Science.gov

Sample records for non-linear parametric generation

  1. Parametric excitation of high-mode oscillations for a non-linear telegraph equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2000-08-31

    The problem of parametric excitation of high-mode oscillations is solved for a non-linear telegraph equation with a parametric external excitation and small diffusion. The equation is considered on a finite (spatial) interval with Neumann boundary conditions. It is shown that under a proper choice of parameters of the external excitation this boundary-value problem can have arbitrarily many exponentially stable solutions that are periodic in time and rapidly oscillate with respect to the spatial variable.

  2. Non-linear stochastic optimal control of acceleration parametrically excited systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Jin, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhilong

    2016-02-01

    Acceleration parametrical excitations have not been taken into account due to the lack of physical significance in macroscopic structures. The explosive development of microtechnology and nanotechnology, however, motivates the investigation of the acceleration parametrically excited systems. The adsorption and desorption effects dramatically change the mass of nano-sized structures, which significantly reduces the precision of nanoscale sensors or can be reasonably utilised to detect molecular mass. This manuscript proposes a non-linear stochastic optimal control strategy for stochastic systems with acceleration parametric excitation based on stochastic averaging of energy envelope and stochastic dynamic programming principle. System acceleration is approximately expressed as a function of system displacement in a short time range under the conditions of light damping and weak excitations, and the acceleration parametrically excited system is shown to be equivalent to a constructed system with an additional displacement parametric excitation term. Then, the controlled system is converted into a partially averaged Itô equation with respect to the total system energy through stochastic averaging of energy envelope, and the optimal control strategy for the averaged system is derived from solving the associated dynamic programming equation. Numerical results for a controlled Duffing oscillator indicate the efficacy of the proposed control strategy.

  3. A comparative study between non-linear regression and non-parametric approaches for modelling Phalaris paradoxa seedling emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parametric non-linear regression (PNR) techniques commonly are used to develop weed seedling emergence models. Such techniques, however, require statistical assumptions that are difficult to meet. To examine and overcome these limitations, we compared PNR with a nonparametric estimation technique. F...

  4. Effects of non-linearities on magnetic field generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nalson, Ellie; Malik, Karim A.; Christopherson, Adam J. E-mail: achristopherson@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields are present on all scales in the Universe. While we understand the processes which amplify the fields fairly well, we do not have a ''natural'' mechanism to generate the small initial seed fields. By using fully relativistic cosmological perturbation theory and going beyond the usual confines of linear theory we show analytically how magnetic fields are generated. This is the first analytical calculation of the magnetic field at second order, using gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory, and including all the source terms. To this end, we have rederived the full set of governing equations independently. Our results suggest that magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup -30}- 10{sup -27} G can be generated (although this depends on the small scale cut-off of the integral), which is largely in agreement with previous results that relied upon numerical calculations. These fields are likely too small to act as the primordial seed fields for dynamo mechanisms.

  5. A non-linear dimension reduction methodology for generating data-driven stochastic input models

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Zabaras, Nicholas

    2008-06-20

    Stochastic analysis of random heterogeneous media (polycrystalline materials, porous media, functionally graded materials) provides information of significance only if realistic input models of the topology and property variations are used. This paper proposes a framework to construct such input stochastic models for the topology and thermal diffusivity variations in heterogeneous media using a data-driven strategy. Given a set of microstructure realizations (input samples) generated from given statistical information about the medium topology, the framework constructs a reduced-order stochastic representation of the thermal diffusivity. This problem of constructing a low-dimensional stochastic representation of property variations is analogous to the problem of manifold learning and parametric fitting of hyper-surfaces encountered in image processing and psychology. Denote by M the set of microstructures that satisfy the given experimental statistics. A non-linear dimension reduction strategy is utilized to map M to a low-dimensional region, A. We first show that M is a compact manifold embedded in a high-dimensional input space R{sup n}. An isometric mapping F from M to a low-dimensional, compact, connected set A is contained in R{sup d}(d<

  6. A non-linear dimension reduction methodology for generating data-driven stochastic input models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Zabaras, Nicholas

    2008-06-01

    Stochastic analysis of random heterogeneous media (polycrystalline materials, porous media, functionally graded materials) provides information of significance only if realistic input models of the topology and property variations are used. This paper proposes a framework to construct such input stochastic models for the topology and thermal diffusivity variations in heterogeneous media using a data-driven strategy. Given a set of microstructure realizations (input samples) generated from given statistical information about the medium topology, the framework constructs a reduced-order stochastic representation of the thermal diffusivity. This problem of constructing a low-dimensional stochastic representation of property variations is analogous to the problem of manifold learning and parametric fitting of hyper-surfaces encountered in image processing and psychology. Denote by M the set of microstructures that satisfy the given experimental statistics. A non-linear dimension reduction strategy is utilized to map M to a low-dimensional region, A. We first show that M is a compact manifold embedded in a high-dimensional input space Rn. An isometric mapping F from M to a low-dimensional, compact, connected set A⊂Rd(d≪n) is constructed. Given only a finite set of samples of the data, the methodology uses arguments from graph theory and differential geometry to construct the isometric transformation F:M→A. Asymptotic convergence of the representation of M by A is shown. This mapping F serves as an accurate, low-dimensional, data-driven representation of the property variations. The reduced-order model of the material topology and thermal diffusivity variations is subsequently used as an input in the solution of stochastic partial differential equations that describe the evolution of dependant variables. A sparse grid collocation strategy (Smolyak algorithm) is utilized to solve these stochastic equations efficiently. We showcase the methodology by constructing low

  7. Numerically Generated Tangent Stiffness Matrices for Geometrically Non-Linear Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Sonia

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a general numerical solution method for geometrically non-linear structures. Most common work involves tedious derivations of analytic tangent stiffness matrices. The major objective of the current work is to develop a numerically generated tangent stiffness matrix that allows for a general and easily implementable solution method. The thesis begins with the definition of the tangent stiffness matrix and a discussion of the Newton-Raphson incremental-iterative method typically used to solve geometrically non-linear problems. This is followed by a detailed description of how the tangent stiffness matrix is numerically generated using complex variable differentiation to approximate sensitivities. The thesis proceeds with details of the solution method applied to three different structural elements: 3D truss, membrane, and 3D beam. These discussions include numeric examples for each type of structure, the results of which are compared with the literature and ANSYS solutions. The results from the present work show that solutions obtained using the general numerically generated tangent stiffness matrix are accurate. While computational effort is increased, the method is especially attractive in the context of research involving small finite element models.

  8. Generating Invariants for Non-linear Hybrid Systems by Linear Algebraic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matringe, Nadir; Moura, Arnaldo Vieira; Rebiha, Rachid

    We describe powerful computational methods, relying on linear algebraic methods, for generating ideals for non-linear invariants of algebraic hybrid systems. We show that the preconditions for discrete transitions and the Lie-derivatives for continuous evolution can be viewed as morphisms and so can be suitably represented by matrices. We reduce the non-trivial invariant generation problem to the computation of the associated eigenspaces by encoding the new consecution requirements as specific morphisms represented by matrices. More specifically, we establish very general sufficient conditions that show the existence and allow the computation of invariant ideals. Our methods also embody a strategy to estimate degree bounds, leading to the discovery of rich classes of inductive, i.e. provable, invariants. Our approach avoids first-order quantifier elimination, Grobner basis computation or direct system resolution, thereby circumventing difficulties met by other recent techniques.

  9. Non-linearity of runoff generation processes in an alpine headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Daniele; Tromp van-Meerveld, H. J.; Gobbi, Alberto; Borga, Marco

    2010-05-01

    riparian zone. During wetter conditions, when a threshold of soil moisture was exceeded, hillslopes started to contribute to runoff. The riparian contribution to total stormflow was assessed and quantified by comparing the potential runoff from the riparian zone to total storm runoff. A decrease in riparian contribution with increasing antecedent soil moisture underlines the essential role of hillslopes and riparian zones as fundamental landscape units in controlling the catchment hydrological response. A threshold effect was also identified in the relationship between catchment-averaged water table level and antecedent precipitation. Low initial groundwater levels required a slightly larger precipitation depth in order to cause a piezometric response. Finally, a highly non-linear relationship was detected between groundwater level and streamflow at the rainstorm scale. This relation showed a hysteretic behaviour due to the difference in timing of the two responses. The analysis revealed that the extent of the hysteretic loops is dependent on total precipitation and antecedent moisture conditions, with increasing loop size corresponding to higher rainfall and antecedent moisture. These two factors were also related to the total stormflow volume, stressing the importance of soil moisture as a key control in threshold-related runoff generation processes. Key words: threshold behaviour, riparian zone, runoff generation, soil moisture

  10. Contribution to experimental validation of linear and non-linear dynamic models for representing rotor-blade parametric coupled vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, I. F.; Saracho, C. M.; Smith, J. T.; Eiland, J.

    2004-04-01

    This work makes a theoretical and experimental contribution to the problem of rotor-blades dynamic interaction. A validation procedure of mathematical models is carried out with the help of a simple test rig, built by a mass-spring system attached to four flexible rotating blades. With this test rig, it is possible to highlight some dynamic effects and experimentally simulate the structural behaviour of a windmill in two dimensions (2-D model). Only lateral displacement of the rotor in the horizontal direction is taken into account. Gyroscopic effect due to angular vibrations of the rotor is eliminated in the test rig by attaching the rigid rotor to a flexible foundation. The blades are modelled as Euler-Bernoulli beams. Using three different approaches to describe the beam deformation one achieves: (a) a linear model; (b) a linear beam model with second order terms; (c) a fully non-linear model. Tip masses at the end of the blades emphasize the coupling between the dynamic and elastic terms. The shape functions are chosen in order to reduce the mathematical model, so that only the first bending mode of the beam is taken into account. The resulting equations of motion have five degrees of freedom and illustrate linear, non-linear and time-dependent terms in a very transparent way. Although neither gyroscopic effect due to rotor angular vibrations nor higher blade mode shapes are considered in the analysis, the equations of motion of the rotor-blades system are still general enough for the purpose of the work: validation of different linear and non-linear models with time dependent (periodic) coefficients. Experiments are carried out in the time and frequency domains while the rotor operates with different constant angular velocities.

  11. Flow of a non-linear (density-gradient-dependent) viscous fluid with heat generation, viscous dissipation and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Phuoc, Tran X.

    2008-09-25

    In this paper, we study the flow of a compressible (density-gradient-dependent) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The convective heat transfer is also considered where a source team, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed.

  12. Flow of a non-linear (density-gradient-dependent) viscous fluid with heat generation, viscous dissipation and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran, P.X.

    2008-09-22

    In this paper, we study the flow of a compressible (density-gradient-dependent) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The convective heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed

  13. Growth of high quality non-linear optical crystal zinc germanium phosphide for Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, S. X.; Yang, C. H.; Li, G.; Zhu, G. Li.; Yao, B. Q.; Lei, Z. T.

    2011-08-01

    ZnGeP2 single crystals were grown from Vertical Bridgman method. High-quality near-stoichiometric ZnGeP2 single crystals were obtained in the diameter of 30 mm and length of 120 mm. The results showed that after thermal annealing of the crystals the optical absorption coefficient was below 0.03 cm-1 at 2.05 μm, and ˜0.02 cm-1 at 3-8 μm. The low absorption loss ZnGeP2 samples with dimension of 6 × 6 × 18 mm3 were cut from the annealed ingots for 3-5 μm optical parametric oscillation (OPO) experiments. For OPO experiment, we obtained up to 8.7 W output in the 3-5 μm wavelength range (with signal of 3.80 μm and idler of 4.45 μm, respectively) pumped by a 16.3 W 2.05 μm Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser at pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz, which corresponded to a conversion efficiency of 53.4% and slope efficiency of 64.8%, respectively.

  14. Four-parametric non-linear regression fit of isovolumic relaxation in isolated ejecting rat and guinea pig hearts.

    PubMed

    Langer, S F

    2000-02-01

    Left ventricular isovolumic pressure fall is characterized by the time constant tau obtained by fitting the exponential p(t) = p(infinity) + (p(0)-p(infinity))3exp(-t/tau) to pressure fall. It has been shown that tau, calculated from the first half of pressure fall, differs considerably from that found at late relaxation in normal and pathophysiological conditions. The present study aims at testing for such differences statistically and to quantify tau changes during relaxation. Two improvements of the common regression procedure are introduced for that purpose: the use of the four-parametric regression function, p(t) = p(infinity) + (p(0)-p(infinity))3exp[-t/(tau(0)+b(tau)t)], and an optimal data-dependent split of the isovolumic pressure fall interval. The residual regression errors of the methods are statistically compared in one-hundred isolated working rat and one-hundred guinea pig hearts, additionally including a logistic regression method. Regression error is significantly reduced by introducing that b(tau). b(tau) is negative in most cases, indicating accelerated relaxation during isovolumic pressure fall, but zero and positive b(tau) are occasionally seen. Optimal interval tripartition further improves the regression error in most cases. The statistically proved acceleration of the time constant during isovolumic relaxation justifies factor b(t) as a direct and continuous measure of differences between early and late relaxation. This difference between early and late isovolumic relaxation is probably caused by residually contracted myocardium at the beginning of pressure fall, and is therefore important to describe pathophysiological effects on relaxation phases.

  15. Storage Dynamics and Non-Linear Connectivity between Landscape Units Control Runoff Generation and Stream Water Age Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the influence of storage dynamics and non-linearities in hydrological connectivity on runoff generation and stream water ages, using a long-term record of daily isotopes in precipitation and stream flow. These were used to test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model for a Scottish catchment. The model tracks tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores representing steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands and deeper groundwater (i.e. the main landscape units involved in runoff generation). Storage is largest in groundwater and on the steep hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in smaller stores in the riparian peat. The model also couples the ecohydrological effects of different vegetation communities in contrasting landscape units, by estimating evaporation, resulting moisture deficits and the ages of evaporated waters, which also affect the generation and age of runoff. Both stream flow and isotope variations are well-captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts the mean age of runoff as ~1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies from ~1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the riparian peatland dominate, to around 4 years in dry periods, when groundwater sustains flow. Hydrological connectivity between the units varies non-linearly with storage which depends upon antecedent conditions and event characteristics. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting non-stationary ages. Improving the representation of storage dynamics and quantifying the ages of water fluxes in such models gives a more complete conceptualisation of the importance of the soil water fluxes in critical zone processes and a framework for tracking diffuse pollutants in water quality assessment.

  16. Non-linear generation of acoustic noise in the IAR spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, R.; Nguyen, K.; Westley, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to produce high level acoustic noise fields with increasing accuracy in environmental test facilities dictates that a more precise understanding is required of the factors controlling nonlinear noise generation. Details are given of various nonlinear effects found in acoustic performance data taken from the IAR Spacecraft Acoustic Chamber. This type of data has enabled the IAR to test large spacecraft to relatively tight acoustic tolerances over a wide frequency range using manually set controls. An analog random noise automatic control system was available and modified to provide automatic selection of the chamber's spectral sound pressure levels. The automatic control system when used to complete a typical qualification test appeared to equal the accuracy of the manual system and had the added advantage that parallel spectra could be easily achieved during preset tests.

  17. Non-linear generation of acoustic noise in the IAR spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, R.; Nguyen, K.; Westley, M. S.

    1990-11-01

    The requirement to produce high level acoustic noise fields with increasing accuracy in environmental test facilities dictates that a more precise understanding is required of the factors controlling nonlinear noise generation. Details are given of various nonlinear effects found in acoustic performance data taken from the IAR Spacecraft Acoustic Chamber. This type of data has enabled the IAR to test large spacecraft to relatively tight acoustic tolerances over a wide frequency range using manually set controls. An analog random noise automatic control system was available and modified to provide automatic selection of the chamber's spectral sound pressure levels. The automatic control system when used to complete a typical qualification test appeared to equal the accuracy of the manual system and had the added advantage that parallel spectra could be easily achieved during preset tests.

  18. Crystalline perfection, optical and third harmonic generation analyses of non-linear optical single crystal of L-lysine acetate.

    PubMed

    Rani, Neelam; Vijayan, N; Thukral, Kanika; Maurya, K K; Haranath, D; Bhagavannarayana, G; Verma, S; Wahab, M A

    2013-03-15

    The potential organic non-linear optical single crystal of L-lysine acetate has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique (SEST) at room temperature. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group of P2(1). The crystalline perfection of the grown single crystal has been examined by high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis (HRXRD). The functional groups of the synthesized compound have been identified by (13)C NMR, (1)H NMR and FTIR analyses. The optical absorption studies show that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region with a cut-off wavelength of 236 nm. The optical band gap is found to be 5.29 eV. The steady-state PL spectra was recorded for pure L-lysine acetate crystal at room temperature. The third harmonic generation efficiency of the crystal has been evaluated by Z-scan technique and its non-linear optical coefficient has been calculated. Birefringence measurement has been carried out in order to see the optical homogeneity of the grown specimen. Its electrical properties has been assessed by dielectric measurement at different temperatures. The calculated optical band gap is 5.29 eV. Its thermal parameters like thermal diffusivity (α), thermal effusivity (e), thermal conductivity (k) and heat capacity (C(p)) have been determined by photopyroelectric technique. Vickers micro hardness studies were carried out using a Vickers hardness tester equipped with a diamond square indenter. The piezoelectric measurement for L-lysine acetate has been also been carried at ambient condition.

  19. Non-linear control of variable-speed wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators: a robust backstepping approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şeker, Murat; Zergeroğlu, Erkan; Tatlicioğlu, Enver

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a robust backstepping approach for the control problem of the variable-speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator is presented. Specifically, to overcome the negative effects of parametric uncertainties in both mechanical and electrical subsystems, a robust controller with a differentiable compensation term is proposed. The proposed methodology ensures the generator velocity tracking error to uniformly approach a small bound where practical tracking is achieved. Stability of the overall system is ensured by Lyapunov-based arguments. Comparative simulation studies with a standard proportional-integral-type controller are performed to illustrate the effectiveness, feasibility and efficiency of the proposed controller.

  20. Tissue non-linearity.

    PubMed

    Duck, F

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of acoustic waves is a fundamentally non-linear process, and only waves with infinitesimally small amplitudes may be described by linear expressions. In practice, all ultrasound propagation is associated with a progressive distortion in the acoustic waveform and the generation of frequency harmonics. At the frequencies and amplitudes used for medical diagnostic scanning, the waveform distortion can result in the formation of acoustic shocks, excess deposition of energy, and acoustic saturation. These effects occur most strongly when ultrasound propagates within liquids with comparatively low acoustic attenuation, such as water, amniotic fluid, or urine. Attenuation by soft tissues limits but does not extinguish these non-linear effects. Harmonics may be used to create tissue harmonic images. These offer improvements over conventional B-mode images in spatial resolution and, more significantly, in the suppression of acoustic clutter and side-lobe artefacts. The quantity B/A has promise as a parameter for tissue characterization, but methods for imaging B/A have shown only limited success. Standard methods for the prediction of tissue in-situ exposure from acoustic measurements in water, whether for regulatory purposes, for safety assessment, or for planning therapeutic regimes, may be in error because of unaccounted non-linear losses. Biological effects mechanisms are altered by finite-amplitude effects. PMID:20349813

  1. Contrast and Intensity upgrades to the Texas Petawatt laser for hadron generation and non-linear QED experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelich, Bjorn M.; Arefiev, Alexey; Ditmire, Todd; Donovan, Michael E.; Dyer, Gillis; Gaul, Erhard; Labun, Lance; Luedtke, Scott; Martinez, Mikael; McCarry, Edward; Stark, David; Pomerantz, Ishay; Tiwari, Ganesh; Toncian, Toma

    2015-11-01

    Advances in laser-based hadron generation, especially with respect to particle energy, as well as reaching the new regime of radiation dominated plasmas and non-linear QED, require laser fields of Petavolts per meter that preferably interact with very high density, overcritical plasmas. To achieve these conditions we are upgrading the Texas Petawatt Laser both respect to on-target laser intensity and laser-contrast, aiming to reach intensities of ~ 5x1022 W/cm2 and pulse contrast parameters allowing the interaction with overcritical, yet ultrathin, sub-micron targets. We will report on the planned experiments aimed at ion acceleration, neutron generation and the first experimental measurement of radiation reactions to motivate the chosen upgrade parameters. We will further report on the technical changes to the laser and present first measurements of the achieved intensity and contrast parameters. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's PULSE program (12-63-PULSE-FP014), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0045) and the National Institute of Health SBIR.

  2. System and method for generating 3D images of non-linear properties of rock formation using surface seismic or surface to borehole seismic or both

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt Toshimi; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of characterizing properties of a medium from a non-linear interaction are include generating, by first and second acoustic sources disposed on a surface of the medium on a first line, first and second acoustic waves. The first and second acoustic sources are controllable such that trajectories of the first and second acoustic waves intersect in a mixing zone within the medium. The method further includes receiving, by a receiver positioned in a plane containing the first and second acoustic sources, a third acoustic wave generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic waves in the mixing zone; and creating a first two-dimensional image of non-linear properties or a first ratio of compressional velocity and shear velocity, or both, of the medium in a first plane generally perpendicular to the surface and containing the first line, based on the received third acoustic wave.

  3. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puķīte, Jānis; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer-Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorptions non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries, for which the light contributing to the measurement is crossing the atmosphere under spatially well-separated paths differing strongly in length and location, like in limb geometry. In these cases, often full retrieval algorithms are applied to address the non-linearities, requiring iterative forward modelling of absorption spectra involving time-consuming wavelength-by-wavelength radiative transfer modelling. In this study, we propose to describe the non-linear effects by additional sensitivity parameters that can be used e.g. to build up a lookup table. Together with widely used box air mass factors (effective light paths) describing the linear response to the increase in the trace gas amount, the higher-order sensitivity parameters eliminate the need for repeating the radiative transfer modelling when modifying the absorption scenario even in the presence of a strong absorption background. While the higher-order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the spectral analysis (so-called DOAS fit), in practice their quantitative evaluation requires good measurement quality (typically better than that available from current measurements). Therefore, we introduce an iterative retrieval algorithm correcting for the higher-order absorption structures not yet considered in the DOAS fit as well as the absorption dependence on

  4. System and method for generating micro-seismic events and characterizing properties of a medium with non-linear acoustic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-12-29

    A method and system includes generating a first coded acoustic signal including pulses each having a modulated signal at a central frequency; and a second coded acoustic signal each pulse of which includes a modulated signal a central frequency of which is a fraction d of the central frequency of the modulated signal for the corresponding pulse in the first plurality of pulses. A receiver detects a third signal generated by a non-linear mixing process in the mixing zone and the signal is processed to extract the third signal to obtain an emulated micro-seismic event signal occurring at the mixing zone; and to characterize properties of the medium or creating a 3D image of the properties of the medium, or both, based on the emulated micro-seismic event signal.

  5. Non-linear mirror instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    Slow dynamical changes in magnetic-field strength and invariance of the particles' magnetic moments generate ubiquitous pressure anisotropies in weakly collisional, magnetized astrophysical plasmas. This renders them unstable to fast, small-scale mirror and firehose instabilities, which are capable of exerting feedback on the macroscale dynamics of the system. By way of a new asymptotic theory of the early non-linear evolution of the mirror instability in a plasma subject to slow shearing or compression, we show that the instability does not saturate quasi-linearly at a steady, low-amplitude level. Instead, the trapping of particles in small-scale mirrors leads to non-linear secular growth of magnetic perturbations, δB/B ∝ t2/3. Our theory explains recent collisionless simulation results, provides a prediction of the mirror evolution in weakly collisional plasmas and establishes a foundation for a theory of non-linear mirror dynamics with trapping, valid up to δB/B = O(1).

  6. Calculation of relative tube/tube support plate displacements in steam generators under accident condition loads using non-linear dynamic analysis methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Waisman, R.; Hu, M.H.; Frick, T.M.

    1995-12-01

    A non-linear analysis has been performed to determine relative motions between tubes and tube support plates (TSP) during a steam line break (SLB) event for steam generators. The SLB event results in blowdown of steam and water out of the steam generator. The fluid blowdown generates pressure drops across the TSPS, resulting in out-of-plane motion. The SLB induced pressure loads are calculated with a computer program that uses a drift-flux modeling of the two-phase flow. In order to determine the relative tube/TSP motions, a nonlinear dynamic time-history analysis is performed using a structural model that considers all of the significant component members relative to the tube support system. The dynamic response of the structure to the pressure loads is calculated using a special purpose computer program. This program links the various substructures at common degrees of freedom into a combined mass and stiffness matrix. The program accounts for structural non-linearities, including potential tube and TSP interaction at any given tube position. The program also accounts for structural damping as part of the dynamic response. Incorporating all of the above effects, the equations of motion are solved to give TSP displacements at the reduced set of DOF. Using the displacement results from the dynamic analysis, plate stresses are then calculated using the detailed component models. Displacements form the dynamic analysis are imposed as boundary conditions at the DOF locations, and the finite element program then solves for the overall distorted geometry. Calculations are also performed to assure that assumptions regarding elastic response of the various structural members and support points are valid.

  7. Non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashin, Z.; Bagchi, D.; Rosen, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    The non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates which results from lamina non-linear characteristics was examined. The analysis uses a Ramberg-Osgood representation of the lamina transverse and shear stress strain curves in conjunction with deformation theory to describe the resultant laminate non-linear behavior. A laminate having an arbitrary number of oriented layers and subjected to a general state of membrane stress was treated. Parametric results and comparison with experimental data and prior theoretical results are presented.

  8. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less

  9. Cascade frequency generation regime in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, D B; Dmitriev, Aleksandr K; Gorelik, P; Vong, Franko; Zondy, J J

    2009-05-31

    In a parametric oscillator of a special two-sectional design based on a lithium niobate periodic structure, a cascade frequency generation regime was observed in which a signal wave pumped a secondary parametric oscillator, producing secondary signal and idler waves. The secondary parametric oscillator can be tuned in a broad range of {approx}200 nm with respect to a fixed wavelength of the primary idler wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. Infra-red parametric generation: Phase mismatch condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Dubey, Swati; Jain, Kamal

    2015-07-31

    An analytical investigation is made for the Infrared parametric generation in doped semiconductor plasma under phase mismatch condition. Theoretical formulations are undertaken to determine induced polarization and threshold pump field for the onset of parametric generation in semiconductor plasma medium. The origin of this nonlinear interaction lies in the second order optical susceptibility arising due to the induced nonlinear current density in piezoelectric medium. Numerical estimations are made for n- type InSb at 77 K duly irradiated by a pulsed 10.6µm CO{sub 2} laser. It is very difficult to attain exact phase matching in experimental frame so we have considered a tolerable small phase mismatch in order to attain a new result. Its effect on the Infrared parametric generation in compound semiconductor is examined through induced polarization. Transmitted intensity is determined to have an idea about conversion efficiency of the said process. Phase mismatch tends to raise the required pump field to stimulate the parametric generation. Transmitted intensity is found to decrease with coherence length lc and increase carrier concentration n{sub 0}, which is favorable for improved conversion efficiency.

  11. Non-linear imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic arterial tissue using combined two photon fluorescence, second-harmonic generation and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Matthäus, Christian; Meyer, Tobias; Lattermann, Annika; Dietzek, Benjamin; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2014-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the most widespread cardiovascular diseases and one of the leading cause of death in the Western World. Characterization of arterial tissue in atherosclerotic condition is extremely interesting from the diagnostic point of view. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires a morpho-functional approach. Multimodal non-linear microscopy has the potential to bridge this gap by providing morpho-functional information on the examined tissues in a label-free way. Here we employed multiple non-linear microscopy techniques, including CARS, TPF, and SHG to provide intrinsic optical contrast from various tissue components in both arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques. CARS and TPF microscopy were used to respectively image lipid depositions within plaques and elastin in the arterial wall. Cholesterol deposition in the lumen and collagen in the arterial wall were selectively imaged by SHG microscopy and distinguished by forward-backward SHG ratio. Image pattern analysis allowed characterizing collagen organization in different tissue regions. Different values of fiber mean size, distribution and anisotropy are calculated for lumen and media prospectively allowing for automated classification of atherosclerotic lesions. The presented method represents a promising diagnostic tool for evaluating atherosclerotic tissue and has the potential to find a stable place in clinical setting as well as to be applied in vivo in the near future.

  12. Parametric vs. non-parametric daily weather generator: validation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, Martin

    2016-04-01

    As the climate models (GCMs and RCMs) fail to satisfactorily reproduce the real-world surface weather regime, various statistical methods are applied to downscale GCM/RCM outputs into site-specific weather series. The stochastic weather generators are among the most favourite downscaling methods capable to produce realistic (observed like) meteorological inputs for agrological, hydrological and other impact models used in assessing sensitivity of various ecosystems to climate change/variability. To name their advantages, the generators may (i) produce arbitrarily long multi-variate synthetic weather series representing both present and changed climates (in the latter case, the generators are commonly modified by GCM/RCM-based climate change scenarios), (ii) be run in various time steps and for multiple weather variables (the generators reproduce the correlations among variables), (iii) be interpolated (and run also for sites where no weather data are available to calibrate the generator). This contribution will compare two stochastic daily weather generators in terms of their ability to reproduce various features of the daily weather series. M&Rfi is a parametric generator: Markov chain model is used to model precipitation occurrence, precipitation amount is modelled by the Gamma distribution, and the 1st order autoregressive model is used to generate non-precipitation surface weather variables. The non-parametric GoMeZ generator is based on the nearest neighbours resampling technique making no assumption on the distribution of the variables being generated. Various settings of both weather generators will be assumed in the present validation tests. The generators will be validated in terms of (a) extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics (annual and 30 years extremes and maxima of duration of hot/cold/dry/wet spells); (b) selected validation statistics developed within the frame of VALUE project. The tests will be based on observational weather series

  13. Validation of two (parametric vs non-parametric) daily weather generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Skalak, P.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate models (GCMs and RCMs) fail to satisfactorily reproduce the real-world surface weather regime, various statistical methods are applied to downscale GCM/RCM outputs into site-specific weather series. The stochastic weather generators are among the most favourite downscaling methods capable to produce realistic (observed-like) meteorological inputs for agrological, hydrological and other impact models used in assessing sensitivity of various ecosystems to climate change/variability. To name their advantages, the generators may (i) produce arbitrarily long multi-variate synthetic weather series representing both present and changed climates (in the latter case, the generators are commonly modified by GCM/RCM-based climate change scenarios), (ii) be run in various time steps and for multiple weather variables (the generators reproduce the correlations among variables), (iii) be interpolated (and run also for sites where no weather data are available to calibrate the generator). This contribution will compare two stochastic daily weather generators in terms of their ability to reproduce various features of the daily weather series. M&Rfi is a parametric generator: Markov chain model is used to model precipitation occurrence, precipitation amount is modelled by the Gamma distribution, and the 1st order autoregressive model is used to generate non-precipitation surface weather variables. The non-parametric GoMeZ generator is based on the nearest neighbours resampling technique making no assumption on the distribution of the variables being generated. Various settings of both weather generators will be assumed in the present validation tests. The generators will be validated in terms of (a) extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics (annual and 30-years extremes and maxima of duration of hot/cold/dry/wet spells); (b) selected validation statistics developed within the frame of VALUE project. The tests will be based on observational weather series

  14. Achromatically injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Kawase, Kodo; Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2002-12-15

    An achromatically injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator was constructed with MgO:LiNbO (3) crystals and a tunable seeder in a stationary dispersion-compensated optical arrangement. Without readjusting the mirrors, we obtained smooth tuning of the terahertz wave over the 0.6-2.6 THz range by adjusting the seeder wavelength alone. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of this system for terahertz-wave absorption measurements over a wide frequency range by using low-pressure water vapor. PMID:18033473

  15. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 Wth) modules as the thermal building block from which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass, and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component- and system-level trades.

  16. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 watt thermal) modules as the thermal building block around which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component and system level trades.

  17. Automated, Parametric Geometry Modeling and Grid Generation for Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrand, Vincent J.; Uchitel, Vadim G.; Whitmire, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this Phase I project is to develop a highly automated software system for rapid geometry modeling and grid generation for turbomachinery applications. The proposed system features a graphical user interface for interactive control, a direct interface to commercial CAD/PDM systems, support for IGES geometry output, and a scripting capability for obtaining a high level of automation and end-user customization of the tool. The developed system is fully parametric and highly automated, and, therefore, significantly reduces the turnaround time for 3D geometry modeling, grid generation and model setup. This facilitates design environments in which a large number of cases need to be generated, such as for parametric analysis and design optimization of turbomachinery equipment. In Phase I we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the approach. The system has been tested on a wide variety of turbomachinery geometries, including several impellers and a multi stage rotor-stator combination. In Phase II, we plan to integrate the developed system with turbomachinery design software and with commercial CAD/PDM software.

  18. Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient terahertz generation.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Koustuban; Hemmer, Michael; Cirmi, Giovanni; Reichert, Fabian; Schimpf, Damian N; Mücke, Oliver D; Kärtner, Franz X

    2016-08-15

    A highly efficient, practical approach to high-energy multi-cycle terahertz (THz) generation based on spectrally cascaded optical parametric amplification (THz-COPA) is introduced. Feasible designs are presented that enable the THz wave, initially generated by difference frequency generation between a narrowband optical pump and optical seed (0.1-10% of pump energy), to self-start a cascaded (or repeated) energy downconversion of pump photons in a single pass through a single crystal. In cryogenically cooled, periodically poled lithium niobate, unprecedented energy conversion efficiencies >8% achievable with existing pump laser technology are predicted using realistic simulations. The calculations account for cascading effects, absorption, dispersion, and laser-induced damage. Due to the simultaneous, coupled nonlinear evolution of multiple phase-matched three-wave mixing processes, THz-COPA exhibits physics distinctly different from conventional three-wave mixing parametric amplifiers. This, in turn, governs optimal phase-matching conditions, evolution of optical spectra, and limitations of the nonlinear process. Circumventing these limitations is shown to yield conversion efficiencies ≫10%. PMID:27519094

  19. Mode matching in high non linear susceptibility metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Héron, Sébastien; Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Sub-wavelength Fabry-Perot like resonators are studied both in reflection and transmission for the purpose of second order frequency conversion. The latter are able to hugely confine incoming electric field at resonance inducing great quantity of non linear polarization and thus resonant Sum or Difference Frequency Generation. A metamaterial model is used to homogenize the structure composed of an alternation of non linear dielectric crystal and of metal to predict its resonance wavelengths. The subsequent effective non linear susceptibility for the homogenized layer is driven by the nonlinearities of the dielectric material and by the geometrical parameters, thus leading to much higher susceptibility than existing materials. Besides, the obtained frequency spectra offer a great visibility on the various mode matching scenarios that allow to reach enhanced non linear efficiency highly depending on whether the produced wave is back- or forward propagating.

  20. Efficient optical parametric generation in an organomineral crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, I. D. W.; Villacampa, B.; Josse, D.; Khodja, S.; Zyss, J.

    1995-04-01

    Organomineral crystals are engineered to combine the favorable properties of organic and inorganic materials. High gain parametric emission and amplification at telecommunications wavelengths are demonstrated in an organomineral crystal, 2-amino-5-nitropyridinium-dihydrogen phosphate. A novel angle-noncritical type-II phase-matching configuration is observed in parametric emission, and parametric amplification is demonstrated at 1.5 μm.

  1. Non-Linear Transformation of the Criterion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Keith; And Others

    The utility of a non-linear transformation of the criterion is established. The Pythagorean Theorem is used as the example to demonstrate the point. The functional relationships may be such (as in the Pythagorean Theorem) that an R-squared of 1.00 cannot be found without making a non-linear transformation of the criterion. The goal of…

  2. Sauer's non-linear voltage division.

    PubMed

    Schwan, H P; McAdams, E T; Jossinet, J

    2002-09-01

    The non-linearity of the electrode-tissue interface impedance gives rise to harmonics and thus degrades the accuracy of impedance measurements. Also, electrodes are often driven into the non-linear range of their polarisation impedance. This is particularly true in clinical applications. Techniques to correct for electrode effects are usually based on linear electrode impedance data. However, these data can be very different from the non-linear values needed. Non-linear electrode data suggested a model based on simple assumptions. It is useful in predicting the frequency dependence of non-linear effects from linear properties. Sauer's treatment is a first attempt to provide a more general and rigorous basis for modelling the non-linear state. The paper reports Sauer's treatment of the non-linear case and points out its limitations. The paper considers Sauer's treatment of a series arrangement of two impedances. The tissue impedance is represented by a linear voltage-current characteristic. The interface impedance is represented by a Volterra expansion. The response of this network to periodic signals is calculated up to the second-order term of the series expansion. The resultant, time-dependent current is found to contain a DC term (rectification), as well as frequency-dependent terms. Sauer's treatment assumes a voltage clamp across the impedances and neglects higher-order terms in the series expansion. As a consequence, it fails adequately to represent some experimentally observed phenomena. It is therefore suggested that Sauer's expressions for the voltage divider should be combined with the non-linear treatments previously published by the co-authors. Although Sauer's work on the non-linear voltage divider was originally applied to the study of the non-linear behaviour of the electrode-electrolyte interface and biological tissues, it is stressed, however, that the work is applicable to a wide range of research areas.

  3. Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong

    2011-05-01

    This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability

  4. Kinetics independent spectrometric analysis using non-linear calibration modelling and exploitation of concentration gradients generated by a flow-batch system for albumin and total protein determination in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Souza, Margarida C; Martins, Valdomiro L; Almeida, Luciano F; Pessoa Neto, Osmundo D; Gaião, Edvaldo N; Araujo, Mario Cesar U

    2010-08-15

    An automatic method for kinetics independent spectrometric analysis is proposed in this study. It uses a non-linear calibration model that explores concentration gradients generated by a flow-batch analyser (FBA) for the samples, dye, and the single standard solution. The procedure for obtaining the gradients of the dye and standard solution is performed once at the beginning of analysis. The same procedure is applied thereafter for each sample. For illustration, the proposed automatic methodology was applied to determine total protein and albumin in blood serum by using the Biuret and Bromocresol Green (BCG) methods. The measurements were made by using a laboratory-made photometer based on a red and green bicolour LED (Light-Emitting Diode) and a phototransistor, coupled to a "Z" form flow cell. The sample throughput was about 50 h(-1) for albumin and 60 h(-1) for total protein, consuming about 7 microL of sample, 2.6 mL of BCG and 1.2 mL of biuret reagents for each determination. Applying the paired t-test for results from the proposed analyser and the reference method, no statistic differences at 95% confidence level were found. The absolute standard deviation was usually smaller than 0.2 g dL(-1). The proposed method is valuable for the determination of total protein and albumin; and can also be used in other determinations where kinetic effects may or may not exist. PMID:20678663

  5. Kinetics independent spectrometric analysis using non-linear calibration modelling and exploitation of concentration gradients generated by a flow-batch system for albumin and total protein determination in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Souza, Margarida C; Martins, Valdomiro L; Almeida, Luciano F; Pessoa Neto, Osmundo D; Gaião, Edvaldo N; Araujo, Mario Cesar U

    2010-08-15

    An automatic method for kinetics independent spectrometric analysis is proposed in this study. It uses a non-linear calibration model that explores concentration gradients generated by a flow-batch analyser (FBA) for the samples, dye, and the single standard solution. The procedure for obtaining the gradients of the dye and standard solution is performed once at the beginning of analysis. The same procedure is applied thereafter for each sample. For illustration, the proposed automatic methodology was applied to determine total protein and albumin in blood serum by using the Biuret and Bromocresol Green (BCG) methods. The measurements were made by using a laboratory-made photometer based on a red and green bicolour LED (Light-Emitting Diode) and a phototransistor, coupled to a "Z" form flow cell. The sample throughput was about 50 h(-1) for albumin and 60 h(-1) for total protein, consuming about 7 microL of sample, 2.6 mL of BCG and 1.2 mL of biuret reagents for each determination. Applying the paired t-test for results from the proposed analyser and the reference method, no statistic differences at 95% confidence level were found. The absolute standard deviation was usually smaller than 0.2 g dL(-1). The proposed method is valuable for the determination of total protein and albumin; and can also be used in other determinations where kinetic effects may or may not exist.

  6. Fractional non-linear modelling of ultracapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Nicolas; Sabatier, Jocelyn; Briat, Olivier; Vinassa, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that an ultracapacitor exhibits a non-linear behaviour in relation to the operating voltage. A set of fractional order linear systems resulting from a frequency analysis of the ultracapacitor at various operating points is first obtained. Then, a non-linear model is deduced from the linear systems set, so that its Taylor linearization around the considered operating points (for the frequency analysis), produces the linear system set. The resulting non-linear model is validated on a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) application.

  7. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Shahram Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Jiarui Yu, Faxin

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  8. Non-linearity in Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the effects of non-linearity, some of the mechanisms responsible for non-linearity, and methods for measuring non-linearity in Johnson noise thermometry. Mechanisms considered include quantum tunnelling, bipolar junction transistor and junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, feedback, clipping, output-stage crossover, quantization and dither. It is found that even- and odd-order effects behave differently in correlator-based noise thermometers, with the dominant even-order effects contributing as intermodulation products whereas the dominant odd-order contributions are third-order and at the same frequencies as the parent signals. Possible test methods include the use of discrete tones, changes in spectral shape, and direct measurement using reference noise powers. For correlators operated at constant noise power, direct measurement of non-linearity using reference noise powers enables corrections to be made with negligible additional uncertainty and measurement time.

  9. Analysis of a non-linear structure by considering two non-linear formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majed, R.; Raynaud, J. L.

    2003-03-01

    In recent years, modal synthesis methods have been extended for solving non-linear dynamic problems subjected to harmonic excitation. These methods are based on the notion of non-linear or linearized modes and exploited in the case of structures affected by localized non-linearity. Actually, the experimental tests executed on non-linear structures are time consuming, particularly when repeated experimental tests are needed. It is often preferable to consider new non-linear methods with a view to decrease significantly the number of attempts during prototype tests and improving the accuracy of the dynamic behaviour. This article describes two fundamental non-linear formulations based on two different strategies. The first formulation exploits the eigensolutions of the associated linear system and the dynamics characteristics of each localized non-linearity. The second formulation is based on the exploitation of the linearized eigensolutions obtained using an iterative process. This article contains a numerical and an experimental study which examines the non-linear behaviour of the structure affected by localized non-linearities. The study is intended to validate the numerical algorithm and to evaluate the problems arising from the introduction of non-linearities. The complex responses are evaluated using the iterative Newton-Raphson method and for a series of discrete frequencies. The theory has been applied to a bi-dimensional structure and consists of evaluating the harmonic responses obtained using the proposed formulations by comparing measured and calculated transfer functions.

  10. Non-linear dynamics of viscoelastic liquid trilayers subjected to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetsas, George; Bontozoglou, Vasilis

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this work is to investigate the non-linear dynamics of the electro-hydrodynamic instability of a trilayer of immiscible liquids. We consider the case of a polymer film which is separated from the top electrode by two viscous fluids. We develop a computational model and carry out 2D numerical simulations fully accounting for the flow and electric field in all phases. For the numerical solution of the governing equations we employ the mixed finite element method combined with a quasi-elliptic mesh generation scheme which is capable of following the large deformations of the liquid-liquid interface. We model the viscoelastic behavior using the Phan-Thien and Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation taking fully into account the non-linear elastic effects as well as a varying shear and extensional viscosity. We perform a thorough parametric study and investigate the influence of the electric properties of fluids, applied voltage and various rheological parameters. The authors acknowledge the support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant Number PE8/906), co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources.

  11. Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

  12. Non-linear Post Processing Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shawn; Lopez, Alex; Torres, Angel

    1997-01-01

    A non-linear filter for image post processing based on the feedforward Neural Network topology is presented. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of "smart" filters in image post processing. The filter has shown to be useful in recovering high frequencies, such as those lost during the JPEG compression-decompression process. The filtered images have a higher signal to noise ratio, and a higher perceived image quality. Simulation studies comparing the proposed filter with the optimum mean square non-linear filter, showing examples of the high frequency recovery, and the statistical properties of the filter are given,

  13. Non-linear cord-rubber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the stress-strain relations in a multi-layer composite made up of materials whose individual stress-strain characteristics are non-linear and possibly different. The method is applied to the case of asymmetric tubes in tension, and comparisons with experimentally measured data are given.

  14. Aperture scaling effects with monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillators and generators.

    PubMed

    Missey, M; Dominic, V; Powers, P; Schepler, K L

    2000-02-15

    We used elliptical beams to demonstrate aperture scaling effects in nanosecond single-grating and multigrating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) monolithic optical parametric oscillators and generators. Increasing the cavity Fresnel number in single-grating crystals broadened both the beam divergence and the spectral bandwidth. Both effects are explained in terms of the phase-matching geometry. These effects are suppressed when a multigrating PPLN crystal is used because the individual gratings provide small effective subapertures. A flood-pumped multigrating optical parametric generator displayed a low output beam divergence and contained 19 pairs of signal and idler frequencies.

  15. GGOPT: an unconstrained non-linear optimizer.

    PubMed

    Bassingthwaighte, J B; Chan, I S; Goldstein, A A; Russak, I B

    1988-01-01

    GGOPT is a derivative-free non-linear optimizer for smooth functions with added noise. If the function values arise from observations or from extensive computations, these errors can be considerable. GGOPT uses an adjustable mesh together with linear least squares to find smoothed values of the function, gradient and Hessian at the center of the mesh. These values drive a descent method that estimates optimal parameters. The smoothed values usually result in increased accuracy.

  16. Non-linear dark energy clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Stefano; Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pietroni, Massimo E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it

    2011-11-01

    We consider a dark energy fluid with arbitrary sound speed and equation of state and discuss the effect of its clustering on the cold dark matter distribution at the non-linear level. We write the continuity, Euler and Poisson equations for the system in the Newtonian approximation. Then, using the time renormalization group method to resum perturbative corrections at all orders, we compute the total clustering power spectrum and matter power spectrum. At the linear level, a sound speed of dark energy different from that of light modifies the power spectrum on observationally interesting scales, such as those relevant for baryonic acoustic oscillations. We show that the effect of varying the sound speed of dark energy on the non-linear corrections to the matter power spectrum is below the per cent level, and therefore these corrections can be well modelled by their counterpart in cosmological scenarios with smooth dark energy. We also show that the non-linear effects on the matter growth index can be as large as 10–15 per cent for small scales.

  17. New non-linear photovoltaic effect in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Volovichev, I.

    2014-11-21

    A linear theory of the new non-linear photovoltaic effect in the closed circuit consisting of a non-uniformly illuminated uniform bipolar semiconductor with neutral impurities is developed. The non-uniform photo-excitation of impurities results in the position-dependant current carrier mobility that breaks the semiconductor homogeneity and induces the photo-electromotive force (emf). As both the electron (or hole) mobility gradient and the current carrier generation rate depend on the light intensity, the photo-emf and the short-circuit current prove to be non-linear functions of the incident light intensity at an arbitrarily low illumination. The influence of the sample size on the photovoltaic effect magnitude is studied. Physical relations and distinctions between the considered effect and the Dember and bulk photovoltaic effects are also discussed.

