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Sample records for non-negligible cohabitational unions

  1. Premarital cohabitation and postmarital cohabiting union formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z

    1995-03-01

    "Previous research has indicated that premarital cohabitation decreases marital stability. This study examined the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabited with their first spouse prior to marriage have a greater propensity to cohabit after marital disruption than people who did not cohabit before their first marriage. Event history analysis of the postmarital union experiences of women and men from the Canadian 1990 Family and Friends Survey (FFS) supports this proposition. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for premarital cohabitants than for noncohabitants."

  2. Premarital Cohabitation and Postmarital Cohabitating Union Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng

    1995-01-01

    Examines the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabitated prior to first marriage were more likely to cohabitate after marital disruption than those who did not. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for…

  3. Sexual Frequency and the Stability of Marital and Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Gager, Constance T.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research found that lower sexual frequency and satisfaction were associated with higher rates of divorce, but little research had examined the role of sexual activity in the dissolution of cohabiting unions. We drew upon social exchange theory to hypothesize why sexual frequency is more important in cohabitation: (a) cohabitors' lower costs…

  4. Sexual Frequency and the Stability of Marital and Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Gager, Constance T.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research found that lower sexual frequency and satisfaction were associated with higher rates of divorce, but little research had examined the role of sexual activity in the dissolution of cohabiting unions. We drew upon social exchange theory to hypothesize why sexual frequency is more important in cohabitation: (a) cohabitors' lower costs…

  5. Marriage or dissolution? Union transitions among poor cohabiting women.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T; Qian, Zhenchao; Mellott, Leanna M

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the incentives and barriers to marriage among cohabiting women, especially disadvantaged mothers who are targets of welfare reform. We use the newly released cohabitation data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2000), which tracks the partners of cohabiting women across survey waves. Our results support several conclusions. First, cohabiting unions are short-lived--about one-half end within one year, and over 90% end by the fifth year. Unlike most previous research, our results show that most cohabiting unions end by dissolution of the relationship rather than by marriage. Second, transitions to marriage are especially unlikely among poor women; less than one-third marry within five years. Cohabitation among poor women is more likely than that among nonpoor women to be a long-term alternative or substitute for traditional marriage. Third, our multinomial analysis of transitions from cohabitation into marriage or dissolution highlights the salience of economically disadvantaged family backgrounds, cohabitation and fertility histories, women's economic resources, and partner characteristics. These results are interpreted in a policy environment that increasingly views marriage as an economic panacea for low-income women and their children.

  6. Informal Unions among Mainland Puerto Ricans: Cohabitation or an Alternative to Legal Marriage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Fennelly, Katherine

    1992-01-01

    Examined meaning of informal unions among mainland Puerto Rican women. Compared characteristics of women in informal unions to those of single and married women; assessed whether Puerto Rican women defined their informal unions as nonmarital cohabitation or form of marriage; and examined predictors of women's definitions of informal unions. Found…

  7. Cohabitation, Post-Conception Unions, and the Rise in Nonmarital Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Sassler, Sharon; Turner, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of U.S. nonmarital births today are to cohabiting couples. This study focuses on transitions to cohabitation or marriage among pregnant unmarried women during the period between conception and birth. Results using the newly-released 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth show that nonmarital pregnancy is a significant precursor to cohabitation before childbirth (18 percent), exceeding transitions to marriage (5 percent) by factor of over three. For pregnant women, the boundaries between singlehood, cohabitation, and marriage are highly fluid. The results also reveal substantial variation in post-conception cohabiting and marital unions; e.g., disproportionately low percentages of black single and cohabiting women transitioned into marriage, even when conventional social and economic risk factors are controlled. The multivariate analyses also point to persistent class differences in patterns of family formation, including patterns of cohabitation and marriage following conception. Poorly educated women, in particular, are much more likely to become pregnant as singles living alone or as partners in cohabiting unions. But compared with college-educated women, pregnancies are less likely to lead to either cohabitation or marriage. This paper highlights the conceptual and technical challenges involved in making unambiguous interpretations of nonmarital fertility during a period of rising nonmarital cohabitation. PMID:24913950

  8. Birds of a Feather Have Babies Together?: Family Structure Homogamy and Union Stability among Cohabiting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Högnäs, Robin S.; Thomas, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The association between childhood family structure and offspring wellbeing is well-documented. Recent research shows that adult children of divorced parents will likely marry someone whose parents’ divorced (i.e., family structure homogamy) and are subsequently likely to divorce themselves. This literature has focused primarily on marital unions, despite the rise in cohabitation and nonmarital childbearing. Research suggests that marriage and cohabitation are different types of unions and have different implications for the wellbeing of children. Therefore, we extend the literature by examining the role of family structure homogamy in matching patterns and union stability among unmarried, cohabiting couples. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study suggest that unmarried, cohabiting mothers and fathers are both more likely to be from nonintact childhood family structures and are significantly more likely to dissolve their unions compared to married parents who both tend to be from intact childhood family structures. PMID:26640313

  9. Change in the Stability of Marital and Cohabiting Unions Following the Birth of a Child.

    PubMed

    Musick, Kelly; Michelmore, Katherine

    2015-10-01

    The share of births to cohabiting couples has increased dramatically in recent decades. How we evaluate the implications of these increases depends critically on change in the stability of cohabiting families. This study examines change over time in the stability of U.S. couples who have a child together, drawing on data from the 1995 and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). We parse out the extent to which change in the stability of cohabiting and married families reflects change in couples' behavior versus shifts in the characteristics of those who cohabit, carefully accounting for trajectories of cohabitation and marriage around the couple's first birth. Multivariate event history models provide evidence of a weakening association between cohabitation and instability given that marriage occurs at some point before or after the couple's first birth. The more recent data show statistically indistinguishable separation risks for couples who have a birth in marriage without ever cohabiting, those who cohabit and then have a birth in marriage, and those who have a birth in cohabitation and then marry. Cohabiting unions with children are significantly less stable when de-coupled from marriage, although the parents in this group also differ most from others on observed (and likely, unobserved) characteristics.

  10. Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population.

  11. The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avellar, Sarah; Smock, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, we use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of…

  12. Relationship Quality in Marital and Cohabiting Unions across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Keizer, Renske; Lappegard, Trude

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey to investigate relationship quality among currently married and cohabiting individuals ages 18 to 55 (N = 41,760) in 8 European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania, Russia, and The Netherlands). They expected to find fewer…

  13. Better Parents, More Stable Partners: Union Transitions among Cohabiting Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,702 couples) are employed to examine the association between mother- and father-reported parenting characteristics (father involvement and coparenting) and transitions out of cohabitation through marriage or separation in the 5 years after a child is born. Father involvement and…

  14. How Similar are Cohabiting and Married Parents? Second Conception Risks by Union Type in the United States and Across Europe.

    PubMed

    Perelli-Harris, Brienna

    2014-01-01

    The increase in births within cohabitation in the United States and across Europe suggests that cohabitation and marriage have become more similar with respect to childbearing. However, little is known about additional childbearing after first birth. Using harmonized union and fertility histories from surveys in 15 countries, this study examines second conception risks leading to a live birth for women who have given birth within a union. Results show that women who continue to cohabit after birth have significantly lower second conception risks than married women in all countries except those in Eastern Europe, even when controlling for union duration, union dissolution, age at first birth, and education. Pooled models indicate that differences in the second conception risks by union type between Eastern and Western Europe are significant. Pooled models including an indicator for the diffusion of cohabitation show that when first births within cohabitation are rare, cohabiting women have significantly lower second conception risks than married women. As first births within cohabitation increase, differences in second conception risks for cohabiting and married women narrow. But as the percent increases further, the differentials increase again, suggesting that cohabitation and marriage are not becoming equivalent settings for additional childbearing. However, I also find that in all countries except Estonia, women who marry after first birth have second conception risks similar to couples married at first birth, indicating that the sequence of marriage and childbearing does not matter to fertility as much as the act of marrying itself.

  15. Union Quality Comparisons between Long-Term Heterosexual Cohabitation and Legal Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willetts, Marion C.

    2006-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis is conducted on the union quality of long-term cohabiting and legally married couples using data from both waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. An analysis of racially homogamous (Anglo-American and African American) couples indicates that the cohabitors and marrieds do not differ significantly with…

  16. Earnings and Expenditures on Household Services in Married and Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith; de Ruijter, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Despite the rise in women's paid employment, little is known about how women and their partners allocate money to outsource domestic tasks, especially in unmarried unions. Tobit analyses of 6,170 married and cohabiting couples in the 1998 Consumer Expenditure Survey test hypotheses that recognize gender inequality between partners, gender typing…

  17. Earnings and Expenditures on Household Services in Married and Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith; de Ruijter, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Despite the rise in women's paid employment, little is known about how women and their partners allocate money to outsource domestic tasks, especially in unmarried unions. Tobit analyses of 6,170 married and cohabiting couples in the 1998 Consumer Expenditure Survey test hypotheses that recognize gender inequality between partners, gender typing…

  18. Effects of Union Type on Division of Household Labor: Do Cohabiting Men Really Perform More Housework?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.; Marks, Jennifer P. Gerteisen

    2007-01-01

    Using data from 17,636 respondents in 28 nations, this research uses multilevel modeling to compare the reported division of household labor and factors affecting it for currently married and currently cohabiting couples. Cohabiting men report performing more household labor than do married men, and cohabiting women report performing less…

  19. Shared Beliefs and the Union Stability of Married and Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.

    2006-01-01

    Cohabiting couples and couples who cohabit prior to marriage have less stable relationships than married couples who did not cohabit, and these differences in stability may be linked to different processes within the relationships. This research examines the similarity of partners' beliefs about the division of household labor using the National…

  20. Teenage Cohabitation, Marriage, and Childbearing

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006–10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15–19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child’s third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as “single mothers” are actually in cohabiting relationships. PMID:25972620

  1. Teenage Cohabitation, Marriage, and Childbearing.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15-19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child's third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as "single mothers" are actually in cohabiting relationships.

  2. Dissolution of premarital cohabitation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Balakrishnan, T R

    1995-11-01

    The rapid increase in the number of unmarried cohabiting couples, indicated by recent evidence, is crucial to our understanding of changing marriage patterns. The levels and patterns of entry into cohabitation have been well documented over the last two decades, but little is known about the outcomes of nonmarital cohabitation. In this study we examine two competing outcomes of cohabitation relationships: union separation and legalization of the union through marriage. Our results show that the hazard rate of union dissolution is affected particularly by gender, fertility status, partner's marital status, religion, age at start of cohabitation, year cohabitation commenced, and region.

