model of the controlled wake.
Feedback Control for Noise Reduction Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, Jerry H.
2002-12-01
As part of Langley Research Center's continuing noise reduction program, an active noise control system (ANC) is being developed to suppress noise inside an aircraft cabin. This interior noise reduction system consists of the following major components: 1. Several accelerometers. 2. An input amplifier. 3. A digital signal processor (DSP) system that includes an analog to digital converter (ADC) and a digital to analog converter (DAC). 4. A high voltage power amplifier. 5. PZT actuators. 6. Power supply and distribution. The accelerometers detect interior panel vibrations. The accelerometer signals are fed to the input amplifier where they are conditioned prior to being sent to the ADC. The DSP receives the digitized signals form the ADC, processes these signals, and sends the result to the DAC. The DAC's analog output is used as input to the high voltage power amplifier. The power amplifier drives the PZT actuators to cancel noise form 50 to 1,300 Hz. The specific area of concern for this work was development of a DSP system that could be used for an actual flight demonstration. It was decided to base the system on a commercially available DSP board, the Spectrum Digital eZdsp. This was complicated by the fact that the ADC and DAC capabilities available on the eZdsp board were not sufficient to meet the system specification. Designing and fabricating a special ADC and DAC daughter card for the eZdsp circumvented this problem. The DSP system hardware has been successfully tested and is currently being integrated into the complete noise reduction system. This work has been completed in collaboration with another ASEE Fellow, Dr.William Edmonson from Hampton University and was conducted under the direction of the principle investigator, Dr. Qamar A. Shams of the Instrumentation Systems Development Branch, as part of a continuing noise reduction program.
Pilot-optimal multivariable control synthesis by output feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, D. K.; Innocenti, M.
1981-01-01
A control system design approach for optimal stability augmentation, systems, using limited state feedback theory with the specific inclusion of the human pilot in the loop is presented. The methodology is especially suitable for application to flight vehicles exhibiting nonconventional dynamic characteristics and for which quantitative handling qualities specifications are not available. The design is based on a correlation between pilot ratings and objective function of the optimal control model of the human pilot. Simultaneous optimization for augmentation and pilot gains are required.
Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.
1990-01-01
The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.
Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.
2011-12-01
Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems progresses to new approaches in assessing hazard and risk of the extreme catastrophic events. In particular, a series of interrelated step-by-step studies of seismic process along with its non-stationary though self-organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake forecast/prediction technique that has passed control in forward real-time applications during the last two decades. The observed seismic dynamics prior to and after many mega, great, major, and strong earthquakes demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course durable phase transitions in complex hierarchical non-linear system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space and time implies that many traditional estimations of seismic hazard (from term-less to short-term ones) are usually based on erroneous assumptions of easy tractable analytical models, which leads to widespread practice of their deceptive application. The consequences of underestimation of seismic hazard propagate non-linearly into inflicted underestimation of risk and, eventually, into unexpected societal losses due to earthquakes and associated phenomena (i.e., collapse of buildings, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction, etc.). The studies aimed at forecast/prediction of extreme events (interpreted as critical transitions) in geophysical and socio-economical systems include: (i) large earthquakes in geophysical systems of the lithosphere blocks-and-faults, (ii) starts and ends of economic recessions, (iii) episodes of a sharp increase in the unemployment rate, (iv) surge of the homicides in socio-economic systems. These studies are based on a heuristic search of phenomena preceding critical transitions and application of methodologies of pattern recognition of infrequent events. Any study of rare
Interfacial force sensor with force-feedback control
Joyce, S.A.; Houston, J.E.; Smith, B.K.
1990-01-01
A new interfacial force microscope capable of measuring the forces between two surfaces over the entire range of surface separations, up to contact, has been developed. The design is centered around a differential capacitance displacement sensor where the common capacitor plate is supported by torsion bars. A force-feedback control system balances the interfacial forces at the sensor, maintaining the common capacitor plate at its rest position. This control eliminates the instability which occurs with the conventional cantilever-based force sensors when the attractive force gradient exceeds the mechanical stiffness of the cantilever. The ability to measure interfacial forces at surface separations smaller than this instability point using the feedback control is demonstrated. 11 refs., 3 figs.
Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J
1994-03-01
Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the
Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred
2012-07-01
The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in
Montefusco, Francesco; Akman, Ozgur E; Soyer, Orkun S; Bates, Declan G
2016-01-01
Many of the most important potential applications of Synthetic Biology will require the ability to design and implement high performance feedback control systems that can accurately regulate the dynamics of multiple molecular species within the cell. Here, we argue that the use of design strategies based on combining ultrasensitive response dynamics with negative feedback represents a natural approach to this problem that fully exploits the strongly nonlinear nature of cellular information processing. We propose that such feedback mechanisms can explain the adaptive responses observed in one of the most widely studied biomolecular feedback systems-the yeast osmoregulatory response network. Based on our analysis of such system, we identify strong links with a well-known branch of mathematical systems theory from the field of Control Engineering, known as Sliding Mode Control. These insights allow us to develop design guidelines that can inform the construction of feedback controllers for synthetic biological systems. PMID:27537373
Controlling low-dimensional dynamics using restricted feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Daniel J.; Socolar, Joshua E. S.
1998-03-01
Recent research has demonstrated that it is possible to control the dynamics of biological systems, such as the heart and brain, by making small adjustments to an accesible system parameter or variable. The strength and timing of the adjustments are determined using nonlinear dynamcis theory. It is often the case that the dynamics can be modified only in a restricted manner. For example, it is easy to shorten the interbeat interval in cardiac dynamics but nearly impossible to lengthen the interval. We describe our investigation of a simple theoretical model of stabilization of an unstable fixed point using such restricted feedback. We find that the restrictions give rise to surprising changes in the domain of control. For restricted proportional feedback, the domain shrinks considerably and feedback parameters that were `optimal' in the absence of restrictions are no longer desirable. For restricted time-delay autosynchronization, the domain of control is extended to highly unstable fixed points whereas such states are not controllable in the absence of restrictions.
Scanning ablation of root caries with acoustic feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Kenneth; Fried, Daniel
2007-02-01
It has been previously demonstrated that short λ=355-nm laser pulses can be used for the selective removal of caries lesions and composite restorative materials from occlusal surfaces with minimal damage to the peripheral sound tooth structure. One advantage of laser-systems is they can be integrated with acoustic and optical feedback systems for the automated discrimination of dental caries and restorative materials. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root caries could be selectively removed from tooth surfaces using a computer controlled laserscanning system coupled with an acoustic feedback system. Dental root caries surfaces on extracted teeth were scanned with λ=355-nm laser pulses at irradiation intensities ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 J/cm2. Acoustic feedback signals were acquired and used to control the laser output and scanning stages were used to position the laser over carious dentin until all the caries were removed to a fixed depth. Polarization optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) was used to acquire images of the root caries lesions before and after removal by the laser in order to assess if ablation was selective. The amplitude of the acoustic waves generated during the ablation of carious dentin was higher than for sound dentin allowing the acoustic feedback system to discriminate between sound and carious dentin. PS-OCT showed that caries were removed to a depth of up to 1.5-mm with minimal peripheral damage to peripheral sound dentin. The acoustic feedback was successfully used to distinguish between root caries and sound dentin, enabling the selective removal of caries from dentin surfaces using a λ=355-nm, Nd:YAG Q-switched laser system.
Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven
White, Terry L.
1991-01-01
An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.
Temperature sensitive stability of feedback controllers for MR dampers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batterbee, D. C.; Sims, N. D.
2008-03-01
Smart fluid dampers can undergo large temperature changes due to the heating associated with energy dissipation. Such heating will alter the fluid's properties and could degrade control system performance. For example, previous work by the authors has shown that the stability of an MR damper under feedback control is dependent on the fluid's compressibility and viscosity. In the present study, a temperature dependent model of a magnetorheological damper is developed from experimental data, and it is shown that the fluid's yield stress, viscosity and compressibility parameters vary significantly. An experimental and numerical control study is then performed to investigate the resulting effects of temperature on the stability of two feedback controllers - a PID controller, and a proportional controller. Experimental results indicate that both controllers can exhibit a reduction in stability with increasing temperature, particularly if the controller gains are not suitably chosen. The temperature dependent MR damper model predicts this behaviour well, and it is shown that the change in viscosity has the most significant effect on stability. Future work could focus on the resulting effect on a complete vibration system, devices with different modes of operation, and alternative controllers.
Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.
Salmon, Phil
2014-01-01
The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent
Issues on stability of ADP feedback controllers for dynamical systems.
Balakrishnan, S N; Ding, Jie; Lewis, Frank L
2008-08-01
This paper traces the development of neural-network (NN)-based feedback controllers that are derived from the principle of adaptive/approximate dynamic programming (ADP) and discusses their closed-loop stability. Different versions of NN structures in the literature, which embed mathematical mappings related to solutions of the ADP-formulated problems called "adaptive critics" or "action-critic" networks, are discussed. Distinction between the two classes of ADP applications is pointed out. Furthermore, papers in "model-free" development and model-based neurocontrollers are reviewed in terms of their contributions to stability issues. Recent literature suggests that work in ADP-based feedback controllers with assured stability is growing in diverse forms. PMID:18632377
Improved Position Sensor for Feedback Control of Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyers, Robert; Savage, Larry; Rogers, Jan
2004-01-01
An improved optoelectronic apparatus has been developed to provide the position feedback needed for controlling the levitation subsystem of a containerless-processing system. As explained, the advantage of this apparatus over prior optoelectronic apparatuses that have served this purpose stems from the use of an incandescent lamp, instead of a laser, to illuminate the levitated object. In containerless processing, a small object to be processed is levitated (e.g., by use of a microwave, low-frequency electromagnetic, electrostatic, or acoustic field) so that it is not in contact with the wall of the processing chamber or with any other solid object during processing. In the case of electrostatic or low-frequency electromagnetic levitation, real-time measurement of the displacement of the levitated object from its nominal levitation position along the vertical axis (and, in some cases, along one or two horizontal axes) is needed for feedback control of the levitating field.
Conformal grasping using feedback controlled bubble actuator array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrigan, Wei; Stein, Richard; Mittal, Manoj; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.
2014-06-01
This paper presents an implementation of a bubble actuator array (BAA) based active robotic skin, a modular system, onto existing low cost robotic end-effectors or prosthetic hands for conformal grasping of objects. The active skin is comprised of pneumatically controlled polyurethane rubber bubbles with overlaid sensors for feedback control. Sensor feedback allows the BAA based robotic skin to conformally grasp an object with an explicit uniform force distribution. The bubble actuator array reported here is capable of applying up to 4N of force at each point of contact and tested for conformally grasping objects with a radius of curvature up to 57.15mm. Once integrated onto a two-finger gripper with one degree of freedom (DOF), the active skin was shown to reduce point of contact forces of up to 50% for grasped objects.
On reliable control system designs with and without feedback reconfigurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birdwell, J. D.; Castanon, D. A.; Athans, M.
1979-01-01
This paper contains an overview of a theoretical framework for the design of reliable multivariable control systems, with special emphasis on actuator failures and necessary actuator redundancy levels. Using a linear model of the system, with Markovian failure probabilities and quadratic performance index, an optimal stochastic control problem is posed and solved. The solution requires the iteration of a set of highly coupled Riccati-like matrix difference equations; if these converge one has a reliable design; if they diverge, the design is unreliable, and the system design cannot be stabilized. In addition, it is shown that the existence of a stabilizing constant feedback gain and the reliability of its implementation is equivalent to the convergence properties of a set of coupled Riccati-like matrix difference equations. In summary, these results can be used for offline studies relating the open loop dynamics, required performance, actuator mean time to failure, and functional or identical actuator redundancy, with and without feedback gain reconfiguration strategies.
Computer modeling of batteries from non-linear circuit elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waaben, S.; Federico, J.; Moskowitz, I.
1983-01-01
A simple non-linear circuit model for battery behavior is given. It is based on time-dependent features of the well-known PIN change storage diode, whose behavior is described by equations similar to those associated with electrochemical cells. The circuit simulation computer program ADVICE was used to predict non-linear response from a topological description of the battery analog built from advice components. By a reasonable choice of one set of parameters, the circuit accurately simulates a wide spectrum of measured non-linear battery responses to within a few millivolts.
Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.
Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi
2016-03-01
An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079
Fiber optic sensor: Feedback control design and implementation
Tung, D.; Bertram, L.; Hillaire, R.; Anderson, S.; Leonard, S.; Marburger, S.
1997-07-01
Digital feedback control of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) has been demonstrated on a tube sample of stainless steel and titanium alloy. A fiber optic sensor returns a signal proportional to backside radiance from the workpiece; that signal is used by the controller to compute a compensation weld current. The controller executes 10 times a second on an Intel 486 chip. For travel speeds of 3 to 6 inches per minute and thicknesses between 0.025 and 0.10 inches, constant backside bead width was maintained within 0.02 inches, from startup to tie-in.
Practical Loop-Shaping Design of Feedback Control Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George
2010-01-01
An improved methodology for designing feedback control systems has been developed based on systematically shaping the loop gain of the system to meet performance requirements such as stability margins, disturbance attenuation, and transient response, while taking into account the actuation system limitations such as actuation rates and range. Loop-shaping for controls design is not new, but past techniques do not directly address how to systematically design the controller to maximize its performance. As a result, classical feedback control systems are designed predominantly using ad hoc control design approaches such as proportional integral derivative (PID), normally satisfied when a workable solution is achieved, without a good understanding of how to maximize the effectiveness of the control design in terms of competing performance requirements, in relation to the limitations of the plant design. The conception of this improved methodology was motivated by challenges in designing control systems of the types needed for supersonic propulsion. But the methodology is generally applicable to any classical control-system design where the transfer function of the plant is known or can be evaluated. In the case of a supersonic aerospace vehicle, a major challenge is to design the system to attenuate anticipated external and internal disturbances, using such actuators as fuel injectors and valves, bypass doors, and ramps, all of which are subject to limitations in actuator response, rates, and ranges. Also, for supersonic vehicles, with long slim type of structures, coupling between the engine and the structural dynamics can produce undesirable effects that could adversely affect vehicle stability and ride quality. In order to design distributed controls that can suppress these potential adverse effects, within the full capabilities of the actuation system, it is important to employ a systematic control design methodology such as this that can maximize the
A model for reverberating circuits with controlled feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Vanessa de Freitas; de Castro, Maria Clícia Stelling; Wedemann, Roseli Suzi; Cortez, Celia Martins
2015-12-01
We studied the behavior of a mathematic-computational model for a reverberating neuronal circuit with controlled feedback, verifying the output pattern of the circuit, by means simulations using a program in language C++. Using values obtained from surveying the literature from animal experiments, we observed that the model was able to reproduce the polissynaptic activity of a neuron group of a vigil rat, with looping time of three neurons of the order of magnitude of 102 ms.
Optimal feedback control infinite dimensional parabolic evolution systems: Approximation techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Wang, C.
1989-01-01
A general approximation framework is discussed for computation of optimal feedback controls in linear quadratic regular problems for nonautonomous parabolic distributed parameter systems. This is done in the context of a theoretical framework using general evolution systems in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Conditions are discussed for preservation under approximation of stabilizability and detectability hypotheses on the infinite dimensional system. The special case of periodic systems is also treated.
Feedback-Controlled LED Photobioreactor for Photophysiological Studies of Cyanobacteria
Melnicki, Matthew R.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Stolyar, Sergey; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.
2013-04-09
A custom photobioreactor (PBR) was designed to enable automatic light adjustments using computerized feedback control. A black anodized aluminum enclosure, constructed to surround the borosilicate reactor vessel, prevents the transmission of ambient light and serves as a mount for arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The high-output LEDs provide narrow-band light of either 630 or 680 nm for preferential excitation of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting pigments, phycobilin or chlorophyll a, respectively. Custom developed software BioLume provides automatic control of optical properties and a computer feedback loop can automatically adjust the incident irradiance as necessary to maintain a fixed transmitted light through the culture, based on user-determined set points. This feedback control serves to compensate for culture dynamics which have optical effects, (e.g., changing cell density, pigment adaptations) and thus can determine the appropriate light conditions for physiological comparisons or to cultivate light-sensitive strains, without prior analyses. The LED PBR may also be controlled as a turbidostat, using a feedback loop to continuously adjust the rate of media-dilution based on the transmitted light measurements, with a fast and precise response. This cultivation system gains further merit as a high-performance analytical device, using non-invasive tools (e.g., dissolved gas sensors, online mass spectrometry) to automate real-time measurements, thus permitting unsupervised experiments to search for optimal growth conditions, to monitor physiological responses to perturbations, as well as to quantitate photophysiological parameters using an in situ light-saturation response routine.
Galerkin method for feedback controlled Rayleigh Bénard convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Münch, A.; Wagner, B.
2008-11-01
The problem of feedback controlled Rayleigh-Bénard convection is considered. For this problem with the simple flow structure in the vertical direction, a Galerkin method that uses only a few basis functions in this direction is presented. This approximation yields considerable simplification of the problem, explicitly incorporates the non-classical boundary conditions at the horizontal boundaries of the fluid layer resulting from feedback control and reduces the dimension of the original problem by one. This method is in spirit very similar to lubrication theory, where the simple laminar flow in the vertical direction is integrated out across the height of the fluid layer. Using a minimal set of appropriate basis functions to capture the nonlinear behaviour of the flow, we investigate the effects of feedback control on amplitude, wavelength and selection of patterns via weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical simulations of the resulting dimension-reduced problems in two and three dimensions. In the second part of this study we discuss the derivation of the appropriate basis functions and prove convergence of the Galerkin scheme. This paper is published as part of a collection in honour of Todd Dupont's 65th birthday.
Towards Quantum Cybernetics:. Optimal Feedback Control in Quantum Bio Informatics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belavkin, V. P.
2009-02-01
A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for the purpose of optimal control in quantum cybernetics with convex constraints and cońcave cost and bequest functions of the quantum state is given. Consideration is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme with continuous observations we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects for quantum stochastic micro-dynamics of the total system. This allows to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to only Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. A controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one.
Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.
2016-09-01
We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.
Asymptotic Stability of Interconnected Passive Non-Linear Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isidori, A.; Joshi, S. M.; Kelkar, A. G.
1999-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of stabilization of a class of internally passive non-linear time-invariant dynamic systems. A class of non-linear marginally strictly passive (MSP) systems is defined, which is less restrictive than input-strictly passive systems. It is shown that the interconnection of a non-linear passive system and a non-linear MSP system is globally asymptotically stable. The result generalizes and weakens the conditions of the passivity theorem, which requires one of the systems to be input-strictly passive. In the case of linear time-invariant systems, it is shown that the MSP property is equivalent to the marginally strictly positive real (MSPR) property, which is much simpler to check.
Optimal open-loop and feedback control using single gimbal control moment gyroscopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoelscher, Brian R.; Vadali, Srinvas R.
1993-01-01
Methods for control of spacecraft maneuvers through the use of single gimbal control moment gyroscopes are developed. The development employs an integrated model of the spacecraft dynamics with the control moment gyroscope dynamics. Smooth and continuous open-loop control profiles are obtained which minimize a weighted function of maneuver time, magnitude of control effort, and proximity to singular gimbal configurations. Closed-loop state feedback control laws are derived by invoking Lyapunov stability theory. The schemes are presented for implementing the commanded state feedback: gimbal rate control and gimbal acceleration control. The appropriate handling of singular gimbal configurations is also discussed.
Independent modal space control with positive position feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Fedor, J.
1989-01-01
An independent modal space control (IMSC) algorithm is presented, whose modal control forces are generated from a positive position feedback (PPF) strategy. The proposed algorithm combines the attributes of both the IMSC and the PPF, and maintains the simplicity of the IMSC as it designs the controller of a complex structure at the uncoupled modal level. The effectiveness of the algorithm in damping out the vibration of flexible structures is validated experimentally. A simple cantilevered beam is employed as an example of a flexible structure whose multimodes of vibration are controlled by a single actuator. Performance of the active control system is determined in the frequency and the time domains. The experimental results indicate the potential of the proposed methodology as a viable method for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures.
Stochastic differential equations for non-linear hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Español, Pep
1998-02-01
We formulate the stochastic differential equations for non-linear hydrodynamic fluctuations. The equations incorporate the random forces through a random stres tensor and random heat flux as in the Landau and Lifshitz theory. However, the equations are non-linear and the random forces are non-Gaussian. We provide explicit expressions for these random quantities in terms of the well-defined increments of the Wienner process.
A three-dimensional network model describing a non-linear composite material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mårtensson, E.; Gäfvert, U.
2004-01-01
A three-dimensional network model for performing non-linear time-dependent simulations of the electrical characteristics related to a composite material is presented. The considered compounds are represented by a cubic lattice and consist of conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Earlier studies of the non-linear characteristics of silicon carbide (SiC) grains and of the linear frequency-dependent electrical properties of composites are combined and extended. The calculations are compared to measurements on ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber filled with angular SiC grains. The field-dependent conductivity measured for the unconsolidated SiC powder is used as input to the simulations. The model can manage the conductivity difference of seven decades between the constituents and the strong exponential non-linearity of the conducting particles. The network calculations replicate the experimental characteristic at high filler concentrations, where direct 'face' contacts between the filler grains dominate the behaviour. At lower concentrations, it is shown that indirect 'edge' contacts involving the polymer control the current transport also in the non-linear high field range. The general effective conductivity describing an edge connection in the linear case is no longer appropriate. Non-linear mechanisms in the polymer and the conducting grains within a field enhanced limited region around the contact need to be represented by an equivalent circuit element with a case-dependent resulting expression.
Temporal control and compensation for perturbed voicing feedback
Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen N.; Munhall, Kevin G.
