Tripartite entanglement dynamics in the presence of Markovian or non-Markovian environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, DaeKil
2016-08-01
We study on the tripartite entanglement dynamics when each party is initially entangled with other parties, but they locally interact with their own Markovian or non-Markovian environment. First we consider three GHZ-type initial states, all of which have GHZ-symmetry provided that the parameters are chosen appropriately. However, this symmetry is broken due to the effect of environment. The corresponding π -tangles, one of the tripartite entanglement measures, are analytically computed at arbitrary time. For Markovian case while the tripartite entanglement for type I exhibits an entanglement sudden death, the dynamics for the remaining cases decays normally in time with the half-life rule. For non-Markovian case the revival phenomenon of entanglement occurs after complete disappearance of entanglement. We also consider two W-type initial states. For both cases the π -tangles are analytically derived. The revival phenomenon also occurs in this case. On the analytical ground the robustness or fragility issue against the effect of environment is examined for both GHZ-type and W-type initial states.
Tripartite entanglement dynamics in the presence of Markovian or non-Markovian environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, DaeKil
2016-05-01
We study on the tripartite entanglement dynamics when each party is initially entangled with other parties, but they locally interact with their own Markovian or non-Markovian environment. First we consider three GHZ-type initial states, all of which have GHZ-symmetry provided that the parameters are chosen appropriately. However, this symmetry is broken due to the effect of environment. The corresponding π -tangles, one of the tripartite entanglement measures, are analytically computed at arbitrary time. For Markovian case while the tripartite entanglement for type I exhibits an entanglement sudden death, the dynamics for the remaining cases decays normally in time with the half-life rule. For non-Markovian case the revival phenomenon of entanglement occurs after complete disappearance of entanglement. We also consider two W-type initial states. For both cases the π -tangles are analytically derived. The revival phenomenon also occurs in this case. On the analytical ground the robustness or fragility issue against the effect of environment is examined for both GHZ-type and W-type initial states.
Experimental on-demand recovery of entanglement by local operations within non-Markovian dynamics
Orieux, Adeline; D'Arrigo, Antonio; Ferranti, Giacomo; Franco, Rosario Lo; Benenti, Giuliano; Paladino, Elisabetta; Falci, Giuseppe; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo
2015-01-01
In many applications entanglement must be distributed through noisy communication channels that unavoidably degrade it. Entanglement cannot be generated by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), implying that once it has been distributed it is not possible to recreate it by LOCC. Recovery of entanglement by purely local control is however not forbidden in the presence of non-Markovian dynamics, and here we demonstrate in two all-optical experiments that such entanglement restoration can even be achieved on-demand. First, we implement an open-loop control scheme based on a purely local operation, without acquiring any information on the environment; then, we use a closed-loop scheme in which the environment is measured, the outcome controling the local operations on the system. The restored entanglement is a manifestation of “hidden” quantum correlations resumed by the local control. Relying on local control, both schemes improve the efficiency of entanglement sharing in distributed quantum networks. PMID:25712406
Non-Markovian qubit dynamics in a thermal field bath: Relaxation, decoherence, and entanglement
Shresta, S.; Anastopoulos, C.; Dragulescu, A.; Hu, B.L.
2005-02-01
We study the non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit made up of a two-level atom interacting with an electromagnetic field (EMF) initially at finite temperature. Unlike most earlier studies where the bath is assumed to be fixed, we study the complete evolution of the combined qubit-EMF system, thus allowing for the coherent backaction from the bath on the qubit and the qubit on the bath in a self-consistent manner. In this way we can see the development of quantum correlations and entanglement between the system and its environment, and how that affects the decoherence and relaxation of the system. We find nonexponential decay for both the diagonal and nondiagonal matrix elements of the qubit's reduced density matrix in the pointer basis. The former shows the qubit relaxing to thermal equilibrium with the bath, while the latter shows the decoherence rate beginning at the usually predicted thermal rate, but changing to the zero-temperature value as the qubit and bath become entangled. The decoherence and relaxation rates are comparable, as in the zero-temperature case. On the entanglement of a qubit with the EMF we calculated the fidelity and the von Neumann entropy, which is a measure of the purity of the density matrix. The present more accurate non-Markovian calculations predict lower loss of fidelity and purity as compared with the Markovian results. Generally speaking, with the inclusion of quantum correlations between the qubit and its environment, the non-Markovian processes tend to slow down the drive of the system to equilibrium, prolonging the decoherence and better preserving the fidelity and purity of the system.
Non-Markovian environments and entanglement preservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Jackson; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Yeo, Ye
2010-06-01
Using the Shabani-Lidar post-Markovian master equation, we derive non-Markovian generalizations of important quantum decohering operations on single qubits. When environmental memory effects are being taken into account, both single-qubit coherence and two-qubit entanglement may be preserved over a longer period of time, in contrast to the corresponding situations where these are totally neglected. We argue that recognizing the fact that every environment is inherently non-Markovian could be the key to the resolution of the issue of entanglement sudden death.
Non-Markovian environments and entanglement preservation
Tan, Jackson; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Yeo, Ye
2010-06-15
Using the Shabani-Lidar post-Markovian master equation, we derive non-Markovian generalizations of important quantum decohering operations on single qubits. When environmental memory effects are being taken into account, both single-qubit coherence and two-qubit entanglement may be preserved over a longer period of time, in contrast to the corresponding situations where these are totally neglected. We argue that recognizing the fact that every environment is inherently non-Markovian could be the key to the resolution of the issue of entanglement sudden death.
Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum discord
Fanchini, F. F.; Caldeira, A. O.; Werlang, T.; Brasil, C. A.; Arruda, L. G. E.
2010-05-15
We evaluate the quantum discord dynamics of two qubits in independent and common non-Markovian environments. We compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord. For independent reservoirs the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete instants whereas the entanglement can disappear during a finite time interval. For a common reservoir, quantum discord and entanglement can behave very differently with sudden birth of the former but not of the latter. Furthermore, in this case the quantum discord dynamics presents sudden changes in the derivative of its time evolution which is evidenced by the presence of kinks in its behavior at discrete instants of time.
Preservation Macroscopic Entanglement of Optomechanical Systems in non-Markovian Environment
Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Weiping
2016-01-01
We investigate dynamics of an optomechanical system under the non-Markovian environment. In the weak optomechanical single-photon coupling regime, we provide an analytical approach fully taking into account the non-Markovian memory effects. When the cavity-bath coupling strength crosses a certain threshold, an oscillating memory state for the classical cavity field is formed. Due to the existence of the non-decay optical bound state, a nonequilibrium optomechanical thermal entanglement is preserved even without external driving laser. Our results provide a potential usage to generate and protect entanglement via non-Markovian environment. PMID:27032674
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Zhi-Yong; He, Juan; Ye, Liu
2016-08-01
In this paper, the dynamics of tripartite entanglement via π -tangle in independent non-Markovian environments is investigated. The results indicate that the π -tangle vanishes periodically as decoherence time increases with a damping of its revival amplitude due to the memory of the non-Markovian environments. In addition, we present a scheme to protect entanglement of W state from non-Markovian environments by means of the quantum partially collapsing measurements. It is worth mentioning that our scheme is a successful protection for the tripartite quantum system and the effect is better for the larger measurement strength, while the stronger decoherence suppression induces smaller success probability.
Preservation Macroscopic Entanglement of Optomechanical Systems in non-Markovian Environment.
Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Weiping
2016-01-01
We investigate dynamics of an optomechanical system under the non-Markovian environment. In the weak optomechanical single-photon coupling regime, we provide an analytical approach fully taking into account the non-Markovian memory effects. When the cavity-bath coupling strength crosses a certain threshold, an oscillating memory state for the classical cavity field is formed. Due to the existence of the non-decay optical bound state, a nonequilibrium optomechanical thermal entanglement is preserved even without external driving laser. Our results provide a potential usage to generate and protect entanglement via non-Markovian environment. PMID:27032674
Preservation Macroscopic Entanglement of Optomechanical Systems in non-Markovian Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Weiping
2016-04-01
We investigate dynamics of an optomechanical system under the non-Markovian environment. In the weak optomechanical single-photon coupling regime, we provide an analytical approach fully taking into account the non-Markovian memory effects. When the cavity-bath coupling strength crosses a certain threshold, an oscillating memory state for the classical cavity field is formed. Due to the existence of the non-decay optical bound state, a nonequilibrium optomechanical thermal entanglement is preserved even without external driving laser. Our results provide a potential usage to generate and protect entanglement via non-Markovian environment.
Fermionic-mode entanglement in non-Markovian environment
Cheng, Jiong; Han, Yan; An, Qing-zhi; Zhou, Ling
2015-03-15
We evaluate the non-Markovian effects on the entanglement dynamics of a fermionic system interacting with two dissipative vacuum reservoirs. The exact solution of density matrix is derived by utilizing the Feynman–Vernon influence functional theory in the fermionic coherent state representation and the Grassmann calculus, which are valid for both the fermionic and bosonic baths, and their difference lies in the dependence of the parity of the initial states. The fermionic entanglement dynamics is presented by adding an additional restriction to the density matrix known as the superselection rules. Our analysis shows that the usual decoherence suppression schemes implemented in qubits systems can also be achieved for systems of identical fermions, and the initial state proves its importance in the evolution of fermionic entanglement. Our results provide a potential way to decoherence controlling of identical fermions.
Entanglement oscillations in non-Markovian quantum channels
Maniscalco, Sabrina; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2007-06-15
We study the non-Markovian dynamics of a two-mode bosonic system interacting with two uncorrelated thermal bosonic reservoirs. We present the solution to the exact microscopic Master equation in terms of the quantum characteristic function and study in detail the dynamics of entanglement for bipartite Gaussian states. In particular, we analyze the effects of short-time system-reservoir correlations on the separability thresholds and show that the relevant parameter is the reservoir spectral density. If the frequencies of the involved modes are within the reservoir spectral density, entanglement persists for a longer time than in a Markovian channel. On the other hand, when the reservoir spectrum is out of resonance, short-time correlations lead to a faster decoherence and to the appearance of entanglement oscillations.
Investigating non-Markovian dynamics of quantum open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yusui
Quantum open system coupled to a non-Markovian environment has recently attracted widespread interest for its important applications in quantum information processing and quantum dissipative systems. New phenomena induced by the non-Markovian environment have been discovered in variety of research areas ranging from quantum optics, quantum decoherence to condensed matter physics. However, the study of the non-Markovian quantum open system is known a difficult problem due to its technical complexity in deriving the fundamental equation of motion and elusive conceptual issues involving non-equilibrium dynamics for a strong coupled environment. The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce several new techniques of solving the quantum open systems including a systematic approach to dealing with non-Markovian master equations from a generic quantum-state diffusion (QSD) equation. In the first part of this thesis, we briefly introduce the non-Markovian quantum-state diffusion approach, and illustrate some pronounced non-Markovian quantum effects through numerical investigation on a cavity-QED model. Then we extend the non-Markovian QSD theory to an interesting model where the environment has a hierarchical structure, and find out the exact non-Markovian QSD equation of this model system. We observe the generation of quantum entanglement due to the interplay between the non-Markovian environment and the cavity. In the second part, we show an innovative method to obtain the exact non-Markovian master equations for a set of generic quantum open systems based on the corresponding non-Markovian QSD equations. Multiple-qubit systems and multilevel systems are discussed in details as two typical examples. Particularly, we derive the exact master equation for a model consisting of a three-level atom coupled to an optical cavity and controlled by an external laser field. Additionally, we discuss in more general context the mathematical similarity between the multiple
Entanglement and non-Markovianity of a multi-level atom decaying in a cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zi-Long, Fan; Yu-Kun, Ren; Hao-Sheng, Zeng
2016-01-01
We present a paradigmatic method for exactly studying non-Markovian dynamics of a multi-level V-type atom interacting with a zero-temperature bosonic bath. Special attention is paid to the entanglement evolution and the dynamical non-Markovianity of a three-level V-type atom. We find that the entanglement negativity decays faster and non-Markovianity is smaller in the resonance regions than those in the non-resonance regions. More importantly, the quantum interference between the dynamical non-Markovianities induced by different transition channels is manifested, and the frequency domains for constructive and destructive interferences are found. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275064 and 11075050), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20124306110003), and the Construct Program of the National Key Discipline, China.
Programmable entanglement oscillations in a non-Markovian channel
Cialdi, Simone; Brivio, Davide; Tesio, Enrico; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2011-04-15
We suggest and demonstrate an all-optical experimental setup to observe and engineer entanglement oscillations of a pair of polarization qubits in an effective non-Markovian channel. We generate entangled photon pairs by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), and then insert a programmable spatial light modulator in order to impose a polarization-dependent phase shift on the spatial domain of the SPDC output. This creates an effective programmable non-Markovian environment where modulation of the environment spectrum is obtained by inserting a spatial grating on the signal arm. In our experiment, programmable oscillations of entanglement are achieved, where the entangled state obtained at the maximum of the revival after sudden death violates Bell's inequality by 17 standard deviations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nourmandipour, A.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Bolorizadeh, M. A.
2016-08-01
We investigate the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects on pairwise entanglement dynamics of a collective of non-interacting qubits which have been initially prepared in a Werner state and are off-resonantly coupled to a common and non-Markovian environment. We obtain the analytical expression of the concurrence in the absence and presence of the non-selective measurements. In particular, we express our results in the strong and weak coupling regimes and examine the role of the system size, and the effect of the detuning from the cavity field frequency on the temporal behaviour of the pairwise entanglement. We show that, the detuning parameter has a positive role in the protection of entanglement in the absence of the measurement for weak coupling regime. We find that for the values of detuning parameter less than the cavity damping rate, the quantum Zeno effect is always dominant, while for the values greater than the cavity damping rate, both Zeno and anti-Zeno effects can occur, depending on the measurement intervals. We also find that the anti-Zeno effect can occur in the pairwise entanglement dynamics in the absence and presence of the detuning in the strong coupling regime.
Solvable non-Markovian dynamic network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgiou, Nicos; Kiss, Istvan Z.; Scalas, Enrico
2015-10-01
Non-Markovian processes are widespread in natural and human-made systems, yet explicit modeling and analysis of such systems is underdeveloped. We consider a non-Markovian dynamic network with random link activation and deletion (RLAD) and heavy-tailed Mittag-Leffler distribution for the interevent times. We derive an analytically and computationally tractable system of Kolmogorov-like forward equations utilizing the Caputo derivative for the probability of having a given number of active links in the network and solve them. Simulations for the RLAD are also studied for power-law interevent times and we show excellent agreement with the Mittag-Leffler model. This agreement holds even when the RLAD network dynamics is coupled with the susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics. Thus, the analytically solvable Mittag-Leffler model provides an excellent approximation to the case when the network dynamics is characterized by power-law-distributed interevent times. We further discuss possible generalizations of our result.
Discrete dynamics and non-Markovianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luoma, Kimmo; Piilo, Jyrki
2016-06-01
We study discrete quantum dynamics where a single evolution step consists of unitary system transformation followed by decoherence via coupling to an environment. Often, non-Markovian memory effects are attributed to structured environments, whereas, here, we take a more general approach within a discrete setting. In addition of controlling the structure of the environment, we are interested in how local unitaries on the open system allow the appearance and control of memory effects. Our first simple qubit model where local unitary is followed by dephasing illustrates how memory effects arise, despite having no structure in the environment the system is coupled with. We, then, elaborate on this observation by constructing a model for an open quantum walk where the unitary coin and transfer operation is augmented with the dephasing of the coin. The results demonstrate tha,t in the limit of strong dephasing within each evolution step, the combined coin-position open system always displays memory effects, and their quantities are independent of the structure of the environment. Our construction makes possible an experimentally realizable open quantum walk with photons exhibiting non-Markovian features.
Non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit
Maniscalco, Sabrina; Petruccione, Francesco
2006-01-15
In this paper we investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit by comparing two generalized master equations with memory. In the case of a thermal bath, we derive the solution of the recently proposed post-Markovian master equation [A. Shabani and D. A. Lidar, Phys. Rev. A 71, 020101(R) (2005)] and we study the dynamics for an exponentially decaying memory kernel. We compare the solution of the post-Markovian master equation with the solution of the typical memory kernel master equation. Our results lead to a new physical interpretation of the reservoir correlation function and bring to light the limits of usability of master equations with memory for the system under consideration.
Colloquium: Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Laine, Elsi-Mari; Piilo, Jyrki; Vacchini, Bassano
2016-04-01
The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry, and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markovian stochastic process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modeled phenomenologically by means of a dynamical semigroup with a corresponding time-independent generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics of the open system typically leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence, correlations, and entanglement. Here recent theoretical results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of quantum memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of physical examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely, to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This Colloquium further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured environmental spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom, and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments addressing the detection, quantification, and control of
Quantum dynamics with non-Markovian fluctuating parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goychuk, Igor
2004-07-01
A stochastic approach to the quantum dynamics randomly modulated in time by a discrete state non-Markovian noise, which possesses an arbitrary nonexponential distribution of the residence times, is developed. The formally exact expression for the Laplace-transformed quantum propagator averaged over the stationary realizations of such N -state non-Markovian noise is obtained. The theory possesses a wide range of applications. It includes some previous Markovian and non-Markovian theories as particular cases. In the context of the stochastic theory of spectral line shape and relaxation, the developed approach presents a non-Markovian generalization of the Kubo-Anderson theory of sudden modulation. In particular, the exact analytical expression is derived for the spectral line shape of optical transitions described by a Kubo oscillator with randomly modulated frequency which undergoes jumplike non-Markovian fluctuations in time.
Entanglement Protection for Two-Qubit in a Non-Markovian Common Bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Qingxia; Zhao, Xinyu
2016-06-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme to protect quantum entanglement and coherence from a non-Markovian noisy environment. By applying two quantum weak measurements before and after sending the quantum state into the noisy channel, the quantum state can be "pushed" closer to a decoherence free state thus suffer less decoherence in the time evolution. After the time evolution the second weak measurement can partially retrieve the original information encoded in the quantum system. Our study is based on a non-Markovian dynamic equation which allows us to investigate the impact of the memory effect on the performance of the protection scheme. We analyze several factors that may affect the protection efficiency. The results suggest that two measurement strengths should be chosen in a linear relation but the ratio is not one. Besides, we also show the memory effect can drastically improve the protection efficiency.
Non-Markovian disentanglement dynamics of a two-qubit system
Cao Xiufeng; Zheng Hang
2008-02-15
We investigate the disentanglement dynamics of a two-qubit system in the non-Markovian approach. It is shown that only for weak coupling between the system and environment does an exponential decay of entanglement appear, for certain classes of two-qubit entangled states. When the coupling between qubit and the environment becomes stronger, entanglement sudden death always appears even if the dissipation environment is at zero temperature.
Collision model for non-Markovian quantum dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kretschmer, Silvan; Luoma, Kimmo; Strunz, Walter T.
2016-07-01
We study the applicability of collisional models for non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems. By allowing interactions between the separate environmental degrees of freedom in between collisions we are able to construct a collision model that allows us to study quantum memory effects in open system dynamics. We also discuss the possibility to embed non-Markovian collision model dynamics into Markovian collision model dynamics in an extended state space. As a concrete example we show how, using the proposed class of collision models, we can discretely model non-Markovian amplitude damping of a qubit. In the time-continuous limit, we obtain the well-known results for spontaneous decay of a two-level system into a structured zero-temperature reservoir.
Dynamical decoupling efficiency versus quantum non-Markovianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addis, Carole; Ciccarello, Francesco; Cascio, Michele; Massimo Palma, G.; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2015-12-01
We investigate the relationship between non-Markovianity and the effectiveness of a dynamical decoupling (DD) protocol for qubits undergoing pure dephasing. We consider an exact model in which dephasing arises due to a bosonic environment with a spectral density of the Ohmic class. This is parametrized by an Ohmicity parameter by changing which we can model both Markovian and non-Markovian environments. Interestingly, we find that engineering a non-Markovian environment is detrimental to the efficiency of the DD scheme, leading to a worse coherence preservation. We show that each DD pulse reverses the flow of quantum information and, on this basis, we investigate the connection between DD efficiency and the reservoir spectral density. Finally, in the spirit of reservoir engineering, we investigate the optimum system-reservoir parameters for achieving maximum stationary coherences.
Modulation of Entanglement for Coupled Superconducting Qubits Under Non-Markovian Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Y. H.; Hu, J. J.; Wang, Z. S.
2010-08-01
The evolution of entanglement decoherence is investigated for a coupled superconducting qubit under non-Markovian environment by utilizing a commensal entanglement degree. The results show that, owing to the memory feedback effect of environment, the entanglement degree of the coupled qubits at the thermal equilibrium always monotonously tends to zero so that entanglement sudden death occurs briefly in the non-Markovian process. Different from the Markovian process, stronger the dissipation is, faster the entanglement sudden death is. We find that, furthermore, the interaction between the qubits results generally in reduction of entanglement degree in the quantum system. With some special initial states or initial phase angles, however, the influence of the interaction between qubits on the system entanglement degree can be avoided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchoffo, M.; Fouokeng, G. C.; Tendong, E.; Fai, L. C.
2016-06-01
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ chain with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions, interacting with an anisotropic spin bath in thermal equilibrium at temperature T, driven by an external magnetic field B along the z-axis. We establish that, for an initially entangled qubit pair, the DM interactions generate entanglement and enhance it in the revival region. At high temperatures and for weak coupling between the two qubits, the DM interactions preserve entanglement. It is seen that increasing simultaneously the XY component Ω, and the z-component Γz, of the Heinsenberg interaction does not increase the entanglement, but it can rather be improved by increasing their anisotropy χ = |Γz - Ω |. These effects are weakened when the magnetic field B and the Heisenberg coupling are switched on. If the two-qubits are prepared in an initially separable state, the DM interaction instead has a negative effect on their entanglement. As a whole, entanglement can better be preserved in the spin chain even at high temperatures by increasing the external magnetic field B and the Heisenberg couplings, and by tuning the strengths of the Heinsenberg couplings and the DM interaction.
Role of environmental correlations in the non-Markovian dynamics of a spin system
Lorenzo, Salvatore; Plastina, Francesco; Paternostro, Mauro
2011-09-15
We study the dynamics of a chain of interacting quantum particles affected by an individual or collective environment(s), focusing on the role played by the environmental quantum correlations over the evolution of the chain. The presence of entanglement in the state of the environment magnifies the non-Markovian nature of the chain's dynamics, giving rise to structures in figures of merit such as spin entanglement and purity that are not observed under a separable environmental state. Our analysis can be relevant to problems tackling the open-system dynamics of biological complexes of strong current interest.
Alternative non-Markovianity measure by divisibility of dynamical maps
Hou, S. C.; Yi, X. X.; Yu, S. X.; Oh, C. H.
2011-06-15
By identifying non-Markovianity with nondivisibility, we propose a measure of non-Markovianity for quantum processes. Three examples are presented, and the measure of non-Markovianity is calculated and discussed for these examples. Comparisons with other measures of non-Markovianity are made. The present non-Markovianity measure has the merit that no optimization procedure is required and it is finite for any quantum process, which greatly enhances the practical relevance of the proposed measure.
Dynamical properties of non-Markovian stochastic differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-Machado, A.; San Miguel, M.
1984-04-01
We study nonstationary non-Markovian processes defined by Langevin-type stochastic differential equations with an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck driving force. We concentrate on the long time limit of the dynamical evolution. We derive an approximate equation for the correlation function of a nonlinear nonstationary non-Markovian process, and we discuss its consequences. Non-Markovicity can introduce a dependence on noise parameters in the dynamics of the correlation function in cases in which it becomes independent of these parameters in the Markovian limit. Several examples are discussed in which the relaxation time increases with respect to the Markovian limit. For a Brownian harmonic oscillator with fluctuating frequency, the non-Markovicity of the process decreases the domain of stability of the system, and it can change an infradamped evolution into an overdamped one.
Modelling non-Markovian dynamics in biochemical reactions
2015-01-01
Background Biochemical reactions are often modelled as discrete-state continuous-time stochastic processes evolving as memoryless Markov processes. However, in some cases, biochemical systems exhibit non-Markovian dynamics. We propose here a methodology for building stochastic simulation algorithms which model more precisely non-Markovian processes in some specific situations. Our methodology is based on Constraint Programming and is implemented by using Gecode, a state-of-the-art framework for constraint solving. Results Our technique allows us to randomly sample waiting times from probability density functions that not necessarily are distributed according to a negative exponential function. In this context, we discuss an important case-study in which the probability density function is inferred from single-molecule experiments that describe the distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive enzymatically catalysed reactions. Noticeably, this feature allows some types of enzyme reactions to be modelled as non-Markovian processes. Conclusions We show that our methodology makes it possible to obtain accurate models of enzymatic reactions that, in specific cases, fit experimental data better than the corresponding Markovian models. PMID:26051249
Zhao Xinyu; Jing Jun; Corn, Brittany; Yu Ting
2011-09-15
Non-Markovian dynamics is studied for two interacting qubits strongly coupled to a dissipative bosonic environment. We derive a non-Markovian quantum-state-diffusion (QSD) equation for the coupled two-qubit system without any approximations, and in particular, without the Markov approximation. As an application and illustration of our derived time-local QSD equation, we investigate the temporal behavior of quantum coherence dynamics. In particular, we find a strongly non-Markovian regime where entanglement generation is significantly modulated by the environmental memory. Additionally, we study residual entanglement in the steady state by analyzing the steady-state solution of the QSD equation. Finally, we discuss an approximate QSD equation.
Assessing non-Markovian quantum dynamics.
Wolf, M M; Eisert, J; Cubitt, T S; Cirac, J I
2008-10-10
We investigate what a snapshot of a quantum evolution--a quantum channel reflecting open system dynamics--reveals about the underlying continuous time evolution. Remarkably, from such a snapshot, and without imposing additional assumptions, it can be decided whether or not a channel is consistent with a time (in)dependent Markovian evolution, for which we provide computable necessary and sufficient criteria. Based on these, a computable measure of "Markovianity" is introduced. We discuss how the consistency with Markovian dynamics can be checked in quantum process tomography. The results also clarify the geometry of the set of quantum channels with respect to being solutions of time (in)dependent master equations. PMID:18999575
Non-Markovian dynamics with fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lacroix, D.
2014-08-01
Employing the quadratic fermionic Hamiltonians for the collective and internal subsystems with a linear coupling, we studied the role of fermionic statistics on the dynamics of the collective motion. The transport coefficients are discussed as well as the associated fluctuation-dissipation relation. Due to different nature of the particles, the path to equilibrium is slightly affected. However, in the weak-coupling regime, the time scale for approaching equilibrium is found to be globally unchanged. The Pauli-blocking effect can modify the usual picture in open quantum system. In some limits, contrary to boson, this effect can strongly hinder the influence of the bath by blocking the interacting channels.
Geometric phase of a qubit driven by a phase noise laser under non-Markovian dynamics
Berrada, K.
2014-01-15
Robustness of the geometric phase (GP) with respect to the environmental effects is a basic condition for an effective quantum computation. Here, we study quantitatively the GP of a two-level atom system driven by a phase noise laser under non-Markovian dynamics in terms of different parameters involved in the whole system. We find that with the change of the damping coupling, the GP is very sensitive to its properties exhibiting long collapse and revival phenomena, which play a significant role in enhancing the stabilization and control of the system dynamics. Moreover, we show that the GP can be considered as a tool for testing and characterizing the nature of the qubit–environment coupling. Due to the significance of how a system is quantum correlated with its environment in the construction of a scalable quantum computer, the entanglement dynamics between the qubit with its environment under external classical noise is evaluated and investigated during the time evolution. -- Highlights: •Geometric phase under noise phase laser. •Dynamics of the geometric phase under non-Markovian dynamics in the presence of classical noise. •Solution of master equation of the system in terms atomic inversion. •Nonlocal correlation between the system and its environment under non-Markovianity.
Non-Markovian dynamics in ultracold Rydberg aggregates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genkin, M.; Schönleber, D. W.; Wüster, S.; Eisfeld, A.
2016-07-01
We propose a setup of an open quantum system in which the environment can be tuned such that either Markovian or non-Markovian system dynamics can be achieved. The implementation uses ultracold Rydberg atoms, relying on their strong long-range interactions. Our suggestion extends the features available for quantum simulators of molecular systems employing Rydberg aggregates and presents a new test bench for fundamental studies of the classification of system–environment interactions and the resulting system dynamics in open quantum systems.
Non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, Chris H.
An open quantum system is a quantum system that interacts with some environment whose degrees of freedom have been coarse grained away. This model describes non-equilibrium processes more general than scattering-matrix formulations. Furthermore, the microscopically-derived environment provides a model of noise, dissipation and decoherence far more general than Markovian (white noise) models. The latter are fully characterized by Lindblad equations and can be motivated phenomenologically. Non-Markovian processes consistently account for backreaction with the environment and can incorporate effects such as finite temperature and spatial correlations. We consider linear systems with bilinear coupling to the environment, or quantum Brownian motion, and nonlinear systems with weak coupling to the environment. For linear systems we provide exact solutions with analytical results for a variety of spectral densities. Furthermore, we point out an important mathematical subtlety which led to incorrect master-equation coefficients in earlier derivations, given nonlocal dissipation. For nonlinear systems we provide perturbative solutions by translating the formalism of canonical perturbation theory into the context of master equations. It is shown that unavoidable degeneracy causes an unfortunate reduction in accuracy between perturbative master equations and their solutions. We also extend the famous theorem of Lindblad, Gorini, Kossakowski and Sudarshan on completely positivity to non-Markovian master equations. Our application is primarily to model atoms interacting via a common electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field contains correlations in both space and time, which are related to its relativistic (photon-mediated) nature. As such, atoms residing in the same field experience different environmental effects depending upon their relative position and orientation. Our more accurate solutions were necessary to assess sudden death of entanglement at zero temperature
Non-Markovian dynamics without using a quantum trajectory
Wu Chengjun; Li Yang; Zhu Mingyi; Guo Hong
2011-05-15
Open quantum systems interacting with structured environments is important and manifests non-Markovian behavior, which was conventionally studied using a quantum trajectory stochastic method. In this paper, by dividing the effects of the environment into two parts, we propose a deterministic method without using a quantum trajectory. This method is more efficient and accurate than the stochastic method in most Markovian and non-Markovian cases. We also extend this method to the generalized Lindblad master equation.
Hermitian non-Markovian stochastic master equations for quantum dissipative dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yun-An; Zhou, Yun
2015-08-01
It remains a challenge for theory to simulate nonperturbative and non-Markovian quantum dissipative dynamics at low temperatures. In this study we suggest a Hermitian non-Markovian stochastic master equation suitable for dissipative dynamics at arbitrary temperatures. The memory effect of the bath is embedded within two real correlated Gaussian noises. This scheme is numerically verified by the hierarchical equation of motion and symmetry preserving for a symmetric two-level system. An exemplary application is carried out for the dynamics over a broad range of temperatures to investigate the temperature dependence of the Rabi frequency shift and the non-Markovianity.
Dissipative particle dynamics incorporating non-Markovian effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Takagi, Shu
2015-11-01
The coarse-graining methodology of molecular simulations is of great importance to analyze large-scale, complex hydrodynamic phenomena. In the present study, we derive the equation of motion for non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NMDPD) by introducing the history effects on the time evolution of the system. Our formulation is based on the generalized Langevin equation, which describes the motions of the centers of mass of clusters comprising microscopic particles. The mean, friction, and fluctuating forces in the NMDPD model are directly constructed from an underlying MD system without any scaling procedure. For the validation of our formulation, we construct NMDPD models from high-density Lennard-Jones systems, in which the typical time scales of the coarse-grained particle motions and the fluctuating forces are not fully separable. The NMDPD models reproduce the temperatures, diffusion coefficients, and viscosities of the corresponding MD systems more accurately than the conventional DPD models based on a Markovian approximation. Our results suggest that the NMDPD method is a promising alternative for simulating mesoscale flows where a Markovian approximation is not valid.
Long-time memory in non-Markovian evolutions
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Pascazio, Saverio
2010-03-15
If the dynamics of an open quantum system is non-Markovian, its asymptotic state strongly depends on the initial conditions, even if the dynamics possesses an invariant state. This is the very essence of memory effects. In particular, the asymptotic state can remember and partially preserve its initial entanglement. Interestingly, even if the non-Markovian evolution relaxes to an equilibrium state, this state needs not be invariant. Therefore, the noninvariance of equilibrium becomes a clear sign of non-Markovianity.
Non-markovian mesoscopic dissipative dynamics of open quantum spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benatti, F.; Carollo, F.; Floreanini, R.; Narnhofer, H.
2016-01-01
We study the dissipative dynamics of N quantum spins with Lindblad generator consisting of operators scaling as fluctuations, namely with the inverse square-root of N. In the large N limit, the microscopic dissipative time-evolution converges to a non-Markovian unitary dynamics on strictly local operators, while at the mesoscopic level of fluctuations it gives rise to a dissipative non-Markovian dynamics. The mesoscopic time-evolution is Gaussian and exhibits either a stable or an unstable asymptotic character; furthermore, the mesoscopic dynamics builds correlations among fluctuations that survive in time even when the original microscopic dynamics is unable to correlate local observables.
Quantum speed limits in open systems: Non-Markovian dynamics without rotating-wave approximation
Sun, Zhe; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiaoguang
2015-01-01
We derive an easily computable quantum speed limit (QSL) time bound for open systems whose initial states can be chosen as either pure or mixed states. Moreover, this QSL time is applicable to either Markovian or non-Markovian dynamics. By using of a hierarchy equation method, we numerically study the QSL time bound in a qubit system interacting with a single broadened cavity mode without rotating-wave, Born and Markovian approximation. By comparing with rotating-wave approximation (RWA) results, we show that the counter-rotating terms are helpful to increase evolution speed. The problem of non-Markovianity is also considered. We find that for non-RWA cases, increasing system-bath coupling can not always enhance the non-Markovianity, which is qualitatively different from the results with RWA. When considering the relation between QSL and non-Markovianity, we find that for small broadening widths of the cavity mode, non-Markovianity can increase the evolution speed in either RWA or non-RWA cases, while, for larger broadening widths, it is not true for non-RWA cases. PMID:25676589
Closing the hierarchy for non-Markovian magnetization dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tranchida, J.; Thibaudeau, P.; Nicolis, S.
2016-04-01
We propose a stochastic approach for the description of the time evolution of the magnetization of nanomagnets, that interpolates between the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch approximations, by varying the strength of the noise. In addition, we take into account the autocorrelation time of the noise and explore the consequences, when it is finite, on the scale of the response of the magnetization, i.e. when it may be described as colored, rather than white, noise and non-Markovian features become relevant. We close the hierarchy for the moments of the magnetization, by introducing a suitable truncation scheme, whose validity is tested by direct numerical solution of the moment equations and compared to the average deduced from a numerical solution of the corresponding stochastic Langevin equation. In this way we establish a general framework that allows both coarse-graining simulations and faster calculations beyond the truncation approximation used here.
Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems. I. Formalism and transport coefficients
Kanokov, Z.; Palchikov, Yu.V.; Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Scheid, W.
2005-01-01
Generalized Langevin equations and fluctuation-dissipation relations are derived for the case of a nonlinear non-Markovian noise. The explicit expressions for the time-dependent friction and diffusion coefficients are presented for the case of general and linear couplings in the coordinate and momentum between the collective harmonic oscillator and heat bath. The long-time tails of correlation functions are investigated in the low- and high-temperature regimes of dissipation for different couplings. The Onsager's regression hypothesis is discussed for the non-Markovian dynamics. The Lindblad theory is justified on the basis of the microscopical model.
Dynamical invariants in a non-Markovian quantum-state-diffusion equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Da-Wei; Pyshkin, P. V.; Lam, Chi-Hang; Yu, Ting; Lin, Hai-Qing; You, J. Q.; Wu, Lian-Ao
2015-12-01
We find dynamical invariants for open quantum systems described by the non-Markovian quantum-state-diffusion (QSD) equation. In stark contrast to closed systems where the dynamical invariant can be identical to the system density operator, these dynamical invariants no longer share the equation of motion for the density operator. Moreover, the invariants obtained with a biorthonormal basis can be used to render an exact solution to the QSD equation and the corresponding non-Markovian dynamics without using master equations or numerical simulations. Significantly we show that we can apply these dynamical invariants to reverse engineering a Hamiltonian that is capable of driving the system to the target state, providing a different way to design control strategy for open quantum systems.
A measure of non-Markovianity for unital quantum dynamical maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haseli, S.; Salimi, S.; Khorashad, A. S.
2015-09-01
One of the most important topics in the study of the dynamics of open quantum systems is the information exchange between system and environment. Based on the features of back-flow information from an environment to a system, an approach is provided to detect non-Markovianity for unital dynamical maps. The method takes advantage of non-contraction property of the von Neumann entropy under completely positive and trace-preserving unital maps. Accordingly, for the dynamics of a single qubit as an open quantum system, the sign of the time derivative of the density matrix eigenvalues of the system determines the non-Markovianity of unital quantum dynamical maps. The main characteristics of the measure are to make the corresponding calculations and optimization procedure simpler.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Chang-Ling; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Xiong, Xiao; Sun, Fang-Wen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-12-01
The system-environment interaction is simulated by light propagating in coupled photonic waveguides. The profile of the electromagnetic field provides intuitive physical insight to study the Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics. The transition from non-Markovian to Markovian process is demonstrated by increasing the size of the environment, as the energy evolution changes from oscillation to exponential decay and the revival period increases. Moreover, the dynamical decoupling with a sequence of phase modulations is introduced to such a photonic system to form a band structure in the time dimension, where the energy dissipation can be significantly accelerated or inhibited. It opens the possibility to tune the dissipation in a photonic system, similar to the dynamic decoupling of spins.
Shot-noise at a Fermi-edge singularity: Non-Markovian dynamics
Ubbelohde, N.; Maire, N.; Haug, R. J.; Roszak, K.; Hohls, F.; Novotný, T.
2013-12-04
For an InAs quantum dot we study the current shot noise at a Fermi-edge singularity in low temperature cross-correlation measurements. In the regime of the interaction effect the strong suppression of noise observed at zero magnetic field and the sequence of enhancement and suppression in magnetic field go beyond a Markovian master equation model. Qualitative and quantitative agreement can however be achieved by a generalized master equation model taking non-Markovian dynamics into account.
Non-Markovian dynamics in chiral quantum networks with spins and photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Tomás; Vermersch, Benoît; Hauke, Philipp; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter
2016-06-01
We study the dynamics of chiral quantum networks consisting of nodes coupled by unidirectional or asymmetric bidirectional quantum channels. In contrast to familiar photonic networks where driven two-level atoms exchange photons via 1D photonic nanostructures, we propose and study a setup where interactions between the atoms are mediated by spin excitations (magnons) in 1D X X spin chains representing spin waveguides. While Markovian quantum network theory eliminates quantum channels as structureless reservoirs in a Born-Markov approximation to obtain a master equation for the nodes, we are interested in non-Markovian dynamics. This arises from the nonlinear character of the dispersion with band-edge effects, and from finite spin propagation velocities leading to time delays in interactions. To account for the non-Markovian dynamics we treat the quantum degrees of freedom of the nodes and connecting channel as a composite spin system with the surrounding of the quantum network as a Markovian bath, allowing for an efficient solution with time-dependent density matrix renormalization-group techniques. We illustrate our approach showing non-Markovian effects in the driven-dissipative formation of quantum dimers, and we present examples for quantum information protocols involving quantum state transfer with engineered elements as basic building blocks of quantum spintronic circuits.
Markovian and Non-Markovian Modeling of Membrane Dynamics with Milestoning.
Cardenas, Alfredo E; Elber, Ron
2016-08-25
We exploit atomically detailed simulations and the milestoning theory to extract coarse grained models of membrane kinetics and thermodynamics. Non-Markovian and Markovian theories for the phosphate group displacements are used to coarsely represent membrane motions. The construction of the two models makes it possible to examine their consistency and accuracy. The equilibrium and fluctuations of the phosphate groups along the normal to the membrane plane are estimated, and milestoning equations are constructed and solved. An optimal Markovian model is constructed that reproduces exactly the equilibrium and mean first passage time (MFPT) of the non-Markovian model. The equilibrium solution of both models is favorably compared to distributions obtained from straightforward molecular dynamics simulations. The picture for the kinetics is complex. Multiple local relaxation times of the mass density are illustrated emphasizing the non-Markovian characteristics of the process. In Markovian modeling, only a single relaxation time is assumed for a state. Mapping of particle dynamics to the dynamics of a field density offers a new way of coarse graining complex systems as membranes that may bridge between atomically detailed models and phenomenological descriptions of macroscopic membranes. PMID:27016332
Non-Markovian Dynamics and Self-Diffusion in Strongly Coupled Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickler, Trevor; Langin, Thomas; McQuillen, Patrick; Daligault, Jerome; Maksimovich, Nikola; Killian, Thomas
2015-11-01
In weakly coupled plasmas, collisions are dominated by long range, small angle scattering, and each collision is an uncorrelated binary event. In contrast, collisions in strongly coupled plasmas (coupling parameter Γ > 1) are dominated by short range, large angle scattering in which the collisions may be correlated and non-independent in time, i.e., non-Markovian. In this work, we present experimental results indicative of non-Markovian processes in a strongly coupled ultracold neutral plasma (UCNP) created by photoionizing strontium atoms in a magneto-optical trap. We use optical pumping to create spin ``tagged'' subpopulations of ions having non-zero average velocity < v > , and use laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging to measure the relaxation of < v (t) > back to equilibrium. We observe clear non-exponential decay in < v (t) > , which indicates non-Markovian dynamics. We further demonstrate there is a theoretical basis to consider < v (t) > as an approximation to the ion velocity autocorrelation function (VAF). We then calculate diffusion coefficients from our data, demonstrating experimental measurement of self-diffusion coefficients for 0 . 3 < Γ < 3 . 5 . This work was supported by the United States National Science Foundation and Department of Energy Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering (PHY-1102516) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550- 12-1-0267).
Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems. II. Decay rate, capture, and pure states
Palchikov, Yu.V.; Antonenko, N.V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G.G.; Scheid, W.
2005-01-01
On the basis of a master equation for the reduced density matrix of open quantum systems, we study the influence of time-dependent friction and diffusion coefficients on the decay rate from a potential well and the capture probability into a potential well. Taking into account the mixed diffusion coefficient D{sub qp}, the quasistationary decay rates are compared with the analytically derived Kramers-type formulas for different temperatures and frictions. The diffusion coefficients supplying the purity of states are derived for a non-Markovian dynamics.
Self-Diffusion and Non-Markovian Dynamics in Strongly Coupled Ultracold Neutral Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickler, Trevor; Langin, Thomas; McQuillen, Patrick; Killian, Thomas
2015-05-01
Collisional processes in weakly coupled plasmas are well-described by the Landau-Spitzer formalism. Classical plasma theory breaks down, however, in strongly coupled systems because of the non-perturbative nature of particle interactions, and improving our understanding of this regime is an important fundamental challenge. We present experimental measurements of the self-diffusion constant and observation of non-Markovian equilibration for strongly coupled ions in an ultracold neutral plasma (UCNP) created by photoionizing strontium atoms in a magneto-optical trap. Our diagnostic uses optical pumping to create ``spin-tagged'' subpopulations of ions having skewed velocity distributions that then relax back to equilibrium. A Green-Kubo relation is used to extract the self-diffusion constant from the equilibration curves. With improved time resolution (down to 30 ns), we have explored the early time dynamics of these skewed ion distributions within 100 ns after the optical pumping, where molecular dynamics simulations predict non-Markovian deviations from the exponential velocity damping expected for weakly coupled systems. At longer times, we observe oscillations of the average velocity during the relaxation, which indicate coupling of single-particle motion to collective modes. This work was supported by the United States National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy (PHY-0714603), and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-12-1-0267).
Non-Markovian effect on the quantum discord
Wang Bo; Xu Zhenyu; Chen Zeqian; Feng Mang
2010-01-15
We study the non-Markovian effect on the dynamics of the quantum discord by exactly solving a model consisting of two independent qubits subject to two zero-temperature non-Markovian reservoirs, respectively. Considering the two qubits initially prepared in Bell-like or extended Werner-like states, we show that there is no occurrence of the sudden death, but only instantaneous disappearance of the quantum discord at some time points, in comparison to the entanglement sudden death in the same range of the parameters of interest. This implies that the quantum discord is more useful than the entanglement to describe the quantum correlation involved in quantum systems.
Rabi oscillation in a quantum cavity: Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guimond, Pierre-Olivier; Roulet, Alexandre; Le, Huy Nguyen; Scarani, Valerio
2016-02-01
We investigate the Rabi oscillation of an atom placed inside a quantum cavity where each mirror is formed by a chain of atoms trapped near a one-dimensional waveguide. This proposal was studied previously with the use of Markov approximation, where the delay due to the finite travel time of light between the two cavity mirrors is neglected. We show that Rabi oscillation analogous to that obtained with high-finesse classical cavities is achieved only when this travel time is much larger than the time scale that characterizes the superradiant response of the mirrors. Therefore, the delay must be taken into account and the dynamics of the problem is inherently non-Markovian. Parameters of interest such as the Rabi frequency and the cavity loss rate due to photon leakage through the mirrors are obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salimi, S.; Haseli, S.; Khorashad, A. S.; Adabi, F.
2016-09-01
The interaction between system and environment is a fundamental concept in the theory of open quantum systems. As a result of the interaction, an amount of correlation (both classical and quantum) emerges between the system and the environment. In this work, we recall the quantity that will be very useful to describe the emergence of the correlation between the system and the environment, namely, the total entropy production. Appearance of total entropy production is due to the entanglement production between the system and the environment. In this work, we discuss about the role of the total entropy production for detecting the non-Markovianity. By utilizing the relation between the total entropy production and total correlation between subsystems, one can see a temporary decrease of total entropy production is a signature of non-Markovianity. We apply our criterion for the special case, where the composite system has initial correlation with environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salimi, S.; Haseli, S.; Khorashad, A. S.; Adabi, F.