  3. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhu, Junmin; Hu, Qiwen; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-09-01

    Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1), thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  4. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women’s birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors’ co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood. PMID:24381370

  5. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  6. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  7. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  8. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  9. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because it was convenient, or to meet a housing need. Regardless of social class status, few couples move in together as a “trial marriage.” Nonetheless, middle-class cohabitors were more likely to have become engaged than their working-class counterparts. Our findings indicate the need to reassess common beliefs regarding the role served by cohabitation and suggest that cohabitation has become another location where family outcomes are diverging by social class. PMID:23504506

  10. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes.

    PubMed

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J

    2011-04-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons-out of financial necessity, because it was convenient, or to meet a housing need. Regardless of social class status, few couples move in together as a "trial marriage." Nonetheless, middle-class cohabitors were more likely to have become engaged than their working-class counterparts. Our findings indicate the need to reassess common beliefs regarding the role served by cohabitation and suggest that cohabitation has become another location where family outcomes are diverging by social class.

  11. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  12. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  13. He Says, She Says: Gender and Cohabitation*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Penelope M.; Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A.

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N=138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit, and examines potential gender differences in those motivations and the meanings attached to them. We find that primary motives to cohabit include spending time together, sharing expenses, and evaluating compatibility. Strong gender differences emerge in how respondents discuss these themes and how they characterize the drawbacks of cohabitation, with men more concerned about loss of freedom and women with delays in marriage. Overall, our findings suggest that gendered cultural norms governing intimate relationships extend to cohabiting unions, and point to gender differences in the perceived role of cohabitation in union formation processes. PMID:21643456

  14. Cohabitation: parents following in their children's footsteps?

    PubMed

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    As cohabitation has risen dramatically in the past few decades among adults of all ages, it is possible that middle-and older-aged parents are “learning” cohabitation from their young adult children. The present study uses this theory as a guiding framework to determine if parents are more likely to cohabit themselves following the start of a young adult child’s cohabitation. Using three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 275), results show that union formation patterns are influenced by young adult children among parents who are single at their child’s 18th birthday. Parents are less likely to marry than remain single and are much more likely to cohabit than marry if they have a young adult child who cohabits. These results show support for the hypotheses.

  15. Financial Issues and Relationship Outcomes among Cohabiting Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined how financial relationship issues are associated with cohabiting individuals' risk of union dissolution or marriage. Competing-risks Cox regressions using the cohabiting data in the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 483) found that financial disagreements predicted union dissolution, whereas disagreements…

  16. Financial Issues and Relationship Outcomes among Cohabiting Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined how financial relationship issues are associated with cohabiting individuals' risk of union dissolution or marriage. Competing-risks Cox regressions using the cohabiting data in the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 483) found that financial disagreements predicted union dissolution, whereas disagreements…

  17. Investments in Marriage and Cohabitation: The Role of Legal and Interpersonal Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Cohabiters have been shown to invest less in their relationship than married couples. This study investigated the role of legal and interpersonal commitment by examining heterogeneity within marital and cohabiting unions. Going beyond the dichotomy of cohabitation versus marriage, different union types were distinguished by their level of legal…

  18. Investments in Marriage and Cohabitation: The Role of Legal and Interpersonal Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Cohabiters have been shown to invest less in their relationship than married couples. This study investigated the role of legal and interpersonal commitment by examining heterogeneity within marital and cohabiting unions. Going beyond the dichotomy of cohabitation versus marriage, different union types were distinguished by their level of legal…

  19. Cohabiting and marriage during young men's career-development process.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincade

    2003-02-01

    Using recently released cohabitation data for the male sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, first interviewed in 1979, I conducted multinomial discrete-time event-history analyses of how young men's career-development process affects both the formation and the dissolution of cohabiting unions. For a substantial proportion of young men, cohabitation seemed to represent an adaptive strategy during a period of career immaturity, whereas marriage was a far more likely outcome for both stably employed cohabitors and noncohabitors alike. Earnings positively affected the entry into either a cohabiting or marital union but exhibited a strong threshold effect. Once the men were in cohabiting unions, however, earnings had little effect on the odds of marrying. Men with better long-run socioeconomic prospects were far more likely to marry from either the noncohabiting or cohabiting state, and this was particularly true for blacks.

  20. Non-Negligible Diffusio-Osmosis Inside an Ion Concentration Polarization Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Inhee; Kim, Wonseok; Kim, Junsuk; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-06-01

    The first experimental and theoretical evidence was provided for the non-negligible role of a diffusio-osmosis in the ion concentration polarization (ICP) layer, which had been reported to be in a high Peclet number regime. Under the assumption that the hydrated shells of cations were stripped out with the amplified electric field inside the ICP layer, its concentration profile possessed a steep concentration gradient at the stripped location. Since the concentration gradient drove a strong diffusio-osmosis, the combination of electro-osmotic and diffusio-osmotic slip velocity had a form of an anomalous nonmonotonic function with both a single- and multiple-cationic solution. A direct measurement of electrolytic concentrations around the layer quantitatively validated our new investigations. This non-negligible diffusio-osmotic contribution in a micro- and nanofluidic platform or porous medium would be essential for clarifying the fundamental insight of nanoscale electrokinetics as well as guiding the engineering of ICP-based electrochemical systems.

  1. The educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Perelli-Harris, Brienna; Sigle-Rushton, Wendy; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Lappegård, Trude; Keizer, Renske; Berghammer, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every European Country has experienced some increase in nonmarital childbearing, largely due to increasing births within cohabitation. Relatively few studies in Europe, however, investigate the educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation or how it changed over time. Using retrospective union and fertility histories, we employ competing risk hazard models to examine the educational gradient of childbearing in cohabitation in eight countries across europe. In all countries studied, birth risks within cohabitation demonstrated a negative educational gradient. When directly comparing cohabiting fertility with marital fertility, the negative educational gradient persists in all countries except Italy, although differences were not significant in Austria, France, and West Germany. To explain these findings, we present an alternative explanation for the increase in childbearing within cohabitation that goes beyond the explanation of the Second Demographic Transition and provides a new interpretation of the underlying mechanisms that may influence childbearing within cohabitation.

  2. Repartnering after First Union Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the 1995 General Social Survey (N= 2,639), this study examines two competing repartnering choices made by Canadians after first union disruption: marriage or cohabitation. About 42% of women and 54% of men form a second union 5 years after union disruption, with cohabitation being the most prevalent choice. The timing of second…

  3. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States—so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children’s wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education—a key indicator of both economic and social resources—than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don’t have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation’s effects are tied to a child’s age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family

  4. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lemaître model with non-negligible pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Marra, Valerio; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: valerio.marra@me.com E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2016-03-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaître model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=ρ/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential ψ and the curvature potential φ is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation ψ+φ=O(φ{sup 2})—which holds for the case of a dust fluid—is not valid for a relativistic fluid, and an effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaître model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids with non-negligible pressure. We show that this happens when the characteristic scale of the inhomogeneity is smaller than the sound horizon and that the deviation is caused by the nonlinear effect of the fluid's fast motion. We also find that ψ+φ= [O(φ{sup 2}),O(c{sub s}{sup 2φ} δ)] for an inhomogeneity with density contrast δ whose characteristic scale is smaller than the sound horizon, unless w is close to −1, where w and c{sub s} are the equation of state parameter and the sound speed of the fluid, respectively. On the other hand, we expect ψ+φ=O(φ{sup 2}) to hold for an inhomogeneity whose characteristic scale is larger than the sound horizon, unless the amplitude of the inhomogeneity is large and w is close to −1.

  5. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lemaître model with non-negligible pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Marra, Valerio; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-03-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaître model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=ρ/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential ψ and the curvature potential phi is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation ψ+phi=Script O(phi2)—which holds for the case of a dust fluid—is not valid for a relativistic fluid, and an effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaître model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids with non-negligible pressure. We show that this happens when the characteristic scale of the inhomogeneity is smaller than the sound horizon and that the deviation is caused by the nonlinear effect of the fluid's fast motion. We also find that ψ+phi= [Script O(phi2),Script O(cs2phi δ)] for an inhomogeneity with density contrast δ whose characteristic scale is smaller than the sound horizon, unless w is close to -1, where w and cs are the equation of state parameter and the sound speed of the fluid, respectively. On the other hand, we expect ψ+phi=Script O(phi2) to hold for an inhomogeneity whose characteristic scale is larger than the sound horizon, unless the amplitude of the inhomogeneity is large and w is close to -1.

  6. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  7. Cohabitation Expectations among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Smock, Pamela J; Dorius, Cassandra; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Cohabitation continues to rise, but there is a lack of knowledge about expectations to cohabit and the linkage between expectations and subsequent cohabitation. We capitalize on a new opportunity to study cohabitation expectations by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) main youth and two waves (2008 and 2010) of the NLSY young adult (YA) surveys (n=1,105). We find considerable variation in cohabitation expectations: 39.9% have no expectation of cohabiting in the future and 16.6% report high odds of cohabiting in the next two years. Cohabitation expectations are associated with higher odds of entering a cohabiting relationship, but are not perfectly associated. Only 38% of young adults with certain cohabitation expectations in 2008 entered a cohabiting union by 2010. Further investigation of the mismatch between expectations and behaviors indicates that a substantial minority (30%) who entered a cohabiting union had previously reported no or low expectations, instances of what we term "unplanned cohabitation." Our findings underscore the importance of considering not just behavior, but also individuals' expectations for understanding union formation, and more broadly, family change.

  8. Cohabitation Expectations among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Smock, Pamela J.; Dorius, Cassandra; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation continues to rise, but there is a lack of knowledge about expectations to cohabit and the linkage between expectations and subsequent cohabitation. We capitalize on a new opportunity to study cohabitation expectations by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) main youth and two waves (2008 and 2010) of the NLSY young adult (YA) surveys (n=1,105). We find considerable variation in cohabitation expectations: 39.9% have no expectation of cohabiting in the future and 16.6% report high odds of cohabiting in the next two years. Cohabitation expectations are associated with higher odds of entering a cohabiting relationship, but are not perfectly associated. Only 38% of young adults with certain cohabitation expectations in 2008 entered a cohabiting union by 2010. Further investigation of the mismatch between expectations and behaviors indicates that a substantial minority (30%) who entered a cohabiting union had previously reported no or low expectations, instances of what we term “unplanned cohabitation.” Our findings underscore the importance of considering not just behavior, but also individuals’ expectations for understanding union formation, and more broadly, family change. PMID:25147419

  9. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    PubMed Central

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these arrangements, 18 of whom resided with their children's fathers occasionally while saying that they were not in a cohabiting relationship. We term such relationships living together apart (LTA). Data analysis revealed that distinct patterns of voluntary and involuntary separations and reunifications characterized intermittent cohabitation and LTA and that these relationships were shaped by the bonds that shared parenting created and the economic needs of both parents. We argue that these dimensions may explain some disparate accounts of cohabitation status in low-income populations. They also demonstrate previously unexplored diversity in cohabiting relationships and suggest further questioning contemporary definitions of families. PMID:25435641

  10. Reassessing the Link between Women's Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality.

    PubMed

    James, Spencer L; Beattie, Brett A

    2012-12-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and communication and positively related to conflict. As in previous research, selection mechanisms appear to increase the odds of cohabitation while decreasing marital happiness. A closer examination of the problem also reveals a negative effect of the experience of cohabitation. This paper's primary contributions are the ability to model selection and experience in the same model and evidence of a robust effect of cohabitation on marital quality. These results underscore the complex pathways between union formation, family structure and marital outcomes.