2014-01-01
Previous research employing a real-time auditory perturbation paradigm has shown that talkers monitor their own speech attributes such as fundamental frequency, vowel intensity, vowel formants, and fricative noise as part of speech motor control. In the case of vowel formants or fricative noise, what was manipulated is spectral information about the filter function of the vocal tract. However, segments can be contrasted by parameters other than spectral configuration. It is possible that the feedback system monitors phonation timing in the way it does spectral information. This study examined whether talkers exhibit a compensatory behavior when manipulating information about voicing. When talkers received feedback of the cognate of the intended voicing category (saying “tipper” while hearing “dipper” or vice versa), they changed the voice onset time and in some cases the following vowel. PMID:24815278
Temporal control and compensation for perturbed voicing feedback.
Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen N; Munhall, Kevin G
2014-05-01
Previous research employing a real-time auditory perturbation paradigm has shown that talkers monitor their own speech attributes such as fundamental frequency, vowel intensity, vowel formants, and fricative noise as part of speech motor control. In the case of vowel formants or fricative noise, what was manipulated is spectral information about the filter function of the vocal tract. However, segments can be contrasted by parameters other than spectral configuration. It is possible that the feedback system monitors phonation timing in the way it does spectral information. This study examined whether talkers exhibit a compensatory behavior when manipulating information about voicing. When talkers received feedback of the cognate of the intended voicing category (saying "tipper" while hearing "dipper" or vice versa), they changed the voice onset time and in some cases the following vowel. PMID:24815278
Dissipative control for linear systems by static output feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhiguang; Lam, James; Shu, Zhan
2013-08-01
In this article, the problem of static output-feedback dissipative control is investigated for linear continuous-time system based on an augmented system approach. A necessary and sufficient condition for stability and strict (Q,S,R)-dissipativity of the closed-loop system is established in terms of a matrix inequality with free parametrisation matrix. An equivalent characterisation with some slack matrices for numerical solvability is then proposed. Based on this, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a desired controller is given, and a corresponding iterative algorithm is developed to solve the condition. The effectiveness of results developed in this article is demonstrated by some numerical examples.
Discretization chaos - Feedback control and transition to chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grantham, Walter J.; Athalye, Amit M.
1990-01-01
Problems in the design of feedback controllers for chaotic dynamical systems are considered theoretically, focusing on two cases where chaos arises only when a nonchaotic continuous-time system is discretized into a simpler discrete-time systems (exponential discretization and pseudo-Euler integration applied to Lotka-Volterra competition and prey-predator systems). Numerical simulation results are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. It is concluded that care must be taken in applying standard dynamical-systems methods to control systems that may be discontinuous or nondifferentiable.
Reinforcement learning output feedback NN control using deterministic learning technique.
Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Shi, Zhongke
2014-03-01
In this brief, a novel adaptive-critic-based neural network (NN) controller is investigated for nonlinear pure-feedback systems. The controller design is based on the transformed predictor form, and the actor-critic NN control architecture includes two NNs, whereas the critic NN is used to approximate the strategic utility function, and the action NN is employed to minimize both the strategic utility function and the tracking error. A deterministic learning technique has been employed to guarantee that the partial persistent excitation condition of internal states is satisfied during tracking control to a periodic reference orbit. The uniformly ultimate boundedness of closed-loop signals is shown via Lyapunov stability analysis. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control. PMID:24807456
Delayed feedback control method for dynamical systems with chaotic saddles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Miki U.; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2012-08-01
We consider systems whose orbits diverge after chaotic transient for a finite time, and propose a controlmethod for preventing the divergence. These systems generally possess not chaotic attractors but some chaotic saddles. Our aim of control, i.e., the prevention of divergence, is achieved through the stabilization of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the chaotic saddle by making use of the delayed feedback controlmethod. The key concept of our control strategy is the application of the Proper Interior Maximum (PIM) triple method and the method to detect unstable periodic orbits from time series, originally developed by Lathrop and Kostelich, as initial steps before adding the delayed feedback control input. We show that our control method can be applied to the Hénon map and an intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) therapy model, which is a model for therapy of advanced prostate cancer. The fact that our method can be applied to the IAS therapy model indicates that our control strategy may be useful in the therapy of advanced prostate cancer.
Closed loop kinesthetic feedback for postural control rehabilitation.
Vérité, Fabien; Bachta, Wael; Morel, Guillaume
2014-01-01
Postural control rehabilitation may benefit from the use of smart devices providing biofeedback. This approach consists of increasing the patients perception of their postural state. Namely, postural state is monitored and fed back in real time to the patients through one or more sensory channels. This allows implementing rehabilitation exercises where the patients control their posture with the help of additional sensory inputs. In this paper, a closed loop control of the Center-Of-Pressure (CoP) based on kinesthetic feedback is proposed as a new form of biofeedback. The motion of a one Degree of Freedom (DoF) translational device, lightly touched by the patient's forefinger, is servoed to the patient's CoP position extracted from the measurements of a force plate on which he/she stands. As a result, the patient's CoP can be controllably displaced. A first set of experiments is used to prove the feasibility of this closed-loop control under ideal conditions favoring the perception of the kinesthetic feedback, while the subject is totally unaware of the context. A second set of experiments is then proposed to evaluate the robustness of this approach under experimental conditions that are more realistic with regards to the clinical context of a rehabilitation program involving biofeedback-based exercises. PMID:24968379
A feedback control for the advanced launch system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seywald, Hans; Cliff, Eugene M.
1991-01-01
A robust feedback algorithm is presented for a near-minimum-fuel ascent of a two-stage launch vehicle operating in the equatorial plane. The development of the algorithm is based on the ideas of neighboring optimal control and can be derived into three phases. In phase 1, the formalism of optimal control is employed to calculate fuel-optimal ascent trajectories for a simple point-mass model. In phase 2, these trajectories are used to numerically calculate gain functions of time for the control(s), the total flight time, and possibly, for other variables of interest. In phase 3, these gains are used to determine feedback expressions for the controls associated with a more realistic model of a launch vehicle. With the Advanced Launch System in mind, all calculations are performed on a two-stage vehicle with fixed thrust history, but this restriction is by no means important for the approach taken. Performance and robustness of the algorithm is found to be excellent.
Gantry cranes gain scheduling feedback control with friction compensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omar, Hanafy M.; Nayfeh, Ali H.
2005-03-01
We designed a controller based on gain-scheduling feedback to move a load on a gantry crane from point to point within one oscillation cycle and without inducing large swings. The settling time of the system is taken to be equal to the period of oscillation of the load. This criterion enables calculation of the controller feedback gains for varying load weight and cable length. Numerical simulations show that the controller is effective in reducing load oscillations and transferring the load in a reasonable time compared with that of optimal control. To experimentally validate the theory, we had to compensate for friction. To this end, we estimated the friction, and then applied an opposite control action to cancel it. To estimate the friction force, we assumed a mathematical model, and then we estimated the model coefficients using an off-line identification technique, such as the method of least squares (LS). First, the process of identification is applied to a theoretical model of a DC motor with known friction coefficients. From this example, some guidelines and rules are deduced for the choice of the LS parameters. Then, the friction coefficients of the gantry crane model are estimated and validated.
Use of non-linear EEG analysis to study abnormal brain dynamics in deaf human subjects.
Micheloyannis, S; Stam, C J; Fountoulakis, E; Bourkas, M; Arvanitis, S; Papanikolaou, E
1998-06-19
We compared the cortical dynamics of deaf subjects to those of control subjects at rest with eyes closed and during reading with the help of a non-linear prediction statistic. This method is suitable for short-term noisy time series such as electroencephalographic signals. Furthermore, we used surrogate data to test for non-linear dynamics underlying the electroencephalographic time series recorded. Our results indicate that significant non-linearity accompanies cortical activation during reading. This is more diffuse in deaf subjects and could be due to the widespread reorganization of their cerebral cortex. Predictability was lower in deaf subjects at rest, which indicates their increased 'readiness' in the resting condition. Finally, our results indicate that normal and deaf subjects differ significantly in terms of cortical dynamics. PMID:9682843
Feedback control by online learning an inverse model.
Waegeman, Tim; Wyffels, Francis; Schrauwen, Francis
2012-10-01
A model, predictor, or error estimator is often used by a feedback controller to control a plant. Creating such a model is difficult when the plant exhibits nonlinear behavior. In this paper, a novel online learning control framework is proposed that does not require explicit knowledge about the plant. This framework uses two learning modules, one for creating an inverse model, and the other for actually controlling the plant. Except for their inputs, they are identical. The inverse model learns by the exploration performed by the not yet fully trained controller, while the actual controller is based on the currently learned model. The proposed framework allows fast online learning of an accurate controller. The controller can be applied on a broad range of tasks with different dynamic characteristics. We validate this claim by applying our control framework on several control tasks: 1) the heating tank problem (slow nonlinear dynamics); 2) flight pitch control (slow linear dynamics); and 3) the balancing problem of a double inverted pendulum (fast linear and nonlinear dynamics). The results of these experiments show that fast learning and accurate control can be achieved. Furthermore, a comparison is made with some classical control approaches, and observations concerning convergence and stability are made. PMID:24808008
Learning arm's posture control using reinforcement learning and feedback-error-learning.
Kambara, H; Kim, J; Sato, M; Koike, Y
2004-01-01
In this paper, we propose a learning model using the Actor-Critic method and the feedback-error-learning scheme. The Actor-Critic method, which is one of the major frameworks in reinforcement learning, has attracted attention as a computational learning model in the basal ganglia. Meanwhile, the feedback-error-learning is learning architecture proposed as a computationally coherent model of cerebellar motor learning. This learning architecture's purpose is to acquire a feed-forward controller by using a feedback controller's output as an error signal. In past researches, a predetermined constant gain feedback controller was used for the feedback-error-learning. We use the Actor-Critic method for obtaining a feedback controller in the feedback-error-earning. By applying the proposed learning model to an arm's posture control, we show that high-performance feedback and feed-forward controller can be acquired from only by using a scalar value of reward. PMID:17271719
Feedback inhibition controls spike transfer in hybrid thalamic circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Masson, Gwendal; Renaud-Le Masson, Sylvie; Debay, Damien; Bal, Thierry
2002-06-01
Sensory information reaches the cerebral cortex through the thalamus, which differentially relays this input depending on the state of arousal. Such `gating' involves inhibition of the thalamocortical relay neurons by the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We reconstructed the thalamocortical circuit as an artificial and biological hybrid network in vitro. With visual input simulated as retinal cell activity, we show here that when the gain in the thalamic inhibitory feedback loop is greater than a critical value, the circuit tends towards oscillations-and thus imposes a temporal decorrelation of retinal cell input and thalamic relay output. This results in the functional disconnection of the cortex from the sensory drive, a feature typical of sleep states. Conversely, low gain in the feedback inhibition and the action of noradrenaline, a known modulator of arousal, converge to increase input-output correlation in relay neurons. Combining gain control of feedback inhibition and modulation of membrane excitability thus enables thalamic circuits to finely tune the gating of spike transmission from sensory organs to the cortex.
Modeling and sensory feedback control for space manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Masutani, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Fumio; Arimoto, Suguru
1989-01-01
The positioning control problem of the endtip of space manipulators whose base are uncontrolled is examined. In such a case, the conventional control method for industrial robots based on a local feedback at each joint is not applicable, because a solution of the joint displacements that satisfies a given position and orientation of the endtip is not decided uniquely. A sensory feedback control scheme for space manipulators based on an artificial potential defined in a task-oriented coordinates is proposed. Using this scheme, the controller can easily determine the input torque of each joint from the data of an external sensor such as a visual device. Since the external sensor is mounted on the unfixed base, the manipulator must track the moving image of the target in sensor coordinates. Moreover the dynamics of the base and the manipulator are interactive. However, the endtip is proven to asymptotically approach the stationary target in an inertial coordinate frame by the Liapunov's method. Finally results of computer simulation for a 6-link space manipulator model show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Feedback control of flow alignment in sheared liquid crystals.
Strehober, David A; Schöll, Eckehard; Klapp, Sabine H L
2013-12-01
Based on a continuum theory, we investigate the manipulation of the nonequilibrium behavior of a sheared liquid crystal via closed-loop feedback control. Our goal is to stabilize a specific dynamical state, that is, the stationary "flow alignment," under conditions where the uncontrolled system displays oscillatory director dynamics with in-plane symmetry. To this end we employ time-delayed feedback control (TDFC), where the equation of motion for the ith component q(i)(t) of the order parameter tensor is supplemented by a control term involving the difference q(i)(t)-q(i)(t-τ). In this diagonal scheme, τ is the delay time. We demonstrate that the TDFC method successfully stabilizes flow alignment for suitable values of the control strength K and τ; these values are determined by solving an exact eigenvalue equation. Moreover, our results show that only small values of K are needed when the system is sheared from an isotropic equilibrium state, contrary to the case where the equilibrium state is nematic. PMID:24483470
Feedback control of flow alignment in sheared liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strehober, David A.; Schöll, Eckehard; Klapp, Sabine H. L.
2013-12-01
Based on a continuum theory, we investigate the manipulation of the nonequilibrium behavior of a sheared liquid crystal via closed-loop feedback control. Our goal is to stabilize a specific dynamical state, that is, the stationary "flow alignment," under conditions where the uncontrolled system displays oscillatory director dynamics with in-plane symmetry. To this end we employ time-delayed feedback control (TDFC), where the equation of motion for the ith component qi(t) of the order parameter tensor is supplemented by a control term involving the difference qi(t)-qi(t-τ). In this diagonal scheme, τ is the delay time. We demonstrate that the TDFC method successfully stabilizes flow alignment for suitable values of the control strength K and τ; these values are determined by solving an exact eigenvalue equation. Moreover, our results show that only small values of K are needed when the system is sheared from an isotropic equilibrium state, contrary to the case where the equilibrium state is nematic.
Nonlinear feedback control and trajectory tracking of vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbassi, Younés; Ait-Amirat, Youcef; Outbib, Rachid
2015-12-01
This paper mainly studies nonlinear feedback control applied to the nonlinear vehicle dynamics with varying velocity. The main objective of this study is the stabilisation of longitudinal, lateral and yaw angular vehicle velocities. To this end, a nonlinear vehicle model is developed which takes both the lateral and longitudinal vehicle dynamics into account. Based on this model, a method to build a nonlinear state feedback control is first designed by which the complexity of system structure can be simplified. The obtained system is then synthesised by the combined Lyapunov-LaSalle method. The simulation results show that the proposed control can improve stability and comfort of vehicle driving. Moreover, this paper presents a lemma which ensures the trajectory tracking and path-following problem for vehicle. It can also be exploited simultaneously to solve both the tracking and path-following control problems of the vehicle ride and driving stability. We also show how the results of the lemma can be applied to solve the path-following problem, in which the vehicle converges and follows a designed path. The effectiveness of the proposed lemma for trajectory tracking is clearly demonstrated by simulation results.
Diamagnetically Levitating Three Phase Motor with Optical Feedback Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanna, Shrey; Nhut Ho, Joe; Irwen, Jonathan; Chih Wang, Wei
2010-11-01
This article describes a feasibility study of creating a low friction, low maintenance power delivering motor using a diamagnetically stabilized levitating rotor. The planar rotor described in this article uses a triangular configuration of magnets that rotates due to nine electric coils evenly spaced around the rotor. The principle behind levitation of the rotor and the dynamic forces on it are described in detail. An optical encoder feedback system is designed and fabricated that controls the frequency of the levitating rotor. The current input to the coils is given through a driving circuit that amplifies a DC pulse signal generated by a control algorithm designed in LabVIEW. The driving circuit allows current to flow through one phase at a time, which produces a magnetic field strong enough to spin the rotor. Experiments suggest that the optical encoder feedback control system can do reference tracking on the levitating rotor. The designed control algorithm can drive the rotor to specified reference frequencies up to 1.3 Hz using the optical encoder measurements.
Control of cardiac alternans by mechanical and electrical feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yapari, Felicia; Deshpande, Dipen; Belhamadia, Youssef; Dubljevic, Stevan
2014-07-01
A persistent alternation in the cardiac action potential duration has been linked to the onset of ventricular arrhythmia, which may lead to sudden cardiac death. A coupling between these cardiac alternans and the intracellular calcium dynamics has also been identified in previous studies. In this paper, the system of PDEs describing the small amplitude of alternans and the alternation of peak intracellular Ca2+ are stabilized by optimal boundary and spatially distributed actuation. A simulation study demonstrating the successful annihilation of both alternans on a one-dimensional cable of cardiac cells by utilizing the full-state feedback controller is presented. Complimentary to these studies, a three variable Nash-Panfilov model is used to investigate alternans annihilation via mechanical (or stretch) perturbations. The coupled model includes the active stress which defines the mechanical properties of the tissue and is utilized in the feedback algorithm as an independent input from the pacing based controller realization in alternans annihilation. Simulation studies of both control methods demonstrate that the proposed methods can successfully annihilate alternans in cables that are significantly longer than 1 cm, thus overcoming the limitations of earlier control efforts.
Output feedback control of a mechanical system using magnetic levitation.
Beltran-Carbajal, F; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, A; Rosas-Caro, J C; Favela-Contreras, A
2015-07-01
This paper presents an application of a nonlinear magnetic levitation system to the problem of efficient active control of mass-spring-damper mechanical systems. An output feedback control scheme is proposed for reference position trajectory tracking tasks on the flexible mechanical system. The electromagnetically actuated system is shown to be a differentially flat nonlinear system. An extended state estimation approach is also proposed to obtain estimates of velocity, acceleration and disturbance signals. The differential flatness structural property of the system is then employed for the synthesis of the controller and the signal estimation approach presented in this work. Some experimental and simulation results are included to show the efficient performance of the control approach and the effective estimation of the unknown signals. PMID:25707718
Quantised output feedback control via limited capacity communication networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qing-Quan; Jin, Fang
2012-12-01
This article addresses the output feedback stability problem for single-input single-output (SISO) linear systems with quantised measurements of the plant output, where sensors and controllers are connected via errorless digital channels carrying a finite number of bits per unit time. The main idea here is to present a lower bound of data rates, above which there exists a quantisation, coding and control scheme to guarantee both stability and a prescribed control performance of the unstable plant. A quantisation and coding scheme, which is based on the distribution of measurements and the dynamics of the plant, is proposed. The proof techniques rely on both information-theoretic and control-theoretic tools. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Myoelectric hand prosthesis force control through servo motor current feedback.
Sono, Tálita Saemi Payossim; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini
2009-10-01
This paper presents the prehension force closed-loop control design of a mechanical finger commanded by electromyographic signal (EMG) from a patient's arm. The control scheme was implemented and tested in a mechanical finger prototype with three degrees of freedom and one actuator, driven by arm muscles EMG of normal volunteers. Real-time indirect estimation of prehension force was assessed by measuring the DC servo motor actuator current. A model of the plant comprising finger, motor, and grasped object was proposed. Model parameters were identified experimentally and a classical feedback phase-lead compensator was designed. The controlled mechanical finger was able to provide a more accurate prehension force modulation of a compliant object when compared to open-loop control. PMID:19681841
The muscle spindle as a feedback element in muscle control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrews, L. T.; Iannone, A. M.; Ewing, D. J.
1973-01-01
The muscle spindle, the feedback element in the myotatic (stretch) reflex, is a major contributor to muscular control. Therefore, an accurate description of behavior of the muscle spindle during active contraction of the muscle, as well as during passive stretch, is essential to the understanding of muscle control. Animal experiments were performed in order to obtain the data necessary to model the muscle spindle. Spectral density functions were used to identify a linear approximation of the two types of nerve endings from the spindle. A model reference adaptive control system was used on a hybrid computer to optimize the anatomically defined lumped parameter estimate of the spindle. The derived nonlinear model accurately predicts the behavior of the muscle spindle both during active discharge and during its silent period. This model is used to determine the mechanism employed to control muscle movement.
Controller Design for EMA in TVC Incorporating Force Feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schinstock, Dale E.; Scott, Douglas A.
1998-01-01
The objective of this research was to develop control schemes and control design procedures for electromechanical actuators (EMA) in thrust vector control (TVC) applications. For a variety of reasons, there is a tendency within the aerospace community to use electromechanical actuators in applications where hydraulics have traditionally been employed. TVC of rocket engines is one such application. However, there is considerable research, development, and testing to be done before EMA will be accepted by the community at large for these types of applications. Besides the development of design procedures for the basic position controller, two major concerns are dealt with in this research by incorporating force feedback: 1) the effects of resonance on the performance of EMA-TVC-rocket-engine systems, and 2) the effects of engine start transients on EMA. This report only highlights the major contributions of this research.
Decoupling suspension controller based on magnetic flux feedback.
Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Peng
2013-01-01
The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module's antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced. PMID:23844415
Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback
Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Peng
2013-01-01
The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module's antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced. PMID:23844415
Vipperman, J S; Clark, R L
1999-01-01
An experimental implementation of a multivariable feedback active structural acoustic control system is demonstrated on a piezostructure plate with pinned boundary conditions. Four adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuators provide an array of truly colocated actuator/sensor pairs to be used as control transducers. Radiation filters are developed based on the self- and mutual-radiation efficiencies of the structure and are included into the performance cost of an H2 control law which minimizes total radiated sound power. In the cost function, control effort is balanced with reductions in radiated sound power. A similarity transform which produces generalized velocity states that are required as inputs to the radiation filters is presented. Up to 15 dB of attenuation in radiated sound power was observed at the resonant frequencies of the piezostructure. PMID:9921654
Quantum-trajectory thermodynamics with discrete feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Zongping; Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito
2016-07-01
We employ the quantum-jump-trajectory approach to construct a systematic framework to study the thermodynamics at the trajectory level in a nonequilibrium open quantum system under discrete feedback control. Within this framework, we derive quantum versions of the generalized Jarzynski equalities, which are demonstrated in an isolated pseudospin system and a coherently driven two-level open quantum system. Due to quantum coherence and measurement backaction, a fundamental distinction from the classical generalized Jarzynski equalities emerges in the quantum versions, which is characterized by a large negative information gain reflecting genuinely quantum rare events. A possible experimental scheme to test our findings in superconducting qubits is discussed.