2016-05-01
The interaction between system and environment is a fundamental concept in the theory of open quantum systems. As a result of the interaction, an amount of correlation (both classical and quantum) emerges between the system and the environment. In this work, we recall the quantity that will be very useful to describe the emergence of the correlation between the system and the environment, namely, the total entropy production. Appearance of total entropy production is due to the entanglement production between the system and the environment. In this work, we discuss about the role of the total entropy production for detecting the non-Markovianity. By utilizing the relation between the total entropy production and total correlation between subsystems, one can see a temporary decrease of total entropy production is a signature of non-Markovianity. We apply our criterion for the special case, where the composite system has initial correlation with environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panja, Debabrata
2010-06-01
Any first course on polymer physics teaches that the dynamics of a tagged monomer of a polymer is anomalously subdiffusive, i.e., the mean-square displacement of a tagged monomer increases as tα for some α < 1 until the terminal relaxation time τ of the polymer. Beyond time τ the motion of the tagged monomer becomes diffusive. Classical examples of anomalous dynamics in polymer physics are single polymeric systems, such as phantom Rouse, self-avoiding Rouse, self-avoiding Zimm, reptation, translocation through a narrow pore in a membrane, and many-polymeric systems such as polymer melts. In this pedagogical paper I report that all these instances of anomalous dynamics in polymeric systems are robustly characterized by power-law memory kernels within a unified generalized Langevin equation (GLE) scheme, and therefore are non-Markovian. The exponents of the power-law memory kernels are related to the relaxation response of the polymers to local strains, and are derived from the equilibrium statistical physics of polymers. The anomalous dynamics of a tagged monomer of a polymer in these systems is then reproduced from the power-law memory kernels of the GLE via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Using this GLE formulation I further show that the characteristics of the drifts caused by a (weak) applied field on these polymeric systems are also obtained from the corresponding memory kernels.
Non-Markovian quantum dynamics: correlated projection superoperators and Hilbert space averaging.
Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Gemmer, Jochen; Michel, Mathias
2006-01-01
The time-convolutionless (TCL) projection operator technique allows a systematic analysis of the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems. We present a class of projection superoperators that project the states of the total system onto certain correlated system-environment states. It is shown that the application of the TCL technique to this class of correlated superoperators enables the nonperturbative treatment of the dynamics of system-environment models for which the standard approach fails in any finite order of the coupling strength. We demonstrate further that the correlated superoperators correspond to the idea of a best guess of conditional quantum expectations, which is determined by a suitable Hilbert-space average. The general approach is illustrated by means of the model of a spin that interacts through randomly distributed couplings with a finite reservoir consisting of two energy bands. Extensive numerical simulations of the full Schrödinger equation of the model reveal the power and efficiency of the method. PMID:16486248
Non-Markovian dynamics of dust charge fluctuations in dusty plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Ghalee, Amir; Ghalee
2014-06-01
Dust charge fluctuates even in steady-state uniform plasma due to the discrete nature of the charge carriers and can be described using standard Langevin equation. In this work, two possible approaches in order to introduce the memory effect in dust charging dynamics are proposed. The first part of the paper provides the generalization form of the fluctuation-dissipation relation for non-Markovian systems based on generalized Langevin equations to determine the amplitudes of the dust charge fluctuations for two different kinds of colored noises under the assumption that the fluctuation-dissipation relation is valid. In the second part of the paper, aiming for dusty plasma system out of equilibrium, the fractionalized Langevin equation is used to derive the temporal two-point correlation function of grain charge fluctuations which is shown to be non-stationary due to the dependence on both times and not the time difference. The correlation function is used to derive the amplitude of fluctuations for early transient time.
Qubit decoherence and non-Markovian dynamics at low temperatures via an effective spin-boson model
Shiokawa, K.; Hu, B.L.
2004-12-01
Quantum Brownian oscillator model (QBM), in the Fock-space representation, can be viewed as a multilevel spin-boson model. At sufficiently low temperature, the oscillator degrees of freedom are dynamically reduced to the lowest two levels and the system behaves effectively as a two-level (E2L) spin-boson model (SBM) in this limit. We discuss the physical mechanism of level reduction and analyze the behavior of E2L-SBM from the QBM solutions. The availability of close solutions for the QBM enables us to study the non-Markovian features of decoherence and leakage in a SBM in the nonperturbative regime (e.g., without invoking the Born approximation) in better details than before. Our result captures very well the characteristic non-Markovian short time low temperature behavior common in many models.
Experimental observation of weak non-Markovianity
Bernardes, Nadja K.; Cuevas, Alvaro; Orieux, Adeline; Monken, C. H.; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santos, Marcelo F.
2015-01-01
Non-Markovianity has recently attracted large interest due to significant advances in its characterization and its exploitation for quantum information processing. However, up to now, only non-Markovian regimes featuring environment to system backflow of information (strong non-Markovianity) have been experimentally simulated. In this work, using an all-optical setup we simulate and observe the so-called weak non-Markovian dynamics. Through full process tomography, we experimentally demonstrate that the dynamics of a qubit can be non-Markovian despite an always increasing correlation between the system and its environment which, in our case, denotes no information backflow. We also show the transition from the weak to the strong regime by changing a single parameter in the environmental state, leading us to a better understanding of the fundamental features of non-Markovianity. PMID:26627910
Experimental observation of weak non-Markovianity.
Bernardes, Nadja K; Cuevas, Alvaro; Orieux, Adeline; Monken, C H; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santos, Marcelo F
2015-01-01
Non-Markovianity has recently attracted large interest due to significant advances in its characterization and its exploitation for quantum information processing. However, up to now, only non-Markovian regimes featuring environment to system backflow of information (strong non-Markovianity) have been experimentally simulated. In this work, using an all-optical setup we simulate and observe the so-called weak non-Markovian dynamics. Through full process tomography, we experimentally demonstrate that the dynamics of a qubit can be non-Markovian despite an always increasing correlation between the system and its environment which, in our case, denotes no information backflow. We also show the transition from the weak to the strong regime by changing a single parameter in the environmental state, leading us to a better understanding of the fundamental features of non-Markovianity. PMID:26627910
Non-Markovian dynamics of an open quantum system with nonstationary coupling
Kalandarov, S. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Kanokov, Z.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.
2011-04-15
The spectral, dissipative, and statistical properties of the damped quantum oscillator are studied in the case of non-Markovian and nonstationary system-heat bath coupling. The dissipation of collective energy is shown to be slowed down, and the decoherence rate and entropy grow with modulation frequency.
Non-Markovian dynamics of an open quantum system with nonstationary coupling.
Kalandarov, S A; Kanokov, Z; Adamian, G G; Antonenko, N V; Scheid, W
2011-04-01
The spectral, dissipative, and statistical properties of the damped quantum oscillator are studied in the case of non-Markovian and nonstationary system-heat bath coupling. The dissipation of collective energy is shown to be slowed down, and the decoherence rate and entropy grow with modulation frequency. PMID:21599112
Degree of Non-Markovianity of Quantum Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chruściński, Dariusz; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2014-03-01
We propose a new characterization of non-Markovian quantum evolution based on the concept of non-Markovianity degree. It provides an analog of a Schmidt number in the entanglement theory and reveals the formal analogy between quantum evolution and the entanglement theory: Markovian evolution corresponds to a separable state and the non-Markovian one is further characterized by its degree. It enables one to introduce a non-Markovianity witness—an analog of an entanglement witness, and a family of measures—an analog of Schmidt coefficients, and finally to characterize maximally non-Markovian evolution being an analog of the maximally entangled state. Our approach allows us to classify the non-Markovianity measures introduced so far in a unified rigorous mathematical framework.
Quantifying non-Markovianity of continuous-variable Gaussian dynamical maps
Vasile, Ruggero; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Piilo, Jyrki
2011-11-15
We introduce a non-Markovianity measure for continuous-variable open quantum systems based on the idea put forward in H.-P. Breuer et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 210401 (2009);], that is, by quantifying the flow of information from the environment back to the open system. Instead of the trace distance we use here the fidelity to assess distinguishability of quantum states. We employ our measure to evaluate non-Markovianity of two paradigmatic Gaussian channels: the purely damping channel and the quantum Brownian motion channel with Ohmic environment. We consider different classes of Gaussian states and look for pairs of states maximizing the backflow of information. For coherent states we find simple analytical solutions, whereas for squeezed states we provide both exact numerical and approximate analytical solutions in the weak coupling limit.
Shannon entropic temperature and its lower and upper bounds for non-Markovian stochastic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Somrita; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
2014-09-01
In this article we have studied Shannon entropic nonequilibrium temperature (NET) extensively for a system which is coupled to a thermal bath that may be Markovian or non-Markovian in nature. Using the phase-space distribution function, i.e., the solution of the generalized Fokker Planck equation, we have calculated the entropy production, NET, and their bounds. Other thermodynamic properties like internal energy of the system, heat, and work, etc. are also measured to study their relations with NET. The present study reveals that the heat flux is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the thermal bath and the nonequilibrium temperature of the system. It also reveals that heat capacity at nonequilibrium state is independent of both NET and time. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the time variations of the above-mentioned and related quantities to differentiate between the equilibration processes for the coupling of the system with the Markovian and the non-Markovian thermal baths, respectively. It implies that in contrast to the Markovian case, a certain time is required to develop maximum interaction between the system and the non-Markovian thermal bath (NMTB). It also implies that longer relaxation time is needed for a NMTB compared to a Markovian one. Quasidynamical behavior of the NMTB introduces an oscillation in the variation of properties with time. Finally, we have demonstrated how the nonequilibrium state is affected by the memory time of the thermal bath.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giorgi, Gian Luca; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta
2015-08-01
Quantum Darwinism explains the emergence of a classical description of objects in terms of the creation of many redundant registers in an environment containing their classical information. This amplification phenomenon, where only classical information reaches the macroscopic observer and through which different observers can agree on the objective existence of such object, has been revived lately for several types of situations, successfully explaining classicality. We explore quantum Darwinism in the setting of an environment made of two level systems which are initially prepared in the ground state of the XX model, which exhibits different phases; we find that the different phases have different abilities to redundantly acquire classical information about the system, the "ferromagnetic phase" being the only one able to complete quantum Darwinism. At the same time we relate this ability to how non-Markovian the system dynamics is, based on the interpretation that non-Markovian dynamics is associated with backflow of information from environment to system, thus spoiling the information transfer needed for Darwinism. Finally, we explore mixing of bath registers by allowing a small interaction among them, finding that this spoils the stored information as previously found in the literature.
Digital quantum simulation of many-body non-Markovian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sweke, R.; Sanz, M.; Sinayskiy, I.; Petruccione, F.; Solano, E.
2016-08-01
We present an algorithmic method for the digital quantum simulation of many-body locally indivisible non-Markovian open quantum systems. It consists of two parts: first, a Suzuki-Lie-Trotter decomposition of the global system propagator into the product of subsystem propagators, which may not be quantum channels, and second, an algorithmic procedure for the implementation of the subsystem propagators through unitary operations and measurements on a dilated space. By providing rigorous error bounds for the relevant Suzuki-Lie-Trotter decomposition, we are able to analyze the efficiency of the method, and connect it with an appropriate measure of the local indivisibility of the system. In light of our analysis, the proposed method is expected to be experimentally achievable for a variety of interesting cases.
Electronic energy transfer in model photosynthetic systems: Markovian vs. non-Markovian dynamics.
Singh, Navinder; Brumer, Paul
2011-01-01
A simple numerical algorithm for solving the non-Markovian master equation in the second Born approximation is developed and used to propagate the traditional dimer system that models electronic energy transfer in photosynthetic systems. Specifically, the coupled integro-differential equations for the reduced density matrix are solved by an efficient auxiliary function method in both the energy and site representations. In addition to giving exact results to this order, the approach allows us to access the range of the reorganization energy and decay rates of the phonon auto-correlation function for which the Markovian Redfield theory and the second-order approximation is useful. For example, the use of Redfield theory for lambda > 10 cm(-1) in Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) type systems is shown to be fundamentally inaccurate. PMID:22452072
Using non-Markovian measures to evaluate quantum master equations for photosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hong-Bin; Lambert, Neill; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco
2015-08-01
When dealing with system-reservoir interactions in an open quantum system, such as a photosynthetic light-harvesting complex, approximations are usually made to obtain the dynamics of the system. One question immediately arises: how good are these approximations, and in what ways can we evaluate them? Here, we propose to use entanglement and a measure of non-Markovianity as benchmarks for the deviation of approximate methods from exact results. We apply two frequently-used perturbative but non-Markovian approximations to a photosynthetic dimer model and compare their results with that of the numerically-exact hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM). This enables us to explore both entanglement and non-Markovianity measures as means to reveal how the approximations either overestimate or underestimate memory effects and quantum coherence. In addition, we show that both the approximate and exact results suggest that non-Markonivity can, counter-intuitively, increase with temperature, and with the coupling to the environment.
Non-Markovianity measure using two-time correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Md. Manirul; Lo, Ping-Yuan; Tu, Matisse Wei-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Min
2015-12-01
We investigate non-Markovianity measure using two-time correlation functions for open quantum systems. We define non-Markovianity measure as the difference between the exact two-time correlation function and the one obtained from quantum regression theorem in the Born-Markov approximation. Such non-Markovianity can easily be measured in experiments. We found that the non-Markovianity dynamics in different time scale crucially depends on the system-environment coupling strength and other physical parameters such as the initial temperature of the environment and the initial state of the system. In particular, we obtain the short-time and long-time behaviors of non-Markovianity for different spectral densities. We find that the thermal fluctuation always reduce the non-Markovian memory effect. Also, the non-Markovianity measure shows nontrivial initial state dependence in different time scales.
Experimental observation of transition between strong and weak non-Markovianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardes, Nadja K.; Cuevas, Alvaro; Orieux, Adeline; Monken, Carlos H.; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santos, Marcelo F.
2015-05-01
We experimentally observed in an optical setup and using full tomography process the so-called weak non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit [1]. This was done implementing the collisional model proposed in [2] to investigate the non- Markovian dynamics of an open quantum system interacting with a carefully controlled environment state. We also observed the transition from weak to strong (essentially) non-Markovianity. In our all-optical setup, a single photon system, initially entangled in polarization with an ancilla, is made to interact with a sequence of liquid crystal retarders driven by proper electric pulses, which simulates the environment. Depending on how the voltage is applied on each liquid crystal, it will work as a half-wave plate with different orientations. Then, by changing properly the parameters of the qubit-environment interactions, the system dynamics can suffer a transition from weak to strong non-Markovianity. In the strong regime, the full reconstruction of the entangled state was made by single entanglement witness between system and ancilla, showing a backflow of information, while, in the weak regime, given the contractive unital map feature, we can only measure the dynamics by a full process tomography analysis, searching for the violation of the divisibility completely positive map criterion, what was done successfully.
An, Nguyen Ba; Kim, Jaewan; Kim, Kisik
2010-09-15
We study exact entanglement dynamics of three-qubit W-class states in a common structured cavity at zero temperature in both Markovian and non-Markovian regimes using the concept of lower bound of concurrence. We also propose three methods to control the qubits' entanglement evolution and establish monogamy equalities relevant to the class of states under consideration.
Non-Markovian effect on remote state preparation
Xu, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Chen; Luo, Shunlong; Zhu, Shiqun
2015-05-15
Memory effect of non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems is often believed to be beneficial for quantum information processing. In this work, we employ an experimentally controllable two-photon open system, with one photon experiencing a dephasing environment and the other being free from noise, to show that non-Markovian effect may also have a negative impact on quantum tasks such as remote state preparation: For a certain period of controlled time interval, stronger non-Markovian effect yields lower fidelity of remote state preparation, as opposed to the common wisdom that more information leads to better performance. As a comparison, a positive non-Markovian effect on the RSP fidelity with another typical non-Markovian noise is analyzed. Consequently, the observed dual character of non-Markovian effect will be of great importance in the field of open systems engineering.
Non-Markovian effect on remote state preparation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Chen; Luo, Shunlong; Zhu, Shiqun
2015-05-01
Memory effect of non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems is often believed to be beneficial for quantum information processing. In this work, we employ an experimentally controllable two-photon open system, with one photon experiencing a dephasing environment and the other being free from noise, to show that non-Markovian effect may also have a negative impact on quantum tasks such as remote state preparation: For a certain period of controlled time interval, stronger non-Markovian effect yields lower fidelity of remote state preparation, as opposed to the common wisdom that more information leads to better performance. As a comparison, a positive non-Markovian effect on the RSP fidelity with another typical non-Markovian noise is analyzed. Consequently, the observed dual character of non-Markovian effect will be of great importance in the field of open systems engineering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsling, Robin; Sanders, Lloyd P.; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lizana, Ludvig
2014-09-01
The standard setup for single-file diffusion is diffusing particles in one dimension which cannot overtake each other, where the dynamics of a tracer (tagged) particle is of main interest. In this article, we generalize this system and investigate first-passage properties of a tracer particle when flanked by identical crowder particles which may, besides diffuse, unbind (rebind) from (to) the one-dimensional lattice with rates koff (kon). The tracer particle is restricted to diffuse with rate kD on the lattice and the density of crowders is constant (on average). The unbinding rate koff is our key parameter and it allows us to systematically study the non-trivial transition between the completely Markovian case (koff ≫ kD) to the non-Markovian case (koff ≪ kD) governed by strong memory effects. This has relevance for several quasi one-dimensional systems. One example is gene regulation where regulatory proteins are searching for specific binding sites on a crowded DNA. We quantify the first-passage time distribution, f (t) (t is time), numerically using the Gillespie algorithm, and estimate f (t) analytically. In terms of koff (keeping kD fixed), we study the transition between the two known regimes: (i) when koff ≫ kD the particles may effectively pass each other and we recover the single particle result f (t) ˜ t-3/2, with a reduced diffusion constant; (ii) when koff ≪ kD unbinding is rare and we obtain the single-file result f (t) ˜ t-7/4. The intermediate region displays rich dynamics where both the characteristic f (t) - peak and the long-time power-law slope are sensitive to koff.
Forsling, Robin; Sanders, Lloyd P; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lizana, Ludvig
2014-09-01
The standard setup for single-file diffusion is diffusing particles in one dimension which cannot overtake each other, where the dynamics of a tracer (tagged) particle is of main interest. In this article, we generalize this system and investigate first-passage properties of a tracer particle when flanked by identical crowder particles which may, besides diffuse, unbind (rebind) from (to) the one-dimensional lattice with rates k(off) (k(on)). The tracer particle is restricted to diffuse with rate k(D) on the lattice and the density of crowders is constant (on average). The unbinding rate k(off) is our key parameter and it allows us to systematically study the non-trivial transition between the completely Markovian case (k(off) ≫ k(D)) to the non-Markovian case (k(off) ≪ k(D)) governed by strong memory effects. This has relevance for several quasi one-dimensional systems. One example is gene regulation where regulatory proteins are searching for specific binding sites on a crowded DNA. We quantify the first-passage time distribution, f(t) (t is time), numerically using the Gillespie algorithm, and estimate f(t) analytically. In terms of k(off) (keeping k(D) fixed), we study the transition between the two known regimes: (i) when k(off) ≫ k(D) the particles may effectively pass each other and we recover the single particle result f(t) ∼ t(-3/2), with a reduced diffusion constant; (ii) when k(off) ≪ k(D) unbinding is rare and we obtain the single-file result f(t) ∼ t(-7/4). The intermediate region displays rich dynamics where both the characteristic f(t) - peak and the long-time power-law slope are sensitive to k(off). PMID:25194389
Stochastic dynamics of charge fluctuations in dusty plasma: A non-Markovian approach
Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.
2011-08-15
Dust particles in typical laboratory plasma become charged largely by collecting electrons and/or ions. Most of the theoretical studies in dusty plasma assume that the grain charge remains constant even though it fluctuates due to the discrete nature of the charge. The rates of ions and electrons absorption depend on the grain charge, hence its temporal evolution. Stochastic charging model based on the standard Langevin equation assumes that the underlying process is Markovian. In this work, the memory effect in dust charging dynamics is incorporated using fractional calculus formalism. The resulting fractional Langevin equation is solved to obtain the amplitude and correlation function for the dust charge fluctuation. It is shown that the effects of ion-neutral collisions can be interpreted in phenomenological sense through the nonlocal fractional order derivative.
Non-Markovian reduced dynamics based upon a hierarchical effective-mode representation
Burghardt, Irene; Martinazzo, Rocco; Hughes, Keith H.
2012-10-14
A reduced dynamics representation is introduced which is tailored to a hierarchical, Mori-chain type representation of a bath of harmonic oscillators which are linearly coupled to a subsystem. We consider a spin-boson system where a single effective mode is constructed so as to absorb all system-environment interactions, while the residual bath modes are coupled bilinearly to the primary mode and among each other. Using a cumulant expansion of the memory kernel, correlation functions for the primary mode are obtained, which can be suitably approximated by truncated chains representing the primary-residual mode interactions. A series of reduced-dimensional bath correlation functions is thus obtained, which can be expressed as Fourier-Laplace transforms of spectral densities that are given in truncated continued-fraction form. For a master equation which is second order in the system-bath coupling, the memory kernel is re-expressed in terms of local-in-time equations involving auxiliary densities and auxiliary operators.
Continuous-variable-entanglement dynamics in structured reservoirs
Vasile, Ruggero; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2009-12-15
We address the evolution of entanglement in bimodal continuous variable quantum systems interacting with two independent structured reservoirs. We derive an analytic expression for the entanglement of formation without performing the Markov and the secular approximations and study in details the entanglement dynamics for various types of structured reservoirs and for different reservoir temperatures, assuming the two modes initially excited in a twin-beam state. Our analytic solution allows us to identify three dynamical regimes characterized by different behaviors of the entanglement: the entanglement sudden death, the non-Markovian revival and the non-secular revival regimes. Remarkably, we find that, contrarily to the Markovian case, the short-time system-reservoir correlations in some cases destroy quickly the initial entanglement even at zero temperature.
Non-Markovianity of Gaussian Channels.
Torre, G; Roga, W; Illuminati, F
2015-08-14
We introduce a necessary and sufficient criterion for the non-Markovianity of Gaussian quantum dynamical maps based on the violation of divisibility. The criterion is derived by defining a general vectorial representation of the covariance matrix which is then exploited to determine the condition for the complete positivity of partial maps associated with arbitrary time intervals. Such construction does not rely on the Choi-Jamiolkowski representation and does not require optimization over states. PMID:26317700
Using non-Markovian measures to evaluate quantum master equations for photosynthesis
Chen, Hong-Bin; Lambert, Neill; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco
2015-01-01
When dealing with system-reservoir interactions in an open quantum system, such as a photosynthetic light-harvesting complex, approximations are usually made to obtain the dynamics of the system. One question immediately arises: how good are these approximations, and in what ways can we evaluate them? Here, we propose to use entanglement and a measure of non-Markovianity as benchmarks for the deviation of approximate methods from exact results. We apply two frequently-used perturbative but non-Markovian approximations to a photosynthetic dimer model and compare their results with that of the numerically-exact hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM). This enables us to explore both entanglement and non-Markovianity measures as means to reveal how the approximations either overestimate or underestimate memory effects and quantum coherence. In addition, we show that both the approximate and exact results suggest that non-Markonivity can, counter-intuitively, increase with temperature, and with the coupling to the environment. PMID:26238479
Quantum non-Markovianity: characterization, quantification and detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivas, Ángel; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.
2014-09-01
We present a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the concept of quantum non-Markovianity, a central theme in the theory of open quantum systems. We introduce the concept of a quantum Markovian process as a generalization of the classical definition of Markovianity via the so-called divisibility property and relate this notion to the intuitive idea that links non-Markovianity with the persistence of memory effects. A detailed comparison with other definitions presented in the literature is provided. We then discuss several existing proposals to quantify the degree of non-Markovianity of quantum dynamics and to witness non-Markovian behavior, the latter providing sufficient conditions to detect deviations from strict Markovianity. Finally, we conclude by enumerating some timely open problems in the field and provide an outlook on possible research directions.
Harnessing non-Markovian quantum memory by environmental coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario
2015-07-01
Controlling the non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems is essential in quantum information technology since it plays a crucial role in preserving quantum memory. Albeit in many realistic scenarios the quantum system can simultaneously interact with composite environments, this condition remains little understood, particularly regarding the effect of the coupling between environmental parts. We analyze the non-Markovian behavior of a qubit interacting at the same time with two coupled single-mode cavities which in turn dissipate into memoryless or memory-keeping reservoirs. We show that increasing the control parameter, that is the two-mode coupling, allows for triggering and enhancing a non-Markovian dynamics for the qubit starting from a Markovian one in the absence of coupling. Surprisingly, if the qubit dynamics is non-Markovian for the zero control parameter, increasing the latter enables multiple transitions from non-Markovian to Markovian regimes. These results hold independently on the nature of the reservoirs. This work highlights that suitably engineering the coupling between parts of a compound environment can efficiently harness the quantum memory, stored in a qubit, based on non-Markovianity.
Non-Markovianity hinders Quantum Darwinism
Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-01-01
We investigate Quantum Darwinism and the emergence of a classical world from the quantum one in connection with the spectral properties of the environment. We use a microscopic model of quantum environment in which, by changing a simple system parameter, we can modify the information back flow from environment into the system, and therefore its non-Markovian character. We show that the presence of memory effects hinders the emergence of classical objective reality, linking these two apparently unrelated concepts via a unique dynamical feature related to decoherence factors. PMID:26786857
Ultrafast Optimal Sideband Cooling under Non-Markovian Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triana, Johan F.; Estrada, Andrés F.; Pachón, Leonardo A.
2016-05-01
A sideband cooling strategy that incorporates (i) the dynamics induced by structured (non-Markovian) environments in the target and auxiliary systems and (ii) the optimally time-modulated interaction between them is developed. For the context of cavity optomechanics, when non-Markovian dynamics are considered in the target system, ground state cooling is reached at much faster rates and at a much lower phonon occupation number than previously reported. In contrast to similar current strategies, ground state cooling is reached here for coupling-strength rates that are experimentally accessible for the state-of-the-art implementations. After the ultrafast optimal-ground-state-cooling protocol is accomplished, an additional optimal control strategy is considered to maintain the phonon number as close as possible to the one obtained in the cooling procedure. Contrary to the conventional expectation, when non-Markovian dynamics are considered in the auxiliary system, the efficiency of the cooling protocol is undermined.
Decoherence of Josephson charge qubit in non-Markovian environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Qing-Qian; Zhou, Xing-Fei; Liang, Xian-Ting
2016-05-01
In this paper we investigate the decoherence of Josephson charge qubit (JCQ) by using a time-nonlocal (TNL) dynamical method. Three kinds of environmental models, described with Ohmic, super-Ohmic, and sub-Ohmic spectral density functions are considered. It is shown that the TNL method can effectively include the non-Markovian effects in the dynamical solutions. In particular, it is shown that the sub-Ohmic environment has longer correlation time than the Ohmic and super-Ohmic ones. And the Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics are obviously different for the qubit in sub-Ohmic environment.
Entropy production in a non-Markovian environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutvonen, Aki; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Pekola, Jukka
2015-07-01
Stochastic thermodynamics and the associated fluctuation relations provide the means to extend the fundamental laws of thermodynamics to small scales and systems out of equilibrium. The fluctuating thermodynamic variables are usually treated in the context of either isolated Hamiltonian evolution, or Markovian dynamics in open systems. However, there is no reason a priori why the Markovian approximation should be valid in driven systems under nonequilibrium conditions. In this work, we introduce an explicitly non-Markovian model of dynamics of an open system, where the correlations between the system and the environment drive a subset of the environment out of equilibrium. Such an environment gives rise to a new type of non-Markovian entropy production term. Such non-Markovian components must be taken into account in order to recover the fluctuation relations for entropy. As a concrete example, we explicitly derive such modified fluctuation relations for the case of an overheated single electron box.
Entropy production in a non-Markovian environment.
Kutvonen, Aki; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Pekola, Jukka
2015-07-01
Stochastic thermodynamics and the associated fluctuation relations provide the means to extend the fundamental laws of thermodynamics to small scales and systems out of equilibrium. The fluctuating thermodynamic variables are usually treated in the context of either isolated Hamiltonian evolution, or Markovian dynamics in open systems. However, there is no reason a priori why the Markovian approximation should be valid in driven systems under nonequilibrium conditions. In this work, we introduce an explicitly non-Markovian model of dynamics of an open system, where the correlations between the system and the environment drive a subset of the environment out of equilibrium. Such an environment gives rise to a new type of non-Markovian entropy production term. Such non-Markovian components must be taken into account in order to recover the fluctuation relations for entropy. As a concrete example, we explicitly derive such modified fluctuation relations for the case of an overheated single electron box. PMID:26274125
Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules
Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming
2015-01-01
Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245
Geometric quantum discord and non-Markovianity of structured reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ming-Liang; Lian, Han-Li
2015-11-01
The reservoir memory effects can lead to information backflow and recurrence of the previously lost quantum correlations. We establish connections between the direction of information flow and variation of the geometric quantum discords (GQDs) measured respectively by the trace distance, the Hellinger distance, and the Bures distance for two qubits subjecting to the bosonic structured reservoirs, and unveil their dependence on a factor whose derivative signifies the (non-)Markovianity of the dynamics. By considering the reservoirs with Lorentzian and Ohmic-like spectra, we further demonstrated that the non-Markovianity induced by the backflow of information from the reservoirs to the system enhances the GQDs in most of the parameter regions. This highlights the potential of non-Markovianity as a resource for protecting the GQDs.
Non-Markovian effects on quantum-communication protocols
Yeo, Ye; Oh, C. H.; An, Jun-Hong
2010-09-15
We show how, under the influence of non-Markovian environments, two different maximally entangled Bell states give rise to states that have equal classical correlations and the same capacities to violate the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, but intriguingly differing usefulness for teleportation and dense coding. We elucidate how different entanglement measures like negativity and concurrence, and two different measures of quantum discord, could account for these behaviors. In particular, we explicitly show how the Ollivier-Zurek measure of discord directly accounts for one state being a better resource for dense coding compared to another. Our study leads to several important issues about these measures of discord.
Measures of non-Markovianity: Divisibility versus backflow of information
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2011-05-15
We analyze two recently proposed measures of non-Markovianity: one based on the concept of divisibility of the dynamical map and the other one based on distinguishability of quantum states. We provide a model to show that these two measures need not agree. In addition, we discuss possible generalizations and intricate relations between these measures.
Non-Markovian character in human mobility: Online and offline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Lu, Yang
2015-06-01
The dynamics of human mobility characterizes the trajectories that humans follow during their daily activities and is the foundation of processes from epidemic spreading to traffic prediction and information recommendation. In this paper, we investigate a massive data set of human activity, including both online behavior of browsing websites and offline one of visiting towers based mobile terminations. The non-Markovian character observed from both online and offline cases is suggested by the scaling law in the distribution of dwelling time at individual and collective levels, respectively. Furthermore, we argue that the lower entropy and higher predictability in human mobility for both online and offline cases may originate from this non-Markovian character. However, the distributions of individual entropy and predictability show the different degrees of non-Markovian character between online and offline cases. To account for non-Markovian character in human mobility, we apply a protype model with three basic ingredients, namely, preferential return, inertial effect, and exploration to reproduce the dynamic process of online and offline human mobilities. The simulations show that the model has an ability to obtain characters much closer to empirical observations.
Non-Markovian character in human mobility: Online and offline.
Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Lu, Yang
2015-06-01
The dynamics of human mobility characterizes the trajectories that humans follow during their daily activities and is the foundation of processes from epidemic spreading to traffic prediction and information recommendation. In this paper, we investigate a massive data set of human activity, including both online behavior of browsing websites and offline one of visiting towers based mobile terminations. The non-Markovian character observed from both online and offline cases is suggested by the scaling law in the distribution of dwelling time at individual and collective levels, respectively. Furthermore, we argue that the lower entropy and higher predictability in human mobility for both online and offline cases may originate from this non-Markovian character. However, the distributions of individual entropy and predictability show the different degrees of non-Markovian character between online and offline cases. To account for non-Markovian character in human mobility, we apply a protype model with three basic ingredients, namely, preferential return, inertial effect, and exploration to reproduce the dynamic process of online and offline human mobilities. The simulations show that the model has an ability to obtain characters much closer to empirical observations. PMID:26117100
Thermodynamic power of non-Markovianity.
Bylicka, Bogna; Tukiainen, Mikko; Chruściński, Dariusz; Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-01-01
The natural framework to discuss thermodynamics at the quantum level is the theory of open quantum systems. Memory effects arising from strong system-environment correlations may lead to information back-flow, that is non-Markovian behaviour. The relation between non-Markovianity and quantum thermodynamics has been until now largely unexplored. Here we show by means of Landauer's principle that memory effects control the amount of work extraction by erasure in presence of realistic environments. PMID:27323947
Thermodynamic power of non-Markovianity
Bylicka, Bogna; Tukiainen, Mikko; Chruściński, Dariusz; Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-01-01
The natural framework to discuss thermodynamics at the quantum level is the theory of open quantum systems. Memory effects arising from strong system-environment correlations may lead to information back-flow, that is non-Markovian behaviour. The relation between non-Markovianity and quantum thermodynamics has been until now largely unexplored. Here we show by means of Landauer’s principle that memory effects control the amount of work extraction by erasure in presence of realistic environments. PMID:27323947
Ultrafast Optimal Sideband Cooling under Non-Markovian Evolution.
Triana, Johan F; Estrada, Andrés F; Pachón, Leonardo A
2016-05-01
A sideband cooling strategy that incorporates (i) the dynamics induced by structured (non-Markovian) environments in the target and auxiliary systems and (ii) the optimally time-modulated interaction between them is developed. For the context of cavity optomechanics, when non-Markovian dynamics are considered in the target system, ground state cooling is reached at much faster rates and at a much lower phonon occupation number than previously reported. In contrast to similar current strategies, ground state cooling is reached here for coupling-strength rates that are experimentally accessible for the state-of-the-art implementations. After the ultrafast optimal-ground-state-cooling protocol is accomplished, an additional optimal control strategy is considered to maintain the phonon number as close as possible to the one obtained in the cooling procedure. Contrary to the conventional expectation, when non-Markovian dynamics are considered in the auxiliary system, the efficiency of the cooling protocol is undermined. PMID:27203322
Non-Markovian approach to globally coupled excitable systems
Prager, T.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Zaks, M. A.; Falcke, M.
2007-07-15
We consider stochastic excitable units with three discrete states. Each state is characterized by a waiting time density function. This approach allows for a non-Markovian description of the dynamics of separate excitable units and of ensembles of such units. We discuss the emergence of oscillations in a globally coupled ensemble with excitatory coupling. In the limit of a large ensemble we derive the non-Markovian mean-field equations: nonlinear integral equations for the populations of the three states. We analyze the stability of their steady solutions. Collective oscillations are shown to persist in a large parameter region beyond supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcations. We compare the results with simulations of discrete units as well as of coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo systems.
Comparative study of non-Markovianity measures in exactly solvable one- and two-qubit models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addis, Carole; Bylicka, Bogna; Chruściński, Dariusz; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2014-11-01
In this paper we present a detailed critical study of several recently proposed non-Markovianity measures. We analyze their properties for single-qubit and two-qubit systems in both pure-dephasing and dissipative scenarios. More specifically we investigate and compare their computability, their physical meaning, their Markovian to non-Markovian crossover, and their additivity properties with respect to the number of qubits. The bottom-up approach that we pursue is aimed at identifying similarities and differences in the behavior of non-Markovianity indicators in several paradigmatic open system models. This, in turn, allows us to infer the leading traits of the variegated phenomenon known as non-Markovian dynamics.
Gaussian interferometric power as a measure of continuous-variable non-Markovianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, Leonardo A. M.; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Liuzzo-Scorpo, Pietro; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-11-01
We investigate the non-Markovianity of continuous-variable Gaussian quantum channels through the evolution of an operational metrological quantifier, namely, the Gaussian interferometric power, which captures the minimal precision that can be achieved using bipartite Gaussian probes in a black-box phase estimation setup, where the phase shift generator is a priori unknown. We observe that the monotonicity of the Gaussian interferometric power under the action of local Gaussian quantum channels on the ancillary arm of the bipartite probes is a natural indicator of Markovian dynamics; consequently, its breakdown for specific maps can be used to construct a witness and an effective quantifier of non-Markovianity. In our work, we consider two paradigmatic Gaussian models, the damping master equation and the quantum Brownian motion, and identify analytically and numerically the parameter regimes that give rise to non-Markovian dynamics. We then quantify the degree of non-Markovianity of the channels in terms of Gaussian interferometric power, showing, in particular, that even nonentangled probes can be useful to witness non-Markovianity. This establishes an interesting link between the dynamics of bipartite continuous-variable open systems and their potential for optical interferometry. The results are an important supplement to the recent research on characterization of non-Markovianity in continuous-variable systems.
Nonclassical correlations in non-Markovian continuous-variable systems
Vasile, Ruggero; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Giorda, Paolo; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2010-07-15
We consider two identical and noninteracting harmonic oscillators coupled to either two independent bosonic baths or to a common bosonic bath. Under the only assumption, weak coupling, we analyze in detail the non-Markovian short-time-scale evolution of intensity correlations, entanglement, and quantum discord for initial two-mode squeezed-thermal vacuum states. In the independent reservoirs case, we observe the detrimental effect of the environment for all these quantities and we establish a hierarchy for their robustness against the environmental noise. In the common reservoir case, for initial uncorrelated states, we find that only quantum discord can be created via interaction with the bath, while entanglement and subshot noise intensity correlations remain absent.
Observing different phases for the dynamics of entanglement in an ion trap
Cormick, Cecilia; Paz, Juan Pablo
2010-02-15
The evolution of the entanglement between two oscillators coupled to a common thermal environment is nontrivial. The long time limit has three qualitatively different behaviors (phases) depending on parameters such as the temperature of the bath [J. P. Paz and A. J. Roncaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 220401 (2008)]. The phases include cases with nonvanishing long-term entanglement, others with a final disentangled state, and situations displaying an infinite sequence of events of disappearance and revival of entanglement. We describe an experiment to realize these different scenarios in an ion trap. The motional degrees of freedom of two ions are used to simulate the system while the coupling to an extra (central) ion, which is continuously laser cooled, is the gateway to a decohering reservoir. The scheme proposed allows for the observation and control of motional entanglement dynamics and is an example of a class of simulations of quantum open systems in the non-Markovian regime.
Quantum non-Markovianity based on the Fisher-information matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Hongting; Luo, Shunlong; Hong, Yan
2015-04-01
With the development of quantum-information theory, there has been a flurry of investigations of quantum non-Markovian dynamics, and several significant measures for such dynamics have been proposed from various perspectives, such as the breakdown of dynamical divisibility, increase in the distinguishability between quantum states, increase in correlations between the system and an arbitrary ancillary, and so on. Motivated by the idea of exploiting the information content of parameters encoded in initial states, we propose a conceptually simple and physically intuitive characterization for non-Markovianity with the help of a quantum-Fisher-information matrix. The basic features are illustrated through several examples, and relations with other approaches are elucidated. A hierarchial aspect of quantum non-Markovianity is revealed.
Generalization of Pairwise Models to non-Markovian Epidemics on Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiss, Istvan Z.; Röst, Gergely; Vizi, Zsolt
2015-08-01
In this Letter, a generalization of pairwise models to non-Markovian epidemics on networks is presented. For the case of infectious periods of fixed length, the resulting pairwise model is a system of delay differential equations, which shows excellent agreement with results based on stochastic simulations. Furthermore, we analytically compute a new R0 -like threshold quantity and an analytical relation between this and the final epidemic size. Additionally, we show that the pairwise model and the analytic results can be generalized to an arbitrary distribution of the infectious times, using integro-differential equations, and this leads to a general expression for the final epidemic size. By showing the rigorous link between non-Markovian dynamics and pairwise delay differential equations, we provide the framework for a more systematic understanding of non-Markovian dynamics.
Exact non-Markovian master equations for multiple qubit systems: Quantum-trajectory approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yusui; You, J. Q.; Yu, Ting
2014-11-01
A wide class of exact master equations for a multiple qubit system can be explicitly constructed by using the corresponding exact non-Markovian quantum-state diffusion equations. These exact master equations arise naturally from the quantum decoherence dynamics of qubit system as a quantum memory coupled to a collective colored noisy source. The exact master equations are also important in optimal quantum control, quantum dissipation, and quantum thermodynamics. In this paper, we show that the exact non-Markovian master equation for a dissipative N -qubit system can be derived explicitly from the statistical average of the corresponding non-Markovian quantum trajectories. We illustrated our general formulation by an explicit construction of a three-qubit system coupled to a non-Markovian bosonic environment. This multiple qubit master equation offers an accurate time evolution of quantum systems in various domains, and paves the way to investigate the memory effect of an open system in a non-Markovian regime without any approximation.
Convolutionless Non-Markovian master equations and quantum trajectories: Brownian motion
Strunz, Walter T.; Yu Ting
2004-05-01
Stochastic Schroedinger equations for quantum trajectories offer an alternative and sometimes superior approach to the study of open quantum system dynamics. Here we show that recently established convolutionless non-Markovian stochastic Schroedinger equations may serve as a powerful tool for the derivation of convolutionless master equations for non-Markovian open quantum systems. The most interesting example is quantum Brownian motion (QBM) of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a heat bath of oscillators, one of the most employed exactly soluble models of open system dynamics. We show explicitly how to establish the direct connection between the exact convolutionless master equation of QBM and the corresponding convolutionless exact stochastic Schroedinger equation.
Entanglement and entangling power of the dynamics in light-harvesting complexes
Caruso, Filippo; Plenio, Martin B.; Chin, Alex W.; Huelga, Susana F.; Datta, Animesh
2010-06-15
We study the evolution of quantum entanglement during exciton energy transfer (EET) in a network model of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, a biological pigment-protein complex involved in the early steps of photosynthesis in sulfur bacteria. The influence of Markovian as well as spatially and temporally correlated (non-Markovian) noise on the generation of entanglement across distinct chromophores (site entanglement) and different excitonic eigenstates (mode entanglement) is studied for different injection mechanisms, including thermal and coherent laser excitation. Additionally, we study the entangling power of the FMO complex under natural operating conditions. While quantum information processing tends to favor maximal entanglement, near unit EET is achieved as the result of an intricate interplay between coherent and noisy processes where the initial part of the evolution displays intermediate values of both forms of entanglement.
Optical signatures of non-Markovian behavior in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCutcheon, Dara P. S.
2016-02-01
We derive an extension to the quantum regression theorem which facilitates the calculation of two-time correlation functions and emission spectra for systems undergoing non-Markovian evolution. The derivation exploits projection operator techniques, with which we obtain explicit equations of motion for the correlation functions, making only a second-order expansion in the system-environment coupling strength and invoking the Born approximation at a fixed initial time. The results are used to investigate a driven semiconductor quantum dot coupled to an acoustic phonon bath, where we find the non-Markovian nature of the dynamics has observable signatures in the form of phonon sidebands in the resonance fluorescence emission spectrum. Furthermore, we use recently developed non-Markovianity measures to demonstrate an associated flow of information from the phonon bath back into the quantum dot exciton system.
Fisher information due to a phase noisy laser under non-Markovian environment
Abdel-Khalek, S.
2014-12-15
More recently, K. Berrada [Annals of Physics 340 (2014) 60-69] [1] studied the geometric phase of a two-level atom system driven by a phase noise laser under non-Markovian dynamics in terms of different parameters involved in the whole system, and collapse and revival phenomena were found for large class of states. In this paper, using this noise effect, we study the quantum fisher information (QFI) for a two-level atom system driven by a phase noise laser under non-Markovian dynamics. A new quantity, called QFI flow is used to characterize the damping effect and unveil a fundamental connection between non-Markovian behavior and dynamics of system–environment correlations under phase noise laser. It is shown that QFI flow has disappeared suddenly followed by a sudden birth depending on the kind of the environment damping. QFI flow provides an indicator to characterize the dissipative quantum system’s decoherence by analyzing the behavior of the dynamical non-Markovian coefficients.
Observation of non-Markovian micromechanical Brownian motion
Gröblacher, S.; Trubarov, A.; Prigge, N.; Cole, G. D.; Aspelmeyer, M.; Eisert, J.
2015-01-01
All physical systems are to some extent open and interacting with their environment. This insight, basic as it may seem, gives rise to the necessity of protecting quantum systems from decoherence in quantum technologies and is at the heart of the emergence of classical properties in quantum physics. The precise decoherence mechanisms, however, are often unknown for a given system. In this work, we make use of an opto-mechanical resonator to obtain key information about spectral densities of its condensed-matter heat bath. In sharp contrast to what is commonly assumed in high-temperature quantum Brownian motion describing the dynamics of the mechanical degree of freedom, based on a statistical analysis of the emitted light, it is shown that this spectral density is highly non-Ohmic, reflected by non-Markovian dynamics, which we quantify. We conclude by elaborating on further applications of opto-mechanical systems in open system identification. PMID:26216619
Non-Markovian Effects in the Lindblad Master Equation Approach to Electronic Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, P.; Vieira, V. R.
Non-equilibrium processes in open quantum systems can be generically described within the framework of the Lindblad master equation i.e. without a memory kernel. This statement holds even for processes where information can flow-back from the environment to the system. This rather contra-intuitive fact lead to define a process as non Markovian if, during the time evolution of two different initial states of the system, their distinguishability increases, reflecting a back-flow of information from the environment to the system. However, for non Markovian dynamics, the set of conditions to ensure the positivity of the density matrix for all times is not known, making difficult the explicit construction of non Markovian Lindblad operators. Using the Keldysh non equilibrium Green's functions, we explicitly solve a generic quadratic model of electrons coupled at t = 0 to a set of wide-band baths characterized by temperature and chemical potential. We identify the equivalent Lindblad operators describing the evolution of the density matrix and show that the resulting dynamical process is generically non Markovian. We further discuss the cases in which Markovian dynamics is recovered. We apply our approach to a simple model for electronic transport thought a one dimensional wire coupled at t = 0 to wide-band metallic leads, and to a XY spin chain attached to two contacts.