  18. Non-linear effects in the support motion of an elastically mounted slider crank mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, I.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of an in-line slider crank mechanism in which the sliding mass is elastically supported. The ratio of crank length to connecting rod length is not assumed small and relatively large displacements of the support are allowed. Ordinary and parametric non-linear terms are thus retained in the equations of motion. It is shown that the presence of parametric terms gives rise to additional conditions for resonance in the support motion. Approximate solutions are obtained for the fundamental and half subharmonic steady state responses and the effect of the non-linear and parametric terms examined. The stability of the steady state responses is considered and it is shown that instability is associated with a negative slope of the amplitude frequency characteristic.

  19. Multi-disformal invariance of non-linear primordial perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuki; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-08-01

    We study disformal transformations of the metric in the cosmological context. We first consider the disformal transformation generated by a scalar field ϕ and show that the curvature and tensor perturbations on the uniform ϕ slicing, on which the scalar field is homogeneous, are non-linearly invariant under the disformal transformation. Then we discuss the transformation properties of the evolution equations for the curvature and tensor perturbations at full non-linear order in the context of spatial gradient expansion as well as at linear order. In particular, we show that the transformation can be described in two different ways: one that clearly shows the physical invariance and the other that shows an apparent change of the causal structure. Finally we consider a new type of disformal transformation in which a multi-component scalar field comes into play, which we call a “multi-disformal transformation”. We show that the curvature and tensor perturbations are invariant at linear order, and also at non-linear order, provided that the system has reached the adiabatic limit.

  20. Non-linear Compton Scattering in Short Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Jerzy

    2012-06-01

    The generation of short X-ray laser pulses attracts a great deal of attention. One of mechanisms to achieve this goal is the non-linear Compton scattering at very high laser powers. The majority of previous works on the non-linear Compton scattering have been devoted to the case when the incident laser field is treated as a monochromatic plane wave. There is, however, recent interest in analyzing the effect of a pulsed laser field on the non-linear Compton scattering [1-4]. We study the process for different durations of the incident laser pulse and compare it with the results for both a plane wave laser field and a laser pulse train. [4pt] [1] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053403 (2009).[0pt] [2] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 446 (2011).[0pt] [3] D. Seipt and B. Kämpfer, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022101 (2011).[0pt] [4] F. Mackenroth and A. Di Piazza, Phys. Rev. A 83, 032106 (2011).

  1. Geometrically non-linear vibration of spinning structures by finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, A. Y. T.; Fung, T. C.

    1990-05-01

    The geometrically non-linear steady state vibration of spinning structures is studied. Full flap-lag-torsional gyroscopic coupling effects are considered. The non-linearity arises mainly from the non-linear axial strain-displacement relation. The equations of motion are derived from Lagrangian equations. Spatial discretization is achieved by the finite element method and steady state nodal displacements are expanded into Fourier series. The harmonic balance method gives a set of non-linear algebraic equations with the Fourier coefficients of the nodal displacements as unknowns. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved by a Newtonian algorithm iteratively. The importance of the conditions of completeness and balanceability in choosing the number of harmonic terms to be used is discussed. General frame structures with arbitrary orientation in a rotating frame can be investigated by the present method. Rotating blades and shafts are treated as special cases. Examples of a rotating ring with different orientations are given. The non-linear amplitude-frequency relation can be constructed parametrically.

  2. Structure-unknown non-linear dynamic systems: identification through neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masri, S. F.; Chassiakos, A. G.; Caughey, T. K.

    1992-03-01

    Explores the potential of using parallel distributed processing (neural network) approaches to identify the internal forces of structure-unknown non-linear dynamic systems typically encountered in the field of applied mechanics. The relevant characteristics of neural networks, such as the processing elements, network topology, and learning algorithms, are discussed in the context of system identification. The analogy of the neural network procedure to a qualitatively similar non-parametric identification approach, which was previously developed by the authors for handling arbitrary non-linear systems, is discussed. The utility of the neural network approach is demonstrated by application to several illustrative problems.

  3. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-04-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  4. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  5. Amplitude relations in non-linear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Du, Yi-Jian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate tree-level scattering amplitude relations in U( N) non-linear sigma model. We use Cayley parametrization. As was shown in the recent works [23,24], both on-shell amplitudes and off-shell currents with odd points have to vanish under Cayley parametrization. We prove the off-shell U(1) identity and fundamental BCJ relation for even-point currents. By taking the on-shell limits of the off-shell relations, we show that the color-ordered tree amplitudes with even points satisfy U(1)-decoupling identity and fundamental BCJ relation, which have the same formations within Yang-Mills theory. We further state that all the on-shell general KK, BCJ relations as well as the minimal-basis expansion are also satisfied by color-ordered tree amplitudes. As a consequence of the relations among color-ordered amplitudes, the total 2 m-point tree amplitudes satisfy DDM form of color decomposition as well as KLT relation.

  6. Parametric Optimization of Thermoelectric Generators for Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shouyuan; Xu, Xianfan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology for design optimization of thermoelectric-based waste heat recovery systems called thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The aim is to maximize the power output from thermoelectrics which are used as add-on modules to an existing gas-phase heat exchanger, without negative impacts, e.g., maintaining a minimum heat dissipation rate from the hot side. A numerical model is proposed for TEG coupled heat transfer and electrical power output. This finite-volume-based model simulates different types of heat exchangers, i.e., counter-flow and cross-flow, for TEGs. Multiple-filled skutterudites and bismuth-telluride-based thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are applied, respectively, in higher and lower temperature regions. The response surface methodology is implemented to determine the optimized TEG size along and across the flow direction and the height of thermoelectric couple legs, and to analyze their covariance and relative sensitivity. A genetic algorithm is employed to verify the globality of the optimum. The presented method will be generally useful for optimizing heat-exchanger-based TEG performance.

  7. Parametric Optimization of Thermoelectric Generators for Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shouyuan; Xu, Xianfan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a methodology for design optimization of thermoelectric-based waste heat recovery systems called thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The aim is to maximize the power output from thermoelectrics which are used as add-on modules to an existing gas-phase heat exchanger, without negative impacts, e.g., maintaining a minimum heat dissipation rate from the hot side. A numerical model is proposed for TEG coupled heat transfer and electrical power output. This finite-volume-based model simulates different types of heat exchangers, i.e., counter-flow and cross-flow, for TEGs. Multiple-filled skutterudites and bismuth-telluride-based thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are applied, respectively, in higher and lower temperature regions. The response surface methodology is implemented to determine the optimized TEG size along and across the flow direction and the height of thermoelectric couple legs, and to analyze their covariance and relative sensitivity. A genetic algorithm is employed to verify the globality of the optimum. The presented method will be generally useful for optimizing heat-exchanger-based TEG performance.

  8. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from

  9. Generation of broadband spontaneous parametric fluorescence using multiple bulk nonlinear crystals.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masayuki; Okamoto, Ryo; Tanaka, Akira; Subashchandran, Shanthi; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2012-06-18

    We propose a novel method for generating broadband spontaneous parametric fluorescence by using a set of bulk nonlinear crystals (NLCs). We also demonstrate this scheme experimentally. Our method employs a superposition of spontaneous parametric fluorescence spectra generated using multiple bulk NLCs. A typical bandwidth of 160 nm (73 THz) with a degenerate wavelength of 808 nm was achieved using two β-barium-borate (BBO) crystals, whereas a typical bandwidth of 75 nm (34 THz) was realized using a single BBO crystal. We also observed coincidence counts of generated photon pairs in a non-collinear configuration. The bandwidth could be further broadened by increasing the number of NLCs. Our demonstration suggests that a set of four BBO crystals could realize a bandwidth of approximately 215 nm (100 THz). We also discuss the stability of Hong-Ou-Mandel two-photon interference between the parametric fluorescence generated by this scheme. Our simple scheme is easy to implement with conventional NLCs and does not require special devices.

  10. Non-linear Flood Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, A.

    The genesis of floodings is very complex depending on hydrologic, meteorological and evapo-transpirative factors that are linked among themselves in a non linear way with numerous feedback processes. The Cantor dust and the rank-ordering statistics supply a proper framework for identifying a kind of a non linear order in the time succession of the floodings and so provide a basis for their prediction. When a catalogue is analysed, it is necessary to test its completeness with respect to the size of the recorded events and results obtained from analysis of catalogues that do not take into account such a test are suspect and possibly wrong, or, at least, unreliable. Floodings have no instrumentally determined magnitude scale, like that conventionally used for earthquakes, and this is why they are generally described in qualitative terms. For this reason, a semi-quantitative index, called ASI (Alluvial Strength Index) has been here developed that combines attributes of alluvial triggering mechanisms and effects on the territorial and hydraulic system.The historical succession of alluvial events occurred at high valley of Po river (Northern Italy), mean valley of Calore river (Southern Italy) and at Sarno, near Naples, have been accurately reconstructed on the basis of old documents and classified according to their ASI. The catalogues have been verified to be complete only for events classified at least as moderate and this probably because many of the lowest energetic events, especially in the past, escaped the detection. The identification of scale-invariances in the time clustering of alluvial events, both on short and long time scales, even if indicative of the complexity of their genesis, might be very helpful for the assessment and reduction of the hazard of future disasters. For example, on the basis of the results of the rank-ordering statistics, the most probable occurrence of an alluvial event at Sarno, classified at least as strong, is predicted to occur

  11. Some advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortion in a smart grid with renewable generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Power quality (PQ) disturbances are becoming an important issue in smart grids (SGs) due to the significant economic consequences that they can generate on sensible loads. However, SGs include several distributed energy resources (DERs) that can be interconnected to the grid with static converters, which lead to a reduction of the PQ levels. Among DERs, wind turbines and photovoltaic systems are expected to be used extensively due to the forecasted reduction in investment costs and other economic incentives. These systems can introduce significant time-varying voltage and current waveform distortions that require advanced spectral analysis methods to be used. This paper provides an application of advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortions in SGs with dispersed generation. In particular, the Standard International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) method, some parametric methods (such as Prony and Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT)), and some hybrid methods are critically compared on the basis of their accuracy and the computational effort required.

  12. Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Imai, Kazuhiro; Ito, Hiromasa

    2001-05-01

    An injection-seeded nanosecond terahertz (THz) wave parametric generator was demonstrated using nonlinear crystals that were pumped by a single frequency Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Spectrum narrowing to the Fourier transform limit (ν=1.58 THz, Δν<200 MHz) was achieved by injection seeding the idler wave (near-infrared Stokes). This resulted in a THz-wave output power (900 pJ/pulse, >100 mW peak) approximately 300 times higher than that of a conventional THz-wave parametric generator, which has no injection seeder. This compact system operates at room temperature and promises to be a widely tunable THz-wave source that will compete with free-electron lasers and p-Ge lasers.

  13. Near-Nyquist optical pulse generation with fiber optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Vedadi, Armand; Shoaie, Mohammad Amin; Brès, Camille-Sophie

    2012-12-10

    A novel method using optical fiber parametric amplification and phase modulation is proposed in order to generate Nyquist pulses. Using parabolic pulses as a pump, we show theoretically that it is possible to generate Nyquist pulses. Furthermore, we show that by using a sinusoidal pump (pump intensity modulated by an RF tone), it is possible to obtain pulses with characteristics that are close to Nyquist limited pulses. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of bandwidth limited pulses with full width half maximum of 14 ps at 10 GHz repetition rate. We also discuss limitations of this method and means to overcome these limitations.

  14. Parametric generation of radiation in a dynamic cavity with frequency dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosanov, N. N.; Fedorov, E. G.; Matskovsky, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the parametric generation of electromagnetic radiation in a cavity with periodically oscillating mirrors and Lorentz-type frequency dispersion has been performed. It is shown that initially weak seed radiation can be transformed into intense short pulses, the shape of which under steady-state conditions changes periodically when reflecting from mirrors and, depending on the dispersion characteristics, corresponds to uni- or bipolar pulses.

  15. Photon-number entangled states generated in Kerr media with optical parametric pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.; Perina, Jan Jr.

    2011-05-15

    Two nonlinear Kerr oscillators mutually coupled by parametric pumping are studied as a source of states entangled in photon numbers. Temporal evolution of entanglement quantified by negativity shows the effects of sudden death and birth of entanglement. Entanglement is preserved even in asymptotic states under certain conditions. The role of reservoirs at finite temperature in entanglement evolution is elucidated. Relation between generation of entangled states and violation of Cauchy-Schwartz inequality for oscillator intensities is found.

  16. Non-linear wave interaction in a magnetoplasma column. I - Theory. II Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J.-M.; Crawford, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of non-linear three-wave interaction for propagation along a cylindrical plasma column surrounded either by a metallic boundary, or by an infinite dielectric, and immersed in an infinite, static, axial magnetic field. An averaged Lagrangian method is used and the results are specialized to parametric amplification and mode conversion, assuming an undepleted pump wave. Computations are presented for a magneto-plasma column surrounded by free space, indicating that parametric growth rates of the order of a fraction of a decibel per centimeter should be obtainable for plausible laboratory plasma parameters. In addition, experiments on non-linear mode conversion in a cylindrical magnetoplasma column are described. The results are compared with the theoretical predictions and good qualitative agreement is demonstrated.

  17. Generation of high-energy self-phase-stabilized pulses by difference-frequency generation followed by optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, C; Vozzi, C; Benedetti, E; Sansone, G; Stagira, S; Svelto, O; De Silvestri, S; Nisoli, M; Cerullo, G

    2006-04-01

    We produce ultrabroadband self-phase-stabilized near-IR pulses by a novel approach where a seed pulse, obtained by difference-frequency generation of a hollow-fiber broadened supercontinuum, is amplified by a two-stage optical parametric amplifier. Energies up to 20 microJ with a pulse spectrum extending from 1.2 to 1.6 microm are demonstrated, and a route for substantial energy scaling is indicated.

  18. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  19. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications.

    PubMed

    Stanculescu, F; Stanculescu, A

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  20. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications.

    PubMed

    Stanculescu, F; Stanculescu, A

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised. PMID:26873262

  1. Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.

  2. Generation of broadband entangled light through cascading nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    He Wenping; Li Fuli

    2007-07-15

    We consider a system consisting of N nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs) operating below threshold and linked with each other in a cascading way, each taking the output subharmonic fields from the previous one as the input fields. The entanglement properties of the subharmonic fields from these cascading nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers (CNOPAs) are investigated. We find that, if the input subharmonic fields of the first NOPA in the cascading line are in the vacuum state, the output fields from the later NOPAs exhibit excellent broadband entanglement, and the entanglement frequency band is broadened notably with increased number of cascading NOPAs. We also discuss the application of the entangled light generated from the CNOPAs to broadband teleportation, and find that the maximum width of the fidelity spectrum of teleportation of broadband coherent states can be greatly broadened.

  3. Optimum Damping in a Non-Linear Base Isolation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangid, R. S.

    1996-02-01

    Optimum isolation damping for minimum acceleration of a base-isolated structure subjected to earthquake ground excitation is investigated. The stochastic model of the El-Centro1940 earthquake, which preserves the non-stationary evolution of amplitude and frequency content of ground motion, is used as an earthquake excitation. The base isolated structure consists of a linear flexible shear type multi-storey building supported on a base isolation system. The resilient-friction base isolator (R-FBI) is considered as an isolation system. The non-stationary stochastic response of the system is obtained by the time dependent equivalent linearization technique as the force-deformation of the R-FBI system is non-linear. The optimum damping of the R-FBI system is obtained under important parametric variations; i.e., the coefficient of friction of the R-FBI system, the period and damping of the superstructure; the effective period of base isolation. The criterion selected for optimality is the minimization of the top floor root mean square (r.m.s.) acceleration. It is shown that the above parameters have significant effects on optimum isolation damping.

  4. Generation of photon pairs through parametric processes in nonlinear waveguides with the account of losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavulin, D. N.; Sukhorukov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analytical description of the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a cubic nonlinear fiber with linear losses. We consider the generation of photon pairs in the fiber when in the input of fiber is fed the pumping wave and single signal photon. The focus of attention is on three cases: when the signal photon propagates in the fiber without generating of biphotons; when the photon pair is generated; and when the photon is lost in the fiber. We also consider the cascade processes, but do not give them an analytical description because of their smallness. Description of the biphotons generation process we provide using the Schrodinger-type equation, and take into account the losses in the fiber through the introduction of the virtual beam splitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the generation of photon pairs through parametric processes.

  5. Tunable optical parametric generator based on the pump spatial walk-off.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea; Just, Felix; Sharapova, Polina R; Taheri, Michael; Leuchs, Gerd; Chekhova, Maria V

    2016-02-01

    We suggest a novel optical parametric generator (OPG) in which one of the downconverted beams is spontaneously generated along the Poynting vector of the pump beam. In this configuration, the generation takes advantage of the walk-off of the extraordinary pump, rather than being degraded by it. As a result, the generated signal and idler beams are bright due to a high conversion efficiency, spatially nearly single mode due to the preferred direction of the Poynting vector, tunable over a wide range of wavelengths and broadband. The two beams are also correlated in frequency and in the photon number per pulse. Furthermore, due to their thermal statistics, these beams can be used as a pump to efficiently generate other nonlinear processes. PMID:26907445

  6. Parametric generation of energetic short mid-infrared pulses for dielectric laser acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandel, S.; Xu, G.; Yin, Y.; Jovanovic, I.

    2014-12-01

    Laser-driven high-gradient electron acceleration in dielectric photonic structures is an enabling technology for compact and robust sources of tunable monochromatic x-rays. Such advanced x-ray sources are sought in medical imaging, security, industrial, and scientific applications. The use of long-wavelength pulses can mitigate the problem of laser-induced breakdown in dielectric structures at high optical intensities, relax the structure fabrication requirements, and allow greater pulse energy to be injected into the structure. We report on the design and construction of a simple and robust, short-pulse parametric source operating at a center wavelength 5 μm, to be used as a pump for a dielectric photonic structure for laser-driven acceleration. The source is based on a two-stage parametric downconversion design, consisting of a β-BaB2O4-based 2.05 μm optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and a ZnGeP2-based 5 μm OPA. The 2.05 μm OPA is presently pumped by a standard Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplified laser, which will be replaced with direct laser pumping at wavelengths \\gt 2 μ m in the future. The design and performance of the constructed short-pulse mid-infrared source are described. The demonstrated architecture is also of interest for use in other applications, such as high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production.

  7. A stepped-plate bi-frequency source for generating a difference frequency sound with a parametric array.

    PubMed

    Je, Yub; Lee, Haksue; Park, Jongkyu; Moon, Wonkyu

    2010-06-01

    An ultrasonic radiator is developed to generate a difference frequency sound from two frequencies of ultrasound in air with a parametric array. A design method is proposed for an ultrasonic radiator capable of generating highly directive, high-amplitude ultrasonic sound beams at two different frequencies in air based on a modification of the stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator. The stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator was introduced by Gallego-Juarez et al. [Ultrasonics 16, 267-271 (1978)] in their previous study and can effectively generate highly directive, large-amplitude ultrasonic sounds in air, but only at a single frequency. Because parametric array sources must be able to generate sounds at more than one frequency, a design modification is crucial to the application of a stepped-plate ultrasonic radiator as a parametric array source in air. The aforementioned method was employed to design a parametric radiator for use in air. A prototype of this design was constructed and tested to determine whether it could successfully generate a difference frequency sound with a parametric array. The results confirmed that the proposed single small-area transducer was suitable as a parametric radiator in air.

  8. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  9. Generation of a frequency comb of squeezing in an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, A. E.; Huntington, E. H.; Harb, C. C.; Ralph, T. C.

    2006-01-15

    The multimode operation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating below threshold is calculated. We predict that squeezing can be generated in a comb that is limited only by the phase matching bandwidth of the OPO. Effects of technical noise on the squeezing spectrum are investigated. It is shown that maximal squeezing can be obtained at high frequency even in the presence of seed laser noise and cavity length fluctuations. Furthermore the spectrum obtained by detuning the laser frequency off OPO cavity resonance is calculated.

  10. General analysis of group velocity effects in collinear optical parametric amplifiers and generators.

    PubMed

    Arisholm, Gunnar

    2007-05-14

    Group velocity mismatch (GVM) is a major concern in the design of optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) and generators (OPGs) for pulses shorter than a few picoseconds. By simplifying the coupled propagation equations and exploiting their scaling properties, the number of free parameters for a collinear OPA is reduced to a level where the parameter space can be studied systematically by simulations. The resulting set of figures show the combinations of material parameters and pulse lengths for which high performance can be achieved, and they can serve as a basis for a design.

  11. Wave Driven Non-Linear Flow Oscillator for the 22-Year Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Wolff, C. L.; Hartle, R. E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We propose that waves generate an oscillation in the Sun to account for the 22-year magnetic cycle. The mechanism we envision is analogous to that driving the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) observed in the terrestrial atmosphere, which is well understood in principal. Planetary waves and gravity waves deposit momentum in the background atmosphere and accelerate the flow under viscous dissipation. Analysis shows that such a momentum source represents a non-linearity of third or generally odd order, which generates also the fundamental frequency/period so that an oscillation is maintained without external time dependent forcing. For the Sun, we propose that the wave driven oscillation would occur just below the convection region, where the buoyancy frequency or convective stability becomes small to favor wave breaking and wave mean flow interaction. Using scale analysis to extrapolate from terrestrial to solar conditions, we present results from a simplified analytical model, applied to the equator, that incorporates Hines'Doppler Spread Parameterization for gravity waves (GW). Based on a parametric study, we conclude: (1) Depending on the adopted horizontal wavelengths of GW's, wave amplitudes < 10 m/s can be made to produce oscillating zonal winds of about 25 m/s that should be large enough to generate a corresponding oscillation in the main poloidal magnetic field; (2) The oscillation period can be made to be 22 years provided the buoyancy frequency (stability) is sufficiently small, which would place the oscillating wind field near the base of the convection region; (3) In this region, the turbulence associated with wave processes would be enhanced by low stability, and this also helps to produce the desired oscillation period and generate the dynamo currents that would produce the reversing magnetic field. We suggest that the above mechanism may also drive other long-period metronomes in planetary and stellar interiors.

  12. Generation of ultrabroadband energetic laser pulses by noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, Gonçalo; Imran, Tayyab; João, Celso P.; Pires, Hugo; Cardoso, Luís.

    2013-11-01

    Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) is currently one of the leading techniques for the generation of ultra-powerful laser pulses, from the multi-terawatt to the petawatt range, with extremely high peak intensities. A properly designed OPCPA setup is able to provide gain over bandwidths extending hundreds of nanometers in the visible and near-infrared, allowing the generation of high-quality, energetic, few-cycle pulses. In this paper we describe the design and performance of a compact laser amplifier that makes use of noncollinear, ultrabroadband amplification in the nonlinear crystal yttrium-calcium oxyborate (YCOB). The pump and the supercontinuum seed pulses are generated from a common diode-pumped amplifier, ensuring their optical synchronization. This laser will be used as a source of ultrashort (~20 fs), energetic (~20 mJ), tunable pulses in the near infrared.

  13. Generation of Parametric Equivalent-Area Targets for Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood

    2011-01-01

    A tool with an Excel visual interface is developed to generate equivalent-area (A(sub e)) targets that satisfy the volume constraints for a low-boom supersonic configuration. The new parametric Ae target explorer allows users to interactively study the tradeoffs between the aircraft volume constraints and the low-boom characteristics (e.g., loudness) of the ground signature. Moreover, numerical optimization can be used to generate the optimal A(sub e) target for given A(sub e) volume constraints. A case study is used to demonstrate how a generated low-boom Ae target can be matched by a supersonic configuration that includes a fuselage, wing, nacelle, pylon, aft pod, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. The low-boom configuration is verified by sonic-boom analysis with an off-body pressure distribution at three body lengths below the configuration

  14. Experimental parametric study of jet vortex generators for flow separation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    A parametric wind-tunnel study was performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low-speed turbulence flow over a two-dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow-separation control can be accomplished, with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free-stream direction), and orifice pattern (double row of jets vs. single row). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed). Dye flow visualization tests in a water tunnel indicated that the most effective jet vortex generator configurations produced streamwise co-rotating vortices.

  15. Multimode quantum properties of a self-imaging optical parametric oscillator: Squeezed vacuum and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-beams generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, L.; Chalopin, B.; Riviere de la Souchere, A.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.; Maitre, A.

    2009-10-15

    We investigate the spatial quantum properties of the light emitted by a perfectly spatially degenerate optical parametric oscillator (self-imaging optical parametric oscillator). We show that this device produces local squeezing for areas bigger than a coherence area that depends on the crystal length and pump width. Furthermore, it generates local EPR beams in the far field. We show, calculating the eigenmodes of the system, that it is highly multimode for realistic experimental parameters.

  16. Generating 2 micron continuous-wave ytterbium-doped fiber laser-based optical parametric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, M. C.; Latiff, A. A.; Hisyam, M. B.; Rusdi, M. F. M.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-10-01

    We report an efficient method for generating a 2 micron laser based on an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). It uses a long piece of a newly developed double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF), which is obtained by doping multi-elements of ZrO2, CeO2 and CaO in a phospho-alumina-silica glass as a gain medium. The efficient 2 micron laser generation is successful due to the presence of partially crystalline Yb-doped ZrO2 nano-particles that serve as a nonlinear material in a linear cavity configuration and high watt-level pump power. Stable self-wavelength double lasing at 2122 nm with an efficiency of 7.15% is successfully recorded. At a maximum pump power of 4.1 W, the output power is about 201 mW.

  17. Label-free imaging of thick tissue at 1550 nm using a femtosecond optical parametric generator.

    PubMed

    Trägårdh, Johanna; Robb, Gillian; Gadalla, Kamal K E; Cobb, Stuart; Travis, Christopher; Oppo, Gian-Luca; McConnell, Gail

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a simple wavelength-tunable optical parametric generator (OPG), emitting broadband ultrashort pulses with peak wavelengths at 1530-1790 nm, for nonlinear label-free microscopy. The OPG consists of a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, pumped at 1064 nm by a ultrafast Yb:fiber laser with high pulse energy. We demonstrate that this OPG can be used for label-free imaging, by third-harmonic generation, of nuclei of brain cells and blood vessels in a >150 μm thick brain tissue section, with very little decay of intensity with imaging depth and no visible damage to the tissue at an incident average power of 15 mW. PMID:26258338

  18. A time/frequency quantum analysis of the light generated by synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shifeng; Treps, Nicolas; Fabre, Claude

    2012-04-01

    We present in this paper a general model for determining the quantum properties of the light generated by a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) operating below threshold. This model considers time and frequency on an equal footing, which allows us to find new quantum properties, related for example to the carrier envelope offset (CEO) phase, and to consider situations that are close to real experiments. We show that, in addition to multimode squeezing in the so-called ‘supermodes’, the system exhibits quadrature entanglement between frequency combs of opposite CEO phases. We have also determined the quantum properties of the individual pulses and their quantum correlations with the neighboring pulses. Finally, we determine the quantum Cramer-Rao limit for an ultra-short time delay measurement using a given number of pulses generated by the SPOPO.

  19. High-energy infrared femtosecond pulses generated by dual-chirped optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate high-energy infrared femtosecond pulse generation by a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme [Opt. Express19, 7190 (2011)]. By employing a 100 mJ pump laser, a signal pulse energy exceeding 20 mJ at a wavelength of 1.4 μm was achieved before dispersion compensation. A total output energy of 33 mJ was recorded. Under a further energy scaling condition, the signal pulse was compressed to an almost transform-limited duration of 27 fs using a fused silica prism compressor. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient and energy scalable, design parameters for obtaining 100 mJ level infrared pulses are presented, which are suitable as driver lasers for the energy scaling of high-order harmonic generation with sub-keV photon energy.

  20. High-energy infrared femtosecond pulses generated by dual-chirped optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate high-energy infrared femtosecond pulse generation by a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme [Opt. Express19, 7190 (2011)]. By employing a 100 mJ pump laser, a signal pulse energy exceeding 20 mJ at a wavelength of 1.4 μm was achieved before dispersion compensation. A total output energy of 33 mJ was recorded. Under a further energy scaling condition, the signal pulse was compressed to an almost transform-limited duration of 27 fs using a fused silica prism compressor. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient and energy scalable, design parameters for obtaining 100 mJ level infrared pulses are presented, which are suitable as driver lasers for the energy scaling of high-order harmonic generation with sub-keV photon energy. PMID:26512524

  1. Restoration of distorted images, terahertz generation and terahertz interference based on multiple-coupled optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yujie J.

    2015-03-01

    We review our progress made on applications of coupled optical parametric oscillators based on a composite consisting of adhesive-free-bonded KTiOPO4 stacks. By using the phase- conjugate output generated by the composite, we have demonstrated that the spatial profile after the beam propagates through the phase-distorted medium can be restored to the profile before the distortion. In addition, we have restored the images being blurred by the phase distortion. We have efficiently generated terahertz outputs by mixing the idler twins from the coupled optical parametric oscillators. By using the alternatively-rotated GaP plates as an output coupler for the coupled optical parametric oscillators, we have efficiently generated terahertz waves based on an intracavity configuration. By placing both the composite and a bulk KTiOPO4 crystal in the same cavity, we have demonstrated the interference effect of the THz waves generated by using different pairs of the optical beams.

  2. Generating grids directly on CAD database surfaces using a parametric evaluator approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatzhe, Timothy D.; Melson, Thomas G.

    1995-01-01

    A very important, but often overlooked step in grid generation is acquiring a suitable geometry definition of the vehicle to be analyzed. In the past, geometry was usually obtained by generating a number of cross-sections of each component. A number of recent efforts have focussed on non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces (NURBS) to provide as single type of analytic surface to deal with inside the grid generator. This approach has required the development of tools to read other types of surfaces and convert them, either exactly or by approximation, into a NURBS surface. This paper describes a more generic parametric evaluator approach, which does not rely on a particular surface type internal to the grid generation system and is less restrictive in the number of surface types that can be represented exactly. This approach has been implemented in the McDonnell Douglas grid generation system, MACGS, and offers direct access to all types of surfaces from a Unigraphics part file.

  3. Raman parametric excitation effect upon the third harmonic generation by a metallic nanoparticle lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehri Javan, N.

    2015-08-21

    This work is a theoretical study on third harmonic generation in the nonlinear propagation of an intense laser pulse through a periodic three-dimensional lattice of nanoparticles. Using a perturbative method, the nonlinear equations that describe the laser–nanoparticle interaction in the weakly relativistic regime are derived. Additionally, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the amplitude of the third harmonic are obtained. Finally, the effects of the nanoparticle radius and separation length, the distribution of the nanoparticle electron density, and the laser frequency upon the third harmonic efficiency are investigated. In addition to the expected resonance that occurs when the third harmonic resonates with the plasmon wave, another resonance appears when the nonlinear interaction of the fundamental mode with the third harmonic excites a longitudinal collective plasmon wave via the parametric Raman mechanism.

  4. Expert-Guided Generative Topographical Modeling with Visual to Parametric Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by Bishop et al. in 1996, Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) is a powerful nonlinear latent variable modeling approach for visualizing high-dimensional data. It has shown useful when typical linear methods fail. However, GTM still suffers from drawbacks. Its complex parameterization of data make GTM hard to fit and sensitive to slight changes in the model. For this reason, we extend GTM to a visual analytics framework so that users may guide the parameterization and assess the data from multiple GTM perspectives. Specifically, we develop the theory and methods for Visual to Parametric Interaction (V2PI) with data using GTM visualizations. The result is a dynamic version of GTM that fosters data exploration. We refer to the new version as V2PI-GTM. In this paper, we develop V2PI-GTM in stages and demonstrate its benefits within the context of a text mining case study. PMID:26905728

  5. Expert-Guided Generative Topographical Modeling with Visual to Parametric Interaction.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; House, Leanna; Leman, Scotland C

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by Bishop et al. in 1996, Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) is a powerful nonlinear latent variable modeling approach for visualizing high-dimensional data. It has shown useful when typical linear methods fail. However, GTM still suffers from drawbacks. Its complex parameterization of data make GTM hard to fit and sensitive to slight changes in the model. For this reason, we extend GTM to a visual analytics framework so that users may guide the parameterization and assess the data from multiple GTM perspectives. Specifically, we develop the theory and methods for Visual to Parametric Interaction (V2PI) with data using GTM visualizations. The result is a dynamic version of GTM that fosters data exploration. We refer to the new version as V2PI-GTM. In this paper, we develop V2PI-GTM in stages and demonstrate its benefits within the context of a text mining case study.

  6. Non-Linear Effects in Knowledge Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purica, Ionut

    2007-04-01

    The generation of technological knowledge is paramount to our present development; the production of technological knowledge is governed by the same Cobb Douglas type model, with the means of research and the intelligence level replacing capital, respectively labor. We are exploring the basic behavior of present days' economies that are producing technological knowledge, along with the `usual' industrial production and determine a basic behavior that turns out to be a `Henon attractor'. Measures are introduced for the gain of technological knowledge and for the information of technological sequences that are based respectively on the underlying multi-valued modal logic of the technological research and on nonlinear thermodynamic considerations.

  7. Parametric Geometry, Structured Grid Generation, and Initial Design Study for REST-Class Hypersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlemann, Paul G.; Gollan, Rowan J.

    2010-01-01

    Computational design and analysis of three-dimensional hypersonic inlets with shape transition has been a significant challenge due to the complex geometry and grid required for three-dimensional viscous flow calculations. Currently, the design process utilizes an inviscid design tool to produce initial inlet shapes by streamline tracing through an axisymmetric compression field. However, the shape is defined by a large number of points rather than a continuous surface and lacks important features such as blunt leading edges. Therefore, a design system has been developed to parametrically construct true CAD geometry and link the topology of a structured grid to the geometry. The Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) constitutes the underlying framework that is used to build the geometry and grid topology. Parameterization of the CAD geometry allows the inlet shapes produced by the inviscid design tool to be generated, but also allows a great deal of flexibility to modify the shape to account for three-dimensional viscous effects. By linking the grid topology to the parametric geometry, the GridPro grid generation software can be used efficiently to produce a smooth hexahedral multiblock grid. To demonstrate the new capability, a matrix of inlets were designed by varying four geometry parameters in the inviscid design tool. The goals of the initial design study were to explore inviscid design tool geometry variations with a three-dimensional analysis approach, demonstrate a solution rate which would enable the use of high-fidelity viscous three-dimensional CFD in future design efforts, process the results for important performance parameters, and perform a sample optimization.

  8. Computer modeling of batteries from non-linear circuit elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waaben, S.; Federico, J.; Moskowitz, I.

    1983-01-01

    A simple non-linear circuit model for battery behavior is given. It is based on time-dependent features of the well-known PIN change storage diode, whose behavior is described by equations similar to those associated with electrochemical cells. The circuit simulation computer program ADVICE was used to predict non-linear response from a topological description of the battery analog built from advice components. By a reasonable choice of one set of parameters, the circuit accurately simulates a wide spectrum of measured non-linear battery responses to within a few millivolts.

  9. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  10. Compact dual-crystal optical parametric amplification for broadband IR pulse generation using a collinear geometry.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zuofei; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2013-04-22

    A novel compact dual-crystal optical parametric amplification (DOPA) scheme, collinearly pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser (0.8 μm), is theoretically investigated for efficiently generating broadband IR pulses at non-degenerate wavelengths (1.2 μm~1.4 μm and 1.8 μm~2.1 μm). By inserting a pair of barium fluoride (BaF(2)) wedges between two thin β-barium borate (BBO) crystals, the group velocity mismatch (GVM) between the three interacting pulses can be compensated simultaneously. In this case, the obtained signal spectrum centered at 1.3 μm is nearly 20% broader and the conversion efficiency is increased, but also the pulse contrast and beam quality are improved due to the better temporal overlap. Furthermore, sub-two-cycle idler pulses with carrier-envelope phase (CEP) fluctuation of sub-100-mrad root mean square (RMS) can be generated. Because a tunable few-cycle IR pulse with millijoule energy is attainable in this scheme, it will contribute to ultrafast community and be particularly useful as a driving or controlling field for the generation of ultrafast coherent x-ray supercontinuum.

  11. Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.

    2016-09-01

    We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.

  12. Reprint of : Dynamics of coupled vibration modes in a quantum non-linear mechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadze, G.; Dukalski, M.; Blanter, Ya. M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the behaviour of two non-linearly coupled flexural modes of a doubly clamped suspended beam (nanomechanical resonator). One of the modes is externally driven. We demonstrate that classically, the behavior of the non-driven mode is reminiscent of that of a parametrically driven linear oscillator: it exhibits a threshold behavior, with the amplitude of this mode below the threshold being exactly zero. Quantum-mechanically, we were able to access the dynamics of this mode below the classical parametric threshold. We show that whereas the mean displacement of this mode is still zero, the mean squared displacement is finite and at the threshold corresponds to the occupation number of 1/2. This finite displacement of the non-driven mode can serve as an experimentally verifiable quantum signature of quantum motion.

  13. Non-linear controls on the persistence of La Nina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nezio, P. N.; Deser, C.

    2013-12-01

    Non-linear controls on the persistence of La Nina Pedro DiNezio and Clara Deser Up to half of the observed La Nina events last for two years or more. Most El Nino events, in contrast, last no longer than one year. The physical processes causing this asymmetry in the duration of warm and cold ENSO events is unknown. The persistence of La Nina, not only exacerbates the climate impacts, especially in regions prone to drought, but also is highly unpredictable. In this talk we will explore the nonlinear processes that generate the persistence of La Nina in observations and in CCSM4 - a coupled climate model that simulates this feature realistically. First, we develop a non-linear delayed-oscillator model (nonlinDO) based on CCSM4's heat budget. All positive and negative feedbacks of nonlinDO capture the nonlinear and seasonal dependence exhibited by CCSM4. The nonlinear behavior is due to: 1) weaker atmospheric damping of cold events with respect to warm events, 2) stronger wind response for large warm events, and 3) weaker coupling between thermocline and sea-surface temperature anomalies when the thermocline deepens. We force the simple model with white Gaussian noise resulting in seasonal modulation of variance and skewness, and a spectral peak, that are in agreement with CCSM4. Sensitivity experiments with nonlinDO show that the thermocline nonlinearity (3) is the sole process controlling the duration of La Nina events. Linear ENSO theory indicates that La Nina events drive a delayed thermocline deepening that leads to their demise. However, the thermocline nonlinearity (3) renders this response ineffective as La Nina events become stronger. This diminishing of the delayed-thermocline feedback prevents the equatorial Pacific from returning to neutral or warm conditions and cold conditions persist for a second year. Observations show evidence for this thermocline nonlinearity suggesting that this process could be at work in the real world. Last, we show evidence that

  14. a Frequency Domain Based NUMERIC-ANALYTICAL Method for Non-Linear Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, S.; Sekar, P.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper a multiharmonic balancing technique is used to develop certain algorithms to determine periodic orbits of non-liner dynamical systems with external, parametric and self excitations. Essentially, in this method the non-linear differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear algebraic equations in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the periodic solutions which are solved by using the Newton-Raphson technique. The method is developed such that both fast Fourier transform and discrete Fourier transform algorithms can be used. It is capable of treating all types of non-linearities and higher dimensional systems. The stability of periodic orbits is investigated by obtaining the monodromy matrix. A path following algorithm based on the predictor-corrector method is also presented to enable the bifurcation analysis. The prediction is done with a cubic extrapolation technique with an arc length incrementation while the correction is done with the use of the least square minimisation technique. The under determined system of equations is solved by singular value decomposition. The suitability of the method is demonstrated by obtaining the bifurcational behaviour of rolling contact vibrations modelled by Hertz contact law.

  15. Adaptive iterative learning control for a class of non-linearly parameterised systems with input saturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruikun; Hou, Zhongsheng; Ji, Honghai; Yin, Chenkun

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an adaptive iterative learning control scheme is proposed for a class of non-linearly parameterised systems with unknown time-varying parameters and input saturations. By incorporating a saturation function, a new iterative learning control mechanism is presented which includes a feedback term and a parameter updating term. Through the use of parameter separation technique, the non-linear parameters are separated from the non-linear function and then a saturated difference updating law is designed in iteration domain by combining the unknown parametric term of the local Lipschitz continuous function and the unknown time-varying gain into an unknown time-varying function. The analysis of convergence is based on a time-weighted Lyapunov-Krasovskii-like composite energy function which consists of time-weighted input, state and parameter estimation information. The proposed learning control mechanism warrants a L2[0, T] convergence of the tracking error sequence along the iteration axis. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the adaptive iterative learning control scheme.

  16. Non-linear model for compression tests on articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Alfio; Guaily, Amr; Giverso, Chiara; Federico, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Hydrated soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, are often modeled as biphasic systems with individually incompressible solid and fluid phases, and biphasic models are employed to fit experimental data in order to determine the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the tissues. Two of the most common experimental setups are confined and unconfined compression. Analytical solutions exist for the unconfined case with the linear, isotropic, homogeneous model of articular cartilage, and for the confined case with the non-linear, isotropic, homogeneous model. The aim of this contribution is to provide an easily implementable numerical tool to determine a solution to the governing differential equations of (homogeneous and isotropic) unconfined and (inhomogeneous and isotropic) confined compression under large deformations. The large-deformation governing equations are reduced to equivalent diffusive equations, which are then solved by means of finite difference (FD) methods. The solution strategy proposed here could be used to generate benchmark tests for validating complex user-defined material models within finite element (FE) implementations, and for determining the tissue's mechanical and hydraulic properties from experimental data.

  17. Experimental study of a linear/non-linear flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaas, Timothy; Gekelman, Walter; Van Compernolle, Bart

    2015-08-15

    Flux ropes are magnetic structures of helical field lines, accompanied by spiraling currents. Commonly observed on the solar surface extending into the solar atmosphere, flux ropes are naturally occurring and have been observed by satellites in the near earth and in laboratory environments. In this experiment, a single flux rope (r = 2.5 cm, L = 1100 cm) was formed in the cylindrical, magnetized plasma of the Large Plasma Device (LaPD, L = 2200 cm, r{sub plasma} = 30 cm, n{sub o} = 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −3}, T{sub e} = 4 eV, He). The flux rope was generated by a DC discharge between an electron emitting cathode and anode. This fixes the rope at its source while allowing it to freely move about the anode. At large currents (I > πr{sup 2}B{sub 0}c/2 L), the flux rope becomes helical in structure and oscillates about a central axis. Under varying Alfven speeds and injection current, the transition of the flux rope from stable to kink-unstable was examined. As it becomes non-linear, oscillations in the magnetic signals shift from sinusoidal to Sawtooth-like, associated with elliptical motion of the flux rope; or the signal becomes intermittent as its current density increases.

  18. Parametric Harmonic Generation as a Probe of Unconstrained Spin Magnetization Precession in the Shallow Barrier Limit.

    PubMed

    Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-01-29

    We study the parametric excitation of high orders of magnetization precession in ultrathin films having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We observe that for a given driving field amplitude the harmonic generation can be increased by lowering the barrier with the application of an in-plane magnetic field in the manner of the Smit-Beljers effect. In this effect, the magnetic stiffness is reduced not by lowering the magnitude of the magnetic field upon which the spins precess, but rather by effectively releasing the field's "anchoring" point. This results in a shallow energy barrier where the electrons' spin is locally unconstrained. While the observation is unveiled in the form of nonlinear high harmonic generation, we believe that the physics whereby the barrier is suppressed by an external magnetic field may apply to other phenomena associated with ultrathin films. In these cases, such unconstrained motion may serve as a sensitive probe of the torques associated with proximate spin currents. Moreover, our approach may be used as a model system for the study of phase transitions in the field of nonlinear dynamics.

  19. Solar tower power plant using a particle-heated steam generator: Modeling and parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Michael; Bartsch, Philipp; Pointner, Harald; Zunft, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of the project HiTExStor II, a system model for the entire power plant consisting of volumetric air receiver, air-sand heat exchanger, sand storage system, steam generator and water-steam cycle was implemented in software "Ebsilon Professional". As a steam generator, the two technologies fluidized bed cooler and moving bed heat exchangers were considered. Physical models for the non-conventional power plant components as air- sand heat exchanger, fluidized bed coolers and moving bed heat exchanger had to be created and implemented in the simulation environment. Using the simulation model for the power plant, the individual components and subassemblies have been designed and the operating parameters were optimized in extensive parametric studies in terms of the essential degrees of freedom. The annual net electricity output for different systems was determined in annual performance calculations at a selected location (Huelva, Spain) using the optimized values for the studied parameters. The solution with moderate regenerative feed water heating has been found the most advantageous. Furthermore, the system with moving bed heat exchanger prevails over the system with fluidized bed cooler due to a 6 % higher net electricity yield.

  20. Parametric Harmonic Generation as a Probe of Unconstrained Spin Magnetization Precession in the Shallow Barrier Limit.

    PubMed

    Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-01-29

    We study the parametric excitation of high orders of magnetization precession in ultrathin films having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We observe that for a given driving field amplitude the harmonic generation can be increased by lowering the barrier with the application of an in-plane magnetic field in the manner of the Smit-Beljers effect. In this effect, the magnetic stiffness is reduced not by lowering the magnitude of the magnetic field upon which the spins precess, but rather by effectively releasing the field's "anchoring" point. This results in a shallow energy barrier where the electrons' spin is locally unconstrained. While the observation is unveiled in the form of nonlinear high harmonic generation, we believe that the physics whereby the barrier is suppressed by an external magnetic field may apply to other phenomena associated with ultrathin films. In these cases, such unconstrained motion may serve as a sensitive probe of the torques associated with proximate spin currents. Moreover, our approach may be used as a model system for the study of phase transitions in the field of nonlinear dynamics. PMID:26871356

  1. High average power scaling of optical parametric amplification through cascaded difference-frequency generators

    DOEpatents

    Jovanovic, Igor; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-09-14

    A first pump pulse and a signal pulse are injected into a first optical parametric amplifier. This produces a first amplified signal pulse. At least one additional pump pulse and the first amplified signal pulse are injected into at least one additional optical parametric amplifier producing an increased power coherent optical pulse.

  2. Current-driven non-linear magnetodynamics in exchange-biased spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Seinige, Heidi; Wang, Cheng; Tsoi, Maxim

    2015-05-07

    This work investigates the excitation of parametric resonance in exchange-biased spin valves (EBSVs). Using a mechanical point contact, high density dc and microwave currents were injected into the EBSV sample. Observing the reflected microwave power and the small rectification voltage that develops across the contact allows detecting the current-driven magnetodynamics not only in the bulk sample but originating exclusively from the small contact region. In addition to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), parametric resonance at twice the natural FMR frequency was observed. In contrast to FMR, this non-linear resonance was excited only in the vicinity of the point contact where current densities are high. Power-dependent measurements displayed a typical threshold-like behavior of parametric resonance and a broadening of the instability region with increasing power. Parametric resonance showed a linear shift as a function of applied dc bias which is consistent with the field-like spin-transfer torque induced by current on magnetic moments in EBSV.