Modelling human balance using switched systems with linear feedback control.
Kowalczyk, Piotr; Glendinning, Paul; Brown, Martin; Medrano-Cerda, Gustavo; Dallali, Houman; Shapiro, Jonathan
2012-02-01
We are interested in understanding the mechanisms behind and the character of the sway motion of healthy human subjects during quiet standing. We assume that a human body can be modelled as a single-link inverted pendulum, and the balance is achieved using linear feedback control. Using these assumptions, we derive a switched model which we then investigate. Stable periodic motions (limit cycles) about an upright position are found. The existence of these limit cycles is studied as a function of system parameters. The exploration of the parameter space leads to the detection of multi-stability and homoclinic bifurcations. PMID:21697168
Hybrid FES orthosis incorporating closed loop control and sensory feedback.
Andrews, B J; Baxendale, R H; Barnett, R; Phillips, G F; Yamazaki, T; Paul, J P; Freeman, P A
1988-04-01
A hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthosis is described, comprising a rigid ankle-foot brace, a multi-channel FES stimulator with surface electrodes, body mounted sensors, a 'rule-based' controller and an electro-cutaneous display for supplementary sensory feedback. The mechanical brace provides stability, without FES activation of muscles, for standing postures normally adopted by patients. This avoids inducing muscle fatigue during prolonged upright activity. However, stability is conditional upon the position of the ground reaction vector (GRV) relative to the knee joint. The finite state FES controller reacts automatically to destabilizing shifts of the GRV by stimulating appropriate anti-gravity musculature to brace the leg. The FES system also features a control mode to initiate and terminate flexion of the leg during forward progression. A simple mode of supplementary sensory feedback was used during the laboratory standing tests to assist the patient in maintaining a set posture. Preliminary results of laboratory tests for two spinal cord injured subjects are presented. PMID:3361878
Large-Scale Structure Formation: From the First Non-linear Objects to Massive Galaxy Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planelles, S.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Bykov, A. M.
2015-05-01
The large-scale structure of the Universe formed from initially small perturbations in the cosmic density field, leading to galaxy clusters with up to 1015 M⊙ at the present day. Here, we review the formation of structures in the Universe, considering the first primordial galaxies and the most massive galaxy clusters as extreme cases of structure formation where fundamental processes such as gravity, turbulence, cooling and feedback are particularly relevant. The first non-linear objects in the Universe formed in dark matter halos with 105-108 M⊙ at redshifts 10-30, leading to the first stars and massive black holes. At later stages, larger scales became non-linear, leading to the formation of galaxy clusters, the most massive objects in the Universe. We describe here their formation via gravitational processes, including the self-similar scaling relations, as well as the observed deviations from such self-similarity and the related non-gravitational physics (cooling, stellar feedback, AGN). While on intermediate cluster scales the self-similar model is in good agreement with the observations, deviations from such self-similarity are apparent in the core regions, where numerical simulations do not reproduce the current observational results. The latter indicates that the interaction of different feedback processes may not be correctly accounted for in current simulations. Both in the most massive clusters of galaxies as well as during the formation of the first objects in the Universe, turbulent structures and shock waves appear to be common, suggesting them to be ubiquitous in the non-linear regime.
Correcting the NICMOS count-rate dependent non-linearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jong, Roelof S.
2006-03-01
We describe a routine to correct NICMOS imaging data for the NICMOS count-rate dependent non-linearity recently discovered by Bohlin et al. (2005) and quantified by deJong et al. (2006) and Bohlin et al. (2006). The routine has been implemented in the python scripting language and is callable from the shell command line and from iraf. The routine corrects NICMOS count-rate images assuming the non-linearity follows a powerlaw behavior. The wavelength dependence of the non-linearity is interpolated between the measured points of de Jong et al. (2006) and Bohlin et al. (2006) if necessary. The count rates in the output images are modified and hence the standard NICMOS calibration zero-points are no longer valid. New calibration zero-points have been derived from standard star images corrected with the routine. The routine was tested on the lamp-on/off data used in de Jong et al. (2006) to measure the non-linearity effect. We apply the correction to the NGC1850 stellar cluster field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) to show the magnitude offsets expected due to the non-linearity on objects with a range in luminosity and surface brightness.
Exact methods for modal transient response analysis including feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Melvin S.; Belvin, W. Keith
1993-01-01
This paper presents a modal method for the analysis of controlled structural systems that retains the uncoupled nature of the classical transient response analysis of a structure subjected to a prescribed time-varying load. The control force is expanded as a Taylor series that remains on the right side of the equations, and it does not lead to a computational approach that requires coupling between modes on the left side. Retaining a sufficient number of terms in the series produces a solution to the modal equations that is accurate to machine precision. The approach is particularly attractive for large problems in which standard matrix exponential methods become computationally prohibitive. Numerical results are presented to show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach for dynamic feedback compensation of a truss structure with local member modes in the controller bandwidth.
GPUbased, Microsecond Latency, HectoChannel MIMO Feedback Control of Magnetically Confined Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rath, Nikolaus
Feedback control has become a crucial tool in the research on magnetic confinement of plasmas for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. This thesis presents a novel plasma feedback control system that, for the first time, employs a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for microsecond-latency, real-time control computations. This novel application area for GPU computing is opened up by a new system architecture that is optimized for low-latency computations on less than kilobyte sized data samples as they occur in typical plasma control algorithms. In contrast to traditional GPU computing approaches that target complex, high-throughput computations with massive amounts of data, the architecture presented in this thesis uses the GPU as the primary processing unit rather than as an auxiliary of the CPU, and data is transferred from A-D/D-A converters directly into GPU memory using peer-to-peer PCI Express transfers. The described design has been implemented in a new, GPU-based control system for the High-Beta Tokamak - Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device. The system is built from commodity hardware and uses an NVIDIA GeForce GPU and D-TACQ A-D/D-A converters providing a total of 96 input and 64 output channels. The system is able to run with sampling periods down to 4 μs and latencies down to 8 μs. The GPU provides a total processing power of 1.5 x 1012 floating point operations per second. To illustrate the performance and versatility of both the general architecture and concrete implementation, a new control algorithm has been developed. The algorithm is designed for the control of multiple rotating magnetic perturbations in situations where the plasma equilibrium is not known exactly and features an adaptive system model: instead of requiring the rotation frequencies and growth rates embedded in the system model to be set a priori, the adaptive algorithm derives these parameters from the evolution of the perturbation amplitudes themselves. This results in non-linear control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraft, Manuel; Hein, Sven M.; Lehnert, Judith; Schöll, Eckehard; Hughes, Stephen; Knorr, Andreas
2016-08-01
Quantum coherent feedback control is a measurement-free control method fully preserving quantum coherence. In this paper we show how time-delayed quantum coherent feedback can be used to control the degree of squeezing in the output field of a cavity containing a degenerate parametric oscillator. We focus on the specific situation of Pyragas-type feedback control where time-delayed signals are fed back directly into the quantum system. Our results show how time-delayed feedback can enhance or decrease the degree of squeezing as a function of time delay and feedback strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veveakis, E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Weinberg, R. F.
2014-01-01
The segregation of melt from a linear viscous matrix is traditionally described by McKenzie's compaction theory. This classical solution overlooks instabilities that arise when non-linear solid matrix behaviour is considered. Here we report a closed form 1-D solution obtained by extending McKenzie's theory to non-linear matrix behaviours. The new solution provides periodic stress singularities, acting as high porosity melt channels, to be the fundamental response of the compacted matrix. The characteristic length controlling the periodicity is still McKenzie's compaction length bar{δ}_c, adjusted for non-linear rheologies.
Ghost Dark Energy with Non-Linear Interaction Term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, E.
2016-06-01
Here we investigate ghost dark energy (GDE) in the presence of a non-linear interaction term between dark matter and dark energy. To this end we take into account a general form for the interaction term. Then we discuss about different features of three choices of the non-linear interacting GDE. In all cases we obtain equation of state parameter, w D = p/ ρ, the deceleration parameter and evolution equation of the dark energy density parameter (Ω D ). We find that in one case, w D cross the phantom line ( w D < -1). However in two other classes w D can not cross the phantom divide. The coincidence problem can be solved in these models completely and there exist good agreement between the models and observational values of w D , q. We study squared sound speed {vs2}, and find that for one case of non-linear interaction term {vs2} can achieves positive values at late time of evolution.
Theoretical studies for novel non-linear optical crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Kechen; Chen, Chuangtian
1996-09-01
To fulfil the "molecular engineering" of non-linear optical crystals, two theoretical models suitable respectively for the studies of the absorption edge and birefringence of a non-linear optical crystal have been set up. Molecular quantum chemical methods have been adopted in the systematic calculations of some typical crystals. DV-SCM-X α methods have been used to calculate the absorption edge on the UV side of BBO, LBO, KB5, KDP, Na 2SbF 5, Ba 2TiSi 2O 8, iodate and NaNO 2 crystals. Ab initio methods have been adopted to study the birefringence of NaNO 2, BBO, LiIO 3 and urea crystals. All the theoretical results agreed well with the experimental values. The relationship between structure and properties has been discussed. The results will be helpful to the search for novel non-linear optical crystals.
Non-Linear Vibration Characteristics of Clamped Laminated Shallow Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ABE, A.; KOBAYASHI, Y.; YAMADA, G.
2000-07-01
This paper examines non-linear free vibration characteristics of first and second vibration modes of laminated shallow shells with rigidly clamped edges. Non-linear equations of motion for the shells based on the first order shear deformation and classical shell theories are derived by means of Hamilton's principle. We apply Galerkin's procedure to the equations of motion in which eigenvectors for first and second modes of linear vibration obtained by the Ritz method are employed as trial functions. Then simultaneous non-linear ordinary differential equations are derived in terms of amplitudes of the first and second vibration modes. Backbone curves for the first and second vibration modes are solved numerically by the Gauss-Legendre integration method and the shooting method respectively. The effects of lamination sequences and transverse shear deformation on the behavior are discussed. It is also shown that the motion of the first vibration mode affects the response for the second vibration mode.
Non-linear dynamic analysis of anisotropic cylindrical shells
Lakis, A.A.; Selmane, A.; Toledano, A.
1996-12-01
A theory to predict the influence of geometric non-linearities on the natural frequencies of an empty anisotropic cylindrical shell is presented in this paper. It is a hybrid of finite element and classical thin shell theories. Sanders-Koiter non-linear and strain-displacement relations are used. Displacement functions are evaluated using linearized equations of motion. Modal coefficients are then obtained for these displacement functions. Expressions for the mass, linear and non-linear stiffness matrices are derived through the finite element method. The uncoupled equations are solved with the help of elliptic functions. The period and frequency variations are first determined as a function of shell amplitudes and then compared with the results in the literature.
Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration
Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.
1996-12-31
The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.
Automatic Overset Grid Generation with Heuristic Feedback Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Peter I.
2001-01-01
An advancing front grid generation system for structured Overset grids is presented which automatically modifies Overset structured surface grids and control lines until user-specified grid qualities are achieved. The system is demonstrated on two examples: the first refines a space shuttle fuselage control line until global truncation error is achieved; the second advances, from control lines, the space shuttle orbiter fuselage top and fuselage side surface grids until proper overlap is achieved. Surface grids are generated in minutes for complex geometries. The system is implemented as a heuristic feedback control (HFC) expert system which iteratively modifies the input specifications for Overset control line and surface grids. It is developed as an extension of modern control theory, production rules systems and subsumption architectures. The methodology provides benefits over the full knowledge lifecycle of an expert system for knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and knowledge execution. The vector/matrix framework of modern control theory systematically acquires and represents expert system knowledge. Missing matrix elements imply missing expert knowledge. The execution of the expert system knowledge is performed through symbolic execution of the matrix algebra equations of modern control theory. The dot product operation of matrix algebra is generalized for heuristic symbolic terms. Constant time execution is guaranteed.
Development of force-feedback-controlled Nafion micromanipulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wenli; Li, Wen J.; Xi, Ning; Ma, Shugen
2001-07-01
The ability to manipulation of biological cells while having reflective-force information from the cells is a key technology necessary for many new applications in Bio-MEMS, but is currently lacking in all cellular manipulators. We will report on our preliminary experimental work in using an Ionic Conducting Polymer Film (ICPF) to develop a biological cell robotic gripper with force sensing capability. ICPF actuators are able to give large deflection with small input voltage (~5V), and also able to give relatively large output voltage due to deflection by a mechanical forces, thus are investigated as a possible material to make force-feedback controlled cellular manipulators in our work. A laser micromachining process is introduced to fabricate arrays of ICPF griping devices, which can be potentially integrated onto a substrate to develop a micro manipulation system. Individual multi-finger grippers with dimensions of 200micrometers x 200micrometers x 3000micrometers for each finger were realized. We will report on the design, fabrication procedures, and operating performance of these micro-grippers. Further development in the reduction of size of these actuators will enable effective force-feedback control of underwater micro objects and lead to new frontiers in cellular manipulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hein, C.; Meystel, A.
1994-01-01
There are many multi-stage optimization problems that are not easily solved through any known direct method when the stages are coupled. For instance, we have investigated the problem of planning a vehicle's control sequence to negotiate obstacles and reach a goal in minimum time. The vehicle has a known mass, and the controlling forces have finite limits. We have developed a technique that finds admissible control trajectories which tend to minimize the vehicle's transit time through the obstacle field. The immediate applications is that of a space robot which must rapidly traverse around 2-or-3 dimensional structures via application of a rotating thruster or non-rotating on-off for such vehicles is located at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama. However, it appears that the development method is applicable to a general set of optimization problems in which the cost function and the multi-dimensional multi-state system can be any nonlinear functions, which are continuous in the operating regions. Other applications included the planning of optimal navigation pathways through a transversability graph; the planning of control input for under-water maneuvering vehicles which have complex control state-space relationships; the planning of control sequences for milling and manufacturing robots; the planning of control and trajectories for automated delivery vehicles; and the optimization and athletic training in slalom sports.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Nobuo; Hill, Simon G.
2012-10-01
This study presents the feedback control of flexural waves propagating in a rectangular panel. The objective of this paper (part 2) is to experimentally implement the feedback wave control method which was proposed in part 1 of the two series papers. Firstly, based on the collocation of sensors and actuators, clustered velocity and displacement feedback (C-VDFB) is newly proposed. Next, linking C-VDFB with the active wave control proposed in part 1, it is clarified that the active wave control system can be realized to a limited extent. Then, from a viewpoint of numerical simulations, the characteristics of the feedback gains of C-VDFB and its control performance are clarified. It is shown that C-VDFB enables the inactivation of vibration modes at the target frequencies. Furthermore, it is clarified that even at the non-target frequencies, the proposed method sufficiently reduces the structural vibration. Finally, experiments on the reflected wave absorbing control using clustered direct velocity and displacement feedback are carried out. The experimental results show good agreement with those obtained in the simulation.
Non-Linear Finite Element Modeling of THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.
1999-01-01
A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.
Non-linear optics of ultrastrongly coupled cavity polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crescimanno, Michael; Liu, Bin; McMaster, Michael; Singer, Kenneth
2016-05-01
Experiments at CWRU have developed organic cavity polaritons that display world-record vacuum Rabi splittings of more than an eV. This ultrastrongly coupled polaritonic matter is a new regime for exploring non-linear optical effects. We apply quantum optics theory to quantitatively determine various non-linear optical effects including types of low harmonic generation (SHG and THG) in single and double cavity polariton systems. Ultrastrongly coupled photon-matter systems such as these may be the foundation for technologies including low-power optical switching and computing.
Photocrosslinkable copolymers for non-linear optical applications
Kawatsuki, N.; Pakbaz, K.; Schmidt, H.W.
1993-12-31
New photocrosslinkable copolymers have been synthesized and applied as non-linear optical materials. The copolymers are based on methyl methacrylate, a photo-excitable benzophenone monomer, a non-linear optical active 4`-[(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylamino]-4-nitro-azobenzene (disperse red 1) side chain monomer and a crosslinkable 2-butenyl monomer. These copolymers can be crosslinked by UV light at 366 nm in the poled state and show a stable alignment of NLO chromophore by monitoring the adsorption spectra. The crosslinked and poled film did not change its alignment after storing 4 weeks at room temperature.
Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin
2016-03-01
Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.
BEAM-BASED NON-LINEAR OPTICS CORRECTIONS IN COLLIDERS.
PILAT, R.; LUO, Y.; MALITSKY, N.; PTITSYN, V.
2005-05-16
A method has been developed to measure and correct operationally the non-linear effects of the final focusing magnets in colliders, that gives access to the effects of multi-pole errors by applying closed orbit bumps, and analyzing the resulting tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been tested and used during 4 years of RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL) operations. I will discuss here the theoretical basis of the method, the experimental set-up, the correction results, the present understanding of the machine model, the potential and limitations of the method itself as compared with other non-linear correction techniques.
Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices
Dehdashti, Shahram Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Jiarui Yu, Faxin
2015-06-15
In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.
Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.
2009-04-01
In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.
Robust Nonlinear Feedback Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.; Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This is the final report on the research performed under NASA Glen grant NASA/NAG-3-1975 concerning feedback control of the Pratt & Whitney (PW) STF 952, a twin spool, mixed flow, after burning turbofan engine. The research focussed on the design of linear and gain-scheduled, multivariable inner-loop controllers for the PW turbofan engine using H-infinity and linear, parameter-varying (LPV) control techniques. The nonlinear turbofan engine simulation was provided by PW within the NASA Rocket Engine Transient Simulator (ROCETS) simulation software environment. ROCETS was used to generate linearized models of the turbofan engine for control design and analysis as well as the simulation environment to evaluate the performance and robustness of the controllers. Comparison between the H-infinity, and LPV controllers are made with the baseline multivariable controller and developed by Pratt & Whitney engineers included in the ROCETS simulation. Simulation results indicate that H-infinity and LPV techniques effectively achieve desired response characteristics with minimal cross coupling between commanded values and are very robust to unmodeled dynamics and sensor noise.
A synthetic gene circuit for measuring autoregulatory feedback control.
Schikora-Tamarit, Miquel Àngel; Toscano-Ochoa, Carlos; Domingo Espinós, Júlia; Espinar, Lorena; Carey, Lucas B
2016-04-18
Autoregulatory feedback loops occur in the regulation of molecules ranging from ATP to MAP kinases to zinc. Negative feedback loops can increase a system's robustness, while positive feedback loops can mediate transitions between cell states. Recent genome-wide experimental and computational studies predict hundreds of novel feedback loops. However, not all physical interactions are regulatory, and many experimental methods cannot detect self-interactions. Our understanding of regulatory feedback loops is therefore hampered by the lack of high-throughput methods to experimentally quantify the presence, strength and temporal dynamics of autoregulatory feedback loops. Here we present a mathematical and experimental framework for high-throughput quantification of feedback regulation and apply it to RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in yeast. Our method is able to determine the existence of both direct and indirect positive and negative feedback loops, and to quantify the strength of these loops. We experimentally validate our model using two RBPs which lack native feedback loops and by the introduction of synthetic feedback loops. We find that RBP Puf3 does not natively participate in any direct or indirect feedback regulation, but that replacing the native 3'UTR with that of COX17 generates an auto-regulatory negative feedback loop which reduces gene expression noise. Likewise, RBP Pub1 does not natively participate in any feedback loops, but a synthetic positive feedback loop involving Pub1 results in increased expression noise. Our results demonstrate a synthetic experimental system for quantifying the existence and strength of feedback loops using a combination of high-throughput experiments and mathematical modeling. This system will be of great use in measuring auto-regulatory feedback by RNA binding proteins, a regulatory motif that is difficult to quantify using existing high-throughput methods. PMID:26728081
The use of force feedback control for robotic mating of umbilical fuel lines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fullmer, R.; Dilpare, A.; Davis, L.
1988-01-01
Control problems in developing force feedback control to use in remotely connecting, disconnecting, and reconnecting the umbilical fuel lines of the Space Shuttle Vehicle are discussed. A docking protocol is proposed, indicating the required role of force feedback. The use of active force feedback control is examined and performance requirements and experimental results are given. A single degree-of-freedom force feedback model is presented and the application of classical control compensation techniques to the force control loop to increase flexibility is considered. In addition, possible modifications to the controller and plans for future research are discussed.
Phenomenon of life: between equilibrium and non-linearity.
Galimov, E M
2004-12-01
A model of ordering applicable to biological evolution is presented. It is shown that a steady state (more precisely approaching to a steady state) system of irreversible processes, under conditions of disproportionation of entropy, produces a lower-entropy product, that is, ordering. The ordering is defined as restricting of degrees of freedom: freedom of motion, interactions etc. The model differs from previous ones in that it relates the ordering to processes running not far from equilibrium, described in the linear field of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that a system, which includes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) conversion meets the demands of the physical model: it provides energy maintaining steady state conditions, and hydrolysis of ATP proceeding with consumption of water can be tightly conjugated with the most important reactions of synthesis of organic polymers (peptides, nucleotide chains etc.), which proceed with release of water. For these and other reasons ATP seems to be a key molecule of prebiotic evolution. It is argued that the elementary chemical reaction proceeding under control of an enzyme is not necessarily far from equilibrium. The experimental evidence supporting this idea, is presented. It is based on isotope data. Carbon isotope distribution in biochemical systems reveals regularity, which is inherent to steady state systems of chemical reactions, proceeding not far from equilibrium. In living organisms this feature appears at the statistical level, as many completely irreversible and non-linear processes occur in organisms. However not-far-from-equilibrium reactions are inherent to biochemical systems as a matter of principle. They are reconcilable with biochemical behavior. Extant organisms are highly evolved entities which, however, show in their basis the same features, as the simplest chemical systems must have had been involved in the origin of life. Some consequences following from the
Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system.
Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki
2016-01-01
Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies. PMID:26931281
Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki
2016-03-01
Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies.
Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system
Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki
2016-01-01
Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies. PMID:26931281
Rare earth ion doped non linear laser crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaque, D.; Romero, J. J.; Ramirez, M. O.; Garcia, J. A. S.; de Las Heras, C.; Bausa, L. E.; Sole, J. G.
2003-01-01
We show how non linear crystals activated with Yb3+ or Nd3+ ions can be used to develop diode pumped solid state lasers emitting in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For this purpose we have selected relevant examples of systems investigated in our laboratory.
Non-linear protocell models: synchronization and chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filisetti, A.; Serra, R.; Carletti, T.; Villani, M.; Poli, I.
2010-09-01
We consider generic protocells models allowing linear and non-linear kinetics for the main involved chemical reactions. We are interested in understanding if and how the protocell division and the metabolism do synchronise to give rise to sustainable evolution of the protocell.
Is 3D true non linear traveltime tomography reasonable ?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrero, A.; Virieux, J.
2003-04-01
The data sets requiring 3D analysis tools in the context of seismic exploration (both onshore and offshore experiments) or natural seismicity (micro seismicity surveys or post event measurements) are more and more numerous. Classical linearized tomographies and also earthquake localisation codes need an accurate 3D background velocity model. However, if the medium is complex and a priori information not available, a 1D analysis is not able to provide an adequate background velocity image. Moreover, the design of the acquisition layouts is often intrinsically 3D and renders difficult even 2D approaches, especially in natural seismicity cases. Thus, the solution relies on the use of a 3D true non linear approach, which allows to explore the model space and to identify an optimal velocity image. The problem becomes then practical and its feasibility depends on the available computing resources (memory and time). In this presentation, we show that facing a 3D traveltime tomography problem with an extensive non-linear approach combining fast travel time estimators based on level set methods and optimisation techniques such as multiscale strategy is feasible. Moreover, because management of inhomogeneous inversion parameters is more friendly in a non linear approach, we describe how to perform a jointly non-linear inversion for the seismic velocities and the sources locations.
Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma
Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.
2014-10-15
A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.
Evolution equation for non-linear cosmological perturbations
Brustein, Ram; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@cern.ch
2011-11-01
We present a novel approach, based entirely on the gravitational potential, for studying the evolution of non-linear cosmological matter perturbations. Starting from the perturbed Einstein equations, we integrate out the non-relativistic degrees of freedom of the cosmic fluid and obtain a single closed equation for the gravitational potential. We then verify the validity of the new equation by comparing its approximate solutions to known results in the theory of non-linear cosmological perturbations. First, we show explicitly that the perturbative solution of our equation matches the standard perturbative solutions. Next, using the mean field approximation to the equation, we show that its solution reproduces in a simple way the exponential suppression of the non-linear propagator on small scales due to the velocity dispersion. Our approach can therefore reproduce the main features of the renormalized perturbation theory and (time)-renormalization group approaches to the study of non-linear cosmological perturbations, with some possibly important differences. We conclude by a preliminary discussion of the nature of the full solutions of the equation and their significance.
Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet
1990-01-01
A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.
Non-Linear EMG Parameters for Differential and Early Diagnostics of Parkinson’s Disease
Meigal, Alexander Y.; Rissanen, Saara M.; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Airaksinen, Olavi; Kankaanpää, Markku; Karjalainen, Pasi A.
2013-01-01
The pre-clinical diagnostics is essential for management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although PD has been studied intensively in the last decades, the pre-clinical indicators of that motor disorder have yet to be established. Several approaches were proposed but the definitive method is still lacking. Here we report on the non-linear characteristics of surface electromyogram (sEMG) and tremor acceleration as a possible diagnostic tool, and, in prospective, as a predictor for PD. Following this approach we calculated such non-linear parameters of sEMG and accelerometer signal as correlation dimension, entropy, and determinism. We found that the non-linear parameters allowed discriminating some 85% of healthy controls from PD patients. Thus, this approach offers considerable potential for developing sEMG-based method for pre-clinical diagnostics of PD. However, non-linear parameters proved to be more reliable for the shaking form of PD, while diagnostics of the rigid form of PD using EMG remains an open question. PMID:24062722
Simulation and design of feedback control on resistive wall modes in Keda Torus eXperiment
Li, Chenguang; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong
2014-12-15
The feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) (Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 094009 (2014)) is investigated by simulation. A linear model is built to describe the growth of the unstable modes in the absence of feedback and the resulting mode suppression due to feedback, given the typical reversed field pinch plasma equilibrium. The layout of KTX with two shell structures (the vacuum vessel and the stabilizing shell) is taken into account. The feedback performance is explored both in the scheme of “clean mode control” (Zanca et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1425 (2007)) and “raw mode control.” The discrete time control model with specific characteristic times will mimic the real feedback control action and lead to the favored control cycle. Moreover, the conceptual design of feedback control system is also presented, targeting on both RWMs and tearing modes.
Adaptive landing gear concept—feedback control validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikulowski, Grzegorz M.; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan
2007-12-01
The objective of this paper is to present an integrated feedback control concept for adaptive landing gears (ALG) and its experimental validation. Aeroplanes are subjected to high dynamic loads as a result of the impact during each landing. Classical landing gears, which are in common use, are designed in accordance with official regulations in a way that ensures the optimal energy dissipation for the critical (maximum) sink speed. The regulations were formulated in order to ensure the functional capability of the landing gears during an emergency landing. However, the landing gears, whose characteristics are optimized for these critical conditions, do not perform well under normal impact conditions. For that situation it is reasonable to introduce a system that would adapt the characteristics of the landing gears according to the sink speed of landing. The considered system assumes adaptation of the damping force generated by the landing gear, which would perform optimally in an emergency situation and would adapt itself for regular landings as well. This research covers the formulation and design of the control algorithms for an adaptive landing gear based on MR fluid, implementation of the algorithms on an FPGA platform and experimental verification on a lab-scale landing gear device. The main challenge of the research was to develop a control methodology that could operate effectively within 50 ms, which is assumed to be the total duration of the phenomenon. The control algorithm proposed in this research was able to control the energy dissipation process on the experimental stand.
Linear and non-linear performance of transducer and pupil in Calliphora retinula cells.
Leutscher-Hazelhoff, J T
1975-01-01
1. Intracellular recordings have been made from the blowfly (Calliphora erythrocephala) retinula cell; apart from the transducer mechanism, these cells also feature a pupil mechanism. 2. At several mean intensity levels, within the apparently linear range of response, frequency characteristics of amplitude and phase and responses to 'delta'-flashes and 'delta'-flash pairs have been obtained. 3. Fourier methods have shown these responses to be mutually compatible, confirming linearity in these circumstances. 4. Non-linear behaviour can be made to appear at the lower frequencies when the modulation depth is increased. 5. Non-linearities can also appear through application of the superposition test: a low frequency sine wave, modulated so as to elicit an apparently linear response, and a high frequence sine wave which does not give rise to non-linearity even at the highest modulation depths can, when superimposed, yield a greater response to the latter when situated at the minima of the former than at its maxima. 6. At frequencies above approximately 1 Hz these superposition non-linearities are attributed to the transducer mechanism gain control. Below this frequency the pupil mechanism takes part considerably in the retinula cell's total observed gain control: its characteristics remain yet to be cleared up. 7. The transducer's linear and non-linear properties fit in closely with those of the Fuortes-Hodgkin model which couples increases in gain and time constants. 8. The Fuortes-Hodgkin model will probably require some quantitative modifications in the originally treated case of Limulus, on account of its pupil. 9. Finally, the merits of Veringa's diffusion model, and the possibility of eventually joining this model with the Fuortes-Hodgkin one are pointed out briefly. PMID:1142250
Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong
2011-05-01
This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability
Lawes, Timothy; López-Lozano, José-María; Nebot, César; Macartney, Gillian; Subbarao-Sharma, Rashmi; Dare, Ceri R J; Edwards, Giles F S; Gould, Ian M
2015-01-01
Objectives To explore temporal associations between planned antibiotic stewardship and infection control interventions and the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Design Retrospective ecological study and time-series analysis integrating typing data from the Scottish MRSA reference laboratory. Setting Regional hospital and primary care in a Scottish Health Board. Participants General adult (N=1 051 993) or intensive care (18 235) admissions and primary care registrations (460 000 inhabitants) between January 1997 and December 2012. Interventions Hand-hygiene campaign; MRSA admission screening; antibiotic stewardship limiting use of macrolides and ‘4Cs’ (cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones). Outcome measures Prevalence density of MRSA clonal complexes CC22, CC30 and CC5/Other in hospital (isolates/1000 occupied bed days, OBDs) and community (isolates/10 000 inhabitant-days). Results 67% of all clinical MRSA isolates (10 707/15 947) were typed. Regional MRSA population structure was dominated by hospital epidemic strains CC30, CC22 and CC45. Following declines in overall MRSA prevalence density, CC5 and other strains of community origin became increasingly important. Reductions in use of ‘4Cs’ and macrolides anticipated declines in sublineages with higher levels of associated resistances. In multivariate time-series models (R2=0.63–0.94) introduction of the hand-hygiene campaign, reductions in mean length of stay (when >4 days) and bed occupancy (when >74 to 78%) predicted declines in CC22 and CC30, but not CC5/other strains. Lower importation pressures, expanded MRSA admission screening, and reductions in macrolide and third generation cephalosporin use (thresholds for association: 135–141, and 48–81 defined daily doses/1000 OBDs, respectively) were followed by declines in all clonal complexes. Strain-specific associations with fluoroquinolones and clindamycin reflected
Population-dynamics method with a multicanonical feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemoto, Takahiro; Bouchet, Freddy; Jack, Robert L.; Lecomte, Vivien
2016-06-01
We discuss the Giardinà-Kurchan-Peliti population dynamics method for evaluating large deviations of time-averaged quantities in Markov processes [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 120603 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.120603]. This method exhibits systematic errors which can be large in some circumstances, particularly for systems with weak noise, with many degrees of freedom, or close to dynamical phase transitions. We show how these errors can be mitigated by introducing control forces within the algorithm. These forces are determined by an iteration-and-feedback scheme, inspired by multicanonical methods in equilibrium sampling. We demonstrate substantially improved results in a simple model, and we discuss potential applications to more complex systems.
Population-dynamics method with a multicanonical feedback control.
Nemoto, Takahiro; Bouchet, Freddy; Jack, Robert L; Lecomte, Vivien
2016-06-01
We discuss the Giardinà-Kurchan-Peliti population dynamics method for evaluating large deviations of time-averaged quantities in Markov processes [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 120603 (2006)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.96.120603]. This method exhibits systematic errors which can be large in some circumstances, particularly for systems with weak noise, with many degrees of freedom, or close to dynamical phase transitions. We show how these errors can be mitigated by introducing control forces within the algorithm. These forces are determined by an iteration-and-feedback scheme, inspired by multicanonical methods in equilibrium sampling. We demonstrate substantially improved results in a simple model, and we discuss potential applications to more complex systems. PMID:27415224
Neural networks for feedback feedforward nonlinear control systems.
Parisini, T; Zoppoli, R
1994-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of designing feedback feedforward control strategies to drive the state of a dynamic system (in general, nonlinear) so as to track any desired trajectory joining the points of given compact sets, while minimizing a certain cost function (in general, nonquadratic). Due to the generality of the problem, conventional methods are difficult to apply. Thus, an approximate solution is sought by constraining control strategies to take on the structure of multilayer feedforward neural networks. After discussing the approximation properties of neural control strategies, a particular neural architecture is presented, which is based on what has been called the "linear-structure preserving principle". The original functional problem is then reduced to a nonlinear programming one, and backpropagation is applied to derive the optimal values of the synaptic weights. Recursive equations to compute the gradient components are presented, which generalize the classical adjoint system equations of N-stage optimal control theory. Simulation results related to nonlinear nonquadratic problems show the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:18267810
Optical distributed sensors for feedback control: Characterization of photorefractive resonator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Indebetouw, Guy; Lindner, D. K.
1992-01-01
The aim of the project was to explore, define, and assess the possibilities of optical distributed sensing for feedback control. This type of sensor, which may have some impacts in the dynamic control of deformable structures and the monitoring of small displacements, can be divided into data acquisition, data processing, and control design. Analogue optical techniques, because they are noninvasive and afford massive parallelism may play a significant role in the acquisition and the preprocessing of the data for such a sensor. Assessing these possibilities was the aim of the first stage of this project. The scope of the proposed research was limited to: (1) the characterization of photorefractive resonators and the assessment of their possible use as a distributed optical processing element; and (2) the design of a control system utilizing signals from distributed sensors. The results include a numerical and experimental study of the resonator below threshold, an experimental study of the effect of the resonator's transverse confinement on its dynamics above threshold, a numerical study of the resonator above threshold using a modal expansion approach, and the experimental test of this model. A detailed account of each investigation, including methodology and analysis of the results are also included along with reprints of published and submitted papers.
V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 7: Tilt rotor flight control program feedback studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, H. R.; Eason, W.; Gillmore, K.; Morris, J.; Spittle, R.
1973-01-01
An exploratory study has been made of the use of feedback control in tilt rotor aircraft. This has included the use of swashplate cyclic and collective controls and direct lift control. Various sensor and feedback systems are evaluated in relation to blade loads alleviation, improvement in flying qualities, and modal suppression. Recommendations are made regarding additional analytical and wind tunnel investigations and development of feedback systems in the full scale flight vehicle. Estimated costs and schedules are given.
Treatment with a position feedback-controlled head stabilizer.
Harris, F A
1979-08-01
A position feedback-controlled head stabilizer has been developed to provide cerebral palsied individuals with resistive exercise to strengthen the neck musculature. This apparatus detects "involuntary" head motion and stabilizes the head by applying opposing forces; it also can be used to facilitate muscular contraction by resisting the subject's voluntary movements. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether voluntary head control in cerebral palsied individuals can be improved through systematic exercise using the stabilizer to strengthen the muscles of the neck and improve their balance of action. The findings support the author's contention that this is possible. The apparatus consists of a helmet and shoulder pads, interconnected so that the head is supported in the helmet by a manipulator arm. At its lower end, the manipulator arm is attached to the shoulder pad mounting frame via a gimbal assembly which allows head movement in two planes of tilt (pitch, or forward-and back, and roll, or side-to-side). Feedback control circuitry is so arranged that any deviation of the head from the desired position leads to actuation of pneumatic cylinders, which apply torques to the manipulator gimbal axes so as to oppose or conteract the incipient head movement. It is particularly significant that none of these patients participating in these experiments were at all apprehensive about or resisted being placed in the apparatus. (Even the youngest subject to use the apparatus--five year old-- did not mind being restrained by the shoulder pads or having his head gripped by helment.) While JG utilized the safety release valve quite often during the first few head control training sessions, he soon became confident enough in the action of the stabilizer that he did not even bother to grip the handle of the release valve. While DA had the action of safety valve explained and demonstrated for her, she never bothered to use it even from the outset of her experience
Model reduction and feedback control of transitional channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilak, Milos
This dissertation examines the use of reduced-order models for design of linear feedback controllers for fluid flows. The focus is on transitional channel flow, a canonical shear flow case with a simple geometry yet complex dynamics. Reduced-order models of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, which describe the evolution of perturbations in transitional channel flow, are computed using two methods for snapshot-based balanced truncation, Balanced Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (BPOD) and Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). The performance of these models in feedback control is evaluated in both linearized and nonlinear Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of channel flow. The first part of the dissertation describes the application of BPOD to very large systems, and the detailed evaluation of the resulting reduced-order models. Exact balanced truncation, a standard method from control theory, is not computationally tractable for very large systems, such as those typically encountered in fluid flow simulations. The BPOD method, introduced by Rowley (2005), provides a close approximation. We first show that the approximation is indeed close by applying the method to a 1-D linear perturbation to channel flow at a single spatial wavenumber pair, for which exact balanced truncation is tractable. Next, as the first application of BPOD to a very high-dimensional linear system, we show that reduced-order BPOD models of a localized 3-D perturbation capture the dynamics very well. Moreover, the BPOD models significantly outperform standard Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) models, as illustrated by a striking example where models using the POD modes that capture most of the perturbation energy fail to capture the perturbation dynamics. Next, reduced-order models of a complete control system for linearized channel flow are obtained using ERA, a computationally efficient method that results in the same reduced-order models as BPOD. Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG
Movement goals and feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in speech production
Perkell, Joseph S.
2010-01-01
Studies of speech motor control are described that support a theoretical framework in which fundamental control variables for phonemic movements are multi-dimensional regions in auditory and somatosensory spaces. Auditory feedback is used to acquire and maintain auditory goals and in the development and function of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms. Several lines of evidence support the idea that speakers with more acute sensory discrimination acquire more distinct goal regions and therefore produce speech sounds with greater contrast. Feedback modification findings indicate that fluently produced sound sequences are encoded as feedforward commands, and feedback control serves to correct mismatches between expected and produced sensory consequences. PMID:22661828
Feedback control design for the complete synchronisation of two coupled Boolean networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fangfei
2016-09-01
In the literatures, to design state feedback controllers to make the response Boolean network synchronise with the drive Boolean network is rarely considered. Motivated by this, feedback control design for the complete synchronisation of two coupled Boolean networks is investigated in this paper. A necessary condition for the existence of a state feedback controller achieving the complete synchronisation is established first. Then, based on the necessary condition, the feedback control law is proposed. Finally, an example is worked out to illustrate the proposed design procedure.
Global feedback control of Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hata, S.; Nakao, H.; Mikhailov, A. S.
2012-06-01
Results of the first systematic study on feedback control of nonequilibrium pattern formation in networks are reported. Effects of global feedback control on Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor system have been investigated. The feedback signal was introduced into one of the parameters of the system and was proportional to the amplitude of the developing Turing pattern. Without the control, the Turing instability corresponded to a subcritical bifurcation and hysteresis effects were observed. Sufficiently strong feedback control rendered, however, the bifurcation supercritical and eliminated the hysteresis effects.
Ecohydrology Controls on Feedbacks Between Northern Wetlands and Climate Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turetsky, M.; Harden, J.; McGuire, A.; Waddington, J.
2007-12-01
Boreal regions contain large stocks of soil carbon, mostly in poorly drained areas where peat accumulating wetlands have served as a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon. It is unknown whether northern wetlands globally will continue to represent a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide, or whether changes in the Earth's climate will cause these ecosystems to release stored carbon back to the atmosphere. Such feedbacks between northern wetlands and regional or global climate systems will depend on interactions between wetland vegetation, peat properties, and hydrology. Within many wetlands, hydrology is the dominant control on plant community structure and decomposition rates. In turn, both plant and microbial activity determine the quantity and quality of litter, which govern the nature of peat accumulation and soil properties critical to hydrology. Here, we will present research from our field and modeling studies investigating the effects of drought, permafrost degradation, and wildfire on vegetation, carbon cycling, and hydrological processes in northern wetlands at multiple spatial scales. At local scales, our findings show that interactions among vegetation, soil, and hydrology can lead to unexpected and often complex changes in soil environments, with potential 'carbon surprises'. For example, in a nonpermafrost peatland, we found that sustained drought led to peat subsidence that limited the development of oxic surface peat layers and inhibited ecosystem respiration. The decrease in porosity and water content with drought reduced seasonal ice thaw, which also likely limited microbial activity. In contrast, peatlands underlain by permafrost are increasingly experiencing thermokarst and soil flooding with increasing active layer depth. Changes in moss productivity post-thaw led to increased rates of organic matter accumulation, with very different hydrologic and soil properties than peat accumulated in permafrost settings. In addition to local
Walking Flexibility after Hemispherectomy: Split-Belt Treadmill Adaptation and Feedback Control
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choi, Julia T.; Vining, Eileen P. G.; Reisman, Darcy S.; Bastian, Amy J.
2009-01-01
Walking flexibility depends on use of feedback or reactive control to respond to unexpected changes in the environment, and the ability to adapt feedforward or predictive control for sustained alterations. Recent work has demonstrated that cerebellar damage impairs feedforward adaptation, but not feedback control, during human split-belt treadmill…
Control Quality of a Feedback Control System under Cyclostationary Noise in Power Line Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrizo, Cesar; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Okada, Hiraku; Katayama, Masaaki
This paper discusses a control system that employs a power line to transfer signals to control the motion of a single machine, and explores the influence of packet losses on the quality of the control. As an example of a controlled system, a controller with a rotary inverted pendulum as a controlled object, is considered. The feedback loop in between is the power line. The control performance is evaluated in the power line cyclostationary noise environment and compared against the performance in a stationary noise environment. As a result, it is confirmed that the power line and its cyclostationary noise features present an advantage against transmission in a channel with stationary noise.
A non-linear model of economic production processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.
2003-06-01
We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.
Non-linear Higgs portal to Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brivio, I.; Gavela, M. B.; Merlo, L.; Mimasu, K.; No, J. M.; del Rey, R.; Sanz, V.
2016-04-01
The Higgs portal to scalar Dark Matter is considered in the context of non-linearly realised electroweak symmetry breaking. We determine the dominant interactions of gauge bosons and the physical Higgs particle h to a scalar singlet Dark Matter candidate. Phenomenological consequences are also studied in detail, including the possibility of distinguishing this scenario from the standard Higgs portal in which the electroweak symmetry breaking is linearly realised. Two features of significant impact are: i) the connection between the electroweak scale v and the Higgs particle departs from the ( v + h) functional dependence, as the Higgs field is not necessarily an exact electroweak doublet; ii) the presence of specific couplings that arise at different order in the non-linear and in the linear expansions. These facts deeply affect the Dark Matter relic abundance, as well as the expected signals in direct and indirect searches and collider phenomenology, where Dark Matter production rates are enhanced with respect to the standard portal.
Non-linear microscopy and spectroscopy of skin tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palero, Jonathan A.; Latouche, Gwendal; de Bruijn, Henri"tte S.; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.