  11. Living arrangements after divorce: cohabitation versus remarriage.

    PubMed

    Wineberg, H; Mccarthy, J

    1998-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of all [U.S.] couple households in which one or both partners were previously married. In this examination, we will consider not only households maintained by married couples...; we will also consider households formed by cohabiting couples. In addition, we will examine the living arrangements of children in these households, with particular attention to whether children are from the current union or a previous union."

  12. Trends in Cohabitation Outcomes: Compositional Changes and Engagement Among Never-Married Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cohabitation is now the modal first union for young adults, and most marriages are preceded by cohabitation even as fewer cohabitations transition to marriage. These contrasting trends may be due to compositional shifts among cohabiting unions, which are increasingly heterogeneous in terms of cohabitation order, engagement, and the presence of children, as well as across socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The author constructs 5-year cohabitation cohorts for 18- to 34-year-olds from the 2002 and 2006–2010 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (n = 17,890 premarital cohabitations) to examine the outcomes of cohabitations over time. Compared to earlier cohabitations, those formed after 1995 were more likely to dissolve, and those formed after 2000 were less likely to transition to marriage even after accounting for the compositional shifts among individuals in cohabiting unions. Higher instability and decreased chances of marriage occurred among both engaged and non-engaged individuals, suggesting society-wide changes in cohabitation over time. PMID:26778851

  13. Trends in Cohabitation Outcomes: Compositional Changes and Engagement Among Never-Married Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    Cohabitation is now the modal first union for young adults, and most marriages are preceded by cohabitation even as fewer cohabitations transition to marriage. These contrasting trends may be due to compositional shifts among cohabiting unions, which are increasingly heterogeneous in terms of cohabitation order, engagement, and the presence of children, as well as across socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The author constructs 5-year cohabitation cohorts for 18- to 34-year-olds from the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (n = 17,890 premarital cohabitations) to examine the outcomes of cohabitations over time. Compared to earlier cohabitations, those formed after 1995 were more likely to dissolve, and those formed after 2000 were less likely to transition to marriage even after accounting for the compositional shifts among individuals in cohabiting unions. Higher instability and decreased chances of marriage occurred among both engaged and non-engaged individuals, suggesting society-wide changes in cohabitation over time.

  14. Debt, cohabitation, and marriage in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Addo, Fenaba R

    2014-10-01

    Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.

  15. Transitions Into and Out of Cohabitation in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the authors developed a framework for conceptualizing later life union behaviors. Using data from the 1998 – 2006 Health and Retirement Study, they estimated discrete -time event-history models predicting union formation (i.e., cohabitation or marriage) among older unmarried individuals (N = 3,736) as well as transitions to either marriage or separation among older cohabitors (N = 377). Those who formed a union were as likely to be in a cohabiting relationship as a marriage. Older adult cohabiting unions were quite stable and unlikely to culminate in either marriage or separation. During later life, cohabitation appears to operate as a long-term alternative to marriage. PMID:23226875

  16. Bone morphogenetic proteins: a powerful osteoinductive compound with non-negligible side effects and limitations.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alidadi, Soodeh; Moshiri, Ali; Bigham-Sadegh, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Healing and regeneration of large bone defects leading to non-unions is a great concern in orthopedic surgery. Since auto- and allografts have limitations, bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) has attempted to solve this issue. In TERM, healing promotive factors are necessary to regulate the several important events during healing. An ideal treatment strategy should provide osteoconduction, osteoinduction, osteogenesis, and osteointegration of the graft or biomaterials within the healing bone. Since many materials have osteoconductive properties, only a few biomaterials have osteoinductive properties which are important for osteogenesis and osteointegration. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are potent inductors of the osteogenic and angiogenic activities during bone repair. The BMPs can regulate the production and activity of some growth factors which are necessary for the osteogenesis. Since the introduction of BMP, it has added a valuable tool to the surgeon's possibilities and is most commonly used in bone defects. Despite significant evidences suggesting their potential benefit on bone healing, there are some evidences showing their side effects such as ectopic bone formation, osteolysis and problems related to cost effectiveness. Bone tissue engineering may create a local environment, using the delivery systems, which enables BMPs to carry out their activities and to lower cost and complication rate associated with BMPs. This review represented the most important concepts and evidences regarding the role of BMPs on bone healing and regeneration from basic to clinical application. The major advantages and disadvantages of such biologic compounds together with the BMPs substitutes are also discussed. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Role of Cohabitation in Premarital Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Landale, Nancy S.

    1996-01-01

    Examines cohabitation in premarital childbearing among U.S. women. Utilized data from the National Survey of Families and Households and the New York Fertility, Employment, and Migration Survey. Marked racial and ethnic differences in the role of the cohabiting union in family building were evident. Interprets findings in terms of long-standing…

  19. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Nonmarital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e., breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a nonmarital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of…

  20. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Nonmarital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e., breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a nonmarital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of…

  1. Cohabitation, Marriage, and 'Sexual Monogamy' in Nairobi

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which sexual exclusivity—the restriction of one’s sexual engagements to a single partner—prevails across various marital status, union type, and co-residence categories among Nairobi's poorest residents, slum dwellers. This question is central to the spread of HIV in the increasingly urban and poor, high prevalence countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where transmission is primarily via heterosexual sex. In many circles, sexual exclusivity is considered a prominent feature of the marriage institution. Yet, marriage and cohabitation are often not easily distinguishable in sub-Saharan Africa, meaning that the frequent use, as a proxy, of the "in union" category, which includes married as well as cohabiting persons can, at best, be considered tenuous. Using the 2000 Nairobi Cross-Sectional Slum Survey (NCSS), this paper confirms that marriage is associated with higher reports of sexual exclusivity even in settings where poverty provokes risky behavior. The finding, here, is of lower risk of HIV infection for married respondents, with a smaller effect observed among non-married cohabiters. Converse to the implied benefits of marriage, though, women with co-wives are more likely to report multiple partners. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:17123680

  2. Vetting and Letting: Cohabiting Stepfamily Formation Processes in Low-Income Black Families

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined cohabiting union formation processes by analyzing in-depth interview data collected from 30 individuals in cohabiting relationships: 15 low-income Black mothers of adolescents and their partners. Prior research suggests that cohabiting union formation is a gradual, nondeliberative process. In contrast, most couples in this study described a gradual but highly deliberative process. Mothers focused primarily on vetting their partners to ensure child well-being and less on when and how their partners officially came to live with them, a process the authors call vetting and letting. Mothers delineated 4 strategies to ensure their child’s well-being when vetting their partners, and their partners reported that they understood the importance of participating in this process. The authors argue that vetting and letting is a child-centered family formation process, not a partner-centered union formation process, and that cohabiting union processes may vary substantially by subpopulation. PMID:26556922

  3. Marital Intentions and the Stability of First Cohabitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Using Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this article documents the extent to which cohabitors begin their union with intentions to marry (indicated by either being engaged or having definite plans to marry) and how this is related to subsequent cohabitation transitions, building on earlier literature examining expectations.…

  4. Military Service, Race, and the Transition to Marriage and Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth, the author investigates the relationship between military service and the transition to the first intimate union. The author argues that active-duty military service promotes marriage over cohabitation. The results are consistent with this argument, showing that active-duty members of…

  5. Military Service, Race, and the Transition to Marriage and Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth, the author investigates the relationship between military service and the transition to the first intimate union. The author argues that active-duty military service promotes marriage over cohabitation. The results are consistent with this argument, showing that active-duty members of…

  6. Reassessing the Link between Women’s Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

    PubMed Central

    James, Spencer L.; Beattie, Brett A.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and communication and positively related to conflict. As in previous research, selection mechanisms appear to increase the odds of cohabitation while decreasing marital happiness. A closer examination of the problem also reveals a negative effect of the experience of cohabitation. This paper’s primary contributions are the ability to model selection and experience in the same model and evidence of a robust effect of cohabitation on marital quality. These results underscore the complex pathways between union formation, family structure and marital outcomes. PMID:23616690

  7. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms Among Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative data from Mexico in cross-sectional and change models to evaluate differences in depressive symptoms across union type (marital vs. cohabiting and first vs. higher order unions) among Mexican men and women. The findings suggest that cohabiting unions do not provide the same mental health benefits as marital unions (especially for men). Repartnering is also associated with higher depressive symptoms (especially for women), which indicates possible lasting mental health disadvantages of divorce/separation or entrance into lower quality second unions. These results suggest that the changing family context in Mexico, which includes increasing cohabitation and union instability, may have important consequences for individuals’ psychological well-being. PMID:22822284

  8. Cohabitation, Marriage, and Entry into Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.

    1995-01-01

    A sample of married and cohabitating women is used to examine the impact of cohabitation on fertility. The transition from cohabitation to marriage does not appear to be influenced by childbearing desires. Once nonpregnant cohabitators marry, the timing of marital first birth is similar to that of women who never cohabitated. (JPS)

  9. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David

    1988-01-01

    Examined four models of ways premarital cohabitation may affect marital quality using interview data from a national probability sample of 2,033 married persons. Found cohabitation was negatively related to marital interaction and positively related to marital disagreement, proneness to divorce, and the probability of divorce in nonminority…

  10. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ("n" = 1,998 for mothers…

  11. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ("n" = 1,998 for mothers…

  12. The Child Health Disadvantage of Parental Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Fragile Families data (N = 2,160) to assess health differences at age 5 for children born to cohabiting versus married parents. Regression analyses indicate worse health for children born to cohabiting parents, including those whose parents stably cohabited, dissolved their cohabitation, and married, than for children with stably…

  13. The Child Health Disadvantage of Parental Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Fragile Families data (N = 2,160) to assess health differences at age 5 for children born to cohabiting versus married parents. Regression analyses indicate worse health for children born to cohabiting parents, including those whose parents stably cohabited, dissolved their cohabitation, and married, than for children with stably…

  14. Not Crossing the "Extra Line": How Cohabitors with Children View Their Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Joanna M.