  3. Modeling of finite-amplitude sound beams: second order fields generated by a parametric loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sha, Kan; Gan, Woon-Seng; Tian, Jing

    2005-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of sound waves in air has been applied to sound reproduction for audio applications. A directional audible sound can be generated by amplitude-modulating the ultrasound carrier with an audio signal, then transmitting it from a parametric loudspeaker. This brings the need of a computationally efficient model to describe the propagation of finite-amplitude sound beams for the system design and optimization. A quasilinear analytical solution capable of fast numerical evaluation is presented for the second-order fields of the sum-, difference-frequency and second harmonic components. It is based on a virtual-complex-source approach, wherein the source field is treated as an aggregation of a set of complex virtual sources located in complex distance, then the corresponding fundamental sound field is reduced to the computation of sums of simple functions by exploiting the integrability of Gaussian functions. By this result, the five-dimensional integral expressions for the second-order sound fields are simplified to one-dimensional integrals. Furthermore, a substantial analytical reduction to sums of single integrals also is derived for an arbitrary source distribution when the basis functions are expressible as a sum of products of trigonometric functions. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by a comparison of numerical results with experimental data previously published for the rectangular ultrasonic transducer.

  4. Efficient Nanosecond Dual-Signal Optical Parametric Generator with a Periodically Phase Reversed PPMgLN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Feng; Li, Xi-Fu; Zhang, Bai-Gang; Zhang, Tie-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, De-Gang; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2007-11-01

    We report an efficient nanosecond optical parametric generator (OPG) with a periodically-phase-reversed periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3(ppr-PPMgLN), which produces two pairs of signal and idler waves. The OPG is pumped by a 1.064 μm Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser. When the repetition rate is set at 10 kHz, the maximum average total output power of 570 mW is achieved, including 410 mW of dual-signal radiations and 160 mW of dual-idler radiations. The total conversion efficiency is 32.5%. The tunable dual-signal wavelengths in the range of 1.474-1.518 μm and 1.490-1.539 μm and the dual-idler of 3.826-3.558 μm and 3.726-3.451 μm are obtained by changing the crystal temperature from 30°C to 200°C.

  5. Resonant infrared ablation of polystyrene with single picosecond pulses generated by an optical parametric amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duering, Malte; Haglund, Richard; Luther-Davies, Barry

    2014-01-01

    We report on resonant infrared laser ablation of polystyrene using single 8 ps pulses at a wavelength of 3.31 μm generated by a MgO:PPLN optical parametric amplifier pumped by a Nd:YLF laser. We determined the single-pulse ablation threshold to be 0.46 J/cm2, about a factor of five smaller than in previous free-electron-laser studies. Time-resolved imaging of the laser-target interaction reveals that the detailed dynamics of the ablation process begin with thermal expansion of a large volume of hot material from which a less dense plume of polymeric material evaporates. This plume disappears on a time scale of 0.75 μs and the hot polymer material recedes back into the crater from which it was expelled. Subsequently, and on a much longer time scale, structural alterations in the ablation crater continue to evolve for at least another millisecond. Our results suggest that single picosecond pulses are effective for the ablation of polymers and exhibit dynamics similar to those observed in studies using a free-electron laser.

  6. Modeling of finite-amplitude sound beams: second order fields generated by a parametric loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sha, Kan; Gan, Woon-Seng; Tian, Jing

    2005-04-01

    The nonlinear interaction of sound waves in air has been applied to sound reproduction for audio applications. A directional audible sound can be generated by amplitude-modulating the ultrasound carrier with an audio signal, then transmitting it from a parametric loudspeaker. This brings the need of a computationally efficient model to describe the propagation of finite-amplitude sound beams for the system design and optimization. A quasilinear analytical solution capable of fast numerical evaluation is presented for the second-order fields of the sum-, difference-frequency and second harmonic components. It is based on a virtual-complex-source approach, wherein the source field is treated as an aggregation of a set of complex virtual sources located in complex distance, then the corresponding fundamental sound field is reduced to the computation of sums of simple functions by exploiting the integrability of Gaussian functions. By this result, the five-dimensional integral expressions for the second-order sound fields are simplified to one-dimensional integrals. Furthermore, a substantial analytical reduction to sums of single integrals also is derived for an arbitrary source distribution when the basis functions are expressible as a sum of products of trigonometric functions. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by a comparison of numerical results with experimental data previously published for the rectangular ultrasonic transducer. PMID:16060510

  7. Trace Gas Measurements on Mars and Earth Using Optical Parametric Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Haris, Riris; Li, Steve; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James Brice

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and their isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres offer important but subtle clues as to the origins of a planet's atmosphere, hydrology, geology, and potential for biology. An orbiting laser remote sensing instrument is capable of measuring trace gases on a global scale with unprecedented accuracy, and higher spatial resolution that can be obtained by passive instruments. We have developed an active sensing instrument for the remote measurement of trace gases in planetary atmospheres (including Earth). The technique uses widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG) to measure methane, CO2, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planets. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Methane levels have remained relatively constant over the last decade around 1.78 parts per million (ppm) but recent observations indicate that methane levels may be on the rise. Increasing methane concentrations may trigger a positive feedback loop and a subsequent runaway greenhouse effect, where increasing temperatures result in increasing methane levels. The NRC Decadal Survey recognized the importance of global observations of greenhouse gases and called for simultaneous CH4, CO, and CO2 measurements but also underlined the technological limitations for these observations. For Mars, methane measurements are of great interest because of its potential as a strong biogenic marker. A remote sensing instrument that can measure day and night over all seasons and latitudes can identify and localize sources of biogenic gas plumes produced by subsurface chemistry or biology, and aid in the search for extra-terrestrial life. It can identify the dynamics of methane generation over time and latitude and identify future lander mission sites

  8. Narrowband cw injection seeded high power femtosecond double-pass optical parametric generator at 43 MHz: Gain and noise dynamics.

    PubMed

    Linnenbank, Heiko; Steinle, Tobias; Giessen, Harald

    2016-08-22

    We demonstrate narrowband cw injection seeding of a femtosecond double-pass optical parametric generator at 43 MHz repetition rate with a simple, low power external cavity diode laser. Up to 2.5 W of near-IR radiation (1.5 - 1.66 µm) as well as 800 mW of tunable mid-IR radiation (2.75 - 3.15 µm) with pulse durations below 300 fs are generated with a remarkable pulse-to-pulse and long term power stability. Compared to conventional, vacuum noise seeded optical parametric generators, the presented frequency conversion scheme does not only exhibit superior gain and noise dynamics, but also a high degree of flexibility upon control parameters such as pump power, seed power, or spectral position of the seed. PMID:27557233

  9. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  10. Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam

    2013-01-01

    Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included. PMID:23882134

  11. Non-linear dynamic analysis of anisotropic cylindrical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Lakis, A.A.; Selmane, A.; Toledano, A.

    1996-12-01

    A theory to predict the influence of geometric non-linearities on the natural frequencies of an empty anisotropic cylindrical shell is presented in this paper. It is a hybrid of finite element and classical thin shell theories. Sanders-Koiter non-linear and strain-displacement relations are used. Displacement functions are evaluated using linearized equations of motion. Modal coefficients are then obtained for these displacement functions. Expressions for the mass, linear and non-linear stiffness matrices are derived through the finite element method. The uncoupled equations are solved with the help of elliptic functions. The period and frequency variations are first determined as a function of shell amplitudes and then compared with the results in the literature.

  12. Epicyclic helical channels for parametric resonance ionization cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Johson, Rolland Paul; Derbenev, Yaroslav

    2015-08-23

    Proposed next-generation muon colliders will require major technical advances to achieve rapid muon beam cooling requirements. Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. In PIC, a half-integer parametric resonance causes strong focusing of a muon beam at appropriately placed energy absorbers while ionization cooling limits the beam’s angular spread. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics in this way should then allow much smaller final transverse muon beam sizes than conventional ionization cooling alone. One of the PIC challenges is compensation of beam aberrations over a sufficiently wide parameter range while maintaining the dynamical stability with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion and dispersion. We explore use of a coupling resonance to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to shift the dynamics away from non-linear resonances. PIC simulations are presented.

  13. Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.

    2009-04-01

    In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.

  14. Photocrosslinkable copolymers for non-linear optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatsuki, N.; Pakbaz, K.; Schmidt, H.W.

    1993-12-31

    New photocrosslinkable copolymers have been synthesized and applied as non-linear optical materials. The copolymers are based on methyl methacrylate, a photo-excitable benzophenone monomer, a non-linear optical active 4`-[(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylamino]-4-nitro-azobenzene (disperse red 1) side chain monomer and a crosslinkable 2-butenyl monomer. These copolymers can be crosslinked by UV light at 366 nm in the poled state and show a stable alignment of NLO chromophore by monitoring the adsorption spectra. The crosslinked and poled film did not change its alignment after storing 4 weeks at room temperature.

  15. Non-Linear Finite Element Modeling of THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.

    1999-01-01

    A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.

  16. BEAM-BASED NON-LINEAR OPTICS CORRECTIONS IN COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT, R.; LUO, Y.; MALITSKY, N.; PTITSYN, V.

    2005-05-16

    A method has been developed to measure and correct operationally the non-linear effects of the final focusing magnets in colliders, that gives access to the effects of multi-pole errors by applying closed orbit bumps, and analyzing the resulting tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been tested and used during 4 years of RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL) operations. I will discuss here the theoretical basis of the method, the experimental set-up, the correction results, the present understanding of the machine model, the potential and limitations of the method itself as compared with other non-linear correction techniques.

  17. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  18. Numerical simulations for parabolic pulse shaping in non-linear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nora, R. C.; Durfee, C. G.; Carr, L. D.

    2007-03-01

    Pulses with parabolic temporal profiles have the property that they can propagate through non-linear media in a self similar manner. Parabolic pulses have been generated experimentally in fiber amplifiers. Input pulses develop into parabolic pulses by the combined action of group velocity dispersion, non-linear refractive index, and gain. In this work, we are exploring the feasibility of generating ultrafast parabolic pulses in laser resonators. We have successfully numerically simulated the generation of parabolic pulses in fiber amplifiers using two different algorithms, the Cayley method, and fourth order Runge-Kutta, to solve the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation with gain and periodic boundary conditions. In contrast to fiber amplifiers, pulses in laser resonators must maintain a stable pulse shape on each round trip through the optical cavity. We are exploring the prediction that a time dependent saturable gain will stabilize the pulse in the oscillator and yield parabolic pulses.

  19. Gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongxian

    The demand of portable power generation systems for both domestic and military applications has driven the advances of mesoscale internal combustion engine systems. This dissertation was devoted to the gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of the mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems. First, the system-level thermodynamic modeling for the swing engine/generator systems has been developed. The system performance as well as the potentials of both two- and four-stroke swing engine systems has been investigated based on this model. Then through parameterc studies, the parameters that have significant impacts on the system performance have been identified, among which, the burn time and spark advance time are the critical factors related to combustion process. It is found that the shorter burn time leads to higher system efficiency and power output and the optimal spark advance time is about half of the burn time. Secondly, the turbulent combustion modeling based on levelset method (G-equation) has been implemented into the commercial software FLUENT. Thereafter, the turbulent flame propagation in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber and realistic swing engine chambers has been studied. It is found that, in mesoscale combustion engines, the burn time is dominated by the mean turbulent kinetic energy in the chamber. It is also shown that in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber, the burn time depends on the longest distance between the initial ignition kernel to its walls and by changing the ignition and injection locations, the burn time can be reduced by a factor of two. Furthermore, the studies of turbulent flame propagation in real swing engine chambers show that the combustion can be enhanced through in-chamber turbulence augmentation and with higher engine frequency, the burn time is shorter, which indicates that the in-chamber turbulence can be induced by the motion of moving components as well as the intake gas jet flow. The burn time

  20. Principal component analysis of the CT density histogram to generate parametric response maps of COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, N.; Capaldi, D. P. I.; Pike, D.; McCormack, D. G.; Cunningham, I. A.; Parraga, G.

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary x-ray computed tomography (CT) may be used to characterize emphysema and airways disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One analysis approach - parametric response mapping (PMR) utilizes registered inspiratory and expiratory CT image volumes and CT-density-histogram thresholds, but there is no consensus regarding the threshold values used, or their clinical meaning. Principal-component-analysis (PCA) of the CT density histogram can be exploited to quantify emphysema using data-driven CT-density-histogram thresholds. Thus, the objective of this proof-of-concept demonstration was to develop a PRM approach using PCA-derived thresholds in COPD patients and ex-smokers without airflow limitation. Methods: Fifteen COPD ex-smokers and 5 normal ex-smokers were evaluated. Thoracic CT images were also acquired at full inspiration and full expiration and these images were non-rigidly co-registered. PCA was performed for the CT density histograms, from which the components with the highest eigenvalues greater than one were summed. Since the values of the principal component curve correlate directly with the variability in the sample, the maximum and minimum points on the curve were used as threshold values for the PCA-adjusted PRM technique. Results: A significant correlation was determined between conventional and PCA-adjusted PRM with 3He MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (p<0.001), with CT RA950 (p<0.0001), as well as with 3He MRI ventilation defect percent, a measurement of both small airways disease (p=0.049 and p=0.06, respectively) and emphysema (p=0.02). Conclusions: PRM generated using PCA thresholds of the CT density histogram showed significant correlations with CT and 3He MRI measurements of emphysema, but not airways disease.

  1. Evolution equation for non-linear cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Brustein, Ram; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@cern.ch

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel approach, based entirely on the gravitational potential, for studying the evolution of non-linear cosmological matter perturbations. Starting from the perturbed Einstein equations, we integrate out the non-relativistic degrees of freedom of the cosmic fluid and obtain a single closed equation for the gravitational potential. We then verify the validity of the new equation by comparing its approximate solutions to known results in the theory of non-linear cosmological perturbations. First, we show explicitly that the perturbative solution of our equation matches the standard perturbative solutions. Next, using the mean field approximation to the equation, we show that its solution reproduces in a simple way the exponential suppression of the non-linear propagator on small scales due to the velocity dispersion. Our approach can therefore reproduce the main features of the renormalized perturbation theory and (time)-renormalization group approaches to the study of non-linear cosmological perturbations, with some possibly important differences. We conclude by a preliminary discussion of the nature of the full solutions of the equation and their significance.

  2. Rare earth ion doped non linear laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaque, D.; Romero, J. J.; Ramirez, M. O.; Garcia, J. A. S.; de Las Heras, C.; Bausa, L. E.; Sole, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We show how non linear crystals activated with Yb3+ or Nd3+ ions can be used to develop diode pumped solid state lasers emitting in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For this purpose we have selected relevant examples of systems investigated in our laboratory.

  3. Non-linear protocell models: synchronization and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filisetti, A.; Serra, R.; Carletti, T.; Villani, M.; Poli, I.

    2010-09-01

    We consider generic protocells models allowing linear and non-linear kinetics for the main involved chemical reactions. We are interested in understanding if and how the protocell division and the metabolism do synchronise to give rise to sustainable evolution of the protocell.

  4. Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.

  5. Characterising dynamic non-linearity in floating wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Fully coupled aero-hydro-control-elastic codes are being developed to cope with the new modelling challenges presented by floating wind turbines, but there is also a place for more efficient methods of analysis. One option is linearisation and analysis in the frequency domain. For this to be an effective method, the non-linearities in the system must be well understood. The present study focusses on understanding the dynamic response of the rotor to the overall platform motion, as would arise from wave loading, by using a simple model of a floating wind turbine with a rigid tower and flexible rotor (represented by hinged rigid blades). First, an equation of motion of the blade is derived and an approximate solution for the blade response is found using the perturbation method. Secondly, the full non-linear solution is found by time- domain simulation. The response is found to be linear at lower platform pitching frequencies, becoming non-linear at higher frequencies, with the approximate solution giving good results for weakly non-linear behaviour. Higher rotor speeds have a stabilising effect on the response. In the context of typical floating turbine parameters, it is concluded that the blade flapwise response is likely to be linear.

  6. Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.

    2014-10-15

    A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.

  7. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.

  8. Laser-driven parametric instability and generation of entangled photon-plasmon states in graphene and topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyanin, Alexey; Wang, Yongrui; Oladyshkin, Ivan; Tokman, Mikhail

    Massless Dirac electrons in graphene and on the surface of topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 demonstrate strong nonlinear optical response and support tightly confined surface plasmon modes. Although both systems constitute an isotropic medium for low-energy in-plane electron excitations, their second-order nonlinear susceptibility becomes non-zero when its spatial dispersion is taken into account. In this case the anisotropy is induced by in-plane wave vectors of obliquely incident or in-plane propagating electromagnetic waves. In this work we show that a strong (0.1-1 MW/cm2) near-infrared or mid-infrared laser beam obliquely incident on graphene can experience a parametric instability with respect to decay into lower-frequency (idler) photons and THz surface plasmons. The parametric gain leads to efficient generation of THz plasmons. Furthermore, the parametric decay process gives rise to quantum entanglement of idler photon and surface plasmon states. This enables diagnostics and control of surface plasmons by detecting idler photons. A similar parametric process can be implemented in topological insulator thin films. This work has been supported in part by the Air Force Office for Scientific Research through Grant FA9550-15-1-0153.

  9. Cones perform a non-linear transformation on natural stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Endeman, D; Kamermans, M

    2010-01-01

    Visual information in natural scenes is distributed over a broad range of intensities and contrasts. This distribution has to be compressed in the retina to match the dynamic range of retinal neurons. In this study we examined how cones perform this compression and investigated which physiological processes contribute to this operation. M- and L-cones of the goldfish were stimulated with a natural time series of intensities (NTSI) and their responses were recorded. The NTSI displays an intensity distribution which is skewed towards the lower intensities and has a long tail into the high intensity region. Cones transform this skewed distribution into a more symmetrical one. The voltage responses of the goldfish cones were compared to those of a linear filter and a non-linear biophysical model of the photoreceptor. The results show that the linear filter under-represents contrasts at low intensities compared to the actual cone whereas the non-linear biophysical model performs well over the whole intensity range used. Quantitative analysis of the two approaches indicates that the non-linear biophysical model can capture 91 ± 5% of the coherence rate (a biased measure of information rate) of the actual cone, where the linear filter only reaches 48 ± 8%. These results demonstrate that cone photoreceptors transform an NTSI in a non-linear fashion. The comparison between current clamp and voltage clamp recordings and analysis of the behaviour of the biophysical model indicates that both the calcium feedback loop in the outer segment and the hydrolysis of cGMP are the major components that introduce the specific non-linear response properties found in the goldfish cones. PMID:20008463

  10. Non-linear gauge transformations in D = 10 SYM theory and the BCJ duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjin; Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress on scattering amplitudes in super Yang-Mills and super-string theory benefitted from the use of multiparticle superfields. They universally capture tree-level subdiagrams, and their generating series solve the non-linear equations of ten-dimensional super Yang-Mills. We provide simplified recursions for multiparticle superfields and relate them to earlier representations through non-linear gauge transformations of their generating series. Moreover, we discuss the gauge transformations which enforce their Lie symmetries as suggested by the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson duality between color and kine-matics. Another gauge transformation due to Harnad and Shnider is shown to streamline the theta-expansion of multiparticle superfields, bypassing the need to use their recursion relations beyond the lowest components. The findings of this work tremendously simplify the component extraction from kinematic factors in pure spinor superspace.

  11. An update of the generator of atmospheric muons from parametric formulas (MUPAGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzotti, M.; Carminati, G.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M.

    2010-04-01

    We present a new version of the fast generator of atmospheric muons based on parametric formulas (MUPAGE). The parameterization of the deep sea muon flux relies on a primary Cosmic Ray flux and interaction model able to correctly reproduce the flux, the multiplicity distribution, the spatial distance between muons as measured by the underground MACRO experiment [1]. MUPAGE produces the event kinematics of the muon bundle on the surface of a user-defined cylinder, surrounding the virtual detector. The new version improves the possibility to select the total energy of the muons bundle, and the choice of a virtual cylinder of any dimensions. New version program summaryProgram title: MUPAGE Catalogue identifier: AEBT_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBT_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3421 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 59 308 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: The code has been developed and tested on Pentium M, 2.0 GHz; 2x Intel Xeon Quad Core, 2.33 GHz. Operating system: Scientific Linux 3.x; 4.x; 5.x; Slackware 12.0.0. RAM: 50 MB Supplementary material: The table mentioned in the "Summary of revisions" section, can be obtained here. Classification: 1.1, 11.3 External routines: ROOT ( http://root.cern.ch) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEBT_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 179 (2008) 915 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Fast simulation of atmospheric muon bundles for underwater/ice neutrino telescopes. Solution method: Atmospheric muon events are generated according to parametric formulas [2] giving the flux, the multiplicity, the radial distribution and the energy spectrum

  12. COMPONENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS AND STABILITY PROBLEMS: Parametric generation of tunable picosecond light pulses as a result of pumping with radiation from a stimulated Raman scattering compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzyalis, R. R.; Dementjev, Aleksandr S.; Deringas, A. L.; Kabelka, V. I.; Kosenko, E. K.; Milyauskas, A. A.

    1988-08-01

    Typical parametric oscillations were observed in a laser with a stimulated Raman scattering compressor. This laser generated pulses of ~ 15 ps duration at a wavelength of 0.63 μm and the width of the spectrum was ~ 0.7 cm- 1. The parametric radiation was tunable within the range 1-1.5 μm. A study was made of the statistical properties of the generation process. The energy stability of the pulses generated in such an optical parametric oscillator was twice as high as in the case when pumping was provided by a picosecond YAG:Nd laser with passive mode locking.

  13. Non-linear dual-phase-lag model for analyzing heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bio-heat transfer model based on temperature dependent metabolic heat generation rate is derived to analyze the heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation treatment. The numerical solution of the present non-linear problem has been done by finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) method which combines the essence of Runge-Kutta (4,5) method together with finite difference scheme. Our study demonstrates that at the thermal ablation position temperature predicted by non-linear and linear DPL models show significant differences. A comparison has been made among non-linear DPL, thermal wave and Pennes model and it has been found that non-linear DPL and thermal wave bio-heat model show almost same nature whereas non-linear Pennes model shows significantly different temperature profile at the initial stage of thermal ablation treatment. The effect of Fourier number and Vernotte number (relaxation Fourier number) on temperature profile in presence and absence of externally applied heat source has been studied in detail and it has been observed that the presence of externally applied heat source term highly affects the efficiency of thermal treatment method. PMID:27503734

  14. Non-linear dual-phase-lag model for analyzing heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bio-heat transfer model based on temperature dependent metabolic heat generation rate is derived to analyze the heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation treatment. The numerical solution of the present non-linear problem has been done by finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) method which combines the essence of Runge-Kutta (4,5) method together with finite difference scheme. Our study demonstrates that at the thermal ablation position temperature predicted by non-linear and linear DPL models show significant differences. A comparison has been made among non-linear DPL, thermal wave and Pennes model and it has been found that non-linear DPL and thermal wave bio-heat model show almost same nature whereas non-linear Pennes model shows significantly different temperature profile at the initial stage of thermal ablation treatment. The effect of Fourier number and Vernotte number (relaxation Fourier number) on temperature profile in presence and absence of externally applied heat source has been studied in detail and it has been observed that the presence of externally applied heat source term highly affects the efficiency of thermal treatment method.

  15. Stress Induced in Periodontal Ligament under Orthodontic Loading (Part II): A Comparison of Linear Versus Non-Linear Fem Study

    PubMed Central

    Hemanth, M; Deoli, Shilpi; Raghuveer, H P; Rani, M S; Hegde, Chatura; Vedavathi, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Simulation of periodontal ligament (PDL) using non-linear finite element method (FEM) analysis gives better insight into understanding of the biology of tooth movement. The stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusion and lingual root torque using non-linear properties. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional (3D) FEM model of the maxillary incisors was generated using Solidworks modeling software. Stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusive and lingual root torque movements by 3D FEM using ANSYS software. These stresses were compared with linear and non-linear analyses. Results: For intrusive and lingual root torque movements, distribution of stress over the PDL was within the range of optimal stress value as proposed by Lee, but was exceeding the force system given by Proffit as optimum forces for orthodontic tooth movement with linear properties. When same force load was applied in non-linear analysis, stresses were more compared to linear analysis and were beyond the optimal stress range as proposed by Lee for both intrusive and lingual root torque. To get the same stress as linear analysis, iterations were done using non-linear properties and the force level was reduced. Conclusion: This shows that the force level required for non-linear analysis is lesser than that of linear analysis. PMID:26435629

  16. Random forests in non-invasive sensorimotor rhythm brain-computer interfaces: a practical and convenient non-linear classifier.

    PubMed

    Steyrl, David; Scherer, Reinhold; Faller, Josef; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2016-02-01

    There is general agreement in the brain-computer interface (BCI) community that although non-linear classifiers can provide better results in some cases, linear classifiers are preferable. Particularly, as non-linear classifiers often involve a number of parameters that must be carefully chosen. However, new non-linear classifiers were developed over the last decade. One of them is the random forest (RF) classifier. Although popular in other fields of science, RFs are not common in BCI research. In this work, we address three open questions regarding RFs in sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) BCIs: parametrization, online applicability, and performance compared to regularized linear discriminant analysis (LDA). We found that the performance of RF is constant over a large range of parameter values. We demonstrate - for the first time - that RFs are applicable online in SMR-BCIs. Further, we show in an offline BCI simulation that RFs statistically significantly outperform regularized LDA by about 3%. These results confirm that RFs are practical and convenient non-linear classifiers for SMR-BCIs. Taking into account further properties of RFs, such as independence from feature distributions, maximum margin behavior, multiclass and advanced data mining capabilities, we argue that RFs should be taken into consideration for future BCIs.

  17. Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.

    2007-05-01

    Current industrial practice for the prediction and analysis of flutter relies heavily on linear methods and this has led to overly conservative design and envelope restrictions for aircraft. Although the methods have served the industry well, it is clear that for a number of reasons the inclusion of non-linearity in the mathematical and computational aeroelastic prediction tools is highly desirable. The increase in available and affordable computational resources, together with major advances in algorithms, mean that non-linear aeroelastic tools are now viable within the aircraft design and qualification environment. The Partnership for Unsteady Methods in Aerodynamics (PUMA) Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP) was sponsored in 2002 to conduct research into non-linear aeroelastic prediction methods and an academic, industry, and government consortium collaborated to address the following objectives: To develop useable methodologies to model and predict non-linear aeroelastic behaviour of complete aircraft. To evaluate the methodologies on real aircraft problems. To investigate the effect of non-linearities on aeroelastic behaviour and to determine which have the greatest effect on the flutter qualification process. These aims have been very effectively met during the course of the programme and the research outputs include: New methods available to industry for use in the flutter prediction process, together with the appropriate coaching of industry engineers. Interesting results in both linear and non-linear aeroelastics, with comprehensive comparison of methods and approaches for challenging problems. Additional embryonic techniques that, with further research, will further improve aeroelastics capability. This paper describes the methods that have been developed and how they are deployable within the industrial environment. We present a thorough review of the PUMA aeroelastics programme together with a comprehensive review of the relevant research

  18. Non-linear parameter estimation with Volterra series using the method of recursive iteration through harmonic probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Animesh; Vyas, Nalinaksh S.

    2003-12-01

    Volterra series provides a platform for non-linear response representation and definition of higher order frequency response functions (FRFs). It has been extensively used in non-parametric system identification through measurement of first and higher order FRFs. A parametric system identification approach has been adopted in the present study. The series response structure is explored for parameter estimation of polynomial form non-linearity. First and higher order frequency response functions are extracted from the measured response harmonic amplitudes through recursive iteration. Relationships between higher order FRFs and first order FRF are then employed to estimate the non-linear parameters. Excitation levels are selected for minimum series approximation error and the number of terms in the series is controlled according to convergence requirement. The problem of low signal strength of higher harmonics is investigated and a measurability criterion is proposed for selection of excitation level and range of excitation frequency. The procedure is illustrated through numerical simulation for a Duffing oscillator. Robustness of the estimation procedure in the presence of measurement noise is also investigated.

  19. Temporal contrast enhancement for optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers by adopting cascaded second harmonic generation pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Qinghua; Zeng, Xiaoming; Jiang, Dongbin; Xie, Na; Zhou, Kainan; Wang, Xuemin; Li, Weihua; Wu, Weidong; Ding, Lei

    2016-07-01

    We report on a method to enhance the temporal contrast of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers (OPCPAs) by smoothing pump noise. The instantaneous parametric gain in OPCPA couples the temporal modulation on the pump pulses to spectral variations of the intensity of the stretched signal pulses being amplified. In this way, pump noise significantly degrades the temporal contrast of the amplified pulses after recompression. Cascaded second harmonic generation (SHG) is adopted to smooth modulation on the pump pulses in the proposed method. Apparent reduction of modulation on the pump pulses is observed in the experiments. Numerical simulation reproduces the experimental results. Simulation results show that cascaded SHG with stable output 2 ω can enhance the temporal contrast for OPCPAs with four to five orders. It is believed that this new method can be widely adopted to build high-contrast OPCPA systems.

  20. On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas E-mail: mathias.garny@desy.de

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections at any order in perturbation theory. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.

  1. Non-linear Young's double-slit experiment.

    PubMed

    San Roman, Julio; Ruiz, Camilo; Perez, Jose Antonio; Delgado, Diego; Mendez, Cruz; Plaja, Luis; Roso, Luis

    2006-04-01

    The Young's double slit experiment is recreated using intense and short laser pulses. Our experiment evidences the role of the non-linear Kerr effect in the formation of interference patterns. In particular, our results evidence a mixed mechanism in which the zeroth diffraction order of each slit are mainly affected by self-focusing and self-phase modulation, while the higher orders propagate linearly. Despite of the complexity of the general problem of non-linear propagation, we demonstrate that this experiment retains its simplicity and allows for a geometrical interpretation in terms of simple optical paths. In consequence, our results may provide key ideas on experiments on the formation of interference patterns with intense laser fields in Kerr media.

  2. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,L.; Nash, B.

    2009-05-04

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  3. Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, B.

    2011-09-22

    Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.

  4. NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    TOMAS,R.FISCHER,W.JAIN,A.LUO,Y.PILAT,F.

    2004-07-05

    For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability.

  5. Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model.

  6. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at k ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  7. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE PAGES

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  8. Non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Luo, Jisheng

    2008-04-01

    The direct numerical simulation method is adopted to study the non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations at the ablation front of a 200 μm planar CH ablation target. In the simulation, the classical electrical thermal conductivity is included, and NND difference scheme is used. The linear growth rates obtained from the simulation agree with the Takabe formula. The amplitude distribution of the density perturbation at the ablation front is obtained for the linear growth case. The non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations are analyzed and the numerical results show that the amplitude distributions of the compulsive harmonics are very different from that of the fundamental perturbation. The characteristics of the amplitude distributions of the harmonics and their fast growth explain why spikes occur at the ablation front. The numerical results also show that non-linear effects have relations with the phase differences of double mode initial perturbations, and different phase differences lead to varied spikes.

  9. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    PubMed

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  10. Non-Linear System Identification for Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2008-01-01

    Representation and identification of a non-linear aeroelastic pitch-plunge system as a model of the NARMAX class is considered. A non-linear difference equation describing this aircraft model is derived theoretically and shown to be of the NARMAX form. Identification methods for NARMAX models are applied to aeroelastic dynamics and its properties demonstrated via continuous-time simulations of experimental conditions. Simulation results show that (i) the outputs of the NARMAX model match closely those generated using continuous-time methods and (ii) NARMAX identification methods applied to aeroelastic dynamics provide accurate discrete-time parameter estimates. Application of NARMAX identification to experimental pitch-plunge dynamics data gives a high percent fit for cross-validated data.

  11. Experiments on exactly computing non-linear energy transfer rate in MASNUM-WAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xingjie; Wang, Daolong; Gao, Dalu; Zhang, Tingting

    2016-07-01

    The Webb-Resio-Tracy (WRT) method for exact computation of the non-linear energy transfer rate was implemented in MASNUM-WAM, which is a third-generation wave model solving the discrete spectral balance equation. In this paper, we describe the transformation of the spectral space in the original WRT method. Four numerical procedures were developed in which the acceleration techniques in the original WRT method, such as geometric scaling, pre-calculating, and grid-searching, are all reorganized. A series of numerical experiments including two simulations based on real data were performed. The availability of such implementation in both serial and parallel versions of the wave model was proved, and a comparison of computation times showed that some of the developed procedures provided good efficacy. With exact computation of non-linear energy transfer, MASNUM-WAM now can be used to perform numerical experiments for research purposes, which augurs well for further developments of the model.

  12. Non-Linear High Amplitude Oscillations in Wave-shaped Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antao, Dion; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2011-11-01

    A numerical and experimental study of non-linear, high amplitude standing waves in ``wave-shaped'' resonators is reported here. These waves are shock-less and can generate peak acoustic overpressures that can exceed the ambient pressure by three/four times its nominal value. A high fidelity compressible axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the phenomena in cylindrical and arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric resonators. Working fluids (Helium, Nitrogen and R-134a) at various operating pressures are studied. The experiments are performed in a constant cross-section cylindrical resonator in atmospheric pressure nitrogen and helium to provide model validation. The high amplitude non-linear oscillations demonstrated can be used as a prime mover in a variety of applications including thermoacoustic cryocooling. The work reported is supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant CBET-0853959.

  13. Sharply autofocused ring-Airy beams transforming into non-linear intense light bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, P.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Couairon, A.; Tzortzakis, S.

    2013-10-01

    Controlling the propagation of intense optical wavepackets in transparent media is not a trivial task. During propagation, low- and high-order non-linear effects, including the Kerr effect, multiphoton absorption and ionization, lead to an uncontrolled complex reshaping of the optical wavepacket that involves pulse splitting, refocusing cycles in space and significant variations of the focus. Here we demonstrate both numerically and experimentally that intense, abruptly autofocusing beams in the form of accelerating ring-Airy beams are able to reshape into non-linear intense light-bullet wavepackets propagating over extended distances, while their positioning in space is extremely well defined. These unique wavepackets can offer significant advantages in numerous fields such as the generation of high harmonics and attosecond physics or the precise micro-engineering of materials.

  14. Parametric oscillations of a singularly perturbed telegraph equation with a pendulum non-linearity

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, Yu S

    1998-04-30

    The solution of the problem in the title is reduced to an analysis of the question of the number of and stability of equilibrium states of the quasi-normal form of the boundary-value problem under consideration. A mechanism is revealed for the origin of its so-called simple equilibrium states. It is shown that as the coefficient of elasticity decreases, the number of such states increases, and that those of them with the most complex spatial structure are stable.

  15. Noncollinear parametric generation in LiIO(3) and beta-barium borate by frequency-doubled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Krylov, V; Kalintsev, A; Rebane, A; Erni, D; Wild, U P

    1995-01-15

    In LiIO(3) and BBO crystals the wave-matching conditions for femtosecond noncollinear parametric light generation at lambda = 390 nm pumping wavelength are investigated. In the LiIO(3) crystal simultaneous phase- and group-velocity-matching angles are determined. Parametric generation occurred at 0.45-2.9-mu;m wavelengths by pumping with the second harmonic of 150-fs Ti:sapphire laser pulses and is in qualitative agreement with calculated directions in both crystals.

  16. Halo model predictions of the cosmic magnification statistics: the full non-linear contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Masahiro; Hamana, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The lensing magnification effect due to large-scale structure is statistically measurable by the correlation of size fluctuations in distant galaxy images as well as by cross-correlation between foreground galaxies and background sources such as the QSO-galaxy cross-correlation. We use the halo model formulation of Takada & Jain to compute these magnification-induced correlations without employing the weak lensing approximation, μ~ 1 + 2κ. Our predictions thus include the full contribution from non-linear magnification, δμ>~ 1, that is due to lensing haloes. We compare the model prediction with ray-tracing simulations and find excellent agreement over the range of angular scales we consider (0.5 <~θ<~ 30 arcmin). In addition, we derive the dependence of the correlation amplitude on the maximum magnification cut-off μmax, which it is necessary to introduce in order to avoid the contributions from strong lensing events. For a general correlation function parametrized as <μpf> (f is any cosmic field correlated with the magnification field), the amplitude remains finite for p < 1 and diverges for p>= 1 as μmax->∞, independent of the details of the lensing mass distribution and of the separation angle. This consequence is verified by the halo model as well as by the simulations. Thus, the magnification correlation with p<= 1 has a practical advantage in that it is insensitive to a selection effect of how strong lensing events with μ>> 1 are observationally excluded from the sample. The non-linear magnification contribution enhances the amplitude of the magnification correlation relative to the weak lensing approximation, and the non-linear correction is more significant on smaller angular scales and for sources at higher redshifts. The enhancement amounts to 10-25 per cent on arcmin scales for the QSO-galaxy cross-correlation, even after the inclusion of a realistic model of galaxy clustering within the host halo. Therefore, it is necessary to account for the

  17. Laboratory Observations Consistent with Non-linear Decay of a Kinetic Alfvén Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. E.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S. T.; Sydora, R. D.; Lin, Y.; Pribyl, P.; Guice, D.; Rossi, G.; Klein, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Alfvén waves, a fundamental mode of magnetized plasmas, are ubiquitous in space plasmas. For example, a cascade of non-linearly interacting Alfvén waves is believed to play a key role in solar wind turbulence. At perpendicular length scales below the ion gyroradius, this takes the form of Kinetic Alfvén Waves (KAWs). Theoretical predictions show that these Alfvén waves may be unstable to various decay instabilities (e.g. [1,2]). In particular, theory predicts that a KAW may decay into two daughter KAWs even at very low amplitude (δB/B<10-3). Given the turbulent nature of solar wind observations and limited data-points, laboratory experiments may play a vital role in exploring the key physics responsible. The present work, conducted at UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD) represents the first fundamental laboratory study of the non-linear Alfvén wave interactions responsible for Alfvén wave decay instabilities. These experiments include the first laboratory observation of the Alfvén-acoustic mode coupling at the heart of the Parametric Decay Instability [3]. More recently, laboratory efforts have focused on the predicted non-linear decay of one KAW into two daughter KAWs. In these experiments, a single high-frequency ω/Ωi~0.7 Alfvén wave is launched, resulting in two daughter modes with frequencies and wave numbers that suggest co-propagating KAWs produced by decay of the pump wave. The observed process is parametric in nature, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump mode amplitude. Efforts are underway to fully characterize this set of experiments and compare with decay instabilities predicted by theory and simulations. [1] JV Hollweg, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23 431 (1994).[2] YM Voitenko, Journal of plasma physics 60.03 (1998).[3] S Dorfman and T Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 195001 (2013). Supported by DOE, NSF, and DOE FES and NASA Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowships

  18. Laboratory Study of Non-linear Decay of a Kinetic Shear Alfvén Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. E.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S. T.; Pribyl, P.; Lin, Y.; Sydora, R. D.; Rossi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Alfvén waves, a fundamental mode of magnetized plasmas, are ubiquitous in space plasmas. For example, a cascade of non-linearly interacting Alfvén waves is believed to play a key role in solar wind turbulence. At perpendicular length scales below the ion gyroradius, this takes the form of Kinetic Alfvén Waves (KAWs). Theoretical predictions show that these Alfvén waves may be unstable to various decay instabilities (e.g. [1,2]) even at very low amplitudes (δB/B<10-3) [2]. Given the turbulent nature of solar wind observations and limited spacecraft spacial resolution, laboratory experiments can play a vital role in exploring the key physics responsible. The present work, conducted at UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD) represents the first fundamental laboratory study of the non-linear Alfvén wave interactions responsible for Alfvén wave decay instabilities. These experiments include the first laboratory observation of the Alfvén-acoustic mode coupling at the heart of the Parametric Decay Instability [3]. More recently, laboratory efforts have focused on the non-linear decay of a KAW into daughter KAWs. In these experiments, a single high-frequency ω/Ωi~0.7 Alfvén wave is launched, resulting in three daughter modes with frequencies and wave numbers that suggest co-propagating KAWs produced by decay of the pump wave. The observed process is parametric in nature, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump mode amplitude. The decay is only observed when there is significant power in the right-hand circularly polarized pump branch; this branch has a phase speed different from the left hand mode at the ω/Ωi where the process is seen. Efforts are underway to fully characterize this set of experiments and compare with decay instabilities predicted by theory and simulations. [1] JV Hollweg, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23 431 (1994). [2] YM Voitenko, Journal of plasma physics 60.03 (1998). [3] S Dorfman and T Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110

  19. The non-linear analysis of multi-support rotor-bearing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kicinski, J.; Drozdowski, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper contains selected parts of the simulation research of large rotor machines (200 MW power turbine-sets). These investigations were based on a non-linear theoretical model and the NLDW computer program, and were carried out in the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of PAS. A trial has been performed of the optimization of system-dynamic properties, through the suitable selection of thermally deformed bearing-bush centers line -- the so called ``hot`` line -- (due to a rotor`s geodesic line), as well as the selection of the external fixing stiffness of bearing supports. Examples are also included of the orbits of selected system nodes for two differently powered turbine-sets. On this basis, an analysis of the stability of those turbines was achieved. A significant objective of this paper is also to point out some possibilities of applying the simulation research, based on a non-linear description of the system, to the diagnostics of rotor-machinery. Non-linear analysis facilitates the possibility of easily generating vibration spectra, as well as creating simulation waterfall graphs. These properties of nonlinear analysis create convenient conditions for gaining specific diagnostic information.

  20. Rb:PPKTP optical parametric oscillator with intracavity difference-frequency generation in AgGaSe2.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Andrey A; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y; Marchev, Georgi M; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Kolker, Dmitry B; Zukauskas, Andrius; Petrov, Valentin

    2016-06-15

    A 1.064 μm pumped Rb:PPKTP optical parametric oscillator (OPO) generates mid-IR radiation by intracavity mixing the resonant signal and idler waves in AgGaSe2. The ∼6  ns pulses at ∼7  μm have an energy of 670 μJ at 100 Hz, equivalent to an average power of 67 mW. The overall quantum conversion efficiency from 1.064 μm amounts to 8%, and the power conversion efficiency is 1.2%.

  1. Generation of twin beams from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode laser.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Yun; Kasai, Katsuyuki

    2004-07-15

    Quantum-correlated twin beams were generated from a triply resonant optical parametric oscillator with an a-cut KTP crystal pumped by a frequency-doubled diode laser. A total output of 5.1 mW was obtained in the classical-nonclassical light-conversion system driven by a 50-mW diode laser at 1080 nm. A quantum-noise reduction of 4.3 dB (63%) in the intensity difference between the twin beams was successfully observed at the detection frequency of 3 MHz.

  2. Power quality improvement for distribution systems under non-linear conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sadaany, Ehab Fahmy

    The proliferation of non-linear and electronically switched devices has increased the presence of nonsinusoidal currents and voltages in electrical distribution systems. The analysis of harmonics on the distribution systems has been described as being essential to understanding the nature of harmonic performance. One of the basic reasons for conducting a harmonic study is to analyze the effectiveness of proposed remedies to any existing harmonic problem. The analysis and design of any mitigation equipment requires precise calculation of both voltage and current waveforms. Moreover, the parameters that affect the harmonic performance have to be accurately identified and examined. This thesis offers a new time-domain based approach for the determination of both voltage and current waveforms in non-linear distribution systems taking into account the interaction between both voltage and current harmonics (attenuation effect). In addition, the parameters that control the generation and propagation of harmonics into the distribution systems have been identified and investigated. A simple but efficient time-domain based technique has been developed and employed in order to estimate the combined non-linear load susceptance at different harmonic frequencies based on the previously calculated voltage and current waveforms and with the attenuation phenomenon considered. A novel design and implementation of reactance one-port compensators has been applied to reduce both voltage and current harmonic distortion levels in non-linear distribution systems. This application represents a significant contribution to distribution systems analysis as it successfully limits the system distortion. The performance of the proposed compensator is assessed by both simulation and experimental testing.

  3. Dopamine-dependent non-linear correlation between subthalamic rhythms in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Marceglia, S; Foffani, G; Bianchi, A M; Baselli, G; Tamma, F; Egidi, M; Priori, A

    2006-01-01

    The basic information architecture in the basal ganglia circuit is under debate. Whereas anatomical studies quantify extensive convergence/divergence patterns in the circuit, suggesting an information sharing scheme, neurophysiological studies report an absence of linear correlation between single neurones in normal animals, suggesting a segregated parallel processing scheme. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys and in parkinsonian patients single neurones become linearly correlated, thus leading to a loss of segregation between neurones. Here we propose a possible integrative solution to this debate, by extending the concept of functional segregation from the cellular level to the network level. To this end, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from electrodes implanted for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of parkinsonian patients. By applying bispectral analysis, we found that in the absence of dopamine stimulation STN LFP rhythms became non-linearly correlated, thus leading to a loss of segregation between rhythms. Non-linear correlation was particularly consistent between the low-beta rhythm (13–20 Hz) and the high-beta rhythm (20–35 Hz). Levodopa administration significantly decreased these non-linear correlations, therefore increasing segregation between rhythms. These results suggest that the extensive convergence/divergence in the basal ganglia circuit is physiologically necessary to sustain LFP rhythms distributed in large ensembles of neurones, but is not sufficient to induce correlated firing between neurone pairs. Conversely, loss of dopamine generates pathological linear correlation between neurone pairs, alters the patterns within LFP rhythms, and induces non-linear correlation between LFP rhythms operating at different frequencies. The pathophysiology of information processing in the human basal ganglia therefore involves not only activities of individual rhythms, but also

  4. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    PubMed

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  5. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  6. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    PubMed

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate. PMID:26503051

  7. Generation of the four-photon W state and other multiphoton entangled states using parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mikami, Hideharu; Li Yongmin; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2004-11-01

    We propose two interesting methods of generating the four-photon W state. These methods use parametric down-conversion processes, linear optical elements, and commercial photon detectors, which are readily feasible under current technology. They can also be used to generate the three-photon W state, the three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and the three-photon maximally entangled photon-number state (a typical photon-number entanglement state) by simply changing some experimental components or their parameters. Moreover, assuming we have photon number-resolving detectors, these methods can develop into methods that generate a general n-photon W state. They are expected to become powerful tools for experimental investigations of multipartite entanglement and its applications to quantum information processing.

  8. Quadripartite continuous-variable entanglement generation by nondegenerate optical parametric amplification cascaded with a sum-frequency process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youbin; Wang, HuaiJun; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Wang, Yajuan; Cheng, Xiaomin

    2016-10-01

    Quadripartite continuous-variable (CV) entanglement with different optical frequencies can be generated by nondegenerate optical parametric amplification cascaded with a sum-frequency process in only one optical superlattice. Firstly, the idler beam is generated by a different frequency process between pump and signal beams. Then, the sum-frequency beam will be generated by a cascaded sum-frequency process between pump and idler beams in the same optical superlattice. The conversion dynamics of the cascaded nonlinear processes is investigated by using a quantum stochastic method. The quantum correlations among pump, signal, idler and sum-frequency beams are calculated by applying a sufficient inseparability criteria for quadripartite CV entanglement. The results show that quadripartite CV entangled beams can be produced by this single-pass cascaded nonlinear process in one optical superlattice.

  9. Non-linear dynamics of compound sawteeth in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-H.; Garbet, X.; Lütjens, H.; Marx, A.; Nicolas, T.; Sabot, R.; Luciani, J.-F.; Guirlet, R.; Février, O.; Maget, P.