2005-11-01
We combined a non-linear microscope with a sensitive prism-based spectrograph and employed it for the imaging of the auto fluorescence of skin tissues. The system has a sub-micron spatial resolution and a spectral resolution of better than 5 nm. The spectral images contain signals arising from two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) of endogenous fluorophores in the skin and from second harmonic generation (SHG) produced by the collagen fibers, which have non-centrosymmetric structure. Non-linear microscopy has the potential to image deep into optically thick specimens because it uses near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation. In addition, the phototoxicity of the technique is comparatively low. Here, the technique is used for the spectral imaging of unstained skin tissue sections. We were able to image weak cellular autofluorescence as well as strong collagen SHG. The images were analyzed by spectral unmixing and the results exhibit a clear spectral signature for the different skin layers.
New non-linear photovoltaic effect in uniform bipolar semiconductor
Volovichev, I.
2014-11-21
A linear theory of the new non-linear photovoltaic effect in the closed circuit consisting of a non-uniformly illuminated uniform bipolar semiconductor with neutral impurities is developed. The non-uniform photo-excitation of impurities results in the position-dependant current carrier mobility that breaks the semiconductor homogeneity and induces the photo-electromotive force (emf). As both the electron (or hole) mobility gradient and the current carrier generation rate depend on the light intensity, the photo-emf and the short-circuit current prove to be non-linear functions of the incident light intensity at an arbitrarily low illumination. The influence of the sample size on the photovoltaic effect magnitude is studied. Physical relations and distinctions between the considered effect and the Dember and bulk photovoltaic effects are also discussed.
On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory
Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas E-mail: mathias.garny@desy.de
2013-09-01
We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections at any order in perturbation theory. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.
A review of non-linear terahertz spectroscopy with ultrashort tabletop-laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Harold Y.; Fleischer, Sharly; Brandt, Nathaniel C.; Perkins, Bradford G., Jr.; Liu, Mengkun; Fan, Kebin; Sternbach, Aaron; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.
2015-10-01
Over the past decade, breakthroughs in the generation and control of ultrafast high-field terahertz (THz) radiation have led to new spectroscopic methodologies for the study of light-matter interactions in the strong-field limit. In this review, we will outline recent experimental demonstrations of non-linear THz material responses in materials ranging from molecular gases, to liquids, to varieties of solids - including semiconductors, nanocarbon, and correlated electron materials. New insights into how strong THz fields interact with matter will be discussed in which a THz field can act as either a non-resonant electric field or a broad bandwidth pulse driving specific resonances within it. As an emerging field, non-linear THz spectroscopy shows promise for elucidating dynamic problems associated with next generation electronics and optoelectronics, as well as for demonstrating control over collective material degrees of freedom.
Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking
Chang, Zenghu; Yun, Chenxia; Chen, Shouyuan; Wang, He; Chini, Michael
2012-07-24
A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.
Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David
2015-06-01
The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = nabla \\cdot v({x},t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ˜10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at k ˜ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k < 0.1 h Mpc-1. The stochasticity in the θ-δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.
Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas
Hnat, B.
2011-09-22
Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.
Approximate solutions for non-linear iterative fractional differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damag, Faten H.; Kiliçman, Adem; Ibrahim, Rabha W.
2016-06-01
This paper establishes approximate solution for non-linear iterative fractional differential equations: d/γv (s ) d sγ =ℵ (s ,v ,v (v )), where γ ∈ (0, 1], s ∈ I := [0, 1]. Our method is based on some convergence tools for analytic solution in a connected region. We show that the suggested solution is unique and convergent by some well known geometric functions.
Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis
Yu,L.; Nash, B.
2009-05-04
We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.
Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hnat, B.
2011-09-01
Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.
Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions
Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David
2015-04-09
The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc^{-1} to 25 per cent at k ~ 0.45 h Mpc^{-1} at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 10^{12} M_{⊙} h^{-1}, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -f_{LT}δ, where f_{LT }is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc^{-1}. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of f_{LT} from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of f_{LT} extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.
Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taormina, Anne
Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model.
Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions
Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David
2015-04-09
The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less
Non-linear power spectra in the synchronous gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Jeong, Donghui; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Biern, Sang Gyu
2015-05-01
We study the non-linear corrections to the matter and velocity power spectra in the synchronous gauge (SG). For the leading correction to the non-linear power spectra, we consider the perturbations up to third order in a zero-pressure fluid in a flat cosmological background. Although the equations in the SG happen to coincide with those in the comoving gauge (CG) to linear order, they differ from second order. In particular, the second order hydrodynamic equations in the SG are apparently in the Lagrangian form, whereas those in the CG are in the Eulerian form. The non-linear power spectra naively presented in the original SG show rather pathological behavior quite different from the result of the Newtonian theory even on sub-horizon scales. We show that the pathology in the nonlinear power spectra is due to the absence of the convective terms in, thus the Lagrangian nature of, the SG. We show that there are many different ways of introducing the corrective convective terms in the SG equations. However, the convective terms (Eulerian modification) can be introduced only through gauge transformations to other gauges which should be the same as the CG to the second order. In our previous works we have shown that the density and velocity perturbation equations in the CG exactly coincide with the Newtonian equations to the second order, and the pure general relativistic correction terms starting to appear from the third order are substantially suppressed compared with the relativistic/Newtonian terms in the power spectra. As a result, we conclude that the SG per se is an inappropriate coordinate choice in handling the non-linear matter and velocity power spectra of the large-scale structure where observations meet with theories.
Liapunov functions for non-linear difference equation stability analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. E.; Kinnen, E.
1972-01-01
Liapunov functions to determine the stability of non-linear autonomous difference equations can be developed through the use of auxiliary exact difference equations. For this purpose definitions are introduced for the gradient of an implicit function of a discrete variable, a principal sum, a definite sum and an exact difference equation, and a theorem for exactness of a difference form is proved. Examples illustrate the procedure.
Proximal Blade Twist Feedback Control for Heliogyro Solar Sails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Sarah Mitchell
mode is on the order of 0.005%, meaning there is almost no inherent damping in the blade. Next, the proximal blade twist feedback control design was successful in overcoming friction in the root actuator and added damping to the blade. The damping ratio for the lowest frequency torsional mode was increased from 0.001% to 0.09%, which is a significant amount for a heliogyro spacecraft. Finally, the camera sensor used for the proximal differential twist measurement proved to be feasible and quantization from these measurements only decreased the damping ratio to 0.075%. This research provides the first indication that a physically realizable blade root controller can deal with friction in an effective way, thus taking a step towards advancing the technology readiness level of the heliogyro spacecraft.
Pulsed klystrons with feedback controlled mod-anode modulators
Reass, William A; Baca, David M; Jerry, Davis L; Rees, Daniel E
2009-01-01
This paper describes a fast rise and fall, totem-pole mod-anode modulators for klystron application. Details of these systems as recently installed utilizing a beam switch tube ''on-deck'' and a planar triode ''off-deck'' in a grid-catch feedback regulated configuration will be provided. The grid-catch configuration regulates the klystron mod-anode voltage at a specified set-point during switching as well as providing a control mechanism that flat-top regulates the klystron beam current during the pulse. This flat-topped klystron beam current is maintained while the capacitor bank droops. In addition, we will review more modern on-deck designs using a high gain, high voltage planar triode as a regulating and switching element. These designs are being developed, tested, and implemented for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator refurbishment project, ''LANSCE-R''. An advantage of the planar triode is that the tube can be directly operated with solid state linear components and provides for a very compact design. The tubes are inexpensive compared to stacked semiconductor switching assemblies and also provide a linear control capability. Details of these designs are provided as well as operational and developmental results.
Failsafe device for air/fuel ratio feedback control system
Otsuka, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Narasaka, S.
1983-11-15
A fail safe device is disclosed, comprising means for detecting a failure in an air/fuel ratio feedback control system and generating a fault signal when such failure is detected, and means responsive to the fault signal to drive an actuator for driving an air/fuel ratio control valve and also responsive to a reference position signal supplied thereto during the above driving, which is generated when the actuator passes its reference position, to stop the actuator at the reference position. The actuator driving/stopping means may comprise means for repeatedly driving the actuator over a predetermined operating range inclusive of the reference position a plurality of times when it is not supplied with the reference position signal upon the actuator passing the reference position, and means for driving the actuator from its extreme operating position to a predetermined position and holding the same there when it is not supplied with the reference position signal even after a predetermined number of times of the above repeated driving of the actuator.
Active control of a flexible structure using a modal positive position feedback controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poh, S.; Baz, A.
1990-01-01
The feasibility of a new Modal Positive Position Feedback (MPPF) strategy in controlling the vibration of a complex flexible structure using a single piezo-electric active structural member is demonstrated. The control strategy generates its control forces by manipulating only the modal position signals of the structure to provide a damping action to undamped modes. This is in contrast to conventional modal controllers that rely in their operation on negative feedback of both the modal position and velocity. The proposed strategy is very simple to design and implement as it designs the controller at the uncoupled modal level and utilizes simple first order filters to achieve the Positive Position Feedback effect. The performance of the new strategy is enhanced by augmenting it with a time sharing strategy to share a small number of actuators between larger number of modes. The effectiveness of the new strategy is validated experimentally on a flexible box-type structure that has four bays and its first two bending modes are 2.015 and 6.535 Hz respectively. A single piezo-electric actuator is utilized as an active structural member to control several transverse bending modes of the structure. The performance of the active control system is determined in the time and the frequency domains. The results are compared with those obtained when using the Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) of Meirovitch. The experimental results suggest the potential of the proposed strategy as a viable means for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures in real time.
Active control of a flexible structure using a modal positive position feedback controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poh, S.; Baz, A.
1990-01-01
The feasibility of a new Modal Positive Position Feedback (MPPF) strategy in controlling the vibration of a complex flexible structure using a single piezo-electric active structural member is demonstrated. The control strategy generates its control forces by manipulating only the modal position signals of the structure to provide a damping action to undamped modes. This is in contrast to conventional modal controllers that rely in their operation on negative feedback of both the modal position and velocity. The proposed strategy is very simple to design and implement as it designs the controller at the uncoupled modal level and utilizes simple first order filters to achieve the Positive Position Feedback effect. The performance of the new strategy is enhanced by augmenting it with a time sharing strategy to share a small number of actuators between larger number of modes. The effectiveness of the new strategy is validated experimentally on a flexible box-type structure that has four bays and its first two bending modes are 2.015 and 6.535 Hz, respectively. A single piezo-electric actuator is utilized as an active structural member to control several transverse bending modes of the structure. The performance of the active control system is determined in the time and the frequency domains. The results are compared with those obtained when using the Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) of Meirovitch. The experimental results suggest the potential of the proposed strategy as a viable means for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures in real time.
Can the Non-linear Ballooning Model describe ELMs?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henneberg, S. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Wilson, H. R.
2015-11-01
The explosive, filamentary plasma eruptions described by the non-linear ideal MHD ballooning model is tested quantitatively against experimental observations of ELMs in MAST. The equations describing this model were derived by Wilson and Cowley for tokamak-like geometry which includes two differential equations: the linear ballooning equation which describes the spatial distribution along the field lines and the non-linear ballooning mode envelope equation, which is a two-dimensional, non-linear differential equation which can involve fractional temporal-derivatives, but is often second-order in time and space. To employ the second differential equation for a specific geometry one has to evaluate the coefficients of the equation which is non-trivial as it involves field line averaging of slowly converging functions. We have solved this system for MAST, superimposing the solutions of both differential equations and mapping them onto a MAST plasma. Comparisons with the evolution of ELM filaments in MAST will be reported in order to test the model. The support of the EPSRC for the FCDT (Grant EP/K504178/1), of Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 (No 633053) and of the RCUK Energy Programme [grant number EP/I501045] is gratefully acknowledged.
Non-linear Compton Scattering in Short Laser Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krajewska, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Jerzy
2012-06-01
The generation of short X-ray laser pulses attracts a great deal of attention. One of mechanisms to achieve this goal is the non-linear Compton scattering at very high laser powers. The majority of previous works on the non-linear Compton scattering have been devoted to the case when the incident laser field is treated as a monochromatic plane wave. There is, however, recent interest in analyzing the effect of a pulsed laser field on the non-linear Compton scattering [1-4]. We study the process for different durations of the incident laser pulse and compare it with the results for both a plane wave laser field and a laser pulse train. [4pt] [1] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053403 (2009).[0pt] [2] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 446 (2011).[0pt] [3] D. Seipt and B. Kämpfer, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022101 (2011).[0pt] [4] F. Mackenroth and A. Di Piazza, Phys. Rev. A 83, 032106 (2011).
Design and Validation of Optimized Feedforward with Robust Feedback Control of a Nuclear Reactor
Shaffer, Roman; He Weidong; Edwards, Robert M.
2004-08-15
Design applications for robust feedback and optimized feedforward control, with confirming results from experiments conducted on the Pennsylvania State University TRIGA reactor, are presented. The combination of feedforward and feedback control techniques complement each other in that robust control offers guaranteed closed-loop stability in the presence of uncertainties, and optimized feedforward offers an approach to achieving performance that is sometimes limited by overly conservative robust feedback control. The design approach taken in this work combines these techniques by first designing robust feedback control. Alternative methods for specifying a low-order linear model and uncertainty specifications, while seeking as much performance as possible, are discussed and evaluated. To achieve desired performance characteristics, the optimized feedforward control is then computed by using the nominal nonlinear plant model that incorporates the robust feedback control.
Collins, Susan E; Kirouac, Megan; Lewis, Melissa A; Witkiewitz, Katie; Carey, Kate B
2014-01-01
Objective: Web-based personalized feedback interventions, particularly personalized normative feedback (PNF), are efficacious in improving college drinking outcomes; however, no personalized feedback interventions to date have provided college drinkers with feedback about their own decisional balance. This study tested the relative efficacy of a novel decisional balance feedback (DBF) intervention, PNF, and an assessment-only control condition. Method: Participants (N = 724; 56% female) were undergraduate students at a 4-year university in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and were randomized to receive one-time exposure to web-based DBF, PNF, or assessment only. Web-based assessment occurred at baseline and at 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups and included measures of motivation to change, drinking quantity norms, drinking frequency/quantity, and alcohol-related problems. Results: At the 1-month follow-up, DBF and PNF participants reported reductions in alcohol-related problems; however, only PNF participants reduced their drinking frequency and quantity. At the 6-month follow-up, only DBF participants showed significant reductions in drinking quantity and alcohol-related problems. Neither group maintained reductions in alcohol use or alcohol-related problems at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: This study provided preliminary evidence that web-based DBF and PNF are efficacious interventions for college drinkers, with DBF having somewhat longer lasting effects. PMID:25343656
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Heng-Hui
2004-06-01
An analysis of stability and chaotic dynamics is presented by a single-axis rate gyro subjected to linear feedback control loops. This rate gyro is supposed to be mounted on a space vehicle which undergoes an uncertain angular velocity ωZ( t) around its spin axis. And simultaneously acceleration ω˙X(t) occurs with respect to the output axis. The necessary and sufficient conditions of stability for the autonomous case, whose vehicle undergoes a steady rotation, were provided by Routh-Hurwitz theory. Also, the degeneracy conditions of the non-hyperbolic point were derived and the dynamics of the resulting system on the center manifold near the double-zero degenerate point by using center manifold and normal form methods were examined. The stability of the non-linear non-autonomous system was investigated by Liapunov stability and instability theorems. As the electrical time constant is much smaller than the mechanical time constant, the singularly perturbed system can be obtained by the singular perturbation theory. The Liapunov stability of this system by studying the reduced and boundary-layer systems was also analyzed. Numerical simulations were performed to verify the analytical results. The stable regions of the autonomous system were obtained in parametric diagrams. For the non-autonomous case in which ωZ( t) oscillates near boundary of stability, periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic motions were demonstrated by using time history, phase plane and Poincaré maps.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liberty, S. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Tung, L. J.
1981-01-01
Applied research in the area of spectral assignment in multivariable systems is reported. A frequency domain technique for determining the set of all stabilizing controllers for a single feedback loop multivariable system is described. It is shown that decoupling and tracking are achievable using this procedure. The technique is illustrated with a simple example.
Li, Yongming; Tong, Shaocheng; Li, Tieshan
2015-10-01
In this paper, a composite adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control approach is proposed for a class of single-input and single-output strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unmeasured states and input saturation. Fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, and a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By utilizing the designed fuzzy state observer, a serial-parallel estimation model is established. Based on adaptive backstepping dynamic surface control technique and utilizing the prediction error between the system states observer model and the serial-parallel estimation model, a new fuzzy controller with the composite parameters adaptive laws are developed. It is proved that all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output can follow the given bounded reference signal. A numerical example and simulation comparisons with previous control methods are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25438335
A Technique for Determining Non-Linear Circuit Parameters from Ring Down Data
ROMERO, LOUIS; DICKEY, FRED M.; DISON, HOLLY
2003-01-01
We present a technique for determining non-linear resistances, capacitances, and inductances from ring down data in a non-linear RLC circuit. Although the governing differential equations are non-linear, we are able to solve this problem using linear least squares without doing any sort of non-linear iteration.
Non-linearities in Holocene floodplain sediment storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Notebaert, Bastiaan; Nils, Broothaerts; Jean-François, Berger; Gert, Verstraeten
2013-04-01
Floodplain sediment storage is an important part of the sediment cascade model, buffering sediment delivery between hillslopes and oceans, which is hitherto not fully quantified in contrast to other global sediment budget components. Quantification and dating of floodplain sediment storage is data and financially demanding, limiting contemporary estimates for larger spatial units to simple linear extrapolations from a number of smaller catchments. In this paper we will present non-linearities in both space and time for floodplain sediment budgets in three different catchments. Holocene floodplain sediments of the Dijle catchment in the Belgian loess region, show a clear distinction between morphological stages: early Holocene peat accumulation, followed by mineral floodplain aggradation from the start of the agricultural period on. Contrary to previous assumptions, detailed dating of this morphological change at different shows an important non-linearity in geomorphologic changes of the floodplain, both between and within cross sections. A second example comes from the Pre-Alpine French Valdaine region, where non-linearities and complex system behavior exists between (temporal) patterns of soil erosion and floodplain sediment deposition. In this region Holocene floodplain deposition is characterized by different cut-and-fill phases. The quantification of these different phases shows a complicated image of increasing and decreasing floodplain sediment storage, which hampers the image of increasing sediment accumulation over time. Although fill stages may correspond with large quantities of deposited sediment and traditionally calculated sedimentation rates for such stages are high, they do not necessary correspond with a long-term net increase in floodplain deposition. A third example is based on the floodplain sediment storage in the Amblève catchment, located in the Belgian Ardennes uplands. Detailed floodplain sediment quantification for this catchments shows
Motivation in vigilance - Effects of self-evaluation and experimenter-controlled feedback.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warm, J. S.; Kanfer, F. H.; Kuwada, S.; Clark, J. L.
1972-01-01
Vigilance experiments have been performed to study the relative efficiency of feedback operations in enhancing vigilance performance. Two feedback operations were compared - i.e., experimenter-controlled feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR) regarding response times to signal detections, and subject-controlled feedback in the form of self-evaluation (SE) of response times to signal detections. The subjects responded to the aperiodic offset of a visual signal during a 1-hr vigil. Both feedback operations were found to enhance performance efficiency: subjects in the KR and SE conditions had faster response times than controls receiving no evaluative feedback. Moreover, the data of the KR and SE groups did not differ significantly from each other. The results are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that self-evaluation is a critical factor underlying the incentive value of KR in vigilance tasks.
Grand, Kirk F; Bruzi, Alessandro T; Dyke, Ford B; Godwin, Maurice M; Leiker, Amber M; Thompson, Andrew G; Buchanan, Taylor L; Miller, Matthew W
2015-10-01
It was tested whether learners who choose when to receive augmented feedback while practicing a motor skill exhibit enhanced augmented feedback processing and intrinsic motivation, along with superior learning, relative to learners who do not control their feedback. Accordingly, participants were assigned to either self-control (Self) or yoked groups and asked to practice a non-dominant arm beanbag toss. Self participants received augmented feedback at their discretion, whereas Yoked participants were given feedback schedules matched to Self counterparts. Participants' visual feedback was occluded, and when they received augmented feedback, their processing of it was indexed with the electroencephalography-derived feedback-related negativity (FRN). Participants self-reported intrinsic motivation via the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) after practice, and completed a retention and transfer test the next day to index learning. Results partially support the hypothesis. Specifically, Self participants reported higher IMI scores, exhibited larger FRNs, and demonstrated better accuracy on the transfer test, but not on the retention test, nor did they exhibit greater consistency on the retention or transfer tests. Additionally, post-hoc multiple regression analysis indicated FRN amplitude predicted transfer test accuracy (accounting for IMI score). Results suggest self-controlled feedback schedules enhance feedback processing, which enhances the transfer of a newly acquired motor skill. PMID:26163375
Noise Control in Gene Regulatory Networks with Negative Feedback.
Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D
2016-07-01
Genes and proteins regulate cellular functions through complex circuits of biochemical reactions. Fluctuations in the components of these regulatory networks result in noise that invariably corrupts the signal, possibly compromising function. Here, we create a practical formalism based on ideas introduced by Wiener and Kolmogorov (WK) for filtering noise in engineered communications systems to quantitatively assess the extent to which noise can be controlled in biological processes involving negative feedback. Application of the theory, which reproduces the previously proven scaling of the lower bound for noise suppression in terms of the number of signaling events, shows that a tetracycline repressor-based negative-regulatory gene circuit behaves as a WK filter. For the class of Hill-like nonlinear regulatory functions, this type of filter provides the optimal reduction in noise. Our theoretical approach can be readily combined with experimental measurements of response functions in a wide variety of genetic circuits, to elucidate the general principles by which biological networks minimize noise. PMID:27095600
Developing an active artificial hair cell using nonlinear feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, Bryan S.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.