Classical non-Markovian Boltzmann equation
Alexanian, Moorad
2014-08-01
The modeling of particle transport involves anomalous diffusion, (x²(t) ) ∝ t{sup α} with α ≠ 1, with subdiffusive transport corresponding to 0 < α < 1 and superdiffusive transport to α > 1. These anomalies give rise to fractional advection-dispersion equations with memory in space and time. The usual Boltzmann equation, with only isolated binary collisions, is Markovian and, in particular, the contributions of the three-particle distribution function are neglected. We show that the inclusion of higher-order distribution functions give rise to an exact, non-Markovian Boltzmann equation with resulting transport equations for mass, momentum, and kinetic energy with memory in both time and space. The two- and the three-particle distribution functions are considered under the assumption that the two- and the three-particle correlation functions are translationally invariant that allows us to obtain advection-dispersion equations for modeling transport in terms of spatial and temporal fractional derivatives.
Efficient simulation of non-Markovian system-environment interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenbach, Robert; Cerrillo, Javier; Huelga, Susana F.; Cao, Jianshu; Plenio, Martin B.
2016-02-01
In this work, we combine an established method for open quantum systems—the time evolving density matrix using orthogonal polynomials algorithm—with the transfer tensors formalism, a new tool for the analysis, compression and propagation of non-Markovian processes. A compact propagator is generated out of sample trajectories covering the correlation time of the bath. This enables the investigation of previously inaccessible long-time dynamics with linear effort, such as those ensuing from low temperature regimes with arbitrary, possibly highly structured, spectral densities. We briefly introduce both methods, followed by a benchmark to prove viability and combination synergies. Subsequently we illustrate the capabilities of this approach at the hand of specific examples and conclude our analysis by highlighting possible further applications of our method.
Recovering entanglement by local operations
D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.
2014-11-15
We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.
Mean first-passage times of non-Markovian random walkers in confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guérin, T.; Levernier, N.; Bénichou, O.; Voituriez, R.
2016-06-01
The first-passage time, defined as the time a random walker takes to reach a target point in a confining domain, is a key quantity in the theory of stochastic processes. Its importance comes from its crucial role in quantifying the efficiency of processes as varied as diffusion-limited reactions, target search processes or the spread of diseases. Most methods of determining the properties of first-passage time in confined domains have been limited to Markovian (memoryless) processes. However, as soon as the random walker interacts with its environment, memory effects cannot be neglected: that is, the future motion of the random walker does not depend only on its current position, but also on its past trajectory. Examples of non-Markovian dynamics include single-file diffusion in narrow channels, or the motion of a tracer particle either attached to a polymeric chain or diffusing in simple or complex fluids such as nematics, dense soft colloids or viscoelastic solutions. Here we introduce an analytical approach to calculate, in the limit of a large confining volume, the mean first-passage time of a Gaussian non-Markovian random walker to a target. The non-Markovian features of the dynamics are encompassed by determining the statistical properties of the fictitious trajectory that the random walker would follow after the first-passage event takes place, which are shown to govern the first-passage time kinetics. This analysis is applicable to a broad range of stochastic processes, which may be correlated at long times. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations for several examples of non-Markovian processes, including the case of fractional Brownian motion in one and higher dimensions. These results reveal, on the basis of Gaussian processes, the importance of memory effects in first-passage statistics of non-Markovian random walkers in confinement.
Mean first-passage times of non-Markovian random walkers in confinement.
Guérin, T; Levernier, N; Bénichou, O; Voituriez, R
2016-06-16
The first-passage time, defined as the time a random walker takes to reach a target point in a confining domain, is a key quantity in the theory of stochastic processes. Its importance comes from its crucial role in quantifying the efficiency of processes as varied as diffusion-limited reactions, target search processes or the spread of diseases. Most methods of determining the properties of first-passage time in confined domains have been limited to Markovian (memoryless) processes. However, as soon as the random walker interacts with its environment, memory effects cannot be neglected: that is, the future motion of the random walker does not depend only on its current position, but also on its past trajectory. Examples of non-Markovian dynamics include single-file diffusion in narrow channels, or the motion of a tracer particle either attached to a polymeric chain or diffusing in simple or complex fluids such as nematics, dense soft colloids or viscoelastic solutions. Here we introduce an analytical approach to calculate, in the limit of a large confining volume, the mean first-passage time of a Gaussian non-Markovian random walker to a target. The non-Markovian features of the dynamics are encompassed by determining the statistical properties of the fictitious trajectory that the random walker would follow after the first-passage event takes place, which are shown to govern the first-passage time kinetics. This analysis is applicable to a broad range of stochastic processes, which may be correlated at long times. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations for several examples of non-Markovian processes, including the case of fractional Brownian motion in one and higher dimensions. These results reveal, on the basis of Gaussian processes, the importance of memory effects in first-passage statistics of non-Markovian random walkers in confinement. PMID:27306185
Non-Markovianity: initial correlations and nonlinear optical measurements
Dijkstra, Arend G.; Tanimura, Yoshitaka
2012-01-01
By extending the response function approach developed in nonlinear optics, we analytically derive an expression for the non-Markovianity in the time evolution of a system in contact with a quantum mechanical bath, and find a close connection with the directly observable nonlinear optical response. The result indicates that memory in the bath-induced fluctuations rather than in the dissipation causes non-Markovianity. Initial correlations between states of the system and the bath are shown to be essential for a correct understanding of the non-Markovianity. These correlations are included in our treatment through a preparation function. PMID:22753819
Non-Markovian stochastic evolution equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costanza, G.
2014-05-01
Non-Markovian continuum stochastic and deterministic equations are derived from a set of discrete stochastic and deterministic evolution equations. Examples are given of discrete evolution equations whose updating rules depend on two or more previous time steps. Among them, the continuum stochastic evolution equation of the Newton second law, the stochastic evolution equation of a wave equation, the stochastic evolution equation for the scalar meson field, etc. are obtained as special cases. Extension to systems of evolution equations and other extensions are considered and examples are given. The concept of isomorphism and almost isomorphism are introduced in order to compare the coefficients of the continuum evolution equations of two different smoothing procedures that arise from two different approaches. Usually these discrepancies arising from two sources: On the one hand, the use of different representations of the generalized functions appearing in the models and, on the other hand, the different approaches used to describe the models. These new concept allows to overcome controversies that were appearing during decades in the literature.
Classical dynamics of quantum entanglement.
Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Reslen, Jose
2012-03-01
We analyze numerically the dynamical generation of quantum entanglement in a system of two interacting particles, started in a coherent separable state, for decreasing values of ℏ. As ℏ→0 the entanglement entropy, computed at any finite time, converges to a finite nonzero value. The limit law that rules the time dependence of entropy is well reproduced by purely classical computations. Its general features can be explained by simple classical arguments, which expose the different ways entanglement is generated in systems that are classically chaotic or regular. PMID:22587162
The simulation of the non-Markovian behaviour of a two-level system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semina, I.; Petruccione, F.
2016-05-01
Non-Markovian relaxation dynamics of a two-level system is studied with the help of the non-linear stochastic Schrödinger equation with coloured Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise. This stochastic Schrödinger equation is investigated numerically with an adapted Platen scheme. It is shown, that the memory effects have a significant impact to the dynamics of the system.
Efficient superdense coding in the presence of non-Markovian noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bi-Heng; Hu, Xiao-Min; Huang, Yun-Feng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Karlsson, Antti; Laine, Elsi-Mari; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Macchiavello, Chiara; Piilo, Jyrki
2016-04-01
Many quantum information tasks rely on entanglement, which is used as a resource, for example, to enable efficient and secure communication. Typically, noise, accompanied by loss of entanglement, reduces the efficiency of quantum protocols. We develop and demonstrate experimentally a superdense coding scheme with noise, where the decrease of entanglement in Alice's encoding state does not reduce the efficiency of the information transmission. Having an almost fully dephased classical two-photon polarization state at the time of encoding with concurrence of 0.163+/-0.007 , we reach values of mutual information close to 1.52+/- 0.02 (1.89+/- 0.05) with 3-state (4-state) encoding. This high efficiency relies both on non-Markovian features, that Bob exploits just before his Bell state measurement, and on very high visibility (99.6{%}+/-0.1{%}) of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference within the experimental set-up. Our proof-of-principle results with measurements on mutual information pave the way for exploiting non-Markovianity to improve the efficiency and security of quantum information processing tasks.
Jing, Jun; Segal, Dvira; Li, Baowen; Wu, Lian-Ao
2015-01-01
Relying on an exact time evolution scheme, we identify a novel transient energy transfer phenomenon in an exactly-solvable quantum microscopic model consisting of a three-level system coupled to two non-Markovian zero-temperature bosonic baths through two separable quantum channels. The dynamics of this model can be solved exactly using the quantum-state-diffusion equation formalism, demonstrating finite intervals of unidirectional energy flow across the system, typically, from the non-Markovian environment towards the more Markovian bath. Furthermore, when introducing a spatial asymmetry into the system, an analogue of the rectification effect is realized. In the long time limit, the dynamics arrives at a stationary state and the effects recede. Understanding temporal characteristics of directional energy flow will aid in designing microscopic energy transfer devices. PMID:26478230
Transient unidirectional energy flow and diode-like phenomenon induced by non-Markovian environments
Jing, Jun; Segal, Dvira; Li, Baowen; Wu, Lian-Ao
2015-01-01
Relying on an exact time evolution scheme, we identify a novel transient energy transfer phenomenon in an exactly-solvable quantum microscopic model consisting of a three-level system coupled to two non-Markovian zero-temperature bosonic baths through two separable quantum channels. The dynamics of this model can be solved exactly using the quantum-state-diffusion equation formalism, demonstrating finite intervals of unidirectional energy flow across the system, typically, from the non-Markovian environment towards the more Markovian bath. Furthermore, when introducing a spatial asymmetry into the system, an analogue of the rectification effect is realized. In the long time limit, the dynamics arrives at a stationary state and the effects recede. Understanding temporal characteristics of directional energy flow will aid in designing microscopic energy transfer devices. PMID:26478230
Chen, Po-Wen; Ali, Md. Manirul
2014-01-01
Leggett-Garg inequalities (LGI) test the correlations of a single system measured at different times. Violation of LGI implies either the absence of a realistic description of the system or the impossibility of measuring the system without disturbing it. We investigate the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality for a two level system under decoherence in a non-Markovian dephasing environment. We discuss the non-Markovian dynamics of the violation of LGI at zero temperature and also at finite temperature for different structured environments. An enhanced quantum coherence is shown through the violation of Leggett-Garg inequality in the strong non-Markovian regime of the environment. PMID:25145508
Non-Markovian master equation for a system of Fermions interacting with an electromagnetic field
Stefanescu, Eliade Scheid, Werner; Sandulescu, Aurel
2008-05-15
For a system of charged Fermions interacting with an electromagnetic field, we derive a non-Markovian master equation in the second-order approximation of the weak dissipative coupling. A complex dissipative environment including Fermions, Bosons and the free electromagnetic field is taken into account. Besides the well-known Markovian term of Lindblad's form, that describes the decay of the system by correlated transitions of the system and environment particles, this equation includes new Markovian and non-Markovian terms proceeding from the fluctuations of the self-consistent field of the environment. These terms describe fluctuations of the energy levels, transitions among these levels stimulated by the fluctuations of the self-consistent field of the environment, and the influence of the time-evolution of the environment on the system dynamics. We derive a complementary master equation describing the environment dynamics correlated with the dynamics of the system. As an application, we obtain non-Markovian Maxwell-Bloch equations and calculate the absorption spectrum of a field propagation mode transversing an array of two-level quantum dots.
Non-Markovian Complexity in the Quantum-to-Classical Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Heng-Na; Lo, Ping-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Feng, Da Hsuan; Nori, Franco
2015-08-01
The quantum-to-classical transition is due to environment-induced decoherence, and it depicts how classical dynamics emerges from quantum systems. Previously, the quantum-to-classical transition has mainly been described with memory-less (Markovian) quantum processes. Here we study the complexity of the quantum-to-classical transition through general non-Markovian memory processes. That is, the influence of various reservoirs results in a given initial quantum state evolving into one of the following four scenarios: thermal state, thermal-like state, quantum steady state, or oscillating quantum nonstationary state. In the latter two scenarios, the system maintains partial or full quantum coherence due to the strong non-Markovian memory effect, so that in these cases, the quantum-to-classical transition never occurs. This unexpected new feature provides a new avenue for the development of future quantum technologies because the remaining quantum oscillations in steady states are decoherence-free.
Non-Markovian work fluctuation theorem in crossed electric and magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.
2015-08-01
The validity of the transient work fluctuation theorem for a charged Brownian harmonic oscillator embedded in a non-Markovian heat bath and under the action of crossed electric and magnetic fields is investigated. The aforementioned theorem is verified to be valid within the context of the generalized Langevin equation with an arbitrary memory kernel and arbitrary dragging in the potential minimum. The fluctuation-dissipation relation of the second kind is assumed to be valid and shows that the non-Markovian stochastic dynamics associated with the particle, in the absence of the external time-dependent electric field, reaches an equilibrium state, as is precisely demanded by such a relation. The Jarzynski equality in this problem is also analyzed.
Non-Markovian Complexity in the Quantum-to-Classical Transition
Xiong, Heng-Na; Lo, Ping-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Feng, Da Hsuan; Nori, Franco
2015-01-01
The quantum-to-classical transition is due to environment-induced decoherence, and it depicts how classical dynamics emerges from quantum systems. Previously, the quantum-to-classical transition has mainly been described with memory-less (Markovian) quantum processes. Here we study the complexity of the quantum-to-classical transition through general non-Markovian memory processes. That is, the influence of various reservoirs results in a given initial quantum state evolving into one of the following four scenarios: thermal state, thermal-like state, quantum steady state, or oscillating quantum nonstationary state. In the latter two scenarios, the system maintains partial or full quantum coherence due to the strong non-Markovian memory effect, so that in these cases, the quantum-to-classical transition never occurs. This unexpected new feature provides a new avenue for the development of future quantum technologies because the remaining quantum oscillations in steady states are decoherence-free. PMID:26303002
Non-Markovian master equation for a damped oscillator with time-varying parameters
Chang, K. W.; Law, C. K.
2010-05-15
We derive an exact non-Markovian master equation that generalizes the previous work [Hu, Paz and Zhang, Phys. Rev. D 45, 2843 (1992)] to damped harmonic oscillators with time-varying parameters. This is achieved by exploiting the linearity of the system and operator solution in Heisenberg picture. Our equation governs the non-Markovian quantum dynamics when the system is modulated by external devices. As an application, we apply our equation to parity kick decoupling problems. The time-dependent dissipative coefficients in the master equation are shown to be modified drastically when the system is driven by {pi} pulses. For coherence protection to be effective, our numerical results indicate that kicking period should be shorter than memory time of the bath. The effects of using soft pulses in an ohmic bath are also discussed.
Non-Markovian Quantum Friction of Bright Solitons in Superfluids.
Efimkin, Dmitry K; Hofmann, Johannes; Galitski, Victor
2016-06-01
We explore the quantum dynamics of a bright matter-wave soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional bosonic superfluid with attractive interactions. Specifically, we focus on the dissipative forces experienced by the soliton due to its interaction with Bogoliubov excitations. Using the collective coordinate approach and the Keldysh formalism, a Langevin equation of motion for the soliton is derived from first principles. The equation contains a stochastic Langevin force (associated with quantum noise) and a nonlocal in time dissipative force, which appears due to inelastic scattering of Bogoliubov quasiparticles off of the moving soliton. It is shown that Ohmic friction (i.e., a term proportional to the soliton's velocity) is absent in the integrable setup. However, the Markovian approximation gives rise to the Abraham-Lorentz force (i.e., a term proportional to the derivative of the soliton's acceleration), which is known from classical electrodynamics of a charged particle interacting with its own radiation. These Abraham-Lorentz equations famously contain a fundamental causality paradox, where the soliton (particle) interacts with excitations (radiation) originating from future events. We show, however, that the causality paradox is an artifact of the Markovian approximation, and our exact non-Markovian dissipative equations give rise to physical trajectories. We argue that the quantum friction discussed here should be observable in current quantum gas experiments. PMID:27314722
Non-Markovian Quantum Friction of Bright Solitons in Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Hofmann, Johannes; Galitski, Victor
2016-06-01
We explore the quantum dynamics of a bright matter-wave soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional bosonic superfluid with attractive interactions. Specifically, we focus on the dissipative forces experienced by the soliton due to its interaction with Bogoliubov excitations. Using the collective coordinate approach and the Keldysh formalism, a Langevin equation of motion for the soliton is derived from first principles. The equation contains a stochastic Langevin force (associated with quantum noise) and a nonlocal in time dissipative force, which appears due to inelastic scattering of Bogoliubov quasiparticles off of the moving soliton. It is shown that Ohmic friction (i.e., a term proportional to the soliton's velocity) is absent in the integrable setup. However, the Markovian approximation gives rise to the Abraham-Lorentz force (i.e., a term proportional to the derivative of the soliton's acceleration), which is known from classical electrodynamics of a charged particle interacting with its own radiation. These Abraham-Lorentz equations famously contain a fundamental causality paradox, where the soliton (particle) interacts with excitations (radiation) originating from future events. We show, however, that the causality paradox is an artifact of the Markovian approximation, and our exact non-Markovian dissipative equations give rise to physical trajectories. We argue that the quantum friction discussed here should be observable in current quantum gas experiments.
Human and machine learning in non-Markovian decision making.
Clarke, Aaron Michael; Friedrich, Johannes; Tartaglia, Elisa M; Marchesotti, Silvia; Senn, Walter; Herzog, Michael H
2015-01-01
Humans can learn under a wide variety of feedback conditions. Reinforcement learning (RL), where a series of rewarded decisions must be made, is a particularly important type of learning. Computational and behavioral studies of RL have focused mainly on Markovian decision processes, where the next state depends on only the current state and action. Little is known about non-Markovian decision making, where the next state depends on more than the current state and action. Learning is non-Markovian, for example, when there is no unique mapping between actions and feedback. We have produced a model based on spiking neurons that can handle these non-Markovian conditions by performing policy gradient descent [1]. Here, we examine the model's performance and compare it with human learning and a Bayes optimal reference, which provides an upper-bound on performance. We find that in all cases, our population of spiking neurons model well-describes human performance. PMID:25898139
Human and Machine Learning in Non-Markovian Decision Making
Clarke, Aaron Michael; Friedrich, Johannes; Tartaglia, Elisa M.; Marchesotti, Silvia; Senn, Walter; Herzog, Michael H.
2015-01-01
Humans can learn under a wide variety of feedback conditions. Reinforcement learning (RL), where a series of rewarded decisions must be made, is a particularly important type of learning. Computational and behavioral studies of RL have focused mainly on Markovian decision processes, where the next state depends on only the current state and action. Little is known about non-Markovian decision making, where the next state depends on more than the current state and action. Learning is non-Markovian, for example, when there is no unique mapping between actions and feedback. We have produced a model based on spiking neurons that can handle these non-Markovian conditions by performing policy gradient descent [1]. Here, we examine the model’s performance and compare it with human learning and a Bayes optimal reference, which provides an upper-bound on performance. We find that in all cases, our population of spiking neurons model well-describes human performance. PMID:25898139
Entanglement revive and information flow within the decoherent environment
Shi, Jia-dong; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2016-01-01
In this paper, the dynamics of entanglement is investigated in the presence of a noisy environment. We reveal its revival behavior and probe the mechanisms of this behavior via an information-theoretic approach. By analyzing the correlation distribution and the information flow within the composite system including the qubit subsystem and a noisy environment, it has been found that the subsystem-environment coupling can induce the quasi-periodic entanglement revival. Furthermore, the dynamical relationship among tripartite correlations, bipartite entanglement and local state information is explored, which provides a new insight into the non-Markovian mechanisms during the evolution. PMID:27506664
Entanglement revive and information flow within the decoherent environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jia-Dong; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2016-08-01
In this paper, the dynamics of entanglement is investigated in the presence of a noisy environment. We reveal its revival behavior and probe the mechanisms of this behavior via an information-theoretic approach. By analyzing the correlation distribution and the information flow within the composite system including the qubit subsystem and a noisy environment, it has been found that the subsystem-environment coupling can induce the quasi-periodic entanglement revival. Furthermore, the dynamical relationship among tripartite correlations, bipartite entanglement and local state information is explored, which provides a new insight into the non-Markovian mechanisms during the evolution.
Entanglement revive and information flow within the decoherent environment.
Shi, Jia-Dong; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2016-01-01
In this paper, the dynamics of entanglement is investigated in the presence of a noisy environment. We reveal its revival behavior and probe the mechanisms of this behavior via an information-theoretic approach. By analyzing the correlation distribution and the information flow within the composite system including the qubit subsystem and a noisy environment, it has been found that the subsystem-environment coupling can induce the quasi-periodic entanglement revival. Furthermore, the dynamical relationship among tripartite correlations, bipartite entanglement and local state information is explored, which provides a new insight into the non-Markovian mechanisms during the evolution. PMID:27506664
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Zou, Jian; Yang, Zi-Yi; Li, Longwu; Li, Hai; Shao, Bin
2016-08-01
The dynamics of N-qubit GHZ state quantum Fisher information (QFI) under phase noise lasers (PNLs) driving is investigated in terms of non-Markovian master equation. We first investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of the QFI of N-qubit GHZ state and show that when the ratio of the PNL rate and the system-environment coupling strength is very small, the oscillations of the QFIs decay slower which corresponds to the non-Markovian region; yet when it becomes large, the QFIs monotonously decay which corresponds to the Markovian region. When the atom number N increases, QFIs in both regions decay faster. We further find that the QFI flow disappears suddenly followed by a sudden birth depending on the ratio of the PNL rate and the system-environment coupling strength and the atom number N, which unveil a fundamental connection between the non-Markovian behaviors and the parameters of system-environment couplings. We discuss two optimal positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) for two different strategies of our model and find the condition of the optimal measurement. At last, we consider the QFI of two atoms with qubit-qubit interaction under random telegraph noises (RTNs).
Mechanism of entanglement preservation
Tong Qingjun; An Junhong; Luo Honggang; Oh, C. H.
2010-05-15
We study the entanglement preservation of two qubits locally interacting with their reservoirs. We show that the existence of a bound state of the qubit and its reservoir and the non-Markovian effect are two essential ingredients and their interplay plays a crucial role in preserving the entanglement in the steady state. When the non-Markovian effect is neglected, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is reproduced. On the other hand, when the non-Markovian is significantly strong but the bound state is absent, the phenomenon of the ESD and its revival is recovered. Our formulation presents a unified picture about the entanglement preservation and provides a clear clue on how to preserve the entanglement in quantum information processing.
On Reinforcement Memory for Non-Markovian Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osman, Hassab Elgawi
This paper contributes on designing robotic memory controller for solving non-Markovian reinforcement tasks, which correspond to a great deal of real-life stochastic predictions and control problems. Instead of holistic search for the whole memory contents, the controller adopts associated feature analysis to produce the most likely relevant action from previous experiences. Actor-Critic (AC) learning is used to adaptively tune the control parameters, while an on-line variant of decisiontrees ensemble learner is used as memory-capable to approximate the policy of the Actor and the value function of the Critic. Learning capability is experimentally examined through non-Markovian cart-pole balancing task. The result shows that the proposed controller acquired complex behaviors such as balancing two poles simultaneously.
Non-Markovian behavior of small and large complex quantum systems.
Žnidarič, Marko; Pineda, Carlos; García-Mata, Ignacio
2011-08-19
The channel induced by a complex system interacting strongly with a qubit is calculated exactly under the assumption of randomness of its eigenvectors. The resulting channel is represented as an isotropic time-dependent oscillation of the Bloch ball, leading to non-Markovian behavior, even in the limit of infinite environments. Two contributions are identified: one due to the density of states and the other due to correlations in the spectrum. Prototype examples, one for chaotic and the other for regular dynamics are explored. PMID:21929150
Overcoming non-Markovian dephasing in single-photon sources through postselection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazir, A.; Barrett, S. D.
2009-01-01
We study the effects of realistic dephasing environments on a pair of solid-state single-photon sources in the context of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip. By means of solutions for the Markovian or exact non-Markovian dephasing dynamics of the sources, we show that the resulting loss of visibility depends crucially on the timing of photon detection events. Our results demonstrate that the effective visibility can be improved via temporal postselection, and also that time-resolved interference can be a useful probe of the interaction between the emitter and its host environment.
Non-Markovian closure kinetics of flexible polymers with hydrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levernier, N.; Dolgushev, M.; Bénichou, O.; Blumen, A.; Guérin, T.; Voituriez, R.
2015-11-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the closure kinetics of a polymer with hydrodynamic interactions. This analysis, which takes into account the non-Markovian dynamics of the end-to-end vector and relies on the preaveraging of the mobility tensor (Zimm dynamics), is shown to reproduce very accurately the results of numerical simulations of the complete nonlinear dynamics. It is found that Markovian treatments based on a Wilemski-Fixman approximation significantly overestimate cyclization times (up to a factor 2), showing the importance of memory effects in the dynamics. In addition, this analysis provides scaling laws of the mean first cyclization time (MFCT) with the polymer size N and capture radius b, which are identical in both Markovian and non-Markovian approaches. In particular, it is found that the scaling of the MFCT for large N is given by T ˜ N3/2ln(N/b2), which differs from the case of the Rouse dynamics where T ˜ N2. The extension to the case of the reaction kinetics of a monomer of a Zimm polymer with an external target in a confined volume is also presented.
Data-based Non-Markovian Model Inference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghil, Michael
2015-04-01
This talk concentrates on obtaining stable and efficient data-based models for simulation and prediction in the geosciences and life sciences. The proposed model derivation relies on using a multivariate time series of partial observations from a large-dimensional system, and the resulting low-order models are compared with the optimal closures predicted by the non-Markovian Mori-Zwanzig formalism of statistical physics. Multilayer stochastic models (MSMs) are introduced as both a very broad generalization and a time-continuous limit of existing multilevel, regression-based approaches to data-based closure, in particular of empirical model reduction (EMR). We show that the multilayer structure of MSMs can provide a natural Markov approximation to the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) of the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. A simple correlation-based stopping criterion for an EMR-MSM model is derived to assess how well it approximates the GLE solution. Sufficient conditions are given for the nonlinear cross-interactions between the constitutive layers of a given MSM to guarantee the existence of a global random attractor. This existence ensures that no blow-up can occur for a very broad class of MSM applications. The EMR-MSM methodology is first applied to a conceptual, nonlinear, stochastic climate model of coupled slow and fast variables, in which only slow variables are observed. The resulting reduced model with energy-conserving nonlinearities captures the main statistical features of the slow variables, even when there is no formal scale separation and the fast variables are quite energetic. Second, an MSM is shown to successfully reproduce the statistics of a partially observed, generalized Lokta-Volterra model of population dynamics in its chaotic regime. The positivity constraint on the solutions' components replaces here the quadratic-energy-preserving constraint of fluid-flow problems and it successfully prevents blow-up. This work is based on a close
Measuring multipartite entanglement through dynamic susceptibilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauke, Philipp; Heyl, Markus; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Zoller, Peter
2016-08-01
Entanglement is considered an essential resource in quantum technologies, and central to the understanding of quantum many-body physics. Developing protocols to detect and quantify the entanglement of many-particle quantum states is thus a key challenge for present experiments. Here, we show that the quantum Fisher information, a witness for genuinely multipartite entanglement, becomes measurable for thermal ensembles by means of the dynamic susceptibility--that is, with resources readily available in present cold atomic-gas and condensed-matter experiments. This establishes a connection between multipartite entanglement and many-body correlations contained in response functions, with immediate implications close to quantum phase transitions, where the quantum Fisher information becomes universal, allowing us to identify strongly entangled phase transitions with a divergent multipartite entanglement. We illustrate our framework using paradigmatic quantum Ising models, and point out potential signatures in optical-lattice experiments and strongly correlated materials.
Non-Markovian coarse-grained modeling of polymeric fluids based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons on both static and dynamic properties between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations will be presented. Supported by the DOE Center on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) and an INCITE grant.
Information flow, non-Markovianity, and geometric phases
Wu, S. L.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.; Huang, X. L.
2010-11-15
Geometric phases and information flows of a two-level system coupled to its environment are calculated and analyzed. The information flow is defined as a cumulant of changes in trace distance between two quantum states, which is similar to the measure for non-Markovianity given by Breuer. We obtain an analytic relation between the geometric phase and the information flow for pure initial states, and a numerical result for mixed initial states. The geometric phase behaves differently depending on whether there are information flows back to the two-level system from its environment.
Non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion of a harmonic oscillator
Tang, J.
1994-02-01
We apply the density-matrix method to the study of quantum Brownian motion of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a heat bath, a system investigated previously by Caldeira and Leggett using a different method. Unlike the earlier work, in our derivation of the master equation the non-Markovian terms are maintained. Although the same model of interaction is used, discrepancy is found between their results and our equation in the Markovian limit. We also point out that the particular interaction model used by both works cannot lead to the phenomenological generalized Langevin theory of Kubo.
Non-Markovian Effects in Turbulent Diffusion in Magnetized Plasmas
Zagorodny, Anatoly; Weiland, Jan
2009-10-08
The derivation of the kinetic equations for inhomogeneous plasma in an external magnetic field is presented. The Fokker-Planck-type equations with the non-Markovian kinetic coefficients are proposed. In the time-local limit (small correlation times with respect to the distribution function relaxation time) the relations obtained recover the results known from the appropriate quasilinear theory and the Dupree-Weinstock theory of plasma turbulence. The equations proposed are used to describe zonal flow generation and to estimate the diffusion coefficient for saturated turbulence.
Quantum Non-Markovian Langevin Equations and Transport Coefficients
Sargsyan, V.V.; Antonenko, N.V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G.G.
2005-12-01
Quantum diffusion equations featuring explicitly time-dependent transport coefficients are derived from generalized non-Markovian Langevin equations. Generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations and analytic expressions for calculating the friction and diffusion coefficients in nuclear processes are obtained. The asymptotic behavior of the transport coefficients and correlation functions for a damped harmonic oscillator that is linearly coupled in momentum to a heat bath is studied. The coupling to a heat bath in momentum is responsible for the appearance of the diffusion coefficient in coordinate. The problem of regression of correlations in quantum dissipative systems is analyzed.
Non-Markovianity induced by a single-photon wave packet in a one-dimensional waveguide.
Valente, D; Arruda, M F Z; Werlang, T
2016-07-01
The concept of non-Markovianity (NM) in quantum dynamics is still an open debate. Understanding how to generate and measure NM in specific models may aid in this quest. In quantum optics, an engineered electromagnetic environment coupled to a single atom can induce NM. The most common scenario of structured electromagnetic environment is an optical cavity, composed by a pair of mirrors. Here, we show how to generate and measure NM on a two-level system coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide with no mirrors required. The origin of the non-Markovian behavior lies in the initial state of the field, prepared as a single-photon packet. NM is shown to depend on two experimentally controllable parameters, namely, the linewidth of the packet and its central frequency. We relate the presence of NM to quantum interference. We also show how the two output channels of the waveguide provide distinct signatures of NM, both experimentally accessible. PMID:27367118
Evolution of entanglement under echo dynamics
Prosen, Tomaz; Znidaric, Marko; Seligman, Thomas H.
2003-04-01
Echo dynamics and fidelity are often used to discuss stability in quantum-information processing and quantum chaos. Yet fidelity yields no information about entanglement, the characteristic property of quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of entanglement in echo dynamics. We find qualitatively different behavior between integrable and chaotic systems on one hand and between random and coherent initial states for integrable systems on the other. For the latter the evolution of entanglement is given by a classical time scale. Analytic results are illustrated numerically in a Jaynes-Cummings model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barchielli, Alberto
2016-06-01
The quantum stochastic Schrödinger equation or Hudson-Parthasarathy (HP) equation is a powerful tool to construct unitary dilations of quantum dynamical semigroups and to develop the theory of measurements in continuous time via the construction of output fields. An important feature of such an equation is that it allows to treat not only absorption and emission of quanta, but also scattering processes, which however had very few applications in physical modelling. Moreover, recent developments have shown that also some non-Markovian dynamics can be generated by suitable choices of the state of the quantum noises involved in the HP-equation. This paper is devoted to an application involving these two features, non-Markovianity and scattering process. We consider a micro-mirror mounted on a vibrating structure and reflecting a laser beam, a process giving rise to a radiation-pressure force on the mirror. We show that this process needs the scattering part of the HP-equation to be described. On the other side, non-Markovianity is introduced by the dissipation due to the interaction with some thermal environment which we represent by a phonon field, with a nearly arbitrary excitation spectrum, and by the introduction of phase noise in the laser beam. Finally, we study the full power spectrum of the reflected light and we show how the laser beam can be used as a temperature probe.
Understanding quantum entanglement by thermo field dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashizume, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Masuo
2013-09-01
We propose a new method to understand quantum entanglement using the thermo field dynamics (TFD) described by a double Hilbert space. The entanglement states show a quantum-mechanically complicated behavior. Our new method using TFD makes it easy to understand the entanglement states, because the states in the tilde space in TFD play a role of tracer of the initial states. For our new treatment, we define an extended density matrix on the double Hilbert space. From this study, we make a general formulation of this extended density matrix and examine some simple cases using this formulation. Consequently, we have found that we can distinguish intrinsic quantum entanglement from the thermal fluctuations included in the definition of the ordinary quantum entanglement at finite temperatures. Through the above examination, our method using TFD can be applied not only to equilibrium states but also to non-equilibrium states. This is shown using some simple finite systems in the present paper.
Entanglement in Self-Supervised Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
A new type of correlation has been developed similar to quantum entanglement in self-supervised dynamics (SSD). SSDs have been introduced as a quantum-classical hybrid based upon the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by an information potential. As a result, SSD preserves the quantum topology along with superposition, entanglement, and wave-particle duality. At the same time, it can be implemented in any scale including the Newtonian scale. The main properties of SSD associated with simulating intelligence have been formulated. The attention with this innovation is focused on intelligent agents interaction based upon the new fundamental non-New tonian effect; namely, entanglement.
Non-equilibrium effects upon the non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett quantum master equation
Bolivar, A.O.
2011-05-15
Highlights: > Classical Brownian motion described by a non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation. > Quantization process. > Quantum Brownian motion described by a non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett equation. > A non-equilibrium quantum thermal force is predicted. - Abstract: We obtain a non-Markovian quantum master equation directly from the quantization of a non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation describing the Brownian motion of a particle immersed in a generic environment (e.g. a non-thermal fluid). As far as the especial case of a heat bath comprising of quantum harmonic oscillators is concerned, we derive a non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett master equation on the basis of which we work out the concept of non-equilibrium quantum thermal force exerted by the harmonic heat bath upon the Brownian motion of a free particle. The classical limit (or dequantization process) of this sort of non-equilibrium quantum effect is scrutinized, as well.
Generalized trace-distance measure connecting quantum and classical non-Markovianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wißmann, Steffen; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Vacchini, Bassano
2015-10-01
We establish a direct connection of quantum Markovianity of an open system to its classical counterpart by generalizing the criterion based on the information flow. Here the flow is characterized by the time evolution of Helstrom matrices, given by the weighted difference of statistical operators, under the action of the quantum dynamical map. It turns out that the introduced criterion is equivalent to P divisibility of a quantum process, namely, divisibility in terms of positive maps, which provides a direct connection to classical Markovian stochastic processes. Moreover, it is shown that mathematical representations similar to those found for the original trace-distance-based measure hold true for the associated generalized measure for quantum non-Markovianity. That is, we prove orthogonality of optimal states showing a maximal information backflow and establish a local and universal representation of the measure. We illustrate some properties of the generalized criterion by means of examples.
Exact and approximate moment closures for non-Markovian network epidemics.
Pellis, Lorenzo; House, Thomas; Keeling, Matt J
2015-10-01
Moment-closure techniques are commonly used to generate low-dimensional deterministic models to approximate the average dynamics of stochastic systems on networks. The quality of such closures is usually difficult to asses and furthermore the relationship between model assumptions and closure accuracy are often difficult, if not impossible, to quantify. Here we carefully examine some commonly used moment closures, in particular a new one based on the concept of maximum entropy, for approximating the spread of epidemics on networks by reconstructing the probability distributions over triplets based on those over pairs. We consider various models (SI, SIR, SEIR and Reed-Frost-type) under Markovian and non-Markovian assumption characterising the latent and infectious periods. We initially study with care two special networks, namely the open triplet and closed triangle, for which we can obtain analytical results. We then explore numerically the exactness of moment closures for a wide range of larger motifs, thus gaining understanding of the factors that introduce errors in the approximations, in particular the presence of a random duration of the infectious period and the presence of overlapping triangles in a network. We also derive a simpler and more intuitive proof than previously available concerning the known result that pair-based moment closure is exact for the Markovian SIR model on tree-like networks under pure initial conditions. We also extend such a result to all infectious models, Markovian and non-Markovian, in which susceptibles escape infection independently from each infected neighbour and for which infectives cannot regain susceptible status, provided the network is tree-like and initial conditions are pure. This works represent a valuable step in enriching intuition and deepening understanding of the assumptions behind moment closure approximations and for putting them on a more rigorous mathematical footing. PMID:25975999
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mogilevtsev, D.; Reyes-Gómez, E.; Cavalcanti, S. B.; Oliveira, L. E.
2015-12-01
A theoretical investigation on slow light propagation based on electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level quantum-dot system is performed including non-Markovian effects and correlated dephasing reservoirs. It is demonstrated that the non-Markovian nature of the process is quite essential even for conventional dephasing typical of quantum dots leading to significant enhancement or inhibition of the group velocity slow-down factor as well as to the shifting and distortion of the transmission window. Furthermore, the correlation between dephasing reservoirs may also either enhance or inhibit non-Markovian effects.
Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bylicka, B.; Chruściński, D.; Maniscalco, S.
2014-07-01
Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jian-Song; Chen, Ai-Xi
2016-08-01
We propose a scheme to control the dynamics of genuine multipartite entanglement and purity of qubits within spatially separated thermal baths using the bang-bang pulses with finite period. The qubits are initially entangled and have no direct interactions. The genuine multipartite entanglement of the system is measured by an entanglement monotone based on a generalization of the Peres-Horodecki criterion to multipartite systems. We first derive a master equation to describe the non-Markovian dynamics of an arbitrary number of qubits within their baths with decoherence and dynamical decoupling. Then, we calculate the entanglement monotone and purity of three qubits in super-Ohmic, sub-Ohmic, and Ohmic baths numerically. The effects of the period of pulses on the non-Markovian dynamics of qubits are discussed. We show the genuine multipartite entanglement and purity can be simultaneously improved by applying the bang-bang pulses with finite period. In particular, the bang-bang pulses with finite period are more efficient when the qubits are put into the sub-Ohmic or Ohmic baths than the case of the super-Ohmic bath.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jian-Song; Chen, Ai-Xi
2016-05-01
We propose a scheme to control the dynamics of genuine multipartite entanglement and purity of qubits within spatially separated thermal baths using the bang-bang pulses with finite period. The qubits are initially entangled and have no direct interactions. The genuine multipartite entanglement of the system is measured by an entanglement monotone based on a generalization of the Peres-Horodecki criterion to multipartite systems. We first derive a master equation to describe the non-Markovian dynamics of an arbitrary number of qubits within their baths with decoherence and dynamical decoupling. Then, we calculate the entanglement monotone and purity of three qubits in super-Ohmic, sub-Ohmic, and Ohmic baths numerically. The effects of the period of pulses on the non-Markovian dynamics of qubits are discussed. We show the genuine multipartite entanglement and purity can be simultaneously improved by applying the bang-bang pulses with finite period. In particular, the bang-bang pulses with finite period are more efficient when the qubits are put into the sub-Ohmic or Ohmic baths than the case of the super-Ohmic bath.
Gaussian entanglement induced by an extended thermal environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valido, Antonio A.; Alonso, Daniel; Kohler, Sigmund
2013-10-01
We study stationary entanglement between three harmonic oscillators which are dipole coupled to a one-dimensional or a three-dimensional bosonic environment. The analysis of the open-system dynamics is performed with generalized quantum Langevin equations which we solve exactly in a Fourier representation. The focus lies on Gaussian bipartite and tripartite entanglement induced by the highly non-Markovian interaction mediated by the environment. This environment-induced interaction represents an effective many-party interaction with a spatial long-range feature: A main finding is that the presence of a passive oscillator is detrimental for stationary two-mode entanglement. Furthermore, our results indicate that the environment-induced entanglement mechanism corresponds to uncontrolled feedback which is predominantly coherent at low temperatures and for moderate oscillator-environment coupling as compared to the oscillator frequency.
Analysis of Non-Markovian Beam Flattening in the Auroral Ionosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spector, M.; Newman, D. L.; Goldman, M. V.
1997-11-01
Recent examination(K. Y. Sanbonmatsu, I. Doxas, M. V. Goldman, and D. L. Newman, GRL 24), 807-810 (1997) of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the auroral ionosphere has revealed that high-intensity events at 1700 km altitude cannot be described by standard quasilinear velocity-diffusion saturation models. A non-Markovian form of quasilinear diffusion may still be valid provided wave phases remain random and wave-wave interactions are small. Non-Markovian time-history effects come into play when the wave autocorrelation time is longer than the diffusion time. A complete analytic solution for non-Markovian velocity-space diffusion has been found for a velocity-independent diffusion coefficient. More generally, the non-Markovian diffusion coefficient will depend self-consistently on velocity through the Langmuir wave spectrum. Qualitative arguments are presented to describe the evolution of the turbulence in this more general case.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution in non-Markovian channels
Vasile, Ruggero; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, MatteoG. A.; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2011-04-15
We address continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) in non-Markovian lossy channels and show how the non-Markovian features may be exploited to enhance security and/or to detect the presence and the position of an eavesdropper along the transmission line. In particular, we suggest a coherent-state QKD protocol which is secure against Gaussian individual attacks based on optimal 1{yields}2 asymmetric cloning machines for arbitrarily low values of the overall transmission line. The scheme relies on specific non-Markovian properties, and cannot be implemented in ordinary Markovian channels characterized by uniform losses. Our results give a clear indication of the potential impact of non-Markovian effects in QKD.
Extending the applicability of Redfield theories into highly non-Markovian regimes
Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Reichman, David R.; Berkelbach, Timothy C.
2015-11-21
We present a new, computationally inexpensive method for the calculation of reduced density matrix dynamics for systems with a potentially large number of subsystem degrees of freedom coupled to a generic bath. The approach consists of propagation of weak-coupling Redfield-like equations for the high-frequency bath degrees of freedom only, while the low-frequency bath modes are dynamically arrested but statistically sampled. We examine the improvements afforded by this approximation by comparing with exact results for the spin-boson model over a wide range of parameter space. We further generalize the method to multi-site models and compare with exact results for a model of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson complex. The results from the method are found to dramatically improve Redfield dynamics in highly non-Markovian regimes, at a similar computational cost. Relaxation of the mode-freezing approximation via classical (Ehrenfest) evolution of the low-frequency modes results in a dynamical hybrid method. We find that this Redfield-based dynamical hybrid approach, which is computationally more expensive than bare Redfield dynamics, yields only a marginal improvement over the simpler approximation of complete mode arrest.
Entanglement dynamics in the presence of controlled unital noise
Shaham, A.; Halevy, A.; Dovrat, L.; Megidish, E.; Eisenberg, H. S.
2015-01-01
Quantum entanglement is notorious for being a very fragile resource. Significant efforts have been put into the study of entanglement degradation in the presence of a realistic noisy environment. Here, we present a theoretical and an experimental study of the decoherence properties of entangled pairs of qubits. The entanglement dynamics of maximally entangled qubit pairs is shown to be related in a simple way to the noise representation in the Bloch sphere picture. We derive the entanglement level in the case when both qubits of a Bell state are transmitted through any arbitrary unital Pauli channel, and compare it to the case when the channel is applied only to one of the qubits. The dynamics of both cases was verified experimentally using an all-optical setup. We further investigated the evolution of partially entangled initial states. Different dynamics was observed for initial mixed and pure states of the same entanglement level. PMID:26060923
Non-Markovian persistence and nonequilibrium critical dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oerding, Klaus; Cornell, Stephen J.; Bray, Alan J.
1997-07-01
The persistence exponent θ for the global order parameter M(t) of a system quenched from the disordered phase to its critical point describes the probability, p(t)~t-θ, that M(t) does not change sign in the time interval t following the quench. We calculate θ to O(ɛ2) for model A of Hohenberg and Halperin [Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 435 (1977)] (and to order ɛ for model C) and show that at this order M(t) is a non-Markov process. Consequently, to our knowledge, θ is a new exponent. The calculation is performed by expanding around a Markov process, using a simplified version of the perturbation theory recently introduced by Majumdar and Sire [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1420 (1996)].
Monogamy and backflow of mutual information in non-Markovian thermal baths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, A. C. S.; Angelo, R. M.; Beims, M. W.
2014-07-01
We investigate the dynamics of information among the parties of tripartite systems. We start by proving two results concerning the monogamy of mutual information. The first one states that mutual information is monogamous for generic tripartite pure states. The second shows that, in general, mutual information is monogamous only if the amount of genuine tripartite correlations is large enough. Then, we analyze the internal dynamics of tripartite systems whose parties do not exchange energy. In particular, we allow for one of the subsystems to play the role of a finite thermal bath. As a result, we find a typical scenario in which local information tends to be converted into delocalized information. Moreover, we show that (i) the information flow is reversible for finite thermal baths at low temperatures, (ii) monogamy of mutual information is respected throughout the dynamics, and (iii) genuine tripartite correlations are typically present. Finally, we analytically calculate a quantity capable of revealing favorable regimes for non-Markovianity in our model.
Entanglement dynamics via coherent-state propagators
Ribeiro, A. D.; Angelo, R. M.