    2006-01-01

    I use qualitative interview data from a sample of 44 cohabiting couples who have children together to investigate how they view their unions and how the presence of children influences the meanings they attach to them. I find most cohabiting parents begin cohabiting in response to a pregnancy but do not believe they should stay in a relationship…

  15. Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Mernitz, Sara E; Dush, Claire Kamp

    2016-03-01

    The link between romantic relationships and emotional health has been extensively examined and suggests that marriage provides more emotional health benefits than cohabiting or dating relationships. However, the contemporary context of intimate relationships has changed and these associations warrant reexamination among emerging adults in the 2000s. We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for men, only direct marriage was associated with an emotional health benefit, while both direct marriage and cohabitation benefited women's emotional health.

  16. Moving and Union Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    BOYLE, PAUL J.; KULU, HILL; COOKE, THOMAS; GAYLE, VERNON; MULDER, CLARAH.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of migration and residential mobility on union dissolution among married and cohabiting couples. Moving is a stressful life event, and a large, multidisciplinary literature has shown that family migration often benefits one partner (usually the man) more than the other. Even so, no study to date has examined the possible impact of within-nation geographical mobility on union dissolution. We base our longitudinal analysis on retrospective event-history data from Austria. Our results show that couples who move frequently have a significantly higher risk of union dissolution, and we suggest a variety of mechanisms that may explain this. PMID:18390300

  17. Marriage risks, cohabitation and premarital births in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V

    1990-05-01

    "This paper is an attempt to examine the trends in union formation among various cohorts and to identify some of the socio-demographic correlates of marital timing. The data for this study are taken from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The results indicate that there is no immediate crisis for the family in Canada, but that many are choosing cohabitation as a preferred mode of first union formation at early stages. Young women (below 25 years of age), residents of large metropolitan areas, those with a university education and those with low religious commitment are more likely than others to be delayers of marriage." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  18. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; REID, MEGAN; STRICKLER, JENNIFER; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm. PMID:24273358

  19. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings.

  20. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  1. Waiting to Be Asked: Gender, Power, and Relationship Progression Among Cohabiting Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of young married Americans lived with their spouses before the wedding, and many cohabited with partners they did not wed. Yet little is known about how cohabitating relationships progress or the role gender norms play in this process. This article explores how cohabiting partners negotiate relationship progression, focusing on several stages where couples enact gender. Data are from in-depth interviews with 30 working-class couples (n = 60). The women in this sample often challenged conventional gender norms by suggesting that couples move in together or raising the issue of marriage. Men played dominant roles in initiating whether couples became romantically involved and progressed to a more formal status. Although women and men contest how gender is performed, cohabiting men remain privileged in the arena of relationship progression. The findings suggest that adherence to conventional gender practices even among those residing in informal unions perpetuates women’s secondary position in intimate relationships. PMID:22791929

  2. Income dynamics in couples and the dissolution of marriage and cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Loeve, Anneke; Manting, Dorien

    2007-02-01

    Several studies have shown that a wife's strong (socio)economic position is associated with an increase in the risk of divorce. Less is known about such effects for cohabiting relationships. Using a unique and large-scale sample of administrative records from The Netherlands, we analyze the link between couples' income dynamics and union dissolution for married and cohabiting unions over a 10-year period. We find negative effects of household income on separation and positive effects of the woman's relative income, in line with earlier studies. The shape of the effect of the woman's relative income, however, depends on the type of union. Movements away from income equality toward a male-dominant pattern tend to increase the dissolution risk for cohabiting couples, whereas they reduce the dissolution risk for married couples. Movements away from income equality toward a female-dominant pattern (reverse specialization) increase the dissolution risks for both marriage and cohabitation. The findings suggest that equality is more protective for cohabitation, whereas specialization is more protective for marriage, although only when it fits a traditional pattern. Finally, we find that the stabilizing effects of income equality are more pronounced early in the marriage and that income equality also reduces the dissolution risk for same-sex couples.

  3. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Non-marital Birth

    PubMed Central

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e. breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a non-marital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of these, 76% broke-up. Black mothers had the highest rates of dissolution. Maximum likelihood discrete-time event history results revealed that younger mothers were more likely to experience cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Fewer relationship-specific investments and more family chaos were also associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Mothers’ multipartnered fertility and fewer relationship-specific investments were associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution with a continued romantic relationship. Post-dissolution, mothers who maintained a romantic relationship were more likely to reenter a union with their former partner while mothers whose union broke-up most often remained so. PMID:22081737

  4. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Non-marital Birth.

    PubMed

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2011-12-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e. breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a non-marital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of these, 76% broke-up. Black mothers had the highest rates of dissolution. Maximum likelihood discrete-time event history results revealed that younger mothers were more likely to experience cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Fewer relationship-specific investments and more family chaos were also associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Mothers' multipartnered fertility and fewer relationship-specific investments were associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution with a continued romantic relationship. Post-dissolution, mothers who maintained a romantic relationship were more likely to reenter a union with their former partner while mothers whose union broke-up most often remained so.

  5. Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Qian, Zhenchao

    2008-01-01

    Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of "serial cohabitors." Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15%-20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low…

  6. Serial Cohabitation and the Marital Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Qian, Zhenchao

    2008-01-01

    Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper tracks the experiences of "serial cohabitors." Results indicate that only a minority of cohabiting women (about 15%-20%) were involved in multiple cohabitations. Serial cohabitations were overrepresented among economically disadvantaged groups, especially those with low…

  7. He Says, She Says: Gender and Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Penelope M.; Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A.

    2011-01-01

    Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N = 138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit and examines potential gender differences in…

  8. Cohabitation: Its Impact on Marital Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Jeffrey M.; Chason, Karen J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of this research indicate that persons with a history of premarital cohabitation do not describe their marriages differently from persons without a history of cohabitation. The authors conclude that premarital cohabitation may not provide types of learning experiences that significantly alter an individual's success in marriage.…

  9. Marriage and Cohabitation Following Premarital Conception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.

    1993-01-01

    Considered role of cohabitation in legitimation of premarital conceptions using data from 920 women. Found that, for white women in their twenties, pregnant cohabiting women were more likely to legitimate their first birth. Among black women and teenage white women, pregnant cohabiting women were no more likely to marry before their child was born…

  10. He Says, She Says: Gender and Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Penelope M.; Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A.

    2011-01-01

    Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N = 138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit and examines potential gender differences in…

  11. Maternal Cohabitation and Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, R. Kelly; Frisco, Michelle L.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in children's experiences in cohabiting families, little is known about how living in such families affects children's academic success. Extrapolating from two theoretical frameworks that have been commonly used to explain the association between parental divorce and educational outcomes, the authors constructed…

  12. Maternal Cohabitation and Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, R. Kelly; Frisco, Michelle L.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in children's experiences in cohabiting families, little is known about how living in such families affects children's academic success. Extrapolating from two theoretical frameworks that have been commonly used to explain the association between parental divorce and educational outcomes, the authors constructed…

  13. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families.

    PubMed

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2013-02-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father - child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms.

  14. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families

    PubMed Central

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father – child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms. PMID:23671351

  15. Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. OBJECTIVE Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most “marriage like” and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. RESULTS Cohabitating men’s and women’s time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S. PMID:25404866

  16. Marriage and separation risks among German cohabiters: Differences between types of cohabiter.

    PubMed

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a typology of different meanings of cohabitation that combines cohabiters' intentions to marry with a general attitude toward marriage, using competing risk analyses to examine whether some cohabiters are more prone than others to marry or to separate. Using data (N = 1,258) from four waves of the German Family Panel (PAIRFAM) and a supplementary study (DEMODIFF), we compared eastern and western German cohabiters of the birth cohorts 1971-73 and 1981-83. Western Germans more frequently view cohabitation as a step in the marriage process, whereas eastern Germans more often cohabit as an alternative to marriage. Taking into account marital attitudes reveals that cohabiters without marriage plans differ from those with plans in their relationship careers, and also shows that cohabiters who plan to marry despite holding a less favourable view of marriage are less likely to realize their plans than cohabiters whose intentions and attitudes are more congruent.

  17. Secularization, Union Formation Practices, and Marital Stability: Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Impicciatore, Roberto; Billari, Francesco C

    2012-05-01

    Descriptive statistics indicate that civil marriages and marriages preceded by premarital cohabitation are more unstable, i.e., more frequently followed by divorce. However, the literature has shown that selectivity plays an important role in the relationship between premarital cohabitation and union dissolution. We do not have evidence to date regarding the selectivity in the effect of civil marriage. The Italian case appears particularly interesting given the recent diffusion of premarital cohabitation and civil marriage. Using micro-level data from a national-level representative survey conducted in 2003, we develop a multiprocess model that allows unobserved heterogeneity to be correlated across the three decisions (premarital cohabitation, civil marriage, and divorce). Our results show that selectivity is the main factor that explains the higher divorce rates among those who experience premarital cohabitation and a civil marriage. Net of selectivity, the causal effect on union dissolution disappears.

  18. Reassessing Differences in Work and Income in Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperberg, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Are cohabiters different than married couples who cohabited before marriage? This study used the 2002 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to determine how work behavior might differ for 4 relationship types: (a) cohabiters with uncertain marriage plans, (b) cohabiters with definite marriage plans, (c) premarital cohabiters who…

  19. Reassessing Differences in Work and Income in Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperberg, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Are cohabiters different than married couples who cohabited before marriage? This study used the 2002 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to determine how work behavior might differ for 4 relationship types: (a) cohabiters with uncertain marriage plans, (b) cohabiters with definite marriage plans, (c) premarital cohabiters who…

  20. The lower timing resolution bound for scintillators with non-negligible optical photon transport time in time-of-flight PET

    PubMed Central

    Vinke, Ruud; Olcott, Peter D.; Cates, Joshua W.; Levin, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a method is presented that can calculate the lower bound of the timing resolution for large scintillation crystals with non-negligible photon transport. Hereby, the timing resolution bound can directly be calculated from Monte Carlo generated arrival times of the scintillation photons. This method extends timing resolution bound calculations based on analytical equations, as crystal geometries can be evaluated that do not have closed form solutions of arrival time distributions. The timing resolution bounds are calculated for an exemplary 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 LYSO crystal geometry, with scintillation centers exponentially spread along the crystal length as well as with scintillation centers at fixed distances from the photosensor. Pulse shape simulations further show that analog photosensors intrinsically operate near the timing resolution bound, which can be attributed to the finite single photoelectron pulse rise time. PMID:25255807

  1. Poverty among Cohabiting Gay and Lesbian, and Married and Cohabiting Heterosexual Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokos, Anastasia H.; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2010-01-01

    Using a subsample ( N = 1,365,145) of the 2000 Census 5% Public Use Microdata Sample, the authors investigate explanations for differing poverty chances of cohabiting gay and lesbian, and married and cohabiting heterosexual families. Gay and lesbian couples fare worse than married couples, but better economically than cohabiting heterosexuals.…

  2. Poverty among Cohabiting Gay and Lesbian, and Married and Cohabiting Heterosexual Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokos, Anastasia H.; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2010-01-01

    Using a subsample ( N = 1,365,145) of the 2000 Census 5% Public Use Microdata Sample, the authors investigate explanations for differing poverty chances of cohabiting gay and lesbian, and married and cohabiting heterosexual families. Gay and lesbian couples fare worse than married couples, but better economically than cohabiting heterosexuals.…

  3. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Mate Selection among Married and Cohabiting Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Debra L.; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2000-01-01

    Examines comparative patterns of educational and racial assortative mating or homogany among married and cohabiting couples, and evaluates whether women and men trade in socioeconomic status and racial caste prestige. Lists several findings, including married/cohabiting couples are highly homogenous with respect to race and education. Suggests…

  5. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Stability in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Used data from probability sample of 10,472 ever-married Canadians to examine effects of premarital cohabitation on later marital stability. Results suggest that premarital cohabitation has a positive effect on staying married. Positive effect remained when length of marriage and age at marriage were controlled. (Author/NB)

  6. The Role of Cohabitation in Remarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohe; Hudspeth, Clark D.; Bartkowski, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Using 3 subsamples of remarried respondents (n=1,583, 971, and 926) in the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households, this study investigates how different types of cohabitation, especially postdivorce cohabitation, affect the timing and quality of remarriage in the United States. Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis…

  7. The effects of marriage and separation on the psychotropic medication use of non-married cohabiters: a register-based longitudinal study among adult Finns.