2015-09-01
The hair cells in the mammalian cochlea convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. These cells have inspired a variety of artificial hair cells (AHCs) to serve as biologically inspired sound, fluid flow, and acceleration sensors and could one day replace damaged hair cells in humans. Most of these AHCs rely on passive transduction of stimulus while it is known that the biological cochlea employs active processes to amplify sound-induced vibrations and improve sound detection. In this work, an active AHC mimics the active, nonlinear behavior of the cochlea. The AHC consists of a piezoelectric bimorph beam subjected to a base excitation. A feedback control law is used to reduce the linear damping of the beam and introduce a cubic damping term which gives the AHC the desired nonlinear behavior. Model and experimental results show the AHC amplifies the response due to small base accelerations, has a higher frequency sensitivity than the passive system, and exhibits a compressive nonlinearity like that of the mammalian cochlea. This bio-inspired accelerometer could lead to new sensors with lower thresholds of detection, improved frequency sensitivities, and wider dynamic ranges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bienert, W. B.
1974-01-01
The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.
Feature Visibility Limits in the Non-Linear Enhancement of Turbid Images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Woodell, Glenn A.
2003-01-01
The advancement of non-linear processing methods for generic automatic clarification of turbid imagery has led us from extensions of entirely passive multiscale Retinex processing to a new framework of active measurement and control of the enhancement process called the Visual Servo. In the process of testing this new non-linear computational scheme, we have identified that feature visibility limits in the post-enhancement image now simplify to a single signal-to-noise figure of merit: a feature is visible if the feature-background signal difference is greater than the RMS noise level. In other words, a signal-to-noise limit of approximately unity constitutes a lower limit on feature visibility.
Localization of Non-Linearly Modeled Autonomous Mobile Robots Using Out-of-Sequence Measurements
Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A.; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost. PMID:22736962
Localization of non-linearly modeled autonomous mobile robots using out-of-sequence measurements.
Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M
2012-01-01
This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost. PMID:22736962
Design study of a feedback control system for the Multicyclic Flap System rotor (MFS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weisbrich, R.; Perley, R.; Howes, H.
1977-01-01
The feasibility of automatically providing higher harmonic control to a deflectable control flap at the tip of a helicopter rotor blade through feedback of selected independent parameter was investigated. Control parameters were selected for input to the feedback system. A preliminary circuit was designed to condition the selected parameters, weigh limiting factors, and provide a proper output signal to the multi-cyclic control actuators. Results indicate that feedback control for the higher harmonic is feasible; however, design for a flight system requires an extension of the present analysis which was done for one flight condition - 120 kts, 11,500 lbs gross weight and level flight.
Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward
2015-11-01
Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.
Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.
Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward
2015-11-12
Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate. PMID:26503051
Feedback Control of Floor Reaction Force Based on Force-Reflecting-Type Multilateral Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagase, Kazuki; Katsura, Seiichiro
Real-world haptics is being studied not only for improving feedback on real-world haptic information in teleoperation but also for developing key technologies for future human support. For the remote operating of systems at distant places, haptic information is required in addition to visual information. The haptic information around a work environment can be the floor reaction force, which can be obtained using a movement-type haptic device. The floor reaction force from the environment that the mobile haptic device touches is fed back accurately to the operator. First, this paper proposes a general force-reflecting-type multilateral control. Second, this paper extends the control to feedback control of the floor reaction force by using force-reflecting-type multilateral control and a novel haptic device employing a biped robot with a slave system. The position response of a master system is transformed to a leg tip position command for the biped-type haptic device. In addition, the floor reaction force determined by the biped-type haptic device is fed back to the master system. The proposed method can determine the force feedback to the sole of the foot, which is not possible with a conventional stationary system. As a result, the floor reaction force from a large area can be obtained, and the operability of the control system is improved by using the proposed system.
Support Vector Machines for Non-linear Geophysical Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzma, H. A.; Rector, J. W.
2004-12-01
Classical non-linear geophysical inversion can be simulated using computer learning via Support Vector Machines. Geophysical inverse problems are almost always ill-posed which means that many different models (i.e. descriptions of the earth) can be found to explain a given noisy or incomplete data set. Regularization and constraints encourage inversions to find physically realistic models. The set of preferred models needs to be defined a priori using as much geologic knowledge as is available. In inversion, it is assumed that data and a forward modeling process is known. The goal is to solve for a model. In the SVM paradigm, a series of models and associated data are known. The goal is to solve for a reverse modeling process. Starting with a series of initial models assembled using all available geologic information, synthetic data is created using the most realistic forward modeling program available. With the synthetic data as inputs and the known models as outputs, a Support Vector Machine is trained to approximate a local inverse to the forward modeling program. The advantages of this approach are that it is honest about the need to establish, a priori, the kinds of models that are reasonable in a particular field situation. There is no need to adjust the forward process to accommodate inversion, because SVMs can be easily modified to capture complicated, non-linear relationships. SVMs are transparent and require very little programming. If an SVM is trained using model/data pairs that are drawn from the same probability distribution that is implicit in the regularization of an inversion, then it will get very similar results to the inversion. Because SVMs can interpret as much data as desired so long as the conditions of an experiment do not change, they can be used to perform otherwise computationally expensive procedures. Support Vector Machines are trained to emulate non-linear seismic Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) inversions, gravity inversions
Response of a rotorcraft model with damping non-linearities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tongue, B. H.
1985-11-01
The linearized equations of motion of a helicopter in contact with the ground have solutions which can be linearly stable or unstable, depending on the system parameters. The present study includes physical non-linearities in the helicopter model. This allows one to determine if a steady-state response exists and, if so, what the frequency and amplitude of the oscillations will be. In this way, one can determine how serious the linearly unstable operating regime is and whether destructive oscillations are possible when the system is in the linearly stable regime. The present analysis applies to helicopters having fully articulated rotors.
Non-linear wave interaction in a plasma column
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larsen, J.-M.; Crawford, F. W.
1979-01-01
Non-linear three-wave interaction is analysed for propagation along a cylindrical plasma column surrounded by an infinite dielectric, in the absence of a static magnetic field. An averaged-Lagrangian method is used, and the results are specialized to parametric interaction and mode conversion, assuming an undepleted pump wave. The theory for these two types of interactions is extended to include imperfect synchronism, and the effects of loss. Computations are presented indicating that parametric growth rates of the order of a fraction of a decibel per centimeter should be obtainable for plausible laboratory plasma column parameters.
Non-linear identification of a squeeze-film damper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanway, Roger; Mottershead, John; Firoozian, Riaz
1987-01-01
Described is an experimental study to identify the damping laws associated with a squeeze-film vibration damper. This is achieved by using a non-linear filtering algorithm to process displacement responses of the damper ring to synchronous excitation and thus to estimate the parameters in an nth-power velocity model. The experimental facility is described in detail and a representative selection of results is included. The identified models are validated through the prediction of damper-ring orbits and comparison with observed responses.
Non-linear dynamics of compound sawteeth in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, J.-H.; Garbet, X.; Lütjens, H.; Marx, A.; Nicolas, T.; Sabot, R.; Luciani, J.-F.; Guirlet, R.; Février, O.; Maget, P.
2016-05-01
Compound sawteeth is studied with the XTOR-2F code. Non-linear full 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that the plasma hot core is radially displaced and rotates during the partial crash, but is not fully expelled out of the q = 1 surface. Partial crashes occur when the radius of the q = 1 surface exceeds a critical value, at fixed poloidal beta. This critical value depends on the plasma elongation. The partial crash time is larger than the collapse time of an ordinary sawtooth, likely due to a weaker diamagnetic stabilization. This suggests that partial crashes result from a competition between destabilizing effects such as the q = 1 radius and diamagnetic stabilization.
8-PSK Signaling over non-linear satellite channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horan, Sheila B.; Caballero, Ruben B. Eng.
1996-01-01
Space agencies are under pressure to utilize better bandwidth-efficient communication methods due to the actual allocated frequency bands becoming more congested. Also budget reductions is another problem that the space agencies must deal with. This budget constraint results in simpler spacecraft carrying less communication capabilities and also the reduction in staff to capture data in the earth stations. It is then imperative that the most bandwidth efficient communication methods be utilized. This thesis presents a study of 8-ary Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) modulation with respect to bandwidth, power efficiency, spurious emissions and interference susceptibility over a non-linear satellite channel.
Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy of microbiological suspensions
Treo, Ernesto F; Felice, Carmelo J
2009-01-01
Background Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) of microorganism was characterized by the generation of harmonics in the polarization current when a microorganism suspension was exposed to a sinusoidal electric field. The biological nonlinear response initially described was not well verified by other authors and the results were susceptible to ambiguous interpretation. In this paper NLDS was performed to yeast suspension in tripolar and tetrapolar configuration with a recently developed analyzer. Methods Tripolar analysis was carried out by applying sinusoidal voltages up to 1 V at the electrode interface. Tetrapolar analysis was carried on with sinusoidal field strengths from 0.1 V cm-1 to 70 V cm-1. Both analyses were performed within a frequency range from 1 Hz through 100 Hz. The harmonic amplitudes were Fourier-analyzed and expressed in dB. The third harmonic, as reported previously, was investigated. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was used to test the effect of inhibitor an activator of the plasma membrane enzyme in the measured response. Results No significant non-linearities were observed in tetrapolar analysis, and no observable changes occurred when inhibitor and activator were added to the suspension. Statistical analysis confirmed these results. When a pure sinus voltage was applied to an electrode-yeast suspension interface, variations higher than 25 dB for the 3rd harmonic were observed. Variation higher than 20 dB in the 3rd harmonics has also been found when adding an inhibitor or activator of the membrane-bounded enzymes. These variations did not occur when the suspension was boiled. Discussion The lack of result in tetrapolar cells suggest that there is no, if any, harmonic generation in microbiological bulk suspension. The non-linear response observed was originated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The frequency and voltage windows observed in previous tetrapolar analysis were repeated in the tripolar measurements, but maximum were not
Non-linear isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities
Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo; Wands, David E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr
2008-12-15
We study non-linear primordial adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations and their non-Gaussianity. After giving a general formulation in the context of an extended {delta}N formalism, we analyse in detail two illustrative examples. The first is a mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario in which fluctuations of both the inflaton and a curvaton (a light isocurvature field during inflation) contribute to the primordial density perturbation. The second example is that of double inflation involving two decoupled massive scalar fields during inflation. In the mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario we find that the bispectrum of primordial isocurvature perturbations may be large and comparable to the bispectrum of adiabatic curvature perturbations.
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, Larry W.
2015-11-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects
Liu Zhuo; Kuang Luelin; Hu Kai; Xu Luting; Wei Suhua; Guo Lingzhen; Li Xinqi
2010-09-15
In a solid-state circuit QED system, we demonstrate that a homodyne-current-based feedback can create and stabilize highly entangled two-qubit states in the presence of a moderate noisy environment. Particularly, we present an extended analysis for the current-based Markovian feedback, which leads to an improved feedback scheme. We show that this is essential to achieve a desirable control effect by the use of dispersive measurement.
Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; Milstein, Joshua N.
2014-09-01
Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices.
Active vibration control for flexible rotor by optimal direct-output feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nonami, K.; Dirusso, E.; Fleming, D. P.
1989-01-01
Experimental research tests were performed to actively control the rotor vibrations of a flexible rotor mounted on flexible bearing supports. The active control method used in the tests is called optimal direct-output feedback control. This method uses four electrodynamic actuators to apply control forces directly to the bearing housings in order to achieve effective vibration control of the rotor. The force actuators are controlled by an analog controller that accepts rotor displacement as input. The controller is programmed with experimentally determined feedback coefficients; the output is a control signal to the force actuators. The tests showed that this active control method reduced the rotor resonance peaks due to unbalance from approximately 250 microns down to approximately 25 microns (essentially runout level). The tests were conducted over a speed range from 0 to 10,000 rpm; the rotor system had nine critical speeds within this speed range. The method was effective in significantly reducing the rotor vibration for all of the vibration modes and critical speeds.
Active vibration control for flexible rotor by optimal direct-output feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nonami, Kenzou; Dirusso, Eliseo; Fleming, David P.
1989-01-01
Experimental research tests were performed to actively control the rotor vibrations of a flexible rotor mounted on flexible bearing supports. The active control method used in the tests is called optimal direct-output feedback control. This method uses four electrodynamic actuators to apply control forces directly to the bearing housings in order to achieve effective vibration control of the rotor. The force actuators are controlled by an analog controller that accepts rotor displacement as input. The controller is programmed with experimentally determined feedback coefficients; the output is a control signal to the force actuators. The tests showed that this active control method reduced the rotor resonance peaks due to unbalance from approximately 250 micrometers down to approximately 25 micrometers (essentially runout level). The tests were conducted over a speed range from 0 to 10,000 rpm; the rotor system had nine critical speeds within this speed range. The method was effective in significantly reducing the rotor vibration for all of the vibration modes and critical speeds.
Stochastic non-linear oscillator models of EEG: the Alzheimer's disease case
Ghorbanian, Parham; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Ashrafiuon, Hashem
2015-01-01
In this article, the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal of the human brain is modeled as the output of stochastic non-linear coupled oscillator networks. It is shown that EEG signals recorded under different brain states in healthy as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may be understood as distinct, statistically significant realizations of the model. EEG signals recorded during resting eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting conditions in a pilot study with AD patients and age-matched healthy control subjects (CTL) are employed. An optimization scheme is then utilized to match the output of the stochastic Duffing—van der Pol double oscillator network with EEG signals recorded during each condition for AD and CTL subjects by selecting the model physical parameters and noise intensity. The selected signal characteristics are power spectral densities in major brain frequency bands Shannon and sample entropies. These measures allow matching of linear time varying frequency content as well as non-linear signal information content and complexity. The main finding of the work is that statistically significant unique models represent the EC and EO conditions for both CTL and AD subjects. However, it is also shown that the inclusion of sample entropy in the optimization process, to match the complexity of the EEG signal, enhances the stochastic non-linear oscillator model performance. PMID:25964756
Power quality improvement for distribution systems under non-linear conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Sadaany, Ehab Fahmy
The proliferation of non-linear and electronically switched devices has increased the presence of nonsinusoidal currents and voltages in electrical distribution systems. The analysis of harmonics on the distribution systems has been described as being essential to understanding the nature of harmonic performance. One of the basic reasons for conducting a harmonic study is to analyze the effectiveness of proposed remedies to any existing harmonic problem. The analysis and design of any mitigation equipment requires precise calculation of both voltage and current waveforms. Moreover, the parameters that affect the harmonic performance have to be accurately identified and examined. This thesis offers a new time-domain based approach for the determination of both voltage and current waveforms in non-linear distribution systems taking into account the interaction between both voltage and current harmonics (attenuation effect). In addition, the parameters that control the generation and propagation of harmonics into the distribution systems have been identified and investigated. A simple but efficient time-domain based technique has been developed and employed in order to estimate the combined non-linear load susceptance at different harmonic frequencies based on the previously calculated voltage and current waveforms and with the attenuation phenomenon considered. A novel design and implementation of reactance one-port compensators has been applied to reduce both voltage and current harmonic distortion levels in non-linear distribution systems. This application represents a significant contribution to distribution systems analysis as it successfully limits the system distortion. The performance of the proposed compensator is assessed by both simulation and experimental testing.
Scheerer, Nichole E; Jones, Jeffery A
2014-12-01
Speech production requires the combined effort of a feedback control system driven by sensory feedback, and a feedforward control system driven by internal models. However, the factors that dictate the relative weighting of these feedback and feedforward control systems are unclear. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, participants produced vocalisations while being exposed to blocks of frequency-altered feedback (FAF) perturbations that were either predictable in magnitude (consistently either 50 or 100 cents) or unpredictable in magnitude (50- and 100-cent perturbations varying randomly within each vocalisation). Vocal and P1-N1-P2 ERP responses revealed decreases in the magnitude and trial-to-trial variability of vocal responses, smaller N1 amplitudes, and shorter vocal, P1 and N1 response latencies following predictable FAF perturbation magnitudes. In addition, vocal response magnitudes correlated with N1 amplitudes, vocal response latencies, and P2 latencies. This pattern of results suggests that after repeated exposure to predictable FAF perturbations, the contribution of the feedforward control system increases. Examination of the presentation order of the FAF perturbations revealed smaller compensatory responses, smaller P1 and P2 amplitudes, and shorter N1 latencies when the block of predictable 100-cent perturbations occurred prior to the block of predictable 50-cent perturbations. These results suggest that exposure to large perturbations modulates responses to subsequent perturbations of equal or smaller size. Similarly, exposure to a 100-cent perturbation prior to a 50-cent perturbation within a vocalisation decreased the magnitude of vocal and N1 responses, but increased P1 and P2 latencies. Thus, exposure to a single perturbation can affect responses to subsequent perturbations. PMID:25263844
Non-Linear Signal Detection Improvement by Radiation Damping in Single-Pulse NMR Spectra
Schlagnitweit, Judith; Morgan, Steven W; Nausner, Martin; Müller, Norbert; Desvaux, Hervé
2012-01-01
When NMR lines overlap and at least one of them is affected by radiation damping, the resonance line shapes of all lines are no longer Lorentzian. We report the appearance of narrow signal distortions, which resemble hole-burnt spectra. This new experimental phenomenon facilitates the detection of tiny signals hidden below the main resonance. Theoretical analysis based on modified Maxwell–Bloch equations shows that the presence of strong transverse magnetization creates a feedback through the coil, which influences the magnetization of all spins with overlapping resonance lines. In the time domain this leads to cross-precession terms between magnetization densities, which ultimately cause non-linear behavior. Numerical simulations corroborate this interpretation. PMID:22266720
Feedback control of one's own action: Self-other sensory attribution in motor control.
Asai, Tomohisa
2015-12-15
The sense of agency, the subjective experience of controlling one's own action, has an important function in motor control. When we move our own body or even external tools, we attribute that movement to ourselves and utilize that sensory information in order to correct "our own" movement in theory. The dynamic relationship between conscious self-other attribution and feedback control, however, is still unclear. Participants were required to make a sinusoidal reaching movement and received its visual feedback (i.e., cursor). When participants received a fake movement that was spatio-temporally close to their actual movement, illusory self-attribution of the fake movement was observed. In this situation, since participants tried to control the cursor but it was impossible to do so, the movement error was increased (Experiment 1). However, when the visual feedback was reduced to make self-other attribution difficult, there was no further increase in the movement error (Experiment 2). These results indicate that conscious self-other sensory attribution might coordinate sensory input and motor output. PMID:26587957
Non-linear leak currents affect mammalian neuron physiology
Huang, Shiwei; Hong, Sungho; De Schutter, Erik
2015-01-01
In their seminal works on squid giant axons, Hodgkin, and Huxley approximated the membrane leak current as Ohmic, i.e., linear, since in their preparation, sub-threshold current rectification due to the influence of ionic concentration is negligible. Most studies on mammalian neurons have made the same, largely untested, assumption. Here we show that the membrane time constant and input resistance of mammalian neurons (when other major voltage-sensitive and ligand-gated ionic currents are discounted) varies non-linearly with membrane voltage, following the prediction of a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-based passive membrane model. The model predicts that under such conditions, the time constant/input resistance-voltage relationship will linearize if the concentration differences across the cell membrane are reduced. These properties were observed in patch-clamp recordings of cerebellar Purkinje neurons (in the presence of pharmacological blockers of other background ionic currents) and were more prominent in the sub-threshold region of the membrane potential. Model simulations showed that the non-linear leak affects voltage-clamp recordings and reduces temporal summation of excitatory synaptic input. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of trans-membrane ionic concentration in defining the functional properties of the passive membrane in mammalian neurons as well as other excitable cells. PMID:26594148
Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.
2015-03-01
An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts across the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable size, beyond which their uncontrolled growth disrupts the ions. The hole growth calculations provide a quantitative prediction of hole profile and size evolution. Hole growth appears to explain the observations of recent particle-in-cell simulations.
Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.
2016-02-01
This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.
Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications.
Stanculescu, F; Stanculescu, A
2016-12-01
This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised. PMID:26873262
Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes
Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.
2015-03-15
An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts across the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable size, beyond which their uncontrolled growth disrupts the ions. The hole growth calculations provide a quantitative prediction of hole profile and size evolution. Hole growth appears to explain the observations of recent particle-in-cell simulations.
Modified non-linear Burgers' equations and cosmic ray shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Mckenzie, J. F.
1988-01-01
A reductive perturbation scheme is used to derive a generalized non-linear Burgers' equation, which includes the effects of dispersion, in the long wavelength regime for the two-fluid hydrodynamical model used to describe cosmic ray acceleration by the first-order Fermi process in astrophysical shocks. The generalized Burger's equation is derived for both relativistic and non-relativistic cosmic ray shocks, and describes the time evolution of weak shocks in the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. The inclusion of dispersive effects modifies the phase velocity of the shock obtained from the lower order non-linear Burger's equation through the introduction of higher order terms from the long wavelength dispersion equation. The travelling wave solution of the generalized Burgers' equation for a single shock shows that larger cosmic ray pressures result in broader shock transitions. The results for relativistic shocks show a steepening of the shock as the shock speed approaches the relativistic cosmic ray sound speed. The dependence of the shock speed on the cosmic ray pressure is also discussed.
Kim, Keehoon; Colgate, J Edward
2012-11-01
In this study, we hypothesized that haptic feedback would enhance grip force control of surface electromyography (sEMG)-controlled prosthetic hands for targeted reinnervation (TR) amputees. A new miniature haptic device, a tactor, that can deliver touch, pressure, shear, and temperature sensation, allows modality-matching haptic feedback. TR surgery that creates sensory regions on the patient's skin that refer to the surface of the missing limb allows somatotopic-matching haptic feedback. This paper evaluates the hypothesis via an sEMG-controlled virtual prosthetic arm operated by TR amputees under diverse haptic feedback conditions. The results indicate that the grip force control is significantly enhanced via the haptic feedback. However, the simultaneous display of two haptic channels (pressure and shear) does not enhance, but instead degrades, grip force control. PMID:22855230
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahrens, Markus; Kucera, Ladislav
1996-01-01
For flywheel rotors or other rotors with significant ratios of moments of inertia, the influence of gyroscopic effects has to be considered. While conservative or damped systems remain stable even under gyroscopic effects, magnetically suspended rotors can be destabilized with increasing rotational speed. The influence of gyroscopic effects on the stability and behavior of a magnetic bearing system is analyzed. The analysis is carried out with a rigid body model for the rotor and a nonlinear model for the magnetic bearing and its amplifier. Cross feedback control can compensate gyroscopic effects. This compensation leads to better system performance and can avoid instability. Furthermore, the implementation of this compensation is simple. The main structure of a decentralized controller can still be used. It has only to be expanded by the cross feedback path.