    2016-05-01

    Compound sawteeth is studied with the XTOR-2F code. Non-linear full 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that the plasma hot core is radially displaced and rotates during the partial crash, but is not fully expelled out of the q = 1 surface. Partial crashes occur when the radius of the q = 1 surface exceeds a critical value, at fixed poloidal beta. This critical value depends on the plasma elongation. The partial crash time is larger than the collapse time of an ordinary sawtooth, likely due to a weaker diamagnetic stabilization. This suggests that partial crashes result from a competition between destabilizing effects such as the q = 1 radius and diamagnetic stabilization.

  10. Recognizing Human Activities Using Non-linear SVM Decision Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiyong; Liu, Zhijing; Zhang, Hao

    This paper presents a new method of human activity recognition, which is based on R transform and non-linear SVM Decision Tree (NSVMDT). For a key binary human silhouette, R transform is employed to represent low-level features. The advantage of the R transform lies in its low computational complexity and geometric invariance. We utilize NSVMDT to train and classify video sequences, and demonstrate the usability with many sequences. Compared with other methods, ours is superior because the descriptor is robust to frame loss in superior because the descriptor is robust to frame loss in activities recognition, simple representation, computational complexity and template generalization. Sufficient experiments have proved the efficiency.

  11. Non-linear identification of a squeeze-film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanway, Roger; Mottershead, John; Firoozian, Riaz

    1987-01-01

    Described is an experimental study to identify the damping laws associated with a squeeze-film vibration damper. This is achieved by using a non-linear filtering algorithm to process displacement responses of the damper ring to synchronous excitation and thus to estimate the parameters in an nth-power velocity model. The experimental facility is described in detail and a representative selection of results is included. The identified models are validated through the prediction of damper-ring orbits and comparison with observed responses.

  12. Non-linear optical titanyl arsenates: Crystal growth and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordborg, Jenni Eva Louise

    Crystals are appreciated not only for their appearance, but also for their unique physical properties which are utilized by the photonic industry in appliances that we come across every day. An important part of enabling the technical use of optical devices is the manufacture of crystals. This dissertation deals with a specific group of materials called the potassium titanyl phosphate (KIP) family, known for their non-linear optical and ferroelectric properties. The isomorphs vary in their linear optical and dielectric properties, which can be tuned to optimize device performance by forming solid solutions of the different materials. Titanyl arsenates have a wide range of near-infrared transmission which makes them useful for tunable infrared lasers. The isomorphs examined in the present work were primarily RbTiOASO4 (RTA) and CsTiOAsO4 (CTA) together with the mixtures RbxCs 1-xTiOAsO4 (RCTA). Large-scale crystals were grown by top seeding solution growth utilizing a three-zone furnace with excellent temperature control. Sufficiently slow cooling and constant upward lifting produced crystals with large volumes useable for technical applications. Optical quality RTA crystals up to 10 x 12 x 20 mm were grown. The greater difficulty in obtaining good crystals of CTA led to the use of mixed RCTA materials. The mixing of rubidium and cesium in RCTA is more favorable to crystal growth than the single components in pure RTA and CTA. Mixed crystals are rubidium-enriched and contain only 20-30% of the cesium concentration in the flux. The cesium atoms show a preference for the larger cation site. The network structure is very little affected by the cation substitution; consequently, the non-linear optical properties of the Rb-rich isomorphic mixtures of RTA and CTA can be expected to remain intact. Crystallographic methods utilizing conventional X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation and neutron diffraction have been employed to investigate the properties of the atomic

  13. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  14. 8-PSK Signaling over non-linear satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Sheila B.; Caballero, Ruben B. Eng.

    1996-01-01

    Space agencies are under pressure to utilize better bandwidth-efficient communication methods due to the actual allocated frequency bands becoming more congested. Also budget reductions is another problem that the space agencies must deal with. This budget constraint results in simpler spacecraft carrying less communication capabilities and also the reduction in staff to capture data in the earth stations. It is then imperative that the most bandwidth efficient communication methods be utilized. This thesis presents a study of 8-ary Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) modulation with respect to bandwidth, power efficiency, spurious emissions and interference susceptibility over a non-linear satellite channel.

  15. Non-linear isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo; Wands, David E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2008-12-15

    We study non-linear primordial adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations and their non-Gaussianity. After giving a general formulation in the context of an extended {delta}N formalism, we analyse in detail two illustrative examples. The first is a mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario in which fluctuations of both the inflaton and a curvaton (a light isocurvature field during inflation) contribute to the primordial density perturbation. The second example is that of double inflation involving two decoupled massive scalar fields during inflation. In the mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario we find that the bispectrum of primordial isocurvature perturbations may be large and comparable to the bispectrum of adiabatic curvature perturbations.

  16. Non-Linearity Analysis of Depth and Angular Indexes for Optimal Stereo SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Bergasa, Luis M.; Alcantarilla, Pablo F.; Schleicher, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a real-time 6DoF egomotion estimation system for indoor environments using a wide-angle stereo camera as the only sensor. The stereo camera is carried in hand by a person walking at normal walking speeds 3–5 km/h. We present the basis for a vision-based system that would assist the navigation of the visually impaired by either providing information about their current position and orientation or guiding them to their destination through different sensing modalities. Our sensor combines two different types of feature parametrization: inverse depth and 3D in order to provide orientation and depth information at the same time. Natural landmarks are extracted from the image and are stored as 3D or inverse depth points, depending on a depth threshold. This depth threshold is used for switching between both parametrizations and it is computed by means of a non-linearity analysis of the stereo sensor. Main steps of our system approach are presented as well as an analysis about the optimal way to calculate the depth threshold. At the moment each landmark is initialized, the normal of the patch surface is computed using the information of the stereo pair. In order to improve long-term tracking, a patch warping is done considering the normal vector information. Some experimental results under indoor environments and conclusions are presented. PMID:22319348

  17. Non-linearity analysis of depth and angular indexes for optimal stereo SLAM.

    PubMed

    Bergasa, Luis M; Alcantarilla, Pablo F; Schleicher, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a real-time 6DoF egomotion estimation system for indoor environments using a wide-angle stereo camera as the only sensor. The stereo camera is carried in hand by a person walking at normal walking speeds 3-5 km/h. We present the basis for a vision-based system that would assist the navigation of the visually impaired by either providing information about their current position and orientation or guiding them to their destination through different sensing modalities. Our sensor combines two different types of feature parametrization: inverse depth and 3D in order to provide orientation and depth information at the same time. Natural landmarks are extracted from the image and are stored as 3D or inverse depth points, depending on a depth threshold. This depth threshold is used for switching between both parametrizations and it is computed by means of a non-linearity analysis of the stereo sensor. Main steps of our system approach are presented as well as an analysis about the optimal way to calculate the depth threshold. At the moment each landmark is initialized, the normal of the patch surface is computed using the information of the stereo pair. In order to improve long-term tracking, a patch warping is done considering the normal vector information. Some experimental results under indoor environments and conclusions are presented.

  18. Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.

    2015-03-15

    An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts across the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable size, beyond which their uncontrolled growth disrupts the ions. The hole growth calculations provide a quantitative prediction of hole profile and size evolution. Hole growth appears to explain the observations of recent particle-in-cell simulations.

  19. Non-linear leak currents affect mammalian neuron physiology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiwei; Hong, Sungho; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In their seminal works on squid giant axons, Hodgkin, and Huxley approximated the membrane leak current as Ohmic, i.e., linear, since in their preparation, sub-threshold current rectification due to the influence of ionic concentration is negligible. Most studies on mammalian neurons have made the same, largely untested, assumption. Here we show that the membrane time constant and input resistance of mammalian neurons (when other major voltage-sensitive and ligand-gated ionic currents are discounted) varies non-linearly with membrane voltage, following the prediction of a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-based passive membrane model. The model predicts that under such conditions, the time constant/input resistance-voltage relationship will linearize if the concentration differences across the cell membrane are reduced. These properties were observed in patch-clamp recordings of cerebellar Purkinje neurons (in the presence of pharmacological blockers of other background ionic currents) and were more prominent in the sub-threshold region of the membrane potential. Model simulations showed that the non-linear leak affects voltage-clamp recordings and reduces temporal summation of excitatory synaptic input. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of trans-membrane ionic concentration in defining the functional properties of the passive membrane in mammalian neurons as well as other excitable cells. PMID:26594148

  20. Effects on non-linearities on aircraft poststall motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rohacs, J.; Thomasson, P.; Mosehilde, E.

    1994-12-31

    The poststall maneuverability controlled by thrust vectoring has become one of the important aspects of new fighter development projects. In simplified case, the motion of aircraft can be described by 6DOF nonlinear system. The lecture deals with the longitudinal motion of poststall maneuverable aircraft. The investigation made about the effects of non-linearities in aerodynamic coefficients having considerable non-linearities and hysteresisis an the poststall motions. There were used some different models of aerodynamic coefficients. The results of investigation have shown that the poststall domain of vectored aircraft can be divided into five different pHs in field of thrust - pitch vector angle, and the chaotic motions of aircraft can be found at the different frequencies of thrust deflection. There were defined an unstable right domain with an unstable oscillation and a field of overpulling at poststall motion. The certain frequency chaotic attractors were got at frequencies of Oxitation between the 0.15 and 0.65 rad/sec. The pitching moment derivatives had the big influence on the chaotic motions, while the lift coefficient derivatives bad the reasonable effects, only.

  1. Noncollinear parametric generation and amplification in LiIO3 and Beta-barium borate by frequency-doubled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Vitaly N.; Rebane, Aleksander; Kalintsev, Alexander G.; Erni, Daniel; Wild, Urs P.

    1996-05-01

    In LilO3 and BBO crystals noncollinear parametric generation with tuning range 0.45 - 2.9 micrometers is investigated by pumping with the second harmonic of 150 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulses. In LilO3 propagation angles simultaneous phase- and group-velocity-matching are determined. Noncollinear parametric amplification with the wavelength tunability from 0.6 to 1.2 micrometers is demonstrated.

  2. Crystal growth and vibrational spectroscopic studies of the semiorganic non-linear optical crystal--bisthiourea magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, V; Ramachandraraja, C; Sundararajan, R S

    2007-09-01

    The semiorganic non-linear optical crystal bisthiourea magnesium sulphate (BTMS) was grown by slow evaporation technique using water as solvent. Vibrational spectra were recorded to determine the symmetries of molecular vibrations. The observed Raman and infrared bands were also assigned and discussed. The optical transmission spectral study was carried out to test the transmitting ability of the crystal in the visible range. The second harmonic generation test of BTMS revealed the non-linear nature of the crystal. The TGA/DTA curve was also recorded for the experimental crystal. PMID:17185029

  3. Entanglement and nonclassicality in four-mode Gaussian states generated via parametric down-conversion and frequency up-conversion

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina Jr., Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Multipartite entanglement and nonclassicality of four-mode Gaussian states generated in two simultaneous nonlinear processes involving parametric down-conversion and frequency up-conversion are analyzed assuming the vacuum as the initial state. Suitable conditions for the generation of highly entangled states are found. Transfer of the entanglement from the down-converted modes into the up-converted ones is also suggested. The analysis of the whole set of states reveals that sub-shot-noise intensity correlations between the equally-populated down-converted modes, as well as the equally-populated up-converted modes, uniquely identify entangled states. They represent a powerful entanglement identifier also in other cases with arbitrarily populated modes. PMID:27658508

  4. Broadband and tunable optical parametric generator for remote detection of gas molecules in the short and mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Lambert-Girard, Simon; Allard, Martin; Piché, Michel; Babin, François

    2015-04-01

    The development of a novel broadband and tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) is presented. The OPG properties are studied numerically and experimentally in order to optimize the generator's use in a broadband spectroscopic LIDAR operating in the short and mid-infrared. This paper discusses trade-offs to be made on the properties of the pump, crystal, and seeding signal in order to optimize the pulse spectral density and divergence while enabling energy scaling. A seed with a large spectral bandwidth is shown to enhance the pulse-to-pulse stability and optimize the pulse spectral density. A numerical model shows excellent agreement with output power measurements; the model predicts that a pump having a large number of longitudinal modes improves conversion efficiency and pulse stability.

  5. Broadband and tunable optical parametric generator for remote detection of gas molecules in the short and mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Lambert-Girard, Simon; Allard, Martin; Piché, Michel; Babin, François

    2015-04-01

    The development of a novel broadband and tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) is presented. The OPG properties are studied numerically and experimentally in order to optimize the generator's use in a broadband spectroscopic LIDAR operating in the short and mid-infrared. This paper discusses trade-offs to be made on the properties of the pump, crystal, and seeding signal in order to optimize the pulse spectral density and divergence while enabling energy scaling. A seed with a large spectral bandwidth is shown to enhance the pulse-to-pulse stability and optimize the pulse spectral density. A numerical model shows excellent agreement with output power measurements; the model predicts that a pump having a large number of longitudinal modes improves conversion efficiency and pulse stability. PMID:25967164

  6. Evaluation of a bilinear model for attenuation correction using CT numbers generated from a parametric method.

    PubMed

    Martinez, L C; Calzado, A

    2016-01-01

    A parametric model is used for the calculation of the CT number of some selected human tissues of known compositions (Hi) in two hybrid systems, one SPECT-CT and one PET-CT. Only one well characterized substance, not necessarily tissue-like, needs to be scanned with the protocol of interest. The linear attenuation coefficients of these tissues for some energies of interest (μ(i)) have been calculated from their tabulated compositions and the NIST databases. These coefficients have been compared with those calculated with the bilinear model from the CT number (μ(B)i). No relevant differences have been found for bones and lung. In the soft tissue region, the differences can be up to 5%. These discrepancies are attributed to the different chemical composition for the tissues assumed by both methods.

  7. The Dynamic Stability and Non-Linear Resonance of a Flexible Connecting Rod: Single-Mode Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, S.-R.; Shaw, S. W.

    1994-02-01

    An analytical and computer simulation investigation of the dynamic behavior associated with the flexible connecting rod of an otherwise rigid, in-line, planar slider-crank mechanism is presented. The main goal of this work is to determine the manner in which this response depends on the system parameters, with a particular emphasis on non-linear analyses of the dynamic response near resonance conditions. A single-mode model is distilled from the governing partial equations and is used to describe the transverse deflection of the connecting rod. It is found that the slider mass is the primary source of the non-linearity, and that the connecting rod behaves as a system with a softening type of non-linearity, which is subjected to both external and parametric excitations. The effects of selected non-dimensional system parameters, such as the length ratio, damping ratios, frequency ratios and inertia ratios, are investigated in detail. A systematic numerical study is also carried out and compared with the analytical results.

  8. Non-linear PIC simulation in a penning trap

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, G. L.; Lapenta, G. M.; Finn, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We study the non-linear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  9. Characterization of porous media structure by non linear NMR methods.

    PubMed

    Capuani, S; Alesiani, M; Alessandri, F M; Maraviglia, B

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of modifying the multiple spin echoes existing theory, developed for a homogeneous system, to describe also an inhomogeneous system such as a porous medium. We report here the first experimental application of MSE methods to materials like travertine. The ratio A(2)/A(1) from water in travertine presents minima for characteristic values of the delay time tau, like what was previously observed in the trabecular bone. By a judicious choice of the delay time tau and of the G gradient strength, the MSE sequence can be made sensitive to a specific length-scale of the sample heterogeneity. Furthermore the MSE image shows a particular new contrast that makes the non linear NMR method very attractive for the assessment of variations of the porous structure in porous systems. PMID:11445306

  10. Anderson Localization, Non-linearity and Stable Genetic Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Charles L.

    2006-07-01

    In many models of genotypic evolution, the vector of genotype populations satisfies a system of linear ordinary differential equations. This system of equations models a competition between differential replication rates (fitness) and mutation. Mutation operates as a generalized diffusion process on genotype space. In the large time asymptotics, the replication term tends to produce a single dominant quasi-species, unless the mutation rate is too high, in which case the asymptotic population becomes de-localized. We introduce a more macroscopic picture of genotypic evolution wherein a random fitness term in the linear model produces features analogous to Anderson localization. When coupled with density dependent non-linearities, which limit the population of any given genotype, we obtain a model whose large time asymptotics display stable genotypic diversity.

  11. Learning Petri net models of non-linear gene interactions.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Understanding how an individual's genetic make-up influences their risk of disease is a problem of paramount importance. Although machine-learning techniques are able to uncover the relationships between genotype and disease, the problem of automatically building the best biochemical model or "explanation" of the relationship has received less attention. In this paper, I describe a method based on random hill climbing that automatically builds Petri net models of non-linear (or multi-factorial) disease-causing gene-gene interactions. Petri nets are a suitable formalism for this problem, because they are used to model concurrent, dynamic processes analogous to biochemical reaction networks. I show that this method is routinely able to identify perfect Petri net models for three disease-causing gene-gene interactions recently reported in the literature.

  12. Engineering Non-Classical Light with Non-Linear Microwaveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsmo, Arne; Clerk, Aashish; Blais, Alexandre

    The quest for ever increasing fidelity and scalability in measurement of superconducting qubits to be used for fault-tolerant quantum computing has recently led to the development of near quantum-limited broadband phase preserving amplifiers in the microwave regime. These devices are, however, more than just amplifiers: They are sources of high-quality, broadband two-mode squeezed light. We show how bottom-up engineering of Josephson junction embedded waveguides can be used to design novel squeezing spectra. Furthermore, the entanglement in the two-mode squeezed output field can be imprinted onto quantum systems coupled to the device's output. These broadband microwave amplifiers constitute a realization of non-linear waveguide QED, a very interesting playground for non-equilibrium many-body physics.

  13. Method and system for non-linear motion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ligang (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.

  14. Transformation matrices between non-linear and linear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sartain, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    In the linearization of systems of non-linear differential equations, those systems which can be exactly transformed into the second order linear differential equation Y"-AY'-BY=0 where Y, Y', and Y" are n x 1 vectors and A and B are constant n x n matrices of real numbers were considered. The 2n x 2n matrix was used to transform the above matrix equation into the first order matrix equation X' = MX. Specially the matrix M and the conditions which will diagonalize or triangularize M were studied. Transformation matrices P and P sub -1 were used to accomplish this diagonalization or triangularization to return to the solution of the second order matrix differential equation system from the first order system.

  15. Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.

  16. Non-linear radial spinwave modes in thin magnetic disks

    SciTech Connect

    Helsen, M. De Clercq, J.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Weigand, M.

    2015-01-19

    We present an experimental investigation of radial spin-wave modes in magnetic nano-disks with a vortex ground state. The spin-wave amplitude was measured using a frequency-resolved magneto-optical spectrum analyzer, allowing for high-resolution resonance curves to be recorded. It was found that with increasing excitation amplitude up to about 10 mT, the lowest-order mode behaves strongly non-linearly as the mode frequency redshifts and the resonance peak strongly deforms. This behavior was quantitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. Micromagnetic simulations showed that at higher excitation amplitudes, the spinwaves are transformed into a soliton by self-focusing, and collapse onto the vortex core, dispersing the energy in short-wavelength spinwaves. Additionally, this process can lead to switching of the vortex polarization through the injection of a Bloch point.

  17. The mathematics of non-linear metrics for nested networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Jie; Shi, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    Numerical analysis of data from international trade and ecological networks has shown that the non-linear fitness-complexity metric is the best candidate to rank nodes by importance in bipartite networks that exhibit a nested structure. Despite its relevance for real networks, the mathematical properties of the metric and its variants remain largely unexplored. Here, we perform an analytic and numeric study of the fitness-complexity metric and a new variant, called minimal extremal metric. We rigorously derive exact expressions for node scores for perfectly nested networks and show that these expressions explain the non-trivial convergence properties of the metrics. A comparison between the fitness-complexity metric and the minimal extremal metric on real data reveals that the latter can produce improved rankings if the input data are reliable.

  18. Attractor reconstruction for non-linear systems: a methodological note

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.M.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction is an important step in the process of making predictions for non-linear time-series and in the computation of certain invariant quantities used to characterize the dynamics of such series. The utility of computed predictions and invariant quantities is dependent on the accuracy of attractor reconstruction, which in turn is determined by the methods used in the reconstruction process. This paper suggests methods by which the delay and embedding dimension may be selected for a typical delay coordinate reconstruction. A comparison is drawn between the use of the autocorrelation function and mutual information in quantifying the delay. In addition, a false nearest neighbor (FNN) approach is used in minimizing the number of delay vectors needed. Results highlight the need for an accurate reconstruction in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum and in prediction algorithms.

  19. Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems progresses to new approaches in assessing hazard and risk of the extreme catastrophic events. In particular, a series of interrelated step-by-step studies of seismic process along with its non-stationary though self-organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake forecast/prediction technique that has passed control in forward real-time applications during the last two decades. The observed seismic dynamics prior to and after many mega, great, major, and strong earthquakes demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course durable phase transitions in complex hierarchical non-linear system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space and time implies that many traditional estimations of seismic hazard (from term-less to short-term ones) are usually based on erroneous assumptions of easy tractable analytical models, which leads to widespread practice of their deceptive application. The consequences of underestimation of seismic hazard propagate non-linearly into inflicted underestimation of risk and, eventually, into unexpected societal losses due to earthquakes and associated phenomena (i.e., collapse of buildings, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction, etc.). The studies aimed at forecast/prediction of extreme events (interpreted as critical transitions) in geophysical and socio-economical systems include: (i) large earthquakes in geophysical systems of the lithosphere blocks-and-faults, (ii) starts and ends of economic recessions, (iii) episodes of a sharp increase in the unemployment rate, (iv) surge of the homicides in socio-economic systems. These studies are based on a heuristic search of phenomena preceding critical transitions and application of methodologies of pattern recognition of infrequent events. Any study of rare

  20. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1994-01-11

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

  1. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, R.

    1994-08-09

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

  2. DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D

    2008-06-10

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

  3. Black hole hair removal: non-linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sen, Ashoke; Srivastava, Yogesh K.

    2010-02-01

    BMPV black holes in flat transverse space and in Taub-NUT space have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic degeneracies. It has been proposed that this difference can be accounted for by different contribution to the degeneracies of these black holes from hair modes, — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon. In this paper we explicitly construct the hair modes of these two black holes as finite bosonic and fermionic deformations of the black hole solution satisfying the full non-linear equations of motion of supergravity and preserving the supersymmetry of the original solutions. Special care is taken to ensure that these solutions do not have any curvature singularity at the future horizon when viewed as the full ten dimensional geometry. We show that after removing the contribution due to the hair degrees of freedom from the microscopic partition function, the partition functions of the two black holes agree.

  4. Neural networks: What non-linearity to choose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik YA.; Quintana, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks are now one of the most successful learning formalisms. Neurons transform inputs (x(sub 1),...,x(sub n)) into an output f(w(sub 1)x(sub 1) + ... + w(sub n)x(sub n)), where f is a non-linear function and w, are adjustable weights. What f to choose? Usually the logistic function is chosen, but sometimes the use of different functions improves the practical efficiency of the network. The problem of choosing f as a mathematical optimization problem is formulated and solved under different optimality criteria. As a result, a list of functions f that are optimal under these criteria are determined. This list includes both the functions that were empirically proved to be the best for some problems, and some new functions that may be worth trying.

  5. Computational models of signalling networks for non-linear control.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Luis A; Lones, Michael A; Turner, Alexander P; Stepney, Susan; Caves, Leo S; Tyrrell, Andy M

    2013-05-01

    Artificial signalling networks (ASNs) are a computational approach inspired by the signalling processes inside cells that decode outside environmental information. Using evolutionary algorithms to induce complex behaviours, we show how chaotic dynamics in a conservative dynamical system can be controlled. Such dynamics are of particular interest as they mimic the inherent complexity of non-linear physical systems in the real world. Considering the main biological interpretations of cellular signalling, in which complex behaviours and robust cellular responses emerge from the interaction of multiple pathways, we introduce two ASN representations: a stand-alone ASN and a coupled ASN. In particular we note how sophisticated cellular communication mechanisms can lead to effective controllers, where complicated problems can be divided into smaller and independent tasks.

  6. Spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking in non-linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, Luis F.

    2010-07-29

    A recently proposed model of non-linear electrodynamics arising from a gauge invariant spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is reviewed. The potential providing the symmetry breaking is argued to arise from the integration of gauge bosons and fermions in an underlying theory. The invariant subgroups remaining after the symmetry breaking are determined, as well as the dispersion relations and polarization modes of the propagating linear sector or the model. Strong bounds upon the predicted anisotropy of the speed of light are obtained by embedding the model in the electromagnetic sector of the Standard Model Extension and taking advantage of the restrictions in the parameters derived there. Finally, a reasonable estimation of the intergalactic magnetic field is obtained by assuming that the vacuum energy of the model is described by the standard cosmological constant.

  7. Discriminative Non-Linear Stationary Subspace Analysis for Video Classification.

    PubMed

    Baktashmotlagh, Mahsa; Harandi, Mehrtash; Lovell, Brian C; Salzmann, Mathieu

    2014-12-01

    Low-dimensional representations are key to the success of many video classification algorithms. However, the commonly-used dimensionality reduction techniques fail to account for the fact that only part of the signal is shared across all the videos in one class. As a consequence, the resulting representations contain instance-specific information, which introduces noise in the classification process. In this paper, we introduce non-linear stationary subspace analysis: a method that overcomes this issue by explicitly separating the stationary parts of the video signal (i.e., the parts shared across all videos in one class), from its non-stationary parts (i.e., the parts specific to individual videos). Our method also encourages the new representation to be discriminative, thus accounting for the underlying classification problem. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on dynamic texture recognition, scene classification and action recognition. PMID:26353144

  8. A parametric study of a gas-generator airturbo ramjet (ATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric engine performance calculations were carried out for an airturbo ramjet (ATR). A LOX-LH2 rocket powered turbine powered the compressor. The engine was flown over a typical flight path up to Mach 5 to show the effect of engine off design operation. The compressor design efficiency, compressor pressure ratio, rocket turbine efficiency, rocket turbine inlet temperature, and rocket chamber pressure were varied to show their effect on engine net thrust and specific impulse at Mach 5 cruise. Estimates of engine weights as a function of the ratio of compressor air to rocket propellant flow and rocket chamber pressure are also included. In general, the Mach 5 results indicate that increasing the amount of rocket gas produced increased thrust but decreased the specific impulse. The engine performance was fairly sensitive to rocket chamber pressure, especially at higher compressor pressure ratios. At higher compressor pressure ratios, the engine thrust was sensitive to turbine inlet temperature. At all compressor pressure ratios, the engine performance was not sensitive to compressor or turbine efficiency.

  9. A parametric study of a gas-generator airturbo ramjet (ATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric engine performance calculations were carried out for an airturbo ramjet (ATR). A LOX-LH2 rocket powered turbine powered the compressor. The engine was flown over a typical flight path up to Mach 5 to show the effect of engine off design operation. The compressor design efficiency, compressor pressure ratio, rocket turbine efficiency, rocket turbine inlet temperature, and rocket chamber pressure were varied to show their effect on engine net thrust and specific impulse at Mach 5 cruise. Estimates of engine weights as a fucntion of the ratio of compressor air to rocket propellant flow and rocket champer pressure are also included. In general, the Mach 5 results indicate that increasing the amount of rocket gas produced increased thrust but decreased the specific impulse. The engine performance was fairly sensitive to rocket chamber pressure, especially at higher compressor pressure ratios. At higher compressor pressure ratios, the engine thrust was sensitive to turbine inlet temperature. At all compressor pressure ratios, the engine performance was not sensitive to compressor or turbine efficiency.

  10. The theory of non-linear transresonant wave phenomena and an examination of Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Sh. U.

    2003-08-01

    A non-linear theory of transresonant wave phenomena based on consideration of perturbed wave equations is presented. In particular, the waves in a surface layer of a porous compressible viscoelastoplastic material are considered. For such layers the 3-D equations of deformable media are reduced to 1-D or 2-D perturbed wave equations. A set of approximate, closed-form, general solutions of these equations are presented, which take into account non-linear, dissipative, dispersive, topographic and boundary effects. Then resonant, site and liquefaction effects are analysed. Resonance is considered as a global parameter. Transresonant evolution of the equations is studied. Within the resonant band, utt~a20∇2u and the perturbed wave equations transform into non-linear diffusion equations, either to a basic highly non-linear ordinary differential equation or to the basic algebraic equation for travelling waves. Resonances can destroy predictability and wave reversibility. Surface topography (valleys, islands, etc.) is considered as a series of earthquake-induced resonators. A non-linear transresonant evolution of smooth seismic waves into shock-, jet- and mushroom-like waves and vortices is studied. The amplitude of the resonant waves may be of the order of the square or cube root of the exciting amplitude. Therefore, seismic waves with a moderate amplitude can be amplified very strongly in natural resonators, whereas strong seismic waves can be attenuated. Reports of the 1835 February 20 Chilean earthquake given by Charles Darwin are qualitatively examined using the non-linear theory. The theory qualitatively describes the `shivering' of islands and ridges, volcano spouts and generation of tsunami-like waves and supports Darwin's opinion that these events were part of a single phenomenon. Same-day earthquake/eruption events and catastrophic amplification of seismic waves near the edge of sediment layers are discussed. At the same time the theory can account for recent

  11. Discriminating Non-Linearity from Linearity: Its Cognitive Foundations in Five-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Van Dooren, Wim; Goudriaan, Margje N.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    People often have difficulties in understanding situations that involve non-linear processes. Also, the topic of non-linear functions is introduced relatively late in the curriculum. Previous research has nevertheless shown that already children aged 6 years and older are able to discriminate non-linear from linear processes. Within the present…

  12. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  13. Generation of energy-entangled W states via parametric fluorescence in integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menotti, M.; Maccone, L.; Sipe, J. E.; Liscidini, M.

    2016-07-01

    Tripartite entangled states, such as Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states, are typically generated by manipulating two pairs of polarization-entangled photons in bulk optics. Here we propose a scheme to generate W states that are entangled in the energy degree of freedom in an integrated optical circuit. Our approach employs photon pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a microring resonator. We also present a feasible procedure for demonstrating the generation of such a state, and we compare polarization-entangled and energy-entangled schemes for the preparation of W states.

  14. Non-linear Dynamics in ETG Mode Saturation and Beam-Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.

    Non-linear mechanisms arise frequently in plasmas and beam-plasma systems resulting in dynamics not predicted by linear theory. The non-linear mechanisms can influence the time evolution of plasma instabilities and can be used to describe their saturation. Furthermore time and space averaged non-linear fields generated by instabilities can lead to collisionless transport and plasma heating. In the case of beam-plasma systems counter-intuitive beam defocusing and scaling behavior which are interesting areas of study for both Low-Temperature and High Energy Density physics. The non-linear mode interactions in form of phase coupling can describe energy transfer to other modes and can be used to describe the saturation of plasma instabilities. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical model was formulated to explain the saturation mechanism of Slab Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode observed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM), based on experimental time-series data collected through probe diagnostics [1]. ETG modes are considered to be a major player in the unexplained high levels of electron transport observed in tokamak fusion experiments and the saturation mechanism of these modes is still an active area of investigation. The data in the frequency space indicated phase coupling between 3 modes, through a higher order spectral correlation coefficient known as bicoherence. The resulting model is similar to [2], which was a treatment for ITG modes observed in the CLM and correctly predicts the observed saturation level of the ETG turbulence. The scenario is further supported by the fact that the observed mode frequencies are in close alignment with those predicted theoretical dispersion relations. Non-linear effects arise frequently in beam-plasma systems and can be important for both low temperature plasma devices commonly used for material processing as well as High Energy Density applications relevant to inertial fusion. The non-linear time averaged

  15. Cross-polarized photon-pair generation and bi-chromatically pumped optical parametric oscillation on a chip.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Caspani, Lucia; Wetzel, Benjamin; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Moss, David J; Morandotti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes are one of the most important tools in modern optics with a broad spectrum of applications in, for example, frequency conversion, spectroscopy, signal processing and quantum optics. For practical and ultimately widespread implementation, on-chip devices compatible with electronic integrated circuit technology offer great advantages in terms of low cost, small footprint, high performance and low energy consumption. While many on-chip key components have been realized, to date polarization has not been fully exploited as a degree of freedom for integrated nonlinear devices. In particular, frequency conversion based on orthogonally polarized beams has not yet been demonstrated on chip. Here we show frequency mixing between orthogonal polarization modes in a compact integrated microring resonator and demonstrate a bi-chromatically pumped optical parametric oscillator. Operating the device above and below threshold, we directly generate orthogonally polarized beams, as well as photon pairs, respectively, that can find applications, for example, in optical communication and quantum optics.

  16. Investigation on the quantum-to-classical transition by optical parametric amplification: Generation and detection of multiphoton quantum superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    We review an extended research carried out on the theoretical and experimental realization of a macroscopic quantum superposition (MQS) made up with photons. The described scheme is based on a nonlinear process, the quantum injected optical parametric amplification, that transforms the quantum coherence of a single particle state, i.e. a Micro-qubit, into a Macro-qubit, consisting in a large number M of photons in quantum superposition. Since the adopted scheme was found resilient to decoherence, the MQS demonstration was carried out experimentally at room temperature with M ≥104. This result elicited an extended study on quantum cloning, quantum amplification and quantum decoherence. The MQS interference patterns for large M were revealed in the experiment and the bipartite Micro-Macro entanglement was also demonstrated for a limited number of generated particles. At last, the perspectives opened by this new method are considered in the view of further studies on quantum foundations and quantum measurement.

  17. High-repetition-rate dual-signal intracavity optical parametric generator based on periodically-phase-reversal PPMgLN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Feng; Yao, Jianquan; Zheng, Fanghua; Li, Enbang; Zhang, Tieli; Zhao, Pu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Baigang

    2007-10-01

    A high-repetition-rate dual-signal intracavity optical parametric generator (IOPG) inside a diode-end-pumped acousto-optically (AO) Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser is presented. The nonlinear material is a periodically-phase-reversal periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (ppr-PPMgLN). At an incident diode pump power of 6.1 W and a Q-switch repetition rate of 20 kHz, an average dual-signal output power of 0.44 W is achieved. The dual-signal wavelengths of 1477 and 1491 nm are obtained at a crystal temperature of 40 °C. The measurements of the beam quality factor of 1.4 and the pulse duration of 77 ns show good spatial and temporal overlaps for the dual-signal radiation.

  18. Expansion of the tuning range of injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator up to 5 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murate, Kosuke; Hayashi, Shin’ichiro; Kawase, Kodo

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we report the improvement of the frequency tuning range of an injection-seeded terahertz (THz)-wave parametric generator (is-TPG). A significant previous limitation was the high absorption coefficient in the higher-frequency region of a MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. Here, we inclined the crystal slightly, so that a fraction of the pump beam was internally reflected at the THz-wave exit surface of the crystal. In this configuration, it was easier for a higher-frequency THz wave to reach the crystal surface, because the center core region of the pump beam was closer to the exit surface. As a result, the upper limit of the frequency tuning range increased from 3.0 to 5.0 THz.

  19. Nearly diffraction-limited signal generated by a lower beam-quality pump in an optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Shaul; Ehrlich, Yosi; Fastig, Shlomo; Rosenwaks, Salman

    2003-02-20

    The beam quality of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) within a singly resonant, confocal-positive branch unstable resonator is investigated. Resonator configurations have been found in which the beam quality of the outgoing signal exceeds the beam quality of the pump. Cavity magnification and pump-pulse duration are found to determine the signal beam quality. It is shown that signal M2 decreases with increasing pump-pulse duration for a given cavity magnification. In an experimental demonstration of a LiNbO3 OPO within an unstable resonator, pumped by a multitransversal mode beam, a signal beam with an almost-single transversal mode has been generated, whereas the multitransversal mode behavior of the pump beam is projected on the idler beam. PMID:12617222

  20. Cross-polarized photon-pair generation and bi-chromatically pumped optical parametric oscillation on a chip

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Caspani, Lucia; Wetzel, Benjamin; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes are one of the most important tools in modern optics with a broad spectrum of applications in, for example, frequency conversion, spectroscopy, signal processing and quantum optics. For practical and ultimately widespread implementation, on-chip devices compatible with electronic integrated circuit technology offer great advantages in terms of low cost, small footprint, high performance and low energy consumption. While many on-chip key components have been realized, to date polarization has not been fully exploited as a degree of freedom for integrated nonlinear devices. In particular, frequency conversion based on orthogonally polarized beams has not yet been demonstrated on chip. Here we show frequency mixing between orthogonal polarization modes in a compact integrated microring resonator and demonstrate a bi-chromatically pumped optical parametric oscillator. Operating the device above and below threshold, we directly generate orthogonally polarized beams, as well as photon pairs, respectively, that can find applications, for example, in optical communication and quantum optics. PMID:26364999

  1. Efficiency-enhanced mid-wave infrared beam generation at 3.8 μm with a seeded optical parametric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figen, Ziya G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we model the performance of a device with a simple architecture for high-power mid-wave infrared beam generation at a wavelength of 3.8 microns. We believe that this device can be used as an efficient frequency converter for an infrared countermeasure source. The device is a seeded idler efficiency-enhanced optical parametric generator (IEE-OPG) based on an aperiodically poled MgO-doped LiNbO3 (APMgLN) grating pumped by a high-repetition rate nanosecond-pulsed 1064-nm laser and seeded by a low-power 1478-nm distributed feedback diode laser. In the IEE-OPG, two optical parametric amplification (OPA) processes, OPA-1 and OPA-2, are simultaneously phase matched in a single APMgLN grating. The signal at 1478 nm is amplified and the idler at 3800 nm is generated as a result of OPA-1, the signal acts as the pump for OPA-2 and the conversion efficiency of the idler is enhanced as a result of OPA-2. Also, a difference-frequency beam at 2418 nm is generated. We characterized the device performance using a realistic model that takes the diffraction of the beams into account. We designed multiple aperiodic gratings with varying relative strengths of OPA-1 and OPA-2. For various crystal lengths, optimum relative strengths of the two processes and input pump power levels for achieving the maximum mid-wave infrared conversion efficiency and output power are determined. Efficiency-enhanced mid-wave infrared beam generating optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) based on AP- MgLN gratings were reported before. However, no attempt was made for the optimization of the relative strengths of the simultaneously phase-matched processes in these devices. Our model calculations show that it is possible to reach and exceed the mid-wave infrared conversion efficiencies of these OPOs by correctly choosing the design parameters of the seeded OPGs based on relatively long APMgLN gratings.

  2. Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator and system

    DOEpatents

    Lucht, Robert P.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Anderson, Thomas N.; Bougher, Thomas L.

    2007-10-09

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPO) and systems are provided. The OPO has a non-linear optical material located between two optical elements where the product of the reflection coefficients of the optical elements are higher at the output wavelength than at either the pump or idler wavelength. The OPO output may be amplified using an additional optical parametric amplifier (OPA) stage.

  3. Broadband sidebands generated by parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive experiments on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicucci, L.; Ding, B. J.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Giovannozzi, E.; Li, M. H.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern research on nuclear fusion energy, based on the tokamak concept, has strong need of tools for actively driving non-inductive current especially at the periphery of plasma column, where tools available so far have poor efficiency. This is essential for solving one of the most critical problems for thermonuclear reactor, consisting in how to achieve the figure of fusion gain in the context of sufficient stability. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect has the potential capability of driving current at large radii of reactor plasma with high efficiency [1]. Experiments recently carried out on EAST showed that a strong activity of LH sideband waves (from the RF probe spectra), accompanied by weak core penetration of the coupled LH power, is present when operating at relatively high plasma densities. Previous theoretical results, confirmed by experiments on FTU, showed that the LH sideband phenomenon is produced by parametric instability (PI), which are mitigated by higher plasma edge temperatures. This condition is thus useful for enabling the LH power propagation when operating with profiles having high plasma densities even at the edge. In the present work, we show new PI modeling of EAST plasmas data, obtained in condition of higher plasma edge temperature due to chamber lithisation. The obtained trend of the PI frequencies and growth rates is consistent with data of RF probe spectra, available in different regimes of lithisated and not lithisated vessel. Moreover, these spectra are interpreted as PI effect occurring at the periphery of plasma column, however in the low field side where the LH power is coupled.

  4. Broadband sidebands generated by parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive experiments on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Amicucci, L. Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Giovannozzi, E.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.

    2015-12-10

    Modern research on nuclear fusion energy, based on the tokamak concept, has strong need of tools for actively driving non-inductive current especially at the periphery of plasma column, where tools available so far have poor efficiency. This is essential for solving one of the most critical problems for thermonuclear reactor, consisting in how to achieve the figure of fusion gain in the context of sufficient stability. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect has the potential capability of driving current at large radii of reactor plasma with high efficiency [1]. Experiments recently carried out on EAST showed that a strong activity of LH sideband waves (from the RF probe spectra), accompanied by weak core penetration of the coupled LH power, is present when operating at relatively high plasma densities. Previous theoretical results, confirmed by experiments on FTU, showed that the LH sideband phenomenon is produced by parametric instability (PI), which are mitigated by higher plasma edge temperatures. This condition is thus useful for enabling the LH power propagation when operating with profiles having high plasma densities even at the edge. In the present work, we show new PI modeling of EAST plasmas data, obtained in condition of higher plasma edge temperature due to chamber lithisation. The obtained trend of the PI frequencies and growth rates is consistent with data of RF probe spectra, available in different regimes of lithisated and not lithisated vessel. Moreover, these spectra are interpreted as PI effect occurring at the periphery of plasma column, however in the low field side where the LH power is coupled.

  5. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  6. Non linear Quasi-Geostrophic thermal convection and dynamo in a rapidly rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardin, P.; Guervilly, C.

    2009-12-01

    Using a combination of a quasi-geostrophic (QG) model for the velocity field and a classical spectral 3D code for the temperature field, we compute thermal convective motions in a rapidly rotating full sphere. The QG flow is computed in the equatorial plane, whereas the temperature field is calculated within the full sphere. The coupling terms are evaluated by interpolating onto the 2D (equatorial) and 3D coarse grids. Our hybrid approach allows us to compute simulations at low Ekman numbers, low Prandtl numbers and explore the strongly non-linear regime currently inaccessible with purely 3D codes. We pay particular attention to the zonal winds generated by non-linear interactions between the convection columns. Understanding these zonal winds is especially relevant for the study of atmospheric layers of planets such as Jupiter and Saturn [1] and dynamo generation in convective dynamos. Moreover the 2D/3D approach has already been used successfully to obtain dynamos driven by a QG flow with a mechanical boundary forcing [2]. Following these ideas, we solve the magnetic induction equation in 3D to obtain dynamos for low Ekman, Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers. [1] Heimpel, M.H., Aurnou, J.M., Wicht, J., 2005. Simulation of equatorial and high-latitude jets on Jupiter in a deep convection model. Nature 438, 193-196. [2] Schaeffer, N. and Cardin, P., 2006. Quasi-geostrophic kinematic dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl number. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 245, 595-604.

  7. The non-linear evolution of the tearing mode in electromagnetic turbulence using gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, W. A.; Migliano, P.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S.; Weikl, A.; Zarzoso, D.; Casson, F. J.; Poli, E.; Peeters, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear evolution of a magnetic island is studied using the Vlasov gyro-kinetic code GKW. The interaction of electromagnetic turbulence with a self-consistently growing magnetic island, generated by a tearing unstable {{Δ }\\prime}>0 current profile, is considered. The turbulence is able to seed the magnetic island and bypass the linear growth phase by generating structures that are approximately an ion gyro-radius in width. The non-linear evolution of the island width and its rotation frequency, after this seeding phase, is found to be modified and is dependent on the value of the plasma beta and equilibrium pressure gradients. At low values of beta the island evolves largely independent of the turbulence, while at higher values the interaction has a dramatic effect on island growth, causing the island to grow exponentially at the growth rate of its linear phase, even though the island is larger than linear theory validity. The turbulence forces the island to rotate in the ion-diamagnetic direction as opposed to the electron diamagnetic direction in which it rotates when no turbulence is present. In addition, it is found that the mode rotation slows as the island grows in size.

  8. Generation of highly stable WDM time-bin entanglement by cascaded sum-frequency generation and spontaneous parametric downconversion in a PPLN waveguide device.

    PubMed

    Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Hironori

    2016-08-22

    In this paper we report the generation of wavelength-division-multiplexed, time-bin entangled photon pairs by using cascaded optical second nonlinearities (sum-frequency generation and subsequent spontaneous parametric downconversion) in a periodically poled LiNbO3 device. Visibilities of approximately 94% were clearly observed in two-photon interference experiments for all the wavelength-multiplexed channels under investigation (five pairs), with insensitivity to the polarization states of the photon pairs. We also evaluated the performances in terms of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) applications by using four single-photon detectors, which enables to evaluate the QKD performance properly. The results showed long-term stability over 70 hours, maintaining approximately 3% of the quantum error rate and 110 bit/s of the sifted key rate. PMID:27557236

  9. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions. PMID:26561090

  10. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

  11. Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay

    2013-04-01

    The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components

  12. Non-linear evolution of the cosmic neutrino background

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Peña-Garay, Carlos E-mail: spb@ias.edu E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the non-linear evolution of the relic cosmic neutrino background by running large box-size, high resolution N-body simulations which incorporate cold dark matter (CDM) and neutrinos as independent particle species. Our set of simulations explore the properties of neutrinos in a reference ΛCDM model with total neutrino masses between 0.05-0.60 eV in cold dark matter haloes of mass 10{sup 11}−10{sup 15} h{sup −1}M{sub s}un, over a redshift range z = 0−2. We compute the halo mass function and show that it is reasonably well fitted by the Sheth-Tormen formula, once the neutrino contribution to the total matter is removed. More importantly, we focus on the CDM and neutrino properties of the density and peculiar velocity fields in the cosmological volume, inside and in the outskirts of virialized haloes. The dynamical state of the neutrino particles depends strongly on their momentum: whereas neutrinos in the low velocity tail behave similarly to CDM particles, neutrinos in the high velocity tail are not affected by the clustering of the underlying CDM component. We find that the neutrino (linear) unperturbed momentum distribution is modified and mass and redshift dependent deviations from the expected Fermi-Dirac distribution are in place both in the cosmological volume and inside haloes. The neutrino density profiles around virialized haloes have been carefully investigated and a simple fitting formula is provided. The neutrino profile, unlike the cold dark matter one, is found to be cored with core size and central density that depend on the neutrino mass, redshift and mass of the halo, for halos of masses larger than ∼ 10{sup 13.5}h{sup −1}M{sub s}un. For lower masses the neutrino profile is best fitted by a simple power-law relation in the range probed by the simulations. The results we obtain are numerically converged in terms of neutrino profiles at the 10% level for scales above ∼ 200 h{sup −1}kpc at z = 0, and are stable with

  13. Cosmological non-linear hydrodynamics with post-Newtonian corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Puetzfeld, Dirk E-mail: hr@kasi.re.kr

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present general relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic equations in Newtonian-like forms using the post-Newtonian (PN) method. The PN approximation, based on the assumptions of weak gravitational fields and slow motions, provides a way to estimate general relativistic effects in the fully non-linear evolution stage of the large-scale cosmic structures. We extend Chandrasekhar's first-order PN (1PN) hydrodynamics based on the Minkowski background to the one based on the Robertson-Walker background. We assume the presence of Friedmann's cosmological spacetime as a background. In the background we include the 3-space curvature, the cosmological constant and general pressure. In the Newtonian order and 1PN order we include general pressure, stress, and flux. We show that the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations appear naturally in the 0PN order. The spatial gauge degree of freedom is fixed in a unique manner and the basic equations are arranged without taking the temporal gauge condition. In this way we can conveniently try alternative temporal gauge conditions depending on the mathematical convenience. We investigate a number of temporal gauge conditions under which all the remaining variables are equivalently gauge invariant. We show that compared with the action-at-a-distance nature of the Newtonian gravitational potential, 1PN corrections make the propagation speed of a perturbed potential dependent on the temporal gauge condition; we show that to 1PN order the physically relevant propagation speed of gravity is the same as the speed of light. Our aim is to present the fully non-linear cosmological 1PN equations in a form suitable for implementation in conventional Newtonian hydrodynamic simulations with minimal extensions. The 1PN terms can be considered as relativistic corrections added to the well-known Newtonian equations. The proper arrangement of the variables and equations in combination with suitable gauge conditions would allow

  14. STATISTICAL BASED NON-LINEAR MODEL UPDATING USING FEATURE EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.F.; Hemez, F.M.