    PubMed

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-11-01

    Non-marital cohabitation has become increasingly common and is suggested to offer similar mental-health benefits as marriage does. We studied levels and changes in cohabiters' mental health five years before and five years after entering into marriage or separating, and compared long-term non-married and married cohabiters. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics, excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to non-marital transition and gender, using register data on 189,394 Finns aged 25 to 64. Similar levels of psychotropic-medication use were found among individuals in long unions that continued throughout the follow-up and were non-marital, marital, or changed from non-marital to marital. Among men and women who separated from longer cohabiting unions of more than five years, however, an increase in medication prevalence was observed immediately before separation, followed by a similar decline after separation. At the time of separation the level of medication use was 9.9 per cent (95% CI = 8.7 - 11.3) among men and 15.7 per cent (95% CI = 14.2 - 17.4) among women compared to 4.3 per cent (95% CI = 3.7 - 5.0) and 8.0 per cent (95% CI = 7.2 - 9.0), respectively, among those who cohabited continuously. No changes in medication use were observed before or after separation among those leaving shorter cohabiting unions of less than five years. Among those marrying following shorter cohabiting unions a positive effect of approaching marriage was observed only among women. Compared to continuous cohabiters, the level of medication use was higher among men and women separating from both short-term and long-term cohabiting unions five years before separation. This selective effect suggests that cohabiters with mental-health problems might benefit from relationship counselling. In a long-term stable union it seems to matter little for mental health whether the union is marital or non

  8. Economic well-being among elderly couples in marriage and cohabitation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Gilbert Brenes

    In Latin America, the proportion of people in middle and late age who are cohabiting is higher than in industrialized countries. Some scholars consider cohabitation as an "incomplete" institution, where couples fare worse in economic and social well-being compared to marriage. The paper's goal is to analyze whether cohabiting couples in old age face a different economic situation than married couples, and whether this difference is due to the fact that cohabiters might be a selected group from the general population. The analysis focuses on Mexican couples where at least one of the partners was older than 49, by using the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) 2001 dataset, and part of the 2003 second wave. After controlling for compositional variables (related to selection into consensual unions), the paper finds no significant difference in net worth, change in net worth (from 2001 to 2003), and perceived financial situation between married and cohabiting couples, but there is on the likelihood of owning a house.

  9. Economic well-being among elderly couples in marriage and cohabitation in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Gilbert Brenes

    2015-01-01

    In Latin America, the proportion of people in middle and late age who are cohabiting is higher than in industrialized countries. Some scholars consider cohabitation as an “incomplete” institution, where couples fare worse in economic and social well-being compared to marriage. The paper’s goal is to analyze whether cohabiting couples in old age face a different economic situation than married couples, and whether this difference is due to the fact that cohabiters might be a selected group from the general population. The analysis focuses on Mexican couples where at least one of the partners was older than 49, by using the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) 2001 dataset, and part of the 2003 second wave. After controlling for compositional variables (related to selection into consensual unions), the paper finds no significant difference in net worth, change in net worth (from 2001 to 2003), and perceived financial situation between married and cohabiting couples, but there is on the likelihood of owning a house. PMID:25717288

  10. Two Decades of Stability and Change in Age at First Union Formation.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Payne, Krista K

    2014-04-01

    The landscape of union formation has been shifting; Americans are now marrying at the highest ages on record and the majority of young adults have cohabited. Yet little attention has been paid to the timing of cohabitation relative to marriage. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and 4 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined the timing of marriage, cohabitation, and unions over 20 years. As the median age at first marriage has climbed, the age at cohabitation has remained stable for men and women. The changes in the timing of union formation have been similar according to race/ethnicity. The marked delay in marriage among women and men with low educational attainment has resulted in a near-convergence in the age at first marriage according to education. The authors conclude that the rise in cohabitation has offset changes in the levels and timing of marriage.

  11. Offending, Substance Use, and Cohabitation in Young Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths’ odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes. PMID:21359092

  12. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997-2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter's education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed.

  13. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  14. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  15. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  16. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  17. 38 CFR 3.53 - Continuous cohabitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that any separation was due to the misconduct of, or procured by, the veteran without the fault of the... through fault of either party, will not break the continuity of the cohabitation. (b) Findings of...

  18. Measuring Cohabitation and Family Structure in the United States: Assessing the Impact of New Data From the Current Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S.; Fitch, C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Current Population Survey (CPS) introduced a measure that identifies all cohabiting partners in a household, regardless of whether they describe themselves as “unmarried partners” in the relationship to householder question. The CPS now also links children to their biological, step-, and adoptive parents. Using these new variables, we analyze the prevalence of cohabitation as well as the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of different-sex cohabiting couples during the years 2007–2009. Estimates of cohabitation produced using only unmarried partnerships miss 18 % of all cohabiting unions and 12 % of children residing with cohabiting parents. Although differences between unmarried partners and most newly identified cohabitors are small, newly identified cohabitors are older, on average, and are less likely to be raising shared biological or adopted children. These new measures also allow us to identify a small number of young, disadvantaged couples who primarily reside in households of other family members, most commonly with parents. We conclude with an examination of the complex living arrangements and poverty status of American children, demonstrating the broader value of these new measures for research on American family and household structure. PMID:22826006

  19. Measuring cohabitation and family structure in the United States: assessing the impact of new data from the Current Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sheela; Fitch, Catherine A

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the Current Population Survey (CPS) introduced a measure that identifies all cohabiting partners in a household, regardless of whether they describe themselves as "unmarried partners" in the relationship to householder question. The CPS now also links children to their biological, step-, and adoptive parents. Using these new variables, we analyze the prevalence of cohabitation as well as the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of different-sex cohabiting couples during the years 2007-2009. Estimates of cohabitation produced using only unmarried partnerships miss 18 % of all cohabiting unions and 12 % of children residing with cohabiting parents. Although differences between unmarried partners and most newly identified cohabitors are small, newly identified cohabitors are older, on average, and are less likely to be raising shared biological or adopted children. These new measures also allow us to identify a small number of young, disadvantaged couples who primarily reside in households of other family members, most commonly with parents. We conclude with an examination of the complex living arrangements and poverty status of American children, demonstrating the broader value of these new measures for research on American family and household structure.

  20. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997–2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter’s education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559

  1. Revisiting Jane Austen's Theory of Marriage Timing: Changes in Union Formation among American Men in the Late 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Goldscheider, Frances

    2004-01-01

    This article examines union entrance among never-married young men, focusing on whether the importance of a man's being economically established to marry has decreased in this new era of cohabitation and working wives. The authors test this assumption by examining marriage and cohabitation as competing risks to see whether the importance of…

  2. Revisiting Jane Austen's Theory of Marriage Timing: Changes in Union Formation among American Men in the Late 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Goldscheider, Frances

    2004-01-01

    This article examines union entrance among never-married young men, focusing on whether the importance of a man's being economically established to marry has decreased in this new era of cohabitation and working wives. The authors test this assumption by examining marriage and cohabitation as competing risks to see whether the importance of…

  3. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  4. The Influence of Union Instability and Union Quality on Children’s Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fomby, Paula; Osborne, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether mother’s poor union quality attenuates the association between union instability and young children’s behavioral adjustment. Using data from three waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to consider children born to married or cohabiting mothers (N=1,730), we determine that children who have experienced poor union quality between mothers and their partners have higher predicted aggressive behavior scores at age 3, regardless of whether they have experienced union transitions, compared to children who have experienced high-quality, stable unions. Children who have experienced instability in the context of higher-quality unions and relatively less acrimonious dissolutions are similar to children raised in high-quality stable unions in terms of predicted aggressive behavior scores. PMID:22423167

  5. The Influence of Union Instability and Union Quality on Children's Aggressive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Fomby, Paula; Osborne, Cynthia

    2010-11-01

    We investigate whether mother's poor union quality attenuates the association between union instability and young children's behavioral adjustment. Using data from three waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to consider children born to married or cohabiting mothers (N=1,730), we determine that children who have experienced poor union quality between mothers and their partners have higher predicted aggressive behavior scores at age 3, regardless of whether they have experienced union transitions, compared to children who have experienced high-quality, stable unions. Children who have experienced instability in the context of higher-quality unions and relatively less acrimonious dissolutions are similar to children raised in high-quality stable unions in terms of predicted aggressive behavior scores.

  6. Sliding versus Deciding: Inertia and the Premarital Cohabitation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena Kline; Markman, Howard J.

    2006-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has consistently been found to be associated with increased risk for divorce and marital distress in the United States. Two explanations for this "cohabitation effect" are discussed: selection and experience. We present an empirically based view of how the experience of cohabitation may increase risk for…

  7. Reassessing the Link between Women's Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Spencer L.; Beattie, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and…

  8. Sliding versus Deciding: Inertia and the Premarital Cohabitation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena Kline; Markman, Howard J.

    2006-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has consistently been found to be associated with increased risk for divorce and marital distress in the United States. Two explanations for this "cohabitation effect" are discussed: selection and experience. We present an empirically based view of how the experience of cohabitation may increase risk for…

  9. Justice and the Fate of Married and Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Are cohabiting couples more likely than married couples to break up in response to perceptions that their relationship is not fair? Based on social psychological perspectives on intimate relationship stability, in addition to empirical research contrasting cohabitation with marriage, I hypothesize that cohabiting couples will be more likely than…

  10. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  11. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  12. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    PubMed

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity.