Reduced state feedback gain computation. [optimization and control theory for aircraft control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, H.
1976-01-01
Because application of conventional optimal linear regulator theory to flight controller design requires the capability of measuring and/or estimating the entire state vector, it is of interest to consider procedures for computing controls which are restricted to be linear feedback functions of a lower dimensional output vector and which take into account the presence of measurement noise and process uncertainty. Therefore, a stochastic linear model that was developed is presented which accounts for aircraft parameter and initial uncertainty, measurement noise, turbulence, pilot command and a restricted number of measurable outputs. Optimization with respect to the corresponding output feedback gains was performed for both finite and infinite time performance indices without gradient computation by using Zangwill's modification of a procedure originally proposed by Powell. Results using a seventh order process show the proposed procedures to be very effective.
Achterberg, Michelle; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Crone, Eveline A
2016-05-01
Negative social feedback often generates aggressive feelings and behavior. Prior studies have investigated the neural basis of negative social feedback, but the underlying neural mechanisms of aggression regulation following negative social feedback remain largely undiscovered. In the current study, participants viewed pictures of peers with feedback (positive, neutral or negative) to the participant's personal profile. Next, participants responded to the peer feedback by pressing a button, thereby producing a loud noise toward the peer, as an index of aggression. Behavioral analyses showed that negative feedback led to more aggression (longer noise blasts). Conjunction neuroimaging analyses revealed that both positive and negative feedback were associated with increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and bilateral insula. In addition, more activation in the right dorsal lateral PFC (dlPFC) during negative feedback vs neutral feedback was associated with shorter noise blasts in response to negative social feedback, suggesting a potential role of dlPFC in aggression regulation, or top-down control over affective impulsive actions. This study demonstrates a role of the dlPFC in the regulation of aggressive social behavior. PMID:26755768
Interior Noise Reduction by Adaptive Feedback Vibration Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lim, Tae W.
1998-01-01
. The on-line identification algorithm developed in this research will be useful in constructing a state estimator for feedback vibration control.
Eco-hydrological feedback mechanisms control ecological services in wetlands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coletti, J.; Hinz, C.; Vogwill, R.; Tareque, H.; Hipsey, M. R.
2011-12-01
Wetland ecosystems contain various feedback mechanisms between their abiotc and biotic components. The feedbacks are triggered by climate and propagate into patterns of environment partitioning based on distinct zones of hydrological function that vary in time and space. This partitioning co-evolves with vegetation, defines carbon metabolism and creates niches that govern patterns of flora and fauna abundance and distribution. Using a minimalistic model for wetland eco-hydrology, we explore vegetation adaptation to climate variability and the net metabolism of a wetland ecosystem given a range of climate conditions. We then apply the model to characterize the changes in niche habitat availability for a tortoise population endangered by a drying climate.
A Case Study of Representing Signal Transduction in Liver Cells as a Feedback Control Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Singh, Abhay; Jayaraman, Arul; Hahn, Juergen
2007-01-01
Cell signaling pathways often contain feedback loops where proteins are produced that regulate signaling. While feedback regulatory mechanisms are commonly found in signaling pathways, there is no example available in the literature that is simple enough to be presented in an undergraduate control class. This paper presents a simulation study of…
The Effects of Self-Controlled Video Feedback on the Learning of the Basketball Set Shot
Aiken, Christopher Adam; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Post, Phillip Guy
2012-01-01
Allowing learners to control some aspect of instructional support (e.g., augmented feedback) appears to facilitate motor skill acquisition. No studies, however, have examined self-controlled (SC) video feedback without the provision of additional attentional cueing. The purpose of this study was to extend previous SC research using video feedback about movement form for the basketball set shot without explicitly directing attention to specific aspects of the movement. The SC group requested video feedback of their performance following any trial during the acquisition phase. The yoked group received feedback according to a schedule created by a SC counterpart. During acquisition participants were also allowed to view written instructional cues at any time. Results revealed that the SC group had significantly higher form scores during the transfer phase and utilized the instructional cues more frequently during acquisition. Post-training questionnaire responses indicated no preference for requesting or receiving feedback following good trials as reported by Chiviacowsky and Wulf (2002, 2005). The nature of the task was such that participants could have assigned both positive and negative evaluations to different aspects of the movement during the same trial. Thus, the lack of preferences along with the similarity in scores for feedback and no-feedback trials may simply have reflected this complexity. Importantly, however, the results indicated that SC video feedback conferred a learning benefit without the provision of explicit additional attentional cueing. PMID:22973257
The effects of self-controlled video feedback on the learning of the basketball set shot.
Aiken, Christopher Adam; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Post, Phillip Guy
2012-01-01
Allowing learners to control some aspect of instructional support (e.g., augmented feedback) appears to facilitate motor skill acquisition. No studies, however, have examined self-controlled (SC) video feedback without the provision of additional attentional cueing. The purpose of this study was to extend previous SC research using video feedback about movement form for the basketball set shot without explicitly directing attention to specific aspects of the movement. The SC group requested video feedback of their performance following any trial during the acquisition phase. The yoked group received feedback according to a schedule created by a SC counterpart. During acquisition participants were also allowed to view written instructional cues at any time. Results revealed that the SC group had significantly higher form scores during the transfer phase and utilized the instructional cues more frequently during acquisition. Post-training questionnaire responses indicated no preference for requesting or receiving feedback following good trials as reported by Chiviacowsky and Wulf (2002, 2005). The nature of the task was such that participants could have assigned both positive and negative evaluations to different aspects of the movement during the same trial. Thus, the lack of preferences along with the similarity in scores for feedback and no-feedback trials may simply have reflected this complexity. Importantly, however, the results indicated that SC video feedback conferred a learning benefit without the provision of explicit additional attentional cueing. PMID:22973257
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menezes, J. W. M.; Fraga, W. B.; Lima, F. T.; Guimarães, G. F.; Ferreira, A. C.; Lyra, M. L.; Sombra, A. S. B.
2011-06-01
Recently, much attention has been given to the influence of the relaxation process of the non-linear response, because the usual assumption of instantaneous non-linear response fails for ultra-short pulses, and additional contributions coming from non-linear dispersion and delayed non-linearity have to be taken into account. This article presents a numerical analysis of the symmetric planar and asymmetric planar three-core non-linear directional fiber couplers operating with a soliton pulse, where effects of both delayed and instantaneous non-linear Kerr responses are analyzed for implementation of an all-optical half-adder. To implement this all-optical half-adder, eight configurations were analyzed for the non-linear directional fiber coupler, with two symmetric and six asymmetric configurations. The half-adder is the key building block for many digital processing functions, such as shift register, binary counter, and serial parallel data converters. The optical coupler is an important component for applications in optical-fiber telecommunication systems and all integrated optical circuit because of its very high switching speeds. In this numerical simulation, the symmetric/asymmetric planar presents a structure with three cores in a parallel equidistant arrangement, three logical inputs, and two output energy. To prove the effectiveness of the theoretical model for generation of the all-optical half-adder, the best phase to be applied to the control pulse was sought, and a study was done of the extinction ratio level as a function of the Δ > parameter, the normalized time duration, and the Sum and Carry outputs of the (symmetric planar/asymmetric planar) non-linear directional fiber coupler. In this article, the interest is in transmission characteristics, extinction ratio level, normalized time duration, and pulse evolution along the non-linear directional fiber coupler. To compare the performance of the all-optical half-adders, the figure of merit of the
Controlled Trial Using Computerized Feedback to Improve Physicians' Diagnostic Judgments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poses, Roy M.; And Others
1992-01-01
A study involving 14 experienced physicians investigated the effectiveness of a computer program (providing statistical feedback to teach a clinical diagnostic rule that predicts the probability of streptococcal pharyngitis), in conjunction with traditional lecture and periodic disease-prevalence reports. Results suggest the integrated method is a…
The role of feed-forward and feedback processes for closed-loop prosthesis control
2011-01-01
Background It is widely believed that both feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms are required for successful object manipulation. Open-loop upper-limb prosthesis wearers receive no tactile feedback, which may be the cause of their limited dexterity and compromised grip force control. In this paper we ask whether observed prosthesis control impairments are due to lack of feedback or due to inadequate feed-forward control. Methods Healthy subjects were fitted with a closed-loop robotic hand and instructed to grasp and lift objects of different weights as we recorded trajectories and force profiles. We conducted three experiments under different feed-forward and feed-back configurations to elucidate the role of tactile feedback (i) in ideal conditions, (ii) under sensory deprivation, and (iii) under feed-forward uncertainty. Results (i) We found that subjects formed economical grasps in ideal conditions. (ii) To our surprise, this ability was preserved even when visual and tactile feedback were removed. (iii) When we introduced uncertainty into the hand controller performance degraded significantly in the absence of either visual or tactile feedback. Greatest performance was achieved when both sources of feedback were present. Conclusions We have introduced a novel method to understand the cognitive processes underlying grasping and lifting. We have shown quantitatively that tactile feedback can significantly improve performance in the presence of feed-forward uncertainty. However, our results indicate that feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms serve complementary roles, suggesting that to improve on the state-of-the-art in prosthetic hands we must develop prostheses that empower users to correct for the inevitable uncertainty in their feed-forward control. PMID:22032545
Gibo, Tricia L; Bastian, Amy J; Okamura, Allison M
2014-03-01
When grasping and manipulating objects, people are able to efficiently modulate their grip force according to the experienced load force. Effective grip force control involves providing enough grip force to prevent the object from slipping, while avoiding excessive force to avoid damage and fatigue. During indirect object manipulation via teleoperation systems or in virtual environments, users often receive limited somatosensory feedback about objects with which they interact. This study examines the effects of force feedback, accuracy demands, and training on grip force control during object interaction in a virtual environment. The task required subjects to grasp and move a virtual object while tracking a target. When force feedback was not provided, subjects failed to couple grip and load force, a capability fundamental to direct object interaction. Subjects also exerted larger grip force without force feedback and when accuracy demands of the tracking task were high. In addition, the presence or absence of force feedback during training affected subsequent performance, even when the feedback condition was switched. Subjects' grip force control remained reminiscent of their employed grip during the initial training. These results motivate the use of force feedback during telemanipulation and highlight the effect of force feedback during training. PMID:24845744
Combined Auditory and Vibrotactile Feedback for Human-Machine-Interface Control.
Thorp, Elias B; Larson, Eric; Stepp, Cara E
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of binary vibrotactile stimulation to continuous auditory feedback (vowel synthesis) for human-machine interface (HMI) control. Sixteen healthy participants controlled facial surface electromyography to achieve 2-D targets (vowels). Eight participants used only real-time auditory feedback to locate targets whereas the other eight participants were additionally alerted to having achieved targets with confirmatory vibrotactile stimulation at the index finger. All participants trained using their assigned feedback modality (auditory alone or combined auditory and vibrotactile) over three sessions on three days and completed a fourth session on the third day using novel targets to assess generalization. Analyses of variance performed on the 1) percentage of targets reached and 2) percentage of trial time at the target revealed a main effect for feedback modality: participants using combined auditory and vibrotactile feedback performed significantly better than those using auditory feedback alone. No effect was found for session or the interaction of feedback modality and session, indicating a successful generalization to novel targets but lack of improvement over training sessions. Future research is necessary to determine the cognitive cost associated with combined auditory and vibrotactile feedback during HMI control. PMID:23912500
Fake feedback on pain tolerance impacts proactive versus reactive control strategies.
Rigoni, Davide; Braem, Senne; Pourtois, Gilles; Brass, Marcel
2016-05-01
It is well-known that beliefs about one's own ability to execute a task influence task performance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that beliefs about a specific self-control capacity, namely pain tolerance, modulate basic cognitive control processes. Participants received fake comparative social feedback that their ability to tolerate painful stimulations was either very poor or outstanding after which they performed an unrelated go/no-go task. Participants receiving low-tolerance feedback, relative to high-tolerance feedback, were less successful at inhibiting their responses and more influenced by previous trial conditions, as indicated by an increased slowdown following errors and more failed inhibitions following go-trials. These observations demonstrate a shift from a more proactive to a more reactive control mode. This study shows that providing feedback about one's own capacity to control impulsive reactions to painful stimulations directly influences low-level cognitive control dynamics. PMID:27149180
A new direct torque control scheme for induction motors using linear state feedback
Kandianis, A.; Manias, S.N.; Griva, G.; Profumo, F.
1995-12-31
In this paper a new Direct Torque Control (DTC) scheme for induction motor drives is described, based on the linear state feedback method with dynamic output feedback. The DTC has been shown to be a good solution in torque controlled drives applications when the speed control is not required (e.g. traction drives for electric vehicles). In such cases, the torque command comes directly from the user input. By considering the torque and flux as the outputs of the linearized motor model, it is possible to design an optimum controller with constant gain state feedback and dynamic output feedback through an integral term. The design procedure of the proposed control scheme is described and the simulation results are presented to show the overall performance of the system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Li-Farn; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Park, K. C.; Su, Renjeng
1993-01-01
This paper presents a moment-gyro control approach to the maneuver and vibration suppression of a flexible truss arm undergoing a constant slewing motion. The overall slewing motion is triggered by a feedforward input, and a companion feedback controller is employed to augment the feedforward input and subsequently to control vibrations. The feedforward input for the given motion requirement is determined from the combined CMG (Control Momentum Gyro) devices and the desired rigid-body motion. The rigid-body dynamic model has enabled us to identify the attendant CMG momentum saturation constraints. The task for vibration control is carried out in two stages; first in the search of a suitable CMG placement along the beam span for various slewing maneuvers, and subsequently in the development of Liapunov-based control algorithms for CMG spin-stabilization. Both analytical and numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the present approach.
Parametric optimal bounded feedback control for smart parameter-controllable composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.; Duan, Y. F.
2015-03-01
Deterministic and stochastic parametric optimal bounded control problems are presented for smart composite structures such as magneto-rheological visco-elastomer based sandwich beam with controllable bounded parameters subjected to initial disturbances and stochastic excitations. The parametric controls by actively adjusting system parameters differ from the conventional additive controls by systemic external inputs. The dynamical programming equations for the optimal parametric controls are derived based on the deterministic and stochastic dynamical programming principles. The optimal bounded functions of controls are firstly obtained from the equations with the bounded control constraints based on the bang-bang control strategy. Then the optimal bounded parametric control laws are obtained by the inversion of the nonlinear functions. The stability of the optimally controlled systems is proved according to the Lyapunov method. Finally, the proposed optimal bounded parametric feedback control strategy is applied to single-degree-of-freedom and two-degree-of-freedom dynamic systems with nonlinear parametric bounded control terms under initial disturbances and earthquake excitations and then to a magneto-rheological visco-elastomer based sandwich beam system with nonlinear parametric bounded control terms under stochastic excitations. The effective vibration suppression is illustrated with numerical results. The proposed optimal parametric control strategy is applicable to other smart composite structures with nonlinear controllable parameters.
Towards a non-linear theory for fluid pressure and osmosis in shales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Droghei, Riccardo; Salusti, Ettore
2015-04-01
In exploiting deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, often injections of fluid and/or solute are used. To control and avoid troubles as fluid and gas unexpected diffusions, a reservoir characterization can be obtained also from observations of space and time evolution of micro-earthquake clouds resulting from such injections. This is important since several among the processes caused by fluid injections can modify the deep matrix. Information about the evolution of such micro-seismicity clouds therefore plays a realistic role in the reservoir analyses. To reach a better insight about such processes, and obtain a better system control, we here analyze the initial stress necessary to originate strong non linear transients of combined fluid pressure and solute density (osmosis) in a porous matrix. All this can indeed perturb in a mild (i.e. a linear diffusion) or dramatic non linear way the rock structure, till inducing rock deformations, micro-earthquakes or fractures. I more detail we here assume first a linear Hooke law relating strain, stress, solute density and fluid pressure, and analyze their effect in the porous rock dynamics. Then we analyze its generalization, i.e. the further non linear effect of a stronger external pressure, also in presence of a trend of pressure or solute in the whole region. We moreover characterize the zones where a sudden arrival of such a front can cause micro-earthquakes or fractures. All this allows to reach a novel, more realistic insight about the control of rock evolution in presence of strong pressure fronts. We thus obtain a more efficient reservoir control to avoid large geological perturbations. It is of interest that our results are very similar to those found by Shapiro et al.(2013) with a different approach.
Anderson Localization, Non-linearity and Stable Genetic Diversity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epstein, Charles L.
2006-07-01
In many models of genotypic evolution, the vector of genotype populations satisfies a system of linear ordinary differential equations. This system of equations models a competition between differential replication rates (fitness) and mutation. Mutation operates as a generalized diffusion process on genotype space. In the large time asymptotics, the replication term tends to produce a single dominant quasi-species, unless the mutation rate is too high, in which case the asymptotic population becomes de-localized. We introduce a more macroscopic picture of genotypic evolution wherein a random fitness term in the linear model produces features analogous to Anderson localization. When coupled with density dependent non-linearities, which limit the population of any given genotype, we obtain a model whose large time asymptotics display stable genotypic diversity.
Engineering Non-Classical Light with Non-Linear Microwaveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimsmo, Arne; Clerk, Aashish; Blais, Alexandre
The quest for ever increasing fidelity and scalability in measurement of superconducting qubits to be used for fault-tolerant quantum computing has recently led to the development of near quantum-limited broadband phase preserving amplifiers in the microwave regime. These devices are, however, more than just amplifiers: They are sources of high-quality, broadband two-mode squeezed light. We show how bottom-up engineering of Josephson junction embedded waveguides can be used to design novel squeezing spectra. Furthermore, the entanglement in the two-mode squeezed output field can be imprinted onto quantum systems coupled to the device's output. These broadband microwave amplifiers constitute a realization of non-linear waveguide QED, a very interesting playground for non-equilibrium many-body physics.
Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device
Kalibjian, R.
1994-08-09
A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.
Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device
Kalibjian, Ralph
1994-01-11
A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).
Non-linear radial spinwave modes in thin magnetic disks
Helsen, M. De Clercq, J.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Weigand, M.
2015-01-19
We present an experimental investigation of radial spin-wave modes in magnetic nano-disks with a vortex ground state. The spin-wave amplitude was measured using a frequency-resolved magneto-optical spectrum analyzer, allowing for high-resolution resonance curves to be recorded. It was found that with increasing excitation amplitude up to about 10 mT, the lowest-order mode behaves strongly non-linearly as the mode frequency redshifts and the resonance peak strongly deforms. This behavior was quantitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. Micromagnetic simulations showed that at higher excitation amplitudes, the spinwaves are transformed into a soliton by self-focusing, and collapse onto the vortex core, dispersing the energy in short-wavelength spinwaves. Additionally, this process can lead to switching of the vortex polarization through the injection of a Bloch point.
Non-linear dielectric response of ferrofluids under magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licinio, Pedro; Teixeira, Alvaro V.; Figueiredo, José Marcos A.
2005-03-01
The dielectric response of a water-based magnetic fluid is investigated at room temperature and in the frequency range of 100-10 7 rad/s. The response is linear in the electric fields used. Upon application of a constant magnetic field of 40 mT, which is well below the sample saturation, the response becomes non-linear. Magnetic field effects are isolated by performing a differential analysis of the inverse dielectric permittivity with and without applied field in both perpendicular and parallel configurations. The imaginary part of the differential inverse permittivity displays two peaks. The low-frequency peak is seen to correspond to the orientation relaxation of aggregates also detected in SAXS, photon correlation and atomic force microscopy measurements. The high-frequency peak corresponds to single magnetic particle reorientation.
Memristive non-linear system and hidden attractor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, P.; Saha, D. C.; Ray, A.; Chowdhury, A. R.
2015-07-01
Effects of memristor on non-linear dynamical systems exhibiting chaos are analysed both form the view point of theory and experiment. It is observed that the memristive system has always fewer number of fixed points than the original one. Sometimes there is no fixed point in the memristive system. But its chaotic properties are retained. As such we have a situation known as hidden attractor because if it is a stable fixed point then the attractor does not evolve from its basin of attraction(obtained from its stable fixed point) or if there is no fixed point, the question of basin of attraction from fixed point does not arise at all [1, 2]. Our analysis gives a detailed accounts of properties related to its chaotic behavior. Important observations are also obtained with the help of electronic circuits to support the numerical simulations.
Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.
1992-01-01
The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.
DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS
Leduc, D
2008-06-10
Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.
Transformation matrices between non-linear and linear differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sartain, R. L.
1983-01-01
In the linearization of systems of non-linear differential equations, those systems which can be exactly transformed into the second order linear differential equation Y"-AY'-BY=0 where Y, Y', and Y" are n x 1 vectors and A and B are constant n x n matrices of real numbers were considered. The 2n x 2n matrix was used to transform the above matrix equation into the first order matrix equation X' = MX. Specially the matrix M and the conditions which will diagonalize or triangularize M were studied. Transformation matrices P and P sub -1 were used to accomplish this diagonalization or triangularization to return to the solution of the second order matrix differential equation system from the first order system.
Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.
Spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking in non-linear electrodynamics
Urrutia, Luis F.