    2000-10-01

    This research presents a new method to improve analytical model fidelity for non-linear systems. The approach investigates several mechanisms to assist the analyst in updating an analytical model based on experimental data and statistical analysis of parameter effects. The first is a new approach at data reduction called feature extraction. This is an expansion of the update metrics to include specific phenomena or character of the response that is critical to model application. This is an extension of the classical linear updating paradigm of utilizing the eigen-parameters or FRFs to include such devices as peak acceleration, time of arrival or standard deviation of model error. The next expansion of the updating process is the inclusion of statistical based parameter analysis to quantify the effects of uncertain or significant effect parameters in the construction of a meta-model. This provides indicators of the statistical variation associated with parameters as well as confidence intervals on the coefficients of the resulting meta-model, Also included in this method is the investigation of linear parameter effect screening using a partial factorial variable array for simulation. This is intended to aid the analyst in eliminating from the investigation the parameters that do not have a significant variation effect on the feature metric, Finally an investigation of the model to replicate the measured response variation is examined.

  15. Non-linear optical measurements using a scanned, Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.

    2015-03-01

    Oftentimes cells are removed from the body for disease diagnosis or cellular research. This typically requires fluorescent labeling followed by sorting with a flow cytometer; however, possible disruption of cellular function or even cell death due to the presence of the label can occur. This may be acceptable for ex vivo applications, but as cells are more frequently moving from the lab to the body, label-free methods of cell sorting are needed to eliminate these issues. This is especially true of the growing field of stem cell research where specialized cells are needed for treatments. Because differentiation processes are not completely efficient, cells must be sorted to eliminate any unwanted cells (i.e. un-differentiated or differentiated into an unwanted cell type). In order to perform label-free measurements, non-linear optics (NLO) have been increasingly utilized for single cell analysis because of their ability to not disrupt cellular function. An optical system was developed for the measurement of NLO in a microfluidic channel similar to a flow cytometer. In order to improve the excitation efficiency of NLO, a scanned Bessel beam was utilized to create a light-sheet across the channel. The system was tested by monitoring twophoton fluorescence from polystyrene microbeads of different sizes. Fluorescence intensity obtained from light-sheet measurements were significantly greater than measurements made using a static Gaussian beam. In addition, the increase in intensity from larger sized beads was more evident for the light-sheet system.

  16. Channel Capacity of Non-Linear Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Andrew D.; Zhao, Jian

    Since their introduction in the late 1970s, the capacity of optical communication links has grown exponentially, fuelled by a series of key innovations including movement between the three telecommunication windows of 850 nm, 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm, distributed feedback laser, erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs), dispersion-shifted and dispersion-managed fibre links, external modulation, wavelength division multiplexing, optical switching, forward error correction (FEC), Raman amplification, and most recently, coherent detection, electronic signal processing and optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Throughout this evolution, one constant factor has been the use of single-mode optical fibre, whose fundamental principles dated back to the 1800s, when Irish scientist, John Tyndall demonstrated in a lecture to the Royal Society in London that light could be guided through a curved stream of water [1]. Following many developments, including the proposal for waveguides by J.J. Thompson [2], the presentation of detailed calculations for dielectric waveguides by Snitzer [3], the proposal [4] and fabrication [5] of ultra low loss fibres, single-mode fibres were first adopted for non-experimental use in Dorset, UK in 1975, and are still in use today, despite the evolving designs to control chromatic dispersion and non-linearity.

  17. Non-linear modulation of short wavelength compressional Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B.; Bortolon, A.; Crocker, N. A.; Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H.

    2013-04-15

    Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to Almost-Equal-To 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n = 1 kink-like mode. In this paper, we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE) and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present a predator-prey type model of the curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.

  18. On classical mechanical systems with non-linear constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, Gláucio; Kobayashi, Marcelo H.

    2004-03-01

    In the present work, we analyze classical mechanical systems with non-linear constraints in the velocities. We prove that the d'Alembert-Chetaev trajectories of a constrained mechanical system satisfy both Gauss' principle of least constraint and Hölder's principle. In the case of a free mechanics, they also satisfy Hertz's principle of least curvature if the constraint manifold is a cone. We show that the Gibbs-Maggi-Appell (GMA) vector field (i.e. the second-order vector field which defines the d'Alembert-Chetaev trajectories) conserves energy for any potential energy if, and only if, the constraint is homogeneous (i.e. if the Liouville vector field is tangent to the constraint manifold). We introduce the Jacobi-Carathéodory metric tensor and prove Jacobi-Carathéodory's theorem assuming that the constraint manifold is a cone. Finally, we present a version of Liouville's theorem on the conservation of volume for the flow of the GMA vector field.

  19. Non linear processes modulated by low doses of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Alloni, Daniele; Babini, Gabriele; Morini, Jacopo; Baiocco, Giorgio

    The perturbation induced by radiation impinging on biological targets can stimulate the activation of several different pathways, spanning from the DNA damage processing to intra/extra -cellular signalling. In the mechanistic investigation of radiobiological damage this complex “system” response (e.g. omics, signalling networks, micro-environmental modifications, etc.) has to be taken into account, shifting from a focus on the DNA molecule solely to a systemic/collective view. An additional complication comes from the finding that the individual response of each of the involved processes is often not linear as a function of the dose. In this context, a systems biology approach to investigate the effects of low dose irradiations on intra/extra-cellular signalling will be presented, where low doses of radiation act as a mild perturbation of a robustly interconnected network. Results obtained through a multi-level investigation of both DNA damage repair processes (e.g. gamma-H2AX response) and of the activation kinetics for intra/extra cellular signalling pathways (e.g. NFkB activation) show that the overall cell response is dominated by non-linear processes - such as negative feedbacks - leading to possible non equilibrium steady states and to a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Together with experimental data of radiation perturbed pathways, different modelling approaches will be also discussed.

  20. Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten

    2014-02-27

    Different calibration techniques are available for spectroscopic applications that show nonlinear behavior. This comprehensive comparative study presents a comparison of different nonlinear calibration techniques: kernel PLS (KPLS), support vector machines (SVM), least-squares SVM (LS-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non-linear models on linear problems, robustness to small or medium sample sets, and robustness to pre-processing, are discussed. The results suggest that GPR and BANN are powerful and promising methods for handling linear as well as nonlinear systems, even when the data sets are moderately small. The LS-SVM is also attractive due to its good predictive performance for both linear and nonlinear calibrations.

  1. Organic non-linear optics and opto-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Santillán, R.; Farfán, N.

    2010-12-01

    π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers are of great importance in physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. It is expected that, in the near future, organic materials will find widespread use in many technological applications. In the case of organic opto-electronic systems, the list of devices includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), field-effect transistors (OFET), photorefractive materials for light manipulation, among others. These materials are also used for photonic applications: all-optical switching, modulators, optical correlators, plastic waveguides, all polymeric integrated circuits, solid-state lasers, and for biophotonic applications as in the case of the development of organic labels for multiphoton microscopy and photodynamic therapy. The advances in the developing of organic compounds with better mechanical, electrical, and optical (linear and non-linear) characteristics are of a great importance for this field. Here, we present the research on this area carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óp-tica (CIO), in collaboration with Chemistry Departments of different institutions. This work focuses on the optical characterization of materials through several techniques such as TOF, FWM, TBC, THG Maker Fringes, HRS, Z-scan, and TPEF. Additionally, some applications, such as dynamic holography by using photorefractive polymers, and OPVs cells will be discussed.

  2. Multigrid approaches to non-linear diffusion problems on unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the nonlinearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) multigrid method which is used to solve the non-linear equations directly, a linear multigrid method which is used to solve the linear system arising from a Newton linearization of the non-linear system, and a hybrid scheme which is based on a non-linear FAS multigrid scheme, but employs a linear solver on each level as a smoother. Results indicate that all methods are equally effective at converging the non-linear residual in a given number of grid sweeps, but that the linear solver is more efficient in cpu time due to the lower cost of linear versus non-linear grid sweeps.

  3. Technique for enhancing the power output of an electrostatic generator employing parametric resonance

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2016-02-23

    A circuit-based technique enhances the power output of electrostatic generators employing an array of axially oriented rods or tubes or azimuthal corrugated metal surfaces for their electrodes. During generator operation, the peak voltage across the electrodes occurs at an azimuthal position that is intermediate between the position of minimum gap and maximum gap. If this position is also close to the azimuthal angle where the rate of change of capacity is a maximum, then the highest rf power output possible for a given maximum allowable voltage at the minimum gap can be attained. This rf power output is then coupled to the generator load through a coupling condenser that prevents suppression of the dc charging potential by conduction through the load. Optimized circuit values produce phase shifts in the rf output voltage that allow higher power output to occur at the same voltage limit at the minimum gap position.

  4. Non-linear multivariate curve resolution analysis of voltammetric pH titrations.

    PubMed

    Díaz Cruz, José Manuel; Sanchís, Josep; Chekmeneva, Elena; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2010-07-01

    A new chemometric approach is put forward, dealing with the non-linear behaviour observed in the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis of certain overlapping voltammetric signals obtained in titrations of metal complexes where pH is progressively changed. In such cases, non-reversible reduction signals move along the potential axis as a consequence of the involvement of H(+)-ions in the electrochemical process and cause a dramatic loss of linearity, which hinders accurate MCR analysis. The method proposed is based on the least-squares fitting of peak potential vs. pH datasets to parametric linear and sigmoid functions through the decomposition of the data matrix into both a concentration profile matrix and a unit signal matrix, in a similar way as in the alternating least-squares algorithm of MCR (ALS). Such calculations are carried out through several home-made Matlab programs which are freely available as Supplementary Material of the present work. The fitted parameters, along with the evolution of resolved concentrations and potential shifts with pH, provide valuable information on the complexation/reduction processes. The method is tested first on the relatively simple Cd(II)-NTA system and then applied to the study of the binding of Cd(II)-ions by glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly, GSH) and the phytochelatin PC(2) ((gamma-Glu-Cys)(2)-Gly).

  5. Possible factors determining the non-linearity in the VO2-power output relationship in humans: theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2003-08-01

    At low power output exercise (below lactate threshold), the oxygen uptake increases linearly with power output, but at high power output exercise (above lactate threshold) some additional oxygen consumption causes a non-linearity in the overall VO(2) (oxygen uptake rate)-power output relationship. The functional significance of this phenomenon for human exercise tolerance is very important, but the mechanisms underlying it remain unknown. In the present work, a computer model of oxidative phosphorylation in intact skeletal muscle developed previously is used to examine the background of this relationship in different modes of exercise. Our simulations demonstrate that the non-linearity in the VO(2)-power output relationship and the difference in the magnitude of this non-linearity between incremental exercise mode and square-wave exercise mode (constant power output exercise) can be generated by introducing into the model some hypothetical factor F (group of associated factors) that accumulate(s) in time during exercise. The performed computer simulations, based on this assumption, give proper time courses of changes in VO(2) and [PCr] after an onset of work of different intensities, including the slow component in VO(2), well matching the experimental results. Moreover, if it is assumed that the exercise terminates because of fatigue when the amount/intensity of F exceed some threshold value, the model allows the generation of a proper shape of the well-known power-duration curve. This fact suggests that the phenomenon of the non-linearity of the VO(2)-power output relationship and the magnitude of this non-linearity in different modes of exercise is determined by some factor(s) responsible for muscle fatigue.

  6. A non-linear aeroelastic model for the study of flapping-wing flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larijani, Rambod Fayaz

    A non-linear aeroelastic model for the study of flapping-wing flight is presented. This model has been developed to simulate the fully stalled and attached aerodynamic behaviour of a flapping wing and can account for any forcing function. An implicit unconditionally-stable time-marching method known as the Newmark method is used to accurately model the non-linear stalled and attached flow regimes. An iteration procedure is performed at each time step to eliminate any errors associated with the temporal discretization process. A finite element formulation is used to model the elastic behaviour of the wing which is composed of a leading edge composite spar and light-weight rigid ribs covered with fabric. A viscous damping model is used to simulate the structural damping of the wing. The Newmark code generates instantaneous lift and thrust values as well as torsional and bending moments along the wing span. Average lift values are in good agreement with experimental results obtained from tests performed on a scaled down model of the ornithopter at the NRC wind tunnel in Ottawa. Furthermore, bending and twisting moments obtained from strain gages embedded in the full-scale ornithopter's wing spar show that the predicted instantaneous moments are also quite accurate. Also, comparisons with experimental data show that the Newmark code can accurately predict the twisting behaviour of the wing for zero forward speed as well as cruise conditions.

  7. Non-linear response in optical materials using ultra-short laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenasi, David

    2007-02-01

    Ultra-short lasers at elevated peek powers combined with fairly moderate single pulse energies are able to induce very interesting non-linear optical interaction channels, such as multi-photon absorption, self-phase modulation and self focusing. These non-linear optical effects can be utilized to obtain surprising material reactions inside the bulk of optical dielectrics. With a certain degree of physical understanding and engineering experience, the material reaction can be controlled and optimized to generate e.g. internal markings, wave guides, 3d data storages or diffractive optical elements. As an example, laser-induced coloring of several type of glasses have been obtained at ultra-short bulk excitation, showing a strong resemblance to surface defects observed in most glasses after ionizing (e.g. X- and gamma-ray) hard radiation treatment. These laser-induced "color-centers" can alter the optical properties in dispersion and extinction locally in a well-defined volume, which can be described as a local change in the complex refractory index (n+ik). The implementation of this new technology can be characterized as "nik-engineering". New experimental results on laser-induced sub-surface modifications utilizing near infrared femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses inside different types of transparent dielectrics are presented and discussed in respect to the potential of "nik-engineering".

  8. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Cancer Therapy--harnessing its non-linearity

    SciTech Connect

    Haar, Gail ter

    2008-06-24

    In medicine in general, and for cancer treatments in particular, there is a drive to find effective non-invasive therapies. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) represents one such technique. In principle, it is simple--a high energy ultrasound beam is brought to a tight focus within a target which may lie several centimetres below the skin surface (for example, in a tumour of the liver), and is used to destroy a selected tissue volume. The main mechanism for cell killing in a HIFU beam is heat. Ultrasound energy absorption is frequency dependent, the higher frequencies being absorbed most strongly. Significant thermal advantage may therefore be gained from non-linear propagation, which generates higher harmonics, in tissue. Acoustic cavitation and thermal exsolution of gas (boiling) also contribute to tissue damage. This activity leads to the local mechanical disruption of cells. In addition, the non-linear oscillation of these bubbles leads to enhanced energy deposition. The acoustic emissions from such bubbles are characteristic of their behaviour and may be correlated to some extent with the appearance of the disruption produced. The more widespread clinical acceptance of HIFU is awaiting faster, and more efficient, energy delivery and treatment monitoring. A better understanding of the nonlinear aspects of HIFU propagation in tissue is thus important if this technique is to benefit more patients.

  9. Non-linear Collective Oscillations of Electrons in a Diamagnetic Kepler Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godino, Joseph; Kunhardt, Erich; Carr, Wayne

    2001-10-01

    The Diamagnetic Kepler Trap is a potential energy well that arises from a static Coulomb potential in a superimposed uniform magnetic field. In an experimental arrangement with this configuration, we generate a system of electrons and ions by ionization of the neutral background gas that has a typical density of 10^12 particles per cubic centimeter. The lifetime of the trapped electrons is sufficiently long that we can observe collective oscillations. Here, we examine these oscillations by coupling a probe to the plasma and measuring the induced current. We find that as we deepen the potential energy well these oscillations progress through a sequence of linear, non-linear and chaotic behavior. Using the photographs of the light emission from the excited neutrals, we observe that the non-linearity of the collective oscillations results from an increase in the trapped electron density that moves in a direction parallel to the magnetic field lines. From the FFT of the induced current, we find that the transition from linearity to chaos occurs through intermittent fluctuations in the measured signal that are manifest in the broadening of the spectrum. Since the applied sphere voltage never collapses, the electrons remain trapped in the potential energy well and we conclude that the chaos results from a breakdown of the collective behavior into that of many individual singly trapped electrons.

  10. Inference of dense spectral reflectance images from sparse reflectance measurement using non-linear regression modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2015-09-01

    One method to acquire multispectral images is to sequentially capture a series of images where each image contains information from a different bandwidth of light. Another method is to use a series of beamsplitters and dichroic filters to guide different bandwidths of light onto different cameras. However, these methods are very time consuming and expensive and perform poorly in dynamic scenes or when observing transient phenomena. An alternative strategy to capturing multispectral data is to infer this data using sparse spectral reflectance measurements captured using an imaging device with overlapping bandpass filters, such as a consumer digital camera using a Bayer filter pattern. Currently the only method of inferring dense reflectance spectra is the Wiener adaptive filter, which makes Gaussian assumptions about the data. However, these assumptions may not always hold true for all data. We propose a new technique to infer dense reflectance spectra from sparse spectral measurements through the use of a non-linear regression model. The non-linear regression model used in this technique is the random forest model, which is an ensemble of decision trees and trained via the spectral characterization of the optical imaging system and spectral data pair generation. This model is then evaluated by spectrally characterizing different patches on the Macbeth color chart, as well as by reconstructing inferred multispectral images. Results show that the proposed technique can produce inferred dense reflectance spectra that correlate well with the true dense reflectance spectra, which illustrates the merits of the technique.

  11. Non-linear dynamical analysis of crack surface perturbations and their dependence on velocity and direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Dov; Be'ery, Ilan

    2004-04-01

    The fracture surfaces of single crystal [1 0 0] silicon specimens, fractured under three-point bending (3PB) and subjected to a high strain energy upon cracking, revealed exceptional surface perturbations, generated during the unstable propagation. While macroscopically the crack is propagating on the (1 1 1) low energy cleavage plane, microscopic examination revealed small angled deviations from and fluctuations along that plane. Furthermore, while the crack is propagating at a velocity of nearly 3000 m/s in the [1 1¯ 0] direction, its velocity in the [1 1 2¯] direction is two orders of magnitude lower, with distinctive surface perturbations. The amplitude and complexity of the perturbations increase as the normal velocity vector changes its direction and magnitude. These perturbations were recorded with a profilometer and analyzed using non-linear dynamical analysis tools. This study provides an opportunity to interpret surface phenomena of one of the most general cases of fracture and to study the effect of major variables on the nature of the perturbations involved, such as the local crack tip velocity and the crystallographic orientations. It is shown that the surface perturbations are chaotic deterministic in nature and can be described by high order non-linear differential equations; the order of the equation varying with the variations of the local velocity and direction.

  12. Ultrafast Rotation of Light Fields Applied to Highly Non-Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéré, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    Femtosecond laser beams can exhibit spatio-temporal couplings (STC), i.e. a temporal dependence of their spatial properties, or vice versa. Although these couplings have long been considered as detrimental for high-intensity and ultrafast experiments, moderate and controlled STC provide a powerful means of controlling high-intensity laser-matter interactions. This talk will first explain the basics of a particular STC, where the propagation direction of laser light rotates in time on the femtosecond time scale. Laser pulses with such ultrafast wavefront rotation can be used to generate attosecond pulses of light through non-linear optical processes. We show that these pulses, periodically generated in each laser cycle, can then be emitted in spatially separated beamlets. This effects provides a new type of light sources called attosecond lighthouses, and can be exploited for ultrafast measurements with femtosecond resolution, in a scheme called photonic streaking.

  13. Highly non-linear solid core photonic crystal fiber with one nano hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Bhardwaj, Vanita; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The numerical study of newly designed solid core photonic crystal fiber (SCPCF) having three hexagonal air hole rings in cladding region and one small nano hole at the center are presented. By using full vectorial finite element method (FV-FEM), we analyses the optical properties like effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss of the proposed PCF. Results show that the change in core diameter controls the effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss. A low effective area (3.34 µm2), high nonlinearity (36.34 W-1km-1) and low confinement loss (0.00106 dB/km) are achieved at the communication wavelength 1.55 µm for the SCPCF having core air hole diameter 0.10 µm, cladding air holes diameter 1.00 µm and pitch 2.50 µm. This type of PCF is very useful in non-linear applications such as supercontinuum generation, four wave mixing, second harmonic generation etc.

  14. Wave Driven Non-linear Flow Oscillator for the 22-Year Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Wolff, Charles L.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the Earth's atmosphere, a zonal flow oscillation is observed with periods between 20 and 32 months, the Quasi Biennial Oscillation. This oscillation does not require external time dependent forcing but is maintained by non-linear wave momentum deposition. It is proposed that such a mechanism also drives long-period oscillations in planetary and stellar interiors. We apply this mechanism to generate a flow oscillation for the 22-year solar cycle. The oscillation would occur just below the convective envelope where waves can propagate. Using scale analysis, we present results from a simplified model that incorporates Hines' gravity wave parameterization. Wave amplitudes less than 10 m/s can produce reversing zonal flows of 25 m/s that should be sufficient to generate a corresponding oscillation in the poloidal magnetic field. Low buoyancy frequency and the associated increase in turbulence help to produce the desired oscillation period of the flow.

  15. Experimental Studies of Multi-Species Pure Ion Plasmas: Cyclotron Modes, Long-Range Collisional Drag, and Non-Linear Langmuir Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, Matthew

    Cyclotron modes are studied on rigid rotor, multi-species ion plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap. Collective effects and radial electric fields shift the cyclotron mode frequencies away from the ''bare'' cyclotron frequencies for each species s. These frequency shifts are measured on the distinct cyclotron modes (m = 0, 1, and 2) with sinusoidal azimuthal dependence. We find that the frequency shifts corroborate a simple theory expression in which collective effects enter only through the ExB rotation frequency and the species fraction, when the plasma is radially uniform. At ultra-low temperatures, these plasmas exhibit centrifugal separation by mass, and additional frequency shifts are observed in agreement with a more general theory. Additionally, quantitative measurements of the plasma heating from short resonant cyclotron bursts are found to be proportional to the species fraction. These cyclotron modes are used as a diagnostic tool to estimate the plasma composition, in order to investigate the damping of Langmuir waves due to inter-species collisions. Experiments and theory of this collisional inter-species drag damping are presented. This also provides the first experimental confirmation of recent theory predicting enhanced collisional slowing due to long-range collisions. Drag damping theory, proportional to the collisional slowing rate, is in quantitative agreement with the experimental results only when these long-range collisions are included, exceeding classical collision calculations by as much as an order of magnitude. At large wave amplitudes, Langmuir waves exhibit harmonic generation, non-linear frequency shifts, and a parametric decay instability, which are experimentally investigated. The parametric wave-wave coupling rates are in agreement with three-wave instability theory in the dispersion dominated oscillatory coupling regime, and in the phase-locked exponential decay regime. However, significant variations are observed near the

  16. Cuspidal caustic and focusing of acoustical waves generated by a parametric array onto a concave reflecting surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnède, Bernard; Sahraoui, Sohbi; Tournat, Vincent; Tahani, Najat

    2009-09-01

    The present Note is devoted to the study of the so-called cuspidal caustic at the surface of a hemi-cylindrical reflector illuminated with plane waves. In order to generate low frequency (e.g. in the range of 4 kHz) acoustical plane waves, a commercially available parametric array has been used. It produces powerful ultrasonic carrier waves at 40 kHz which can be electronically modulated between 200 Hz and 10 kHz. Further self-demodulation process during propagation in air generates an ultra-directive acoustical field (i.e. quasi-planar wavefronts) enabling to accurately study the focusing process occurring along the cuspidal caustic. The focusing coefficient can be computed locally by using two numerical tools, on one hand by computing the density of tangent rays to the caustic, and on the other hand by using some numerical results provided by a ray tracing algorithm. Some preliminary experimental data are then provided in order to validate the numerical predictions (spatial position of the caustic and focusing coefficient). To cite this article: B. Castagnède et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  17. Non-Linear Pattern Formation in Bone Growth and Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here – chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) – which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of “group intelligence” exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called “particle swarm optimization” (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating “socially” in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or “feedback” between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the

  18. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  19. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  20. Phenomenon of Life: Between Equilibrium and Non-Linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.

    2004-12-01

    A model of ordering applicable to biological evolution is presented. It is shown that a steady state (more precisely approaching to a steady state) system of irreversible processes, under conditions of disproportionation of entropy, produces a lower-entropy product, that is, ordering. The ordering is defined as restricting of degrees of freedom: freedom of motion, interactions etc. The model differs from previous ones in that it relates the ordering to processes running not far from equilibrium, described in the linear field of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that a system, which includes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) conversion meets the demands of the physical model: it provides energy maintaining steady state conditions, and hydrolysis of ATP proceeding with consumption of water can be tightly conjugated with the most important reactions of synthesis of organic polymers (peptides, nucleotide chains etc.), which proceed with release of water. For these and other reasons ATP seems to be a key molecule of prebiotic evolution. It is argued that the elementary chemical reaction proceeding under control of an enzyme is not necessarily far from equilibrium. The experimental evidence supporting this idea, is presented. It is based on isotope data. Carbon isotope distribution in biochemical systems reveals regularity, which is inherent to steady state systems of chemical reactions, proceeding not far from equilibrium. In living organisms this feature appears at the statistical level, as many completely irreversible and non-linear processes occur in organisms. However not-far-from-equilibrium reactions are inherent to biochemical systems as a matter of principle. They are reconcilable with biochemical behavior. Extant organisms are highly evolved entities which, however, show in their basis the same features, as the simplest chemical systems must have had been involved in the origin of life. Some consequences following from the

  1. Parametric numerical investigaion of natural convection in a heat-generating fluid with phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenova, A.E.; Chudanov, V.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vabishchevich, P.N.

    1995-09-01

    Unsteady natural convection of a heat-generating fluid with phase transitions in the enclosures of a square section with isothermal rigid walls is investigated numerically for a wide range of dimensionless parameters. The quasisteady state solutions of conjugate heat and mass transfer problem are compared with available experimental results. Correlation relations for heat flux distributions at the domain boundaries depending on Rayleigh and Ostrogradskii numbers are obtained. It is shown that generally heat transfer is governed both by natural circulation and crust formation phenomena. Results of this paper may be used for analysis of experiments with prototypic core materials.

  2. Localized parallel parametric generation of spin waves in a Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} waveguide by spatial variation of the pumping field

    SciTech Connect

    Brächer, T.; Pirro, P.; Heussner, F.; Serga, A. A.; Hillebrands, B.

    2014-03-03

    We present the experimental observation of localized parallel parametric generation of spin waves in a transversally in-plane magnetized Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} magnonic waveguide. The localization is realized by combining the threshold character of parametric generation with a spatially confined enhancement of the amplifying microwave field. The latter is achieved by modulating the width of the microstrip transmission line which is used to provide the pumping field. By employing microfocussed Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we analyze the spatial distribution of the generated spin waves and compare it with numerical calculations of the field distribution along the Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} waveguide. This provides a local spin-wave excitation in transversally in-plane magnetized waveguides for a wide wave-vector range which is not restricted by the size of the generation area.

  3. Parametric investigation of boundary layer control using triangular micro vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Milad; Muslmani, Motassem Al; Masood, Asad; Khosravi, Mahmood; Atef Mahmoud, Mohamed; Cardoz, Aniket; Akkuwari, Abdulrahman; Alanezi, Yusuf; Kim, Young

    2014-03-01

    Improving the aerodynamic performance of an airfoil is one of the primary interests of the Aerodynamicists. Such performance improvement can be achieved using passive or active flow control devices. One of such passive devices having a compact size along with an effective performance is the Micro Vortex Generators (MVGs). A special type of MVGs, which has been recently introduced in the aerospace industry, is "Triangular Shape" MVGs and its impact on aerodynamic characteristics is the main interest of this study. This study will compare the effects of various configurations through which delay of the flow separation using boundary layer control will be analysed by experimental and theoretical approach. The experimental investigations have been conducted using subsonic wind tunnel and the theoretical analysis using ANSYS® 13.0 FLUENT of which the final results are compared with each other.

  4. Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

  5. Demonstration of optical parametric gain generation in the 1 μm regime based on a photonic crystal fiber pumped by a picosecond mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Si-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Jian; Gou, Dou-Dou; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ming-Hua; Xie, Shi-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of the optical parametric gain generation in the 1 μm regime based on a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a zero group velocity dispersion (GVD) wavelength of 1062 nm pumped by a homemade tunable picosecond mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser. A broad parametric gain band is obtained by pumping the PCF in the anomalous GVD regime with a relatively low power. Two separated narrow parametric gain bands are observed by pumping the PCF in the normal GVD regime. The peak of the parametric gain profile can be tuned from 927 to 1038 nm and from 1099 to 1228 nm. This widely tunable parametric gain band can be used for a broad band optical parametric amplifier, large span wavelength conversion or a tunable optical parametric oscillator.

  6. Optoacoustic detection of different doping substances commonly used by athletes with an optical parametric generation laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Cornelia; Bartlome, Richard; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we present first results of a spectral characterisation of doping substances using a resonant optoacoustic cell and a Nd:YAG laser pumped optical parametric generation (OPG) laser source in the mid-infrared wavelength range between 3.0 and 4.0 μm with periodically poled LiNbO3 as nonlinear medium for the frequency conversion. Single spectra covering a wavelength range of about 220 nm can be conducted within less than 2 hours (3s averaging time, 7s between consecutive data points, about 0.3nm step-width). Despite the large linewidth of the OPG source of 240 GHz (8 cm-1), the laser spectrometer is well suited for the spectral analysis of these large organic molecules as they exhibit structured continuum absorption over a wide spectral range rather than isolated absorption peaks. We present measured spectra of ephedrine, alprenolol, ethacrynic acid, etc. and discuss the potential of laser-based detection of doping substances both as a supplement to existing methods and in view of a fast in situ screening technique at sporting events.

  7. Obtaining General Relativity's N-body non-linear Lagrangian from iterative, linear algebraic scaling equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordtvedt, K.

    2015-11-01

    A local system of bodies in General Relativity whose exterior metric field asymptotically approaches the Minkowski metric effaces any effects of the matter distribution exterior to its Minkowski boundary condition. To enforce to all orders this property of gravity which appears to hold in nature, a method using linear algebraic scaling equations is developed which generates by an iterative process an N-body Lagrangian expansion for gravity's motion-independent potentials which fulfills exterior effacement along with needed metric potential expansions. Then additional properties of gravity - interior effacement and Lorentz time dilation and spatial contraction - produce additional iterative, linear algebraic equations for obtaining the full non-linear and motion-dependent N-body gravity Lagrangian potentials as well.

  8. Mean Field Strategies Induce Unrealistic Non-Linearities in Calcium Puffs

    PubMed Central

    Solovey, Guillermo; Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2011-01-01

    Mean field models are often useful approximations to biological systems, but sometimes, they can yield misleading results. In this work, we compare mean field approaches with stochastic models of intracellular calcium release. In particular, we concentrate on calcium signals generated by the concerted opening of several clustered channels (calcium puffs). To this end we simulate calcium puffs numerically and then try to reproduce features of the resulting calcium distribution using mean field models were all the channels open and close simultaneously. We show that an unrealistic non-linear relationship between the current and the number of open channels is needed to reproduce the simulated puffs. Furthermore, a single channel current which is five times smaller than the one of the stochastic simulations is also needed. Our study sheds light on the importance of the stochastic kinetics of the calcium release channel activity to estimate the release fluxes. PMID:21869877

  9. The cosmic microwave background bispectrum from the non-linear evolution of the cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Bernardeau, Francis E-mail: uzan@iap.fr

    2010-07-01

    This article presents the first computation of the complete bispectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies arising from the evolution of all cosmic fluids up to second order, including neutrinos. Gravitational couplings, electron density fluctuations and the second order Boltzmann equation are fully taken into account. Comparison to limiting cases that appeared previously in the literature are provided. These are regimes for which analytical insights can be given. The final results are expressed in terms of equivalent f{sub NL} for different configurations. It is found that for moments up to l{sub max} = 2000, the signal generated by non-linear effects is equivalent to f{sub NL} ≅ 5 for both local-type and equilateral-type primordial non-Gaussianity.

  10. Ultra-slim plastic endomicroscope objective for non-linear microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kyrish, Matthew; Utzinger, Urs; Descour, Michael R.; Baggett, Brenda K.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Non-linear microscopy has the potential to provide clinically useful information on the structure of biological tissue in vivo via an endomicroscope. The ability to use plastic as the optical material in a multiphoton objective was evaluated based on several criteria including autofluorescence, injection molding induced birefringence, and pulse broadening due to group velocity dispersion. An all-plastic, refractive ultra-slim endoscope objective was built with design specifications of NA = 0.4, FOV = 250 μm, 1.27 mm outer diameter, and 0.8 mm clear aperture. Initial images of second-harmonic generation signal (illumination at 780 nm) in collagen fibers and two-photon excited fluorescence (illumination at 920 nm) of Convallaria rhizome are reported. PMID:21503069

  11. Non-linear plasma effects on laser-induced terahertz emission from the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Jin, Z.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.

    2012-02-01

    Power, spectral characteristics, and angle distribution of terahertz (THz) radiation from air irradiated by a single (ω) or coupled (ω, 2ω) femtosecond laser pulses are analyzed for higher intensities, for which non-linear plasma effects on the pulse propagation become essential, by means of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations exploiting the self-consistent plasma kinetics. THz radiation is shown to be a result of beat waves generated at ionization front with fundamental and second harmonic waves. At lower intensities, the THz power growth is far faster than the linear; at pulse intensities over I > 1015 W/cm2, the power increases slower than the linear. Along with the forward emission, strong power in around 30o angles occurs at high intensities. Ionization of air results in poor focusing of laser pulses and, therefore, lower efficiency of THz emission.

  12. Synthesis, crystal growth and studies on non-linear optical property of new chalcones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.; Ashalatha, B. V.; Indira, J.; Lobo, K. G.

    2006-09-01

    The synthesis, crystal growth and non-linear optical (NLO) property of new chalcone derivatives are reported. 4-Propyloxy and 4-butoxy benzaldehydes were made to under go Claisen-Schmidt condensation with 4-methoxy, 4-nitro and 4-phenoxy acetophenones to form corresponding chalcones. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral data. The Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of these compounds was measured by powder technique using Nd:YAG laser. Among tested compounds three chalcones showed NLO property. The chalcone 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-propyloxy phenyl)-2-propen-1-one exhibited SHG conversion efficiency 2.7 times that of urea. The bulk crystal of 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one (crystal size 65×28×15 mm 3) was grown by slow-evaporation technique from acetone. Microhardness of the crystal was tested by Vicker's microhardness method.

  13. Non-linear power law approach for spatial and temporal pattern analysis of salt marsh evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Cornacchia, L.; Valentini, E.; Bozzeda, F.

    2013-11-01

    Many complex systems on the Earth surface show non-equilibrium fluctuations, often determining the spontaneous evolution towards a critical state. In this context salt marshes are characterized by complex patterns both in geomorphological and ecological features, which often appear to be strongly correlated. A striking feature in salt marshes is vegetation distribution, which can self-organize in patterns over time and space. Self-organized patchiness of vegetation can often give rise to power law relationships in the frequency distribution of patch sizes. In cases where the whole distribution does not follow a power law, the variance of scale in its tail may often be disregarded. To this end, the research aims at how changes in the main climatic and hydrodynamic variables may influence such non-linearity, and how numerical thresholds can describe this. Since it would be difficult to simultaneously monitor the presence and typology of vegetation and channel sinuosity through in situ data, and even harder to analyze them over medium to large time-space scales, remote sensing offers the ability to analyze the scale invariance of patchiness distributions. Here, we focus on a densely vegetated and channelized salt marsh (Scheldt estuary Belgium-the Netherlands) by means of the sub-pixel analysis on satellite images to calculate the non-linearity in the values of the power law exponents due to the variance of scale. The deviation from power laws represents stochastic conditions under climate drivers that can be hybridized on the basis of a fuzzy Bayesian generative algorithm. The results show that the hybrid approach is able to simulate the non-linearity inherent to the system and clearly show the existence of a link between the autocorrelation level of the target variable (i.e. size of vegetation patches), due to its self-organization properties, and the influence exerted on it by the external drivers (i.e. climate and hydrology). Considering the results of the

  14. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and non-linear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Jessica C.; Ugryumova, Nadya; Knapp, Karen M.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2006-09-01

    Equine articular cartilage has been imaged using both polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and non-linear microscopy. PS-OCT has been used to spatially map the birefringence in the cartilage and we have found that in the vicinity of the lesion the images display a characteristic disruption in the regular birefringence bands shown by normal cartilage. We also note that significant (e.g. x2) variations in the apparent birefringence of samples taken from young (18 month) animals that otherwise appear visually homogeneous are found over spatial scales of a few millimeters. We have also imaged the cartilage using non-linear microscopy and compare the scans taken with second harmonic generation (SHG) light and the two photon fluorescence (TPF) light. SHG images collected using 800 nm excitation reveals the spatial distribution of collagen fibers, whilst TPF images clearly shows the distribution of intracellular and pericellular fluorophores.

  15. Low-threshold all-fiber 1000 nm supercontinuum source based on highly non-linear fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, Anne; Fotiadi, Andrei; Mégret, Patrice; Maillotte, Hervé; Sylvestre, Thibaut

    2008-08-01

    We present an highly efficient all-fiber compact supercontinuum source that exhibits a nearly flat spectrum from 1.1 μm to 2.1 μm. This broadband infrared optical source is made-up of a highly non-linear fiber pumped by a 1.55 μm self-Q-switched Er-Brillouin nanosecond pulsed fiber laser, which in turn is pumped by a low-power 1480 nm laser diode. In this work we highlight the great potential of highly non-linear fiber for supercontinuum generation with respect to conventional dispersion-shifted fiber by demonstrating a significant 10 dB power enhancement in the short wavelength side of the supercontinuum.

  16. Toward accurate modelling of the non-linear matter bispectrum: standard perturbation theory and transients from initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullagh, Nuala; Jeong, Donghui; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate modelling of non-linearities in the galaxy bispectrum, the Fourier transform of the galaxy three-point correlation function, is essential to fully exploit it as a cosmological probe. In this paper, we present numerical and theoretical challenges in modelling the non-linear bispectrum. First, we test the robustness of the matter bispectrum measured from N-body simulations using different initial conditions generators. We run a suite of N-body simulations using the Zel'dovich approximation and second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) at different starting redshifts, and find that transients from initial decaying modes systematically reduce the non-linearities in the matter bispectrum. To achieve 1 per cent accuracy in the matter bispectrum at z ≤ 3 on scales k < 1 h Mpc-1, 2LPT initial conditions generator with initial redshift z ≳ 100 is required. We then compare various analytical formulas and empirical fitting functions for modelling the non-linear matter bispectrum, and discuss the regimes for which each is valid. We find that the next-to-leading order (one-loop) correction from standard perturbation theory matches with N-body results on quasi-linear scales for z ≥ 1. We find that the fitting formula in Gil-Marín et al. accurately predicts the matter bispectrum for z ≤ 1 on a wide range of scales, but at higher redshifts, the fitting formula given in Scoccimarro & Couchman gives the best agreement with measurements from N-body simulations.

  17. Structural, optical and dielectric studies of novel non-linear Bisglycine Lithium Nitrate piezoelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Sinha, Nidhi; Kumar, Binay

    2014-11-01

    The novel non-linear semiorganic Bisglycine Lithium Nitrate (BGLiN) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The structural analysis revealed that it belongs to non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic structure. The presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal was confirmed by FTIR and Raman analysis. Surface morphology of the grown crystal was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The optical studies show that crystal has good transmittance (more than 80%) in the entire visible region and a wide band gap (5.17 eV). The optical constants such as extinction coefficient (K), the reflectance (R) and refractive index (n) as a function of photon energy were calculated from the optical measurements. With the help of these optical constants the electric susceptibility (χc) and both the real (εr) and imaginary (εi) parts of the dielectric constants were also calculated which are required to develop optoelectronic devices. In photoluminescence studies, a broad emission band centered at 404 nm was found in addition to a small band at 352 nm. A broad transition (from 29 to 33 °C) was observed with low dielectric constant value. A high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) of 14 pC/N was measured at room temperature which implies its usefulness for various sensor applications. The second harmonic generation efficiency of crystal was found to be 1.5 times to that of KDP. From thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis, thermal stability and melting point (246 °C) were investigated. The dielectric behavior, optical characterization, piezoelectric behavior and the non-linear optical properties of the Bisglycine Lithium Nitrate single crystals were reported for the first time which established the usefulness of these crystals for various piezo- and opto-electronics applications.

  18. Electronic switching circuit uses complementary non-linear components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zucker, O. S.

    1972-01-01

    Inherent switching properties of saturable inductors and storage diodes are combined to perform large variety of electronic functions, such as pulse shaping, gating, and multiplexing. Passive elements replace active switching devices in generation of complex waveforms.

  19. Milliwatt-level mid-infrared (10.5-16.5 μm) difference frequency generation with a femtosecond dual-signal-wavelength optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Hegenbarth, Robin; Steinmann, Andy; Sarkisov, Sergey; Giessen, Harald

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of mid-infrared radiation using a femtosecond dual-signal-wavelength optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generation in an extracavity gallium selenide or silver gallium diselenide crystal. This system generates up to 4.3 mW of average mid-infrared power. Its spectra can be tuned to between 10.5 μm and 16.5 μm wavelength (952  cm(-1)-606  cm(-1)) with more than 50  cm(-1) spectral bandwidth. We demonstrate that the power and spectra of this system are temporally very stable.

  20. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered. PMID:27187988

  1. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered.

  2. Non-linear characterisation of the physical model of an ancient masonry bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti Fragonara, L.; Ceravolo, R.; Matta, E.; Quattrone, A.; De Stefano, A.; Pecorelli, M.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the non-linear investigations carried out on a scaled model of a two-span masonry arch bridge. The model has been built in order to study the effect of the central pile settlement due to riverbank erosion. Progressive damage was induced in several steps by applying increasing settlements at the central pier. For each settlement step, harmonic shaker tests were conducted under different excitation levels, this allowing for the non-linear identification of the progressively damaged system. The shaker tests have been performed at resonance with the modal frequency of the structure, which were determined from a previous linear identification. Estimated non-linearity parameters, which result from the systematic application of restoring force based identification algorithms, can corroborate models to be used in the reassessment of existing structures. The method used for non-linear identification allows monitoring the evolution of non-linear parameters or indicators which can be used in damage and safety assessment.

  3. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  4. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, A.; Söllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon–photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  5. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-10-23

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures.

  6. Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, Sergey V

    2014-01-13

    For the first time we report the results of both numerical simulation and experimental observation of second-harmonic generation as an example of non-linear frequency conversion of pulses generated by passively mode-locked fiber master oscillator in different regimes including conventional (stable) and double-scale (partially coherent and noise-like) ones. We show that non-linear frequency conversion efficiency of double-scale pulses is slightly higher than that of conventional picosecond laser pulses with the same energy and duration despite strong phase fluctuations of double-scale pulses. PMID:24515065

  7. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831

  8. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit.

  9. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831

  10. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Cahyna, P.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  11. A New Multi-tanh-Based Non-linear Function Synthesiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher Abuelma'atti, Muhammad; Radhi Al-Abbas, Saad

    2016-11-01

    A new complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transadmittance-mode with input voltage and output current, analogue non-linear odd-function synthesiser is presented. The proposed circuit is based on the assumption that a non-linear odd- function can be approximated by the summation of hyperbolic tangent (tanh) functions with different arguments. Each term of the tanh function expansion is realised by exploiting to advantage the inherent non-linearity of a current-controlled current-conveyor (CCCCII) (or an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA)) with a different bias current. The output currents of these CCCCIIs (OTAs) are weighted using the gains of current amplifiers. These weighted currents are algebraically added to form the required non-linear function. The proposed circuit is suitable for integration, can be easily extended to include higher order terms of the tanh-odd-function expansion and can be programmed to realise arbitrary hard non-linear odd-functions that cannot be easily realised using already existing techniques, based on the Taylor-series expansion, for synthesising non-linear functions. PSPICE simulation results, obtained from CCCCII-based realisations of selected hard non-linearities, demonstrating the functionality of the proposed circuit are included.

  12. Testing non-linearity and directedness of interactions between neural groups in the macaque inferotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, W A; Valdes, P; Bosch, J; Biscay, R; Jimenez, J C; Rodriguez, L M; Rodriguez, V; Kreiter, A K; Singer, W

    1999-12-15

    Information processing in the visual cortex depends on complex and context sensitive patterns of interactions between neuronal groups in many different cortical areas. Methods used to date for disentangling this functional connectivity presuppose either linearity or instantaneous interactions, assumptions that are not necessarily valid. In this paper a general framework that encompasses both linear and non-linear modelling of neurophysiological time series data by means of Local Linear Non-linear Autoregressive models (LLNAR) is described. Within this framework a new test for non-linearity of time series and for non-linearity of directedness of neural interactions based on LLNAR is presented. These tests assess the relative goodness of fit of linear versus non-linear models via the bootstrap technique. Additionally, a generalised definition of Granger causality is presented based on LLNAR that is valid for both linear and non-linear systems. Finally, the use of LLNAR for measuring non-linearity and directional influences is illustrated using artificial data, reference data as well as local field potentials (LFPs) from macaque area TE. LFP data is well described by the linear variant of LLNAR. Models of this sort, including lagged values of the preceding 25 to 60 ms, revealed the existence of both uni- and bi-directional influences between recording sites.

  13. Sources of non-linearity in the mitotic trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, James

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative biochemical studies have shown that the Cdk1/APC system, which drives entry into and exit from mitosis, functions as a relaxation oscillator. The bistable switch for the oscillator is provided by the Cdk1/Wee1/Cdc25 sub-system, which consists of a pair of mirror-image positive feedback and double-negative feedback loops. In turn, the bistable switch relies on the ultrasensitive sigmoidal response functions of the two loops' components. Here we have investigated the mechanisms through which Wee1 and Cdc25 generate ultrasensitive responses. Our results argue that the ultrasensitivity arises mainly through cooperative multisite phosphorylation and competition.