2010-11-15
The dynamical generation of entanglement in closed bipartite systems is investigated in the semiclassical regime. We consider a model of two particles, initially prepared in a product of coherent states, evolving in time according to a generic Hamiltonian, and derive a formula for the linear entropy of the reduced density matrix using the semiclassical propagator in the coherent-state representation. The formula is explicitly written in terms of quantities that define the stability of classical trajectories of the underlying classical system. The formalism is then applied to the problem of two nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators, and the result is shown to be in remarkable agreement with the exact quantum measure of entanglement in the short-time regime. An important by-product of our approach is a unified semiclassical formula, which contemplates both the coherent-state propagator and its complex conjugate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Li-Die; Wang, Li-Tao; Yang, Mou; Xu, Jing-Zhou; Wang, Z. D.; Bai, Yan-Kui
2016-06-01
The maximally entangled state can be in a mixed state as well as the well-known pure state. Taking the negativity as a measure of entanglement, we study the entanglement dynamics of bipartite, mixed maximally entangled states (MMESs) in multipartite cavity-reservoir systems. It is found that the MMES can exhibit the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death, which is quite different from the asymptotic decay of the pure-Bell-state case. We also find that maximal entanglement cannot guarantee maximal nonlocality, and the MMES does not correspond to the state with maximal measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN). In fact, the value and dynamic behavior of the MIN for the MMESs are dependent on the mixed-state probability. In addition, we investigate the distributions of negativity and the MIN in a multipartite system, where the two types of correlations have different monogamous properties.
The Design of Collectives of Agents to Control Non-Markovian Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, John W.; Wolpert, David H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The 'Collective Intelligence' (COIN) framework concerns the design of collectives of reinforcement-learning agents such that their interaction causes a provided 'world' utility function concerning the entire collective to be maximized. Previously, we applied that framework to scenarios involving Markovian dynamics where no re-evolution of the system from counter-factual initial conditions (an often expensive calculation) is permitted. This approach sets the individual utility function of each agent to be both aligned with the world utility, and at the same time, easy for the associated agents to optimize. Here we extend that approach to systems involving non-Markovian dynamics. In computer simulations, we compare our techniques with each other and with conventional-'team games'. We show whereas in team games performance often degrades badly with time, it steadily improves when our techniques are used. We also investigate situations where the system's dimensionality is effectively reduced. We show that this leads to difficulties in the agents' ability to learn. The implication is that 'learning' is a property only of high-enough dimensional systems.
Entanglement Dynamics of Disordered Quantum XY Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdul-Rahman, Houssam; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert; Stolz, Günter
2016-05-01
We consider the dynamics of the quantum XY chain with disorder under the general assumption that the expectation of the eigenfunction correlator of the associated one-particle Hamiltonian satisfies a decay estimate typical of Anderson localization. We show that, starting from a broad class of product initial states, entanglement remains bounded for all times. For the XX chain, we also derive bounds on the particle transport which, in particular, show that the density profile of initial states that consist of fully occupied and empty intervals only have significant dynamics near the edges of those intervals, uniformly for all times.
Jang, Seogjoo; Hoyer, Stephan; Fleming, Graham; Whaley, K Birgitta
2014-10-31
A generalized master equation (GME) governing quantum evolution of modular exciton density (MED) is derived for large scale light harvesting systems composed of weakly interacting modules of multiple chromophores. The GME-MED offers a practical framework to incorporate real time coherent quantum dynamics calculations of small length scales into dynamics over large length scales, and also provides a non-Markovian generalization and rigorous derivation of the Pauli master equation employing multichromophoric Förster resonance energy transfer rates. A test of the GME-MED for four sites of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex demonstrates how coherent dynamics of excitonic populations over coupled chromophores can be accurately described by transitions between subgroups (modules) of delocalized excitons. Application of the GME-MED to the exciton dynamics between a pair of light harvesting complexes in purple bacteria demonstrates its promise as a computationally efficient tool to investigate large scale exciton dynamics in complex environments. PMID:25396397
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Seogjoo; Hoyer, Stephan; Fleming, Graham; Whaley, K. Birgitta
2014-10-01
A generalized master equation (GME) governing quantum evolution of modular exciton density (MED) is derived for large scale light harvesting systems composed of weakly interacting modules of multiple chromophores. The GME-MED offers a practical framework to incorporate real time coherent quantum dynamics calculations of small length scales into dynamics over large length scales, and also provides a non-Markovian generalization and rigorous derivation of the Pauli master equation employing multichromophoric Förster resonance energy transfer rates. A test of the GME-MED for four sites of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex demonstrates how coherent dynamics of excitonic populations over coupled chromophores can be accurately described by transitions between subgroups (modules) of delocalized excitons. Application of the GME-MED to the exciton dynamics between a pair of light harvesting complexes in purple bacteria demonstrates its promise as a computationally efficient tool to investigate large scale exciton dynamics in complex environments.
Dynamics of entanglement transfer through multipartite dissipative systems
Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Romero, G.
2010-06-15
We study the dynamics of entanglement transfer in a system composed of two initially correlated three-level atoms, each located in a cavity interacting with its own reservoir. Instead of tracing out reservoir modes to describe the dynamics using the master equation approach, we consider explicitly the dynamics of the reservoirs. In this situation, we show that the entanglement is completely transferred from atoms to reservoirs. Although the cavities mediate this entanglement transfer, we show that under certain conditions, no entanglement is found in cavities throughout the dynamics. Considering the entanglement dynamics of interacting and noninteracting bipartite subsystems, we found time windows where the entanglement can only flow through interacting subsystems, depending on the system parameters.
Tripartite entanglement dynamics of vibrations in triatomic molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Liangjun; Zheng, Yujun
2016-06-01
In the present study, the dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of vibrations in triatomic molecules are studied based on the Lie algebraic models of molecules. The dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of the local mode molecule H2O and normal mode molecule NO2 are comparatively studied for different initial states by employing the general concurrence. Our results show that the dynamics of tripartite entanglement are relied on the dynamics of intramolecular energy distribution. The local mode molecule is more suitable to construct the tripartite entangled states. Also, the greater degree of tripartite entanglement can be obtained if the stretching vibration is first excited. These results shed new light on the understanding of quantum multipartite entanglement of vibrations in the polyatomic molecules.
Tripartite entanglement dynamics of vibrations in triatomic molecules.
Zhai, Liangjun; Zheng, Yujun
2016-06-21
In the present study, the dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of vibrations in triatomic molecules are studied based on the Lie algebraic models of molecules. The dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of the local mode molecule H2O and normal mode molecule NO2 are comparatively studied for different initial states by employing the general concurrence. Our results show that the dynamics of tripartite entanglement are relied on the dynamics of intramolecular energy distribution. The local mode molecule is more suitable to construct the tripartite entangled states. Also, the greater degree of tripartite entanglement can be obtained if the stretching vibration is first excited. These results shed new light on the understanding of quantum multipartite entanglement of vibrations in the polyatomic molecules. PMID:27334163
Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement
Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario
2015-01-01
Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability. PMID:26351004
Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement.
Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario
2015-01-01
Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability. PMID:26351004
Exact decoherence-free state of two distant quantum systems in a non-Markovian environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chong; Yang, Chun-Jie; An, Jun-Hong
2016-06-01
Decoherence-free-state (DFS) encoding supplies a useful way to avoid the detrimental influence of the environment on quantum information processing. The DFS was previously well established in either the two subsystems locating at the same spatial position or the dynamics under the Born-Markovian approximation. Here, we investigate the exact DFS of two spatially separated quantum systems consisting of two-level systems or harmonic oscillators coupled to a common non-Markovian zero-temperature bosonic environment. The exact distance-dependent DFS and the explicit criterion for forming the DFS are obtained analytically, which reveals that the DFS can arise only in one-dimensional environment. It is remarkable to further find that the DFS is just the system-reduced state of the famous bound state in the continuum (BIC) of the total system predicted by Wigner and von Neumann. On the one hand our result gives insight into the physical nature of the DFS, and on the other hand it supplies an experimentally accessible scheme to realize the mathematically curious BIC in the standard quantum optical systems.
Optimal control-based states transfer for non-Markovian quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying-Hua, Ji; Ju-ju, Hu; Jian-Hua, Huang; Qiang, Ke
2016-07-01
Utilizing the method of optimal control, we investigate the tactics of state transfer in the non-Markovian quantum system with phase relaxation and energy dissipative relaxation. The influence of Ohmic reservoir with Lorentz-Drude regularization is numerically studied. Owing to the decoherence and memory effects of non-Markovian channel, the purity of quantum state attenuates damply in the free evolution. The numerical simulations indicate that arbitrary state transfer for non-Markovian system can be realized under the optimal control function by a proper external control field with a success rate of more than 98 percent. When the right control field and function is implemented, not only the decoherence is compensated completely but also the purity of quantum states are maintained in the process of state transfer.
An alternative realization of the exact non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Kai; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang
2016-06-01
Based on the path integral approach, we derive a new realization of the exact non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation (SSE). The main difference from the previous non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (NMQSD) method is that the complex Gaussian stochastic process used for the forward propagation of the wave function is correlated, which may be used to reduce the amplitude of the non-Markovian memory term at high temperatures. The new SSE is then written into the recently developed hierarchy of pure states scheme, in a form that is more closely related to the hierarchical equation of motion approach. Numerical simulations are then performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the new method.
An alternative realization of the exact non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation.
Song, Kai; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang
2016-06-14
Based on the path integral approach, we derive a new realization of the exact non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation (SSE). The main difference from the previous non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (NMQSD) method is that the complex Gaussian stochastic process used for the forward propagation of the wave function is correlated, which may be used to reduce the amplitude of the non-Markovian memory term at high temperatures. The new SSE is then written into the recently developed hierarchy of pure states scheme, in a form that is more closely related to the hierarchical equation of motion approach. Numerical simulations are then performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the new method. PMID:27305994
Memory-effect-induced macroscopic-microscopic entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Qingxia; Zhao, Xinyu; Yu, Ting
2016-07-01
We study optomechanical entanglement between an optical cavity field and a movable mirror coupled to a non-Markovian environment. The non-Markovian quantum-state diffusion approach and the non-Markovian master equation are shown to be useful in investigating entanglement generation between the cavity field and the movable mirror. The simple model presented in this paper demonstrates several interesting properties of optomechanical entanglement that are associated with environment memory effects. It is evident that the effective environment central frequency can be used to modulate the optomechanical entanglement. In addition, we show that the maximum entanglement may be achieved by properly choosing the effective detuning, which is significantly dependent on the strength of the memory effect of the environment.
Non-Markovian Quantum Evolution: Time-Local Generators and Memory Kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chruściński, Dariusz; Należyty, Paweł
2016-06-01
In this paper we provide a basic introduction to the topic of quantum non-Markovian evolution presenting both time-local and memory kernel approach to the evolution of open quantum systems. We start with the standard notion of a classical Markovian stochastic process and generalize it to classical Markovian stochastic evolution which in turn becomes a starting point of the quantum setting. Our approach is based on the notion of P-divisible, CP-divisible maps and their refinements to k-divisible maps. Basic methods enabling one to detect non-Markovianity of the quantum evolution are also presented. Our analysis is illustrated by several simple examples.
Non-Markovian theory for the waiting time distributions of single electron transfers.
Welack, Sven; Yan, YiJing
2009-09-21
We derive a non-Markovian theory for waiting time distributions of consecutive single electron transfer events. The presented microscopic Pauli rate equation formalism couples the open electrodes to the many-body system, allowing to take finite bias and temperature into consideration. Numerical results reveal transient oscillations of distinct system frequencies due to memory in the waiting time distributions. Memory effects can be approximated by an expansion in non-Markovian corrections. This method is employed to calculate memory landscapes displaying preservation of memory over multiple consecutive electron transfers. PMID:19778104
Non-Markovian evolution of photonic quantum states in atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roux, Filippus S.
2016-05-01
The evolution of the spatial degrees of freedom of a photon propagating through atmospheric turbulence is treated as a non-Markovian process. Here, we derive and solve the evolution equation for this process. The turbulent medium is modeled by a sequence of multiple phase screens for general turbulence conditions. The non-Markovian perspective leads to a second-order differential equation with respect to the propagation distance. The solution for this differential equation is obtained with the aid of a perturbative analysis, assuming the turbulence is relatively weak. We also provide another solution for more general turbulence strengths, but where we introduce a simplification to the differential equation.
A Study on Entanglement Sudden Death in the Open Bipartite Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Jia Hua; Fang, Mao Fa; Huang, Guo Hui; Yang, Xiong
2014-06-01
Examining the relation between concurrence and energy in the open bipartite systems, we give an enlightening discussion about reason which causes the entanglement sudden death. We consider two two-level atoms A and B initially entangled to some extent and coupled individually to two cavities which are initially in their vacuum states. We analyze the dynamics of entanglement and energy for two atoms after tracing over the cavity degrees of freedom. By comparing with concurrence and energy, we obtain a conclusion, i.e., there is a critical value U C =0, when the energy U< U C =0, or, U'≤0, the concurrence must be zero and the ESD will occur for a period of time. Then, we discuss how non-Markovian effects and detunings influence the critical value. Finally, we point out the impact of initial degree of entanglement on the critical value of the energy.
Dynamics of momentum entanglement in lowest-order QED
Lamata, L.; Leon, J.; Solano, E.
2006-01-15
We study the dynamics of momentum entanglement generated in the lowest-order QED interaction between two massive spin-(1/2) charged particles, which grows in time as the two fermions exchange virtual photons. We observe that the degree of generated entanglement between interacting particles with initial well-defined momentum can be infinite. We explain this divergence in the context of entanglement theory for continuous variables, and show how to circumvent this apparent paradox. Finally, we discuss two different possibilities of transforming momentum into spin entanglement, through dynamical operations or through Lorentz boosts.
Dynamical entanglement purification using chains of atoms and optical cavities
Gonta, Denis; Loock, Peter van
2011-10-15
In the framework of cavity QED, we propose a practical scheme to purify dynamically a bipartite entangled state using short chains of atoms coupled to high-finesse optical cavities. In contrast to conventional entanglement purification protocols, we avoid controlled-not gates, thus reducing complicated pulse sequences and superfluous qubit operations. Our interaction scheme works in a deterministic way and, together with entanglement distribution and swapping, opens a route toward efficient quantum repeaters for long-distance quantum communication.
Entanglement dynamics of a strongly driven trapped atom.
Roghani, Maryam; Helm, Hanspeter; Breuer, Heinz-Peter
2011-01-28
We study the entanglement between the internal electronic and the external vibrational degrees of freedom of a trapped atom which is driven by two lasers into electromagnetically induced transparency. It is shown that basic features of the intricate entanglement dynamics can be traced to Landau-Zener splittings (avoided crossings) in the spectrum of the atom-laser field Hamiltonian. We further construct an effective Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of entanglement under dissipation induced by spontaneous emission processes. The proposed approach is applicable to a broad range of scenarios for the control of entanglement between electronic and translational degrees of freedom of trapped atoms through suitable laser fields. PMID:21405312
Collapse–revival of quantum discord and entanglement
Yan, Xue-Qun Zhang, Bo-Ying
2014-10-15
In this paper the correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. Our results predict certain quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomena for quantum discord and entanglement when the field is in Fock state and the two atoms are initially in maximally mixed state, which is a special separable state. Our calculations also show that the oscillations of the time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase and they both have similar evolution behavior in some time range. The fact reveals the consistency of quantum discord and entanglement in some dynamical aspects. - Highlights: • The correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. • A quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomenon for quantum discord and entanglement is reported. • A phenomenon of correlations revivals different from that of non-Markovian dynamics is revealed. • The oscillations of time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase in our system. • Quantum discord and entanglement have similar evolution behavior in some time range.
Size-Dependent Particle Dynamics in Entangled Polymer Nanocomposites.
Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A
2016-01-19
Polymer-grafted nanoparticles with diameter d homogeneously dispersed in entangled polymer melts with varying random coil radius R0, but fixed entanglement mesh size a(e), are used to study particle motions in entangled polymers. We focus on materials in the transition region between the continuum regime (d > R0), where the classical Stokes-Einstein (S-E) equation is known to describe polymer drag on particles, and the noncontinuum regime (d < a(e)), in which several recent studies report faster diffusion of particles than expected from continuum S-E analysis, based on the bulk polymer viscosity. Specifically, we consider dynamics of particles with sizes d ≥ a(e) in entangled polymers with varying molecular weight M(w) in order to investigate how the transition from noncontinuum to continuum dynamics occur. We take advantage of favorable enthalpic interactions between SiO2 nanoparticles tethered with PEO molecules and entangled PMMA host polymers to create model nanoparticle-polymer composites, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in entangled polymers. Investigation of the particle dynamics via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy measurements reveals a transition from fast to slow particle motion as the PMMA molecular weight is increased beyond the entanglement threshold, with a much weaker M(w) dependence for M(w) > M(e) than expected from S-E analysis based on bulk viscosity of entangled PMMA melts. We rationalize these observations using a simple force balance analysis around particles and find that nanoparticle motion in entangled melts can be described using a variant of the S-E analysis in which motion of particles is assumed to only disturb subchain entangled host segments with sizes comparable to the particle diameter. PMID:26694953
Entanglement Dynamics in a Model Tripartite Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laha, Pradip; Sudarsan, B.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.
2016-09-01
A Λ-type atom interacting with two radiation fields exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency and other nonclassical effects that appear in the entanglement dynamics of the atomic subsystem and in appropriate field observables. Both EIT and field-atom entanglement are important for quantum information processing. We investigate the roles played by specific initial field states, detuning parameters, field nonlinearities and intensity-dependent field-atom couplings on EIT and the entanglement between subsystems. Departure from coherence of the initial field states produces significant effects. We investigate these aspects in a model that exhibits the salient features of entangled tripartite systems. For initial photon-added coherent states, collapses and revivals of the atomic subsystem von Neumann entropy appear as the intensity parameter varies over a narrow range of values. These features could be useful in enabling entanglement.
Entanglement Dynamics in a Model Tripartite Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laha, Pradip; Sudarsan, B.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.
2016-05-01
A Λ-type atom interacting with two radiation fields exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency and other nonclassical effects that appear in the entanglement dynamics of the atomic subsystem and in appropriate field observables. Both EIT and field-atom entanglement are important for quantum information processing. We investigate the roles played by specific initial field states, detuning parameters, field nonlinearities and intensity-dependent field-atom couplings on EIT and the entanglement between subsystems. Departure from coherence of the initial field states produces significant effects. We investigate these aspects in a model that exhibits the salient features of entangled tripartite systems. For initial photon-added coherent states, collapses and revivals of the atomic subsystem von Neumann entropy appear as the intensity parameter varies over a narrow range of values. These features could be useful in enabling entanglement.
Entanglement dynamics in three-qubit X states
Weinstein, Yaakov S.
2010-09-15
I explore the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system in an initial X state undergoing decoherence including the possible exhibition of entanglement sudden death. To quantify entanglement I utilize negativity measures and make use of appropriate entanglement witnesses. The negativity results are then extended to X states with an arbitraty number of qubits. I also demonstrate nonstandard behavior of the tripartite negativity entanglement metric: its sudden appearance after some amount of decoherence, followed quickly by its disappearance. Finally, I solve for a lower bound on the three-qubit X-state concurrence, demonstrate when this bound goes to 0, and outline simplifcations for the calculation of higher-order X-state concurrences.
Description of non-Markovian effect in open quantum system with the discretized environment method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacroix, Denis; Sargsyan, Vazgen; Adamian, Gurgen; Antonenko, Nikolai
2015-04-01
An approach, called discretized environment method, is used to treat exactly non-Markovian effects in open quantum systems. In this approach, a complex environment described by a spectral function is mapped into a finite set of discretized states with an appropriate coupling to the system of interest. The finite set of system plus environment degrees of freedom are then explicitly followed in time leading to a quasi-exact description. The present approach is anticipated to be particularly accurate in the low temperature and strongly non-Markovian regime. The discretized environment method is validated on a two-level system (qubit) coupled to a bosonic or fermionic heat-bath. A perfect agreement with the quantum Langevin approach is found. Further illustrations are made on a three-level system (qutrit) coupled to a bosonic heat-bath. Emerging processes due to strong memory effects are discussed.
Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling
Broadbent, Curtis J.; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Eberly, Joseph H.
2012-08-15
We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of multi-channel vs. single-channel reservoir coupling is rigorously defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation for arbitrary multi-channel reservoir coupling is derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exact time-local master equation is derived under certain conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical solution to the three-level system in a vee-type configuration is found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution of the three-level system under generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise is plotted for many parameter regimes.
Quantum measurements in continuous time, non-Markovian evolutions and feedback.
Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo
2012-11-28
In this article, we reconsider a version of quantum trajectory theory based on the stochastic Schrödinger equation with stochastic coefficients, which was mathematically introduced in the 1990s, and we develop it in order to describe the non-Markovian evolution of a quantum system continuously measured and controlled, thanks to a measurement-based feedback. Indeed, realistic descriptions of a feedback loop have to include delay and thus need a non-Markovian theory. The theory allows us to put together non-Markovian evolutions and measurements in continuous time, in agreement with the modern axiomatic formulation of quantum mechanics. To illustrate the possibilities of such a theory, we apply it to a two-level atom stimulated by a laser. We introduce closed loop control too, via the stimulating laser, with the aim of enhancing the 'squeezing' of the emitted light, or other typical quantum properties. Note that here we change the point of view with respect to the usual applications of control theory. In our model, the 'system' is the two-level atom, but we do not want to control its state, to bring the atom to a final target state. Our aim is to control the 'Mandel Q-parameter' and the spectrum of the emitted light; in particular, the spectrum is not a property at a single time, but involves a long interval of times (a Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the observed output is needed). PMID:23091214
Entanglement dynamics in quantum many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Wen Wei; Abanin, Dmitry
The dynamics of quantum entanglement S (t) has proven useful to distinguishing different quantum many-body phases. In particular, the growth of entanglement following a quantum quench can be used to distinguish between many-body localized(S (t) ~ logt) and ergodic(S (t) ~ t) phases. Here, we provide a theoretical description of the growth of entanglement in a quantum many-body system, and propose a method to experimentally measure it. We show that entanglement growth is related to the spreading of local operators. In ergodic systems, the linear spreading of operators results in a universal, linear in time growth of entanglement. Furthermore, we show that entanglement growth is directly related to the decay of the Loschmidt echo in a composite system comprised of many copies of the original system, subject to a perturbation that reconnects different parts of the system. Using this picture, we propose an experimental set-up to measure entanglement growth by using a quantum switch (two-level system) which controls connections in the composite system. Our work provides a way to directly probe dynamical properties of many-body systems, in particular, allowing for a direct observation of many-body localization. This work was partially supported by Sloan Foundation, Ontario Early Researcher Award and NSERC Discovery Grant.
Dynamics of entanglement between two atomic samples with spontaneous scattering
Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-07-01
We investigate the effects of spontaneous scattering on the evolution of entanglement of two atomic samples, probed by phase-shift measurements on optical beams interacting with both samples. We develop a formalism of conditional quantum evolutions and present a wave function analysis implemented in numerical simulations of the state vector dynamics. This method allows us to track the evolution of entanglement and to compare it with the predictions obtained when spontaneous scattering is neglected. We provide numerical evidence that the interferometric scheme to entangle atomic samples is only marginally affected by the presence of spontaneous scattering and should thus be robust even in more realistic situations.
Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength
Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.
2014-07-25
Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface. The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is signifcantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. When the strength of the interface saturates, the number of interfacial entanglements scales with the corresponding bulk entanglement density. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical strength.
Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength
Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.
2014-07-25
Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface.more » The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is signifcantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. When the strength of the interface saturates, the number of interfacial entanglements scales with the corresponding bulk entanglement density. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical
Data-driven non-Markovian closure models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondrashov, Dmitri; Chekroun, Mickaël D.; Ghil, Michael
2015-03-01
This paper has two interrelated foci: (i) obtaining stable and efficient data-driven closure models by using a multivariate time series of partial observations from a large-dimensional system; and (ii) comparing these closure models with the optimal closures predicted by the Mori-Zwanzig (MZ) formalism of statistical physics. Multilayer stochastic models (MSMs) are introduced as both a generalization and a time-continuous limit of existing multilevel, regression-based approaches to closure in a data-driven setting; these approaches include empirical model reduction (EMR), as well as more recent multi-layer modeling. It is shown that the multilayer structure of MSMs can provide a natural Markov approximation to the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) of the MZ formalism. A simple correlation-based stopping criterion for an EMR-MSM model is derived to assess how well it approximates the GLE solution. Sufficient conditions are derived on the structure of the nonlinear cross-interactions between the constitutive layers of a given MSM to guarantee the existence of a global random attractor. This existence ensures that no blow-up can occur for a broad class of MSM applications, a class that includes non-polynomial predictors and nonlinearities that do not necessarily preserve quadratic energy invariants. The EMR-MSM methodology is first applied to a conceptual, nonlinear, stochastic climate model of coupled slow and fast variables, in which only slow variables are observed. It is shown that the resulting closure model with energy-conserving nonlinearities efficiently captures the main statistical features of the slow variables, even when there is no formal scale separation and the fast variables are quite energetic. Second, an MSM is shown to successfully reproduce the statistics of a partially observed, generalized Lotka-Volterra model of population dynamics in its chaotic regime. The challenges here include the rarity of strange attractors in the model's parameter
Entangling polaritons via dynamical Casimir effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossatto, D. Z.; Felicetti, S.; Eneriz, H.; Rico, E.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.
2016-03-01
We investigate theoretically how the dynamical Casimir effect can entangle quantum systems in different coupling regimes of circuit quantum electrodynamics, and show the robustness of such entanglement generation against dissipative effects, considering experimental parameters of current technology. We consider two qubit-resonator systems, which are coupled by a SQUID driven with an external magnetic field, and explore the entire range of coupling regimes between each qubit and its resonator. In this scheme, we derive a semianalytic explanation for the entanglement generation between both superconducting qubits when they are coupled to their resonators in the strong coupling regime. For the ultrastrong and deep strong coupling regimes, we design experimentally feasible theoretical protocols to generate maximally entangled polaritonic states.
Falzone, Tobias T; Blair, Savanna; Robertson-Anderson, Rae M
2015-06-14
We drive optically trapped microspheres through entangled F-actin at constant speeds and distances well beyond the linear regime, and measure the microscale force response of the entangled filaments during and following strain. Our results reveal a unique crossover to appreciable nonlinearity at a strain rate of [small gamma, Greek, dot above]c ≈ 3 s(-1) which corresponds remarkably well with the theoretical rate of relaxation of entanglement length deformations 1/τent. Above [small gamma, Greek, dot above]c, we observe stress stiffening which occurs over very short time scales comparable to the predicted timescale over which mesh size deformations relax. Stress softening then takes over, yielding to an effectively viscous regime over a timescale comparable to the entanglement length relaxation time, τent. The viscous regime displays shear thinning but with a less pronounced viscosity scaling with strain rate compared to flexible polymers. The relaxation of induced force on filaments following strain shows that the relative relaxation proceeds more quickly for increasing strain rates; and for rates greater than [small gamma, Greek, dot above]c, the relaxation displays a complex power-law dependence on time. Our collective results reveal that molecular-level nonlinear viscoelasticity is driven by non-classical dynamics of individual entanglement segments that are unique to semiflexible polymers. PMID:25920523
Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.
Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz
2015-04-01
One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and
Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer–nanoparticle composites
Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A.
2015-01-01
Nanoparticle–polymer composites, or polymer–nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host. PMID:26044723
Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites
Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A.
2015-06-10
Nanoparticle–polymer composites, or polymer–nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.
Mean first-passage times in confined media: from Markovian to non-Markovian processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bénichou, O.; Guérin, T.; Voituriez, R.
2015-04-01
We review recent theoretical works that enable the accurate evaluation of the mean first passage time (MFPT) of a random walker to a target in confinement for Markovian (memory-less) and non-Markovian walkers. For the Markovian problem, we present a general theory which allows one to accurately evaluate the MFPT and its extensions to related first-passage observables such as splitting probabilities and occupation times. We show that this analytical approach provides a universal scaling dependence of the MFPT on both the volume of the confining domain and the source-target distance in the case of general scale-invariant processes. This analysis is applicable to a broad range of stochastic processes characterized by length scale-invariant properties, and reveals the key role that can be played by the starting position of the random walker. We then present an extension to non-Markovian walks by taking the specific example of a tagged monomer of a polymer chain looking for a target in confinement. We show that the MFPT can be calculated accurately by computing the distribution of the positions of all the monomers in the chain at the instant of reaction. Such a theory can be used to derive asymptotic relations that generalize the scaling dependence with the volume and the initial distance to the target derived for Markovian walks. Finally, we present an application of this theory to the problem of the first contact time between the two ends of a polymer chain, and review the various theoretical approaches of this non- Markovian problem.
Entanglement dynamics in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model
Vidal, Julien; Palacios, Guillaume; Aslangul, Claude
2004-12-01
The dynamics of the one-tangle and the concurrence is analyzed in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model which describes many physical systems such as the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensates. We consider two different initial states which are physically relevant and show that their entanglement dynamics are very different. A semiclassical analysis is used to compute the one-tangle which measures the entanglement of one spin with all the others, whereas the frozen-spin approximation allows us to compute the concurrence using its mapping onto the spin squeezing parameter.
Density-matrix operatorial solution of the non-Markovian master equation for quantum Brownian motion
Intravaia, F.; Maniscalco, S.; Messina, A.
2003-04-01
An original method to exactly solve the non-Markovian master equation describing the interaction of a single harmonic oscillator with a quantum environment in the weak-coupling limit is reported. By using a superoperatorial approach, we succeed in deriving the operatorial solution for the density matrix of the system. Our method is independent of the physical properties of the environment. We show the usefulness of our solution deriving explicit expressions for the dissipative time evolution of some observables of physical interest for the system, such as, for example, its mean energy.
Non-Markovianity of the Heisenberg XY spin environment with Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Jun-Dong; Qin, Li-Guo; Tian, Li-Jun
2014-11-01
Using the effective non-Markovian measure proposed by Breuer et al. recently, we study the memory effect of a central qubit system coupled to a spin chain environment with Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya interaction in a transverse field. It is discovered that the central qubit system presents different memory effects in different environment phases with the different oscillatory behaviors of the decoherence factor. Moreover, it is revealed that the Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya interaction has a prominent influence on the memory effect of a central qubit system via modifying the amplitude and period of the decoherence factor under certain conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buldyreva, Jeanna
2013-06-01
Reliable modeling of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres requires accounting for the collisional line mixing effects in the regions of closely spaced vibrotational lines as well as in the spectral wings. Because of too high CPU cost of calculations from ab initio potential energy surfaces (if available), the relaxation matrix describing the influence of collisions is usually built by dynamical scaling laws, such as Energy-Corrected Sudden law. Theoretical approaches currently used for calculation of absorption near the band center are based on the impact approximation (Markovian collisions without memory effects) and wings are modeled via introducing some empirical parameters [1,2]. Operating with the traditional non-symmetric metric in the Liouville space, these approaches need corrections of the ECS-modeled relaxation matrix elements ("relaxation times" and "renormalization procedure") in order to ensure the fundamental relations of detailed balance and sum rules.We present an extension to the infrared absorption case of the previously developed [3] for rototranslational Raman scattering spectra of linear molecules non-Markovian approach of ECS-type. Owing to the specific choice of symmetrized metric in the Liouville space, the relaxation matrix is corrected for initial bath-molecule correlations and satisfies non-Markovian sum rules and detailed balance. A few standard ECS parameters determined by fitting to experimental linewidths of the isotropic Q-branch enable i) retrieval of these isolated-line parameters for other spectroscopies (IR absorption and anisotropic Raman scattering); ii) reproducing of experimental intensities of these spectra. Besides including vibrational angular momenta in the IR bending shapes, Coriolis effects are also accounted for. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated on OCS-He and CO_2-CO_2 spectra up to 300 and 60 atm, respectively. F. Niro, C. Boulet, and J.-M. Hartmann, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88, 483
Multipartite entanglement in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment-protein complex.
Thilagam, A
2012-05-01
We investigate multipartite states in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment-protein complex of the green sulfur bacteria using a Lorentzian spectral density of the phonon reservoir fitted with typical parameter estimates of the species, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. The evolution of the entanglement measure of the excitonic W qubit states is evaluated in the picosecond time range, showing increased revivals in the non-Markovian regime. Similar trends are observed in the evolution dynamics of the Meyer-Wallach measure of the N-exciton multipartite state, with results showing that multipartite entanglement can last from 0.5 to 1 ps, between the bacteriochlorophylls of the FMO complex. The teleportation and quantum information splitting fidelities associated with the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W-like resource states formed by the excitonic qubit channels of the FMO complex show that revivals in fidelities increase with the degree of non-Markovian strength of the decoherent environment. Quantum information processing tasks involving teleportation followed by the decodification process involving W-like states of the FMO complex may play a critical role during coherent oscillations at physiological temperatures. PMID:22583269
Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities
Alexanian, Moorad
2011-11-15
The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.
Low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement for spin systems
Jafari, R.
2010-11-15
We develop the ideas of the quantum renormalization group and quantum information by exploring the low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement resources of a system close to its quantum critical point. We demonstrate that low-energy-state dynamical quantities of one-dimensional magnetic systems can show a quantum phase transition point and show scaling behavior in the vicinity of the transition point. To present our idea, we study the evolution of two spin entanglements in the one-dimensional Ising model in the transverse field. The system is initialized as the so-called thermal ground state of the pure Ising model. We investigate the evolution of the generation of entanglement with increasing magnetic field. We obtain that the derivative of the time at which the entanglement reaches its maximum with respect to the transverse field diverges at the critical point and its scaling behaviors versus the size of the system are the same as the static ground-state entanglement of the system.
Continuous joint measurement and entanglement of qubits in remote cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motzoi, Felix; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Sarovar, Mohan
2015-09-01
We present a first-principles theoretical analysis of the entanglement of two superconducting qubits in spatially separated microwave cavities by a sequential (cascaded) probe of the two cavities with a coherent mode, that provides a full characterization of both the continuous measurement induced dynamics and the entanglement generation. We use the SLH formalism to derive the full quantum master equation for the coupled qubits and cavities system, within the rotating wave and dispersive approximations, and conditioned equations for the cavity fields. We then develop effective stochastic master equations for the dynamics of the qubit system in both a polaronic reference frame and a reduced representation within the laboratory frame. We compare simulations with and analyze tradeoffs between these two representations, including the onset of a non-Markovian regime for simulations in the reduced representation. We provide conditions for ensuring persistence of entanglement and show that using shaped pulses enables these conditions to be met at all times under general experimental conditions. The resulting entanglement is shown to be robust with respect to measurement imperfections and loss channels. We also study the effects of qubit driving and relaxation dynamics during a weak measurement, as a prelude to modeling measurement-based feedback control in this cascaded system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mineo, H.; Lin, S. H.; Fujimura, Y.; Xu, J.; Xu, R. X.; Yan, Y. J.
2013-12-01
Results of a theoretical study on non-Markov response for femtosecond laser-driven coherent ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules embedded in a condensed phase are presented. Coherent ring currents are generated by coherent excitation of a pair of quasi-degenerated π-electronic excited states. The coherent electronic dynamical behaviors are strongly influenced by interactions between the electronic system and phonon bath in a condensed phase. Here, the bath correlation time is not instantaneous but should be taken to be a finite time in ultrashort time-resolved experiments. In such a case, Markov approximation breaks down. A hierarchical master equation approach for an improved semiclassical Drude dissipation model was adopted to examine the non-Markov effects on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents of (P)-2,2'-biphenol in a condensed phase. Time evolution of the coherent ring current derived in the hierarchical master equation approach was calculated and compared with those in the Drude model in the Markov approximation and in the static limit. The results show how non-Markovian behaviors in quantum beat signals of ring currents depend on the Drude bath damping constant. Effects of temperatures on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents are also clarified.
Mineo, H.; Lin, S. H.; Fujimura, Y.; Xu, J.; Xu, R. X.; Yan, Y. J.
2013-12-07
Results of a theoretical study on non-Markov response for femtosecond laser-driven coherent ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules embedded in a condensed phase are presented. Coherent ring currents are generated by coherent excitation of a pair of quasi-degenerated π-electronic excited states. The coherent electronic dynamical behaviors are strongly influenced by interactions between the electronic system and phonon bath in a condensed phase. Here, the bath correlation time is not instantaneous but should be taken to be a finite time in ultrashort time-resolved experiments. In such a case, Markov approximation breaks down. A hierarchical master equation approach for an improved semiclassical Drude dissipation model was adopted to examine the non-Markov effects on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents of (P)-2,2{sup ′}-biphenol in a condensed phase. Time evolution of the coherent ring current derived in the hierarchical master equation approach was calculated and compared with those in the Drude model in the Markov approximation and in the static limit. The results show how non-Markovian behaviors in quantum beat signals of ring currents depend on the Drude bath damping constant. Effects of temperatures on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents are also clarified.
Mineo, H; Lin, S H; Fujimura, Y; Xu, J; Xu, R X; Yan, Y J
2013-12-01
Results of a theoretical study on non-Markov response for femtosecond laser-driven coherent ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules embedded in a condensed phase are presented. Coherent ring currents are generated by coherent excitation of a pair of quasi-degenerated π-electronic excited states. The coherent electronic dynamical behaviors are strongly influenced by interactions between the electronic system and phonon bath in a condensed phase. Here, the bath correlation time is not instantaneous but should be taken to be a finite time in ultrashort time-resolved experiments. In such a case, Markov approximation breaks down. A hierarchical master equation approach for an improved semiclassical Drude dissipation model was adopted to examine the non-Markov effects on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents of (P)-2,2'-biphenol in a condensed phase. Time evolution of the coherent ring current derived in the hierarchical master equation approach was calculated and compared with those in the Drude model in the Markov approximation and in the static limit. The results show how non-Markovian behaviors in quantum beat signals of ring currents depend on the Drude bath damping constant. Effects of temperatures on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents are also clarified. PMID:24320379
Superdiffusion in a non-Markovian random walk model with a Gaussian memory profile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borges, G. M.; Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A. A.; Cressoni, J. C.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Mariz, A. M.
2012-09-01
Most superdiffusive Non-Markovian random walk models assume that correlations are maintained at all time scales, e.g., fractional Brownian motion, Lévy walks, the Elephant walk and Alzheimer walk models. In the latter two models the random walker can always "remember" the initial times near t = 0. Assuming jump size distributions with finite variance, the question naturally arises: is superdiffusion possible if the walker is unable to recall the initial times? We give a conclusive answer to this general question, by studying a non-Markovian model in which the walker's memory of the past is weighted by a Gaussian centered at time t/2, at which time the walker had one half the present age, and with a standard deviation σt which grows linearly as the walker ages. For large widths we find that the model behaves similarly to the Elephant model, but for small widths this Gaussian memory profile model behaves like the Alzheimer walk model. We also report that the phenomenon of amnestically induced persistence, known to occur in the Alzheimer walk model, arises in the Gaussian memory profile model. We conclude that memory of the initial times is not a necessary condition for generating (log-periodic) superdiffusion. We show that the phenomenon of amnestically induced persistence extends to the case of a Gaussian memory profile.
Non-Markovian spiking statistics of a neuron with delayed feedback in presence of refractoriness.
Kravchuk, Kseniia; Vidybida, Alexander
2014-02-01
Spiking statistics of a self-inhibitory neuron is considered. The neuron receives excitatory input from a Poisson stream and inhibitory impulses through a feedback line with a delay. After triggering, the neuron is in the refractory state for a positive period of time. Recently, [35,6], it was proven for a neuron with delayed feedback and without the refractory state, that the output stream of interspike intervals (ISI) cannot be represented as a Markov process. The refractory state presence, in a sense limits the memory range in the spiking process, which might restore Markov property to the ISI stream. Here we check such a possibility. For this purpose, we calculate the conditional probability density P (tn+1 l tn,...,t1,t0), and prove exactly that it does not reduce to P (tn+1 l tn,...,t1) for any n ⋝0. That means, that activity of the system with refractory state as well cannot be represented as a Markov process of any order. We conclude that it is namely the delayed feedback presence which results in non-Markovian statistics of neuronal firing. As delayed feedback lines are common for any realistic neural network, the non-Markovian statistics of the network activity should be taken into account in processing of experimental data. PMID:24245681
Localization of chain dynamics in entangled polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guenza, M. G.
2014-05-01
The dynamics of polymer melts in both the unentangled and entangled regimes is described by a Langevin equation for the correlated motion of a group of chains, interacting through both intra- and inter-molecular potentials. Entanglements are represented by an intermolecular monomer-monomer confining potential that has no effect on short chains, while interpolymer interactions, responsible for correlated motion and subdiffusive center-of-mass dynamics, are represented by an intermolecular center-of-mass potential derived from the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This potential ensures that the liquid of phantom chains reproduces the compressibility and free energy of the real samples. For polyethylene melts the calculated dynamic structure factor is found to be in quantitative agreement with neutron spin echo experiments of polyethylene melts with chain lengths that span both the unentangled and the entangled regimes. The theory shows a progressive localization of the cooperative chain dynamics at the crossover from the unentangled to the entangled regime, in the spirit of the reptation model.
Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules
Oliveira, P.A.; Sanz, L.
2015-05-15
This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states.
Dynamics of nanoparticles in an entangled polymer matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhakal, Subas; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna
2014-03-01
Quantitative description of the dynamics and rheology of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of bacterial biofilms is still a major challenge due to their structural complexity. Recent experiments suggest that the viscoelasticity of EPS is not governed by entanglements in the polymer matrix. Here, we investigate the microstructure, dynamics and rheology of a Dextran EPS by probing the motion of nanoparticles embedded in the matrix using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Specifically, these simulations show that for particle diameter D >entanglement length le, the probe particles exhibit normal diffusion, while for D
Storing entanglement of nuclear spins via Uhrig dynamical decoupling
Roy, Soumya Singha; Mahesh, T. S.; Agarwal, G. S.
2011-06-15
Stroboscopic spin flips have already been shown to prolong the coherence times of quantum systems under noisy environments. Uhrig's dynamical decoupling scheme provides an optimal sequence for a quantum system interacting with a dephasing bath. Several experimental demonstrations have already verified the efficiency of such dynamical decoupling schemes in preserving single-qubit coherences. In this work we describe the experimental study of Uhrig's dynamical decoupling in preserving two-qubit entangled states using an ensemble of spin-1/2 nuclear pairs in solution state. We find that the performance of odd-order Uhrig sequences in preserving entanglement is superior to both even-order Uhrig sequences and periodic spin-flip sequences. We also find that there exists an optimal order of the Uhrig sequence in which a singlet state can be stored at high correlation for about 30 seconds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munakata, T.; Rosinberg, M. L.
2014-05-01
Continuous feedback control of Langevin processes may be non-Markovian due to a time lag between the measurement and the control action. We show that this requires one to modify the basic relation between dissipation and time reversal and to include a contribution arising from the noncausal character of the reverse process. We then propose a new definition of the quantity measuring the irreversibility of a path in a nonequilibrium stationary state, which can also be regarded as the trajectory-dependent total entropy production. This leads to an extension of the second law, which takes a simple form in the long-time limit. As an illustration, we apply the general approach to linear systems that are both analytically tractable and experimentally relevant.
Munakata, T; Rosinberg, M L
2014-05-01
Continuous feedback control of Langevin processes may be non-Markovian due to a time lag between the measurement and the control action. We show that this requires one to modify the basic relation between dissipation and time reversal and to include a contribution arising from the noncausal character of the reverse process. We then propose a new definition of the quantity measuring the irreversibility of a path in a nonequilibrium stationary state, which can also be regarded as the trajectory-dependent total entropy production. This leads to an extension of the second law, which takes a simple form in the long-time limit. As an illustration, we apply the general approach to linear systems that are both analytically tractable and experimentally relevant. PMID:24856682
Non-Markovian electron transfer reactions with frequency-dependent friction
Tang, J.
1993-12-31
A modified non-Markovian Zusman equation for electron transfer reactions with frequency-dependent friction is presented. The derivation is based on the spin-boson model with a two-level system coupled to a non-Debye polar solvent bath with frequency-dependent friction. The diffusion constant in the Smoluchowski diffusion operator of the ordinary Zusman equation should be replaced by a convolution of a retarded time-dependent diffusion constant. An analytical expression for the electron transfer rate constant was derived using the Green`s function method. In the adiabatic regime, electron transfer process is generally nonexponential. Because of the time-retardation, initial electron transfer reaction is influenced more by the higher frequency components in the solvent relaxation.
Quantum non-Markovian Langevin formalism for heavy ion reactions near the Coulomb barrier
Sargsyan, V. V.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.
2008-02-15
The generalized Langevin approach is suggested to describe the capture inside of the Coulomb barrier of two heavy nuclei at bombarding energies near the barrier. The equations of motion for the relative distance (collective coordinate) between two interacting nuclei are consistent with the generalized quantum fluctuation-dissipation relations. The analytical expressions are derived for the time-dependent non-Markovian microscopic transport coefficients for the stable and unstable collective modes. The calculated results show that the quantum effects in the diffusion process increase with increasing friction or/and decreasing temperature. The capture probability inside of the Coulomb barrier is enhanced by the quantum noise at low energies near the barrier. An increase of the passing probability with dissipation is found at sub-barrier energies.
Comparison of different measures for quantum discord under non-Markovian noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Z. Y.; Yang, W. L.; Xiao, X.; Feng, M.
2011-09-01
Two geometric measures for quantum discord were recently proposed by Modi et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett.104 080501) and Dakić et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett.105 190502). We study the similarities and differences for total quantum correlations of Bell-diagonal states using these two geometry-based quantum discord and the original quantum discord. We show that, under non-Markovian dephasing channels, quantum discord and one of the geometric measures remain constant for a finite amount of time, but not the other geometric measure. However, all the three measures share a common sudden change point. Our study on critical point of sudden transition might be useful for keeping long-time total quantum correlations under decoherence.
Ritschel, Gerhard; Möbius, Sebastian; Eisfeld, Alexander; Suess, Daniel; Strunz, Walter T.
2015-01-21
Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion (NMQSD) has turned out to be an efficient method to calculate excitonic properties of aggregates composed of organic chromophores, taking into account the coupling of electronic transitions to vibrational modes of the chromophores. NMQSD is an open quantum system approach that incorporates environmental degrees of freedom (the vibrations in our case) in a stochastic way. We show in this paper that for linear optical spectra (absorption, circular dichroism), no stochastics is needed, even for finite temperatures. Thus, the spectra can be obtained by propagating a single trajectory. To this end, we map a finite temperature environment to the zero temperature case using the so-called thermofield method. The resulting equations can then be solved efficiently by standard integrators.