2010-07-29
A recently proposed model of non-linear electrodynamics arising from a gauge invariant spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is reviewed. The potential providing the symmetry breaking is argued to arise from the integration of gauge bosons and fermions in an underlying theory. The invariant subgroups remaining after the symmetry breaking are determined, as well as the dispersion relations and polarization modes of the propagating linear sector or the model. Strong bounds upon the predicted anisotropy of the speed of light are obtained by embedding the model in the electromagnetic sector of the Standard Model Extension and taking advantage of the restrictions in the parameters derived there. Finally, a reasonable estimation of the intergalactic magnetic field is obtained by assuming that the vacuum energy of the model is described by the standard cosmological constant.
Neural networks: What non-linearity to choose
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreinovich, Vladik YA.; Quintana, Chris
1991-01-01
Neural networks are now one of the most successful learning formalisms. Neurons transform inputs (x(sub 1),...,x(sub n)) into an output f(w(sub 1)x(sub 1) + ... + w(sub n)x(sub n)), where f is a non-linear function and w, are adjustable weights. What f to choose? Usually the logistic function is chosen, but sometimes the use of different functions improves the practical efficiency of the network. The problem of choosing f as a mathematical optimization problem is formulated and solved under different optimality criteria. As a result, a list of functions f that are optimal under these criteria are determined. This list includes both the functions that were empirically proved to be the best for some problems, and some new functions that may be worth trying.
Method and system for non-linear motion estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Ligang (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.
Attractor reconstruction for non-linear systems: a methodological note
Nichols, J.M.; Nichols, J.D.
2001-01-01
Attractor reconstruction is an important step in the process of making predictions for non-linear time-series and in the computation of certain invariant quantities used to characterize the dynamics of such series. The utility of computed predictions and invariant quantities is dependent on the accuracy of attractor reconstruction, which in turn is determined by the methods used in the reconstruction process. This paper suggests methods by which the delay and embedding dimension may be selected for a typical delay coordinate reconstruction. A comparison is drawn between the use of the autocorrelation function and mutual information in quantifying the delay. In addition, a false nearest neighbor (FNN) approach is used in minimizing the number of delay vectors needed. Results highlight the need for an accurate reconstruction in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum and in prediction algorithms.
Li, Ning; Cao, Jinde
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate synchronization for memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delay via an adaptive and feedback controller. Under the framework of Filippov's solution and differential inclusion theory, and by using the adaptive control technique and structuring a novel Lyapunov functional, an adaptive updated law was designed, and two synchronization criteria were derived for memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delay. By removing some of the basic literature assumptions, the derived synchronization criteria were found to be more general than those in existing literature. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:25299765
Reducing sample variance: halo biasing, non-linearity and stochasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil-Marín, Héctor; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Heavens, Alan F.
2010-09-01
Comparing clustering of differently biased tracers of the dark matter distribution offers the opportunity to reduce the sample or cosmic variance error in the measurement of certain cosmological parameters. We develop a formalism that includes bias non-linearities and stochasticity. Our formalism is general enough that it can be used to optimize survey design and tracers selection and optimally split (or combine) tracers to minimize the error on the cosmologically interesting quantities. Our approach generalizes the one presented by McDonald & Seljak of circumventing sample variance in the measurement of f ≡ d lnD/d lna. We analyse how the bias, the noise, the non-linearity and stochasticity affect the measurements of Df and explore in which signal-to-noise regime it is significantly advantageous to split a galaxy sample in two differently biased tracers. We use N-body simulations to find realistic values for the parameters describing the bias properties of dark matter haloes of different masses and their number density. We find that, even if dark matter haloes could be used as tracers and selected in an idealized way, for realistic haloes, the sample variance limit can be reduced only by up to a factor σ2tr/σ1tr ~= 0.6. This would still correspond to the gain from a three times larger survey volume if the two tracers were not to be split. Before any practical application one should bear in mind that these findings apply to dark matter haloes as tracers, while realistic surveys would select galaxies: the galaxy-host halo relation is likely to introduce extra stochasticity, which may reduce the gain further.
Ganesan, S; Victoire, T Aruldoss Albert; Vijayalakshmy, G
2014-01-01
In this paper, the work is mainly concentrated on removing non-linear parameters to make the physiological signals more linear and reducing the complexity of the signals. This paper discusses three different types of techniques that can be successfully utilised to remove non-linear parameters in EEG and ECG. (i) Transformation technique using Discrete Walsh-Hadamard Transform (DWHT); (ii) application of fuzzy logic control and (iii) building the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model for fuzzy. This work has been inspired by the need to arrive at an efficient, simple, accurate and quicker method for analysis of bio-signal. PMID:24589837
Zamani, Mohamad Hosein; Fatemi, Rouholah; Soroushmoghadam, Keyvan
2015-01-01
Background: Feedback can improve task learning in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, the frequency and type of feedback may play different role in learning and needs to more investigations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acquisition and retention of new feedback skills in children with DCD under different frequency of self-control and control examiner feedback. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design, participants based on their retention were divided into four feedback groups: self-controlled feedback groups with frequencies of 50% and75%, experimenter controls with frequencies of 50% and 75%. The study sample consisted of 24 boys with DCD aged between 9 to 11 years old in Ahvaz City, Iran. Then subjects practiced 30 throwing (6 blocks of 5 attempts) in eighth session. Acquisition test immediately after the last training session, and then the retention test were taken. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed no significant difference between groups in the acquisition phase (P > 0.05). However,in the retention session, group of self-control showed better performance than the control tester group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Based on the current findings, self-control feedback with high frequency leads to more learning in DCD children. The results of this study can be used in rehabilitation programs to improve performance and learning in children with DCD. PMID:26834805
On stability theory. [of nonlinear feedback control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Safonov, M. G.; Athans, M.
1979-01-01
It is found that under mild assumptions, feedback system stability can be concluded if one can 'topologically separate' the infinite-dimensional function space containing the system's dynamical input-output relations into two regions, one region containing the dynamical input-output relation of the 'feedforward' element of the system and the other region containing the dynamical output-input relation of the 'feedback' element. Nonlinear system stability criteria of both the input-output type and the state-space (Liapunov) type are interpreted in this context. The abstract generality and conceptual simplicity afforded by the topological separation perspective clarifies some of the basic issues underlying stability theory and serves to suggest improvements in existing stability criteria. A generalization of Zames' (1966) conic-relation stability criterion is proved, laying the foundation for improved multivariable generalizations of the frequency-domain circle stability criterion for nonlinear systems.
A neighboring optimal feedback control scheme for systems using discontinuous control.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foerster, R. E.; Flugge-Lotz, I.
1971-01-01
The calculation and implementation of the neighboring optimal feedback control law for multiinput, nonlinear dynamical systems, using discontinuous control, is discussed. An initialization procedure is described which removes the requirement that the neighboring initial state be in the neighborhood of the nominal initial state. This procedure is a bootstrap technique for determining the most appropriate control-law gain for the neighboring initial state. The mechanization of the neighboring control law described is closed loop in that the concept of time-to-go is utilized in the determination of the control-law gains appropriate for each neighboring state. The gains are chosen such that the time-to-go until the next predicted switch time or predicted final time is the same for both the neighboring and nominal trajectories. The procedure described is utilized to solve the minimum-time satellite attitude-acquisition problem.
Narrowband feedback for narrowband control of resonant and non-resonant vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang-Myeong; Brennan, Michael J.; Abreu, Gustavo L. C. M.
2016-08-01
This paper presents a simple feedback methodology that uses second order filters to control narrowband resonant and non-resonant vibration of a structural system. In particular, a single degree-of-freedom system is studied throughout the paper. The idea of the methodology is based on the fact that direct feedback is effective for in-phase vibration control. Thus, the position, velocity and acceleration are respectively fed back to control the low, resonant and high frequency vibration of the system. Each of these is passed through a band pass filter of second order that is inserted to extract and feed back the in-phase signal component only. This is called narrowband feedback. It is demonstrated with experiments that narrowband feedback is useful for narrowband control of resonant and non-resonant vibration.
Feedback control of nuclear spin bath for a single hole spin in a quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Hongliang; Gong, Zhirui; Yao, Wang
2014-03-01
In a semiconductor quantum dot, the nuclear spin bath plays an important role as the ultimate environment of an electron or hole spin at low temperature. Through dynamic nuclear spin polarization driven by an oscillating electric field, we show that feedback controls can be implemented on the nuclear spin bath of a single hole spin. The feedback controls utilize the anisotropic hyperfine interaction between the hole spin and the nuclear spins. The negative feedback can suppress the statistical fluctuations of the nuclear hyperfine field and lead to longer coherence time of the hole spin. Positive feedback can possibly lead to cat like state of nuclear spin bath. The efficiency of the controls schemes is investigated under different parameters and control strategies. The work is supported by the Croucher Foundation under the Croucher Innovation Award, and the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (HKU706309P, HKU8/CRF/11G).
Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Kirsch, Robert F; Triolo, Ronald J
2010-12-01
Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, 3-D computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741
Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.
2013-01-01
Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint-feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, three-dimensional computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint-feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741
Asymmetric interjoint feedback contributes to postural control of redundant multi-link systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunderson, Nathan E.; Ting, Lena H.; Burkholder, Thomas J.
2007-09-01
Maintaining the postural configuration of a limb such as an arm or leg is a fundamental neural control task that involves the coordination of multiple linked body segments. Biological systems are known to use a complex network of inter- and intra-joint feedback mechanisms arising from muscles, spinal reflexes and higher neuronal structures to stabilize the limbs. While previous work has shown that a small amount of asymmetric heterogenic feedback contributes to the behavior of these systems, a satisfactory functional explanation for this non-conservative feedback structure has not been put forth. We hypothesized that an asymmetric multi-joint control strategy would confer both an energetic and stability advantage in maintaining endpoint position of a kinematically redundant system. We tested this hypothesis by using optimal control models incorporating symmetric versus asymmetric feedback with the goal of maintaining the endpoint location of a kinematically redundant, planar limb. Asymmetric feedback improved endpoint control performance of the limb by 16%, reduced energetic cost by 21% and increased interjoint coordination by 40% compared to the symmetric feedback system. The overall effect of the asymmetry was that proximal joint motion resulted in greater torque generation at distal joints than vice versa. The asymmetric organization is consistent with heterogenic stretch reflex gains measured experimentally. We conclude that asymmetric feedback has a functionally relevant role in coordinating redundant degrees of freedom to maintain the position of the hand or foot.
Suboptimal feedback control of turbulent flow over a backward-facing step
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Seongwon; Choi, Haecheon
2002-07-01
The objective of the present numerical study is to increase mixing in turbulent flow behind a backward-facing step using a systematic feedback control method. Spatially and temporally varying blowing and suction with zero-net mass flow rate are provided at the step edge, based on the sensing of the spanwise distribution of the wall pressure fluctuations at a downstream location. The cost functional to be increased is the root-mean-square spanwise pressure-gradient fluctuations at the sensing location, which may be associated with mixing behind the backward-facing step. Given the cost functional, the actuation at the step edge is determined through the suboptimal feedback control procedure of Choi et al. (1993). Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow are conducted at a Reynolds number of 5100 based on the step height and free-stream velocity. The results of suboptimal feedback controls are compared with those of non-feedback single-frequency actuations. In case of the suboptimal control, velocity and vorticity fluctuations substantially increase downstream of the backward-facing step as well as in the recirculation zone. As a result, the reattachment length is significantly reduced, as compared to those of uncontrolled flow and flow with single-frequency actuations. A simple open-loop control method is devised from the suboptimal feedback control result, producing nearly the same mixing enhancement as the feedback control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gang; Chen, Changzheng; Yu, Shenbo
2016-09-01
In this paper, the static output-feedback control problem of active suspension systems with information structure constraints is investigated. In order to simultaneously improve the ride comfort and stability, a half car model is used. Other constraints such as suspension deflection, actuator saturation, and controller constrained information are also considered. A novel static output-feedback design method based on the variable substitution is employed in the controller design. A single-step linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem is solved to derive the initial feasible solution with a sparsity constraint. The initial infeasibility issue of the static output-feedback is resolved by using state-feedback information. Specifically, an optimization algorithm is proposed to search for less conservative results based on the feasible controller gain matrix. Finally, the validity of the designed controller for different road profiles is illustrated through numerical examples. The simulation results indicate that the optimized static output-feedback controller can achieve better suspension performances when compared with the feasible static output-feedback controller.
Towards easier realization of time-delayed feedback control of odd-number orbits.
Flunkert, V; Schöll, E
2011-07-01
We develop generalized time-delayed feedback schemes for the stabilization of periodic orbits with an odd number of positive Floquet exponents, which are particularly well suited for experimental realization. We construct the parameter regimes of successful control and validate these by numerical simulations and numerical continuation methods. In particular, it is shown how periodic orbits can be stabilized with symmetric feedback matrices by introducing an additional latency time in the control loop. Finally, we show using normal form analysis and numerical simulations how our results could be implemented in a laser setup using optoelectronic feedback. PMID:21867280
Quan, Li-Di; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun; Wang, Yong-Ji
2014-01-15
The performance of the feedback control system is of central importance in the measurement of the Newton's gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method. In this paper, a PID (Proportion-Integration-Differentiation) feedback loop is discussed in detail. Experimental results show that, with the feedback control activated, the twist angle of the torsion balance is limited to 7.3×10{sup −7} rad /√( Hz ) at the signal frequency of 2 mHz, which contributes a 0.4 ppm uncertainty to the G value.
Method for neural network control of motion using real-time environmental feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A method of motion control for robotics and other automatically controlled machinery using a neural network controller with real-time environmental feedback. The method is illustrated with a two-finger robotic hand having proximity sensors and force sensors that provide environmental feedback signals. The neural network controller is taught to control the robotic hand through training sets using back- propagation methods. The training sets are created by recording the control signals and the feedback signal as the robotic hand or a simulation of the robotic hand is moved through a representative grasping motion. The data recorded is divided into discrete increments of time and the feedback data is shifted out of phase with the control signal data so that the feedback signal data lag one time increment behind the control signal data. The modified data is presented to the neural network controller as a training set. The time lag introduced into the data allows the neural network controller to account for the temporal component of the robotic motion. Thus trained, the neural network controlled robotic hand is able to grasp a wide variety of different objects by generalizing from the training sets.
Design of a Model-based Controller with Temperature Feedback for Laser Cladding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devesse, Wim; De Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick
Laser cladding, also known as direct metal deposition, is an additive manufacturing technique for the production of freeform metallic parts. High quality parts can be created with the use of feedback control systems which stabilize the melt pool during the cladding process. Current laser cladding control systems are based on low order, empirical models of the process, which have low dynamic accuracy and limit the performance that can be achieved. In this paper, a control system based on a physical heat conduction model of the melt pool dynamics is presented. The control structure consists of a static linear state feedback control law designed using pole placement and combined with a PI controller. The controller is able to regulate the melt pool size by modulating the laser power using a number of surface temperature measurements as the feedback signal. Simulation results using a detailed finite element model show that the controller has good tracking behavior and disturbance rejection properties.
RKH space approximations for the feedback operator in a linear hereditary control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reneke, J. A.; Fennell, R. E.
1987-01-01
Computational implementation of feedback control laws for linear hereditary systems requires the approximation of infinite dimensional feedback operators with finite dimensional operators. The dense subspaces of K-polygonal functions in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, RKH spaces, suggest finite dimensional approximations of the matrix representations of the control operators. A convergence theorem is developed for the approximations and the numerical implementation of the approximations is discussed.
Feedback control of a solid-state qubit using high-fidelity projective measurement.
Ristè, D; Bultink, C C; Lehnert, K W; DiCarlo, L
2012-12-14
We demonstrate feedback control of a superconducting transmon qubit using discrete, projective measurement and conditional coherent driving. Feedback realizes a fast and deterministic qubit reset to a target state with 2.4% error averaged over input superposition states, and allows concatenating experiments more than 10 times faster than by passive initialization. This closed-loop qubit control is necessary for measurement-based protocols such as quantum error correction and teleportation. PMID:23368293
Discriminating Non-Linearity from Linearity: Its Cognitive Foundations in Five-Year-Olds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebersbach, Mirjam; Van Dooren, Wim; Goudriaan, Margje N.; Verschaffel, Lieven
2010-01-01
People often have difficulties in understanding situations that involve non-linear processes. Also, the topic of non-linear functions is introduced relatively late in the curriculum. Previous research has nevertheless shown that already children aged 6 years and older are able to discriminate non-linear from linear processes. Within the present…
State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, E.
1981-01-01
State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.
Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.
2006-07-15
Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of t{sub d}{approx_equal}10{tau}{sub w} is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.
Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.
2006-07-01
Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of td≈10τw is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.
Stabilization of traffic flow in optimal velocity model via delayed-feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yanfei; Hu, Haiyan
2013-04-01
Traffic jams may occur due to various reasons, such as traffic accidents, lane reductions and on-ramps. In order to suppress the traffic congestion in an optimal velocity traffic model without any driver's delay taken into account, a delayed-feedback control of both displacement and velocity differences is proposed in this study. By using the delay-independent stability criteria and the H∞-norm, the delayed-feedback control can be determined to stabilize the unstable traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam. The numerical case studies are given to demonstrate and verify the new control method. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the new control method and the method proposed by Konishi et al. [K. Konishi, M. Hirai, H. Kokame, Decentralized delayed-feedback control of an optimal velocity traffic model, Eur. Phys. J. B 15 (2000) 715-722]. The results show that the new control method makes the traffic flow more stable and improves the control performance.
Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R
2016-07-01
The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. PMID:27126600
Feedback control of plasma instabilities with charged particle beams and study of plasma turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tham, Philip Kin-Wah
1994-01-01
A new non-perturbing technique for feedback control of plasma instabilities has been developed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). The feedback control scheme involves the injection of a feedback modulated ion beam as a remote suppressor. The ion beam was obtained from a compact ion beam source which was developed for this purpose. A Langmuir probe was used as the feedback sensor. The feedback controller consisted of a phase-shifter and amplifiers. This technique was demonstrated by stabilizing various plasma instabilities to the background noise level, like the trapped particle instability, the ExB instability and the ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven instability. An important feature of this scheme is that the injected ion beam is non-perturbing to the plasma equilibrium parameters. The robustness of this feedback stabilization scheme was also investigated. The principal result is that the scheme is fairly robust, tolerating about 100% variation about the nominal parameter values. Next, this scheme is extended to the unsolved general problem of controlling multimode plasma instabilities simultaneously with a single sensor-suppressor pair. A single sensor-suppressor pair of feedback probes is desirable to reduce the perturbation caused by the probes. Two plasma instabilities the ExB and the ITG modes, were simultaneously stabilized. A simple 'state' feedback type method was used where more state information was generated from the single sensor Langmuir probe by appropriate signal processing, in this case, by differentiation. This proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated for the first time that by designing a more sophisticated electronic feedback controller, many plasma instabilities may be simultaneously controlled. Simple theoretical models showed generally good agreement with the feedback experimental results. On a parallel research front, a better understanding of the saturated state of a plasma instability was sought partly with the help of feedback
Rapid Non-Linear Uncertainty Propagation via Analytical Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimoto, K.; Scheeres, D. J.
2012-09-01
Space situational awareness (SSA) is known to be a data starved problem compared to traditional estimation problems in that observation gaps per object may span over days if not weeks. Therefore, consistent characterization of the uncertainty associated with these objects including non-linear effects is crucial in maintaining an accurate catalog of objects in Earth orbit. Simultaneously, the motion of satellites in Earth orbit is well-modeled in that it is particularly amenable to having their solution and their uncertainty described through analytic or semi-analytic techniques. Even when stronger non-gravitational perturbations such as solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag are encountered, these perturbations generally have deterministic components that are substantially larger than their time-varying stochastic components. Analytic techniques are powerful because time propagation is only a matter of changing the time parameter, allowing for rapid computational turnaround. These two ideas are combined in this paper: a method of analytically propagating non-linear orbit uncertainties is discussed. In particular, the uncertainty is expressed as an analytic probability density function (pdf) for all time. For a deterministic system model, such pdfs may be obtained if the initial pdf and the system states for all time are also given analytically. Even when closed-form solutions are not available, approximate solutions exist in the form of Edgeworth series for pdfs and Taylor series for the states. The coefficients of the latter expansion are referred to as state transition tensors (STTs), which are a generalization of state transition matrices to arbitrary order. Analytically expressed pdfs can be incorporated in many practical tasks in SSA. One can compute the mean and covariance of the uncertainty, for example, with the moments of the initial pdf as inputs. This process does not involve any sampling and its accuracy can be determined a priori. Analytical
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halyo, Nesim
1987-01-01
A combined stochastic feedforward and feedback control design methodology was developed. The objective of the feedforward control law is to track the commanded trajectory, whereas the feedback control law tries to maintain the plant state near the desired trajectory in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties about the plant. The feedforward control law design is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem and is embedded into the stochastic output feedback problem where the plant contains unstable and uncontrollable modes. An algorithm to compute the optimal feedforward is developed. In this approach, the use of error integral feedback, dynamic compensation, control rate command structures are an integral part of the methodology. An incremental implementation is recommended. Results on the eigenvalues of the implemented versus designed control laws are presented. The stochastic feedforward/feedback control methodology is used to design a digital automatic landing system for the ATOPS Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100 aircraft. The system control modes include localizer and glideslope capture and track, and flare to touchdown. Results of a detailed nonlinear simulation of the digital control laws, actuator systems, and aircraft aerodynamics are presented.
High alpha feedback control for agile half-loop maneuvers of the F-18 airplane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stalford, Harold
1988-01-01
A nonlinear feedback control law for the F/A-18 airplane that provides time-optimal or agile maneuvering of the half-loop maneuver at high angles of attack is given. The feedback control law was developed using the mathematical approach of singular perturbations, in which the control devices considered were conventional aerodynamic control surfaces and thrusting. The derived nonlinear control law was used to simulate F/A-18 half-loop maneuvers. The simulated results at Mach 0.6 and 0.9 compared well with pilot simulations conducted at NASA.