  14. Uncertainty due to non-linearity in radiation thermometers calibrated by multiple fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-09-11

    A new method to estimate the uncertainty due to non-linearity is described on the n= 3 scheme basis. The expression of uncertainty is mathematically derived applying the random walk method. The expression is simple and requires only the temperatures of the fixed points and a relative uncertainty value for each flux-doubling derived from the non-linearity measurement. We also present an example of the method, in which the uncertainty of temperature measurement by a radiation thermometer is calculated on the basis of non-linearity measurement.

  15. Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in the Linear and Non-linear Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic fields are generated in plasmas by the Biermann-battery, or thermoelectric, source driven by non-collinear temperature and density gradients. The ablation front in laser-irradiated targets is susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth that produces gradients capable of generating magnetic fields. Measurements of these RT-induced magnetic fields in planar foils have been made using a combination of x-ray and monoenergetic-proton radiography techniques. At a perturbation wavelength of 120 μm, proton radiographs indicate an increase of the magnetic-field strength from ˜1 to ˜10 Tesla during the linear growth phase. A characteristic change in field structure was observed later in time for irradiated foils of different initial surface perturbations. Proton radiographs show a regular cellular configuration initiated at the same time during the drive, independent of the initial foil conditions. This non-linear behavior has been experimentally investigated and the source of these characteristic features will be discussed.

  16. Highly non-linear solid core photonic crystal fiber with one nano hole

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar Bhardwaj, Vanita Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-08-28

    The numerical study of newly designed solid core photonic crystal fiber (SCPCF) having three hexagonal air hole rings in cladding region and one small nano hole at the center are presented. By using full vectorial finite element method (FV-FEM), we analyses the optical properties like effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss of the proposed PCF. Results show that the change in core diameter controls the effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss. A low effective area (3.34 µm{sup 2}), high nonlinearity (36.34 W{sup −1}km{sup −1}) and low confinement loss (0.00106 dB/km) are achieved at the communication wavelength 1.55 µm for the SCPCF having core air hole diameter 0.10 µm, cladding air holes diameter 1.00 µm and pitch 2.50 µm. This type of PCF is very useful in non-linear applications such as supercontinuum generation, four wave mixing, second harmonic generation etc.

  17. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  18. Accelerating Monte Carlo power studies through parametric power estimation.

    PubMed

    Ueckert, Sebastian; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the power for a non-linear mixed-effects model-based analysis is challenging due to the lack of a closed form analytic expression. Often, computationally intensive Monte Carlo studies need to be employed to evaluate the power of a planned experiment. This is especially time consuming if full power versus sample size curves are to be obtained. A novel parametric power estimation (PPE) algorithm utilizing the theoretical distribution of the alternative hypothesis is presented in this work. The PPE algorithm estimates the unknown non-centrality parameter in the theoretical distribution from a limited number of Monte Carlo simulation and estimations. The estimated parameter linearly scales with study size allowing a quick generation of the full power versus study size curve. A comparison of the PPE with the classical, purely Monte Carlo-based power estimation (MCPE) algorithm for five diverse pharmacometric models showed an excellent agreement between both algorithms, with a low bias of less than 1.2 % and higher precision for the PPE. The power extrapolated from a specific study size was in a very good agreement with power curves obtained with the MCPE algorithm. PPE represents a promising approach to accelerate the power calculation for non-linear mixed effect models.

  19. Linear and non-linear deflection analysis of thick rectangular plates. 2: Numerical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencharif, N.; Ng, S. F.

    1994-03-01

    Variational methods are widely used for the solution of complex differential equations in mechanics for which exact solutions are not possible. The finite difference method, although well known as an efficient numerical method, was applied in the past only for the analysis of linear and non-linear thin plates. In this paper the suitability of the method for the analysis of non-linear deflection of thick plates is studied for the first time. While there are major differences between small deflection and large deflection plate theories, the former can be treated as a particular case of the latter, when the centre deflection of the plate is less than or equal to 0.2-0.25 of the thickness of the plate. The finite difference method as applied here is a modified finite difference approach to the ordinary finite difference method generally used for the solution of thin plate problems. In this analysis thin plates are treated as a particular case of the corresponding thick plate when the boundary conditions of the plates are taken into account. The method is first applied to investigate the deflection behaviour of clamped and simply supported square isotropic thick plates. After the validity of the method is established, it is then extended to the solution of rectangular thick plates of various aspect ratios and thicknesses. Generally, beginning with the use of a limited number of mesh sizes for a given plate aspect ratio and boundary conditions, a general solution of the problem including the investigation of accuracy and convergence was extended to rectangular thick plates by providing more detailed functions satisfying the rectangular mesh sizes generated automatically by the program. Whenever possible results obtained by the present method are compared with existing solutions in the technical literature obtained by much more laborious methods and close agreements are found. The significant number of results presented here are not currently available in the technical

  20. Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map.

    PubMed

    Li, Jay-Shake; Huston, Joseph P

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to apply non-linear dynamic tools to the analysis of operant behavior revealed some promise for this kind of approach, but also some doubts, since the complexity of animal behavior seemed to be beyond the analyzing ability of the available tools. We here outline a series of studies based on a novel approach. We modified the so-called 'return map' and developed a new method, the 'extended return map' (ERM) to extract information from the highly irregular time series data, the inter-response time (IRT) generated by Skinner-box experiments. We applied the ERM to operant lever pressing data from rats using the four fundamental reinforcement schedules: fixed interval (FI), fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI) and variable ratio (VR). Our results revealed interesting patterns in all experiment groups. In particular, the FI and VI groups exhibited well-organized clusters of data points. We calculated the fractal dimension out of these patterns and compared experimental data with surrogate data sets, that were generated by randomly shuffling the sequential order of original IRTs. This comparison supported the finding that patterns in ERM reflect the dynamics of the operant behaviors under study. We then built two models to simulate the functional mechanisms of the FI schedule. Both models can produce similar distributions of IRTs and the stereotypical 'scalloped' curve characteristic of FI responding. However, they differ in one important feature in their formulation: while one model uses a continuous function to describe the probability of occurrence of an operant behavior, the other one employs an abrupt switch of behavioral state. Comparison of ERMs showed that only the latter was able to produce patterns similar to the experimental results, indicative of the operation of an abrupt switch from one behavioral state to another over the course of the inter-reinforcement period. This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of

  1. A Nested Genetic Algorithm for the Numerical Solution of Non-Linear Coupled Equations in Water Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Hermes A.; Guerrero-Bolaño, Francisco J.; Obregón-Neira, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Due to both mathematical tractability and efficiency on computational resources, it is very common to find in the realm of numerical modeling in hydro-engineering that regular linearization techniques have been applied to nonlinear partial differential equations properly obtained in environmental flow studies. Sometimes this simplification is also made along with omission of nonlinear terms involved in such equations which in turn diminishes the performance of any implemented approach. This is the case for example, for contaminant transport modeling in streams. Nowadays, a traditional and one of the most common used water quality model such as QUAL2k, preserves its original algorithm, which omits nonlinear terms through linearization techniques, in spite of the continuous algorithmic development and computer power enhancement. For that reason, the main objective of this research was to generate a flexible tool for non-linear water quality modeling. The solution implemented here was based on two genetic algorithms, used in a nested way in order to find two different types of solutions sets: the first set is composed by the concentrations of the physical-chemical variables used in the modeling approach (16 variables), which satisfies the non-linear equation system. The second set, is the typical solution of the inverse problem, the parameters and constants values for the model when it is applied to a particular stream. From a total of sixteen (16) variables, thirteen (13) was modeled by using non-linear coupled equation systems and three (3) was modeled in an independent way. The model used here had a requirement of fifty (50) parameters. The nested genetic algorithm used for the numerical solution of a non-linear equation system proved to serve as a flexible tool to handle with the intrinsic non-linearity that emerges from the interactions occurring between multiple variables involved in water quality studies. However because there is a strong data limitation in

  2. Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.

  3. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  4. The use of non-linear analysis for differentiating the biomagnetic activity in ovarian lesions.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Anastasiadis, P; Kotini, A

    1999-05-01

    In this study we investigated the biomagnetic activity measured with the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in benign and malignant ovarian lesions using non-linear analysis. We used a single channel biomagnetometer SQUID in order to measure the magnetic field emitted from benign and malignant ovarian lesions. We can differentiate such biomagnetic activities using non-linear analysis. Using the application of non-linear analysis in the ovarian lesions together with the use of dimensional calculations we have observed a clear saturation value for the dimension of malignant ovarian lesions and non-saturation for benign ovarian lesions. The biomagnetic measurements with the SQUID and the application of non-linear analysis in benign and malignant ovarian lesions, is a promising procedure in assessing and differentiating ovarian tumours. PMID:15512296

  5. Characterization of non-linear distortion in hearing aids using coherence analysis. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dyrlund, O

    1989-01-01

    Coherence is a frequency-domain measure of linear dependence between input and output of a system, e.g. a hearing aid, and describes the cumulative effect of different forms of signal corruption, e.g. noise and non-linear distortion. From the coherence function, a general frequency-dependent signal-to-noise ratio can be derived. In this investigation, the applicability of this measuring technique is demonstrated in connection with non-linear distortion in hearing aids. The influence of hearing aid gain and automatic gain control is illustrated, with speech-shaped noise as input signal. For the three hearing aids tested. The gain setting influences the signal-to-noise ratio heavily due to non-linear distortion, especially near maximum gain. The introduction of automatic gain control reduces the effect of non-linear distortion somewhat at high gain settings.

  6. Non-linear laser imaging of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin samples by combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), spectral lifetime imaging (SLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE). Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor stroma, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. A score, based on the SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID), was assigned to characterize each region. We found that both BCC and surrounding dermis have a negative SAAID value, tumor stroma has a positive SAAID value, whereas fibroblastic proliferation and keloids have a SAAID value close to the unit. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM, SLIM, and MTPE. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher fluorescence response at 800 nm excitation wavelength and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed an emission spectrum similar to the corresponding healthy skin emission spectrum, and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution shifted towards shorter values. Finally, the use of aminolevulinic acid as a contrast agent has been demonstrated to increase the constrast in BCC border detection. The results obtained represent further support for in-vivo non-invasive imaging of diseased skin.

  7. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and

  8. Analysis of the Non-Linearity of El Niño Southern Oscillation Teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauen, Claudia; Dommenget, Dietmar; Rezny, Michael; Wales, Scott

    2014-05-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has significant variations and non-linearities in its pattern and strength. ENSO events are shifted along the equator, with some located in the central Pacific (CP) and others in the east Pacific (EP). To study how these variations are reflected in global ENSO teleconnections we analyze observations and idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. Clear non-linearities exist in observed teleconnections of sea level pressure (SLP) and precipitation. However, it is difficult to distinguish if these are caused by the different signs, strengths or spatial patterns of events (strong El Niño events mostly being EP events and strong La Niña events mostly being CP events) or by combinations of these. Therefore, sensitivity experiments are performed with an AGCM forced with idealized EP and CP ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) patterns with varying signs and strengths. It can be shown that in general the response is stronger for warm events than for cold events and the teleconnections shift following the SST anomaly patterns. EP events show stronger non-linearities than CP events. The non-linear responses to ENSO events can be explained as a combination of non-linear responses to a linear ENSO (fixed pattern but varying signs and strengths) and a linear response to a non-linear ENSO (varying patterns). Any observed event is a combination of these aspects. While in most tropical regions these add up leading to stronger non-linear responses than expected from the single components, in some regions they cancel each other resulting in little overall non-linearity. This leads to strong regional differences in ENSO teleconnections.

  9. How does non-linear dynamics affect the baryon acoustic oscillation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-02-01

    We study the non-linear behavior of the baryon acoustic oscillation in the power spectrum and the correlation function by decomposing the dark matter perturbations into the short- and long-wavelength modes. The evolution of the dark matter fluctuations can be described as a global coordinate transformation caused by the long-wavelength displacement vector acting on short-wavelength matter perturbation undergoing non-linear growth. Using this feature, we investigate the well known cancellation of the high-k solutions in the standard perturbation theory. While the standard perturbation theory naturally satisfies the cancellation of the high-k solutions, some of the recently proposed improved perturbation theories do not guarantee the cancellation. We show that this cancellation clarifies the success of the standard perturbation theory at the 2-loop order in describing the amplitude of the non-linear power spectrum even at high-k regions. We propose an extension of the standard 2-loop level perturbation theory model of the non-linear power spectrum that more accurately models the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillation than the standard perturbation theory. The model consists of simple and intuitive parts: the non-linear evolution of the smoothed power spectrum without the baryon acoustic oscillations and the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillations due to the large-scale velocity of dark matter and due to the gravitational attraction between dark matter particles. Our extended model predicts the smoothing parameter of the baryon acoustic oscillation peak at z = 0.35 as ∼ 7.7Mpc/h and describes the small non-linear shift in the peak position due to the galaxy random motions.

  10. Linear and non-linear fluorescence imaging of neuronal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jonathan A. N.

    Optical imaging of neuronal activity offers new possibilities for understanding brain physiology. The predominant methods in neuroscience for measuring electrical activity require electrodes inserted into the tissue. Such methods, however, provide limited spatial information and are invasive. Optical methods are less physically invasive and offer the possibility for simultaneously imaging the activity of many neurons. In this thesis one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy techniques were applied to several in vivo and in vitro mammalian preparations. Using one-photon absorption fluorescence microscopy and gradient index (GRIN) lens optics, cortical electrical activity in response to electric stimulation was resolved in three-dimensions at high-speed in the primary somatosensory cortex of the mouse in vivo using voltage-sensitive dyes. Imaging at depths up to 150 mum below the cortex surface, it was possible to resolve depth-dependent patterns of neuronal activity in response to cortical and thalamic electric stimulation. The patterns of activity were consistent with known cortical cellular architecture. In a qualitatively different set of experiments, one-photon fluorescence microscopy via voltage-sensitive dyes was successfully employed to image an in vitro preparation of the perfused rat brainstem during the process of respiratory rhythmogenesis. Imaging results yielded insights into the spatial organization of the central respiratory rhythm generation region in the ventrolateral medulla. A multifocal two-photon scanning microscope was constructed, and design and operation principles are described. Utilizing the novel device, anatomical and functional two-photon imaging via potentiometric dyes and calcium dyes is described, and the results of in vivo versus in vitro imaging are compared. Anatomical imaging results used either functional probe background fluorescence or green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. Spectroscopic experiments measuring the two

  11. Evaluating Corneal Collagen Organization Using High Resolution Non Linear Optical (NLO) Macroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Jester, James V.; Winkler, Moritz; Jester, Bryan E.; Nien, Chyong; Chai, Dongyul; Brown, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Recent developments in non-linear optical (NLO) imaging using femtosecond lasers provides a non-invasive method for detecting collagen fibers by imaging second harmonic generated (SHG) signals. However, this technique is limited by the small field of view (FoV) necessary to generate SHG signals. The purpose of this report is to review our efforts to greatly extend the FoV in order to assess the entire collagen structure using high resolution macroscopic (HRMac) imaging. Methods Intact human eyes were fixed under pressure and the whole cornea (13 mm diameter) excised and embedded in low melting point agar for vibratome sectioning (200–300 μm). Sections were then optically scanned using a Zeiss LSM 510 Meta and Chameleon femtosecond laser to generate SHG images. For each vibratome section, an overlapping series of 3-D data sets (466 × 466 × 150 μm) were taken covering the entire tissue (15 mm × 6 mm area) using a motorized, mechanical stage. The 3-D data sets were then concatenated to generate an NLO based tomograph. Results HRMac of the cornea yielded large macroscopic (80 Meg Pixels per plane), 3-dimensional tomographs with high resolution (0.81 μm later, 2.0 μm axial) in which individual collagen fibers (stromal lamellae) could be traced, segmented and extracted. 3-D reconstructions suggested that the anterior cornea is comprised of highly intertwined lamellae that insert into the anterior limiting lamina (Bowman’s Layer). Conclusion We conclude that HRMac using NLO based tomography provides a powerful new tool to assess collagen structural organization within the cornea. PMID:20724856

  12. Non-linear optical properties of molecules in heterogeneous environments: a quadratic density functional/molecular mechanics response theory.

    PubMed

    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Li, Xin; Sandberg, Jaime A R; Ågren, Hans

    2014-05-21

    We generalize a density functional theory/molecular mechanics approach for heterogeneous environments with an implementation of quadratic response theory. The updated methodology allows us to address a variety of non-linear optical, magnetic and mixed properties of molecular species in complex environments, such as combined metallic, solvent and confined organic environments. Illustrating calculations of para-nitroaniline on gold surfaces and in solution reveals a number of aspects that come into play when analyzing second harmonic generation of such systems--such as surface charge flow, coupled surface-solvent dynamics and induced geometric and electronic structure effects of the adsorbate. Some ramifications of the methodology for applied studies are discussed.

  13. Fault-tolerant control for a class of non-linear systems with dead-zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mou; Jiang, Bin; Guo, William W.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed for a class of single-input and single-output non-linear systems with the unknown time-varying system fault and the dead-zone. The non-linear state observer is designed for the non-linear system using differential mean value theorem, and the non-linear fault estimator that estimates the unknown time-varying system fault is developed. On the basis of the designed fault estimator, the observer-based fault-tolerant tracking control is then developed using the backstepping technique for non-linear systems with the dead-zone. The stability of the whole closed-loop system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking control performance is guaranteed in the presence of the unknown time-varying system fault and the dead-zone. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed backstepping fault-tolerant control scheme for non-linear systems.

  14. Detecting non-linearities in neuro-electrical signals: A study of synchronous local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Gerking, Johannes; Martinerie, Jacques; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Pezard, Laurent; Renault, Bernard; Varela, Francisco J.

    The question of the presence and detection of non-linear dynamics and possibly low-dimensional chaos in the brain is still an open question, with recent results indicating that initial claims for low dimensionality were faulted by incomplete statistical testing. To make some progress on this question, our approach was to use stringent data analysis of precisely controlled and behaviorally significant neuroelectric data. There are strong indications that functional brain activity is correlated with synchronous local field potentials. We examine here such synchronous episodes in data recorded from the visual system of behaving cats and pigeons. Our purpose was to examine under these ideal conditions whether the time series showed any evidence of non-linearity concommitantly with the arising of synchrony. To test for non-linearity we have used surrogate sets for non-linear forecasting, the false nearest strands method, and an examination of deterministic vs stochastic modeling. Our results indicate that the time series under examination do show evidence for traces of non-linear dynamics but weakly, since they are not robust under changes of parameters. We conclude that low-dimensional chaos is unlikely to be found in the brain, and that a robust detection and characterization of higher-dimensional non-linear dynamics is beyond the reach of current analytical tools.

  15. Incremental harmonic balance method for predicting amplitudes of a multi-d.o.f. non-linear wheel shimmy system with combined Coulomb and quadratic damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. X.; Zhang, L.

    2005-01-01

    Incremental harmonic balance (IHB) formulations are derived for general multiple degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) non-linear autonomous systems. These formulations are developed for a concerned four-d.o.f. aircraft wheel shimmy system with combined Coulomb and velocity-squared damping. A multi-harmonic analysis is performed and amplitudes of limit cycles are predicted. Within a large range of parametric variations with respect to aircraft taxi velocity, the IHB method can, at a much cheaper cost, give results with high accuracy as compared with numerical results given by a parametric continuation method. In particular, the IHB method avoids the stiff problems emanating from numerical treatment of aircraft wheel shimmy system equations. The development is applicable to other vibration control systems that include commonly used dry friction devices or velocity-squared hydraulic dampers.

  16. Investigation of two-beam-pumped noncollinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification for the generation of few-cycle light pulses.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Daniel; Tautz, Raphael; Tavella, Franz; Krausz, Ferenc; Veisz, Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate a new and compact Phi-plane-pumped noncollinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (NOPCPA) scheme for broadband pulse amplification, which is based on two-beam-pumping (TBP) at 532 nm. We employ type-I phase-matching in a 5 mm long BBO crystal with moderate pump intensities to preserve the temporal pulse contrast. Amplification and compression of the signal pulse from 675 nm - 970 nm is demonstrated, which results in the generation of 7.1-fs light pulses containing 0.35 mJ energy. In this context, we investigate the pump-to-signal energy conversion efficiency for TBP-NOPCPA and outline details for few-cycle pulse characterization. Furthermore, it is verified, that the interference at the intersection of the two pump beams does not degrade the signal beam spatial profile. It is theoretically shown that the accumulated OPA phase partially compensates for wave-vector mismatch and leads to extended broadband amplification. The experimental outcome is supported by numerical split-step simulations of the parametric signal gain, including pump depletion and parametric fluorescence.

  17. Proposal for the generation of photon pairs with nonzero orbital angular momentum in a ring fiber.

    PubMed

    Javůrek, D; Svozilík, J; Peřina, J

    2014-09-22

    We present a method for the generation of correlated photon pairs in desired orbital-angular-momentum states using a non-linear silica ring fiber and spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Photon-pair emission under quasi-phase-matching conditions with quantum conversion efficiency 6 × 10(-11) is found in a 1-m long fiber with a thermally induced χ(2) nonlinearity in a ring-shaped core.

  18. Tracing biogeochemical processes in stream water and groundwater using non-linear statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischeid, Gunnar; Bittersohl, Jochen

    2008-07-01

    SummaryStream water and groundwater solute concentration are subject to a multitude of biogeochemical processes that act at different scales and are often characterized by non-linear relationships and feedback loops. Different multivariate statistical methods were applied to investigate the interplay of different processes. The data set from the Lehstenbach catchment in South Germany comprised 2641 stream water and groundwater samples from 38 different sites in the catchment, where 13 different solutes had been determined. According to the correlation dimension analysis, the number of dominant processes was four. The first four components determined via principal component analysis comprised 88% of the total variance, whereas the non-linear isometric feature mapping explained 92% with the first four components. These components were ascribed to prevailing biogeochemical processes and were used to investigate spatial and temporal patterns. Redox processes and contamination by road salt explained 35% of the variance each. Another 13% were ascribed to near-surface runoff in the acidified topsoil, and 9% to the impact of contaminated filter gravel in some of the groundwater wells. The redox component exhibited clear seasonal patterns at most stream water and groundwater sampling sites, with the most reduced conditions in late summer, immediately before the onset of re-wetting. There was clear evidence that redox processes, especially denitrification, play an important role even in the oxic aquifer. During discharge peaks, stream water exhibited higher values of the near-surface runoff component. However, the associated lower values of the redox component pointed to near-surface runoff in the riparian wetlands as the predominating runoff generation process rather than to a contribution of upslope soil water. A series of major rain storms in fall 1998 altered groundwater and stream water solute concentration for months: stream water and groundwater became more oxic and

  19. Non-linear macro evolution of a dc driven micro atmospheric glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.

    2015-10-15

    We studied the macro evolution of the micro atmospheric glow discharge generated between a micro argon jet into ambient air and static water. The micro discharge behaves similarly to a complex ecosystem. Non-linear behaviors are found for the micro discharge when the water acts as a cathode, different from the discharge when water behaves as an anode. Groups of snapshots of the micro discharge formed at different discharge currents are captured by an intensified charge-coupled device with controlled exposure time, and each group consisted of 256 images taken in succession. Edge detection methods are used to identify the water surface and then the total brightness is defined by adding up the signal counts over the area of the micro discharge. Motions of the water surface at different discharge currents show that the water surface lowers increasingly rapidly when the water acts as a cathode. In contrast, the water surface lowers at a constant speed when the water behaves as an anode. The light curves are similar to logistic growth curves, suggesting that a self-inhibition process occurs in the micro discharge. Meanwhile, the total brightness increases linearly during the same time when the water acts as an anode. Discharge-water interactions cause the micro discharge to evolve. The charged particle bomb process is probably responsible for the different behaviors of the micro discharges when the water acts as cathode and anode.

  20. Landmark-driven parameter optimization for non-linear image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Werner, René; Ehrhardt, Jan; Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Handels, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    Image registration is one of the most common research areas in medical image processing. It is required for example for image fusion, motion estimation, patient positioning, or generation of medical atlases. In most intensity-based registration approaches, parameters have to be determined, most commonly a parameter indicating to which extend the transformation is required to be smooth. Its optimal value depends on multiple factors like the application and the occurrence of noise in the images, and may therefore vary from case to case. Moreover, multi-scale approaches are commonly applied on registration problems and demand for further adjustment of the parameters. In this paper, we present a landmark-based approach for automatic parameter optimization in non-linear intensity-based image registration. In a first step, corresponding landmarks are automatically detected in the images to match. The landmark-based target registration error (TRE), which is shown to be a valid metric for quantifying registration accuracy, is then used to optimize the parameter choice during the registration process. The approach is evaluated for the registration of lungs based on 22 thoracic 4D CT data sets. Experiments show that the TRE can be reduced on average by 0.07 mm using automatic parameter optimization.

  1. The Non-linear Health Consequences of Living in Larger Cities.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luis E C; Thorson, Anna E; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    Urbanization promotes economy, mobility, access, and availability of resources, but on the other hand, generates higher levels of pollution, violence, crime, and mental distress. The health consequences of the agglomeration of people living close together are not fully understood. Particularly, it remains unclear how variations in the population size across cities impact the health of the population. We analyze the deviations from linearity of the scaling of several health-related quantities, such as the incidence and mortality of diseases, external causes of death, wellbeing, and health care availability, in respect to the population size of cities in Brazil, Sweden, and the USA. We find that deaths by non-communicable diseases tend to be relatively less common in larger cities, whereas the per capita incidence of infectious diseases is relatively larger for increasing population size. Healthier lifestyle and availability of medical support are disproportionally higher in larger cities. The results are connected with the optimization of human and physical resources and with the non-linear effects of social networks in larger populations. An urban advantage in terms of health is not evident, and using rates as indicators to compare cities with different population sizes may be insufficient.

  2. Microscale heterogeneity explains experimental variability and non-linearity in soil organic matter mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ruth E; Battaia, Guillaume; Schmidt, Sonja; Baveye, Philippe; Chenu, Claire; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration represents the second largest CO2 flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, and a small rise could significantly contribute to further increase in atmospheric CO2. Unfortunately, the extent of this effect cannot be quantified reliably, and the outcomes of experiments designed to study soil respiration remain notoriously unpredictable. In this context, the mathematical simulations described in this article suggest that assumptions of linearity and presumed irrelevance of micro-scale heterogeneity, commonly made in quantitative models of microbial growth in subsurface environments and used in carbon stock models, do not appear warranted. Results indicate that microbial growth is non-linear and, at given average nutrient concentrations, strongly dependent on the microscale distribution of both nutrients and microbes. These observations have far-reaching consequences, in terms of both experiments and theory. They indicate that traditional, macroscopic soil measurements are inadequate to predict microbial responses, in particular to rising temperature conditions, and that an explicit account is required of microscale heterogeneity. Furthermore, models should evolve beyond traditional, but overly simplistic, assumptions of linearity of microbial responses to bulk nutrient concentrations. The development of a new generation of models along these lines, and in particular incorporating upscaled information about microscale processes, will undoubtedly be challenging, but appears to be key to understanding the extent to which soil carbon mineralization could further accelerate climate change.

  3. Non-linear macro evolution of a dc driven micro atmospheric glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.

    2015-10-01

    We studied the macro evolution of the micro atmospheric glow discharge generated between a micro argon jet into ambient air and static water. The micro discharge behaves similarly to a complex ecosystem. Non-linear behaviors are found for the micro discharge when the water acts as a cathode, different from the discharge when water behaves as an anode. Groups of snapshots of the micro discharge formed at different discharge currents are captured by an intensified charge-coupled device with controlled exposure time, and each group consisted of 256 images taken in succession. Edge detection methods are used to identify the water surface and then the total brightness is defined by adding up the signal counts over the area of the micro discharge. Motions of the water surface at different discharge currents show that the water surface lowers increasingly rapidly when the water acts as a cathode. In contrast, the water surface lowers at a constant speed when the water behaves as an anode. The light curves are similar to logistic growth curves, suggesting that a self-inhibition process occurs in the micro discharge. Meanwhile, the total brightness increases linearly during the same time when the water acts as an anode. Discharge-water interactions cause the micro discharge to evolve. The charged particle bomb process is probably responsible for the different behaviors of the micro discharges when the water acts as cathode and anode.

  4. Non-linear stimulation of excitable cells with and without optogenetic sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivalingaiah, Shivaranjani; Gu, Ling; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-03-01

    Here, we report development of an integrated system for co-registration of patch-clamp measurements with calcium imaging during two-photon stimulation (TPS) of excitable cells sensitized with optogenetic probe, chanelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Comparison of calcium changes due to focused two-photon micro-irradiation of excitable cells with and without optogenetic sensitization, revealed wavelength-insensitive injection of extra-cellular calcium via pore formation at high laser beam powers. However, use of defocused/weakly-focused beam allowed sub-threshold stimulation of the excitable cells, revealed by both calcium imaging and whole-cell patch-clamping. Irregular calcium spiking was observed for continuous two-photon defocused micro-irradiation. Even at high extra-cellular calcium conditions, since presence of alltrans- retinal (ATR) was necessary even for detectable calcium increase (and inward current) under defocused twophoton irradiation, role of ChR2 was confirmed as opposed to optoporation, for defocused condition. In the subthreshold stimulation regime, while peak-photocurrents variation with TPS wavelength followed ChR2 two-photon activation spectrum, the power dependence of the current was highly non-linear. Though defocused two-photon beam may cause minimal photo damage while stimulating the cells, the threshold average power required for generating action potential in the ChR2-sensitized cells is higher than that used for routine two-photon imaging.

  5. State estimation of stochastic non-linear hybrid dynamic system using an interacting multiple model algorithm.

    PubMed

    Elenchezhiyan, M; Prakash, J

    2015-09-01

    In this work, state estimation schemes for non-linear hybrid dynamic systems subjected to stochastic state disturbances and random errors in measurements using interacting multiple-model (IMM) algorithms are formulated. In order to compute both discrete modes and continuous state estimates of a hybrid dynamic system either an IMM extended Kalman filter (IMM-EKF) or an IMM based derivative-free Kalman filters is proposed in this study. The efficacy of the proposed IMM based state estimation schemes is demonstrated by conducting Monte-Carlo simulation studies on the two-tank hybrid system and switched non-isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor system. Extensive simulation studies reveal that the proposed IMM based state estimation schemes are able to generate fairly accurate continuous state estimates and discrete modes. In the presence and absence of sensor bias, the simulation studies reveal that the proposed IMM unscented Kalman filter (IMM-UKF) based simultaneous state and parameter estimation scheme outperforms multiple-model UKF (MM-UKF) based simultaneous state and parameter estimation scheme.

  6. Experimental study of non-linear loads on vertical cylinders in steep random waves

    SciTech Connect

    Stansberg, C.T.; Huse, E.; Krokstad, J.R.; Lehn, E.

    1995-12-31

    A description of laboratory experiments carried out with fixed, vertical truncated cylinders in irregular waves is given. With a model scale about 1:50, the tested models correspond approximately to North Sea large-volume platform dimensions. Tests with a single cylinder as well as with an array of cylinders are performed. Global horizontal forces and pitch moments on individual cylinders were measured. In the present report, analysis of surge force measurements are presented and discussed. The background of the study is the need for research on the hydrodynamic excitation of ringing phenomena. Thus one has emphasized the study of non-linear high-frequency (HF) force contributions generated by steep random waves. It is observed that although they are negligible in the frequency domain, the magnitude of such force components may be up to 10--20% of the total extreme forces, for this particular cylinder. Tests with the multi-column model show that diffraction effects can be important for the magnitude of the HF excitation, but not for the occurrence and nature of such events in itself. Force measurements on the different individual columns show that the HF force signal due to a particular steep wave passing through the structure, is recognized on all the columns, but shape of the signal changes in space.

  7. Microscale Heterogeneity Explains Experimental Variability and Non-Linearity in Soil Organic Matter Mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ruth E.; Battaia, Guillaume; Schmidt, Sonja; Baveye, Philippe; Chenu, Claire; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration represents the second largest CO2 flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, and a small rise could significantly contribute to further increase in atmospheric CO2. Unfortunately, the extent of this effect cannot be quantified reliably, and the outcomes of experiments designed to study soil respiration remain notoriously unpredictable. In this context, the mathematical simulations described in this article suggest that assumptions of linearity and presumed irrelevance of micro-scale heterogeneity, commonly made in quantitative models of microbial growth in subsurface environments and used in carbon stock models, do not appear warranted. Results indicate that microbial growth is non-linear and, at given average nutrient concentrations, strongly dependent on the microscale distribution of both nutrients and microbes. These observations have far-reaching consequences, in terms of both experiments and theory. They indicate that traditional, macroscopic soil measurements are inadequate to predict microbial responses, in particular to rising temperature conditions, and that an explicit account is required of microscale heterogeneity. Furthermore, models should evolve beyond traditional, but overly simplistic, assumptions of linearity of microbial responses to bulk nutrient concentrations. The development of a new generation of models along these lines, and in particular incorporating upscaled information about microscale processes, will undoubtedly be challenging, but appears to be key to understanding the extent to which soil carbon mineralization could further accelerate climate change. PMID:25992875

  8. System and Method for Determining Gas Optical Density Changes in a Non-Linear Measurement Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Rana, Mauro (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Each of two sensors, positioned to simultaneously detect electromagnetic radiation absorption along a path, is calibrated to define a unique response curve associated therewith that relates a change in voltage output for each sensor to a change in optical density. A ratio-of-responses curve is defined by a ratio of the response curve associated with the first sensor to the response curve associated with the second sensor. A ratio of sensor output changes is generated using outputs from the sensors. An operating point on the ratio-of-responses curve is established using the ratio of sensor output changes. The established operating point is indicative of an optical density. When the operating point is in the non-linear response region of at least one of the sensors, the operating point and optical density corresponding thereto can be used to establish an actual response of at least one of the sensors whereby the actual sensor output can be used in determining changes in the optical density.

  9. A NON-LINEAR STRUCTURE-PROPERTY MODEL FOR OCTANOL-WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT

    PubMed Central

    Yerramsetty, Krishna M.; Neely, Brian J.; Gasem, Khaled A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) is an important thermodynamic property used to characterize the partitioning of solutes between an aqueous and organic phase and has importance in such areas as pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, chemical production and environmental toxicology. We present a non-linear quantitative structure-property relationship model for determining Kow values of new molecules in silico. A total of 823 descriptors were generated for 11,308 molecules whose Kow values are reported in the PhysProp dataset by Syracuse Research. Optimum network architecture and its associated inputs were identified using a wrapper-based feature selection algorithm that combines differential evolution and artificial neural networks. A network architecture of 50-33-35-1 resulted in the least root-mean squared error (RMSE) in the training set. Further, to improve on single-network predictions, a neural network ensemble was developed by combining five networks that have the same architecture and inputs but differ in layer weights. The ensemble predicted the Kow values with RMSE of 0.28 and 0.38 for the training set and internal validation set, respectively. The ensemble performed reasonably well on an external dataset when compared with other popular Kow models in the literature. PMID:23185102

  10. Application of Optical Parametric Generator for Lidar Sensing of Minor Gas Components of the Atmosphere in 3-4 μm Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Sadovnikov, S. A.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Shumskii, V. K.; Yakovlev, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Possibility of application of a laser system with parametric light generation based on a nonlinear KTA crystal for lidar sensing of the atmosphere in the 3-4 μm spectral range is investigated. A technique for lidar measurements of gas components in the atmosphere with the use of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is developed. The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested for estimating the possibility of laser sensing of minor gas components in the atmosphere.

  11. Scheme for generating distillation-favorable continuous-variable entanglement via three concurrent parametric down-conversions in a single χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, ShengLi; Xu, P; Zhu, S N

    2016-03-21

    We propose to generate a single-mode-squeezing two-mode squeezed vacuum state via a single χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystal. The state is favorable for existing Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes, since local squeezing operations can enhance the final entanglement and the success probability. The crystal is designed for enabling three concurrent quasi-phase-matching parametric-down conversions, and hence relieves the auxiliary on-line bi-side local squeezing operations. The compact source opens up a way for continuous-variable quantum technologies and could find more potential applications in future large-scale quantum networks. PMID:27136831

  12. Narrow bandwidth, picosecond, 1064  nm pumped optical parametric generator for the mid-IR based on HgGa₂S₄.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Riccardo; Pirzio, Federico; Agnesi, Antonio; Badikov, Valeriy; Badikov, Dmitrii; Marchev, Georgi; Panyutin, Vladimir; Petrov, Valentin

    2014-08-15

    We report on optical parametric generation in a mercury thiogallate (HgGa2S4) crystal pumped by 16 ps, 1064 nm pulses at 250 kHz. A broad tuning range extending from 1.19 to 1.47 μm (signal) and from 3.85 to 10 μm (idler) is achieved. Narrow bandwidth, quasi-Fourier limited operation with high beam quality for the signal/idler pulses and >14% pump depletion is obtained by continuous wave seed injection at 1.29 μm.

  13. Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and spectral shaping of a continuum generated in a photonic band gap fiber.

    PubMed

    Hugonnot, E; Somekh, M; Villate, D; Salin, F; Freysz, E

    2004-05-31

    A chirped pulse, spectrally broadened in a photonic bandgap optical fiber by 120 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulses, is parametrically amplified in a BBO crystal pumped by a frequency doubled nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulse. Without changing the frequency of the Ti:Sapphire, a spectral tunability of the amplified pulses is demonstrated. The possibility to achieve broader spectral range amplification is confirmed for a non-collinear pump-signal interaction geometry. For optimal non-collinear interaction geometry, the pulse duration of the original and amplified pulse are similar. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two BBO crystals makes it possible to spectrally shape the amplified pulses.

  14. Non-linear resonant coupling of tsunami edge waves using stochastic earthquake source models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-linear resonant coupling of edge waves can occur with tsunamis generated by large-magnitude subduction zone earthquakes. Earthquake rupture zones that straddle beneath the coastline of continental margins are particularly efficient at generating tsunami edge waves. Using a stochastic model for earthquake slip, it is shown that a wide range of edge-wave modes and wavenumbers can be excited, depending on the variability of slip. If two modes are present that satisfy resonance conditions, then a third mode can gradually increase in amplitude over time, even if the earthquake did not originally excite that edge-wave mode. These three edge waves form a resonant triad that can cause unexpected variations in tsunami amplitude long after the first arrival. An M ∼ 9, 1100 km-long continental subduction zone earthquake is considered as a test case. For the least-variable slip examined involving a Gaussian random variable, the dominant resonant triad includes a high-amplitude fundamental mode wave with wavenumber associated with the along-strike dimension of rupture. The two other waves that make up this triad include subharmonic waves, one of fundamental mode and the other of mode 2 or 3. For the most variable slip examined involving a Cauchy-distributed random variable, the dominant triads involve higher wavenumbers and modes because subevents, rather than the overall rupture dimension, control the excitation of edge waves. Calculation of the resonant period for energy transfer determines which cases resonant coupling may be instrumentally observed. For low-mode triads, the maximum transfer of energy occurs approximately 20–30 wave periods after the first arrival and thus may be observed prior to the tsunami coda being completely attenuated. Therefore, under certain circumstances the necessary ingredients for resonant coupling of tsunami edge waves exist, indicating that resonant triads may be observable and implicated in late, large-amplitude tsunami arrivals.

  15. In vivo imaging of anatomical features of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using non-linear (TPEF-SHG-THG) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, E. J.; Filippidis, G.; Voglis, G.; Mari, M.; Fotakis, C.; Tavernarakis, N.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we present the detailed imaging of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) at microscopic level by performing Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF), Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Third Harmonic Generation (THG) measurements. Due to their inherent advantages in comparison with the conventional microscopy (increased resolution, ability to section deep within tissues, minimization of photodamage and photobleaching effects), the non-linear microscopy techniques comprise a unique and extremely powerful tool for the extraction of valuable and unique information from biological samples. We developed a compact, reliable, inexpensive non-linear imaging system, utilizing femtosecond laser pulses (1028nm) for the excitation of biological samples. The use of 1028nm wavelength as excitation source minimizes photodamage effects and unwanted heating (due to the water absorption) of the biological specimens. The emitted THG signal lies in the near UV part of the spectrum (343nm). Detailed and specific structural and anatomical features of the worm were collected by recording THG signals. Consummative, unique information concerning the morphology and the functions of the nematode was obtained by implementing the combination of THG, SHG and TPEF image contrast modalities on the same microscope.

  16. Visualization of mouse neuronal ganglia infected by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) using multimodal non-linear optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Laliberté, Mathieu; Bertrand-Grenier, Antony; Houle, Marie-Andrée; Blache, Marie-Claire; Légaré, François; Pearson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that causes skin lesions and goes on to enter a latent state in neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Following stress, the virus may reactivate from latency leading to recurrent lesions. The in situ study of neuronal infections by HSV-1 is critical to understanding the mechanisms involved in the biology of this virus and how it causes disease; however, this normally requires fixation and sectioning of the target tissues followed by treatment with contrast agents to visualize key structures, which can lead to artifacts. To further our ability to study HSV-1 neuropathogenesis, we have generated a recombinant virus expressing a second generation red fluorescent protein (mCherry), which behaves like the parental virus in vivo. By optimizing the application of a multimodal non-linear optical microscopy platform, we have successfully visualized in unsectioned trigeminal ganglia of mice both infected cells by two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and myelinated axons of uninfected surrounding cells by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. These results represent the first report of CARS microscopy being combined with 2-photon fluorescence microscopy to visualize virus-infected cells deep within unsectioned explanted tissue, and demonstrate the application of multimodal non-linear optical microscopy for high spatial resolution biological imaging of tissues without the use of stains or fixatives.

  17. Visualization of Mouse Neuronal Ganglia Infected by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Using Multimodal Non-Linear Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Laliberté, Mathieu; Bertrand-Grenier, Antony; Houle, Marie-Andrée; Blache, Marie-Claire; Légaré, François; Pearson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that causes skin lesions and goes on to enter a latent state in neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Following stress, the virus may reactivate from latency leading to recurrent lesions. The in situ study of neuronal infections by HSV-1 is critical to understanding the mechanisms involved in the biology of this virus and how it causes disease; however, this normally requires fixation and sectioning of the target tissues followed by treatment with contrast agents to visualize key structures, which can lead to artifacts. To further our ability to study HSV-1 neuropathogenesis, we have generated a recombinant virus expressing a second generation red fluorescent protein (mCherry), which behaves like the parental virus in vivo. By optimizing the application of a multimodal non-linear optical microscopy platform, we have successfully visualized in unsectioned trigeminal ganglia of mice both infected cells by two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and myelinated axons of uninfected surrounding cells by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. These results represent the first report of CARS microscopy being combined with 2-photon fluorescence microscopy to visualize virus-infected cells deep within unsectioned explanted tissue, and demonstrate the application of multimodal non-linear optical microscopy for high spatial resolution biological imaging of tissues without the use of stains or fixatives. PMID:25133579

  18. Optomechanical design and construction of a vacuum-compatible optical parametric oscillator for generation of squeezed light.

    PubMed

    Wade, A R; Mansell, G L; McRae, T G; Chua, S S Y; Yap, M J; Ward, R L; Slagmolen, B J J; Shaddock, D A; McClelland, D E

    2016-06-01

    With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10(-6) mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance. PMID:27370423

  19. Optomechanical design and construction of a vacuum-compatible optical parametric oscillator for generation of squeezed light.

    PubMed

    Wade, A R; Mansell, G L; McRae, T G; Chua, S S Y; Yap, M J; Ward, R L; Slagmolen, B J J; Shaddock, D A; McClelland, D E

    2016-06-01

    With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10(-6) mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance.

  20. Optomechanical design and construction of a vacuum-compatible optical parametric oscillator for generation of squeezed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, A. R.; Mansell, G. L.; McRae, T. G.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Yap, M. J.; Ward, R. L.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Shaddock, D. A.; McClelland, D. E.

    2016-06-01

    With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10-6 mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance.

  1. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhalifah, Tariq; Choi, Yunseok

    2012-12-01

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  2. An optimized self-powered switching circuit for non-linear energy harvesting with low voltage output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallart, Mickaël; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Harvesting energy from environmental sources has been of particular interest these last few years. Microgenerators that can power electronic systems are a solution for the conception of autonomous, wireless devices. They allow the removal of bulky and costly wiring, as well as complex maintenance and environmental issues for battery-powered systems. In particular, using piezoelectric generators for converting vibrational energy to electrical energy is an intensively investigated field. In this domain, it has been shown that the harvested energy can be greatly improved by the use of an original non-linear treatment of the piezoelectric voltage called SSHI (Synchronized Switch Harvesting on Inductor), which consists in intermittently switching the piezoelectric element on a resonant electrical network for a very short time. However, the integration of miniaturized microgenerators with low voltage output (e.g. MEMS microgenerators) has not been widely studied. In the case of low voltage output, the losses introduced by voltage gaps of discrete components such as diodes or transistors can no longer be neglected. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to propose a model that takes into account such losses as well as a new architecture for the SSHI energy harvesting circuit that limits such losses in the harvesting process. While most of the study uses an externally powered microcontroller for the non-linear treatment, this circuit is fully self-powered, thus providing an enhanced autonomous microgenerator. In particular this circuit aims at limiting the effect of non-linear components with a voltage gap such as diodes. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that the harvested power can be significantly increased using such a circuit. In particular, experimental measurements performed on a cantilever beam show that the circuit allows a 160% increase of the harvested power compared to a standard energy harvesting circuit, while the classical implementation of

  3. Non-Linear Dynamical Classification of Short Time Series of the Rössler System in High Noise Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hernandez, Manuel E.; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Time series analysis with delay differential equations (DDEs) reveals non-linear properties of the underlying dynamical system and can serve as a non-linear time-domain classification tool. Here global DDE models were used to analyze short segments of simulated time series from a known dynamical system, the Rössler system, in high noise regimes. In a companion paper, we apply the DDE model developed here to classify short segments of encephalographic (EEG) data recorded from patients with Parkinson’s disease and healthy subjects. Nine simulated subjects in each of two distinct classes were generated by varying the bifurcation parameter b and keeping the other two parameters (a and c) of the Rössler system fixed. All choices of b were in the chaotic parameter range. We diluted the simulated data using white noise ranging from 10 to −30 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Structure selection was supervised by selecting the number of terms, delays, and order of non-linearity of the model DDE model that best linearly separated the two classes of data. The distances d from the linear dividing hyperplane was then used to assess the classification performance by computing the area A′ under the ROC curve. The selected model was tested on untrained data using repeated random sub-sampling validation. DDEs were able to accurately distinguish the two dynamical conditions, and moreover, to quantify the changes in the dynamics. There was a significant correlation between the dynamical bifurcation parameter b of the simulated data and the classification parameter d from our analysis. This correlation still held for new simulated subjects with new dynamical parameters selected from each of the two dynamical regimes. Furthermore, the correlation was robust to added noise, being significant even when the noise was greater than the signal. We conclude that DDE models may be used as a generalizable and reliable classification tool for even small segments of noisy data. PMID

  4. Instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar part 2: experimental confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Kenneth; Mazzaro, Gregory; Gallagher, Kyle; Martone, Anthony; Sherbondy, Kelly; Narayanan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Last year, we presented the theory behind "instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar". We demonstrated through simulation that certain devices (when interrogated by a multi-tone transmit signal) could be expected to produce a multi-tone output signal near harmonics of the transmitted tones. This hypothesized non-linear (multitone) response was then shown to be suitable for pulse compression via standard stepped-frequency processing techniques. At that time, however, we did not have measured data to support the theoretical and simulated results. We now present laboratory measurements confirming our initial hypotheses. We begin with a brief description of the experimental system, and then describe the data collection exercise. Finally, we present measured data demonstrating the accurate ranging of a non-linear target.