A Bohmian approach to the non-Markovian non-linear Schrödinger–Langevin equation
Vargas, Andrés F.; Morales-Durán, Nicolás; Bargueño, Pedro
2015-05-15
In this work, a non-Markovian non-linear Schrödinger–Langevin equation is derived from the system-plus-bath approach. After analyzing in detail previous Markovian cases, Bohmian mechanics is shown to be a powerful tool for obtaining the desired generalized equation.
Entanglement evolution of two qubits under noisy environments
Li Jungang; Zou Jian; Shao Bin
2010-10-15
The entanglement evolution of two qubits under local, single-, and two-sided noisy channels is investigated. It is found that for all pure initial states, the entanglement under a one-sided noisy channel is completely determined by the maximal trace distance which is the main element to construct the measure of non-Markovianity. For the two-sided noisy channel case, when the qubits are initially prepared in a general class of states, either pure or mixed, the entanglement can be expressed as the product of the initial entanglement and the channels' action on the maximally entangled state.
Geometry and dynamics of emergent spacetime from entanglement spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsueda, Hiroaki
We examine geometry and dynamics of classical spacetime derived from entanglement spectrum for 1D lattice free fermions. The spacetime is a kind of canonical parameter space defined by the Fisher information metric. The spectrum has exponential family form like thermal probability. Then, the metric is given by the second derivative of the Hessian potential that can be identified with the entanglement entropy. We emphasize that the canonical parameters are nontrivial functions of partial system size by the truncation, filling fraction of fermions, and time. We find that the emergent geometry becomes anti-de Sitter spacetime with imaginary time, and a radial axis as well as spacetime coordinates appears spontaneously. We also find that the information of the UV limit of the original fermions lives in the boundary of the anti-de Sitter spacetime. These findings strongly suggest that the Hessian potential for free fermions has enough geometrical meaning associated with gauge-gravity correspondence.
Average entanglement dynamics in open two-qubit systems with continuous monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guevara, Ivonne; Viviescas, Carlos
2014-07-01
We present a comprehensive implementation of the quantum trajectory theory for the description of the entanglement dynamics in a Markovian open quantum system made of two qubits. We introduce the average concurrence to characterize the entanglement in the system and derive a deterministic evolution equation for it that depends on the ways in which information is read from the environment. This buildt-in flexibility of the method is used to address two actual issues in quantum information: entanglement protection and entanglement estimation. We identify general physical situations in which an entanglement protection protocol based on local monitoring of the environment can be implemented. Additionally, we methodically find unravelings of the system dynamics providing analytical tight bounds for the unmonitored entanglement in the system at all times. We conclude by showing the independence of the method from the choice of entanglement measure.
Motion-Enhanced Quantum Entanglement in the Dynamics of Excitation Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Wei; Huang, Yi-Sheng; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2015-08-01
We investigate the dynamics of entanglement in the excitation transfer through a chain of interacting molecules. In the case of two-molecule coupled to noisy environments we show that entanglement can be further enhanced if the distance between the molecules is oscillating. Our results demonstrate that motional effect plays a constructive role on quantum entanglement in the dynamics of excitation transfer. This mechanism might provide useful guideline for designing artificial systems to battle against decoherence.
Yao, Yao
2015-09-15
The deep sub-Ohmic spin–boson model shows a longstanding non-Markovian coherence at low temperature. Motivating to quench this robust coherence, the thermal effect is unitarily incorporated into the time evolution of the model, which is calculated by the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group algorithm combined with the orthogonal polynomials theory. Via introducing a unitary heating operator to the bosonic bath, the bath is heated up so that a majority portion of the bosonic excited states is occupied. It is found in this situation the coherence of the spin is quickly quenched even in the coherent regime, in which the non-Markovian feature dominates. With this finding we come up with a novel way to implement the unitary equilibration, the essential term of the eigenstate-thermalization hypothesis, through a short-time evolution of the model.
Continuous Time Open Quantum Random Walks and Non-Markovian Lindblad Master Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellegrini, Clément
2014-02-01
A new type of quantum random walks, called Open Quantum Random Walks, has been developed and studied in Attal et al. (Open quantum random walks, preprint) and (Central limit theorems for open quantum random walks, preprint). In this article we present a natural continuous time extension of these Open Quantum Random Walks. This continuous time version is obtained by taking a continuous time limit of the discrete time Open Quantum Random Walks. This approximation procedure is based on some adaptation of Repeated Quantum Interactions Theory (Attal and Pautrat in Annales Henri Poincaré Physique Théorique 7:59-104, 2006) coupled with the use of correlated projectors (Breuer in Phys Rev A 75:022103, 2007). The limit evolutions obtained this way give rise to a particular type of quantum master equations. These equations appeared originally in the non-Markovian generalization of the Lindblad theory (Breuer in Phys Rev A 75:022103, 2007). We also investigate the continuous time limits of the quantum trajectories associated with Open Quantum Random Walks. We show that the limit evolutions in this context are described by jump stochastic differential equations. Finally we present a physical example which can be described in terms of Open Quantum Random Walks and their associated continuous time limits.
Long-time behavior of a non-Markovian Brownian oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Glen R.
1982-10-01
A study is made of the relaxation process of a Brownian harmonic oscillator based upon the generalized Langevin equation (GLE). A non-Markovian damping term appears in the GLE in order to satisfy a fluctuation-dissipation relation when the stochastic force is not delta-correlated. If the force auto-correlation function is assumed to be approximated by a decaying exponential, then an equivalent Markovian Fokker-Planck equation may be written down in terms of an extended variable set. The extra variable is eliminated by a projection operator technique to obtain a modified Fokker-Planck equation with correction terms in successive powers of the correlation time that are different from those found by van Kampen and by San Miguel and Sancho. In the limit of small damping rate, an energy transport equation is derived which indicates a systematic increase in relaxation time as the force auto-correlation time increases from zero up to about one-third of the oscillation period. The expansion breaks down for longer correlation times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedotov, Sergei; Korabel, Nickolay
2015-12-01
We present a nonlinear and non-Markovian random walks model for stochastic movement and the spatial aggregation of living organisms that have the ability to sense population density. We take into account social crowding effects for which the dispersal rate is a decreasing function of the population density and residence time. We perform stochastic simulations of random walks and discover the phenomenon of self-organized anomaly (SOA), which leads to a collapse of stationary aggregation pattern. This anomalous regime is self-organized and arises without the need for a heavy tailed waiting time distribution from the inception. Conditions have been found under which the nonlinear random walk evolves into anomalous state when all particles aggregate inside a tiny domain (anomalous aggregation). We obtain power-law stationary density-dependent survival function and define the critical condition for SOA as the divergence of mean residence time. The role of the initial conditions in different SOA scenarios is discussed. We observe phenomenon of transient anomalous bimodal aggregation.
Applying benchmarking protocols to encoded qubits with non-Markovian errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkel, Seth
An essential goal for any quantum information processing platform is to develop the tools necessary to validate high-fidelity quantum gates. This effort has produced a suite of benchmarking and tomographic protocols that have been applied to a wide variety of physical implementations. All these protocols, however, were designed with strict error assumptions that can and will be violated by physical errors, especially as we push to lower and lower error rates. In this talk we look at randomized benchmarking with encoded states (from which leakage errors may occur) in the presence of non-Markovian noise and under the influence of sequence-length dependent filtering errors. These circumstances may apply to a variety of physical systems, but are particularly pertinent for 1/f charge noise and hyperfine leakage noise in electrically controlled quantum dot qubits. We demonstrate how these errors affect the outcome of randomized benchmarking, including the signatures of said errors and the confidence with which we can report an average gate fidelity.
Bright bichromatic entanglement and quantum dynamics of sum frequency generation
Olsen, M. K.; Bradley, A. S.
2008-02-15
We investigate the quantum properties of the well-known process of sum frequency generation, showing that it is potentially a very useful source of nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, some of which are not possible with the more common techniques. We show that it can produce quadrature squeezed light, bright bichromatic entangled states, and symmetric and asymmetric demonstrations of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. We also show that the semiclassical equations totally fail to describe the mean-field dynamics when the cavity is strongly pumped.
Entanglement and quantum discord dynamics of two atoms under practical feedback control
Li Yang; Luo Bin; Guo Hong
2011-07-15
We study the dynamics of two identical atoms resonantly coupled to a single-mode cavity under practical feedback control, and focus on the detection inefficiency. The entanglement is induced to vanish in finite time by the inefficiency of detection. Counterintuitively, the asymptotic entanglement and quantum discord can be increased by the inefficiency of detection. The noise of detection triggers the control field to create entanglement and discord when no photons are emitted from the atoms. Furthermore, sudden change happens to the dynamics of entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grest, Gary S.
2008-03-01
Twenty years ago at the APS March Meeting, Kurt Kremer and I presented the first numerical evidence from computer simulations that the reptation model of Edwards and de Gennes correctly describes the dynamics of entangled linear polymer melts. For chains longer than the entanglement length Ne, the monomers of a chain move predominantly along their own contour. The distinctive signature of reptation dynamics, which we observed, was that on intermediate time scales, the mean squared displacement of a monomer increases with time as t^ 1/4. Though these early simulations were limited to chains of a few Ne, they demonstrated the potential of computer simulations to contribute to our understanding of polymer dynamics. Here I will review the progress over the past twenty years and present an outlook for the future in modeling entangled polymer melts and networks. With present day computers coupled with efficient parallel molecular dynamics codes, it is now possible to follow the equilibrium dynamics of chains of length 10-20Ne from the early Rouse regime to the long time diffusive regime. Result of these simulations support the earlier results obtained on chains of only a few Ne. Further evidence for the tube models of polymer dynamics has been obtained by identifying the primitive path mesh that characterizes the microscopic topological state of the computer- generated conformations of the chains. In particular, the plateau moduli derived on the basis of this analysis quantitatively reproduce experimental data for a wide spectrum of entangled polymer liquids including semi-dilute theta solutions of synthetic polymers, the corresponding dense melts, and solutions of semi-flexible (bio)polymers such as f-actin or suspensions of rodlike viruses. We also find that in agreement with the reptation model, the stress, end-to-end distance and entanglement length of an entangled melt subjected to uniaxial elongation, all relax on the same time scale.
Entanglement dynamics for a conditionally kicked harmonic oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrais, Eric G.; Sales, J. S.; de Almeida, N. G.
2016-08-01
The time evolution of the quantum kicked harmonic oscillator (KHO) is described by the Floquet operator which maps the state of the system immediately before one kick onto the state at a time immediately after the next. Quantum KHO is characterized by three parameters: the coupling strength V 0, the so-called Lamb–Dicke parameter η whose square is proportional to the effective Planck constant {{\\hslash }}{{eff}}, and the ratio T of the natural frequency of the oscillator and the kick frequency. To a given coupling strength and depending on T being a natural or irrational number, the phase space of the classical kicked oscillator can display different behaviors, as for example, stochastic webs or quasicrystal structures, thus showing a chaotic or localized behavior that is mirrored in the quantum phase space. On the other hand, the classical limit is studied letting {{\\hslash }}{{eff}} become negligible. In this paper we investigate how the ratio T, considered as integer, rational or irrational, influences the entanglement dynamics of the quantum KHO and study how the entanglement dynamics behaves when varying either V 0 or {{\\hslash }}{{eff}} parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Silva, Roberto; Vainstein, Mendeli H.; Lamb, Luis C.; Prado, Sandra D.
2013-03-01
We propose a novel probabilistic model that outputs the final standings of a soccer league, based on a simple dynamics that mimics a soccer tournament. In our model, a team is created with a defined potential (ability) which is updated during the tournament according to the results of previous games. The updated potential modifies a team future winning/losing probabilities. We show that this evolutionary game is able to reproduce the statistical properties of final standings of actual editions of the Brazilian tournament (Brasileirão) if the starting potential is the same for all teams. Other leagues such as the Italian (Calcio) and the Spanish (La Liga) tournaments have notoriously non-Gaussian traces and cannot be straightforwardly reproduced by this evolutionary non-Markovian model with simple initial conditions. However, we show that by setting the initial abilities based on data from previous tournaments, our model is able to capture the stylized statistical features of double round robin system (DRRS) tournaments in general. A complete understanding of these phenomena deserves much more attention, but we suggest a simple explanation based on data collected in Brazil: here several teams have been crowned champion in previous editions corroborating that the champion typically emerges from random fluctuations that partly preserve the Gaussian traces during the tournament. On the other hand, in the Italian and Spanish cases, only a few teams in recent history have won their league tournaments. These leagues are based on more robust and hierarchical structures established even before the beginning of the tournament. For the sake of completeness, we also elaborate a totally Gaussian model (which equalizes the winning, drawing, and losing probabilities) and we show that the scores of the Brazilian tournament “Brasileirão” cannot be reproduced. This shows that the evolutionary aspects are not superfluous and play an important role which must be considered in
Microscopic theory for dynamics in entangled polymer nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Umi
New microscopic theories for describing dynamics in polymer nanocomposites are developed and applied. The problem is addressed from two distinct perspectives and using two different theoretical approaches. The first half of this dissertation studies the long-time and intermediate-time dynamics of nanoparticles in entangled and unentangled polymer melts for dilute particle concentrations. Using a combination of mode-coupling, Brownian motion, and polymer physics ideas, the nanoparticle long-time diffusion coefficients is formulated in terms of multiple length-scales, packing microstructures, and spatially-resolved polymer density fluctuation dynamics. The key motional mechanism is described via the parallel relaxation of the force exerted on the particle controlled by collective polymer constraint-release and the particle self-motion. A sharp but smooth crossover from the hydrodynamic to the non-hydrodynamic regime is predicted based on the Stokes-Einstein violation ratio as a function of all the system variables. Quantitative predictions are made for the recovery of the Stokes-Einstein law, and the diffusivity in the crossover regime agrees surprisingly well with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations for all particle sizes and chain lengths studied. The approach is also extended to address intermediate-time anomalous transport of a single nanoparticle and two-particle relative diffusion. The second half of this dissertation focuses on developing a novel dynamical theory for a liquid of infinitely-thin rods in the presence of hard spherical obstacles, aiming at a technical and conceptual extension of the existing paradigm for entangled polymer dynamics. As a fundamental theoretical development, the two-component generalization of a first-principles dynamic meanfield approach is presented. The theory enforces inter-needle topological uncrossability and needlesphere impenetrability in a unified manner, leading to a generalized theory of entanglements that
Finite-Temperature Entanglement Dynamics in an Anisotropic Two-Qubit Heisenberg Spin Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tao; Shan, Chuanjia; Li, Jinxing; Liu, Tangkun; Huang, Yanxia; Li, Hong
2010-07-01
This paper investigates the entanglement dynamics of an anisotropic two-qubit Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of decoherence at finite temperature. The time evolution of the concurrence is studied for different initial Werner states. The influences of initial purity, finite temperature, spontaneous decay and Hamiltonian on the entanglement evolution are analyzed in detail. Our calculations show that the finite temperature restricts the evolution of the entanglement all the time when the Hamiltonian improves it and the spontaneous decay to the reservoirs can produce quantum entanglement with the anisotropy of spin-spin interaction. Finally, the steady-state concurrence which may remain non-zero for low temperature is also given.
Dynamical behavior of entanglements by means of the mean standard deviation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wacha, Marcus; Kreitmeier, Stefan
2005-07-01
In this paper we present our results on the dynamical behavior within the interior parts of an entanglement. Therefore, we analyzed the mean standard deviation sm for each monomer of the entangled chains. The calculations were performed at two deformation ratios for three different basic systems—the cross, slant, and along systems—each of them representing a different structural orientation of the entanglement. Additionally, we varied the number of loops l, the distance a of the end monomers, and the inverse temperature β. Depending on the number of loops l we get different effects. Whereas a one time entangled system rather acts like a chemical cross link, a six times entangled system forms an unoriented entangled area and an orientated residual part.
Simulating typical entanglement with many-body Hamiltonian dynamics
Nakata, Yoshifumi; Murao, Mio
2011-11-15
We study the time evolution of the amount of entanglement generated by one-dimensional spin-1/2 Ising-type Hamiltonians composed of many-body interactions. We investigate sets of states randomly selected during the time evolution generated by several types of time-independent Hamiltonians by analyzing the distributions of the amount of entanglement of the sets. We compare such entanglement distributions with that of typical entanglement, entanglement of a set of states randomly selected from a Hilbert space with respect to the unitarily invariant measure. We show that the entanglement distribution obtained by a time-independent Hamiltonian can simulate the average and standard deviation of the typical entanglement, if the Hamiltonian contains suitable many-body interactions. We also show that the time required to achieve such a distribution is polynomial in the system size for certain types of Hamiltonians.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Manish K.; You, Chenglong; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P.
We study the dynamics of decoherence in an optical fiber for the case of entangled photons. Such a study will allow us to increase the physical length of fiber for the transmission of entangled photon from the sources such as SPDC. We analytically derive the model for decoherence of entangled state photons in a single-mode fiber. We also show that entanglement lifetime can be increased with open loop control technique called dynamical decoupling.
Entanglement Dynamics and its Application for Two Qubits in Dissipative Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Z. Q.; Yu, X. G.; Fu, Guolan; Xu, Hualan; Yu, Yanxia
2015-02-01
An entanglement dynamics of two dissipative qubits under different situation of initial conditions is studied. We find that the periodic disentanglement and entanglement results from the interaction between two qubits, while the disentanglement is primarily caused by environmental perturbations. In the two cases of a pure dephasing environment and a normal environment, the sudden death of entanglement (ESD) is happened. For a simple dissipative environment, the sudden death of entanglement disappears for non-interacting qubits. The concurrence decreases gradually with the involving time, where the stronger the strength interacting with the environment is, the faster the attenuation of the amplitude of concurrence should be. Without the interaction with the environment, ESD would disappear. Furthermore, the applications of quantum entanglement are discussed in the rotating operator dynamics and the populations of quantum states.
Dynamics of Entanglement in Qubit-Qutrit with x-Component of DM Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Kapil K.; Pandey, S. N.
2016-03-01
In this present paper, we study the entanglement dynamics in qubit A-qutrit B pair under x component of Dzyaloshinshkii–Moriya interaction (Dx) by taking an auxiliary qubit C. Here, we consider an entangled qubit-qutrit pair initially prepared in two parameter qubit-qutrit states and one auxiliary qubit prepared in pure state interacts with the qutrit of the pair through DM interaction. We trace away the auxiliary qubit and calculate the reduced dynamics in qubit A-qutrit B pair to study the influence of the state of auxiliary qubit C and Dx on entanglement. We find that the state (probability amplitude) of auxiliary qubit does not influence the entanglement, only Dx influences the same. The phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD) induced by Dx has also been observed. We also present the affected and unaffected two parameter qubit-qutrit states by Dx.
Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Wenchong
Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have
Publisher's Note: Non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012111 (2006)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniscalco, Sabrina; Petruccione, Franceso
2006-02-01
This paper was published online on 24 January 2006 with an incorrect electronic address in the first author’s byline footnote. The electronic address for the first author should read “sabrina.maniscalco@utu.fi.” The byline footnote has been corrected as of 26 January 2006. The byline footnote is correct in the printed version of the journal.
Publisher's Note: Non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012111 (2006)
Maniscalco, Sabrina; Petruccione, Franceso
2006-02-15
This paper was published online on 24 January 2006 with an incorrect electronic address in the first author's byline footnote. The electronic address for the first author should read 'sabrina.maniscalco at utu.fi'. The byline footnote has been corrected as of 26 January 2006. The byline footnote is correct in the printed version of the journal.
CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Dynamical Control of Entanglement and Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akulin, V.; Kurizki, G.; Lidar, D.
2006-11-01
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics invites you to submit a paper to a forthcoming special issue on Dynamical Control of Entanglement and Decoherence to appear in 2007. Please see pdf for details.
Ikeda, Tatsushi; Ito, Hironobu; Tanimura, Yoshitaka
2015-06-01
We explore and describe the roles of inter-molecular vibrations employing a Brownian oscillator (BO) model with linear-linear (LL) and square-linear (SL) system-bath interactions, which we use to analyze two-dimensional (2D) THz-Raman spectra obtained by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition to linear infrared absorption (1D IR), we calculated 2D Raman-THz-THz, THz-Raman-THz, and THz-THz-Raman signals for liquid formamide, water, and methanol using an equilibrium non-equilibrium hybrid MD simulation. The calculated 1D IR and 2D THz-Raman signals are compared with results obtained from the LL+SL BO model applied through use of hierarchal Fokker-Planck equations with non-perturbative and non-Markovian noise. We find that all of the qualitative features of the 2D profiles of the signals obtained from the MD simulations are reproduced with the LL+SL BO model, indicating that this model captures the essential features of the inter-molecular motion. We analyze the fitted 2D profiles in terms of anharmonicity, nonlinear polarizability, and dephasing time. The origins of the echo peaks of the librational motion and the elongated peaks parallel to the probe direction are elucidated using optical Liouville paths. PMID:26049441
Fedotov, Sergei; Iomin, Alexander; Ryashko, Lev
2011-12-01
Proliferation and migration dichotomy of the tumor cell invasion is examined within two non-Markovian models. We consider the tumor spheroid, which consists of the tumor core with a high density of cells and the outer invasive zone. We distinguish two different regions of the outer invasive zone and develop models for both zones. In model I we analyze the near-core-outer region, where biased migration away from the tumor spheroid core takes place. We suggest non-Markovian switching between the migrating and proliferating phenotypes of tumor cells. Nonlinear master equations for mean densities of cancer cells of both phenotypes are derived. In anomalous switching case we estimate the average size of the near-core-outer region that corresponds to sublinear growth (r(t)) ~ t(μ) for 0 < μ < 1. In model II we consider the outer zone, where the density of cancer cells is very low. We suggest an integrodifferential equation for the total density of cancer cells. For proliferation rate we use the classical logistic growth, while the migration of cells is subdiffusive. The exact formulas for the overall spreading rate of cancer cells are obtained by a hyperbolic scaling and Hamilton-Jacobi techniques. PMID:22304064
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, Ulf; Saalfrank, Peter
2015-02-01
System-bath problems in physics and chemistry are often described by Markovian master equations. However, the Markov approximation, i.e., neglect of bath memory effects is not always justified, and different measures of non-Markovianity have been suggested in the literature to judge the validity of this approximation. Here we calculate several computable measures of non-Markovianity for the non-trivial problem of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a large number of bath oscillators. The Multi Configurational Time Dependent Hartree method is used to provide a numerically converged solution of the system-bath Schrödinger equation, from which the appropriate quantities can be calculated. In particular, we consider measures based on trace-distances and quantum discord for a variety of initial states. These quantities have proven useful in the case of two-level and other small model systems typically encountered in quantum optics, but are less straightforward to interpret for the more complex model systems that are relevant for chemical physics. Supplementary material in the form of one zip file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2014-50727-8
Dynamic entanglement transfer in a double-cavity optomechanical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huan, Tiantian; Zhou, Rigui; Ian, Hou
2015-08-01
We give a theoretical study of a double-cavity system in which a mechanical resonator beam is coupled to two cavity modes on both sides through radiation pressures. The indirect coupling between the cavities via the resonator sets up a correlation in the optomechanical entanglements between the two cavities with the common resonator. This correlation initiates an entanglement transfer from the intracavity photon-phonon entanglements to an intercavity photon-photon entanglement. Using numerical solutions, we show two distinct regimes of the optomechanical system, in which the indirect entanglement either builds up and eventually saturates or undergoes a death-and-revival cycle, after a time lapse for initiating the cooperative motion of the left and right cavity modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadiek, Gehad; Almalki, Samaher
2016-07-01
We consider a finite one-dimensional Heisenberg XYZ spin chain under the influence of a dissipative Lindblad environment obeying the Born-Markovian constraint in presence of an external magnetic field with closed and open boundary conditions. We present an exact numerical solution for the Lindblad master equation of the system in the Liouville space. The dynamics and asymptotic behavior of the nearest-neighbor and beyond-nearest-neighbor pairwise entanglements in the system are investigated under the effect of spatial anisotropy, temperature, system size, and different initial states. The entanglements in the free spin system exhibit nonuniform oscillatory behavior that varies significantly depending on the system size, anisotropy, and initial state. The x y spatial anisotropy dictates the asymptotic behavior of the different entanglements in the system under the influence of the environment regardless of the initial state. Higher anisotropy yields higher steady-state value of the nearest-neighbor entanglement whereas a complete isotropy wipes it out. The longer range entanglements respond differently to the anisotropy variation. The anisotropy in the z direction may enhance the entanglements depending on the interplay with the magnetic field applied in the same direction. As the temperature is raised, the steady state of the short-range entanglements is found to be robust within very small nonzero temperature range that depends critically on the spatial anisotropy. Moreover, the end to end entanglement transfer time and speed through the open boundary chain vary considerably based on the degree of anisotropy and temperature of the environment.
Large dynamic light-matter entanglement from driving neither too fast nor too slow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acevedo, O. L.; Quiroga, L.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Johnson, N. F.
2015-09-01
A significant problem facing next-generation quantum technologies is how to generate and manipulate macroscopic entanglement in light and matter systems. Here we report a regime of dynamical light-matter behavior in which a giant, system-wide entanglement is generated by varying the light-matter coupling at intermediate velocities. This enhancement is far larger, broader ranged, and more experimentally accessible than that occurring near the quantum phase transition of the same model under adiabatic conditions. By appropriate choices of the coupling within this intermediate regime, the enhanced entanglement can be made to spread system-wide or to reside in each subsystem separately.
Coherent dynamics of a telecom-wavelength entangled photon source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, M. B.; Dean, M. C.; Stevenson, R. M.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Cooper, K.; Farrer, I.; Nicoll, C. A.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
2014-02-01
Quantum networks can interconnect remote quantum information processors, allowing interaction between different architectures and increasing net computational power. Fibre-optic telecommunications technology offers a practical platform for routing weakly interacting photonic qubits, allowing quantum correlations and entanglement to be established between distant nodes. Although entangled photons have been produced at telecommunications wavelengths using spontaneous parametric downconversion in nonlinear media, as system complexity increases their inherent excess photon generation will become limiting. Here we demonstrate entangled photon pair generation from a semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunications wavelength. Emitted photons are intrinsically anti-bunched and violate Bell’s inequality by 17 standard deviations High-visibility oscillations of the biphoton polarization reveal the time evolution of the emitted state with exceptional clarity, exposing long coherence times. Furthermore, we introduce a method to evaluate the fidelity to a time-evolving Bell state, revealing entanglement between photons emitted up to 5 ns apart, exceeding the exciton lifetime.
Entanglement entropy in dynamic quantum-coherent conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Konrad H.; Flindt, Christian
2015-03-01
We investigate the entanglement and the Rényi entropies of two electronic leads connected by a quantum point contact. For noninteracting electrons, the entropies can be related to the cumulants of the full counting statistics of transferred charge which in principle are measurable. We consider the entanglement entropy generated by operating the quantum point contact as a quantum switch which is opened and closed in a periodic manner. Using a numerically exact approach we analyze the conditions under which a logarithmic growth of the entanglement entropy predicted by conformal field theory should be observable in an electronic conductor. In addition, we consider clean single-particle excitations on top of the Fermi sea (levitons) generated by applying designed pulses to the leads. We identify a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like suppression of the entanglement entropy by interfering two levitons on a quantum point contact tuned to half transmission.
Dynamics of holographic entanglement entropy following a local quench
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rangamani, Mukund; Rozali, Moshe; Vincart-Emard, Alexandre
2016-04-01
We discuss the behaviour of holographic entanglement entropy following a local quench in 2+1 dimensional strongly coupled CFTs. The entanglement generated by the quench propagates along an emergent light-cone, reminiscent of the Lieb-Robinson light-cone propagation of correlations in non-relativistic systems. We find the speed of propagation is bounded from below by the entanglement tsunami velocity obtained earlier for global quenches in holographic systems, and from above by the speed of light. The former is realized for sufficiently broad quenches, while the latter pertains for well localized quenches. The non-universal behavior in the intermediate regime appears to stem from finite-size effects. We also note that the entanglement entropy of subsystems reverts to the equilibrium value exponentially fast, in contrast to a much slower equilibration seen in certain spin models.
Influences of Initial States on Entanglement Dynamics of Two Central Spins in a Spin Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Wen-Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming; Li, Lin; Zou, Jian; Li, Hai; Shao, Bin
2016-03-01
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two electronic spins coupled to a bath of nuclear spins for two special cases, one is that two central spins both interact with a common bath, and the other is that one of two spins interacts with a bath. We consider three types of initial states with different correlations between the system and the bath, i.e., quantum correlation, classical correlation, and no-correlation. We show that the initial correlations (no matter quantum correlations or classical correlations) can effectively avoid the occurrence of entanglement sudden death. Irrespective of whether both two spins or only one of the two spins interacts with the bath, the system can gain more entanglement in the process of the time evolution for initial quantum correlations. In addition, we find that the effects of the distribution of coupling constants on entanglement dynamics crucially depend on the initial state of the spin bath.
Entanglement dynamics of three interacting two-level atoms within a common structured environment
An, Nguyen Ba; Kim, Jaewan; Kim, Kisik
2011-08-15
We derive exact time evolution of three two-level atoms coupled to a common environment. The environment is structured and is modeled by a leaky cavity with Lorentzian spectral density. The atoms are initially prepared in a generalized W state and later on experience pairwise dipole-dipole interactions and couplings to the cavity. We study tripartite disentangling and entangling dynamics as well as protecting bipartite entanglement with both atom-atom interactions and atom-cavity couplings taken simultaneously into account.
Preserving entanglement and nonlocality in solid-state qubits by dynamical decoupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo Franco, R.; D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.; Compagno, G.; Paladino, E.
2014-08-01
In this paper, we study how to preserve entanglement and nonlocality under dephasing produced by classical noise with large low-frequency components, such as 1/f noise, using dynamical decoupling techniques. We first show that quantifiers of entanglement and nonlocality satisfy a closed relation valid for two independent qubits locally coupled to a generic environment under pure dephasing and starting from a general class of initial states. This result allows us to assess the efficiency of pulse-based dynamical decoupling for protecting nonlocal quantum correlations between two qubits subject to pure-dephasing local random telegraph and 1/f noise. We investigate the efficiency of an "entanglement memory" element under two-pulse echo and under sequences of periodic, Carr-Purcell, and Uhrig dynamical decoupling. The Carr-Purcell sequence is shown to outperform the other sequences in preserving entanglement against both random telegraph and 1/f noise. For typical 1/f flux-noise figures in superconducting nanocircuits, we show that entanglement and its nonlocal features can be efficiently stored up to times one order of magnitude longer than natural entanglement disappearance times employing pulse timings of current experimental reach.
Buldyreva, Jeanna; Daneshvar, Leila
2013-10-28
The non-Markovian Energy-Corrected Sudden approach [J. Buldyreva and L. Bonamy, Phys. Rev. A 60, 370 (1999)] previously developed for wide-band rototranslational Raman spectra of linear rotors is extended to the case of infrared absorption by linear molecules with stretching and bending modes. Basic relations such as detailed balance and double-sided sum rules for the rotational relaxation matrix are easily satisfied owing to the specific choice of a symmetric metric in the Liouville space. A single set of model parameters deduced from experimental widths of isolated isotropic Raman lines enables calculations of line-shape characteristics and full spectra up to the far wings. Applications to the important but quite complex example of pure carbon dioxide indicate the crucial role of the frequency dependence in the relaxation operator even for calculations of isolated-line characteristics. PMID:24182004
Dynamics of entanglement in a two-dimensional spin system
Xu Qing; Sadiek, Gehad; Kais, Sabre
2011-06-15
We consider the time evolution of entanglement in a finite two-dimensional transverse Ising model. The model consists of a set of seven localized spin-(1/2) particles in a two-dimensional triangular lattice coupled through nearest-neighbor exchange interaction in the presence of an external time-dependent magnetic field. The magnetic field is applied in different function forms: step, exponential, hyperbolic, and periodic. We found that the time evolution of the entanglement shows an ergodic behavior under the effect of the time-dependent magnetic fields. Also, we found that while the step magnetic field causes great disturbance to the system, creating rapid oscillations, the system shows great controllability under the effects of the other magnetic fields where the entanglement profile follows closely the shape of the applied field even with the same frequency for periodic fields. This follow-up trend breaks down as the strength of the field, the transition constant for the exponential and hyperbolic forms, or the frequency for periodic field increase leading to rapid oscillations. We observed that the entanglement is very sensitive to the initial value of the applied periodic field: the smaller the initial value is, the less distorted the entanglement profile is. Furthermore, the effect of thermal fluctuations is very devastating to the entanglement, which decays very rapidly as the temperature increases. Interestingly, although a large value of the magnetic field strength may yield a small entanglement, the magnetic field strength was found to be more persistent against thermal fluctuations than the small field strengths.
Entanglement dynamics of electron-electron scattering in low-dimensional semiconductor systems
Buscemi, F.; Bordone, P.; Bertoni, A.
2006-05-15
We perform the quantitative evaluation of the entanglement dynamics in scattering events between two indistinguishable electrons interacting via the Coulomb potential in one- and two-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures. We apply a criterion based on the von Neumann entropy and the Schmidt decomposition of the global state vector suitable for systems of identical particles. From the time-dependent numerical solution of the two-particle wave function of the scattering carriers we compute their entanglement evolution for different spin configurations: two electrons with the same spin, with different spin, and singlet and triplet spin states. The procedure allows us to evaluate the mechanisms that govern entanglement creation and their connection with the characteristic physical parameters and initial conditions of the system. The cases in which the evolution of entanglement is similar to the one obtained for distinguishable particles are discussed.
Dynamical features of interference phenomena in the presence of entanglement
Kaufherr, T.; Aharonov, Y.; Nussinov, S.; Popescu, S.; Tollaksen, J.
2011-05-15
A strongly interacting, and entangling, heavy nonrecoiling external particle effects a significant change of the environment. Described locally, the corresponding entanglement event is a generalized electric Aharonov-Bohm effect, which differs from the original one in a crucial way. We propose a gedanken interference experiment. The predicted shift of the interference pattern is due to a self-induced or ''private'' potential difference experienced while the particle is in vacuum. We show that all nontrivial Born-Oppenheimer potentials are ''private'' potentials. We apply the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to interference states. Using our approach, we calculate the relative phase of the external heavy particle as well as its uncertainty throughout an interference experiment or entanglement event. We thus complement the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for interference states.
Dynamical generation and detection of entanglement in neutral leviton pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasenbrook, David; Flindt, Christian
2015-10-01
The entanglement of coherently split electron-hole pairs in an electronic conductor is typically not considered accessible due to particle number conservation and fermionic superselection rules. We demonstrate here that current cross-correlation measurements at the outputs of an electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer can nevertheless provide a robust witness of electron-hole entanglement. Specifically, we consider neutral excitations generated by modulating the transmission of an unbiased quantum point contact periodically in time. For an optimized modulation profile, an entangled state with one positively-charged leviton (a hole) and one negatively-charged leviton (an electron) gets delocalized over the two paths of the interferometer and is detected at the output arms. We evaluate the influence of finite electronic temperatures and dephasing corresponding to recent experiments.
Dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins interacting with nuclear spin baths in quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragar, Igor; Cywiński, Łukasz
2015-04-01
We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example, their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields, the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of π pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the z component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses and the fidelity of quantum teleportation, performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.
Entanglement dynamics of photon pairs emitted from quantum dots
Zou, Yang; Gong, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Chen, Geng; Tang, Jian-Shun; Guo, Guang-Can
2010-06-15
We present a model that describes states of photon pairs, which have been generated by biexciton cascade decays of self-assembled quantum dots, the use of which yields a finding that agrees well with the experimental result. Furthermore, we calculate the concurrence and determine the temperature behavior associated with the so-called entanglement sudden death that prevents quantum dots emitting entangled photon pairs at raised temperatures. The relationship between the fine-structure splitting and the sudden death temperature is also provided.
Open-system dynamics of entanglement:a key issues review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz
2015-04-01
One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations. In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors. In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and
Generalized uncertainty relations and entanglement dynamics in quantum Brownian motion models
Anastopoulos, C.; Kechribaris, S.; Mylonas, D.
2010-10-15
We study entanglement dynamics in quantum Brownian motion (QBM) models. Our main tool is the Wigner function propagator. Time evolution in the Wigner picture is physically intuitive and it leads to a simple derivation of a master equation for any number of system harmonic oscillators and spectral density of the environment. It also provides generalized uncertainty relations, valid for any initial state, that allow a characterization of the environment in terms of the modifications it causes to the system's dynamics. In particular, the uncertainty relations are very informative about the entanglement dynamics of Gaussian states, and to a lesser extent for other families of states. For concreteness, we apply these techniques to a bipartite QBM model, describing the processes of entanglement creation, disentanglement, and decoherence at all temperatures and time scales.
Self-Similar Conformations and Dynamics of Non-Concatenated Entangled Ring Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Ting
A scaling model of self-similar conformations and dynamics of non-concatenated entangled ring polymers is developed. Topological constraints force these ring polymers into compact conformations with fractal dimension D =3 that we call fractal loopy globules (FLGs). This result is based on the conjecture that the overlap parameter of loops on all length scales is equal to the Kavassalis-Noolandi number 10-20. The dynamics of entangled rings is self-similar, and proceeds as loops of increasing sizes are rearranged progressively at their respective diffusion times. The topological constraints associated with smaller rearranged loops affect the dynamics of larger loops by increasing the effective friction coefficient, but have no influence on the tubes confining larger loops. Therefore, the tube diameter defined as the average spacing between relevant topological constraints increases with time, leading to ``tube dilation''. Analysis of the primitive paths in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggests complete tube dilation with the tube diameter on the order of the time-dependent characteristic loop size. A characteristic loop at time t is defined as a ring section that has diffused a distance of its size during time t. We derive dynamic scaling exponents in terms of fractal dimensions of an entangled ring and the underlying primitive path and a parameter characterizing the extent of tube dilation. The results reproduce the predictions of different dynamic models of a single non-concatenated entangled ring. We demonstrate that traditional generalization of single-ring models to multi-ring dynamics is not self-consistent and develop a FLG model with self-consistent multi-ring dynamics and complete tube dilation. Various dynamic scaling exponents predicted by the self-consistent FLG model are consistent with recent computer simulations and experiments. We also perform MD simulations of nanoparticle (NP) diffusion in melts of non-concatenated entangled ring polymers
Entanglement dynamics and decoherence of an atom coupled to a dissipative cavity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhtarshenas, S. J.; Khezrian, M.
2010-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the entanglement dynamics and decoherence in the interacting system of a strongly driven two-level atom and a single mode vacuum field in the presence of dissipation for the cavity field. Starting with an initial product state with the atom in a general pure state and the field in a vacuum state, we show that the final density matrix is supported on {mathbb C}^2⊗{mathbb C}^2 space, and therefore, the concurrence can be used as a measure of entanglement between the atom and the field. The influences of the cavity decay on the quantum entanglement of the system are also discussed. We also examine the Bell-CHSH violation between the atom and the field and show that there are entangled states for which the Bell-BCSH inequality is not violated. Using the above system as a quantum channel, we also investigate the quantum teleportation of a generic qubit state and also a two-qubit entangled state, and show that in both cases the atom-field entangled state can be useful to teleport an unknown state with fidelity better than any classical channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolfe, Michael; Kestner, Jason
Electrons confined in lateral quantum dots are promising candidates for scalable quantum bits. Particularly, singlet-triplet qubits can entangle electrostatically and offer long coherence times due to their weak interactions with the environment. However, fast two-qubit operations are challenging. We examine the dynamics of singlet triplet qubits capacitively coupled to a classical transmission line resonator driven near resonance. We numerically simulate the dynamics of the von Neumann entanglement entropy and investigate parameters of the coupling element that optimizes the operation time for the qubit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Manish Kumar; You, Chenglong; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lee, Hwang
2016-05-01
We study the dynamics of decoherence in an optical fiber for the case of entangled photons. Such a study will allow us to increase the physical length of fiber for transmission of entangled photon from the sources such as SPDC. We analytically derive the model for Decoherence of entangled state photons in a single-mode fiber. We also show that entanglement lifetime can be increased for Bell state and Werner state with open loop control technique called Dynamical decoupling. The authors would like to acknowledge support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Army Research Office, the National Science Foundation and the Northrop Grumman Corporation.
Progress towards an effective non-Markovian description of a system interacting with a bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferialdi, L.; Dürr, D.
2015-04-01
We analyze a system coupled to a bath of independent harmonic oscillators. We transform the bath in chain structure by solving an inverse eigenvalue problem. We solve the equations of motion for the collective variables defined by this transformation, and we derive the exact dynamics for a harmonic oscillator in terms of the microscopic motion of the environmental modes. We compare this approach to the well-known generalized Langevin equation and we show that our dynamics satisfies this equation.
Entanglement dynamics of one-dimensional driven spin systems in time-varying magnetic fields
Alkurtass, Bedoor; Sadiek, Gehad; Kais, Sabre
2011-08-15
We study the dynamics of nearest-neighbor entanglement for a one-dimensional spin chain with a nearest-neighbor time-dependent Heisenberg coupling J(t) between the spins in the presence of a time-dependent external magnetic field h(t) at zero and finite temperatures. We consider different forms of time dependence for the coupling and magnetic field: exponential, hyperbolic, and periodic. Solving the system numerically, we examined the system-size effect on the entanglement asymptotic value. It was found that, for a small system size, the entanglement starts to fluctuate within a short period of time after applying the time-dependent coupling. The period of time increases as the system size increases and disappears completely as the size goes to infinity. Testing the effect of the transition constant for an exponential or hyperbolic coupling showed a direct impact on the asymptotic value of the entanglement; the larger the constant is, the lower the asymptotic value and the more rapid decay of entanglement are, which confirms the nonergodic character of the system. We also found that, when J(t) is periodic, the entanglement shows a periodic behavior with the same period, which disappears upon applying periodic magnetic field with the same frequency. Solving the case J(t)={lambda}h(t), for constant {lambda}, exactly, we showed that the time evolution and asymptotic value of entanglement are dictated solely by the parameter {lambda}=J/h rather than the individual values of J and h, not only when they are time independent and at zero temperature, but also when they are time dependent but proportional at zero and finite temperatures for all degrees of anisotropy.
Dark-matter halo assembly bias: Environmental dependence in the non-Markovian excursion-set theory
Zhang, Jun; Ma, Chung-Pei; Riotto, Antonio
2014-02-10
In the standard excursion-set model for the growth of structure, the statistical properties of halos are governed by the halo mass and are independent of the larger-scale environment in which the halos reside. Numerical simulations, however, have found the spatial distributions of halos to depend not only on their mass but also on the details of their assembly history and environment. Here we present a theoretical framework for incorporating this 'assembly bias' into the excursion-set model. Our derivations are based on modifications of the path-integral approach of Maggiore and Riotto that models halo formation as a non-Markovian random-walk process. The perturbed density field is assumed to evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale and exhibits correlated walks in the presence of a density barrier. We write down conditional probabilities for multiple barrier crossings and derive from them analytic expressions for descendant and progenitor halo mass functions and halo merger rates as a function of both halo mass and the linear overdensity δ {sub e} of the larger-scale environment of the halo. Our results predict a higher halo merger rate and higher progenitor halo mass function in regions of higher overdensity, consistent with the behavior seen in N-body simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strasberg, Philipp; Schaller, Gernot; Lambert, Neill; Brandes, Tobias
2016-07-01
We propose a method to study the thermodynamic behaviour of small systems beyond the weak coupling and Markovian approximation, which is different in spirit from conventional approaches. The idea is to redefine the system and environment such that the effective, redefined system is again coupled weakly to Markovian residual baths and thus, allows to derive a consistent thermodynamic framework for this new system–environment partition. To achieve this goal we make use of the reaction coordinate (RC) mapping, which is a general method in the sense that it can be applied to an arbitrary (quantum or classical and even time-dependent) system coupled linearly to an arbitrary number of harmonic oscillator reservoirs. The core of the method relies on an appropriate identification of a part of the environment (the RC), which is subsequently included as a part of the system. We demonstrate the power of this concept by showing that non-Markovian effects can significantly enhance the steady state efficiency of a three-level-maser heat engine, even in the regime of weak system–bath coupling. Furthermore, we show for a single electron transistor coupled to vibrations that our method allows one to justify master equations derived in a polaron transformed reference frame.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derkacz, Łukasz; Jakóbczyk, Lech
2008-12-01
The dynamics of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. We show that the collective effects such as collective damping, dipole-dipole interaction and the cross coupling between orthogonal dipoles, play a crucial role in the process of creation of entanglement. In particular, the additional cross coupling enhances the production of entanglement. For the specific initial states we find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of entanglement, recently invented by Ficek and Tanaś [Ficek, R. Tanaś, Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 054301] in the case of two-level atoms, can also be observed in the system. When the initial state is entangled, the process of spontaneous emission causes destruction of correlations and its disentanglement. We show that the robustness of initial entanglement against the noise can be changed by local operations performed on the state.
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
Banchi, L.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.
2010-11-15
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
Craven, Galen T; Popov, Alexander V; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2015-04-21
The dynamical properties of a system of soft rods governed by stochastic hard collisions (SHCs) have been determined over a varying range of softness using molecular dynamics simulations in one dimension and analytic theory. The SHC model allows for interpenetration of the system's constituent particles in the simulations, generating overlapping clustering behavior analogous to the spatial structures observed in systems governed by deterministic bounded potentials. Through variation of an assigned softness parameter δ, the limiting ranges of intermolecular softness are bridged, connecting the limiting ensemble behavior from hard to ideal (completely soft). Various dynamical and structural observables are measured from simulation and compared to developed theoretical values. The spatial properties are found to be well predicted by theories developed for the deterministic penetrable-sphere model with a transformation from energetic to probabilistic arguments. While the overlapping spatial structures are complex, the dynamical properties can be adequately approximated through a theory built on impulsive interactions with Enskog corrections. Our theory suggests that as the softness of interaction is varied toward the ideal limit, correlated collision processes are less important to the energy transfer mechanism, and Markovian processes dominate the evolution of the configuration space ensemble. For interaction softness close to hard limit, collision processes are highly correlated and overlapping spatial configurations give rise to entanglement of single-particle trajectories. PMID:25903909
Stochastic dynamics of penetrable rods in one dimension: Entangled dynamics and transport properties
Craven, Galen T.; Popov, Alexander V.; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2015-04-21
The dynamical properties of a system of soft rods governed by stochastic hard collisions (SHCs) have been determined over a varying range of softness using molecular dynamics simulations in one dimension and analytic theory. The SHC model allows for interpenetration of the system’s constituent particles in the simulations, generating overlapping clustering behavior analogous to the spatial structures observed in systems governed by deterministic bounded potentials. Through variation of an assigned softness parameter δ, the limiting ranges of intermolecular softness are bridged, connecting the limiting ensemble behavior from hard to ideal (completely soft). Various dynamical and structural observables are measured from simulation and compared to developed theoretical values. The spatial properties are found to be well predicted by theories developed for the deterministic penetrable-sphere model with a transformation from energetic to probabilistic arguments. While the overlapping spatial structures are complex, the dynamical properties can be adequately approximated through a theory built on impulsive interactions with Enskog corrections. Our theory suggests that as the softness of interaction is varied toward the ideal limit, correlated collision processes are less important to the energy transfer mechanism, and Markovian processes dominate the evolution of the configuration space ensemble. For interaction softness close to hard limit, collision processes are highly correlated and overlapping spatial configurations give rise to entanglement of single-particle trajectories.
Entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system with different interatomic distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Ling-Juan; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Lu; Xia, Yun-Jie
2015-11-01
We investigate the tripartite entanglement dynamics of three two-level atoms in a multi-mode vacuum field. By considering the influences of the interatomic distance and the initial condition on the lower bound of concurrence and the tripartite negativity, we show that an optimal interatomic distance can be found to minimize the collective damping. Interestingly, at the same optimal distance, the tripartite entanglement would be maximized in the open dynamics process. In the case of shorter interatomic distance, the tripartite entanglement can display the oscillatory behavior in the initial short-time limit and be trapped in a stationary value in the long-time limit. In addition, the tripartite entanglement for the general situation with different interatomic distances is also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, and 11304179), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant Nos. BS2013DX034, ZR2012FQ024, and ZR2014AP009).
Quantum spin dynamics and entanglement in systems with long-range interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey, Ana M.
One of the fundamental goals of modern quantum sciences is to learn how to control and manipulate non-equilibrium many-body systems and use them to make powerful and improved quantum devices, materials and technologies. However, out-of-equilibrium systems are complex, typically strongly correlated and entangled, and thus to model them we are in an urgent need of new methodologies. In this talk I will discuss new theoretical methods that we have developed to investigate emergent non-equilibrium phenomena in driven-dissipative spin systems interacting via long-range interactions. I will show we can capture the dynamics of correlations and entanglement in close systems and the interplay between dissipation and entanglement in open quantum systems including spin-boson models. As a specific application I will discuss the use of our methods to model the spin dynamics exhibited by arrays of trapped ions with controllable long-range interactions. I will show that our predictions are consistent with recent experimental measurements. I will also discuss new protocols to diagnostic and characterize entanglement based on well-established NMR protocols This work is supported by NSF, ARO, AFOSR-MURI, and NIST.
Entanglement dynamics of the ultrastrong-coupling three-qubit Dicke model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Lijun; Liu, Yanxia; Zhang, Yunbo
2016-05-01
We give an analytical description of the dynamics of the three-qubit Dicke model using the adiabatic approximation in the parameter regime where the qubit transition frequencies are far off-resonance with the field frequency and the interaction strengths reach the ultrastrong-coupling regimes. Qualitative differences arise upon comparison to single- and two-qubit systems. Simple analytic formulas show that three revival sequences produce a three-frequency beat note in the time evolution of the population. We find an explicit way to estimate the dynamics for qubit-field and qubit-qubit entanglement inside the three-qubit system in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, and the resistance to sudden death proves that the entanglement in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state is more robust than that in the W state.
Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J
2008-07-21
We use a simple spring-spring repulsion to model entanglements between polymers in dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The model is applied to a polymer brushes system to study lubrication. We demonstrate that this method leads to mechanical equilibrium in polymer brushes using the normal DPD time step. The number of bond crossings is calculated to provide a quantitative description of the entanglement. We demonstrate that it is possible to avoid 99% of the bond crossings with the values of spring-spring repulsion that can be used without significantly decreasing the time step. A shear force is applied to the system to study the effect of the decrease in the bond crossings on the structure and rheological properties of the brushes. In particular, we show how the friction coefficient increases with the decrease in the bond crossings of the polymers. PMID:18647043
Dynamics of ionisation and entanglement in the 'atom + quantum electromagnetic field' system
Sharapova, P R; Tikhonova, O V
2012-03-31
The dynamics of a model Rydberg atom in a strong nonclassical electromagnetic field is investigated. The field-induced transitions to the continuum involving different numbers of photons (with intermediate states in the discrete spectrum) are taken into account and the specific features of ionisation in 'squeezed' field states are considered in comparison with the case of classical light. A significant decrease in the ionisation rate is found, which is caused by the interference stabilisation of the atomic system. The entanglement of the atomic and field subsystems, the temporal dynamics of the correlations found, and the possibility of measuring them are analysed.
Quantum entanglement between amide-I and amide-site in Davydov-Scott model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Xian-Ting; Fan, Heng
2014-01-01
In this paper, we firstly derive non-Markovian operator Langevin equations of the Davydov monomer in its environment. Next, we replace the equations with the c-number quantum general Langevin equations (QGLEs) by calculating statistical and quantum averages of the operator Langevin equations. Then, by using the c-number QGLEs we investigate the evolutions of the subsystems amide-I and amide-site. The evolution of a parameter θ describing quantum entanglement of the coupling subsystems with continuous variable Hamiltonian has also been investigated. It is shown that there is certain entanglement between the amide-I and amide-site in the Davydov-Scott monomer.
Structure and Entanglement Factors on Dynamics of Polymer Grafted Magnetic Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Siqi; Senses, Erkan; Jiao, Yang; Narayanan, Suresh; Akcora, Pinar
Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with long polymer chains at low graft density are interesting systems to study structure-dynamic relationships in polymer nanocomposites since they are shown to aggregate into strings in both solution and melts, and also into spheres and branched aggregates in the presence of free polymer chains. This work investigates the structure, free volume and entanglement effects in composites of polystyrene grafted iron oxide nanoparticles by measuring particle dynamics with x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy technique. Particles of highly ordered strings and aggregated systems follow heterogeneous dynamics commonly observed in jammed soft glassy systems and other nanocomposites. On the other hand, particle dynamics becomes diffusive in branched structures which could be caused by the less penetration of long matrix chains into the brushes. These results show that particle dynamics is dictated through the strong interactions of low graft density chains with the host polymer.
Dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord in the Tavis–Cummings model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Restrepo, Juliana; Rodríguez, Boris A.
2016-06-01
We revisit the problem of the dynamics of quantum correlations in the Tavis–Cummings model. Our results show that the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord are far from being trivial or intuitive. We find states with the same entanglement but different discord and states where the two quantifiers give opposite information about correlations at a certain time. We furthermore show that many of the dynamical features of quantum discord attributed to dissipation are already present in the exact framework and are due to the characteristic quantum nonlinearity of the model and to the choice of initial conditions. Through a comprehensive analysis of pure and mixed initial conditions, we find a fascinating range of phenomena that can be used for experimental purposes. We propose an experiment called quantum discord gates where for a given pure initial condition discord is zero or non-zero depending on the number of photons in the cavity. Given the marginal character of states with zero discord this result is not only completely counterintuitive but is also useful as a way to count photons.
Dynamic scaling in entangled mean-field gelation polymers.
Das, Chinmay; Read, Daniel J; Kelmanson, Mark A; McLeish, Tom C B
2006-07-01
We present a simple reaction kinetics model to describe the polymer synthesis used by Lusignan et al. [Phys. Rev. E 60, 5657 (1999)] to produce randomly branched polymers in the vulcanization class. Numerical solution of the rate equations gives probabilities for different connections in the final product, which we use to generate a numerical ensemble of representative molecules. All structural quantities probed in the experiments are in quantitative agreement with our results for the entire range of molecular weights considered. However, with detailed topological information available in our calculations, our estimate of the "rheologically relevant" linear segment length is smaller than that estimated from the experimental results. We use a numerical method based on a tube model of polymer melts to calculate the rheological properties of such molecules. Results are in good agreement with experiment, except that in the case of the largest molecular weight samples our estimate of the zero-shear viscosity is significantly lower than the experimental findings. Using acid concentration as an indicator for closeness to the gelation transition, we show that the high-molecular-weight polymers considered are at the limit of mean-field behavior--which possibly is the reason for this disagreement. For a truly mean-field gelation class of model polymers, we numerically calculate the rheological properties for a range of segment lengths. Our calculations show that the tube theory with dynamical dilation predicts that, very close to the gelation limit, the contribution to viscosity for this class of polymers is dominated by the contribution from constraint-release Rouse motion and the final viscosity exponent approaches a Rouse-like value. PMID:16907093
Evolution equation for entanglement of assistance
Li Zongguo; Liu, W. M.; Zhao Mingjing; Fei Shaoming
2010-04-15
We investigate the time evolution of the entanglement of assistance when one subsystem undergoes the action of local noisy channels. A general factorization law is presented for the evolution equation of entanglement of assistance. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics of the entanglement of assistance is determined by the action of a noisy channel on the pure maximally entangled state, in which the entanglement reduction turns out to be universal for all quantum states entering the channel. This single quantity will make it easy to characterize the entanglement dynamics of entanglement of assistance under unknown channels in the experimental process of producing entangled states by assisted entanglement.
Non-continuum correlated intermolecular dynamical displacements in entangled biopolymer solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schweizer, Kenneth S.; Dell, Zachary E.; Tsang, Boyce; Jiang, Lingxiang; Granick, Steve
Understanding correlated intermolecular motion is important in biology and of fundamental interest in polymer physics. We performed real space measurements of the correlated dynamical displacements of a pair of biopolymers in entangled F-actin solutions over mesoscopic and continuum length scales, and on time scales beyond the entanglement crossover but much shorter than the reptation time. A microscopic theory is constructed based on generalizing a recent force-level statistical mechanical approach for predicting the separation-dependent, non-hydrodynamic relative friction of a pair of colloids in polymer melts and in dense suspensions. In the mesoscopic time regime, individual biopolymers move by reptation, and the dynamically-emergent intermolecular correlation hole is proposed as the mechanism for inducing non-hydrodynamic collective Fickian motion. Non-continuum cross correlations are predicted to dominate for inter-polymer separations up to the rod length (~15 microns), beyond which a crossover to hydrodynamic behavior occurs. The theoretical results agree well with our measurements at different observation times and physical mesh values.
Two-photon-driven nonlinear dynamics and entanglement of an atom in a nonuniform cavity
Chotorlishvili, L.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Wimberger, S.; Berakdar, J.
2011-07-15
In this paper we study the dynamics in the general case for a Tavis-Cummings atom in a nonuniform cavity. In addition to the dynamical Stark shift, the center-of-mass motion of the atom and the recoil effect are considered in both the weak and the strong cavity-atom coupling regimes. It is shown that the spatial motion of the atom inside the cavity in the resonant case leads to a transition between topologically different solutions. This effect is manifested by a singularity in the interlevel transition spectrum. In the nonresonant case, the spatial motion of the atom leads to a switching of the spin orientation. In both effects, the key factor is the relation between the values of the Stark shift and the cavity-field coupling constant. We also investigate the entanglement of an atom in the cavity with the radiation field. It is shown that the entanglement between the atom and the field, usually quantified in terms of purity, decreases with increasing Stark shift.
Weiss, Christoph; Teichmann, Niklas
2008-04-11
A Bose-Einstein condensate in a tilted double-well potential under the influence of time-periodic potential differences is investigated in the regime where the mean-field (Gross-Pitaevskii) dynamics become chaotic. For some parameters near stable regions, even averaging over several condensate oscillations does not remove the differences between mean-field and N-particle results. While introducing decoherence via piecewise deterministic processes reduces those differences, they are due to the emergence of mesoscopic entangled states in the chaotic regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, Ron
2007-03-01
Using concepts developed over the years by de Gennes, Doi, Edwards, Marrucci, Rubinstein, McLeish, Milner, and others, a kind of ``standard model'' for entangled polymer relaxation and rheology has been developed, which, like the ``standard model'' of high-energy physics, has a number of ad hoc assumptions and fitting parameters. The ``standard model'' of polymer relaxation is based on a phenomenological ``tube'' surrounding each polymer chain that represents the effect on that chain of non-crossability constraints imposed by surrounding chains. As a result of its confinement to the tube, the chain relaxes by reptation -- or sliding along the tube, accordion-like fluctuations of the chain within the tube, and movement of, or dilation of, the tube due to motion of the surrounding chains creating the tube-like region. Increasing computer speed and advanced simulation methods are now making possible the direct molecular dynamics simulations of entangled polymers resolved at the monomer scale, over time scales sufficient to test the underlying assumptions of the tube model and allow direct calculation of some of the phenomenological parameters. Here we illustrate how these simulations allow us to estimate the distribution of tube lengths, the average diameter of the tube, and the mobility of the branch point in a simple ``star'' branched polymer. These findings confirm the validity of the tube ansatz, but suggest that some corrections to the ``standard model'' may be needed.
Dynamics of entanglement and 'attractor' states in the Tavis-Cummings model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarvis, C. E. A.; Rodrigues, D. A.; Györffy, B. L.; Spiller, T. P.; Short, A. J.; Annett, J. F.
2009-10-01
We study the time evolution of Nq two-level atoms (or qubits) interacting with a single mode of a quantized radiation field. In the case of two qubits, we show that for a set of initial conditions the reduced density matrix of the atomic system approaches that of a pure state at {\\textstyle\\frac{t_{r}}{4}} , halfway between that start of the collapse and the first mini-revival peak, where tr is the time of the main revival. The pure state approached is the same for a set of initial conditions and is thus termed an 'attractor state'. The set itself is termed the 'basin of attraction' and we concentrate on its features. Extending to more qubits, we find that attractors are a generic feature of the multiqubit Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) and we therefore generalize the discovery by Gea-Banacloche for the one-qubit case. We give the 'basin of attraction' for Nq qubits and discuss the implications of the 'attractor' state in terms of the dynamics of Nq-body entanglement. We observe both the collapse and revival and the sudden birth/death of entanglement depending on the initial conditions.
Dynamics and quantum entanglement of two-level atoms in de Sitter spacetime
Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang
2014-11-15
In the framework of open quantum systems, we study the internal dynamics of both freely falling and static two-level atoms interacting with quantized conformally coupled massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime. We find that the atomic transition rates depend on both the nature of de Sitter spacetime and the motion of atoms, interestingly the steady states for both cases are always driven to being purely thermal, regardless of the atomic initial states. This thermalization phenomenon is structurally similar to what happens to an elementary quantum system immersed in a thermal field, and thus reveals the thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime. Besides, we find that the thermal baths will drive the entanglement shared by the freely falling atom (the static atom) and its auxiliary partner, a same two-level atom which is isolated from external fields, to being sudden death, and the proper time for the entanglement to be extinguished is computed. We also analyze that such thermalization and disentanglement phenomena, in principle, could be understood from the perspective of table-top simulation experiment.
Alba, David; Crater, Horace W.; Lusanna, Luca
2011-06-15
A new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics is proposed in the framework of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics, where the world-lines of the particles are parametrized in terms of the Fokker-Pryce center of inertia and of Wigner-covariant relative 3-coordinates inside the instantaneous Wigner 3-spaces, and where there is a decoupled (non-covariant and non-local) canonical relativistic center of mass. This approach: (a) allows us to make a consistent quantization in every inertial frame; (b) leads to a description of both bound and scattering states; (c) offers new insights on the relativistic localization problem; (d) leads to a non-relativistic limit with a Hamilton-Jacobi treatment of the Newton center of mass; (e) clarifies non-local aspects (spatial non-separability) of relativistic entanglement connected with Lorentz signature and not present in its non-relativistic treatment.
Quantum spin dynamics and entanglement generation with hundreds of trapped ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohnet, Justin G.; Sawyer, Brian C.; Britton, Joseph W.; Wall, Michael L.; Rey, Ana Maria; Foss-Feig, Michael; Bollinger, John J.
2016-06-01
Quantum simulation of spin models can provide insight into problems that are difficult or impossible to study with classical computers. Trapped ions are an established platform for quantum simulation, but only systems with fewer than 20 ions have demonstrated quantum correlations. We studied quantum spin dynamics arising from an engineered, homogeneous Ising interaction in a two-dimensional array of 9Be+ ions in a Penning trap. We verified entanglement in spin-squeezed states of up to 219 ions, directly observing 4.0 ± 0.9 decibels of spectroscopic enhancement, and observed states with non-Gaussian statistics consistent with oversqueezed states. The good agreement with ab initio theory that includes interactions and decoherence lays the groundwork for simulations of the transverse-field Ising model with variable-range interactions, which are generally intractable with classical methods.
Quantum spin dynamics and entanglement generation with hundreds of trapped ions.
Bohnet, Justin G; Sawyer, Brian C; Britton, Joseph W; Wall, Michael L; Rey, Ana Maria; Foss-Feig, Michael; Bollinger, John J
2016-06-10
Quantum simulation of spin models can provide insight into problems that are difficult or impossible to study with classical computers. Trapped ions are an established platform for quantum simulation, but only systems with fewer than 20 ions have demonstrated quantum correlations. We studied quantum spin dynamics arising from an engineered, homogeneous Ising interaction in a two-dimensional array of (9)Be(+) ions in a Penning trap. We verified entanglement in spin-squeezed states of up to 219 ions, directly observing 4.0 ± 0.9 decibels of spectroscopic enhancement, and observed states with non-Gaussian statistics consistent with oversqueezed states. The good agreement with ab initio theory that includes interactions and decoherence lays the groundwork for simulations of the transverse-field Ising model with variable-range interactions, which are generally intractable with classical methods. PMID:27284189
Thermalization of entanglement.
Zhang, Liangsheng; Kim, Hyungwon; Huse, David A
2015-06-01
We explore the dynamics of the entanglement entropy near equilibrium in highly entangled pure states of two quantum-chaotic spin chains undergoing unitary time evolution. We examine the relaxation to equilibrium from initial states with either less or more entanglement entropy than the equilibrium value, as well as the dynamics of the spontaneous fluctuations of the entanglement that occur in equilibrium. For the spin chain with a time-independent Hamiltonian and thus an extensive conserved energy, we find slow relaxation of the entanglement entropy near equilibration. Such slow relaxation is absent in a Floquet spin chain with a Hamiltonian that is periodic in time and thus has no local conservation law. Therefore, we argue that slow diffusive energy transport is responsible for the slow relaxation of the entanglement entropy in the Hamiltonian system. PMID:26172682
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghshahi, H. R.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2015-03-01
In this paper, we present a model which exhibits two identical Ξ-type three-level atoms interacting with a single-mode field with k-photon transition in an optical cavity enclosed by a Kerr medium. Considering full nonlinear formalism, it is assumed that the single-mode field, atom-field coupling and Kerr medium are all f-deformed. By using the adiabatic elimination method, it is shown that, the Hamiltonian of the considered system can be reduced to an effective Hamiltonian with two two-level atoms and f-deformed Stark shift. In spite of the fact that, the system seems to be complicated, under initial conditions which may be prepared for the atoms (coherent superposition of their ground and upper states) and the field (coherent state), the explicit form of the state vector of the entire system is analytically obtained. Then, the entanglement dynamics between different subsystems ( i.e. "field-two atoms", "atom-(field+atom)" and "atom-atom") are evaluated through appropriate measures like von Neumann entropy, tangle and concurrence. In addition, the effects of intensity-dependent coupling, deformed Kerr medium, detuning parameter, deformed Stark shift and multi-photon process on the considered entanglement measures are numerically analyzed, in detail. It is shown that the degree of entanglement between subsystems can be controlled by selecting the evolved parameters, suitably. Briefly, the Kerr medium highly decreases the amount of different considered measures of entanglement, especially for two-photon transition. This destructive effect preserves even when all other parameters are present, too. Furthermore, we find that the so-called entanglement sudden death and birth can occur in the atom-atom entanglement.
Microscopic Theory for Entangled Polymer Dynamics in Rod-Sphere Nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Umi; Schweizer, Kenneth
2014-03-01
We have developed a self-consistent microscopic theory for the long-time dynamics of needles in an array of static spherical fillers. The approach exactly enforces the dynamical two-body rod topological uncrossability and sphere impenetrability constraints, leading to a generalized concept of entanglements that includes the filler excluded volume effect. How the diffusion anisotropy (transverse versus longitudinal motion) depends on the filler-needle aspect ratio, polymer concentration, and filler volume fraction is established. Due to the steric blocking of the longitudinal reptative motion by obstacles, a literal localization transition is predicted that is generically controlled by the ratio of filler diameter to the pure polymer tube diameter or needle length. For a window of filler sizes and loadings, the needle is predicted to diffuse via a ``renormalized'' reptation dynamics where the tube is compressed and the longitudinal motion is retarded in a manner that depends on all system variables. At high filler volume fractions the needle diffusivity is strongly suppressed, and localization ultimately occurs in the unentangled needle regime. Generalization of the approach to treat mobile fillers, flexible chains, and nonrandom microstructure is also possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chenxi; Kilfoil, Maria L.
2013-03-01
The high fidelity segregation of chromatin is the central problem in cell mitosis. The role of mechanics underlying this, however, is undetermined. Work in this area has largely focused on cytoskeletal elements of the process. Preliminary work in our lab suggests the mechanical properties of chromatin are fundamental in this process. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of chromatin in the cellular context are not well-characterized. For better understanding of the role of mechanics in this cellular process, and of the chromatin mechanics in vivo generally, a systematic dynamical description of chromatin in vivo is required. Accordingly, we label specific sites on chromatin with fluorescent proteins of different wave lengths, enabling us to detect multiple spots separately in 3D and track their displacements in time inside living yeast cells. We analyze the pairwise cross-correlated motion between spots as a function of relative distance along the DNA contour. Comparison between the reptation model and our data serves to test our conjecture that chromatin in the cell is basically an entangled polymer network under constraints to thermal motion, and removal of constraints by non-thermal cellular processes is expected to affect its dynamic behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ateto, M. S.
2015-08-01
Entanglement dynamics of two identical non-interacting atoms (qubits) coupled individually with simultaneous classical and quantum fields are studied. The cavity field is filled with a nonlinear Kerr medium and initially prepared in a coherent state. The atoms are initially set up as a Bell-like pure state (BS). We present an approach for diagonalization of time-dependent nonlinear Hamiltonian of the system exactly. Connection between the change in the degree of entanglement and tomography of field state in phase space are also illustrated and interpreted. We demonstrate the possibility of atom-atom (qubit-qubit) entanglement optimization by suitably choosing initial interaction settings. Overall, we show that both classical driving amplitude and detuning as well as Kerr media and initial atomic states acts as the control parameters for the qubit-qubit entanglement. By adjusting of these parameters, accurately, entanglement can be enhanced noticeably and high degree of steady periodical entanglement can be generated. Moreover, starting with initial atomic BSs in presence of classical driving suppresses coherences randomness and considerably accompanied with (for specific values of detuning) slight decrease in their amplitudes. Furthermore, the addition of cross Kerr term suppresses degree of entanglement noticeably, where entanglement creation and enhancement could just be possible if cross Kerr effect is moved out from interaction. Our present approach promises the great advantage of being suitable for large quantum systems of various kinds of nonlinearities.
What can we learn from the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord in the Tavis-Cummings model?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Restrepo, Juliana; Rodriguez, Boris A.
We revisit the problem of the dynamics of quantum correlations in the exact Tavis-Cummings model. We show that many of the dynamical features of quantum discord attributed to dissipation are already present in the exact framework and are due to the well known non-linearities in the model and to the choice of initial conditions. Through a comprehensive analysis, supported by explicit analytical calculations, we find that the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord are far from being trivial or intuitive. In this context, we find states that are indistinguishable from the point of view of entanglement and distinguishable from the point of view of quantum discord, states where the two quantifiers give opposite information and states where they give roughly the same information about correlations at a certain time. Depending on the initial conditions, this model exhibits a fascinating range of phenomena that can be used for experimental purposes such as: Robust states against change of manifold or dissipation, tunable entanglement states and states with a counterintuitive sudden birth as the number of photons increase. We furthermore propose an experiment called quantum discord gates where discord is zero or non-zero depending on the number of photons. This work was supported by the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion of the Universidad Antonio Narino, Colombia under Project Number 20141031 and by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia under Grant Number.
Distance and coupling dependence of entanglement in the presence of a quantum field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsiang, J.-T.; Hu, B. L.
2015-12-01
We study the entanglement between two coupled detectors, the internal degrees of freedom of which are modeled by harmonic oscillators, interacting with a common quantum field, paying special attention to two less studied yet important features: finite separation and direct coupling. Distance dependence is essential in quantum teleportation and relativistic quantum information considerations. The presence of a quantum field as the environment accords an indirect interaction between the two oscillators at finite separation of a non-Markovian nature which competes with the direct coupling between them. The interplay between these two factors results in a rich variety of interesting entanglement behaviors at late times. We show that the entanglement behavior reported in prior work assuming no separation between the detectors can at best be a transient effect at very short times and claims that such behaviors represent late-time entanglement are misplaced. Entanglement between the detectors with direct coupling enters in the consideration of macroscopic quantum phenomena and other frontline issues. We find that with direct coupling entanglement between the two detectors can sustain over a finite distance, in contrast to the no direct coupling case reported before, where entanglement cannot survive at a separation more than a few inverse high-frequency cutoff scales. This work provides a functional platform for systematic investigations into the entanglement behavior of continuous variable quantum systems, such as used in quantum electro- and optomechanics.
Entangled polymer dynamics in equilibrium and flow modeled through slip links.
Schieber, Jay D; Andreev, Marat
2014-01-01
The idea that the dynamics of concentrated, high-molecular weight polymers are largely governed by entanglements is now widely accepted and typically understood through the tube model. Here we review alternative approaches, slip-link models, that share some similarities to and offer some advantages over tube models. Although slip links were proposed at the same time as tubes, only recently have detailed, quantitative mathematical models arisen based on this picture. In this review, we focus on these models, with most discussion limited to mathematically well-defined objects that conform to state-of-the-art beyond-equilibrium thermodynamics. These models are connected to each other through successive coarse graining, using nonequilibrium thermodynamics along the way, and with a minimal parameter set. In particular, the most detailed level of description has four parameters, three of which can be determined directly from atomistic simulations. Once the remaining parameter is determined for any system, all parameters for all members of the hierarchy are determined. We show how, using this hierarchy of slip-link models combined with atomistic simulations, we can make predictions about the nonlinear rheology of monodisperse homopolymer melts, polydisperse melts, or blends of different architectures. Mathematical details are given elsewhere, so these are limited here, and physical ideas are emphasized. We conclude with an outlook on remaining challenges that might be tackled successfully using this approach, including complex flow fields and polymer blends. PMID:24655135
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Khalek, S.; Quthami, M.; Ahmed, M. M. A.
2015-02-01
In this paper, we study the dynamics of the atomic inversion and von Neumann entropy for a moving and non-moving two-level atom interacting with multi SU(1,1) quantum system. The wave function and system density matrix using specific initial conditions are obtained. The effects of initial atomic state position and detuning parameters are examined in the absence and presence of the atomic motion effect. Important phenomena such as entanglement sudden death, sudden birth and long-living entanglement are explored during time evolution. The results show that the detuning parameter and excitation number is very useful in generating a high amount of entanglement.
Bifurcation dynamics of the tempered fractional Langevin equation.
Zeng, Caibin; Yang, Qigui; Chen, YangQuan
2016-08-01
Tempered fractional processes offer a useful extension for turbulence to include low frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic phenomenological bifurcation, or stochastic P-bifurcation, of the Langevin equation perturbed by tempered fractional Brownian motion. However, most standard tools from the well-studied framework of random dynamical systems cannot be applied to systems driven by non-Markovian noise, so it is desirable to construct possible approaches in a non-Markovian framework. We first derive the spectral density function of the considered system based on the generalized Parseval's formula and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. Then we show that it enjoys interesting and diverse bifurcation phenomena exchanging between or among explosive-like, unimodal, and bimodal kurtosis. Therefore, our procedures in this paper are not merely comparable in scope to the existing theory of Markovian systems but also provide a possible approach to discern P-bifurcation dynamics in the non-Markovian settings. PMID:27586627
Bifurcation dynamics of the tempered fractional Langevin equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Caibin; Yang, Qigui; Chen, YangQuan
2016-08-01
Tempered fractional processes offer a useful extension for turbulence to include low frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic phenomenological bifurcation, or stochastic P-bifurcation, of the Langevin equation perturbed by tempered fractional Brownian motion. However, most standard tools from the well-studied framework of random dynamical systems cannot be applied to systems driven by non-Markovian noise, so it is desirable to construct possible approaches in a non-Markovian framework. We first derive the spectral density function of the considered system based on the generalized Parseval's formula and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. Then we show that it enjoys interesting and diverse bifurcation phenomena exchanging between or among explosive-like, unimodal, and bimodal kurtosis. Therefore, our procedures in this paper are not merely comparable in scope to the existing theory of Markovian systems but also provide a possible approach to discern P-bifurcation dynamics in the non-Markovian settings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-Kun; Chen, Pochung; Kao, Ying-Jer; Xiang, Tao
2014-05-01
By using a different quantum-to-classical mapping from the Trotter-Suzuki decomposition, we identify the entanglement structure of the maximal eigenvectors for the associated quantum transfer matrix. This observation provides a deeper insight into the problem of linear growth of the entanglement entropy in time evolution using conventional methods. Based on this observation, we propose a general method for arbitrary temperatures using the biorthonormal transfer-matrix renormalization group. Our method exhibits a competitive accuracy with a much cheaper computational cost in comparison with two recently proposed methods for long-time dynamics based on a folding algorithm [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240603 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.240603] and a modified time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 227206 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.227206].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Ashish Vachaspati
Entanglement is an essential element of quantum mechanics. The aim of this work is to explore various properties of entanglement from the viewpoints of both physics and information science, thus providing a unique picture of entanglement from an interdisciplinary point of view. The focus of this work is on quantifying entanglement as a resource. We start with bipartite states, proposing a new measure of bipartite entanglement called entanglement of assistance, showing that bound entangled states of rank two cannot exist, exploring the number of members required in the ensemble achieving the entanglement of formation and the possibility of bound entangled states that are negative under partial transposition (NPT bound entangled states). For multipartite states we introduce the notions of reducibilities and equivalences under entanglement non-increasing operations and we study the relations between various reducibilities and equivalences such as exact and asymptotic LOCC, asymptotic LOCCq, cLOCC, LOc, etc. We use this new language to attempt to quantify entanglement for multiple parties. We introduce the idea of entanglement span and minimal entanglement generating set and entanglement coefficients associated with it which are the entanglement measures, thus proposing a multicomponent measure of entanglement for three or more parties. We show that the class of Schmidt decomposable states have only GHZM or Cat-like entanglement. Further we introduce the class of multiseparable states for quantification of their entanglement and prove that they are equivalent to the Schmidt decomposable states, and thus have only Cat-like entanglement. We further explore the conditions under which LOCO equivalences are possible for multipartite isentropic states. We define Cat-distillability, EPRB-distillability and distillability for multipartite mixed states and show that distillability implies EPRB-distillability. Further we show that all non-factorizable pure states are Cat
Liu, Yimin; You, Jiabin; Hou, Qizhe
2016-01-01
Exploration of macroscopic quantum entanglement is of great interest in both fundamental science and practical application. We investigate a hybrid quantum system that consists of two nitrogen-vacancy centers ensembles (NVE) coupled to a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator (CPWR). The collective magnetic coupling between the NVE and the CPWR is employed to generate macroscopic entanglement between the NVEs, where the CPWR acts as the quantum bus. We find that, this NVE-CPWR hybrid system behaves as a system of three coupled harmonic oscillators, and the excitation prepared initially in the CPWR can be distributed into these two NVEs. In the nondissipative case, the entanglement of NVEs oscillates periodically and the maximal entanglement always keeps unity if the CPWR is initially prepared in the odd coherent state. Considering the dissipative effect from the CPWR and NVEs, the amount of entanglement between these two NVEs strongly depends on the initial state of the CPWR, and the maximal entanglement can be tuned by adjusting the initial states of the total system. The experimental feasibility and challenge with currently available technology are discussed. PMID:26902910
Liu, Yimin; You, Jiabin; Hou, Qizhe
2016-01-01
Exploration of macroscopic quantum entanglement is of great interest in both fundamental science and practical application. We investigate a hybrid quantum system that consists of two nitrogen-vacancy centers ensembles (NVE) coupled to a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator (CPWR). The collective magnetic coupling between the NVE and the CPWR is employed to generate macroscopic entanglement between the NVEs, where the CPWR acts as the quantum bus. We find that, this NVE-CPWR hybrid system behaves as a system of three coupled harmonic oscillators, and the excitation prepared initially in the CPWR can be distributed into these two NVEs. In the nondissipative case, the entanglement of NVEs oscillates periodically and the maximal entanglement always keeps unity if the CPWR is initially prepared in the odd coherent state. Considering the dissipative effect from the CPWR and NVEs, the amount of entanglement between these two NVEs strongly depends on the initial state of the CPWR, and the maximal entanglement can be tuned by adjusting the initial states of the total system. The experimental feasibility and challenge with currently available technology are discussed. PMID:26902910
Dynamic Entangled Porous Framework for Hydrocarbon (C2-C3) Storage, CO2 Capture, and Separation.
Sikdar, Nivedita; Bonakala, Satyanarayana; Haldar, Ritesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Maji, Tapas Kumar
2016-04-18
Storage and separation of small (C1-C3) hydrocarbons are of great significance as these are alternative energy resources and also can be used as raw materials for many industrially important materials. Selective capture of greenhouse gas, CO2 from CH4 is important to improve the quality of natural gas. Among the available porous materials, MOFs with permanent porosity are the most suitable to serve these purposes. Herein, a two-fold entangled dynamic framework {[Zn2 (bdc)2 (bpNDI)]⋅4DMF}n with pore surface carved with polar functional groups and aromatic π clouds is exploited for selective capture of CO2 , C2, and C3 hydrocarbons at ambient condition. The framework shows stepwise CO2 and C2 H2 uptake at 195 K but type I profiles are observed at 298 K. The IAST selectivity of CO2 over CH4 is the highest (598 at 298 K) among the MOFs without open metal sites reported till date. It also shows high selectivity for C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 , and C3 H8 over CH4 at 298 K. DFT calculations reveal that aromatic π surface and the polar imide (RNC=O) functional groups are the primary adsorption sites for adsorption. Furthermore, breakthrough column experiments showed CO2 /CH4 C2 H6 /CH4 and CO2 /N2 separation capability at ambient condition. PMID:26973086
Entanglement dynamics of non-inertial observers in a correlated environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramzan, M.
2013-01-01
Effect of decoherence and correlated noise on the entanglement of X-type state of the Dirac fields in the non-inertial frame is investigated. A two qubit X-state is considered to be shared between the partners where Alice is in inertial frame and Rob in an accelerated frame. The concurrence is used to quantify the entanglement of the X-state system influenced by time correlated amplitude damping, depolarizing and bit flip channels. It is seen that amplitude damping and bit flip channels heavily influence the entanglement of the system as compared to the depolarizing channel. It is found possible to avoid entanglement sudden death (ESD) for all the channels under consideration for μ > 0.75 for any type of initial state. No ESD behaviour is seen for depolarizing channel in the presence of correlated noise for entire range of decoherence parameter p and Rob's acceleration r. It is also seen that the effect of environment is much stronger than that of acceleration of the accelerated partner. Furthermore, it is investigated that correlated noise compensates the loss of entanglement caused by the Unruh effect.
Quantum transitions and quantum entanglement from Dirac-like dynamics simulated by trapped ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bittencourt, Victor A. S. V.; Bernardini, Alex E.; Blasone, Massimo
2016-05-01
Quantum transition probabilities and quantum entanglement for two-qubit states of a four-level trapped ion quantum system are computed for time-evolving ionic states driven by Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonians with interactions mapped onto a SU(2 )⊗SU(2 ) group structure. Using the correspondence of the method of simulating a 3 +1 dimensional Dirac-like Hamiltonian for bispinor particles into a single trapped ion, one preliminarily obtains the analytical tools for describing ionic state transition probabilities as a typical quantum oscillation feature. For Dirac-like structures driven by generalized Poincaré classes of coupling potentials, one also identifies the SU(2 )⊗SU(2 ) internal degrees of freedom corresponding to intrinsic parity and spin polarization as an adaptive platform for computing the quantum entanglement between the internal quantum subsystems which define two-qubit ionic states. The obtained quantum correlational content is then translated into the quantum entanglement of two-qubit ionic states with quantum numbers related to the total angular momentum and to its projection onto the direction of the trapping magnetic field. Experimentally, the controllable parameters simulated by ion traps can be mapped into a Dirac-like system in the presence of an electrostatic field which, in this case, is associated to ionic carrier interactions. Besides exhibiting a complete analytical profile for ionic quantum transitions and quantum entanglement, our results indicate that carrier interactions actively drive an overall suppression of the quantum entanglement.
Lindblad- and non-Lindblad-type dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle
Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Intravaia, F.; Petruccione, F.; Messina, A.
2004-09-01
The dynamics of a typical open quantum system, namely a quantum Brownian particle in a harmonic potential, is studied focusing on its non-Markovian regime. Both an analytic approach and a stochastic wave-function approach are used to describe the exact time evolution of the system. The border between two very different dynamical regimes, the Lindblad and non-Lindblad regimes, is identified and the relevant physical variables governing the passage from one regime to the other are singled out. The non-Markovian short-time dynamics is studied in detail by looking at the mean energy, the squeezing, the Mandel parameter, and the Wigner function of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Chowdhury Aminul; Majumder, Sarbani; Mustafa, Munshi G.
2015-11-01
In this work we have reexplored our earlier study on the vector meson spectral function and its spectral property in the form of dilepton rate in a two-flavor Polyakov loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model in the presence of a strong entanglement between the chiral and Polyakov loop dynamics. The entanglement considered here is generated through the four-quark scalar-type interaction in which the coupling strength depends on the Polyakov loop and runs with temperature and chemical potential. The entanglement effect is also considered for the four-quark vector-type interaction in the same manner. We observe that the entanglement effect relatively enhances the color degrees of freedom due to the running of both the scalar and vector couplings. This modifies the vector meson spectral function and, thus, the spectral property such as the dilepton production rate in the low invariant mass also gets modified.
Quantum dissonance induced by a thermal field and its dynamics in dissipative systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Z. X.; Xia, Y. J.; An, N. B.
2011-10-01
In this paper, we study quantum correlation in separable systems termed quantum dissonance [K. Modi, T. Paterek, W. Son, V. Vedral, M. Williamson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 080501 (2010)]. Firstly, we study the emergence of quantum dissonance between two atoms prepared in uncorrelated states and coupled to a single-mode thermal field. We show that even for situations when the thermal field cannot entangle the two atoms, it can nevertheless induce quantum dissonance between them. Then, we investigate the dynamics including the transfer in both Markovian and non-Markovian regimes of quantum dissonance due to dissipation modeled by two independent subsystems each of which consists of a leaky cavity containing a two-level atom and surrounded by a reservoir. The two subsystems possess some amount of atomic quantum dissonance at the beginning but do not interact with each other by any means later on. We show that the quantum dissonance can be transferred among the composite subsystems, but the way it evolves and is transferred may be very different compared to that of entanglement. Finally, we present an efficient method to refrain the unwanted transfer of quantum dissonance from interested systems to reservoirs.
Chen Qinghu; Yang Yuan; Liu Tao; Wang Kelin
2010-11-15
Entanglement evolution of two independent Jaynes-Cummings atoms without the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) is studied by a numerically exact approach. Previous results based on the RWA are essentially modified in the strong-coupling regime (g{>=}0.1), which has been reached in the recent experiments on the flux qubit coupled to the LC resonator. For the initial Bell state with anticorrelated spins, entanglement sudden death (ESD) is absent in the RWA but does appear in the present numerical calculation without the RWA. Aperiodic entanglement evolution in the strong-coupling regime is observed. The strong atom-cavity coupling facilitates the ESD. The sign of the detuning plays an essential role in the entanglement evolution for strong coupling, which is irrelevant in the RWA. Analytical results based on an unitary transformation are also given, which could not modify the RWA picture essentially. It is suggested that the activation of the photons may be the origin of ESD in this system.
Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2011-02-01
We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing. PMID:21405382
Up-conversion dynamics for temporally entangled two-photon pulses
Nakatani, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Koshino, Kazuki
2011-01-15
We analyze the up conversion of a two-photon pulse having temporal entanglement on the basis of a full quantum formalism that treats both photons and optical media quantum mechanically. We derive a formula of the up-converted photon wave function, which is applicable to arbitrary input two-photon states for a three-level system, as the simplest second-order nonlinear optical system. As the input, we employ three kinds of temporally entangled two-photon pulses: correlated, uncorrelated, and anticorrelated. We observe the up-conversion efficiency and the temporal profile of the up-converted photon. Our results reveal the crossover behavior of the up conversion from anticorrelation to correlation and show how the temporal correlation in the input is reflected in the up-conversion process.
Dynamics of Entanglement between Moving Four-Level Atom and Single Mode Cavity Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Khalek, S.; Abdel-Wahab, N. H.
2011-02-01
In this paper we are interested in studying the entanglement between a single four-level ladder-type atom interacting with one-mode cavity field when the atomic motion is taken into account. The exact solution of the model is obtained by using Schrodinger equation for a specific initial conditions. The field entropy of this system is investigated in the non-resonant case. The effects of the detuning parameter and the atomic motion on the entanglement degree are examined. These investigations show that both of the detuning and the atomic motion play important roles in the evolution of the von Neumann entropy and atomic populations. Finally, conclusions and some features are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Tadanori; Li, Chunhua; Endoh, Maya K.; Narayanan, Suresh; Lurio, Laurence; Sinha, Sunil K.
2011-01-01
The dynamics of polymer chains near the surface of a melt and within thin films remains a subject of inquiry along with the nature of the glass transition in these systems. Recent studies show that the properties of the free surface region are crucial in determining the anomalous glass transition temperature (Tg) reduction of polymer thin films. In this study, by embedding "dilute" gold nanoparticles in polystyrene (PS) thin films as "markers", we could successfully probe the diffusive Brownian motion which tracks the local viscosity both at the free surface and within the rest of the single PS thin film far above bulk Tg. The technique used was X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy with resonance-enhanced X-rays that allows us to independently measure the motion in the regions of interest at the nanometer scale. We found the presence of the surface reduced viscosity layer in entangled PS thin films at T>>Tg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakniat, R.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Zandi, M. H.
2016-03-01
In this paper we have studied the dynamical evolution of Shannon information entropies in position and momentum spaces for two classes of (nonstationary) atom-field entangled states, which are obtained via the Jaynes–Cummings model and its generalization. We have focused on the interaction between two- and Ξ-type three-level atoms with the single-mode quantized field. The three-dimensional plots of entropy densities in position and momentum spaces are presented versus corresponding coordinates and time, numerically. It is observed that for particular values of the parameters of the systems, the entropy squeezing in position space occurs. Finally, we have shown that the well-known BBM (Beckner, Bialynicki-Birola and Mycielsky) inequality, which is a stronger statement of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, is properly satisfied.
Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states
Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech
2010-08-15
The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.
Multipartite entanglement for entanglement teleportation
Lee, Jinhyoung; Min, Hyegeun; Oh, Sung Dahm
2002-11-01
A scheme for entanglement teleportation is proposed to incorporate multipartite entanglement of four qubits as a quantum channel. Based on the invariance of entanglement teleportation under an arbitrary two-qubit unitary transformation, we derive relations for the separabilities of joint measurements at a sending station and of unitary operations at a receiving station. From the relations of the separabilities it is found that an inseparable quantum channel always leads to total teleportation of entanglement with an inseparable joint measurement and/or a nonlocal unitary operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schliemann, John
2014-09-01
We investigate further the relationship between the entanglement spectrum of a composite many-body system and the energy spectrum of a subsystem making use of concepts of canonical thermodynamics. In many important cases the entanglement Hamiltonian is, in the limit of strong coupling between subsystems, proportional to the energy Hamiltonian of the subsystem. The proportionality factor is an appropriately defined coupling parameter, suggesting to interpret the latter as a inverse temperature. We identify a condition on the entanglement Hamiltonian which rigorously guarantees this interpretation to hold and removes any ambiguity in the definition of the entanglement Hamiltonian regarding contributions proportional to the unit operator. Illustrations of our findings are provided by spin ladders of arbitrary spin length, and by bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor ν = 2. Within mean-field description, the latter system realizes an entanglement spectrum of free fermions with just two levels of equal modulus where the analogies to canonical thermodynamics are particularly close.
Generation of entangled squeezed states: their entanglement and quantum polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, A.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2015-11-01
In this paper, based on the well-known one-mode and two-mode squeezed states, we introduce the two-mode and four-mode entangled squeezed states. Next, in order to generate the introduced entangled states, we present two theoretical schemes based on the resonant atom-field interaction. In the proposed schemes, a Λ -type three-level atom interacts with the two-mode and four-mode quantized field in the presence of two strong classical fields in which two-photon atomic transitions are allowed. In the continuation, we study entanglement dynamics of the generated entangled states (using the von Neumann entropy) as well as the quantum polarization (using the Stokes operators). It is demonstrated that entanglement and polarization can be achieved for the produced states by adjusting the evolved parameters.
Entanglement replication in driven dissipative many-body systems.
Zippilli, S; Paternostro, M; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F
2013-01-25
We study the dissipative dynamics of two independent arrays of many-body systems, locally driven by a common entangled field. We show that in the steady state the entanglement of the driving field is reproduced in an arbitrarily large series of inter-array entangled pairs over all distances. Local nonclassical driving thus realizes a scale-free entanglement replication and long-distance entanglement distribution mechanism that has immediate bearing on the implementation of quantum communication networks. PMID:25166146
Many-body entanglement in decoherence processes
McAneney, Helen; Lee, Jinhyoung; Kim, M.S.