  13. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle

    PubMed Central

    De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Smith, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. PMID:27030417

  14. The Changing Institution of Marriage: Adolescents' Expectations to Cohabit and to Marry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2007-01-01

    Cohabitation has become part of the pathway toward marriage. Prior work focuses on expectations to marry and has ignored cohabitation. Although most young adults are not replacing marriage with cohabitation, but instead cohabit and then marry, it is important to study adolescents' joint expectations to cohabit as well as marry. Our analyses draw…

  15. Education and Cohabitation in Britain: A Return to Traditional Patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire; Beaujouan, Éva

    2013-01-01

    Cohabitation is sometimes thought of as being inversely associated with education, but in Britain a more complex picture emerges. Educational group differences in cohabitation vary by age, time period, cohort, and indicator used. Well-educated women pioneered cohabitation in Britain in the 1970s and 1980s. In the most recent cohorts, however, the less educated have exceeded the best educated in the proportions ever having cohabited at young ages. But the main difference by education currently seems largely a matter of timing—that is, the less educated start cohabiting earlier than the best educated. In Britain, educational differentials in cohabitation appear to be reinstating longstanding social patterns in the level and timing of marriage. Taking partnerships as a whole, social differentials have been fairly stable. Following a period of innovation and diffusion, there is much continuity with the past. PMID:25653463

  16. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006 – 2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital cohabitation experiences were associated with marital instability among a recent contemporary (married since 1996) marriage cohort of men (N = 1,483) and women (N = 2,003). They found that a dichotomous indicator of premarital cohabitation was in fact not associated with marital instability among women and men. Furthermore, among cohabitors, marital commitment prior to cohabitation (engagement or definite plans for marriage) was tied to lower hazards of marital instability among women, but not men. This research contributes to our understanding of cohabitation, marital instability, and broader family change. PMID:23129875

  17. Cyclical Cohabitation Among Unmarried Parents in Fragile Families.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Teitler, Julien

    2013-10-01

    Building on past research suggesting that cohabitation is an ambiguous family form, the authors examined an understudied residential pattern among unmarried parents: cyclical cohabitation, in which parents have multiple cohabitation spells with each other. Using 9 years of panel data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,084), they found that 10% of all parents with nonmarital births, and nearly a quarter of those living together when the child is 9 years old, are cyclical cohabitors. Cyclically cohabiting mothers reported more material hardships than mothers in most other relationship patterns but also reported more father involvement with children. On all measures of child well-being, except grade retention, children of cyclically cohabiting parents fared no worse than children of stably cohabiting biological parents and did not differ significantly from any other group.

  18. Cyclical Cohabitation Among Unmarried Parents in Fragile Families

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Teitler, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Building on past research suggesting that cohabitation is an ambiguous family form, the authors examined an understudied residential pattern among unmarried parents: cyclical cohabitation, in which parents have multiple cohabitation spells with each other. Using 9 years of panel data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,084), they found that 10% of all parents with nonmarital births, and nearly a quarter of those living together when the child is 9 years old, are cyclical cohabitors. Cyclically cohabiting mothers reported more material hardships than mothers in most other relationship patterns but also reported more father involvement with children. On all measures of child well-being, except grade retention, children of cyclically cohabiting parents fared no worse than children of stably cohabiting biological parents and did not differ significantly from any other group. PMID:25067855

  19. Cohabitation and Repartnering among Low-Income Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; REID, MEGAN

    2015-01-01

    Serial cohabitation has increased dramatically in the U.S., especially in the low-income Black population. The purpose of the study is to understand cohabiting and co-parenting relationships among unmarried cohabiting low-income urban Black families on their own terms, identifying the strengths, challenges, and unique needs of these families. Though cohabitation patterns varied widely, most participants had extensive periods living without a partner. This finding provides more support for the unbalanced marriage markets explanation than the serial cohabitation explanation. Indeed, most participants’ children (83%) had none or only one resident father prior to the current cohabitation. Implications for having a new resident father and child development are discussed. PMID:26161432

  20. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A

    2012-04-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006 - 2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital cohabitation experiences were associated with marital instability among a recent contemporary (married since 1996) marriage cohort of men (N = 1,483) and women (N = 2,003). They found that a dichotomous indicator of premarital cohabitation was in fact not associated with marital instability among women and men. Furthermore, among cohabitors, marital commitment prior to cohabitation (engagement or definite plans for marriage) was tied to lower hazards of marital instability among women, but not men. This research contributes to our understanding of cohabitation, marital instability, and broader family change.

  1. Can marriage education mitigate the risks associated with premarital cohabitation?

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Allen, Elizabeth S

    2015-06-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., "precommitment cohabitation") for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between precommitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before random assignment to intervention. After intervention, this precommitment cohabitation effect was only apparent in the control group. Specifically, significant interactions between intervention condition and cohabitation history indicated that for the control group, but not the PREP group, precommitment cohabitation was associated with lower dedication as well as declines in marital satisfaction and increases in negative communication over time. Furthermore, those with precommitment cohabitation were more likely to divorce by the 2-year follow-up only in the control group; there were no differences in divorce based on premarital cohabitation history in the PREP group. These findings are discussed in light of current research on cohabitation and relationship education; potential implications are also considered.

  2. Pre-engagement cohabitation and gender asymmetry in marital commitment.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Galena Kline; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2006-12-01

    The authors longitudinally examined couples' (N = 197) dedication (interpersonal commitment) levels on the basis of their premarital cohabitation history. Findings suggested that men who cohabited with their spouse before engagement were less dedicated than men who cohabited only after engagement or not at all before marriage. Furthermore, these husbands were less dedicated to their wives than their wives were to them. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that such asymmetries were apparent before marriage and through the early years of marriage. Relationship adjustment and religiousness were related to dedication but did not account for the findings. The authors suggest that couples considering cohabitation before engagement could benefit from discussions about commitment and expectations about marriage.

  3. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    PubMed

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  4. Pathways into Marriage: Cohabitation and the Domestic Division of Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele; Hewitt, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Does time spent in a cohabiting relationship prior to marriage lead to more egalitarian housework arrangements after marriage? Previous research has shown that housework patterns within cohabiting relationships are more egalitarian than in marital relationships. But do these patterns remain when couples marry? The findings from previous studies…

  5. Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

  6. Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

  7. How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deleire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Increasing rates of cohabitation in the United States raise important questions about how cohabitation fits in with the definition of family. Answers to this question depend in part upon the extent to which cohabitors behavior differs from that of other family types. Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, we compare the expenditure…

  8. A Longitudinal Investigation of Commitment Dynamics in Cohabiting Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 120 cohabiting, opposite-sex couples over 8 months to test hypotheses derived from commitment theory about how two types of commitment (dedication and constraint) operate during cohabitation. In nearly half the couples, there were large differences between partners in terms of dedication. These differences were…

  9. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  10. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  11. Can Marriage Education Mitigate the Risks Associated with Premarital Cohabitation?

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Allen, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., “pre-commitment cohabitation”) for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between pre-commitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before random-assignment to intervention. After intervention, this pre-commitment cohabitation effect was only apparent in the control group. Specifically, significant interactions between intervention condition and cohabitation history indicated that for the control group, but not the PREP group, pre-commitment cohabitation was associated with lower dedication as well as declines in marital satisfaction and increases in negative communication over time. Further, those with pre-commitment cohabitation were more likely to divorce by the two-year follow up only in the control group; there were no differences in divorce based on premarital cohabitation history in the PREP group. These findings are discussed in light of current research on cohabitation and relationship education; potential implications are also considered. PMID:25938709

  12. Pathways into Marriage: Cohabitation and the Domestic Division of Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele; Hewitt, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Does time spent in a cohabiting relationship prior to marriage lead to more egalitarian housework arrangements after marriage? Previous research has shown that housework patterns within cohabiting relationships are more egalitarian than in marital relationships. But do these patterns remain when couples marry? The findings from previous studies…

  13. How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deleire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Increasing rates of cohabitation in the United States raise important questions about how cohabitation fits in with the definition of family. Answers to this question depend in part upon the extent to which cohabitors behavior differs from that of other family types. Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, we compare the expenditure…

  14. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  15. A Longitudinal Investigation of Commitment Dynamics in Cohabiting Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 120 cohabiting, opposite-sex couples over 8 months to test hypotheses derived from commitment theory about how two types of commitment (dedication and constraint) operate during cohabitation. In nearly half the couples, there were large differences between partners in terms of dedication. These differences were…

  16. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  17. Adolescent premarital sexual activity, cohabitation, and attitudes toward marriage.

    PubMed

    Martin, P D; Martin, D; Martin, M

    2001-01-01

    Societal trends indicate ambivalent attitudes about marriage. Specifically, there is greater acceptance of divorce and nontraditional living arrangements such as cohabitation, as well as acceptance and prevalence of premarital sex, than in the past. The authors examine adolescent attitudes toward marriage and their association with premarital sexual activity and cohabitation. Recommendations for helping adolescents understand the realities of marriage and family life are shared.

  18. Maternal Cohabitation and Child Well-Being among Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artis, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    Using data collected from 10,511 kindergarten children and their parents from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines child well-being across cohabiting 2-biological-parent families; cohabiting stepfamilies; married stepfamilies; and married 2-biological-parent families. Findings indicate no differences in…

  19. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  20. The relationship between cohabitation and divorce: selectivity or causal influence?

    PubMed

    Axinn, W G; Thornton, A

    1992-08-01

    Recent evidence linking premarital cohabitation to high rates of divorce poses a complex theoretical and empirical puzzle. We develop hypotheses predicting that premarital cohabitation is selective of those who are prone to divorce as well as hypotheses predicting that the experience of premarital cohabitation produces attitudes and values which increase the probability of divorce. Using multiwave panel data from a recent cohort of young men and women in the United States, we specify and test models of these predictions. The results are consistent with hypotheses suggesting that cohabitation is selective of men and women who are less committed to marriage and more approving of divorce. The results also are consistent with the conclusion that cohabiting experiences significantly increase young people's acceptance of divorce.