  5. Roles of Different Forms of Scale Factor in Non-linear Electrodynamics for Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Sayani; Debnath, Ujjal

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we have assumed the modified Lagrangian of non-linear electrodynamics for accelerated universe. The energy density and pressure for non-linear electromagnetic theory have been considered in terms of both electric and magnetic fields. The Einstein's filed equations have been considered in FRW universe for Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. Since we are considering the non-linear form of Lagrangian for accelerating universe, so four forms of scale factors like logamediate, intermediate, emergent and power law forms are chosen in our investigation. For every expansion, the natures of electric field and magnetic field have been shown through graphical representation. The electric and magnetic fields increase for logamediate, intermediate and emergent expansion and decrease in power law expansion.

  6. Research on non-linearity correction of 2D-PSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiawei; Chen, Sihai; Chen, Wei; Wu, Xin; Xiang, Sihua

    2009-08-01

    PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) is a kind of electrophotonic detector based on lateral photoeffect. PSD is widely used in non-contact measurement as it's highly sensitive to the position of incident light. But, it suffers from non-linearity because of nonuniform surface resistance which reduces the measuring precision and reliability. In this paper, The non-linear error of 2D-PSD(Two-dimensional PSD) is partly corrected using algorithm for duo-linear interpolation based on LabVIEW(Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench). The corrected result shows that the linearity of 2D-PSD is greatly improved without increasing the complexity of hardware. After the non-linearity correction, the usable area of PSD is extended and the precision of the measurement system is improved.

  7. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects. PMID:24615758

  8. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  9. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects.

  10. Real-Time Monitoring of Non-linear Suicidal Dynamics: Methodology and a Demonstrative Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fartacek, Clemens; Schiepek, Günter; Kunrath, Sabine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of different authors have stressed the usefulness of non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicide research and suicide prevention. This approach applies specific methods of time series analysis and, consequently, it requires a continuous and fine-meshed assessment of the processes under consideration. The technical means for this kind of process assessment and process analysis are now available. This paper outlines how suicidal dynamics can be monitored in high-risk patients by an Internet-based application for continuous self-assessment with integrated tools of non-linear time series analysis: the Synergetic Navigation System. This procedure is illustrated by data from a patient who attempted suicide at the end of a 90-day monitoring period. Additionally, future research topics and clinical applications of a non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicidology are discussed.

  11. A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.

  12. Real-Time Monitoring of Non-linear Suicidal Dynamics: Methodology and a Demonstrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fartacek, Clemens; Schiepek, Günter; Kunrath, Sabine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of different authors have stressed the usefulness of non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicide research and suicide prevention. This approach applies specific methods of time series analysis and, consequently, it requires a continuous and fine-meshed assessment of the processes under consideration. The technical means for this kind of process assessment and process analysis are now available. This paper outlines how suicidal dynamics can be monitored in high-risk patients by an Internet-based application for continuous self-assessment with integrated tools of non-linear time series analysis: the Synergetic Navigation System. This procedure is illustrated by data from a patient who attempted suicide at the end of a 90-day monitoring period. Additionally, future research topics and clinical applications of a non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicidology are discussed. PMID:26913016

  13. Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments. PMID:25101112

  14. Three-dimensional finite-difference modeling of non-linear ground notion

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-08-01

    We present a hybrid finite-difference technique capable of modeling non-linear soil amplification from the 3-D finite-fault radiation pattern for earthquakes in arbitrary earth models. The method is applied to model non-linear effects in the soils of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) from the 17 January 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquake. 0-7 Hz particle velocities are computed for an area of 17 km by 19 km immediately above the causative fault and 5 km below the surface where peak strike-parallel, strike-perpendicular, vertical, and total velocities reach values of 71 cm/s, 145 cm/s, 152 cm/s, and 180 cm/s, respectively. Selected Green`s functions and a soil model for the SFV are used to compute the approximate stress level during the earthquake, and comparison to the values for near-surface alluvium at the U.S. Nevada Test Site suggests that the non-linear regime may have been entered. We use selected values from the simulated particle velocity distribution at 5 km depth to compute the non-linear response in a soil column below a site within the Van Norman Complex in SFV, where the strongest ground motion was recorded. Since site-specific non- linear material parameters from the SFV are currently unavailable, values are taken from analyses of observed Test Site ground motions. Preliminary results show significant reduction of spectral velocities at the surface normalized to the peak source velocity due to non-linear effects when the peak velocity increases from 32 cm/s (approximately linear case) to 64 cm/s (30-92%), 93 cm/s (7-83%), and 124 cm/s (2-70%). The largest reduction occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz.

  15. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-12-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z~ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula.

  16. Stable clustering, the halo model and non-linear cosmological power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. E.; Peacock, J. A.; Jenkins, A.; White, S. D. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.; Efstathiou, G.; Couchman, H. M. P.

    2003-06-01

    We present the results of a large library of cosmological N-body simulations, using power-law initial spectra. The non-linear evolution of the matter power spectra is compared with the predictions of existing analytic scaling formulae based on the work of Hamilton et al. The scaling approach has assumed that highly non-linear structures obey `stable clustering' and are frozen in proper coordinates. Our results show that, when transformed under the self-similarity scaling, the scale-free spectra define a non-linear locus that is clearly shallower than would be required under stable clustering. Furthermore, the small-scale non-linear power increases as both the power spectrum index n and the density parameter Ω decrease, and this evolution is not well accounted for by the previous scaling formulae. This breakdown of stable clustering can be understood as resulting from the modification of dark matter haloes by continuing mergers. These effects are naturally included in the analytic `halo model' for non-linear structure; we use this approach to fit both our scale-free results and also our previous cold dark matter data. This method is more accurate than the commonly used Peacock-Dodds formula and should be applicable to more general power spectra. Code to evaluate non-linear power spectra using this method is available from http://as1.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/~res/software.html. Following publication, we will make the power-law simulation data publically available through the Virgo website http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/Virgo/.

  17. Effects of polarization mode dispersion on polarization-entangled photons generated via broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels. PMID:27174100

  18. Effects of polarization mode dispersion on polarization-entangled photons generated via broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels. PMID:27174100

  19. Parametric amplification-assisted cascaded four-wave mixing for ultrabroad laser sideband generation in a thin transparent medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Liu, W.; Wang, L.; Fang, C.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate distinct sets of broadband up-converted multicolor array (BUMA) signals in a thin transparent medium with an intense 800 nm fundamental pulse (FP) and a weak, unfiltered super-continuum white light (SCWL) in a crossing geometry. Upon varying the time delay between the two incident laser pulses, continuously tunable BUMA signals in the visible to near-IR range sequentially emerge on either side of the FP, in both BBO crystal and BK7 glass. Through numerical calculations at intrinsic phase-matching conditions, the BUMA signals on the SCWL side are shown to arise from the interaction mainly between χ(3)-based four-wave optical parametric amplification and cascaded four-wave mixing processes. The temporally controllable broadband BUMA signals with amplification and tunability all in one thin transparent medium are highly suitable for ultrafast laser spectroscopy and optical communication networks.

  20. Response evaluation for horizontally loaded fixed-head pile groups using 3-D non-linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comodromos, Emilios M.; Pitilakis, Kyriazis D.

    2005-05-01

    The response of laterally loaded pile foundations may be significantly important in the design of structures for such loads. A static horizontal pile load test is able to provide a load-deflection curve for a single free-head pile, which significantly differs from that of a free- or fixed-head pile group, depending on the particular group configuration. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the interaction between the piles of a group fixed in a rigid pile cap on both the lateral load capacity and the stiffness of the group. For this purpose, a parametric three-dimensional non-linear numerical analysis was carried out for different arrangements of pile groups. The response of the pile groups is compared to that of the single pile. The influence of the number of piles, the spacing and the deflection level to the group response is discussed. Furthermore, the contribution of the piles constituting the group to the total group resistance is examined. Finally, a relationship is proposed allowing a reasonable prediction of the response of fixed-head pile groups at least for similar soil profile conditions.

  1. Genetic programming as an analytical tool for non-linear dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Woodward, A M; Gilbert, R J; Kell, D B

    1999-05-01

    By modelling the non-linear effects of membranous enzymes on an applied oscillating electromagnetic field using supervised multivariate analysis methods, Non-Linear Dielectric Spectroscopy (NLDS) has previously been shown to produce quantitative information that is indicative of the metabolic state of various organisms. The use of Genetic Programming (GP) for the multivariate analysis of NLDS data recorded from yeast fermentations is discussed, and GPs are compared with previous results using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Nets (NN). GP considerably outperforms these methods, both in terms of the precision of the predictions and their interpretability.

  2. Influence of shear in the non-linear analysis of RC members

    SciTech Connect

    Diotallevi, Pier Paolo; Landi, Luca; Cardinetti, Filippo

    2008-07-08

    The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model characterized by a beam-column finite element which is able to reproduce the non-linear flexural-shear behavior of RC structures. The paper shows a brief description of the finite element formulation, the theory used for modeling the constitutive relationship and the scheme of the algorithm, transformed in a computer program, which was developed for implementing the theoretical model. Finally it illustrates a comparison with available experimental results for the calibration and validation of the model and a study on the influence of the non-linear shear response.

  3. Airframe structural damage detection: a non-linear structural surface intensity based technique.

    PubMed

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C; Barnard, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The non-linear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection technique is extended to airframe applications. The selected test structure is an upper cabin airframe section from a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter (Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, CT). Structural damage is simulated through an impact resonator device, designed to simulate the induced vibration effects typical of non-linear behaving damage. An experimental study is conducted to prove the applicability of NSSI on complex mechanical systems as well as to evaluate the minimum sensor and actuator requirements. The NSSI technique is shown to have high damage detection sensitivity, covering an extended substructure with a single sensing location.

  4. [Non-linear rectification of sensor based on immune genetic Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lirong; Zhou, Jinyang; Niu, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    A non-linear rectification based on immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this paper, for the shortcoming of the non-linearity rectification. This algorithm introducing the biologic immune mechanism into the genetic algorithm can restrain the disadvantages that the poor precision, slow convergence speed and early maturity of the genetic algorithm. Computer simulations indicated that the algorithm not only keeps population diversity, but also increases the convergent speed, precision and the stability greatly. The results have shown the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  5. [Non-linear rectification of sensor based on immune genetic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lirong; Zhou, Jinyang; Niu, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    A non-linear rectification based on immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this paper, for the shortcoming of the non-linearity rectification. This algorithm introducing the biologic immune mechanism into the genetic algorithm can restrain the disadvantages that the poor precision, slow convergence speed and early maturity of the genetic algorithm. Computer simulations indicated that the algorithm not only keeps population diversity, but also increases the convergent speed, precision and the stability greatly. The results have shown the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  6. Non-linear multi-plane wave solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.

    1988-12-01

    New solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) equations are constructed in Minkowski space-time for the gauge group SL(2, ℂ). After proposing a Lorentz covariant formulation of Yang's equations, a set of Ansätze for exact non-linear multiplane wave solutions are proposed. The gauge fields are rational functions of e x·ki ( K {/i 2}=0, 1≦ i≦ N) for these Ansätze. At least, three families of multisoliton type solutions are derived explicitly. Their asymptotic behaviour shows that non-linear waves scatter non-trivially in Minkowski SDYM.

  7. Propagation of the quasimonochromatic signal through medium having non-linear dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Galkin, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) fulfill the requirements for trace gas analysis, for the measurement of concentrations of most atmospheric pollutants, and is increasingly being used to measure pollutants. The medium non-linear dispersion influence for complex form of quasimonochromatic signal propagating through environment is described. It is shown, that a non-linear dispersion disturbs both a real amplitude and an imaginary phase of signal. The proofs are adduced for AM-signal. The results of a computer simulation of a process corroborate the theoretical conclusions. Noted effects may be important for the signal propagating within spectral absorption line at the TDLS.

  8. The Creative Chaos: Speculations on the Connection Between Non-Linear Dynamics and the Creative Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zausner, Tobi

    Chaos theory may provide models for creativity and for the personality of the artist. A collection of speculative hypotheses examines the connection between art and such fundamentals of non-linear dynamics as iteration, dissipative processes, open systems, entropy, sensitivity to stimuli, autocatalysis, subsystems, bifurcations, randomness, unpredictability, irreversibility, increasing levels of organization, far-from-equilibrium conditions, strange attractors, period doubling, intermittency and self-similar fractal organization. Non-linear dynamics may also explain why certain individuals suffer mental disorders while others remain intact during a lifetime of sustained creative output.

  9. Airframe structural damage detection: a non-linear structural surface intensity based technique.

    PubMed

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C; Barnard, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The non-linear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection technique is extended to airframe applications. The selected test structure is an upper cabin airframe section from a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter (Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, CT). Structural damage is simulated through an impact resonator device, designed to simulate the induced vibration effects typical of non-linear behaving damage. An experimental study is conducted to prove the applicability of NSSI on complex mechanical systems as well as to evaluate the minimum sensor and actuator requirements. The NSSI technique is shown to have high damage detection sensitivity, covering an extended substructure with a single sensing location. PMID:21476618

  10. Non-linear performance of a three-bearing rotor incorporating a squeeze-film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.; Dede, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the non-linear vibration performance of a rigid rotor supported on three bearings, one being surrounded by a squeeze-film damper. This damper relies on the pressure built up in the squeeze film to help counter-act external forces arising from unbalance and other effects. As a result a vibration orbit of a certain magnetude results. Such vibration orbits illustrate features found in other non-linear systems, in particular sub-harmonic resonances and jump phenomena. Comparisons between theoretical prediction and experimental observations of these phenomena are made.

  11. Non-perturbative aspects of particle acceleration in non-linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, David A.; Flood, Stephen P.; Wen, Haibao

    2015-04-15

    We undertake an investigation of particle acceleration in the context of non-linear electrodynamics. We deduce the maximum energy that an electron can gain in a non-linear density wave in a magnetised plasma, and we show that an electron can “surf” a sufficiently intense Born-Infeld electromagnetic plane wave and be strongly accelerated by the wave. The first result is valid for a large class of physically reasonable modifications of the linear Maxwell equations, whilst the second result exploits the special mathematical structure of Born-Infeld theory.

  12. Non-perturbative aspects of particle acceleration in non-linear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, David A.; Flood, Stephen P.; Wen, Haibao

    2015-04-01

    We undertake an investigation of particle acceleration in the context of non-linear electrodynamics. We deduce the maximum energy that an electron can gain in a non-linear density wave in a magnetised plasma, and we show that an electron can "surf" a sufficiently intense Born-Infeld electromagnetic plane wave and be strongly accelerated by the wave. The first result is valid for a large class of physically reasonable modifications of the linear Maxwell equations, whilst the second result exploits the special mathematical structure of Born-Infeld theory.

  13. Non-linear molecular pattern classification using molecular beacons with multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Hee; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Tai Hyun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2013-12-01

    In vitro pattern classification has been highlighted as an important future application of DNA computing. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of linear classifiers using DNA-based molecular computing. However, complex tasks require non-linear classification capability. Here we design a molecular beacon that can interact with multiple targets and experimentally shows that its fluorescent signals form a complex radial-basis function, enabling it to be used as a building block for non-linear molecular classification in vitro. The proposed method was successfully applied to solving artificial and real-world classification problems: XOR and microRNA expression patterns.

  14. Non-linear imaging techniques visualize the lipid profile of C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Meropi; Petanidou, Barbara; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Fotakis, Costas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Filippidis, George

    2015-07-01

    The non-linear techniques Second and Third Harmonic Generation (SHG, THG) have been employed simultaneously to record three dimensional (3D) imaging and localize the lipid content of the muscular areas (ectopic fat) of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Simultaneously, Two-Photon Fluorescence (TPEF) was used initially to localize the stained lipids with Nile Red, but also to confirm the THG potential to image lipids successfully. In addition, GFP labelling of the somatic muscles, proves the initial suggestion of the existence of ectopic fat on the muscles and provides complementary information to the SHG imaging of the pharynx. The ectopic fat may be related to a complex of pathological conditions including type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The elucidation of the molecular path leading to the development of metabolic syndrome is a vital issue with high biological significance and necessitates accurate methods competent of monitoring lipid storage distribution and dynamics in vivo. THG microscopy was employed as a quantitative tool to monitor the lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues in the pharyngeal muscles of 12 unstained specimens while the SHG imaging revealed the anatomical structure of the muscles. The ectopic fat accumulation on the pharyngeal muscles increases in wild type (N2) C. elegans between 1 and 9 days of adulthood. This suggests a correlation of the ectopic fat accumulation with the aging. Our results can provide new evidence relating the deposition of ectopic fat with aging, but also validate SHG and THG microscopy modalities as new, non-invasive tools capable of localizing and quantifying selectively lipid accumulation and distribution.

  15. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  16. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  17. Non-linear matter power spectrum covariance matrix errors and cosmological parameter uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blot, L.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Amendola, L.; Kitching, T. D.

    2016-06-01

    The covariance of the matter power spectrum is a key element of the analysis of galaxy clustering data. Independent realizations of observational measurements can be used to sample the covariance, nevertheless statistical sampling errors will propagate into the cosmological parameter inference potentially limiting the capabilities of the upcoming generation of galaxy surveys. The impact of these errors as function of the number of realizations has been previously evaluated for Gaussian distributed data. However, non-linearities in the late-time clustering of matter cause departures from Gaussian statistics. Here, we address the impact of non-Gaussian errors on the sample covariance and precision matrix errors using a large ensemble of N-body simulations. In the range of modes where finite volume effects are negligible (0.1 ≲ k [h Mpc-1] ≲ 1.2), we find deviations of the variance of the sample covariance with respect to Gaussian predictions above ˜10 per cent at k > 0.3 h Mpc-1. Over the entire range these reduce to about ˜5 per cent for the precision matrix. Finally, we perform a Fisher analysis to estimate the effect of covariance errors on the cosmological parameter constraints. In particular, assuming Euclid-like survey characteristics we find that a number of independent realizations larger than 5000 is necessary to reduce the contribution of sampling errors to the cosmological parameter uncertainties at subpercent level. We also show that restricting the analysis to large scales k ≲ 0.2 h Mpc-1 results in a considerable loss in constraining power, while using the linear covariance to include smaller scales leads to an underestimation of the errors on the cosmological parameters.

  18. Non-linear diffusion of cosmic rays escaping from supernova remnants - I. The effect of neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, L.; Gabici, S.; Marcowith, A.; Morlino, G.; Ptuskin, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the main sources of galactic cosmic rays (CR). Within this framework, particles are accelerated at supernova remnant shocks and then released in the interstellar medium. The mechanism through which CRs are released and the way in which they propagate still remain open issues. The main difficulty is the high non-linearity of the problem: CRs themselves excite the magnetic turbulence that confines them close to their sources. We solve numerically the coupled differential equations describing the evolution in space and time of the escaping particles and of the waves generated through the CR streaming instability. The warm ionized and warm neutral phases of the interstellar medium are considered. These phases occupy the largest fraction of the disc volume, where most supernovae explode, and are characterized by the significant presence of neutral particles. The friction between those neutrals and ions results in a very effective wave damping mechanism. It is found that streaming instability affects the propagation of CRs even in the presence of ion-neutral friction. The diffusion coefficient can be suppressed by more than a factor of ˜2 over a region of few tens of pc around the remnant. The suppression increases for smaller distances. The propagation of ≈10 GeV particles is affected for several tens of kiloyears after escape, while ≈1 TeV particles are affected for few kiloyears. This might have a great impact on the interpretation of gamma-ray observations of molecular clouds located in the vicinity of supernova remnants.

  19. Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture.

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F.

    2003-12-01

    This project covers three distinct features of thin film fracture and deformation in which the current experimental technique of nanoindentation demonstrates limitations. The first feature is film fracture, which can be generated either by nanoindentation or bulge testing thin films. Examples of both tests will be shown, in particular oxide films on metallic or semiconductor substrates. Nanoindentations were made into oxide films on aluminum and titanium substrates for two cases; one where the metal was a bulk (effectively single crystal) material and the other where the metal was a 1 pm thick film grown on a silica or silicon substrate. In both cases indentation was used to produce discontinuous loading curves, which indicate film fracture after plastic deformation of the metal. The oxides on bulk metals fractures occurred at reproducible loads, and the tensile stress in the films at fracture were approximately 10 and 15 GPa for the aluminum and titanium oxides respectively. Similarly, bulge tests of piezoelectric oxide films have been carried out and demonstrate film fracture at stresses of only 100's of MPa, suggesting the importance of defects and film thickness in evaluating film strength. The second feature of concern is film adhesion. Several qualitative and quantitative tests exist today that measure the adhesion properties of thin films. A relatively new technique that uses stressed overlayers to measure adhesion has been proposed and extensively studied. Delamination of thin films manifests itself in the form of either telephone cord or straight buckles. The buckles are used to calculate the interfacial fracture toughness of the film-substrate system. Nanoindentation can be utilized if more energy is needed to initiate buckling of the film system. Finally, deformation in metallic systems can lead to non-linear deformation due to 'bursts' of dislocation activity during nanoindentation. An experimental study to examine the structure of dislocations around

  20. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  1. Partitioning non-linearities in the response of honey bee olfactory receptor neurons to binary odors.

    PubMed

    Getz, W M; Akers, R P

    1995-01-01

    In many organisms, of which honey bees are one example, a general (i.e., non-pheromonal) olfactory receptor neuron may respond to some odorants by increasing its firing rate and to others by decreasing its firing rate. In the latter case, this decrease will be with respect to a background firing rate determined by intrinsic (internal noise) and extrinsic (background odors) factors. To analyse receptor neurons of this complexity, we extend Beidler's model of receptor protein activation dynamics to account for the competition between depolarizing and hyperpolarizing pathways and couple the model to a phenomenological description of the non-linear relationship between the proportion of activate membrane receptors and the receptor cell spike generation rates. We then examine the implications of this theory for predicting the response of receptor neurons to odor mixtures based on their response to pure odorants at concentrations matched to the mixture. We derive inequalities that must be satisfied under our normative model, and propose that deviations from the model be designated as synergisms and inhibitions, depending on the direction in which various equalities and inequalities are violated. We then apply our inequalities to identifying synergisms and inhibitions in data analysed in a different way elsewhere (Akers, R.P. and Getz, W.M. Response of olfactory receptor neurons in honey bees to odorants and their binary mixtures. J. Comp. Physiol. (in press)). In these data regarding the response of honey bee placode sensilla to a number of odorants and their binary combinations, we demonstrate the presence of synergisms and inhibitions--that is, elevated or repressed responses that are not due to competitive interactions of mixture component odorants for receptor sites or Beidler (Beidler, L.M., 1962. Taste receptor stimulation. Prog. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 12, 107-151) saturation mechanisms. PMID:7727704

  2. LROC assessment of non-linear filtering methods in Ga-67 SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Clercq, Stijn; Staelens, Steven; De Beenhouwer, Jan; D'Asseler, Yves; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2006-03-01

    In emission tomography, iterative reconstruction is usually followed by a linear smoothing filter to make such images more appropriate for visual inspection and diagnosis by a physician. This will result in a global blurring of the images, smoothing across edges and possibly discarding valuable image information for detection tasks. The purpose of this study is to investigate which possible advantages a non-linear, edge-preserving postfilter could have on lesion detection in Ga-67 SPECT imaging. Image quality can be defined based on the task that has to be performed on the image. This study used LROC observer studies based on a dataset created by CPU-intensive Gate Monte Carlo simulations of a voxelized digital phantom. The filters considered in this study were a linear Gaussian filter, a bilateral filter, the Perona-Malik anisotropic diffusion filter and the Catte filtering scheme. The 3D MCAT software phantom was used to simulate the distribution of Ga-67 citrate in the abdomen. Tumor-present cases had a 1-cm diameter tumor randomly placed near the edges of the anatomical boundaries of the kidneys, bone, liver and spleen. Our data set was generated out of a single noisy background simulation using the bootstrap method, to significantly reduce the simulation time and to allow for a larger observer data set. Lesions were simulated separately and added to the background afterwards. These were then reconstructed with an iterative approach, using a sufficiently large number of MLEM iterations to establish convergence. The output of a numerical observer was used in a simplex optimization method to estimate an optimal set of parameters for each postfilter. No significant improvement was found for using edge-preserving filtering techniques over standard linear Gaussian filtering.

  3. Multidimensional custom-made non-linear microscope: from ex-vivo to in-vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sacconi, L.; Jasaitis, A.; O'Connor, R. P.; Massi, D.; Sestini, S.; de Giorgi, V.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2008-09-01

    We have built a custom-made multidimensional non-linear microscope equipped with a combination of several non-linear laser imaging techniques involving fluorescence lifetime, multispectral two-photon and second-harmonic generation imaging. The optical system was mounted on a vertical honeycomb breadboard in an upright configuration, using two galvo-mirrors relayed by two spherical mirrors as scanners. A double detection system working in non-descanning mode has allowed both photon counting and a proportional regime. This experimental setup offering high spatial (micrometric) and temporal (sub-nanosecond) resolution has been used to image both ex-vivo and in-vivo biological samples, including cells, tissues, and living animals. Multidimensional imaging was used to spectroscopically characterize human skin lesions, as malignant melanoma and naevi. Moreover, two-color detection of two photon excited fluorescence was applied to in-vivo imaging of living mice intact neocortex, as well as to induce neuronal microlesions by femtosecond laser burning. The presented applications demonstrate the capability of the instrument to be used in a wide range of biological and biomedical studies.

  4. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  5. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.; Haven, E.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the interest of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call the decision functions is deduced by introducing a suitable Hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their environments, which are generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear idea for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The Hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same Hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  6. One-point remapping of Lagrangian perturbation theory in the mildly non-linear regime of cosmic structure formation

    SciTech Connect

    Leclercq, Florent; Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin; Gil-Marín, Héctor E-mail: jasche@iap.fr E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr

    2013-11-01

    On the smallest scales, three-dimensional large-scale structure surveys contain a wealth of cosmological information which cannot be trivially extracted due to the non-linear dynamical evolution of the density field. Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT) is widely applied to the generation of mock halo catalogs and data analysis. In this work, we compare topological features of the cosmic web such as voids, sheets, filaments and clusters, in the density fields predicted by LPT and full numerical simulation of gravitational large-scale structure formation. We propose a method designed to improve the correspondence between these density fields, in the mildly non-linear regime. We develop a computationally fast and flexible tool for a variety of cosmological applications. Our method is based on a remapping of the approximately-evolved density field, using information extracted from N-body simulations. The remapping procedure consists of replacing the one-point distribution of the density contrast by one which better accounts for the full gravitational dynamics. As a result, we obtain a physically more pertinent density field on a point-by-point basis, while also improving higher-order statistics predicted by LPT. We quantify the approximation error in the power spectrum and in the bispectrum as a function of scale and redshift. Our remapping procedure improves one-, two- and three-point statistics at scales down to 8 Mpc/h.

  7. Linear and Non-Linear Long-Term Terrain Deformation with DInSAR (CPT: Coherent Pixels Technique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallorqui, J. J.; Mora, O.; Blanco, P.; Broquetas, A.

    2004-06-01

    / In this paper, an advanced technique for the generation of deformation maps using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data is presented. The algorithm, called the Coherent Pixels Technique, estimates the linear and non-linear components of the displacement, the error of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) used to cancel the topographic terms, and the atmospheric artifacts from a reduced set of low spatial resolution interferograms. The pixel candidates are selected from those presenting a good coherence level in the whole set of interferograms and the resulting non-uniform mesh tessellated with the Delauney triangulation to establish connections among them. The linear component of movement and DEM error are estimated adjusting a linear model to the data only on the connections. Later on, this information, once integrated to retrieve the absolute values, is used to calculate the non-linear component of movement and atmospheric artifacts with alternate filtering techniques in both temporal and spatial domains. The method presents high flexibility with respect to the required number of images and the baselines length. However, better results are obtained with large datasets of short baseline interferograms. The technique has been tested with ERS SAR data from an area of Catalonia (Spain) and the Campi Flegrei area (Naples, Italy) and validated with on-field precise levelling measurements.

  8. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Fernando R; Malerba, Paola; White, John A

    2015-04-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances.

  9. Experimental investigation of non-linear wave to plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, G.; Mascali, D.; Agnello, R.; Celona, L.; Leonardi, O.; Neri, L.; Nicolosi, D.; Torrisi, G.; Gammino, S.

    2016-02-01

    A characterization of wave-to-plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field at 3.75 GHz has been carried out by using a small-wire movable RF antenna, connected to a spectrum analyzer. The coupling between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves leads to a characteristic spectral emission in low frequency range and around the pumping wave frequency. The most relevant results consist in the broadening of the pumping wave spectrum above critical RF power thresholds and in the generation of sidebands of the pumping frequency, with corresponding components in low frequency domain. The non-linearities are accompanied by the generation of overdense plasmas and intense fluxes of X-rays.

  10. Experimental investigation of non-linear wave to plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field.

    PubMed

    Castro, G; Mascali, D; Agnello, R; Celona, L; Leonardi, O; Neri, L; Nicolosi, D; Torrisi, G; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    A characterization of wave-to-plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field at 3.75 GHz has been carried out by using a small-wire movable RF antenna, connected to a spectrum analyzer. The coupling between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves leads to a characteristic spectral emission in low frequency range and around the pumping wave frequency. The most relevant results consist in the broadening of the pumping wave spectrum above critical RF power thresholds and in the generation of sidebands of the pumping frequency, with corresponding components in low frequency domain. The non-linearities are accompanied by the generation of overdense plasmas and intense fluxes of X-rays. PMID:26931915

  11. Generation of high-contrast millijoule pulses by optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification in periodically poled KTiOPO4

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Forget, N; Brown, C G; Ebbers, C A; Blanc, C L; Barty, C J

    2004-10-01

    A new high-contrast, high-gain optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) architecture is demonstrated in periodically poled KTiOPO{sub 4} (PPKTP). This architecture overcomes parametric fluorescence contrast limitations of OPCPA in periodically poled materials. The scheme is based on two passes of a single, relay imaged, pump pulse and a free-propagating signal pulse through a 1.5 x 5 x 7.5 mm{sup 3} PPKTP crystal. The output energy of 1.2 mJ is generated at a center wavelength of 1053 nm utilizing 24 mJ of pump energy. Prepulse contrast level of >3 x 10{sup 7} has been measured with >10{sup 6} saturated gain in the amplifier. Amplified pulses were compressed to 200 fs. This simple and versatile concept requires only a modest pump energy from a commercial pump laser and represents a possible high-contrast front end for high-energy Nd:glass-based petawatt-class lasers.

  12. Generation of high-contrast millijoule pulses by optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification in periodically poled KTiOPO4.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Igor; Brown, Curtis G; Ebbers, Christopher A; Barty, C P J; Forget, Nicolas; Le Blanc, Catherine

    2005-05-01

    A new high-contrast, high-gain optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) architecture is demonstrated in periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP). This architecture overcomes parametric fluorescence contrast limitations of the OPCPA in periodically poled materials. The scheme is based on two passes of a single relay-imaged pump pulse and a free-propagating signal pulse through a 1.5 mm x 5 mm x 7.5 mm PPKTP crystal. The output energy of 1.2 mJ is generated at a center wavelength of 1053 nm by 24 mJ of pump energy. A prepulse contrast level of > 3 x 10(7) was measured with > 10(6) saturated gain in the amplifier. Amplified pulses were compressed to 200 fs. This simple and versatile concept requires only a modest pump energy from a commercial pump laser and represents a possible high-contrast front end for high-energy Nd:glass-based petawatt-class lasers.

  13. Possible origin of the non-linear long-term autocorrelations within the Gaussian regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Świtała, Filip

    2003-12-01

    time series), which are collected with a discrete time step, we used in the continuous-time series produced by the model a discretization procedure. We observed that such a procedure generates, in general, long-range non-linear autocorrelations even in the Gaussian regime, which appear to be similar to those observed, e.g., in the financial time series (Phys. A 287 (2000) 396; Phys. A 299 (2001) 1; Phys. A 299 (2001) 16; Phys. A 299 (2001) 16), although single steps of the walker within continuous time are, by definition, uncorrelated. This suggests a suprising origin of long-range non-linear autocorrelations alternative to the one proposed very recently (cf. Mosaliver et al. (Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003) 021112) and refs. therein) although both approaches involve related variants of the well-known continuous-time random walk formalism applied yet in many different branches of knowledge (Phys. Rep. 158 (1987) 263; Phys. Rep. 195 (1990) 127; in: A. Bunde, S. Havlin (Eds.), Fractals in Science, Springer, Berlin, 1995, p. 1).

  14. Linear and non-linear evolution of the vertical shear instability in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Richard P.; Gressel, Oliver; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2013-11-01

    of the non-linear saturated state, leading to strong vertical oscillation of the disc mid-plane. In a viscous disc with aspect ratio H/r = 0.05, instability is found to operate when the viscosity parameter α < 4 × 10-4. In three dimensions the instability generates a quasi-turbulent flow, and the associated Reynolds stress produces a fluctuating effective viscosity coefficient whose mean value reaches α ˜ 10-3 by the end of the simulation. The evolution and saturation of the vertical shear instability in astrophysical disc models which include realistic treatments of the thermal physics has yet to be examined. Should it occur on either global or local scales, however, our results suggest that it will have significant consequences for their internal dynamics, transport properties and observational appearance.

  15. A Quantitative and Combinatorial Approach to Non-Linear Meanings of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik; Gatza, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of how combinatorics problems have the potential to support students to establish non-linear meanings of multiplication (NLMM). The problems we analyze we have used in a series of studies with 6th, 8th, and 10th grade students. We situate the analysis in prior work on students' quantitative and multiplicative…

  16. The Poincaré-Bendixson Theorem and the non-linear Cauchy-Riemann equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, J. B.; Munaò, S.; Vandervorst, R. C. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Fiedler and Mallet-Paret (1989) prove a version of the classical Poincaré-Bendixson Theorem for scalar parabolic equations. We prove that a similar result holds for bounded solutions of the non-linear Cauchy-Riemann equations. The latter is an application of an abstract theorem for flows with a(n) (unbounded) discrete Lyapunov function.

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Slider-Crank Mechanisms with Non-Linear Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, J.-S.; HUANG, C.-L.

    2001-09-01

    Previous research in finite element formulation of flexible mechanisms usually neglected high order terms in the strain-energy function. In particular, the quartic term of the displacement gradient is always neglected due to the common belief that it is not important in the dynamic analysis. In this paper, we show that this physical intuition is not always valid. By retaining all the high order terms in the strain-energy function the equations of motion naturally become non-linear, which can then be solved by the Newmark method. In the low-speed range it is found that the dynamic responses predicted by non-linear and linear approaches indeed make no significant difference. However, when the rotation speed increases up to about one-fifth of the fundamental bending natural frequency of the connecting rod, simplified approaches begin to incur noticeable error. Specifically, for a connecting rod with a slenderness ratio of 0·01 the conventional simplified approaches overestimate the vibration amplitude almost 10-fold when the rotation speed is comparable to the fundamental natural frequency of the connecting rod. Therefore, non-linear finite element formulation taking into account the complete non-linear strain is needed in analyzing high-speed flexible mechnisms with slender links.

  18. Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  19. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian; Baldi, Marco E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: v.pettorino@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β{sup 2}, with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications.

  20. Non-linear description of massive neutrinos in the framework of large-scale structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    There is now no doubt that neutrinos are massive particles fully involved in the non-linear growth of the large-scale structure of the universe. A problem is that they are particularly difficult to include in cosmological models because the equations describing their behavior in the non-linear regime are cumbersome and difficult to handle. In this manuscript I present a new method allowing to deal with massive neutrinos in a very simple way, based on basic conservation laws. This method is still valid in the non-linear regime. The key idea is to describe neutrinos as a collection of single-flow fluids instead of seeing them as a single hot multi-flow fluid. In this framework, the time evolution of neutrinos is encoded in fluid equations describing macroscopic fields, just as what is done for cold dark matter. Although valid up to shell-crossing only, this approach is a further step towards a fully non-linear treatment of the dynamical evolution of neutrinos in the framework of large-scale structure growth.

  1. Non-linear dynamic modeling of an automobile hydraulic active suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, R. Ben; Levitt, J. A.; Fassois, S. D.

    1994-09-01

    Motived by the strong need for realistically describing the dynamical behaviour of automotive systems through adequate mathematical models, a computer-stimulation-suitable non-linear quarter-car model of a hydraulic active suspension system is developed. Unlike previously available linear models characterised by idealised actuator and component behaviour, the developed model accounts for the dynamics of the main system components, including the suspension bushing, pump, accumulator, power and bypass valves, and hydraulic actuator, while also incorporating preliminary versions of the system controllers. Significant system characteristics, such as non-linear pressure-flow relationships, fluid compressibility, pump and valve non-linearities, leakages, as well as Coulomb friction, are also explicitly accounted for, and the underpinning assumptions are discussed. Simulation results obtained by exercising the model provide insight into the system behavior, illustrate the importance of the actuator/component dynamics and their associated non-linearities and reveal the inadequacy of the idealised linear models in capturing the system behaviour, demonstrate specific effects of valve leakage and fluid bulk modulus, are in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements, and stress the need for proper control law design and tuning. The developed model is particularly suitable for analysis, design, control law optimisation, and diagnostic strategies development.

  2. CONSEQUENCES OF NON-LINEAR DENSITY EFFECTS ON BUOYANCY AND PLUME BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic plumes, as turbulent streams, grow by entraining ambient water. Buoyant plumes rise and dense ones sink, but, non-linear kinetic effects can reverse the buoyant force in mid-phenomenon. The class of nascent-density plumes begin as buoyant, upwardly accelerating plumes tha...

  3. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-03-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft's control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland's continuing study of active wing load control.

  4. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  5. Using the group of non-linear cells design metamaterial bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Song, Xin; Hu, Xiaolei; Gu, Jinliang

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the wave propagation in one-dimensional metamaterial bar with attached group of non-linear local oscillators by using analytical and numerical models. The focus is on the influence of group of non-linear cells on the filtering properties of the bar in the 1000Hz to 2000Hz range. Group of Periodic cells with alternating properties exhibit interesting dynamic characteristics that enable them to act as filters. Waves can propagate along bars within specific bands of frequencies called pass bands, and attenuate within bands of frequencies called gaps. Gaps in structures with group of periodic cells are located according on the frequency of cells. From the cell, we can yield the effect negative stiffness and effect negative mass. We can also design the gaps from attached oscillators or cells. In the uniform case the gap is located around the resonant frequency of the oscillators, and thus a stop band can be created in the lower frequency range. In the case with group of non-linear cells the results show that the position of the gap can be designed, and the design depends on the amplitude and the degree of non-linear cells.

  6. Students' Preferences on Web-Based Instruction: Linear or Non-Linear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagiltay, Nergiz Ercil; Yildirim, Soner; Aksu, Meral

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study conducted on a foreign language course at a large mid-west university in the USA. In the study a web-based tool which supports both linear and non-linear learning environments was designed and developed for this course. The aim of this study was to find out students' preferences pertaining to the learning…

  7. Towards a non-linear theory for induced seismicity in shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salusti, Ettore; Droghei, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    We here analyze the pore transmission of fluid pressure pand solute density ρ in porous rocks, within the framework of the Biot theory of poroelasticity extended to include physico-chemical interactions. In more details we here analyze the effect of a strong external stress on the non-linear evolution of p and ρ in a porous rock. We here focus on the consequent deformation of the rock pores, relative to a non-linear Hooke equation among strain, linear/quadratic pressure and osmosis in 1-D. We in particular analyze cases with a large pressure, but minor than the 'rupture point'. All this gives relations similar to those discussed by Shapiro et al. (2013), which assume a pressure dependent permeability. Thus we analyze the external stress necessary to originate quick non-linear transients of combined fluid pressure and solute density in a porous matrix, which perturb in a mild (i.e. a linear diffusive phenomenon) or a more dramatic non-linear way (Burgers solitons) the rock structure. All this gives a novel, more realistic insight about the rock evolution, fracturing and micro-earthquakes under a large external stress.

  8. Introduction to the Treatment of Non-Linear Effects Using a Gravitational Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus; Esperidiao, Antonio Sergio C.; Miranda, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    We show that the treatment of pendulum movement, other than the linear approximation,may be an instructive experimentally based introduction to the physics of non-linear effects. Firstly the natural frequency of a gravitational pendulum is measured as function of its amplitude. Secondly forced oscillations of a gravitational pendulum are…

  9. A Navigational Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Hypermedia Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard H.; Balestra, Joel; Davis, Miles

    The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive model for the analysis of hypermap navigation patterns through a comparison of navigation patterns associated with a traditional linear interface versus a non-linear "hypermap" interface. Twenty-six general psychology university students studied material on bipolar…

  10. Non-Linear Editing for the Smaller College-Level Production Program, Rev. 2.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetzlaff, David

    This paper focuses on a specific topic and contention: Non-linear editing earns its place in a liberal arts setting because it is a superior tool to teach the concepts of how moving picture discourse is constructed through editing. The paper first points out that most students at small liberal arts colleges are not going to wind up working…

  11. Re-Mediating Classroom Activity with a Non-Linear, Multi-Display Presentation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, Brett; Coyle, Do

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to evaluate the use of a novel, multi-screen, non-linear presentation tool. The Thunder tool allows presenters to manipulate and annotate multiple digital slides and to concurrently display a selection of juxtaposed resources across a wall-sized projection area. Conventional, single screen presentation…

  12. A study of non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response using 120 UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; McIntyre, Neil; Oughton, Rachel H.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a catchment characteristic sensitivity analysis concerning the non-linearity of rainfall-runoff response in 120 UK catchments. Two approaches were adopted. The first approach involved, for each catchment, regression of a power-law to flow rate gradient data for recession events only. This approach was referred to as the recession analysis (RA). The second approach involved calibrating a rainfall-runoff model to the full data set (both recession and non-recession events). The rainfall-runoff model was developed by combining a power-law streamflow routing function with a one parameter probability distributed model (PDM) for soil moisture accounting. This approach was referred to as the rainfall-runoff model (RM). Step-wise linear regression was used to derive regionalization equations for the three parameters. An advantage of the RM approach is that it utilizes much more of the observed data. Results from the RM approach suggest that catchments with high base-flow and low annual precipitation tend to exhibit greater non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response. In contrast, the results from the RA approach suggest that non-linearity is linked to low evaporative demand. The difference in results is attributed to the aggregation of storm-flow and base-flow into a single system giving rise to a seemingly more non-linear response when applying the RM approach to catchments that exhibit a strongly dual storm-flow base-flow response. The study also highlights the value and limitations in a regionlization context of aggregating storm-flow and base-flow pathways into a single non-linear routing function.

  13. Disentangling redshift-space distortions and non-linear bias using the 2D power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Warren, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    We present the 2D redshift-space galaxy power spectrum, P(k, μ), measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using catalogues constructed with halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual μ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of non-linear growth and redshift-space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the μ < 0.2 simulation data, which is not impacted by RSD, we can successfully measure the non-linear bias to ˜5 per cent at k < 0.6 h Mpc-1. Using the low μ simulation data to constrain the non-linear bias, and μ ≥ 0.2 to constrain the growth rate, we show that f can be constrained to ˜26(22) per cent to a kmax < 0.4(0.6) h Mpc-1 from clustering alone using a dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual μ bins reveals interesting physical effects which arise from different methods of populating haloes with galaxies. We find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater than the non-linear growth, which differs for each galaxy model. The idea of separating non-linear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.

  14. Experimental verification of the linear and non-linear versions of a panel code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, G. J.; Katsikis, C.; Chalkias, D. S.

    2011-03-01

    In the proposed paper numerical calculations are carried out using two versions of a three-dimensional, timedomain panel method developed by the group of Prof. P. Sclavounos at MIT, i.e. the linear code SWAN2, enabling optionally the use of the instantaneous non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces and the fully non-linear SWAN4. The analytical results are compared with experimental results for three hull forms with increasing geometrical complexity, the Series 60, a reefer vessel with stern bulb and a modern fast ROPAX hull form with hollow bottom in the stern region. The details of the geometrical modeling of the hull forms are discussed. In addition, since SWAN4 does not support transom sterns, only the two versions of SWAN2 were evaluated over experimental results for the parent hull form of the NTUA double-chine, wide-transom, high-speed monohull series. The effect of speed on the numerical predictions was investigated. It is concluded that both versions of SWAN2 the linear and the one with the non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces provide a more robust tool for prediction of the dynamic response of the vessels than the non-linear SWAN4 code. In general, their results are close to what was expected on the basis of experience. Furthermore, the use of the option of non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces is beneficial for the accuracy of the predictions. The content of the paper is based on the Diploma thesis of the second author, supervised by the first one and further refined by the third one.

  15. Trim angle of attack of flexible wings using non-linear aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David Erik

    Multidisciplinary interactions are expected to play a significant role in the design of future high-performance aircraft (Blended-Wing Body, Truss-Braced wing; High Speed Civil transport, High-Altitude Long Endurance aircraft and future military aircraft). Also, the availability of supercomputers has made it now possible to employ high-fidelity models (Computational Fluid Dynamics for fluids and detailed finite element models for structures) at the preliminary design stage. A necessary step at that stage is to calculate the wing angle-of-attack at which the wing will generate the desired lift for the specific flight maneuver. Determination of this angle, a simple affair when the wing is rigid and the flow regime linear, becomes difficult when the wing is flexible and the flow regime non-linear. To solve this inherently nonlinear problem, a Newton's method type algorithm is developed to simultaneously calculate the deflection and the angle of attack. The developed algorithm is tested for a wing, used for in-house aeroelasticity research at Boeing (previously McDonnell Douglas) Long Beach. The trim angle of attack is calculated for a range of desired lift values. In addition to the Newton's method algorithm, a non derivative method (NDM) based on fixed point iteration, typical of fixed angle of attack calculations in aeroelasticity, is employed. The NDM, which has been extended to be able to calculate trim angle of attack, is used for one of the cases. The Newton's method calculation converges in fewer iterations, but requires more CPU time than the NDM method. The NDM, however, results in a slightly different value of the trim angle of attack. It should be noted that NDM will converge in a larger number of iterations as the dynamic pressure increases. For one value of the desired lift, both viscous and inviscid results were generated. The use of the inviscid flow model while not resulting in a markedly different value for the trim angle of attack, does result in a

  16. Two-stage optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier using sub-nanosecond pump pulse generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Jumpei; Miyamoto, Sho; Matsuyama, Takahiro; Sueda, Keiichi; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) based on two-beam pumping, using sub-nanosecond pulses generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression. Seed pulse energy, duration, and center wavelength were 5 nJ, 220 ps, and ˜1065 nm, respectively. The 532 nm pulse from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was compressed to ˜400 ps in heavy fluorocarbon FC-40 liquid. Stacking of two time-delayed pump pulses reduced the amplifier gain fluctuation. Using a walk-off-compensated two-stage OPCPA at a pump energy of 34 mJ, a total gain of 1.6 × 105 was obtained, yielding an output energy of 0.8 mJ. The amplified chirped pulse was compressed to 97 fs.