2003-12-01
A pure state decoheres into a mixed state as it entangles with an environment. When an entangled two-mode system is embedded in a thermal environment, however, each mode may not be entangled with its environment by their simple linear interaction. We consider an exactly solvable model to study the dynamics of a total system, which is composed of an entangled two-mode system and a thermal environment. The Markovian interaction with the environment is concerned with an array of infinite number of beam splitters. It is shown that many-body entanglement of the system and the environment may play a crucial role in the process of disentangling the system.
Evolution of Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems
Isar, A.
2010-08-04
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement for a system consisting of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators interacting with a thermal environment. Using Peres-Simon necessary sufficient criterion for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that for some values of diffusion coefficient, dissipation constant and temperature of the environment, the state keeps for all times its initial type: separable or entangled. In other cases, entanglement generation, entanglement sudden death or a periodic collapse revival of entanglement take place.
Entanglement manipulation by atomic position in photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yunan; Wang, Jing; Mo, Minglun; Zhang, Hanzhuang
2015-12-01
We consider two entangled atoms, each of which is embedded in a coherent photonic-band-gap (PBG) reservoir. The effect of the atomic embedded position on the entanglement of the two-atom system is studied. We find that the embedded position of the atom plays an important role in the dynamics of entanglement. The variation of the atomic position can lead to the shift between entanglement sudden death and the entanglement trapping. We also consider the entanglement transfer between different subsystems. Our results could be applied to manipulation of entanglement in nanostructured materials.
Entanglement invariant for the double Jaynes-Cummings model
Sainz, Isabel; Bjoerk, Gunnar
2007-10-15
We study entanglement dynamics between four qubits interacting through two isolated Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonians, via an entanglement measure based on the wedge product. We compare the results with similar results obtained using bipartite concurrence resulting in what is referred to as 'entanglement sudden death'. We find a natural entanglement invariant under evolution, demonstrating that entanglement spreads out over all of the system's degrees of freedom that become entangled through the interaction. We also provide an analysis of why certain initial states lose all their entanglement in a finite time, although their excitation and coherence vanish only asymptotically with time.
Optimizing quantum correlation dynamics by weak measurement in dissipative environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie; Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Qiang
2015-04-01
We investigate the protection of quantum correlations of two qubits in independent vacuum reservoirs by means of weak measurements. It is found that the weak measurement can reduce the amount of quantum correlation for one type of initial state at the beginning in a non-Markovian environment and meanwhile it can reduce the occurrence time of entanglement sudden death (ESD) in the process of time evolution. In a Markovian environment, the quantum entanglements of the two kinds of initial states decay rapidly and the weak measurement can further weaken the quantum entanglement, therefore in this case the entanglement cannot be optimized in the evolution process. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and No.11147019).
Entanglement and bifurcation in the integrable dimer
Hou Xiwen; Chen Jinghua; Hu Bambi
2005-03-01
In this Brief Report the properties of both dynamical and static entanglement in the integrable quantum dimer are studied in terms of the reduced-density linear entropy and von Neumann entropy with various coupling parameters, total boson numbers, and initial states. The mean entanglement, which is defined to be averaged over time, is used to describe the influence of the classical separatrix on the behavior of entanglement. It is shown that the mean entanglement exhibits a maximum near the position of the corresponding classical separatrix energy and that the static entanglement of the state with the largest eigenvalue of the quantum spectrum displays a maximum near the bifurcation point. For weak coupling and larger total boson number the maximum entanglement state is exactly at the position of the classical separatrix and bifurcation. In strong coupling all initial states have nearly the same mean entanglement.
Tube Concept for Entangled Stiff Fibers Predicts Their Dynamics in Space and Time.
Leitmann, Sebastian; Höfling, Felix; Franosch, Thomas
2016-08-26
We study dynamically crowded solutions of stiff fibers deep in the semidilute regime, where the motion of a single constituent becomes increasingly confined to a narrow tube. The spatiotemporal dynamics for wave numbers resolving the motion in the confining tube becomes accessible in Brownian dynamics simulations upon employing a geometry-adapted neighbor list. We demonstrate that in such crowded environments the intermediate scattering function, characterizing the motion in space and time, can be predicted quantitatively by simulating a single freely diffusing phantom needle only, yet with very unusual diffusion coefficients. PMID:27610885
Entanglement with Classical Spinors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baylis, William E.; Johnson, Crystal
2004-05-01
The spinor formulation of classical dynamics, which arises naturally in Clifford algebra approaches, describes particle dynamics in terms of spinor amplitudes and gives quantum mechanical, spin-1/2 form to many classical expressions for particles whose dynamics can be represented by single spinor fields. Here we use tensor products of the algebra of physical space (APS)[1] to explore the quantum/classical interface and provide insight into quantum properties and, in particular, entanglement in multiparticle spin-1/2 systems. Entanglement in mixed-state systems is seen as spinor (Â"quantumÂ") correlation beyond the maximum possible with classical frequencies or probabilities. The relevance to systems of qubits in a quantum computer is elaborated. [1] W. E. Baylis, Â"Applications of Clifford Algebras in PhysicsÂ", in Lectures on Clifford (Geometric) Algebras and Applications, R. Ablamowicz and G. Sobczyk, eds., Birkhäuser Boston, 2004.
Stationary entanglement achievable by environment-induced chain links
Memarzadeh, Laleh; Mancini, Stefano
2011-04-15
We investigate the possibility of chaining qubits by letting pairs of nearest-neighbor qubits dissipate into common environments. We then study entanglement dynamics within the chain and show that steady-state entanglement can be achieved.
Frozen multipartite entanglement in photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo
2016-06-01
We investigate the multipartite entanglement dynamics of a many-body system consisting of N identical two-level atoms locally embedded in their own band-gap photonic crystals. It is shown that the tripartite entanglement of this photonic-crystal system can be frozen in a stationary state. We also find that a double-sudden-change phenomenon of four-partite entanglement occurs in this photonic-crystal system during the decoherence process under certain suitable conditions.
Dynamics of incompatibility of quantum measurements in open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addis, Carole; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Laine, Elsi-Mari; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-02-01
The nonclassical nature of quantum states, often illustrated using entanglement measures or quantum discord, constitutes a resource for quantum information protocols. However, the nonclassicality of a quantum system cannot be seen as a property of the state alone, as the set of available measurements used to extract information on the system is typically restricted. In this work we study how the nonclassicality of quantum measurements, quantified via their incompatibility, is influenced by quantum noise and how a non-Markovian environment can be useful for maintaining the measurement resources.
Quantum entanglement and entropy in particle creation
Lin, S.-Y.; Chou, C.-H.; Hu, B. L.
2010-04-15
We investigate the basic theoretical issues in the quantum entanglement of particle pairs created from the vacuum in a time-dependent background field or spacetime. Similar to entropy generation from these processes which depends on the choice of physical variables and how certain information is coarse grained, entanglement dynamics hinges on the choice of measurable quantities and how the two parties are selected as well as the background dynamics of the field or spacetime. We discuss the conditions of separability of quantum states in particle creation processes and point out the differences in how the von Neumann entropy is used as a measure of entropy generation versus for entanglement dynamics. We show by an explicit construction that adoption of a different set of physical variables yields a different entanglement entropy. As an application of these theoretical considerations we show how the particle number and the quantum phase enter the entanglement dynamics in cosmological particle production.
Slavíček, Petr; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Aziz, Emad F; Winter, Bernd
2016-01-21
The knowledge of primary processes following the interaction of high-energy radiation with molecules in liquid phase is rather limited. In the present Perspective, we report on a newly discovered type of relaxation process involving simultaneous autoionization and proton transfer between adjacent molecules, so-called proton transfer mediated charge separation (PTM-CS) process. Within PTM-CS, transients with a half-transferred proton are formed within a few femtoseconds after the core-level ionization event. Subsequent nonradiative decay of the highly nonequilibrium transients leads to a series of reactive species, which have not been considered in any high-energy radiation process in water. Nonlocal electronic decay processes are surprisingly accelerated upon proton dynamics. Such strong coupling of electronic and nuclear dynamics is a general phenomenon for hydrogen-bonded systems, however, its probability correlates strongly with hydration geometry. We suggest that the newly observed processes will impact future high-energy radiation-chemistry-relevant modeling, and we envision application of autoionization spectroscopy for identification of solution structure details. PMID:26712083
Internal entanglement amplification by external interactions
Peskin, Uri; Huang Zhen; Kais, Sabre
2007-07-15
We propose a scheme to control the level of entanglement between two fixed spin-1/2 systems by interaction with a third particle. For specific designs, entanglement is shown to be 'pumped' into the system from the surroundings even when the spin-spin interaction within the system is small or nonexistent. The effect of the external particle on the system is introduced by including a dynamic spinor in the Hamiltonian. Controlled amplification of the internal entanglement to its maximum value is demonstrated. The possibility of entangling noninteracting spins in a stationary state is also demonstrated by coupling each one of them to a flying qubit in a quantum wire.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tridon, F.; Battaglia, A.
2015-06-01
A novel technique based on Ka-W band dual-wavelength Doppler spectra has been developed for the simultaneous retrieval of binned rain drop size distributions (DSD) and air state parameters like vertical wind and air broadening caused by turbulence and wind shear. The rationale underpinning the method consists in exploiting the peculiar features observed in Doppler spectra caused by the wavelength dependence of scattering and absorption properties. A notional study based on a large data set of DSDs measured by a two-dimensional video disdrometer demonstrates that the retrieval performs best for small/moderate air broadening spectral width and when mean volume diameters exceed at least 1 mm. The retrieval is also limited to ranges below cloud base and where the signal-to-noise ratio of both radars exceed 10 dB, which rules out regions affected by strong attenuation. Broadly speaking, it is applicable to rain rates comprised between roughly 1 and 30 mm h-1. Preliminary retrieval for observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site shows very good agreement with independent reflectivity measurements from a 0.915 GHz wind profiler. The proposed methodology shows great potential in linking microphysics to dynamics in rainfall studies.
Rank-dependant factorization of entanglement evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siomau, Michael
2016-05-01
The description of the entanglement evolution of a complex quantum system can be significantly simplified due to the symmetries of the initial state and the quantum channels, which simultaneously affect parts of the system. Using concurrence as the entanglement measure, we study the entanglement evolution of few qubit systems, when each of the qubits is affected by a local unital channel independently on the others. We found that for low-rank density matrices of the final quantum state, such complex entanglement dynamics can be completely described by a combination of independent factors representing the evolution of entanglement of the initial state, when just one of the qubits is affected by a local channel. We suggest necessary conditions for the rank of the density matrices to represent the entanglement evolution through the factors. Our finding is supported with analytical examples and numerical simulations.
Polygamy of distributed entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buscemi, Francesco; Gour, Gilad; Kim, Jeong San
2009-07-01
While quantum entanglement is known to be monogamous (i.e., shared entanglement is restricted in multipartite settings), here we show that distributed entanglement (or the potential for entanglement) is by nature polygamous. By establishing the concept of one-way unlocalizable entanglement (UE) and investigating its properties, we provide a polygamy inequality of distributed entanglement in tripartite quantum systems of arbitrary dimension. We also provide a polygamy inequality in multiqubit systems and several trade-offs between UE and other correlation measures.
Polygamy of distributed entanglement
Buscemi, Francesco; Gour, Gilad; Kim, Jeong San
2009-07-15
While quantum entanglement is known to be monogamous (i.e., shared entanglement is restricted in multipartite settings), here we show that distributed entanglement (or the potential for entanglement) is by nature polygamous. By establishing the concept of one-way unlocalizable entanglement (UE) and investigating its properties, we provide a polygamy inequality of distributed entanglement in tripartite quantum systems of arbitrary dimension. We also provide a polygamy inequality in multiqubit systems and several trade-offs between UE and other correlation measures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Hui-Ping; Li, Jian; Liu, Jin; Li, Jun-Gang
2009-03-01
We consider two two-level atoms, interacting with two independent dissipative cavities, each of which is driven by an external source. The two cavity fields are both initially prepared in the coherent states, and the two two-level atoms are initially prepared in the singlet state |Ψ-rangle = (|egrangle - |gerangle)/√2. We investigate the influence of the damping constant κ, the intensity of the external sources F, and the relative difference of the atomic couplings r on the entanglement between the two atoms. In the dispersive approximation, we find that the entanglement between the two atoms decreases with the time evolution, and the decreasing rate of entanglement depends on the values of F/κ, κ/ω, and r. For the given small values of F/κ and κ/ω, on the one hand, the increasing of r favors entanglement decreasing of the atomic system, on the other hand, when r → 1 the entanglement decreasing becomes slower. With the increasing of the value of κ/ω, the influence of r on the decreasing rate of entanglement becomes smaller, and gradually disappears for the big value of κ/ω.
Welack, Sven; Schreiber, Michael; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich
2006-01-28
New features of molecular wires can be observed when they are irradiated by laser fields. These effects can be achieved by periodically oscillating fields but also by short laser pulses. The theoretical foundation used for these investigations is a density-matrix formalism where the full system is partitioned into a relevant part and a thermal fermionic bath. The derivation of a quantum master equation, either based on a time-convolutionless or time-convolution projection-operator approach, incorporates the interaction with time-dependent laser fields nonperturbatively and is valid at low temperatures for weak system-bath coupling. From the population dynamics the electrical current through the molecular wire is determined. This theory including further extensions is used for the determination of electron transport through molecular wires. As examples, we show computations of coherent destruction of tunneling in asymmetric periodically driven quantum systems, alternating currents and the suppression of the directed current by using a short laser pulse. PMID:16460205
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
Entanglement and thermodynamics in general probabilistic theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; Scandolo, Carlo Maria
2015-10-01
Entanglement is one of the most striking features of quantum mechanics, and yet it is not specifically quantum. More specific to quantum mechanics is the connection between entanglement and thermodynamics, which leads to an identification between entropies and measures of pure state entanglement. Here we search for the roots of this connection, investigating the relation between entanglement and thermodynamics in the framework of general probabilistic theories. We first address the question whether an entangled state can be transformed into another by means of local operations and classical communication. Under two operational requirements, we prove a general version of the Lo-Popescu theorem, which lies at the foundations of the theory of pure-state entanglement. We then consider a resource theory of purity where free operations are random reversible transformations, modelling the scenario where an agent has limited control over the dynamics of a closed system. Our key result is a duality between the resource theory of entanglement and the resource theory of purity, valid for every physical theory where all processes arise from pure states and reversible interactions at the fundamental level. As an application of the main result, we establish a one-to-one correspondence between entropies and measures of pure bipartite entanglement. The correspondence is then used to define entanglement measures in the general probabilistic framework. Finally, we show a duality between the task of information erasure and the task of entanglement generation, whereby the existence of entropy sinks (systems that can absorb arbitrary amounts of information) becomes equivalent to the existence of entanglement sources (correlated systems from which arbitrary amounts of entanglement can be extracted).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Guo-Hui; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Ling
2010-03-01
We investigate the entanglement properties between two identical atoms with cascade configuration through the retarded dipole-dipole interaction in free space when their spatial separation is on the order of radiation wavelength or less. We analyze the function of Hamiltonian induced by dipole-dipole interaction. By solving master equation, we show that the spontaneous emission induce entanglement and destroy entanglement too. We also show the long life time of entanglement within cascade configuration.
Negative entanglement measure for bipartite separable mixed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng-Jie; Han, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Chun; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Guo, Guang-Can
2010-12-01
We define a negative entanglement measure for separable states which shows how much entanglement one should compensate the unentangled state, at the least, to change it into an entangled state. For two-qubit systems and some special classes of states in higher-dimensional systems, the explicit formula and the lower bounds for the negative entanglement measure (NEM) have been presented, and it always vanishes for bipartite separable pure states. The negative entanglement measure can be used as a useful quantity to describe the entanglement dynamics and the quantum phase transition. In the transverse Ising model, the first derivatives of negative entanglement measure diverge on approaching the critical value of the quantum phase transition, although these two-site reduced density matrices have no entanglement at all. In the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model, the NEM as a function of t/U changes from zero to negative on approaching the critical point of quantum phase transition.
Negative entanglement measure for bipartite separable mixed states
Zhang Chengjie; Han Yongjian; Zhang Yongsheng; Wu Yuchun; Zhou Xiangfa; Guo Guangcan
2010-12-15
We define a negative entanglement measure for separable states which shows how much entanglement one should compensate the unentangled state, at the least, to change it into an entangled state. For two-qubit systems and some special classes of states in higher-dimensional systems, the explicit formula and the lower bounds for the negative entanglement measure (NEM) have been presented, and it always vanishes for bipartite separable pure states. The negative entanglement measure can be used as a useful quantity to describe the entanglement dynamics and the quantum phase transition. In the transverse Ising model, the first derivatives of negative entanglement measure diverge on approaching the critical value of the quantum phase transition, although these two-site reduced density matrices have no entanglement at all. In the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model, the NEM as a function of t/U changes from zero to negative on approaching the critical point of quantum phase transition.
Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord in Gaussian Open Systems
Isar, Aurelian
2011-10-03
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath.
Open systems dynamics for propagating quantum fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baragiola, Ben Quinn
In this dissertation, I explore interactions between matter and propagating light. The electromagnetic field is modeled as a Markovian reservoir of quantum harmonic oscillators successively streaming past a quantum system. Each weak and fleeting interaction entangles the light and the system, and the light continues its course. In the context of quantum tomography or metrology one attempts, using measure- ments of the light, to extract information about the quantum state of the system. An inevitable consequence of these measurements is a disturbance of the system's quantum state. These ideas focus on the system and regard the light as ancillary. It serves its purpose as a probe or as a mechanism to generate interesting dynamics or system states but is eventually traced out, leaving the reduced quantum state of the system as the primary mathematical subject. What, then, when the state of light itself harbors intrinsic self-entanglement? One such set of states, those where a traveling wave packet is prepared with a defi- nite number of photons, is a focal point of this dissertation. These N-photon states are ideal candidates as couriers in quantum information processing device. In con- trast to quasi-classical states, such as coherent or thermal fields, N-photon states possess temporal mode entanglement, and local interactions in time have nonlocal consequences. The reduced state of a system probed by an N-photon state evolves in a non-Markovian way, and to describe its dynamics one is obliged to keep track of the field's evolution. I present a method to do this for an arbitrary quantum system using a set of coupled master equations. Many models set aside spatial degrees of freedom as an unnecessary complicating factor. By doing so the precision of predictions is limited. Consider a ensemble of cold, trapped atomic spins dispersively probed by a paraxial laser beam. Atom-light coupling across the ensemble is spatially inhomogeneous as is the radiation pattern of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Feng; Luo, MingXing; Chen, XiuBo; Yang, YiXian; Wang, XiaoJun
2014-10-01
A universal entangler is a very powerful fault-tolerant entangling device for generating quantum entanglements from any joint states. Our paper aims to address the construction of universal entanglers. We prove that universal entanglers may be obtained from random unitary gates according to the Harr measure. The success probability is close to 1 for large system spaces. This result represents the typical density of entanglement subspaces in large state spaces. It also partially solves an open problem of universal bipartite entanglers and is explained by some experiment simulations.
Decoherence and quantum-classical master equation dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grunwald, Robbie; Kapral, Raymond
2007-03-01
The conditions under which quantum-classical Liouville dynamics may be reduced to a master equation are investigated. Systems that can be partitioned into a quantum-classical subsystem interacting with a classical bath are considered. Starting with an exact non-Markovian equation for the diagonal elements of the density matrix, an evolution equation for the subsystem density matrix is derived. One contribution to this equation contains the bath average of a memory kernel that accounts for all coherences in the system. It is shown to be a rapidly decaying function, motivating a Markovian approximation on this term in the evolution equation. The resulting subsystem density matrix equation is still non-Markovian due to the fact that bath degrees of freedom have been projected out of the dynamics. Provided the computation of nonequilibrium average values or correlation functions is considered, the non-Markovian character of this equation can be removed by lifting the equation into the full phase space of the system. This leads to a trajectory description of the dynamics where each fictitious trajectory accounts for decoherence due to the bath degrees of freedom. The results are illustrated by computations of the rate constant of a model nonadiabatic chemical reaction.
Allahverdyan, A.E.; Khrennikov, A.; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
2005-09-15
For two classical Brownian particles an analog of continuous-variable quantum entanglement is presented: The common probability distribution of the two coordinates and the corresponding coarse-grained velocities cannot always be prepared via mixing of any factorized distributions referring to the two particles separately. This is possible for particles which have interacted in the past, but do not interact at present. Three factors are crucial for the effect: (1) separation of time scales of coordinate and momentum which motivates the definition of coarse-grained velocities; (2) the resulting uncertainty relations between the coordinate of the Brownian particle and the change of its coarse-grained velocity; (3) the fact that the coarse-grained velocity, though pertaining to a single Brownian particle, is defined on a common context of two particles. The Brownian entanglement is a consequence of a coarse-grained description and disappears for a finer resolution of the Brownian motion. Analogies with the quantum situation are discussed, as well as possibilities of experimental realization of the effect in examples of macroscopic Brownian motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, Jeffrey
2011-04-01
The double slit and Innsbruck experiments are thought to be the premier experiments establishing the need for the idea of ``non-locality'' in quantum mechanics. In the Innsbruck experiments it is said that two photons at a distance are ``entangled'' without there being any means of communication between them. But the interpretation of these experiments are based on the incorrect idea of wave particle duality. According to the Theory of Elementary Waves (TEW) waves are independent of particles. Waves are ubiquitous in nature. In the Innsbruck experiments two waves traveling at the speed of light in opposite directions impinge on the photon source from the two fiberoptic cables. The waves pass through the source. Wave interference is spread over a wide distance: from one polarizer to the other. This stimulates the emission of a photon pair such that, when detected at a polarizer at angle θ 1 and another polarizer at angle θ 2, the probability density is sin2(θ 1 - θ 2). This is true for any θ 1 and θ 2, and it doesn't matter when the polarizers are rotated. Thus local wave interference accounts for the experimental results, without any need for the exotic theory of ``entanglement.'' See http://Elwave.org
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Xian-Ting; Zhang, Wei-Min; Zhuo, Yi-Zhong
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a theoretical description to the quantum coherence and decoherence phenomena of energy transfer in photosynthesis observed in a recent experiment [Science 316, 1462 (2007)]. As a successive two-color laser pulses with selected frequencies cast on a sample of the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rb. sphaeroides two resonant excitations of electrons in chromophores can be generated. However, this effective two-level subsystem will interact with its protein environment and decoherence is inevitable. We describe this subsystem coupled with its environment as a dynamical spin-boson model. The non-Markovian decoherence dynamics is described using a quasiadiabatic propagator path integral (QUAPI) approach. With the photon-induced effective time-dependent level splitting energy and level flip coupling coefficient between the two excited states and the environment-induced non-Markovian decoherence dynamics, our theoretical result is in good agreement with the experimental data.
Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.
Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-02-19
The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions. PMID:26943520
Entropy of random entangling surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2012-09-01
We consider the situation when a globally defined four-dimensional field system is separated on two entangled sub-systems by a dynamical (random) two-dimensional surface. The reduced density matrix averaged over ensemble of random surfaces of fixed area and the corresponding average entropy are introduced. The average entanglement entropy is analyzed for a generic conformal field theory in four dimensions. Two important particular cases are considered. In the first, both the intrinsic metric on the entangling surface and the spacetime metric are fluctuating. An important example of this type is when the entangling surface is a black hole horizon, the fluctuations of which cause necessarily the fluctuations in the spacetime geometry. In the second case, the spacetime is considered to be fixed. The detailed analysis is carried out for the random entangling surfaces embedded in flat Minkowski spacetime. In all cases, the problem reduces to an effectively two-dimensional problem of random surfaces which can be treated by means of the well-known conformal methods. Focusing on the logarithmic terms in the entropy, we predict the appearance of a new ln ln(A) term. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
Goyal, Sandeep K.; Ghosh, Sibasish
2010-10-15
Entanglement sudden death (ESD) in spatially separated two-mode Gaussian states coupled to local thermal and squeezed thermal baths is studied by mapping the problem to that of the quantum-to-classical transition. Using Simon's criterion concerning the characterization of classicality in Gaussian states, the time to ESD is calculated by analyzing the covariance matrices of the system. The results for the two-mode system at T=0 and T>0 for the two types of bath states are generalized to n modes, and are shown to be similar in nature to the results for the general discrete n-qubit system.
Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens
2016-01-01
Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.
Tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in accelerated frames
Khan, Salman
2014-09-15
The dynamics of tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in noninertial frames through linear contraction criterion when one or two observers are accelerated is investigated. In one observer accelerated case the entanglement measurement is not invariant with respect to the partial realignment of different subsystems and for two observers accelerated case it is invariant. It is shown that the acceleration of the frame does not generate entanglement in any bipartite subsystems. Unlike the bipartite states, the genuine tripartite entanglement does not completely vanish in both one observer accelerated and two observers accelerated cases even in the limit of infinite acceleration. The degradation of tripartite entanglement is fast when two observers are accelerated than when one observer is accelerated. It is shown that tripartite entanglement is a better resource for quantum information processing than the bipartite entanglement in noninertial frames. - Highlights: • Tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in noninertial frames is studied. • Linear contraction criterion for quantifying tripartite entanglement is used. • Acceleration does not produce any bipartite entanglement. • The invariance of entanglement quantifier depends on accelerated observers. • The tripartite entanglement degrades against the acceleration, it never vanishes.
Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufman, A. M.; Lester, B. J.; Foss-Feig, M.; Wall, M. L.; Rey, A. M.; Regal, C. A.
2015-11-01
To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.
Dynamical Change of Quantum Fisher Information of Cavity-Reservoir Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jiang; Xie, Qin
2016-04-01
We study the quantum Fisher information (QFI) dynamics of the phase parameter in the enlarged cavity-reservoir systems at zero temperature under two situations of large N limit and non-Markovian environment, respectively. We find an important relation that the total quantities of QFI of the cavity and reservoir are equal to unit during the dynamical evolution. The lost QFI of the cavity transfers to its corresponding reservoir with the same quantities simultaneously. Moreover, we also find that the detuning parameter and non-Markovian effect are two significant factors to affect the preservation of QFI. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11374096 and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province under Grant No. 2015A030310354 and the Projection of Enhancing School with Innovation of Guangdong Ocean University under Grant Nos. GDOU2014050251 and GDOU2014050252
Quantum speedup of uncoupled multiqubit open system via dynamical decoupling pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ya-Ju; Kuang, Le-Man; Tan, Qing-Shou
2016-06-01
We present a method to accelerate the dynamical evolution of mutltiqubit open system by employing dynamical decoupling pulses (DDPs) when the qubits are initially in W-type states. Here the qubits are independent and coupled to local Lorentzian reservoirs. It is found that this speedup evolution can be achieved in both the weak-coupling regime and the strong-coupling regime. The essential physical mechanism behind the acceleration evolution is explained as a result of the joint action of the non-Markovianity of reservoirs and the excited-state population of qubits. It is shown that both the non-Markovianity and the excited-state population can be controlled by DDPs to realize the quantum speedup.
Spatial multipartite entanglement and localization of entanglement
Daems, D.; Cerf, N. J.
2010-09-15
We present a simple model together with its physical implementation which allows one to generate multipartite entanglement between several spatial modes of the electromagnetic field. It is based on parametric down-conversion with N pairs of symmetrically tilted plane waves serving as a pump. The characteristics of this spatial entanglement are investigated in the cases of zero as well as nonzero phase mismatch. Furthermore, the phenomenon of entanglement localization in just two spatial modes is studied in detail and shown to result in an enhancement of the entanglement by a factor {radical}(N).
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M.; Eric Tai, M.; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. PMID:26632587
Influence of external magnetic field on dynamics of open quantum systems
Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.
2007-03-15
The influence of an external magnetic field on the non-Markovian dynamics of an open two-dimensional quantum system is investigated. The fluctuations of collective coordinate and momentum and transport coefficients are studied for a charged harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a neutral bosonic heat bath. It is shown that the dissipation of collective energy slows down with increasing strength of the external magnetic field. The role of magnetic field in the diffusion processes is illustrated by several examples.
Freezing distributed entanglement in spin chains
D'Amico, Irene; Lovett, Brendon W.; Spiller, Timothy P.
2007-09-15
We show how to freeze distributed entanglement that has been created from the natural dynamics of spin chain systems. The technique that we propose simply requires single-qubit operations and isolates the entanglement in specific qubits at the ends of branches. Such frozen entanglement provides a useful resource, for example for teleportation or distributed quantum processing. The scheme can be applied to a wide range of systems--including actual spin systems and alternative qubit embodiments in strings of quantum dots, molecules, or atoms.
Measurement-induced quantum entanglement recovery
Xu Xiaoye; Xu Jinshi; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan
2010-08-15
By using photon pairs created in parametric down-conversion, we report on an experiment, which demonstrates that measurement can recover the quantum entanglement of a two-qubit system in a pure dephasing environment. The concurrence of the final state with and without measurement is compared and is analyzed. Furthermore, we verify that recovered states can still violate the Bell inequality, that is, to say, such recovered states exhibit nonlocality. In the context of quantum entanglement, sudden death and rebirth provide clear evidence, which verifies that entanglement dynamics of the system is sensitive not only to its environment, but also to its initial state.
Generalized entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Marika
2016-07-01
We discuss two measures of entanglement in quantum field theory and their holographic realizations. For field theories admitting a global symmetry, we introduce a global symmetry entanglement entropy, associated with the partitioning of the symmetry group. This quantity is proposed to be related to the generalized holographic entanglement entropy defined via the partitioning of the internal space of the bulk geometry. Thesecond measure of quantum field theory entanglement is the field space entanglement entropy, obtained by integrating out a subset of the quantum fields. We argue that field space entanglement entropy cannot be precisely realised geometrically in a holographic dual. However, for holographic geometries with interior decoupling regions, the differential entropy provides a close analogue to the field space entanglement entropy. We derive generic descriptions of such inner throat regions in terms of gravity coupled to massive scalars and show how the differential entropy in the throat captures features of the field space entanglement entropy.
Charged topological entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuura, Shunji; Wen, Xueda; Hung, Ling-Yan; Ryu, Shinsei
2016-05-01
A charged entanglement entropy is a new measure which probes quantum entanglement between different charge sectors. We study symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in (2+1)-dimensional space-time by using this charged entanglement entropy. SPT phases are short-range entangled states without topological order and hence cannot be detected by the topological entanglement entropy. We demonstrate that the universal part of the charged entanglement entropy is nonzero for nontrivial SPT phases and therefore it is a useful measure to detect short-range entangled topological phases. We also discuss that the classification of SPT phases based on the charged topological entanglement entropy is related to that of the braiding statistics of quasiparticles.
Nonadiabatic entropy production for non-Markov dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-García, Reinaldo
2012-09-01
We extend the definition of nonadiabatic entropy production given for Markovian systems by Esposito and Van den Broeck [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.090601 104, 090601 (2010)], to arbitrary non-Markov ergodic dynamics. We also introduce a notion of stability characterizing non-Markovianity. For stable non-Markovian systems, the nonadiabatic entropy production satisfies an integral fluctuation theorem, leading to the second law of thermodynamics for transitions between nonequilibrium steady states. This quantity can also be written as a sum of products of generalized fluxes and forces, thus being suitable for thermodynamics. On the other hand, the generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation also holds, clarifying that the conditions for it to be satisfied are ergodicity and stability instead of Markovianity. We show that in spite of being counterintuitive, the stability criterion introduced in this work may be violated in non-Markovian systems even if they are ergodic, leading to a violation of the fluctuation theorem and the generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation. Stability represents then a necessary condition for the above properties to hold and explains why the generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation has remained elusive in the study of non-Markov systems exhibiting nonequilibrium steady states.
Nonequilibrium thermal entanglement
Quiroga, Luis; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Ramirez, Maria E.; Paris, Roberto
2007-03-15
Results on heat current, entropy production rate, and entanglement are reported for a quantum system coupled to two different temperature heat reservoirs. By applying a temperature gradient, different quantum states can be found with exactly the same amount of entanglement but different purity degrees and heat currents. Furthermore, a nonequilibrium enhancement-suppression transition behavior of the entanglement is identified.
Extremal extensions of entanglement witnesses: Finding new bound entangled states
Sengupta, R.; Arvind
2011-09-15
In this paper, we discuss extremal extensions of entanglement witnesses based on Choi's map. The constructions are based on a generalization of the Choi map, from which we construct entanglement witnesses. These extremal extensions are powerful in terms of their capacity to detect entanglement of positive under partial transpose (PPT) entangled states and lead to unearthing of entanglement of new PPT states. We also use the Cholesky-like decomposition to construct entangled states which are revealed by these extremal entanglement witnesses.
Quantifying asymmetry of quantum states using entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloui, Borzu
2013-03-01
For open systems, symmetric dynamics do not always lead to conservation laws. We show that, for a dynamic symmetry associated with a compact Lie group, one can derive new selection rules from entanglement theory. These selection rules apply to both closed and open systems as well as reversible and irreversible time evolutions. Our approach is based on an embedding of the system's Hilbert space into a tensor product of two Hilbert spaces allowing for the symmetric dynamics to be simulated with local operations. The entanglement of the embedded states determines which transformations are forbidden because of the symmetry. In fact, every bipartite entanglement monotone can be used to quantify the asymmetry of the initial states. Moreover, where the dynamics is reversible, each of these monotones becomes a new conserved quantity. This research has been supported by the Institute for Quantum Information Science (IQIS) at the University of Calgary, Alberta Innovates, NSERC, General Dynamics Canada, and MITACS.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement Strategies in Two-Well Bose-Einstein Condensates
He, Q. Y.; Vaughan, T. G.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Gross, C.; Oberthaler, M.
2011-03-25
Criteria suitable for measuring entanglement between two different potential wells in a Bose-Einstein condensation are evaluated. We show how to generate the required entanglement, utilizing either an adiabatic two-mode or a dynamic four-mode interaction strategy, with techniques that take advantage of s-wave scattering interactions to provide the nonlinear coupling. The dynamic entanglement method results in an entanglement signature with spatially separated detectors, as in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox.
Gaussian entanglement of formation
Wolf, M.M.; Giedke, G.; Krueger, O.; Werner, R. F.; Cirac, J.I.
2004-05-01
We introduce a Gaussian version of the entanglement of formation adapted to bipartite Gaussian states by considering decompositions into pure Gaussian states only. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian operations and provide a simplified computation for states of arbitrary many modes. For the case of one mode per site the remaining variational problem can be solved analytically. If the considered state is in addition symmetric with respect to interchanging the two modes, we prove additivity of the considered entanglement measure. Moreover, in this case and considering only a single copy, our entanglement measure coincides with the true entanglement of formation.
Entanglement monogamy and entanglement evolution in multipartite systems
Bai Yankui; Ye Mingyong; Wang, Z. D.
2009-10-15
We analyze the entanglement distribution and the two-qubit residual entanglement in multipartite systems. For a composite system consisting of two cavities interacting with independent reservoirs, it is revealed that the entanglement evolution is restricted by an entanglement monogamy relation derived here. Moreover, it is found that the initial cavity-cavity entanglement evolves completely to the genuine four-partite cavities-reservoirs entanglement in the time interval between the sudden death of cavity-cavity entanglement and the birth of reservoir-reservoir entanglement. In addition, we also address the relationship between the genuine block-block entanglement form and qubit-block form in the interval.
Threefold entanglement matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roa, Luis; Muñoz, Ariana; Hutin, Alice; Hecker, Matthias
2015-11-01
We address the problem of entanglement matching in the probabilistic teleportation scheme by considering two independent levels of entanglement in the measurement basis. The probability of a successful teleportation has an upper bound which only depends on the amount of entanglement of the quantum channel. However, we found that each entanglement of the measurement basis contributes independently to the success probability as long as it is weaker than the entanglement of the channel. Accordingly, the teleportation process reaches its optimal probability when both entanglements of the measurement basis match the entanglement of the channel. Additionally, we study the probabilistic scheme for extracting an unknown state from a partially known state. We characterize the success probability and the concurrence involved in that process.
Spin-echo entanglement protection from random telegraph noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo Franco, R.; D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.; Compagno, G.; Paladino, E.
2013-03-01
We analyze local spin-echo procedures for protecting entanglement between two non-interacting qubits, each subject to pure-dephasing random telegraph noise. For superconducting qubits, this simple model captures the characteristic features of the effect of bistable impurities coupled to the device. An analytic expression for the entanglement dynamics is reported. Peculiar features related to the non-Gaussian nature of the noise already observed in the single-qubit dynamics also occur in the entanglement dynamics for proper values of the ratio g = v/γ, between the qubit-impurity coupling strength and the switching rate of the random telegraph process, and of the separation between the pulses Δt. We found that the echo procedure may delay the disappearance of entanglement, cancel the dynamical structure of entanglement revivals and dark periods and induce peculiar plateau-like behaviors of the concurrence.
Entanglement - From Particles to Consciousness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodorani, M.
2007-06-01
This book, which is entirely devoted to the description and discussion of the mechanism of quantum entanglement, is divided into three main parts: a) canonical entanglement in the realm of elementary particles; b) entanglement in the biological environment (DNA and microtubules); c) entanglement in the psychic realm. Cosmological entanglement and non-local SETI are discussed as well.
Entanglements in quiescent and sheared polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Onuki, Akira
2004-10-01
We visualize entanglements in polymer melts using molecular dynamics simulation. A bead at an entanglement interacts persistently for long times with the nonbonded beads (those excluding the adjacent ones in the same chain). The interaction energy of each bead with the nonbonded beads is averaged over a time interval τ much longer than microscopic times but shorter than the onset time of tube constraints τe . Entanglements can then be detected as hot spots consisting of several beads with relatively large values of the time-averaged interaction energy. We next apply a shear flow with rate much faster than the disengagement motion of entangled chains. With increasing strain the chains take zigzag shapes and one-half of the hot spots become bent. The chains are first stretched as a network but, as the bends approach the chain ends, disentanglements subsequently occur, leading to stress overshoot observed experimentally.
Quantum entanglement in coupled harmonic oscillator systems: from micro to macro
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Jhih-Yuan; Chou, Chung-Hsien
2016-07-01
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of several models of coupled harmonic oscillators, whereby a number of properties concerning entanglement have been scrutinized, such as how the environment affects entanglement of a system, and death and revival of entanglement. Among them, there are two models for which we are able to vary their particle numbers easily by assuming identicalness, thereby examining how the particle number affects entanglement. We have found that the upper bound of entanglement between identical oscillators is approximately inversely proportional to the particle number.
General Monogamy Relation for the Entanglement of Formation in Multiqubit Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Yan-Kui; Xu, Yuan-Fei; Wang, Z. D.
2014-09-01
We prove exactly that the squared entanglement of formation, which quantifies the bipartite entanglement, obeys a general monogamy inequality in an arbitrary multiqubit mixed state. Based on this kind of exotic monogamy relation, we are able to construct two sets of useful entanglement indicators: the first one can detect all genuine multiqubit entangled states even in the case of the two-qubit concurrence and n-tangles being zero, while the second one can be calculated via quantum discord and applied to multipartite entanglement dynamics. Moreover, we give a computable and nontrivial lower bound for multiqubit entanglement of formation.
Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses versus bound entanglement
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej; Sarbicki, Gniewomir
2009-10-15
It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e., cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly nonspectral features.
Sancho, Pedro; Plaja, Luis
2011-06-15
T. Tanabe et al. [Phys. Rev. A 82, 040101(R) (2010)] have experimentally demonstrated that the emission properties of unstable atoms in entangled and product states are different. The authors define an apparent decay time as a fitting parameter which falls below the lifetime of the single atom for entangled pairs. We argue that their results about coincidence time spectra are correct, but those concerning lifetimes cannot be considered conclusive because they assume the emission of photons by the two atoms to be independent processes, a doubtful hypothesis for entangled states. We suggest an improved evaluation of the lifetimes based on a rigorous approach, which demands some modifications of the experimental procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Shan-Jun; Hu, Li-Yun; Fan, Hong-Yi
2010-05-01
Based on the entangled Fresnel operator (EFO) proposed in [Commun. Theor. Phys. 46 (2006) 559], the optical operator method studied by the IWOP technique (Ma et al., Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 1295) is extended to the two-mode case, which gives the decomposition of the entangled Fresnel operator, corresponding to the decomposition of ray transfer matrix [A, B, C, D]. The EFO can unify those optical operators in two-mode case. Various decompositions of EFO into the exponential canonical operators are obtained. The entangled state representation is useful in the research.
Holographic de Sitter Geometry from Entanglement in Conformal Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Boer, Jan; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.; Neiman, Yasha
2016-02-01
We demonstrate that, for general conformal field theories (CFTs), the entanglement for small perturbations of the vacuum is organized in a novel holographic way. For spherical entangling regions in a constant time slice, perturbations in the entanglement entropy are solutions of a Klein-Gordon equation in an auxiliary de Sitter (dS) spacetime. The role of the emergent timelike direction in dS spacetime is played by the size of the entangling sphere. For CFTs with extra conserved charges, e.g., higher-spin charges, we show that each charge gives rise to a separate dynamical scalar field in dS spacetime.
Quantum Spin Baths Induced Transition of Decoherence and Entanglement
Chen Pochung; Lai Chengyan; Hung, J.-T.; Mou Chungyu
2008-11-07
We investigate the reduced dynamics of single or two qubits coupled to an interacting quantum spin bath modeled by a XXZ spin chain. By using the method of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG), we evaluate nonperturbatively the induced decoherence and entanglement. We find that the behavior of both decoherence and entanglement strongly depend on the phase of the underlying spin bath. We show that spin baths can induce entanglement for an initially disentangled pair of qubits. We observe that entanglement sudden death only occurs in paramagnetic phase and discuss the effect of the coupling range.
The Retarding Effect of Noise on Entanglement Sudden Death
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kayhan, Hünkar
2015-10-01
In this paper, we consider a system of two atoms in which one atom is in a JC cavity under the influence of a random phase telegraph noise and the other is an isolated atom. We obtain an exact solution to the time evolution of this system to investigate the effects of noise on the entanglement dynamics of the atoms. We show that the noise causes entanglement sudden death without recovery in a finite time interval. The time for this is independent of the initial state of the pure entangled atomic state. Moreover, an intensive noise delays the entanglement sudden death.
Entanglement of two harmonic modes coupled by angular momentum
Rebon, L.; Rossignoli, R.
2011-11-15
We examine the entanglement induced by an angular momentum coupling between two harmonic systems. The Hamiltonian corresponds to that of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field in an anisotropic quadratic potential or, equivalently, to that of a particle in a rotating quadratic potential. We analyze both the vacuum and thermal entanglement, thereby obtaining analytic expressions for the entanglement entropy and negativity through the Gaussian state formalism. It is shown that vacuum entanglement diverges at the edges of the dynamically stable sectors, increasing with the angular momentum and saturating for strong fields, whereas at finite temperature entanglement is nonzero just within a finite field or frequency window and no longer diverges. Moreover, the limit temperature for entanglement is finite in the whole stable domain. The thermal behavior of the Gaussian quantum discord and its difference from the negativity is also discussed.
Generation of infrared entangled light in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Li-Li; Huang, Pei
2010-12-01
We proposed a scheme to achieve two-mode CV entanglement with the frequencies of entangled modes in the infrared range in an asymmetric semiconductor double-quantum-wells (DQW), where the required quantum coherence is obtained by inducing the corresponding intersubband transitions (ISBTs) with a classical field. By numerically simulating the dynamics of system, we show that the entanglement period can be prolonged via enhancing the intensity of classical field, and the generation of entanglement doesn't depend intensively on the initial condition of system in our scheme. Moreover, we also show that a bipartite entanglement amplifier can be realized in our scheme. The present research provides an efficient approach to achieve infrared entangled light in the semiconductor nanostructure, which may have significant impact on the progress of solid-state quantum information theory.
Entangling power and operator entanglement in qudit systems
Wang Xiaoguang; Sanders, Barry C.; Berry, Dominic W.
2003-04-01
We establish the entangling power of a unitary operator on a general finite-dimensional bipartite quantum system with and without ancillas, and give relations between the entangling power based on the von Neumann entropy and the entangling power based on the linear entropy. Significantly, we demonstrate that the entangling power of a general controlled unitary operator acting on two equal-dimensional qudits is proportional to the corresponding operator entanglement if linear entropy is adopted as the quantity representing the degree of entanglement. We discuss the entangling power and operator entanglement of three representative quantum gates on qudits: the SUM, double SUM, and SWAP gates.
Theory of entanglement and entanglement-assisted communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Charles H.
2011-03-01
Protocols such as quantum teleportation and measurement-based quantum computation highlight the importance of entanglement as a resource to be quantified and husbanded. Unlike classical shared randomness, entanglement has a profound effect on the capacity of quantum channels: a channel's entanglement-assisted capacity can be much greater than its unassisted capacity, and in any case is given by much a simpler formula, paralleling Shannon's original formula for the capacity of a classical channel. We review the differences between entanglement and weaker forms of correlation, and the theory of entanglement distillation and entanglement-assisted communication, including the role of strong forms of entanglement such as entanglement-embezzling states.
Unlocking fermionic mode entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friis, Nicolai
2016-06-01
Aside from other puzzling features of entanglement, it has been debated whether a physically meaningful notion of entanglement requires two (or more) particles as carriers of the correlated degrees-of-freedom, or if a single particle could be considered to be entangled as well. While the usefulness of single-boson entanglement has been demonstrated some time ago, the restrictions of superselection rules have previously thwarted attempts at similar arguments for single fermions. In Dasenbrook et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043036) this obstacle is overcome. The authors propose a scheme for a Bell test on two copies of single-electron states whose entanglement is individually not accessible. The discussed scheme, which makes use of recent progress in electronic quantum optics, provides an experimentally viable and theoretically unambiguous way to assert that certain single-electron states can be considered to be entangled.