  1. A Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas1

    PubMed Central

    López-Gay, Antonio; Esteve, Albert; López-Colás, Julian; Permanyer, Iñaki; Turu, Anna; Kennedy, Sheela; Laplante, Benoît; Lesthaeghe, Ron

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the context of increasing cohabitation and growing demand for understanding the driving forces behind the cohabitation boom, most analyses have been carried out at a national level, not accounting for regional heterogeneity within countries. OBJECTIVE This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective together with small-area estimates of cohabitation. We decided to produce this map because: (i) geography unveils spatial heterogeneity and challenges explanatory frameworks that may work at the international level but have low explanatory power in regard to intra-national variation. (ii) we argue that historical pockets of cohabitation can still be identified by examining the current geography of cohabitation. (iii) our map is a first step toward understanding whether the recent increase in cohabitation is an intensification of pre-existing traditions or whether it has different roots that also imply a new geography. METHODS Census microdata from 39 countries and 19,000 local units have been pulled together to map the prevalence of cohabitation among women. RESULTS The results show inter- and intra-national regional contrasts. The highest rates of cohabitation are found in areas of Central America, the Caribbean, Colombia and Peru. The lowest rates are mainly found in the United States and Mexico. In all countries the spatial autocorrelation statistics indicates substantial spatial heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS Our results raise the question as to which forces have shaped these patterns and remind us that such forces need to be taken into account to understand recent patterns, particularly increases, in cohabitation. PMID:26161036

  2. Working with Cohabitation in Relationship Education and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation is increasingly common in the United States, with the majority of couples now living together before marriage. This paper briefly reviews research on cohabitation, its association with marital distress and divorce for those who marry (the cohabitation effect), gender differences, and theories underlying this association. Suggestions are made for future areas of exploration in this field, and the implications of the existing research for relationship education efforts and clinical intervention with couples are discussed. In relationship education, it seems important to help individuals explore their own expectations about cohabitation as well as how cohabitation may or may not change their relationships and influence future relationship goals. With regard to cohabiting couples presenting for therapy, clinicians may need to help them consider how cohabitation may have affected their commitment levels, plans for the future, and power dynamics. For married couples in therapy, it may be useful for some to look at the process by which they married and to recommit or clarify commitments made together. Across all of these forms of clinical practice, we recommend a focus on building communication skills so that individuals and couples have the skills necessary to talk about issues, particularly issues related to commitment. PMID:20613887

  3. The Latin American cohabitation boom, 1970–2007.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Albert; Lesthaeghe, Ron; López-Gay, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the rise of unmarried cohabitation in Latin American countries during the last 30 years of the twentieth century, both at the national and regional levels. It documents that this major increase occurred in regions with and without traditional forms of cohabitation alike. In addition, the striking degree of catching up of cohabitation among the better-educated population segments is illustrated. The connections between these trends and economic (periods of high inflation) and cultural (reduction of stigmas in ethical domains) factors are discussed. The conclusion is that the periods of inflation and hyperinflation may have been general catalysts, but no clear indications of correlation were found between such economic factors and the rise in cohabitation. The shift toward more tolerance for hitherto stigmatized forms of conduct (e.g., homosexuality, euthanasia, abortion, singleparent household) is in line with the rise of cohabitation in regions of Argentina, Chile, and Brazil where cohabitation used to be uncommon. Further rises in cohabitation during the first decade of the twenty-first century are expected in a number of countries (e.g., mexico) despite conditions of much lower inflation.

  4. Cohabitation in the United States and Britain: Demography, Kinship, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Cohabitation is a rapidly changing aspect of family life in the United States and Britain. This article describes the demography of cohabitation, considers the place of cohabitation in the kinship system, and speculates on the future of cohabitation. I argue that three processes -cohort replacement, socialization that occurs when children live…

  5. Patterns of Premarital Cohabitation among Never-Married Women in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanfer, Koray

    1987-01-01

    Examined patterns of heterosexual cohabitation among a national sample of never-married young adult women. Found that heterosexual cohabitation was common; the prevalence of cohabitation varied with social, psychological, and demographic variables; and several factors differentiated cohabitors from noncohabitors. Cohabitation appeared to be a new…

  6. The Relationship between Cohabitation and Marital Quality and Stability: Change across Cohorts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Cohan, Catherine L.; Amato, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital dysfunction a sample spouses in two marriage cohorts: those married between 1964 and 1980 (when cohabitation was less common) and those married between 1981 and 1997 (when cohabitation was more common). Spouses in both cohorts who cohabited prior to marriage reported poorer…

  7. Cohabitation in the United States and Britain: Demography, Kinship, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Cohabitation is a rapidly changing aspect of family life in the United States and Britain. This article describes the demography of cohabitation, considers the place of cohabitation in the kinship system, and speculates on the future of cohabitation. I argue that three processes -cohort replacement, socialization that occurs when children live…

  8. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    PubMed

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  9. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Beaujouan, Eva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979-2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marriage at the fifth and tenth anniversaries.

  10. Re-Examining the Case for Marriage: Union Formation and Changes in Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Bumpass, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses open questions about the nature and meaning of the positive association between marriage and well-being, namely, the extent to which it is causal, shared with cohabitation, and stable over time. We relied on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,737) and a modeling approach that controls for fixed differences between individuals by relating union transitions to changes in well-being. This study is unique in examining the persistence of changes in well-being as marriages and cohabitations progress (and potentially dissolve) over time. The effects of marriage and cohabitation are found to be similar across a range of measures tapping psychological well-being, health, and social ties. Where there are statistically significant differences, marriage is not always more advantageous. Overall, differences tend to be small and appear to dissipate over time, even when the greater instability of cohabitation is taken into account. PMID:22611285

  11. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  12. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  13. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCHS Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS ... other not-married men to have had a health care visit in the past 12 months. Figure 1. ...

  14. Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bramlett, Matthew D; Mosher, William D

    2002-07-01

    This report presents national estimates of the probabilities of marital and cohabitation outcomes for women 15-44 years of age in 1995, by a wide variety of individual- and community-level characteristics. The life-table analysis in this report takes a life cycle approach to estimate the probabilities that: a woman will marry for the first time, an intact first cohabitation will make the transition to marriage, a first cohabitation will end in separation, a first marriage will end in separation or divorce, a disrupted first marriage will be followed by a new cohabitation, a separation from first marriage will result in divorce, a divorce from first marriage will be followed by remarriage, and a second marriage will end in separation or divorce. The life-table estimates presented here are based on a nationally representative sample of women 15-44 years of age in the United States in 1995 from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle 5. The analyses show that various individual and community-level characteristics are related to the marital and cohabitational outcomes examined in this report. The results consistently demonstrate that the cohabitations and marriages of non-Hispanic black women are less stable than those of non-Hispanic white women. An analysis of trends over time suggests that differences by race/ethnicity are becoming more pronounced in recent years. Racial differences observed are associated with individual characteristics and with the characteristics of the communities in which the women live.

  15. A Multistate Life Table Analysis of Union Regimes in the United States: Trends and Racial Differentials, 1970-2002.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Morgan, S Philip; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan; Yang, Chingli

    2012-04-01

    We estimate trends and racial differentials in marriage, cohabitation, union formation and dissolution (union regimes) for the period 1970-2002 in the United States. These estimates are based on an innovative application of multistate life table analysis to pooled survey data. Our analysis demonstrates (1) a dramatic increase in the lifetime proportions of transitions from never-married, divorced or widowed to cohabiting; (2) a substantial decrease in the stability of cohabiting unions; (3) a dramatic increase in mean ages at cohabiting after divorce and widowhood; (4) a substantial decrease in direct transition from never-married to married; (5) a significant decrease in the overall lifetime proportion of ever marrying and re-marrying in the 1970s to 1980s but a relatively stable pattern in the 1990s to 2000-2002; and (6) a substantial decrease in the lifetime proportion of transition from cohabiting to marriage. We also present, for the first time, comparable evidence on differentials in union regimes between four racial groups.

  16. A Multistate Life Table Analysis of Union Regimes in the United States: Trends and Racial Differentials, 1970–2002

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S. Philip; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan; Yang, Chingli

    2013-01-01

    We estimate trends and racial differentials in marriage, cohabitation, union formation and dissolution (union regimes) for the period 1970–2002 in the United States. These estimates are based on an innovative application of multistate life table analysis to pooled survey data. Our analysis demonstrates (1) a dramatic increase in the lifetime proportions of transitions from never-married, divorced or widowed to cohabiting; (2) a substantial decrease in the stability of cohabiting unions; (3) a dramatic increase in mean ages at cohabiting after divorce and widowhood; (4) a substantial decrease in direct transition from never-married to married; (5) a significant decrease in the overall lifetime proportion of ever marrying and re-marrying in the 1970s to 1980s but a relatively stable pattern in the 1990s to 2000–2002; and (6) a substantial decrease in the lifetime proportion of transition from cohabiting to marriage. We also present, for the first time, comparable evidence on differentials in union regimes between four racial groups. PMID:24179311

  17. Family Transitions in Cohabiting Families: a Longitudinal Investigation of the Role of Parent Depressive Symptoms in Youth Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Justin; Peisch, Virginia D; Forehand, Rex; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2017-05-01

    Cohabiting family structures are becoming increasingly prevalent in the United States but are less stable than married family unions. In this longitudinal study we examine the change in psychosocial adjustment of adolescents when a non-biologically related male cohabiting partner (MCP) transitions out of the family home. Of particular interest, the role of maternal and MCP depressive symptoms was examined as a moderator. At wave 1, the sample was comprised of 111 low-income urban Black families, consisting of an adolescent (42.3 % male; Mage = 13), a biological mother, and a non-biologically-related male cohabiting partner (MCP). Wave 2 and 3 assessments occurred over the course of the subsequent 29 months, with 38 % of MCPs transitioning out of the home. We used latent growth curve modeling to characterize trajectories of youth internalizing and externalizing symptom change across the 3 waves. Both maternal and MCP depressive symptoms interacted with whether a transition occurred, consistent with the notion that adolescent problem behaviors are shaped by the dynamic interplay of individual- and family-characteristics.

  18. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family and Peer Networks in Dating Couples’ Views about Cohabitation

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner’s desire to not cohabit trumped their partner’s more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad. PMID:23087542

  19. Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated whether marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found…

  20. Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether the transition into adolescence, proxied by pubertal timing, shaped the transition into adulthood, proxied by union formation behaviors, among contemporary American women. In a sample drawn from Add Health (n = 7,523), early maturing girls reported an accelerated transition to marriage and cohabitation in young…

  1. Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated whether marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found…

  2. A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.

    PubMed

    Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2007-05-01

    Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support.

  3. Premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital dissolution: a matter of self-selection?

    PubMed

    Lillard, L A; Brien, M J; Waite, L J

    1995-08-01

    Married couples who began their relationship by cohabiting appear to face an increased risk of marital dissolution, which may be due to self-selection of more dissolution-prone individuals into cohabitation before marriage. This paper uses newly developed econometric methods to explicitly address the endogeneity of cohabitation before marriage in the hazard of marital disruption by allowing the unobserved heterogeneity components to be correlated across the decisions to cohabit and to end a marriage. These methods are applied to data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. We find significant heterogeneity in both cohabitation and marriage disruption, and discover evidence of self-selection into cohabitation.