  17. High efficiency intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Darrell J.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2005-03-01

    We have built and tested a highly efficient source of pulsed 320 nm light based on intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-injection-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. The four-mirror nonplanar ring optical cavity uses the RISTRA geometry, denoting rotated-image singly-resonant twisted rectangle. The cavity contains a type-II xz-cut KTP crystal pumped by the 532 nm second harmonic of Nd:YAG to generate an 803~nm signal and 1576 nm idler, and a type-II BBO crystal to sum-frequency mix the 532 nm pump and cavity-resonant 803 nm signal to generate 320 nm light. The cavity is configured so pump light passes first through the BBO crystal and then through the KTP crystal with the 320 nm light exiting through the output coupler following the BBO sum-frequency crystal. The cavity output coupler is designed to be a high reflector at 532 nm, have high transmission at 320 nm, and reflect approximately 85% at 803 nm. With this configuration we've obtained 1064 nm to 320 nm optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24% and generated single-frequency λ = 320 nm pulses with energies up to 140 mJ.

  18. High-efficiency intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2005-02-01

    We have built and tested a highly efficient source of pulsed 320 nm light based on intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-injection-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. The four-mirror nonplanar ring optical cavity uses the RISTRA geometry, denoting rotated-image singly-resonant twisted rectangle. The cavity contains a type-II xz-cut KTP crystal pumped by the 532 nm second harmonic of Nd:YAG to generate an 803{approx}nm signal and 1576 nm idler, and a type-II BBO crystal to sum-frequency mix the 532 nm pump and cavity-resonant 803 nm signal to generate 320 nm light. The cavity is configured so pump light passes first through the BBO crystal and then through the KTP crystal with the 320 nm light exiting through the output coupler following the BBO sum-frequency crystal. The cavity output coupler is designed to be a high reflector at 532 nm, have high transmission at 320 nm, and reflect approximately 85% at 803 nm. With this configuration we've obtained 1064 nm to 320 nm optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24% and generated single-frequency {lambda} = 320 nm pulses with energies up to 140 mJ.

  19. Experimental Validation of the Constant Level Method for Identification of Non-Linear Multi-Degree Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, G.

    2002-12-01

    System identification for non-linear dynamical systems could find use in many applications such as condition monitoring, finite element model validation and determination of stability. The effectiveness of existing non-linear system identification techniques is limited by various factors such as the complexity of the system under investigation and the type of non-linearities present. In this work, the constant level identification approach, which can identify multi-degree-of-freedom systems featuring any type of non-linear function, including discontinuous functions, is validated experimentally. The method is shown to identify accurately an experimental dynamical system featuring two types of stiffness non-linearity. The full equations of motion are also extracted accurately, even in the presence of a discontinuous non-linearity.

  20. Non-linearity's in proxy space: Three methods to deal with the non-linear behavior of proxies in calcareous marine skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauwens, M.; Ohlsson, H.; Beelaerts, V.; Barbé, K.; Dehairs, F.; Schoukens, J.

    2009-04-01

    The reconstruction of seasonal variations in the paleo-environement is possible thanks to the bivalve shells that are commonly found back in archeological sites and that are sensitive environmental recorders. To do these reconstructions we look to the chemical composition of a shell along his growth axis. When a certain element or isotope can be related to an environmental parameter it is called a proxy for that parameter. Many elemental and isotopic have been proposed as potential temperature proxy. But the same problem is showing up over and over again: a certain elemental shows a good linear correlation with temperature, but at the moment that the intrinsic variation has to be explained, the incorporation of the proxy seems to be much more complex than assumed in the first instance. Two observations gave us the idea to use a new type of models to reconstruct temperature. In first instance we observed that all proxy incorporations were always influenced by more than one environmental parameter, which automatically implicate that the reconstruction of an environmental parameter should be done with more than one proxy input. A second observation is that some proxy-environment relations seemed to be non-linear. We propose to do climate reconstructions based on Non-linear multi-proxy models. We will present our own intuitive approach to do temperature reconstructions and we will compare our results to two recognized engineering techniques: Manifold learning and Supported vector machines. These three methods are validated on shell data of Scheldt estuarine environment using high resolution measurements of Mg, Mn, Ba, Sr and Pb on a LA-ICP-MS. The site specificity is tested for all methods using shell-data from 4 different sites along the Scheldt. Time specificity is checked by reconstructing the temperature corresponding to a shell that grew in another year. The best reconstructions are computed with the manifold learning algorithms, but the simplicity and high

  1. Non-linear optical processes involving excited subbands in laser-dressed quantum wires with triangular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, A.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    The conduction subband structure of a triangular cross-section GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well wire under intense laser field is theoretically investigated by taking into account a finite confining potential. The calculation of the subband energy levels is based on a two-dimensional finite element method within the effective mass approximation. It is shown that a transversally polarized laser field non-uniformly shifts the subband energy levels and could be used for tuning the intersubband transitions and altering the related optical susceptibilities. We found that the non-resonant laser field allows the magnification and the red- or blueshift of the third-order non-linear susceptibility peaks for particular polarizations of the pump light and proper laser parameter values. The effects of the laser dressing field on the intersubband third harmonic generation and quadratic electro-optical process are discussed.

  2. Simulation and non-linear stage of the electrostatic waves observed during the AMPTE lithium release in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidi, N.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Ma, T. Z.; Gurnett, D.; Quest, K.

    1988-01-01

    During the AMPTE lithium releases in the solar wind intense electrostatic waves with frequencies between a few tens of Hz to several kHz were observed outside the diamagnetic cavity. The results of linear Vlasov theory have suggested that these waves may be generated through two types of instabilities. One is the ion-ion instability associated with the relative drift between the lithium ions and the solar wind protons, and the other is the ion-acoustic instability due to the relative drift between the electrons and the ions. In order to look at the non-linear behavior of the wave-particle interactions, and discern the effect of waves on the particles, full particle electrostatic simulations have been performed, and the results are presented here. It is shown that the ion-ion instability whose phase velocity is oblique to the solar wind velocity can cause considerable anisotropic 'heating' of both the lithium ions and the solar wind protons.

  3. Non-invasive characterization of structure and morphology of silk fibroin biomaterials using non-linear microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William L.; Firdous, Shamaraz; Gupta, Sharad; Hunter, Martin; Foo, Cheryl Wong Po; Wang, Yongzhong; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Kaplan, David L.; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Designing biomaterial scaffolds remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Key to this challenge is improved understanding of the relationships between the scaffold properties and its degradation kinetics, as well as the cell interactions and the promotion of new matrix deposition. Here we present the use of non-linear spectroscopic imaging as a non-invasive method to characterize not only morphological, but also structural aspects of silkworm silk fibroin-based biomaterials, relying entirely on endogenous optical contrast. We demonstrate that two photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation are sensitive to the hydration, overall β sheet content and molecular orientation of the sample. Thus, the functional content and high resolution afforded by these non-invasive approaches offer promise for identifying important connections between biomaterial design and functional engineered tissue development. The strategies described also have broader implications for understanding and tracking the remodeling of degradable biomaterials under dynamic conditions both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18291520

  4. Non-linear least squares analysis of phase diagrams for non-ideal binary mixtures of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, E E; Johnson, M L; Huang, C H

    1990-01-01

    A computer program for non-linear least squares minimization has been applied to construct temperature-composition phase diagrams for several binary systems of different phospholipids based on their calorimetric data. The calculated phase diagram is guided to fit the calorimetric data with two adjustable parameters that describe the non-ideal mixing of lipid components in the gel and liquid-crystalline phases. The parameter estimation procedure is presented to show that the computer program can be used not only to generate phase diagrams with characteristic shapes but also to numerically estimate the lipid-lipid pair interactions between the mixed and the like pairs in the two-dimensional plane of the bilayer in both the gel and liquid-crystalline states. The binary lipid systems examined include dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/1-palmitoyl-2-stearoylphosphatidylchol ine, 1-capryl-2-behenoylphosphatidylcholine/1-behenoyl-2-lauro ylphosphatidylcholine, and 1-stearoyl-2-caprylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylchol ine.

  5. Developments in non-linear Kalman Ensemble and Particle Filtering techniques for hydrological data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaki, Mehdi; Forootan, Ehsan; Kuhn, Michael; Awange, Joseph; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying large-scale (basin/global) water storage changes is essential to understand the Earth's hydrological water cycle. Hydrological models have usually been used to simulate variations in storage compartments resulting from changes in water fluxes (i.e., precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff) considering physical or conceptual frameworks. Models however represent limited skills in accurately simulating the storage compartments that could be the result of e.g., the uncertainty of forcing parameters, model structure, etc. In this regards, data assimilation provides a great chance to combine observational data with a prior forecast state to improve both the accuracy of model parameters and to improve the estimation of model states at the same time. Various methods exist that can be used to perform data assimilation into hydrological models. The one more frequently used particle-based algorithms suitable for non-linear systems high-dimensional systems is the Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF). Despite efficiency and simplicity (especially in EnKF), this method indicate some drawbacks. To implement EnKF, one should use the sample covariance of observations and model state variables to update a priori estimates of the state variables. The sample covariance can be suboptimal as a result of small ensemble size, model errors, model nonlinearity, and other factors. Small ensemble can also lead to the development of correlations between state components that are at a significant distance from one another where there is no physical relation. To investigate the under-sampling issue raise by EnKF, covariance inflation technique in conjunction with localization was implemented. In this study, a comparison between latest methods used in the data assimilation framework, to overcome the mentioned problem, is performed. For this, in addition to implementing EnKF, we introduce and apply the Local Ensemble Kalman Filter (LEnKF) utilizing covariance localization to remove

  6. Modeling Wave Driven Non-linear Flow Oscillations: The Terrestrial QBO and a Solar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the zonal circulation observed in the terrestrial atmosphere at low latitudes is driven by wave mean flow interaction as was demonstrated first by Lindzen and Holton (1968), shown in a laboratory experiment by Plumb and McEwan (1978), and modeled by others (e.g., Plumb, Dunkerton). Although influenced by the seasonal cycle of solar forcing, the QBO, in principle, represents a nonlinear flow oscillation that can be maintained by a steady source of upward propagating waves. The wave driven non-linearity is of third or odd order in the flow velocity, which regenerates the fundamental harmonic itself to keep the oscillation going - the fluid dynamical analog of the displacement mechanism in the mechanical clock. Applying Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) for gravity waves (GW), we discuss with a global-scale spectral model numerical experiments that elucidate some properties of the QBO and its possible effects on the climatology of the atmosphere. Depending on the period of the QBO, wave filtering can cause interaction with the seasonal variations to produce pronounced oscillations with beat periods around 10 years. Since the seasonal cycle and its variability influence the period of the QBO, it may also be a potent conduit of solar activity variations to lower altitudes. Analogous to the terrestrial QBO, we propose that a flow oscillation may account for the 22-year periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle, potentially answering Dicke (1978) who asked, "Is there a chronometer hidden deep inside the Sun?" The oscillation would occur below the convection region, where gravity waves can propagate. Employing a simplified, analytic model, Hines' DSP is applied to estimate the flow oscillation. Depending on the adopted horizontal wavelengths of GW's, wave amplitudes less than 10 m/s can be made to produce oscillating zonal flows of about 20 m/s that should be large enough to generate a significant oscillation in the magnetic

  7. Feature Visibility Limits in the Non-Linear Enhancement of Turbid Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    The advancement of non-linear processing methods for generic automatic clarification of turbid imagery has led us from extensions of entirely passive multiscale Retinex processing to a new framework of active measurement and control of the enhancement process called the Visual Servo. In the process of testing this new non-linear computational scheme, we have identified that feature visibility limits in the post-enhancement image now simplify to a single signal-to-noise figure of merit: a feature is visible if the feature-background signal difference is greater than the RMS noise level. In other words, a signal-to-noise limit of approximately unity constitutes a lower limit on feature visibility.

  8. Behavior of Tvd Limiters on the Solution of Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, K. R.; Lee, C.-H.

    The main objective of the present work is to solve the non-linear inviscid Burger equation using the second-order TVD scheme with the different TVD limiters. These limiters include Non-MUSCL (monotone upwind scalar conservation laws) Harten-Yee upwind limiters, Roe-Sweby upwind limiters and Davis-Yee symmetric TVD limiters. These limiters are then used in conjunction with the explicit finite difference second order TVD scheme to model the flow in which discontinuity is present. Non-linear Burger equation was solved for this purpose to capture a one dimensional traveling discontinuity. Every limiter was individually tested for its ability to resolve the discontinuity in as few mesh point as possible. In addition, each limiter's capability to eliminate spurious oscillations associated with numerical computation of discontinuities was investigated. The results showed that all the TVD limiters were able to completely eliminate the spurious oscillations except Roe-Sweby limiter that caused the solution to diverge.

  9. Origin of non-linearity in phase solubility: solubilisation by cyclodextrin beyond stoichiometric complexation.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Thomas W J; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Seishi

    2016-06-01

    The low solubility of drugs, which poses a serious problem in drug development, can in part be overcome by the use of cyclodextrins (CDs) and their derivatives. Here, the key to solubilisation is identified as the formation of inclusion complexes with the drug molecule. If inclusion complexation were the only contribution to drug solubility, it would increase linearly with CD concentration (as per the Higuchi-Connors model); this is because inclusion complexation is a 1 : 1 stoichiometric process. However, solubility curves often deviate from this linearity, whose mechanism is yet to be understood. Here we aim to clarify the origin of such non-linearity, based on the Kirkwood-Buff and the McMillan-Mayer theories of solutions. The rigorous statistical thermodynamic theory shows that non-linearity of solubilisation can be rationalised by two contributions: CD-drug interaction and the drug-induced change of CD-CD interaction. PMID:27206059

  10. Model predictive control of non-linear systems over networks with data quantization and packet loss.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jimin; Nan, Liangsheng; Tang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the approach of model predictive control (MPC) for the non-linear systems under networked environment where both data quantization and packet loss may occur. The non-linear controlled plant in the networked control system (NCS) is represented by a Tagaki-Sugeno (T-S) model. The sensed data and control signal are quantized in both links and described as sector bound uncertainties by applying sector bound approach. Then, the quantized data are transmitted in the communication networks and may suffer from the effect of packet losses, which are modeled as Bernoulli process. A fuzzy predictive controller which guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system is obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle.

  12. Model predictive control of non-linear systems over networks with data quantization and packet loss.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jimin; Nan, Liangsheng; Tang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the approach of model predictive control (MPC) for the non-linear systems under networked environment where both data quantization and packet loss may occur. The non-linear controlled plant in the networked control system (NCS) is represented by a Tagaki-Sugeno (T-S) model. The sensed data and control signal are quantized in both links and described as sector bound uncertainties by applying sector bound approach. Then, the quantized data are transmitted in the communication networks and may suffer from the effect of packet losses, which are modeled as Bernoulli process. A fuzzy predictive controller which guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system is obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26341070

  13. Model Order and Identifiability of Non-Linear Biological Systems in Stable Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Wigren, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical result that clarifies when it is at all possible to determine the nonlinear dynamic equations of a biological system in stable oscillation, from measured data. As it turns out the minimal order needed for this is dependent on the minimal dimension in which the stable orbit of the system does not intersect itself. This is illustrated with a simulated fourth order Hodgkin-Huxley spiking neuron model, which is identified using a non-linear second order differential equation model. The simulated result illustrates that the underlying higher order model of the spiking neuron cannot be uniquely determined given only the periodic measured data. The result of the paper is of general validity when the dynamics of biological systems in stable oscillation is identified, and illustrates the need to carefully address non-linear identifiability aspects when validating models based on periodic data. PMID:26671817

  14. A comparative study of new non-linear uncertainty propagation methods for space surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwood, Joshua T.; Aristoff, Jeffrey M.; Singh, Navraj; Poore, Aubrey B.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a unified testing framework for assessing uncertainty realism during non-linear uncertainty propagation under the perturbed two-body problem of celestial mechanics, with an accompanying suite of metrics and benchmark test cases on which to validate different methods. We subsequently apply the testing framework to different combinations of uncertainty propagation techniques and coordinate systems for representing the uncertainty. In particular, we recommend the use of a newly-derived system of orbital element coordinates that mitigate the non-linearities in uncertainty propagation and the recently-developed Gauss von Mises filter which, when used in tandem, provide uncertainty realism over much longer periods of time compared to Gaussian representations of uncertainty in Cartesian spaces, at roughly the same computational cost.

  15. A conformal approach for the analysis of the non-linear stability of radiation cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbe, Christian; Valiente Kroon, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-15

    The conformal Einstein equations for a trace-free (radiation) perfect fluid are derived in terms of the Levi-Civita connection of a conformally rescaled metric. These equations are used to provide a non-linear stability result for de Sitter-like trace-free (radiation) perfect fluid Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological models. The solutions thus obtained exist globally towards the future and are future geodesically complete. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the Einstein-Euler system in General Relativity using conformal methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the structural properties of the associated evolution equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We establish the non-linear stability of pure radiation cosmological models.

  16. Estimation of non-linear growth models by linearization: a simulation study using a Gompertz function.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Kaarina; Strandén, Ismo; Sevón-Aimonen, Marja-Liisa; Mäntysaari, Esa A

    2006-01-01

    A method based on Taylor series expansion for estimation of location parameters and variance components of non-linear mixed effects models was considered. An attractive property of the method is the opportunity for an easily implemented algorithm. Estimation of non-linear mixed effects models can be done by common methods for linear mixed effects models, and thus existing programs can be used after small modifications. The applicability of this algorithm in animal breeding was studied with simulation using a Gompertz function growth model in pigs. Two growth data sets were analyzed: a full set containing observations from the entire growing period, and a truncated time trajectory set containing animals slaughtered prematurely, which is common in pig breeding. The results from the 50 simulation replicates with full data set indicate that the linearization approach was capable of estimating the original parameters satisfactorily. However, estimation of the parameters related to adult weight becomes unstable in the case of a truncated data set.

  17. A new line-of-sight approach to the non-linear Cosmic Microwave Background

    SciTech Connect

    Fidler, Christian; Koyama, Kazuya; Pettinari, Guido W. E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2015-04-01

    We develop the transport operator formalism, a new line-of-sight integration framework to calculate the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at the linear and non-linear level. This formalism utilises a transformation operator that removes all inhomogeneous propagation effects acting on the photon distribution function, thus achieving a split between perturbative collisional effects at recombination and non-perturbative line-of-sight effects at later times. The former can be computed in the framework of standard cosmological perturbation theory with a second-order Boltzmann code such as SONG, while the latter can be treated within a separate perturbative scheme allowing the use of non-linear Newtonian potentials. We thus provide a consistent framework to compute all physical effects contained in the Boltzmann equation and to combine the standard remapping approach with Boltzmann codes at any order in perturbation theory, without assuming that all sources are localised at recombination.

  18. Non-linear adaptive sliding mode switching control with average dwell-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Maoqing; Fei, Shumin

    2013-03-01

    In this article, an adaptive integral sliding mode control scheme is addressed for switched non-linear systems in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. The control law includes two parts: a slide mode controller for the reduced model of the plant and a compensation controller to deal with the non-linear systems with parameter uncertainties. The adaptive updated laws have been derived from the switched multiple Lyapunov function method, also an admissible switching signal with average dwell-time technique is given. The simplicity of the proposed control scheme facilitates its implementation and the overall control scheme guarantees the global asymptotic stability in the Lyapunov sense such that the sliding surface of the control system is well reached. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  19. The non-linear response of a superconductor to a few-cycle THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G. L.; Xi, Xiaoxiang

    2015-03-01

    We present a time-domain analysis of the response of a BCS superconductor (in the low temperature limit) to a few cycle THz pulse whose spectral content may span the absorption threshold for pair breaking. The analysis is based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach, in combination with a model susceptibility for a superconductor that includes an explicit dependence on the energy gap. The FDTD approach allows us to calculate the THz induced current density, from which we determine the modified energy gap at each instant of time during the THz wave's passage. The resulting non-linear susceptibility causes up-conversion of the incident THz wave into odd harmonics. The model results are compared with experiment for thin NbN films in both linear and non-linear regimes. Research supported by the U.S. Dep't of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  20. Polynomial elimination theory and non-linear stability analysis for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennon, S. R.; Dulikravich, G. S.; Jespersen, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical methods are presented that exploit the polynomial properties of discretizations of the Euler equations. It is noted that most finite difference or finite volume discretizations of the steady-state Euler equations produce a polynomial system of equations to be solved. These equations are solved using classical polynomial elimination theory, with some innovative modifications. This paper also presents some preliminary results of a new non-linear stability analysis technique. This technique is applicable to determining the stability of polynomial iterative schemes. Results are presented for applying the elimination technique to a one-dimensional test case. For this test case, the exact solution is computed in three iterations. The non-linear stability analysis is applied to determine the optimal time step for solving Burgers' equation using the MacCormack scheme. The estimated optimal time step is very close to the time step that arises from a linear stability analysis.

  1. Non-Linear Filtering for Precise Point Positioning GPS/INS integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Rabbou, M.; El-Rabbany, A.

    2014-11-01

    This research investigates the performance of non-linear estimation filtering for GPS-PPP/MEMS-based inertial system. Although integrated GPS/INS system involves nonlinear motion state and measurement models, the most common estimation filter employed is extended Kalman filter. In this paper, both unscented Kalman filter and particle filter are developed and compared with extended Kalman filter. Tightly coupled mechanization is adopted, which is developed in the raw measurements domain. Un-differenced ionosphere-free linear combination of pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements is employed. The performance of the proposed non-linear filters is analyzed using real test scenario. The test results indicate that comparable accuracy-level are obtained from the proposed filters compared with extended Kalman filter in positioning, velocity and attitude when the measurement updates from GPS measurements are available.

  2. Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle. PMID:26850752

  3. Linear and non-linear forced response of a conical, ducted, laminar premixed flame

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, Nader; Brear, Michael J.; Jin, Seong-Ho; Monty, Jason P.

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamics of a ducted, conical, laminar premixed flame subjected to acoustic excitation of varying amplitudes. The flame transfer function is measured over a range of forcing frequencies and equivalence ratios. In keeping with previous works, the measured flame transfer function is in good agreement with that predicted by linear kinematic theory at low amplitudes of acoustic velocity excitation. However, a systematic departure from linear behaviour is observed as the amplitude of the velocity forcing upstream of the flame increases. This non-linearity is mostly in the phase of the transfer function and manifests itself as a roughly constant phase at high forcing amplitude. Nonetheless, as predicted by non-linear kinematic arguments, the response always remains close to linear at low forcing frequencies, regardless of the forcing amplitude. The origin of this phase behaviour is then sought through optical data post-processing. (author)

  4. Simulation of non-linear rf losses derived from characteristic Nb topography

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Xu, Chen; Kelley, Michael

    2013-09-01

    A simplified model has been developed to simulate non-linear RF losses on Nb surfaces exclusively due to topographical enhancement of surface magnetic fields. If local sharp edges are small enough, at locations where local surface fields exceed Hc, small volumes of material may become normal conducting without thermal leading to quench. These small volumes of normal material yield increases in the effective surface resistance of the Nb. Using topographic data from typical BCP?d and EP?d fine grain niobium surfaces, we have simulated field-dependent losses and found that when extrapolated to resulting cavity performance, these losses correspond well to characteristic BCP/EP high field Q0 performance differences for fine grain Nb. We describe the structure of the model, its limitations, and the effects of this type of non-linear loss contribution on SRF cavities.

  5. A non-linear finite-element model of the newborn ear canal

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Liu, Hengjin; Lutfy, Justyn; Funnell, W. Robert J.; Daniel, Sam J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional non-linear finite-element model of a 22-day-old newborn ear canal. The geometry is based on a clinical X-ray CT scan. A non-linear hyperelastic constitutive law is applied to model large deformations. The Young’s modulus of the soft tissue is found to have a significant effect on the ear-canal volume change, which ranges from approximately 27% to 75% over the static-pressure range of ±3 kPa. The effects of Poisson’s ratio and of the ratio C10:C01 in the hyperelastic model are found to be small. The volume changes do not reach a plateau at high pressures, which implies that the newborn ear-canal wall would not be rigid in tympanometric measurements. The displacements and volume changes calculated from the model are compared with available experimental data. PMID:17225406

  6. Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier

    2016-07-01

    A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.

  7. Theoretically informed entangled polymer simulations: linear and non-linear rheology of melts.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Hernandez, Abelardo; Miller, Marcus; De Pablo, Juan J.

    2013-01-02

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence in developing models and theories for the non-equilibrium behavior of polymeric liquids. The so-called “tube” models, gradually refined over decades of research, can now provide a description of the linear and non-linear rheology of entangled polymers that is qualitatively consistent with experiments. Such approaches, however, have been limited to homopolymers. Here we present a general formalism that relies on the concept of slip links to describe the dynamics of high polymers. In this work, it is shown to be capable of describing quantitatively the linear response of pure homopolymers and blends, the non-linear rheology of highly entangled systems, and the dynamics of diblock copolymers.

  8. Map Building By Non-linear Dimensionality Reduction of Historical Visibility Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yairi, Takehisa

    In recent years, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on stochastic state-transition / observation models and Bayesian estimation technique has been the mainstream of the mobile robot mapping research. In contrast to this trend, we present an alternative formulation of the map building problem from the viewpoint of non-linear dimensionality reduction or manifold learning. In this framework, the robot map building is interpreted as a problem of reconstructing the coordinates of objects so that proximities between them in the space of robot's observation history as faithfully as possible. Based on this insight, we generalize the covisibility-based mapping method which was established in previous studies into the map building based on dimensionality reduction of historical visibility data. We applied latest non-linear dimensionality reduction techniques to this framework, and compared them with classical techniques such as PCA and MDS in experimental studies.

  9. Non-linear massive gravity as a gravitational σ-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arraut, Ivan; Chelabi, Kaddour

    2016-08-01

    We show the direct analogy between the ghost-free non-linear formulation of massive gravity and the standard σ-models well understood in the literature. This issue explains why there are two non-trivial family of solutions for the spherically symmetric case inside the non-linear massive gravity formulations with two free parameters α and β. In general, the case β < α2 has a single physical vacuum state. On the other hand, the case β=α2 contains a natural vacuum degeneracy. This is in perfect analogy with the σ-model for scalar fields where depending on the values taken by the parameters of the theory the vacuum can be single or degenerate.

  10. Explicit PREDICTOR-MULTICORRECTOR Time Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Non-Linear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, A.; Bursi, O. S.; Mancuso, M.

    2002-09-01

    Explicit predictor-multicorrector time discontinuous Galerkin (TDG) methods developed for linear structural dynamics are formulated and implemented in a form suitable for arbitrary non-linear analysis of structural dynamics problems. The formulation is intended to inherit the accuracy properties of the exact parent implicit TDG methods. To this end, suitable predictors and correctors are designed to achieve third order accuracy, large stability limits and controllable numerical dissipation by means of an algorithmic parameter. As the study of a general non-linear case is rather complex, the analysis of the convergence properties of the resulting algorithms are restricted to conservative Duffing oscillators, for which closed-form solutions are available. It is shown that the main properties of the underlying parent scheme can be retained. Finally, results of representative numerical simulations relevant to Duffing oscillators and to a stiff spring pendulum discretized with finite elements illustrate the performance of the numerical schemes and confirm the analytical estimates.

  11. Solving deterministic non-linear programming problem using Hopfield artificial neural network and genetic programming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, P.; Ganesan, T.; Elamvazuthi, I.

    2012-11-01

    A fairly reasonable result was obtained for non-linear engineering problems using the optimization techniques such as neural network, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic independently in the past. Increasingly, hybrid techniques are being used to solve the non-linear problems to obtain better output. This paper discusses the use of neuro-genetic hybrid technique to optimize the geological structure mapping which is known as seismic survey. It involves the minimization of objective function subject to the requirement of geophysical and operational constraints. In this work, the optimization was initially performed using genetic programming, and followed by hybrid neuro-genetic programming approaches. Comparative studies and analysis were then carried out on the optimized results. The results indicate that the hybrid neuro-genetic hybrid technique produced better results compared to the stand-alone genetic programming method.

  12. Model Order and Identifiability of Non-Linear Biological Systems in Stable Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Wigren, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical result that clarifies when it is at all possible to determine the nonlinear dynamic equations of a biological system in stable oscillation, from measured data. As it turns out the minimal order needed for this is dependent on the minimal dimension in which the stable orbit of the system does not intersect itself. This is illustrated with a simulated fourth order Hodgkin-Huxley spiking neuron model, which is identified using a non-linear second order differential equation model. The simulated result illustrates that the underlying higher order model of the spiking neuron cannot be uniquely determined given only the periodic measured data. The result of the paper is of general validity when the dynamics of biological systems in stable oscillation is identified, and illustrates the need to carefully address non-linear identifiability aspects when validating models based on periodic data.

  13. Fully non-linear cosmological perturbations of multicomponent fluid and field systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2016-09-01

    We present fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in the presence of multiple components of fluids and minimally coupled scalar fields. We ignore the tensor-type perturbation. The equations are presented without taking the temporal gauge condition in the Friedmann background with general curvature and the cosmological constant. We include the anisotropic stress. Even in the absence of anisotropic stress of individual component, the multiple component nature introduces the anisotropic stress in the collective fluid quantities. We prove the Newtonian limit of multiple fluids in the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge conditions, present the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations in the presence of general relativistic pressure in the zero-shear gauge, and present the fully non-linear equations and the third-order perturbation equations of the non-relativistic pressure fluids in the CDM-comoving gauge.

  14. Growth and characterization of L-arginine sulphate: A new nanocrystal with non linear optical behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, M. M.; Patil, Smita S.

    2013-06-01

    L-arginine combines with a variety of salts and acids to form a potential non-linear optical material. Nano crystals of L-arginine-Sulphate (LAS) have been grown from solution by the slow evaporation technique for the first time. The single phase formation has been verified by XRD studies. TEM studies confirm the formation of nanocrystallites of particle size of about 34nm. The optical absorption studies shows presence of a sharp UV cut-off region at 239.57nm. Further the presence of wide transparency window in the entire visible region shows its use for optoelectronic applications. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of potassium and sulphur in the grown nanocrystal of LAS. Fungus growth has been avoided by subjecting the solution to pre-heat treatment. Preliminary studies indicate presence of non-linear optical (NLO) response.

  15. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft s control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland s continuing study of active wing load control.

  16. The identification of linear and non-linear models of a turbocharged automotive diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.; Chen, S.; Backhouse, R. J.

    1989-04-01

    The identification results obtained from a study on a Leyland TL11 turbocharged, direct injection diesel engine are presented. Two sets of data corresponding to low and high engine speed tests, which were recorded from experimental trials on the engine, are analysed. The identification of both linear and non-linear difference equation models are described to represent the relationship between the fuel rack position (input) and the engine speed (output).

  17. Finite element modelling of non-linear magnetic circuits using Cosmic NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheerer, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    The general purpose Finite Element Program COSMIC NASTRAN currently has the ability to model magnetic circuits with constant permeablilities. An approach was developed which, through small modifications to the program, allows modelling of non-linear magnetic devices including soft magnetic materials, permanent magnets and coils. Use of the NASTRAN code resulted in output which can be used for subsequent mechanical analysis using a variation of the same computer model. Test problems were found to produce theoretically verifiable results.

  18. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as a mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.

  19. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    DOE PAGES

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as amore » mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.« less

  20. An Adaptive Sequential Design for Model Discrimination and Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Nested Models

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasi, C.; May, C.

    2010-09-30

    The DKL-optimality criterion has been recently proposed for the dual problem of model discrimination and parameter estimation, for the case of two rival models. A sequential version of the DKL-optimality criterion is herein proposed in order to discriminate and efficiently estimate more than two nested non-linear models. Our sequential method is inspired by the procedure of Biswas and Chaudhuri (2002), which is however useful only in the set up of nested linear models.

  1. Non-analytic vortex core and non-linear vortex flow in bosonic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, O.; Aleiner, I. L.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the disorder limited motion of quantum vortices in a two-dimensional bosonic superfluid with a large healing length. It is shown that the excitations of low-energy degrees of freedom associated with the non-analytic reconstruction of the vortex core (Ann. Phys., 346 (2014) 195) determine strong non-linear effects in the vortex transport at velocities much smaller than Landau's critical velocity. Experiments are suggested to verify our predictions.

  2. Non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions of urban aerosols.

    PubMed

    Madronich, S; Conley, A J; Lee-Taylor, J; Kleinman, L I; Hodzic, A; Aumont, B

    2016-07-18

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult's law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA mass to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: a strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as a mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the normalized sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. The rather low exponents suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions. PMID:27092376

  3. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  4. Progress in linear optics, non-linear optics and surface alignment of liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, H.L.; Meyer, R.B.; Hurd, A.J.; Karn, A.J.; Arakelian, S.M.; Shen, Y.R.; Sanda, P.N.; Dove, D.B.; Jansen, S.A.; Hoffmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    We first discuss the progress in linear optics, in particular, the formulation and application of geometrical-optics approximation and its generalization. We then discuss the progress in non-linear optics, in particular, the enhancement of a first-order Freedericksz transition and intrinsic optical bistability in homeotropic and parallel oriented nematic liquid crystal cells. Finally, we discuss the liquid crystal alignment and surface effects on field-induced Freedericksz transition. 50 refs.

  5. Non-linear longitudinal compression effect on dynamics of the transcription bubble in DNA.

    PubMed

    Shikhovtseva, E S; Nazarov, V N

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of the dynamics of transcription bubble on the parameters of non-linear longitudinal compression is presented on the base of simple model of soliton-like conformational switchings in two-component bistable polymer molecules with energetically non-equivalent stable states. It has been shown that under certain conditions the longitudinal compression may be a trap for a conformational switching. PMID:27232455

  6. A single-degree-of-freedom model for non-linear soil amplification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdik, Mustafa Ozder

    1979-01-01

    For proper understanding of soil behavior during earthquakes and assessment of a realistic surface motion, studies of the large-strain dynamic response of non-linear hysteretic soil systems are indispensable. Most of the presently available studies are based on the assumption that the response of a soil deposit is mainly due to the upward propagation of horizontally polarized shear waves from the underlying bedrock. Equivalent-linear procedures, currently in common use in non-linear soil response analysis, provide a simple approach and have been favorably compared with the actual recorded motions in some particular cases. Strain compatibility in these equivalent-linear approaches is maintained by selecting values of shear moduli and damping ratios in accordance with the average soil strains, in an iterative manner. Truly non-linear constitutive models with complete strain compatibility have also been employed. The equivalent-linear approaches often raise some doubt as to the reliability of their results concerning the system response in high frequency regions. In these frequency regions the equivalent-linear methods may underestimate the surface motion by as much as a factor of two or more. Although studies are complete in their methods of analysis, they inevitably provide applications pertaining only to a few specific soil systems, and do not lead to general conclusions about soil behavior. This report attempts to provide a general picture of the soil response through the use of a single-degree-of-freedom non-linear-hysteretic model. Although the investigation is based on a specific type of nonlinearity and a set of dynamic soil properties, the method described does not limit itself to these assumptions and is equally applicable to other types of nonlinearity and soil parameters.

  7. A Family of Ellipse Methods for Solving Non-Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, K. C.; Kanwar, V.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    This note presents a method for the numerical approximation of simple zeros of a non-linear equation in one variable. In order to do so, the method uses an ellipse rather than a tangent approach. The main advantage of our method is that it does not fail even if the derivative of the function is either zero or very small in the vicinity of the…

  8. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  9. Localization of Non-Linearly Modeled Autonomous Mobile Robots Using Out-of-Sequence Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A.; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost. PMID:22736962

  10. Fluctuating temperatures and ectotherm growth: distinguishing non-linear and time-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Higgins, Jessica K; Augustine, Kate E

    2015-07-01

    Most terrestrial ectotherms experience diurnal and seasonal variation in temperature. Because thermal performance curves are non-linear, mean performance can differ in fluctuating and constant thermal environments. However, time-dependent effects--effects of the order and duration of exposure to temperature--can also influence mean performance. We quantified the non-linear and time-dependent effects of diurnally fluctuating temperatures for larval growth rates in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L., with four main results. First, the shape of the thermal performance curve for growth rate depended on the duration of exposure: for example, optimal temperature and thermal breadth were greater for growth rates measured over short (24 h during the last instar) compared with long (the entire period of larval growth) time periods. Second, larvae reared in diurnally fluctuating temperatures had significantly higher optimal temperatures and maximal growth rates than larvae reared in constant temperatures. Third, for larvae maintained at three mean temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) and three diurnal temperature ranges (±0, ±5 and ±10°C), diurnal fluctuations had opposite effects on mean growth rates at low versus high mean temperature. Fourth, both short- and long-term thermal performance curves yielded poor predictions of the non-linear effects of fluctuating temperature on mean growth rates (compared with our experimental results) at higher mean temperatures. Our results suggest caution in using constant temperature studies to model the consequences of variable thermal environments. PMID:25987738

  11. Drive Control of an Electric Vehicle by a Non-linear Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubin, Marizan; Ouchi, Shigeto; Anabuki, Masatoshi; Hirata, Hiroshi

    The driving force of automobiles is transmitted by the frictional force between the tires and the road surface. This frictional force is a function of the weight of the car-body and the friction coefficient μ between the tires and the road surface. The friction coefficient μ is also a function of the following parameters: the slip ratio λ determined by the car-body speed and the wheel speed, and the condition of the road surface. Slippage of automobiles which causes much damage often occurs during accelerating and braking. In this paper, we propose a new drive control system which has an effect on acceleration and braking. In the drive control system, a non-linear controller designed by using a Lyapunov function is used. This non-linear controller has two functions: first one is μ control which moves the car-body, another one is λ control. The controller is designed in order that μ and λ work at noslip and with slip respectively. As another controller, a disturbance observer is used for estimating the car-body speed which is difficult to be measured. Then, this lead to the proof of the stability condition of the combined system which consists of two controllers: the non-linear controller and the disturbance observer. Finally, the effectiveness of this control system is proved by a very satisfactory simulation and experimental results for two cases.

  12. Ion-acoustic cnoidal wave and associated non-linear ion flux in dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S. L.; Tiwari, R. S.; Mishra, M. K.

    2012-10-15

    Using reductive perturbation method with appropriate boundary conditions, coupled evolution equations for first and second order potentials are derived for ion-acoustic waves in a collisionless, un-magnetized plasma consisting of hot isothermal electrons, cold ions, and massive mobile charged dust grains. The boundary conditions give rise to renormalization term, which enable us to eliminate secular contribution in higher order terms. Determining the non secular solution of these coupled equations, expressions for wave phase velocity and averaged non-linear ion flux associated with ion-acoustic cnoidal wave are obtained. Variation of the wave phase velocity and averaged non-linear ion flux as a function of modulus (k{sup 2}) dependent wave amplitude are numerically examined for different values of dust concentration, charge on dust grains, and mass ratio of dust grains with plasma ions. It is found that for a given amplitude, the presence of positively (negatively) charged dust grains in plasma decreases (increases) the wave phase velocity. This behavior is more pronounced with increase in dust concentrations or increase in charge on dust grains or decrease in mass ratio of dust grains. The averaged non-linear ion flux associated with wave is positive (negative) for negatively (positively) charged dust grains in the plasma and increases (decreases) with modulus (k{sup 2}) dependent wave amplitude. For given amplitude, it increases (decreases) as dust concentration or charge of negatively (positively) charged dust grains increases in the plasma.

  13. Stochastic non-linear oscillator models of EEG: the Alzheimer's disease case.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanian, Parham; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Ashrafiuon, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal of the human brain is modeled as the output of stochastic non-linear coupled oscillator networks. It is shown that EEG signals recorded under different brain states in healthy as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may be understood as distinct, statistically significant realizations of the model. EEG signals recorded during resting eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting conditions in a pilot study with AD patients and age-matched healthy control subjects (CTL) are employed. An optimization scheme is then utilized to match the output of the stochastic Duffing-van der Pol double oscillator network with EEG signals recorded during each condition for AD and CTL subjects by selecting the model physical parameters and noise intensity. The selected signal characteristics are power spectral densities in major brain frequency bands Shannon and sample entropies. These measures allow matching of linear time varying frequency content as well as non-linear signal information content and complexity. The main finding of the work is that statistically significant unique models represent the EC and EO conditions for both CTL and AD subjects. However, it is also shown that the inclusion of sample entropy in the optimization process, to match the complexity of the EEG signal, enhances the stochastic non-linear oscillator model performance. PMID:25964756

  14. Localization of non-linearly modeled autonomous mobile robots using out-of-sequence measurements.

    PubMed

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost.

  15. Non-linear dynamic complexity of the human EEG during meditation.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Golocheikine, S A

    2002-09-20

    We used non-linear analysis to investigate the dynamical properties underlying the EEG in the model of Sahaja Yoga meditation. Non-linear dimensional complexity (DCx) estimates, indicating complexity of neuronal computations, were analyzed in 20 experienced meditators during rest and meditation using 62-channel EEG. When compared to rest, the meditation was accompanied by a focused decrease of DCx estimates over midline frontal and central regions. By contrast, additionally computed linear measures exhibited the opposite direction of changes: power in the theta-1 (4-6 Hz), theta-2 (6-8 Hz) and alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) frequency bands was increased over these regions. The DCx estimates negatively correlated with theta-2 and alpha-1 and positively with beta-3 (22-30 Hz) band power. It is suggested that meditative experience, characterized by less complex dynamics of the EEG, involves 'switching off' irrelevant networks for the maintenance of focused internalized attention and inhibition of inappropriate information. Overall, the results point to the idea that dynamically changing inner experience during meditation is better indexed by a combination of non-linear and linear EEG variables.

  16. Relativistic weak lensing from a fully non-linear cosmological density field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.B.; Bruni, M.; Wands, D. E-mail: marco.bruni@port.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we examine cosmological weak lensing on non-linear scales and show that there are Newtonian and relativistic contributions and that the latter can also be extracted from standard Newtonian simulations. We use the post-Friedmann formalism, a post-Newtonian type framework for cosmology, to derive the full weak-lensing deflection angle valid on non-linear scales for any metric theory of gravity. We show that the only contributing term that is quadratic in the first order deflection is the expected Born correction and lens-lens coupling term. We use this deflection angle to analyse the vector and tensor contributions to the E- and B- mode cosmic shear power spectra. In our approach, once the gravitational theory has been specified, the metric components are related to the matter content in a well-defined manner. Specifying General Relativity, we write down a complete set of equations for a GR+ΛCDM universe for computing all of the possible lensing terms from Newtonian N-body simulations. We illustrate this with the vector potential and show that, in a GR+ΛCDM universe, its contribution to the E-mode is negligible with respect to that of the conventional Newtonian scalar potential, even on non-linear scales. Thus, under the standard assumption that Newtonian N-body simulations give a good approximation of the matter dynamics, we show that the standard ray tracing approach gives a good description for a ΛCDM cosmology.

  17. Real-time non-linear flight control of a fixed-wing UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Mario

    In this thesis we studied the implementation and design of a typical configuration fixed-wing research UAV. The ultimate goal being the flight test of an advanced control technique. This objective was achieved through the achievement of several milestones that are also the subject of each chapter of this thesis. Among these include: modeling of the UAV and its experimental parameters for the realization of a non-linear simulation close to reality, the design of the non-linear flight control, the development of the control card and its software, development of the ground station's software with LabVIEW and ultimately the achievement of the flight tests. The ultimate goal which was the application of an advanced control technique in an experimental flight was successfully completed. Indeed, the experimentation of the UAV's fast dynamics inversion yielded very good results without using the classic longitudinal and lateral movements decoupling technique along with a gain scheduling based controller. Furthermore, the final system remains easy to use and completely eliminates the time between a control technique design's completion with the non-linear simulation and its implementation in the real UAV for a flight test.

  18. Multiphysics modeling of non-linear laser-matter interactions for optically active semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraczek, Brent; Kanp, Jaroslaw

    Development of photonic devices for sensors and communications devices has been significantly enhanced by computational modeling. We present a new computational method for modelling laser propagation in optically-active semiconductors within the paraxial wave approximation (PWA). Light propagation is modeled using the Streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Material response enters through the non-linear polarization, which serves as the right-hand side of the FEM calculation. Maxwell's equations for classical light propagation within the PWA can be written solely in terms of the electric field, producing a wave equation that is a form of the advection-diffusion-reaction equations (ADREs). This allows adaptation of the computational machinery developed for solving ADREs in fluid dynamics to light-propagation modeling. The non-linear polarization is incorporated using a flexible framework to enable the use of multiple methods for carrier-carrier interactions (e.g. relaxation-time-based or Monte Carlo) to enter through the non-linear polarization, as appropriate to the material type. We demonstrate using a simple carrier-carrier model approximating the response of GaN. Supported by ARL Materials Enterprise.

  19. A non-linear curvature wavefront sensor reconstruction speed and the broadband design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateen, Mala; Guyon, Olivier; Sasián, José; Garrel, Vincent; Hart, Michael

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we explain why a non-linear curvature wavefront sensor (nlCWFS) is more sensitive than conventional wavefront sensors such as the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) and the conventional curvature wavefront sensor (cCWFS) for sensing mV < 14 natural guide stars. The non-linear approach builds on the successful curvature wavefront sensing concept but uses a non-linear Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) phase diversity algorithm to reconstruct the wavefront. The nonlinear reconstruction algorithm is an advantage for sensitivity but a challenge for fast computation. The current speed is a factor of 10 to 100 times slower than needed for high performance groundbased AO. We present a two step strategy to increase the speed of the algorithm. In the last paper3 we presented laboratory results obtained with a monochromatic source, here we extend our experiment to incorporate a broadband source. The sensitivity of the nlCWFS depends on the ability to extract wavefront phase from diffraction limited speckles therefore it is essential that the speckles do not suffer from chromatic aberration when used with a polychromatic source. We discuss the design for the chromatic re-imaging optics, which through chromatic compensation, allow us to obtain diffraction limited speckles in Fresnel propagated planes on either side of the pupil plane.

  20. Reducing and meta-analysing estimates from distributed lag non-linear models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The two-stage time series design represents a powerful analytical tool in environmental epidemiology. Recently, models for both stages have been extended with the development of distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs), a methodology for investigating simultaneously non-linear and lagged relationships, and multivariate meta-analysis, a methodology to pool estimates of multi-parameter associations. However, the application of both methods in two-stage analyses is prevented by the high-dimensional definition of DLNMs. Methods In this contribution we propose a method to synthesize DLNMs to simpler summaries, expressed by a reduced set of parameters of one-dimensional functions, which are compatible with current multivariate meta-analytical techniques. The methodology and modelling framework are implemented in R through the packages dlnm and mvmeta. Results As an illustrative application, the method is adopted for the two-stage time series analysis of temperature-mortality associations using data from 10 regions in England and Wales. R code and data are available as supplementary online material. Discussion and Conclusions The methodology proposed here extends the use of DLNMs in two-stage analyses, obtaining meta-analytical estimates of easily interpretable summaries from complex non-linear and delayed associations. The approach relaxes the assumptions and avoids simplifications required by simpler modelling approaches. PMID:23297754