Multipartite entanglement measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szalay, Szilárd
2015-10-01
The main concern of this paper is how to define proper measures of multipartite entanglement for mixed quantum states. Since the structure of partial separability and multipartite entanglement is getting complicated if the number of subsystems exceeds two, one cannot expect the existence of an ultimate scalar entanglement measure, which grasps even a small part of the rich hierarchical structure of multipartite entanglement, and some higher-order structure characterizing that is needed. In this paper we make some steps in this direction. First, we reveal the lattice-theoretic structure of the partial separability classification, introduced earlier [Sz. Szalay and Z. Kökényesi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 032341 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.032341]. It turns out that, mathematically, the structure of the entanglement classes is the up-set lattice of the structure of the different kinds of partial separability, which is the down-set lattice of the lattice of the partitions of the subsystems. It also turns out that, physically, this structure is related to the local operations and classical communication convertibility: If a state from a class can be mapped into another one, then that class can be found higher in the hierarchy. Second, we introduce the notion of multipartite monotonicity, expressing that a given set of entanglement monotones, while measuring the different kinds of entanglement, shows also the same hierarchical structure as the entanglement classes. Then we construct such hierarchies of entanglement measures and propose a physically well-motivated one, being the direct multipartite generalization of the entanglement of formation based on the entanglement entropy, motivated by the notion of statistical distinguishability. The multipartite monotonicity shown by this set of measures motivates us to consider the measures to be the different manifestations of some "unified" notion of entanglement.
Geometric measures of entanglement
Uyanik, K.; Turgut, S.
2010-03-15
The geometric measure of entanglement, which expresses the minimum distance to product states, has been generalized to distances to sets that remain invariant under the stochastic reducibility relation. For each such set, an associated entanglement monotone can be defined. The explicit analytical forms of these measures are obtained for bipartite entangled states. Moreover, the three-qubit case is discussed and it is argued that the distance to the W states is a new monotone.
Quantum entanglement in the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robles-Pérez, S.; González-Díaz, P. F.
2014-01-01
We show that the quantum state of a multiverse made up of classically disconnected regions of the space-time, whose dynamical evolution is dominated by a homogeneous and isotropic fluid, is given by a squeezed state. These are typical quantum states that have no classical counterpart and therefore allow analyzing the violation of classical inequalities as well as the EPR argument in the context of the quantum multiverse. The thermodynamical properties of entanglement are calculated for a composite quantum state of two universes whose states are quantum-mechanically correlated. The energy of entanglement between the positive and negative modes of a scalar field, which correspond to the expanding and contracting branches of a phantom universe, are also computed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhong-Jie
2010-12-01
Several schemes have been proposed to prepare two-mode squeezed state and entanglement state between motional states of a single trapped ion and light. Preparation of two-mode squeezed state is based on interaction of a trapped ion located in light cavity with cavity field. Preparation of entanglement state is based on interaction of a trapped ion located in light cavity with cavity field and a traveling wave light field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Jing; Liu, Zhong
2010-06-01
We propose a scheme to generate two-atom maximally entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The scheme can be extended to generation of entangled multi-atom Dicke states if we control the interaction time of atoms with cavity modes. We use adiabatically state evolution under large atom-cavity detuning, so the scheme is insensitive to atomic spontaneous decay. The influence of cavity decay on fidelity and success probability is discussed.
Multipartite entanglement of superpositions
Cavalcanti, D.; Terra Cunha, M. O.; Acin, A.
2007-10-15
The entanglement of superpositions [Linden et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)]is generalized to the multipartite scenario: an upper bound to the multipartite entanglement of a superposition is given in terms of the entanglement of the superposed states and the superposition coefficients. This bound is proven to be tight for a class of states composed of an arbitrary number of qubits. We also extend the result to a large family of quantifiers, which includes the negativity, the robustness of entanglement, and the best separable approximation measure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-03-01
We present several criteria for genuine multipartite entanglement from universal uncertainty relations based on majorization theory. Under non-negative Schur-concave functions, the vector-type uncertainty relation generates a family of infinitely many detectors to check genuine multipartite entanglement. We also introduce the concept of k-separable circles via geometric distance for probability vectors, which include at most (k-1)-separable states. The entanglement witness is also generalized to a universal entanglement witness which is able to detect the k-separable states more accurately.
Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.
Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens
2016-01-15
Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow. PMID:26824532
Multipartite entanglement of superpositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavalcanti, D.; Terra Cunha, M. O.; Acín, A.
2007-10-01
The entanglement of superpositions [Linden , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)]is generalized to the multipartite scenario: an upper bound to the multipartite entanglement of a superposition is given in terms of the entanglement of the superposed states and the superposition coefficients. This bound is proven to be tight for a class of states composed of an arbitrary number of qubits. We also extend the result to a large family of quantifiers, which includes the negativity, the robustness of entanglement, and the best separable approximation measure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-08-01
We present several criteria for genuine multipartite entanglement from universal uncertainty relations based on majorization theory. Under non-negative Schur-concave functions, the vector-type uncertainty relation generates a family of infinitely many detectors to check genuine multipartite entanglement. We also introduce the concept of k-separable circles via geometric distance for probability vectors, which include at most ( k-1)-separable states. The entanglement witness is also generalized to a universal entanglement witness which is able to detect the k-separable states more accurately.
How do entangled polymeric liquids flow?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundar Ravindranath, Sham; Wang, Shi-Qing
2009-03-01
This work focused on investigating fundamental questions in polymer dynamics such as how entangled polymeric liquids respond to fast external deformation. By developing an effective particle tracking velocimetric (PTV) method, along with conventional rheometric measurements, new insights can be gained into the phenomenology of entangled polymers in presence of startup shear, step strain and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS). During startup shear of well entangled systems, the shear field becomes inhomogeneous after the stress overshoot for a range of applied shear rates beyond the Newtonian region [1]. The emergence of shear banding after stress overshoot helped us to identify the stress overshoot as indicating yielding, whose characteristics obey some scaling laws. In step shear, contrary to the conventional perception that entangled polymers would undergo quiescent relaxation, the PTV observations reveal macroscopic motions after shear cessation [2]. The recoil-like macroscopic motions appears to reflect an elastic breakdown of the entanglement network due to sufficient build-up of retractive forces. LAOS experiments also demonstrate that entangled polymers cannot sustain a high magnitude of fast deformation without undergoing cohesive failure [3]. [1] Macromolecules 2008, 41, 2663 [2] Macromolecules 2007, 40, 8031 [3] J. Rheol. 2008, 52, 341.
Causality & holographic entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Headrick, Matthew; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Lawrence, Albion; Rangamani, Mukund
2014-12-01
We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.
Entanglement as a Semantic Resource
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2010-10-01
The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits ( quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters ( qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (which have a characteristic reversible and dynamic behavior). In this framework, states of knowledge may be entangled, in such a way that our information about the whole determines our information about the parts; and the procedure cannot be, generally, inverted. In spite of its appealing properties, the standard version of the quantum computational semantics is strongly “Hilbert-space dependent”. This certainly represents a shortcoming for all applications, where real and complex numbers do not generally play any significant role (as happens, for instance, in the case of natural and of artistic languages). We propose an abstract version of quantum computational semantics, where abstract qumixes, quregisters and registers are identified with some special objects (not necessarily living in a Hilbert space), while gates are reversible functions that transform qumixes into qumixes. In this framework, one can give an abstract definition of the notions of superposition and of entangled pieces of information, quite independently of any numerical values. We investigate three different forms of abstract holistic quantum computational logic.
Entanglement of formation in two-mode Gaussian systems in a thermal environment
Dumitru, Irina Isar, Aurelian
2015-12-07
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous variable entanglement for a system consisting of two non-interacting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. The calculated measure of entanglement is entanglement of formation. We describe the evolution of entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix for symmetric Gaussian input states. In the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place, for all non-zero temperatures of the thermal bath. After that, the system remains for all times in a separable state. For a zero temperature of the thermal bath, the system remains entangled for all finite times, but in the limit of asymptotic large times the state becomes separable.
Entanglement of formation in two-mode Gaussian systems in a thermal environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumitru, Irina; Isar, Aurelian
2015-12-01
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous variable entanglement for a system consisting of two non-interacting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. The calculated measure of entanglement is entanglement of formation. We describe the evolution of entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix for symmetric Gaussian input states. In the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place, for all non-zero temperatures of the thermal bath. After that, the system remains for all times in a separable state. For a zero temperature of the thermal bath, the system remains entangled for all finite times, but in the limit of asymptotic large times the state becomes separable.
Reexamination of entanglement of superpositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gour, Gilad
2007-11-01
We find tight lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of a superposition of two bipartite states in terms of the entanglement of the two states constituting the superposition. Our upper bound is dramatically tighter than the one presented by Linden [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)] and our lower bound can be used to provide lower bounds on different measures of entanglement such as the entanglement of formation and the entanglement of subspaces. We also find that in the case in which the two states are one-sided orthogonal, the entanglement of the superposition state can be expressed explicitly in terms of the entanglement of the two states in the superposition.
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro
2015-03-10
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro
2015-03-01
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sancho, Pedro; Plaja, Luis
2011-06-01
T. Tanabe [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.040101 82, 040101(R) (2010)] have experimentally demonstrated that the emission properties of unstable atoms in entangled and product states are different. The authors define an apparent decay time as a fitting parameter which falls below the lifetime of the single atom for entangled pairs. We argue that their results about coincidence time spectra are correct, but those concerning lifetimes cannot be considered conclusive because they assume the emission of photons by the two atoms to be independent processes, a doubtful hypothesis for entangled states. We suggest an improved evaluation of the lifetimes based on a rigorous approach, which demands some modifications of the experimental procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hessian, H. A.; Mohammed, F. A.; Mohamed, A.-B. A.
2009-04-01
In this paper, we analytically solve the master equation for Jaynes-Cummings model in the dispersive regime including phase damping and the field is assumed to be initially in a superposition of coherent states. Using an established entanglement measure based on the negativity of the eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix we find a very strong sensitivity of the maximally generated entanglement to the amount of phase damping. Qualitatively this behavior is also reflected in alternative entanglement measures, but the quantitative agreement between different measures depends on the chosen noise model. The phase decoherence for this model results in monotonic increase in the total entropy while the atomic sub-entropy keeps its periodic behaviour without any effect.
Multipartite Entanglement And Firewalls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Shengqiao; Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas
2016-03-01
Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully AMPS have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a ``firewall'' inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as ``monogamy'' plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. We identified an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entanglement and perhaps eliminating the need for a firewall. Looking at different many body entanglement measures and their monogamy properties can tell us subtle ways in which different subsystems can share their entanglement. Specific measures we consider include negativity, concurrence, and mutual information. Taking insights from these different measures, we constructed toy models for black hole decay which have different entanglement behaviors than those assumed by AMPS. We hope to use our effective toy model to demonstrate interesting new ways of thinking about black holes.
Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna; Sarbicki, Gniewomir
2009-12-15
We provide a class of indecomposable entanglement witnesses. In 4x4 case, it reproduces the well-known Breuer-Hall witness. We prove that these witnesses are optimal and atomic, i.e., they are able to detect the 'weakest' quantum entanglement encoded into states with positive partial transposition. Equivalently, we provide a construction of indecomposable atomic maps in the algebra of 2kx2k complex matrices. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels. This result supports recent conjecture by Korbicz et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062105 (2008)].
Highly entangled tensor networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yingfei; Bulmash, Daniel; Qi, Xiao-Liang
Tensor network states are used to represent many-body quantum state, e.g., a ground state of local Hamiltonian. In this talk, we will provide a systematic way to produce a family of highly entangled tensor network states. These states are entangled in a special way such that the entanglement entropy of a subsystem follows the Ryu-Takayanagi formula, i.e. the entropy is proportional to the minimal area geodesic surface bounding the boundary region. Our construction also provide an intuitive understanding of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula by relating it to a wave propagation process. We will present examples in various geometries.
Multipartite Fully Entangled Fraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jianwei
2016-06-01
Fully entangled fraction is a definition for bipartite states, which is tightly related to bipartite maximally entangled states, and has clear experimental and theoretical significance. In this work, we generalize it to multipartite case, we call the generalized version multipartite fully entangled fraction (MFEF). MFEF measures the closeness of a state to GHZ states. The analytical expressions of MFEF are very difficult to obtain except for very special states, however, we show that, the MFEF of any state is determined by a system of finite-order polynomial equations. Therefore, the MFEF can be efficiently numerically computed.
Probabilistic Teleportation via Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, De-Chao; Shi, Zhong-Ke
2008-10-01
With an arbitrary bi-particle entangled mixed state which is shared by Alice (the sender) and Bob (the receiver) acted as a quantum channel, at first, a teleportation protocol that Alice successfully transmits an unknown mixed state to Bob based on a positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) is presented. The upper bound of probability to teleport successfully an unknown mixed state is then investigated, and conclude that it completely depends on the entanglement degree of the bi-particle entangled mixed state as a resource.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Hastings, M. B.
2004-04-01
We propose an experiment for directly constructing and locally probing topologically entangled states of superconducting vortices which can be performed with present-day technology. Calculations using an elastic string vortex model indicate that as the pitch (the winding angle divided by the vertical distance) increases, the vortices approach each other. At values of the pitch higher than a maximum value the entangled state becomes unstable to collapse via a singularity of the model. We provide predicted experimental signatures for both vortex entanglement and vortex cutting. The local probe we propose can also be used to explore a wide range of other quantities.
Chain entanglements. I. Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fixman, Marshall
1988-09-01
A model of concentrated polymer solution dynamics is described. The forces in a linear generalized Langevin equation for the motion of a probe chain are derived on the assumption that all relaxation of the forces is due to motion of the surrounding matrix. Vicinal chain displacements are classified as viscoelastic deformation, reptation, and minor residual fluctuations. The latter provide a torsional relaxation of the primitive path that minimizes the significance of transverse forces on the probe chain. All displacements of vicinal segments are assumed proportional to the forces that they exert on the probe chain. In response to an external force, the displacement of the probe chain relative to a laboratory frame is increased by viscoelastic deformation of the matrix, but reptative diffusion relative to the deforming matrix is slowed down. The net effect on translational diffusion is negligible if the probe and vicinal chains have the same chain length N, but the friction constant for reptative motion is increased by a factor N1-xs. xs=1/2 if Gaussian conformational statistics applies during the disengagement process, while xs =0.6 if excluded volume statistics applies. The translational friction constant is βp ˜N2, as in reptation theory, but the viscosity is η˜N4-xs . The persistence of entanglements during the translational diffusion of the probe chain across many radii of gyration is rationalized pictorially in terms of correlated reptative motion of the probe and vicinal chains.
Heralded entangled coherent states between spatially separated massive resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asadian, Ali; Abdi, Mehdi
2016-05-01
We put forward an experimentally feasible scheme for heralded entanglement generation between two distant macroscopic mechanical resonators. The protocol exploits a hybrid quantum device, a qubit interacting with a mechanical resonator as well as a cavity mode, for each party. The cavity modes interfere on a beam splitter followed by suitable heralding detections, which postselect a hybrid entangled state with success probability 1/2. Subsequently, by local measurements on the qubits, a mechanically entangled coherent state can be achieved. The mechanical entanglement can be further verified via monitoring the entanglement of the qubit pair. The setup is envisioned as a test bed for sensing gravitational effects on the quantum dynamics of gravitationally coupled massive objects. As a concrete example, we illustrate the implementation of our protocol using the current circuit QED architectures.
Nonequilibrium dissipation-driven steady many-body entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellomo, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro
2015-04-01
We study an ensemble of two-level quantum systems (qubits) interacting with a common electromagnetic field in the proximity of a dielectric slab whose temperature is held different from that of some far surrounding walls. We show that the dissipative dynamics of the qubits driven by this stationary and out of thermal equilibrium field allows the production of steady many-body entangled states, different from the case at thermal equilibrium where steady states are always nonentangled. By studying up to ten qubits, we point out the role of symmetry in the entanglement production, which is exalted in the case of permutationally invariant configurations. In the case of three qubits, we find a strong dependence of tripartite entanglement on the spatial disposition of the qubits, and in the case of six qubits we find several highly entangled bipartitions where entanglement can, remarkably, survive for large qubit-qubit distances up to 100 μ m .
Entangled networks, synchronization, and optimal network topology.
Donetti, Luca; Hurtado, Pablo I; Muñoz, Miguel A
2005-10-28
A new family of graphs, entangled networks, with optimal properties in many respects, is introduced. By definition, their topology is such that it optimizes synchronizability for many dynamical processes. These networks are shown to have an extremely homogeneous structure: degree, node distance, betweenness, and loop distributions are all very narrow. Also, they are characterized by a very interwoven (entangled) structure with short average distances, large loops, and no well-defined community structure. This family of nets exhibits an excellent performance with respect to other flow properties such as robustness against errors and attacks, minimal first-passage time of random walks, efficient communication, etc. These remarkable features convert entangled networks in a useful concept, optimal or almost optimal in many senses, and with plenty of potential applications in computer science or neuroscience. PMID:16383953
Entanglement entropy in warped conformal field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Alejandra; Hofman, Diego M.; Iqbal, Nabil
2016-02-01
We present a detailed discussion of entanglement entropy in (1+1)-dimensional Warped Conformal Field Theories (WCFTs). We implement the Rindler method to evaluate entanglement and Renyi entropies for a single interval and along the way we interpret our results in terms of twist field correlation functions. Holographically a WCFT can be described in terms of Lower Spin Gravity, a SL (2, ℝ) × U (1) Chern-Simons theory in three dimensions. We show how to obtain the universal field theory results for entanglement in a WCFT via holography. For the geometrical description of the theory we introduce the concept of geodesic and massive point particles in the warped geometry associated to Lower Spin Gravity. In the Chern-Simons description we evaluate the appropriate Wilson line that captures the dynamics of a massive particle.
Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing
Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.
2008-05-01
In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.
Converting Nonclassicality into Entanglement.
Killoran, N; Steinhoff, F E S; Plenio, M B
2016-02-26
Quantum mechanics exhibits a wide range of nonclassical features, of which entanglement in multipartite systems takes a central place. In several specific settings, it is well known that nonclassicality (e.g., squeezing, spin squeezing, coherence) can be converted into entanglement. In this work, we present a general framework, based on superposition, for structurally connecting and converting nonclassicality to entanglement. In addition to capturing the previously known results, this framework also allows us to uncover new entanglement convertibility theorems in two broad scenarios, one which is discrete and one which is continuous. In the discrete setting, the classical states can be any finite linearly independent set. For the continuous setting, the pertinent classical states are "symmetric coherent states," connected with symmetric representations of the group SU(K). These results generalize and link convertibility properties from the resource theory of coherence, spin coherent states, and optical coherent states, while also revealing important connections between local and nonlocal pictures of nonclassicality. PMID:26967398
Quantifying entanglement with witness operators
Brandao, Fernando G.S.L.
2005-08-15
We present a unifying approach to the quantification of entanglement based on entanglement witnesses, which includes several already established entanglement measures such as the negativity, the concurrence, and the robustness of entanglement. We then introduce an infinite family of new entanglement quantifiers, having as its limits the best separable approximation measure and the generalized robustness. Gaussian states, states with symmetry, states constrained to super-selection rules, and states composed of indistinguishable particles are studied under the view of the witnessed entanglement. We derive new bounds to the fidelity of teleportation d{sub min}, for the distillable entanglement E{sub D} and for the entanglement of formation. A particular measure, the PPT-generalized robustness, stands out due to its easy calculability and provides sharper bounds to d{sub min} and E{sub D} than the negativity in most of the states. We illustrate our approach studying thermodynamical properties of entanglement in the Heisenberg XXX and dimerized models.
Entanglement of mesoscopic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narnhofer, Heide; Thirring, Walter
2002-11-01
The entanglement of clouds of N=1011 atoms recently experimentally verified is expressed in terms of the fluctuation algebra introduced by [P. Goderis, A. Verbeure, and P. Vets, Commun. Phys. 128, 533 (1990)]. A mean-field Hamiltonian describing the coupling to a laser beam leads to different time evolutions if considered on microscopic or mesoscopic operators. Only the latter creates nontrivial correlations that finally after a measurement lead to entanglement between the clouds.
Anomalies and entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishioka, Tatsuma; Yarom, Amos
2016-03-01
We initiate a systematic study of entanglement and Rényi entropies in the presence of gauge and gravitational anomalies in even-dimensional quantum field theories. We argue that the mixed and gravitational anomalies are sensitive to boosts and obtain a closed form expression for their behavior under such transformations. Explicit constructions exhibiting the dependence of entanglement entropy on boosts is provided for theories on spacetimes with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and (or) non-vanishing Pontryagin classes.
Entanglement Renormalization and Wavelets.
Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven R
2016-04-01
We establish a precise connection between discrete wavelet transforms and entanglement renormalization, a real-space renormalization group transformation for quantum systems on the lattice, in the context of free particle systems. Specifically, we employ Daubechies wavelets to build approximations to the ground state of the critical Ising model, then demonstrate that these states correspond to instances of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), producing the first known analytic MERA for critical systems. PMID:27104687
Entanglement Renormalization and Wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven R.
2016-04-01
We establish a precise connection between discrete wavelet transforms and entanglement renormalization, a real-space renormalization group transformation for quantum systems on the lattice, in the context of free particle systems. Specifically, we employ Daubechies wavelets to build approximations to the ground state of the critical Ising model, then demonstrate that these states correspond to instances of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), producing the first known analytic MERA for critical systems.
Entanglement magnification induced by local manipulations
Romano, Raffaele
2007-10-15
We study the entanglement capability of the evolution of a pair of qubits subject to unitary dynamics, when the dynamical parameters are fixed, that is they cannot be modified during the time evolution via external control. Unlike the fast local control regime, we find that local and nonlocal contributions to the dynamics are strictly interconnected, and both relevant in determining the entangling capability of the channel. It turns out that it is possible to strongly increase this quantity by suitably initializing the characteristic energies of the two parties; a significative magnification is obtained when these energies are equal. Analytical results are obtained for a subclass of dynamics, and numerical results are presented for more general cases.
Chitanvis, S.M.
1998-09-01
We have developed a theory of polymer entanglement using an extended Cahn-Hilliard functional with two extra terms. One is a nonlocal attractive term, operating over mesoscales, which is interpreted as giving rise to entanglement, and the other is a local repulsive term indicative of excluded volume interactions. This functional can be derived using notions from gauge theory. We go beyond the Gaussian approximation, to the one-loop level, to show that the system exhibits a crossover to a state of entanglement as the average chain length between points of entanglement decreases. This crossover is marked by {ital critical} slowing down, as the effective diffusion constant goes to zero. We have also computed the tensile modulus of the system, and we find a corresponding crossover to a regime of high modulus. The single parameter in our theory is obtained by fitting to available experimental data on polystyrene melts of various chain lengths. Extrapolation of this fit yields a model for the crossover to entanglement. The need for additional experiments detailing the crossover to the entangled state is pointed out. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Entangling power and operator entanglement of nonunitary quantum evolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Fan-Zhen; Zhao, Jun-Long; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2015-07-01
We propose a method to calculate the operator entanglement and entangling power of a noisy nonunitary operation in terms of linear entropy. By decomposing the Kraus operators of noisy evolution as the sum of products of Pauli matrices, we derive the analytical expression of the operator entanglement for a general nonunitary operation. The definition of entangling power is extended from the ideal unitary operation case to the nonunitary case via a Kraus operator representation and the analytical expression of the entangling power for a general nonunitary operation is derived. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the above method, we investigate the properties of operator entanglement and entangling power of nonunitary operations caused by phase damping noise. Our findings imply that the pure phase damping noise has its own operator entanglement and entangling power, which increase exponentially with time and asymptotically approach their respective upper bounds. In addition, when the phase damping noise is added to an ideal operation, such as an iswap operation or a controlled-Z operation, it can make the operation's entangling power grow exponentially with the strength of noise, but leave its operator entanglement invariant. In this sense, we can conclude that, for a general operation, operator entanglement is a more intrinsic property than entangling power.
Entangled graphs: a classification of four-qubit entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghahi, Masoud Gharahi; Akhtarshenas, Seyed Javad
2016-03-01
We use the concept of entangled graphs with weighted edges to present a classification for four-qubit entanglement which is based neither on the LOCC nor the SLOCC. Entangled graphs, first introduced by Plesch et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 012322 (2003)], are structures such that each qubit of a multi-qubit system is represented as a vertex and an edge between two vertices denotes bipartite entanglement between the corresponding qubits. Our classification is based on the use of generalized Schmidt decomposition of pure states of multi-qubit systems. We show that for every possible entangled graph one can find a pure state such that the reduced entanglement of each pair, measured by concurrence, represents the weight of the corresponding edge in the graph. We also use the concept of tripartite and quadripartite concurrences as a proper measure of global entanglement of the states. In this case a circle including the graph indicates the presence of global entanglement.
Entanglement under restricted operations: Analogy to mixed-state entanglement
Bartlett, Stephen D.; Doherty, Andrew C.; Spekkens, Robert W.; Wiseman, H. M.
2006-02-15
We show that the classification of bipartite pure entangled states when local quantum operations are restricted yields a structure that is analogous in many respects to that of mixed-state entanglement. Specifically, we develop this analogy by restricting operations through local superselection rules, and show that such exotic phenomena as bound entanglement and activation arise using pure states in this setting. This analogy aids in resolving several conceptual puzzles in the study of entanglement under restricted operations. In particular, we demonstrate that several types of quantum optical states that possess confusing entanglement properties are analogous to bound entangled states. Also, the classification of pure-state entanglement under restricted operations can be much simpler than for mixed-state entanglement. For instance, in the case of local Abelian superselection rules all questions concerning distillability can be resolved.
Entanglement swapping of two arbitrarily degraded entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirby, Brian T.; Santra, Siddhartha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Brodsky, Michael
2016-07-01
We consider entanglement swapping, a key component of quantum network operations and entanglement distribution. Pure entangled states, which are the desired input to the swapping protocol, are typically mixed by environmental interactions, causing a reduction in their degree of entanglement. Thus an understanding of entanglement swapping with partially mixed states is of importance. Here we present a general analytical solution for entanglement swapping of arbitrary two-qubit states. Our result provides a comprehensive method for analyzing entanglement swapping in quantum networks. First, we show that the concurrence of a partially mixed state is conserved when this state is swapped with a Bell state. Then, we find upper and lower bounds on the concurrence of the state resulting from entanglement swapping for various classes of input states. Finally, we determine a general relationship between the ranks of the initial states and the rank of the final state after swapping.
Frozen Topology: Entanglements Control Nucleation and Crystallization in Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Chuanfu; Sommer, Jens-Uwe
2014-05-01
Polymer chains form lamellar structures during crystallization which display a memory of thermal history. Using molecular dynamics simulations and primitive path analysis, we show a direct dependence of both density and crystalline stem length on the local entanglement length. The slow relaxation of the entanglement state after a change of external conditions can directly explain the role of thermal history for polymer crystallization, in particular memory effects. The analysis of the local entanglement state can be used to predict the occurrence of nucleation events. Our results present a fresh insight of the nonequilibrium properties of polymer crystals which might be identified as "frozen topology" of polymer melts.
Measuring Entanglement in a Photonic Embedding Quantum Simulator.
Loredo, J C; Almeida, M P; Di Candia, R; Pedernales, J S; Casanova, J; Solano, E; White, A G
2016-02-19
Measuring entanglement is a demanding task that usually requires full tomography of a quantum system, involving a number of observables that grows exponentially with the number of parties. Recently, it was suggested that adding a single ancillary qubit would allow for the efficient measurement of concurrence, and indeed any entanglement monotone associated with antilinear operations. Here, we report on the experimental implementation of such a device-an embedding quantum simulator-in photonics, encoding the entangling dynamics of a bipartite system into a tripartite one. We show that bipartite concurrence can be efficiently extracted from the measurement of merely two observables, instead of 15, without full tomographic information. PMID:26943521
Entanglement in the classical limit: Quantum correlations from classical probabilities
Matzkin, A.
2011-08-15
We investigate entanglement for a composite closed system endowed with a scaling property which allows the dynamics to be kept invariant while the effective Planck constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} of the system is varied. Entanglement increases as ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff}{yields}0. Moreover, for sufficiently low ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} the evolution of the quantum correlations, encapsulated, for example, in the quantum discord, can be obtained from the mutual information of the corresponding classical system. We show this behavior is due to the local suppression of path interferences in the interaction that generates the entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chembo, Yanne K.
2016-03-01
that can lead to squeezed states of light under some optimal conditions that are analytically determined. These quantum correlations can persist regardless the dynamical state of the system (rolls or solitons), regardless of the spectral extension of the comb (number side modes) and regardless of the dispersion regime (normal or anomalous). We also explicitly determine the phase quadratures leading to photon entanglement and analytically calculate their quantum-noise spectra. For both the below- and above-threshold cases, we study with particular emphasis the two principal architectures for Kerr comb generation, namely the add-through and add-drop configurations. It is found that regardless of the configuration, an essential parameter is the ratio between out-coupling and total losses, which plays a key role as it directly determines the efficiency of the detected fluorescence or squeezing spectra. We finally discuss the relevance of Kerr combs for quantum information systems at optical telecommunication wavelengths below and above threshold.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Li-Yun; Fan, Hong-Yi
2009-12-01
We calculate Wigner function, tomogram of the pair coherent state by using its Schmidt decomposition in the coherent state representation. It turns out that the Wigner function can be seen as the quantum entanglement (QE) between two two-variable Hermite polynomials (TVHP) and the tomogram is further simplified as QE of two single-variable Hermite polynomials. The Husimi function of pair coherent state is also calculated.
Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min
2015-08-01
Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.
Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.
Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min
2015-01-01
Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing. PMID:26314514
Estimating concurrence via entanglement witnesses
Jurkowski, Jacek; Chruscinski, Dariusz
2010-05-15
We show that each entanglement witness detecting a given bipartite entangled state provides an estimation of its concurrence. We illustrate our result with several well-known examples of entanglement witnesses and compare the corresponding estimation of concurrence with other estimations provided by the trace norm of partial transposition and realignment.
Lithography using quantum entangled particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
2003-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Lithography using quantum entangled particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Multipartite entanglement in quantum algorithms
Bruss, D.; Macchiavello, C.
2011-05-15
We investigate the entanglement features of the quantum states employed in quantum algorithms. In particular, we analyze the multipartite entanglement properties in the Deutsch-Jozsa, Grover, and Simon algorithms. Our results show that for these algorithms most instances involve multipartite entanglement.
Steady atomic entanglement in cavity QED without state initialization
Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Yang Song; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui
2009-12-15
We present a scheme for realizing a steady entanglement state between two trapped atoms, without requiring the initialization of atom-cavity system nor fine time-controlling of evolution dynamics. We show that high-fidelity entanglement of atomic state can be obtained in a period of time equal to a few times the inverse of atomic's spontaneous decay rate. The robustness against cavity decay kappa and cavity thermal field n{sub T} has also been examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brand, J.; Flach, S.; Fleurov, V.; Schulman, L. S.; Tolkunov, D.
2008-08-01
We study the localization of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice, which interact in a spatially confined region. The classical theory predicts that there is no localization below a threshold value for the strength of interaction that is inversely proportional to the number of participating atoms. In a full quantum treatment, however, we find that localized states exist for arbitrarily weak attractive or repulsive interactions for any number (>1) of atoms. We further show, using an explicit solution of the two-particle bound state and an appropriate measure of entanglement, that the entanglement tends to a finite value in the limit of weak interactions. Coupled with the non-existence of localization in an optimized quantum product state, we conclude that the localization exists by virtue of entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graydon, Matthew A.; Appleby, D. M.
2016-08-01
We describe a connection between entanglement and designs. It involves the conical two-designs introduced in a previous paper. These are a generalization of projective two-designs which includes full sets of arbitrary rank mutually unbiased measurements (mums) and arbitrary rank symmetric informationally complete measurements (sims), as well as the more familiar mubs and sics. We show that a povm is a conical two-design if and only if there exists what we call a regular entanglement monotone whose restriction to the pure states is a function of the norm of the probability vector. In that case the concurrence is such a monotone. We also generalize and develop previous work on designs and entanglement detection.
Topological entanglement entropy.
Kitaev, Alexei; Preskill, John
2006-03-24
We formulate a universal characterization of the many-particle quantum entanglement in the ground state of a topologically ordered two-dimensional medium with a mass gap. We consider a disk in the plane, with a smooth boundary of length L, large compared to the correlation length. In the ground state, by tracing out all degrees of freedom in the exterior of the disk, we obtain a marginal density operator rho for the degrees of freedom in the interior. The von Neumann entropy of rho, a measure of the entanglement of the interior and exterior variables, has the form S(rho) = alphaL - gamma + ..., where the ellipsis represents terms that vanish in the limit L --> infinity. We show that - gamma is a universal constant characterizing a global feature of the entanglement in the ground state. Using topological quantum field theory methods, we derive a formula for gamma in terms of properties of the superselection sectors of the medium. PMID:16605802
Entangling and assisted entangling power of bipartite unitary operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lin; Yu, Li
2016-08-01
Nonlocal unitary operations can create quantum entanglement between distributed particles, and the quantification of created entanglement is a hard problem. It corresponds to the concepts of entangling and assisted entangling power when the input states are, respectively, product and arbitrary pure states. We analytically derive them for Schmidt-rank-two bipartite unitary and some complex bipartite permutation unitaries. In particular, the entangling power of permutation unitary of Schmidt rank three can take only one of two values: log29 -16 /9 or log23 ebits. The entangling power, assisted entangling power, and disentangling power of 2 ×dB permutation unitaries of Schmidt rank four are all 2 ebits. These quantities are also derived for generalized Clifford operators. We further show that any bipartite permutation unitary of Schmidt rank greater than two has entangling power greater than 1.223 ebits. We construct the generalized controlled-not (cnot) gates whose assisted entangling power reaches the maximum. We quantitatively compare the entangling power and assisted entangling power for general bipartite unitaries and their connection to the disentangling power by proposing a probabilistic protocol for implementing bipartite unitaries.
Images in quantum entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowden, G. J.
2009-08-01
A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction ΨO plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: \\Psi = 1/\\sqrt 2 (\\Psi _O \\pm \\Psi _I ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle ν123 entanglement, two-particle entanglements ν12, ν13, ν23 and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters ν12, ν13, ν23, ν123 and phi123 are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function (α1, β1), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shan, Chuan-Jia; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ji-Bing; Cheng, Wei-Wen; Liu, Tang-Kun; Huang, Yan-Xia; Li, Hong
2010-06-01
In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviour of entanglement in terms of concurrence in a bipartite system subjected to an external magnetic field under the action of dissipative environments in the extended Werner-like initial state. The interesting phenomenon of entanglement sudden death as well as sudden birth appears during the evolution process. We analyse in detail the effect of the purity of the initial entangled state of two qubits via Heisenberg XY interaction on the apparition time of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth. Furthermore, the conditions on the conversion of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth can be generalized when the initial entangled state is not pure. In particular, a critical purity of the initial mixed entangled state exists, above which entanglement sudden birth vanishes while entanglement sudden death appears. It is also noticed that stable entanglement, which is independent of different initial states of the qubits (pure or mixed state), occurs even in the presence of decoherence. These results arising from the combination of the extended Werner-like initial state and dissipative environments suggest an approach to control and enhance the entanglement even after purity induced sudden birth, death and revival.
Valence bond entanglement entropy.
Alet, Fabien; Capponi, Sylvain; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Mambrini, Matthieu
2007-09-14
We introduce for SU(2) quantum spin systems the valence bond entanglement entropy as a counting of valence bond spin singlets shared by two subsystems. For a large class of antiferromagnetic systems, it can be calculated in all dimensions with quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the valence bond basis. We show numerically that this quantity displays all features of the von Neumann entanglement entropy for several one-dimensional systems. For two-dimensional Heisenberg models, we find a strict area law for a valence bond solid state and multiplicative logarithmic corrections for the Néel phase. PMID:17930468
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baez, John C.; Vicary, Jamie
2014-11-01
Maldacena and Susskind have proposed a correspondence between wormholes and entanglement, dubbed ER=EPR. We study this in the context of three-dimensional topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where we show that the formation of a wormhole is the same process as creating a particle-antiparticle pair. A key feature of the ER=EPR proposal is that certain apparently entangled degrees of freedom turn out to be the same. We name this phenomenon ‘fake entanglement’, and show how it arises in our TQFT model.
Entanglement and the process of measuring the position of a quantum particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apel, V. M.; Curilef, S.; Plastino, A. R.
2015-03-01
We explore the entanglement-related features exhibited by the dynamics of a composite quantum system consisting of a particle and an apparatus (here referred to as the "pointer") that measures the position of the particle. We consider measurements of finite duration, and also the limit case of instantaneous measurements. We investigate the time evolution of the quantum entanglement between the particle and the pointer, with special emphasis on the final entanglement associated with the limit case of an impulsive interaction. We consider entanglement indicators based on the expectation values of an appropriate family of observables, and also an entanglement measure computed on particular exact analytical solutions of the particle-pointer Schrödinger equation. The general behavior exhibited by the entanglement indicators is consistent with that shown by the entanglement measure evaluated on particular analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation. In the limit of instantaneous measurements the system's entanglement dynamics corresponds to that of an ideal quantum measurement process. On the contrary, we show that the entanglement evolution corresponding to measurements of finite duration departs in important ways from the behavior associated with ideal measurements. In particular, highly localized initial states of the particle lead to highly entangled final states of the particle-pointer system. This indicates that the above mentioned initial states, in spite of having an arbitrarily small position uncertainty, are not left unchanged by a finite-duration position measurement process.
Entanglement monogamy relations of qubit systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming
2014-08-01
We investigate the monogamy relations related to the concurrence and the entanglement of formation. General monogamy inequalities given by the αth power of concurrence and entanglement of formation are presented for N-qubit states. The monogamy relation for entanglement of assistance is also established. Based on these general monogamy relations, the residual entanglement of concurrence and entanglement of formation are studied. Some relations among the residual entanglement, entanglement of assistance, and three tangle are also presented.
Collision Microscope to Study Many-Body Quantum Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Craig; Liu, Qi; Gemelke, Nathan
2014-05-01
Quantum entanglement over long length scales is present in both quantum critical and quantum ordered many-body systems and can often be used as a fingerprint for underlying dynamics or ground-state structure. Limited quantum measurement and thermal back-action via controlled collisions of cold atoms and subsequent optical detection can be used to probe long-range entanglement. Entanglement Entropy has recently arisen as a quantitative vehicle to describe entanglement in thermodynamic systems, and its scaling with area can reveal detailed character of the system. We present progress in constructing an apparatus to experimentally extract Entanglement Entropy through pair-wise entanglement of cold fermionic potassium and bosonic cesium gases. The measurement will be made by translating localized probe atoms through a portion of a strongly entangled sample, then recording the heating effect of back-action after optical detection of probe atoms. To do so, precise independent control over the atoms will be maintained in a bichromatic lattice formed with a monolithic, common-mode optical setup imbedded in a quantum gas microscope. Other applications are discussed, including cooling of a Mott-Insulator and study of non-equilibrium quantum systems.
Entanglements and the Mechanical Properties of Glassy Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robbins, Mark
2011-03-01
The response of glassy polymers to shear or tensile strain is strongly influenced by the entanglement network that is inherited from the melt. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to probe the microscopic origins of stress-strain curves and their connection to entanglements. The latter are identified in real space by examining topological constraints along the primitive path. The first part of the talk will consider the process of craze formation, where the entanglement density is correlated to the volume increase during crazing. Simulations show that entanglements are preserved during crazing, but the craze density does not correspond to pulling chains taut between entanglements. The second part of the talk will examine the effect of entanglements on strain hardening under uniaxial strain. The stress is directly associated with the degree of orientational order along the strain axis, and nearly independent of order along perpendicular directions. Studies with mixtures of short and long chains show that the degree of order is independent of the surrounding chains. The final part of the talk will examine the strength of welds formed by diffusion across polymer interfaces. The shear stress follows the bulk response until chains are pulled taut on the scale of the length of segments that have diffused across the interface. When this length is several times the entanglement length, the maximum shear stress saturates at the bulk value and chains fail through scission. Similar trends are found for the fracture energy in tensile loading. This material is based upon work supported by NSF Grant DMR 108474.
Entanglement in Quantum-Classical Hybrid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
It is noted that the phenomenon of entanglement is not a prerogative of quantum systems, but also occurs in other, non-classical systems such as quantum-classical hybrids, and covers the concept of entanglement as a special type of global constraint imposed upon a broad class of dynamical systems. Application of hybrid systems for physics of life, as well as for quantum-inspired computing, has been outlined. In representing the Schroedinger equation in the Madelung form, there is feedback from the Liouville equation to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the form of the quantum potential. Preserving the same topology, the innovators replaced the quantum potential with other types of feedback, and investigated the property of these hybrid systems. A function of probability density has been introduced. Non-locality associated with a global geometrical constraint that leads to an entanglement effect was demonstrated. Despite such a quantum like characteristic, the hybrid can be of classical scale and all the measurements can be performed classically. This new emergence of entanglement sheds light on the concept of non-locality in physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Rong-Chun; Hughes, Stephen
2015-11-01
We study the quantum dynamics of two quantum dots (QDs) or artificial atoms coupled through the fundamental localized plasmon of a gold nanorod resonator. We derive an intuitive and efficient time-local master equation, in which the effect of the metal nanorod is taken into consideration self-consistently using a quasinormal mode (QNM) expansion technique of the photon Green function. Our efficient QNM technique offers an alternative and more powerful approach over the standard Jaynes-Cummings model, where the radiative decay, nonradiative decay, and spectral reshaping effect of the electromagnetic environment is rigorously included in a clear and transparent way. We also show how one can use our approach to compliment the approximate Jaynes-Cummings model in certain spatial regimes where it is deemed to be valid. We then present a study of the quantum dynamics and photoluminescence spectra of the two plasmon-coupled QDs. We first explore the non-Markovian regime, which is found to be important only on the ultrashort time scale of the plasmon mode which is about 40 fs. For the field free evolution case of excited QDs near the nanorod, we demonstrate how spatially separated QDs can be effectively coupled through the plasmon resonance and we show how frequencies away from the plasmon resonance can be more effective for coherently coupling the QDs. Despite the strong inherent dissipation of gold nanoresonators, we show that qubit entanglements as large as 0.7 can be achieved from an initially separate state, which has been limited to less than 0.5 in previous work for weakly coupled reservoirs. We also study the superradiance and subradiance decay dynamics of the QD pair. Finally, we investigate the rich quantum dynamics of QDs that are incoherently pumped, and study the polarization dependent behavior of the emitted photoluminescence spectrum where a double-resonance structure is observed due to the strong photon exchange interactions. Our general quantum plasmonics
Reexamination of entanglement of superpositions
Gour, Gilad
2007-11-15
We find tight lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of a superposition of two bipartite states in terms of the entanglement of the two states constituting the superposition. Our upper bound is dramatically tighter than the one presented by Linden et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)] and our lower bound can be used to provide lower bounds on different measures of entanglement such as the entanglement of formation and the entanglement of subspaces. We also find that in the case in which the two states are one-sided orthogonal, the entanglement of the superposition state can be expressed explicitly in terms of the entanglement of the two states in the superposition.
Entanglement engineering of a close bipartite atomic system in a dissipative environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irtiza Hussain, Mahmood; Ikram, Manzoor
2012-06-01
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a bipartite atomic system, with atoms being close together, interacting with a common vacuum reservoir. We show that local unitary operations such as Pauli-x and Pauli-z on single or both atoms can lead to a significant positive change in the subsequent evolution of the entanglement. Sudden death of the entanglement can be delayed and even can be avoided by such unitary operations at some suitable times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olivares-Rivas, Wilmer; Colmenares, Pedro J.
2016-09-01
The non-static generalized Langevin equation and its corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for the position of a viscous fluid particle were solved in closed form for a time dependent external force. Its solution for a constant external force was obtained analytically. The non-Markovian stochastic differential equation, associated to the dynamics of the position under a colored noise, was then applied to the description of the dynamics and persistence time of particles constrained within absorbing barriers. Comparisons with molecular dynamics were very satisfactory.
Postcolonial Entanglements: Unruling Stories
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica
2012-01-01
In this article, I use Donna Haraway's philosophy to think about postcolonial encounters between different species. I follow entangled stories of the deer/settler-child figure to trouble colonialisms and untangle the histories and trajectories that we inhabit with other species through colonial histories. I shy away from generalizations and…
Entanglement Created by Dissipation
Alharbi, Abdullah F.; Ficek, Zbigniew
2011-10-27
A technique for entangling closely separated atoms by the process of dissipative spontaneous emission is presented. The system considered is composed of two non-identical two-level atoms separated at the quarter wavelength of a driven standing wave laser field. At this atomic distance, only one of the atoms can be addressed by the laser field. In addition, we arrange the atomic dipole moments to be oriented relative to the inter-atomic axis such that the dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms is zero at this specific distance. It is shown that an entanglement can be created between the atoms on demand by tuning the Rabi frequency of the driving field to the difference between the atomic transition frequencies. The amount of the entanglement created depends on the ratio between the damping rates of the atoms, but is independent of the frequency difference between the atoms. We also find that the transient buildup of an entanglement between the atoms may differ dramatically for different initial atomic conditions.
Universal nonlinear entanglement witnesses
Kotowski, Marcin; Kotowski, Michal
2010-06-15
We give a universal recipe for constructing nonlinear entanglement witnesses able to detect nonclassical correlations in arbitrary systems of distinguishable and/or identical particles for an arbitrary number of constituents. The constructed witnesses are expressed in terms of expectation values of observables. As such, they are, at least in principle, measurable in experiments.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandao, F.G.S.L.; Terra Cunha, M.O.
2005-10-15
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong San
2012-06-01
Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.
Nanoshell-mediated robust entanglement between coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hakami, Jabir; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-02-01
The exact entanglement dynamics in a hybrid structure consisting of two quantum dots (QDs) in the proximity of a metal nanoshell is investigated. Nanoshells can enhance the local density of states, leading to a strong-coupling regime where the excitation energy can coherently be transferred between the QDs and the nanoshell in the form of Rabi oscillations. The long-lived entangled states can be created deterministically by optimizing the shell thickness as well as the ratio of the distances between the QDs and the surface of the shell. The loss of the system is greatly reduced even when the QDs are ultraclose to the shell, which signifies a slow decay rate of the coherence information and longtime entanglement preservation. Our protocol allows for an on-demand, fast, and almost perfect entanglement even at strong carrier-phonon interaction where other systems fail.