  4. The impact of alcohol consumption on patterns of union formation in Russia 1998–2010: An assessment using longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Katherine; Kenward, Michael G.; Grundy, Emily; Leon, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, 1998–2010, we investigated the extent to which patterns of alcohol consumption in Russia are associated with the subsequent likelihood of entry into cohabitation and marriage. Using discrete-time event history analysis we estimated for 16–50 year olds the extent to which the probabilities of entry into the two types of union were affected by the amount of alcohol drunk and the pattern of drinking, adjusted to allow for social and demographic factors including income, employment, and health. The results show that individuals who did not drink alcohol were less likely to embark on either cohabitation or marriage, that frequent consumption of alcohol was associated with a greater chance of entering unmarried cohabitation than of entering into a marriage, and that heavy drinkers were less likely to convert their relationship from cohabitation to marriage. PMID:25320843

  5. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  6. Reassessing the Link Between Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability

    PubMed Central

    REINHOLD, STEFFEN

    2010-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marriage cohorts. Using multiple marital outcomes for a person to account for one source of unobserved heterogeneity, panel models suggest that cohabitation is not selective of individuals with higher risk of marital dissolution and may be a stabilizing factor for higher-order marriages. Further research with more recent data is needed to assess whether these results are statistical artifacts caused by data weaknesses in the NSFG. PMID:20879685

  7. Reassessing the link between premarital cohabitation and marital instability.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Steffen

    2010-08-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marriage cohorts. Using multiple marital outcomes for a person to account for one source of unobserved heterogeneity, panel models suggest that cohabitation is not selective of individuals with higher risk of marital dissolution and may be a stabilizing factor for higher-order marriages. Further research with more recent data is needed to assess whether these results are statistical artifacts caused by data weaknesses in the NSFG.

  8. Waiting to Be Asked: Gender, Power, and Relationship Progression among Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of young married Americans lived with their spouses before the wedding, and many cohabited with partners they did not wed. Yet little is known about how cohabitating relationships progress or the role gender norms play in this process. This article explores how cohabiting partners negotiate relationship progression, focusing on…

  9. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family, and Peer Networks in Dating Couples' Views about Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semistructured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a…

  10. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  11. Premarital Cohabitation and Subsequent Marital Stability in the United States: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaris, Alfred; Rao, K. Vaninadha

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relationship between cohabitation and subsequent marital dissolution among 3,300 adults in United States. Consistent with results for Sweden, found that cohabitation in United States was associated with greater hazard of dissolution even after counting time spent in unmarried cohabitation as part of marital duration. (Author/NB)

  12. Is Your Love in Vain? Another Look at Premarital Cohabitation and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we provide an empirical investigation of the association between premarital cohabitation and subsequent risk of divorce. Theoretically couples who cohabit before marriage should have a lower subsequent risk of divorce since cohabitation enables you to gather information about the match quality, and only good matches evolve into…

  13. The Institutionalization of Premarital Cohabitation: Estimates from Marriage License Applications, 1970 and 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined extent to which couples who marry cohabit prior to marriage. Data indicate premarital cohabitation in Lane County, Oregon, increased from 13 percent to 53 percent during the decade. Trends and differentials for demographic subgroups are compared to national estimates. Findings suggest premarital cohabitation may be a new normative step…

  14. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  15. Waiting to Be Asked: Gender, Power, and Relationship Progression among Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of young married Americans lived with their spouses before the wedding, and many cohabited with partners they did not wed. Yet little is known about how cohabitating relationships progress or the role gender norms play in this process. This article explores how cohabiting partners negotiate relationship progression, focusing on…

  16. Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated if marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found that marital attitudes did not have significant associations with the transition to cohabitation but did significantly predict the probability of transitioning to marriage during young adulthood. Specifically, having a younger expected age of marriage and placing more importance on marriage at the end of adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning to marriage earlier than other young adults. PMID:24748692

  17. Intergenerational cohabitation in modern Indonesia: filial support and dependence.

    PubMed

    Johar, Meliyanni; Maruyama, Shiko

    2011-09-01

    Informal filial care plays an important role for elderly parents facing health challenges. Ageing, however, exacerbates the burden of filial care because the ratio of older to younger individuals is higher and disabled parents live longer. The well-being of elderly parents is even more insecure in Asian developing countries that are undergoing unprecedented ageing and drastic changes in social norms and values, whereas old-age support systems have yet to be developed. In this paper, we investigate factors that influence cohabitation decision by elderly parents and their adult children using the longitudinal Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS). Focusing on new cohabitation in which a parent who lives independently starts to cohabitate with a child, we conduct transition analysis to make a more convincing causal interpretation than the standard cross-sectional approach. We find that, while parental needs are important, cohabitation is influenced to a larger extent by the costs and gains of children. The elderly facing health and economic challenges are at higher risk of not receiving filial support than other elderly individuals. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Cohabitation Versus Marriage: A Comparison of Relationship Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan; Booth, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates extent to which cohabitation is similar to marriage among black, and white Americans ages 19-48 using data from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households. Cohabitors reported poorer relationship quality than their married counterparts. Majority of cohabitors planned to marry their partner; these cohabitors are involved in…

  19. Cohabitants' perspective on housing adaptations: a piece of the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Granbom, Marianne; Taei, Afsaneh; Ekstam, Lisa

    2017-01-31

    As part of the Swedish state-funded healthcare system, housing adaptations are used to promote safe and independent living for disabled people in ordinary housing through the elimination of physical environmental barriers in the home. The aim of this study was to describe the cohabitants' expectations and experiences of how a housing adaptation, intended for the partner, would impact their everyday life. In-depth interviews were conducted with cohabitants of nine people applying for a housing adaptation, initially at the time of the application and then again 3 months after the housing adaptation was installed. A longitudinal analysis was performed including analysis procedures from Grounded Theory. The findings revealed the expectations and experiences in four categories: partners' activities and independence; cohabitants' everyday activities and caregiving; couples' shared recreational/leisure activities; and housing decisions. A core category putting the intervention into perspective was called 'Housing adaptations - A piece of the puzzle'. From the cohabitants' perspective, new insights on housing adaptations emerged, which are important to consider when planning and carrying out successful housing adaptations. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Cohabitation Versus Marriage: A Comparison of Relationship Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan; Booth, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates extent to which cohabitation is similar to marriage among black, and white Americans ages 19-48 using data from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households. Cohabitors reported poorer relationship quality than their married counterparts. Majority of cohabitors planned to marry their partner; these cohabitors are involved in…

  1. Maybe I Do: Interpersonal Commitment and Premarital or Nonmarital Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Markman, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    Explanations for the risks associated with premarital and nonmarital cohabitation (e.g., higher rates of breakup and divorce, lower relationship satisfaction, and greater risk for violent interaction) have focused on levels of conventionality, including attitudes about commitment to the institution of marriage. However, relatively little attention…

  2. Effects of Divorce and Cohabitation Dissolution on Preschoolers' Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth cohort ("N" = 6,450), the present study hypothesized that 48-month-old children of divorced mothers would score lower on emerging literacy than the children of formerly cohabiting mothers, compared with the children of mothers in stable marriage. The children of mothers who…

  3. Explaining Teen Childbearing and Cohabitation: Community Embeddedness and Primary Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Lewis, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examines whether access to social capital reduces the chance that teens will cohabit or have a nonmaritally conceived birth. Using data from a nationally representative panel study of eighth-grade girls and their parents, we hypothesize that girls who have (and whose families have) dense community ties as well as greater access…

  4. Planned Parenthood?: Fertility Intentions and Experiences among Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda; Favinger, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on nonmarital births focuses on disadvantaged populations. This study examined the childbearing expectations and experiences of a working-class sample, drawing on in-depth interviews with 30 cohabiting couples. Few couples in the sample were attempting to conceive; most desired to defer parenting. Three responses emerged to how a…

  5. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  6. Cohabitation and Divorce in Canada: Testing the Selectivity Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David R.; Zhao, John Z.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated hypothesis that cohabitors are a select group in ways that predispose them to divorce. Found that premarital cohabitation was associated with a greater risk of divorce even after accounting for the effects of parental divorce, marital status of first spouse, age heterogamy, and the presence of stepchildren. (RJM)

  7. Maybe I Do: Interpersonal Commitment and Premarital or Nonmarital Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Markman, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    Explanations for the risks associated with premarital and nonmarital cohabitation (e.g., higher rates of breakup and divorce, lower relationship satisfaction, and greater risk for violent interaction) have focused on levels of conventionality, including attitudes about commitment to the institution of marriage. However, relatively little attention…

  8. Adolescent Premarital Sexual Activity, Cohabitation, and Attitudes toward Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paige D.; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2001-01-01

    Societal trends indicate ambivalent attitudes about marriage, specifically a greater acceptance of divorce and nontraditional living arrangements. This paper examines adolescent attitudes toward marriage and their association with premarital sexual activity and cohabitation. Recommendations for helping adolescents understand the realities of…

  9. Explaining Differences in Mental Health between Married and Cohabiting Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcussen, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    Research on the relationship between cohabitation and mental health tends to ignore social psychological factors that help explain mental health differences between the married and the unmarried, including coping resources and perceived relationship quality. In this paper I draw on social psychological theory and research to clarify differences in…

  10. Effects of Divorce and Cohabitation Dissolution on Preschoolers' Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth cohort ("N" = 6,450), the present study hypothesized that 48-month-old children of divorced mothers would score lower on emerging literacy than the children of formerly cohabiting mothers, compared with the children of mothers in stable marriage. The children of mothers who…

  11. The pre-engagement cohabitation effect: a replication and extension of previous findings.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2009-02-01

    Using a random telephone survey of men and women married within the past 10 years (N = 1,050), the current study replicated previous findings regarding the timing of engagement and the premarital cohabitation effect (see Kline et al., 2004). Those who cohabited before engagement (43.1%) reported lower marital satisfaction, dedication, and confidence as well as more negative communication and greater potential for divorce than those who cohabited only after engagement (16.4%) or not at all until marriage (40.5%). These differences were generally small, but could not be accounted for by length of marriage or by variables often associated with selection into cohabitation (i.e., age, income, education, and religiousness). Similar results were found in a subsample of individuals who cohabited only with the current spouse. There were no significant differences between those who cohabited after engagement and not at all before marriage, supporting a pre-engagement, but not a premarital cohabitation effect.

  12. Marriage, cohabitation, and men's use of preventive health care services.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Vahratian, Anjel; Blumberg, Joseph H

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that married men are more likely than not-married men to seek preventive health care services because their spouses encourage them to do so (1,2). It was not known, however, whether cohabiting partners of not-married men play a health-promoting role similar to that of spouses. With data from the 2011-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), selected measures of preventive health care service use were compared for three groups of men aged 18-64: married men (defined as those living with a spouse), cohabiting men (defined as those living with a partner who is not a spouse), and other not-married men. The consistency of observed differences by age and health insurance coverage status was also investigated.

  13. Cohabitation effect on the slowdown of the Neolithic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, N.; Fort, J.

    2011-12-01

    We introduce the effect of cohabitation between generations to a previous model on the slowdown of the Neolithic transition in Europe. This effect consists on the fact that human beings do not leave their children alone when they migrate, but on the contrary they cohabit until their children reach adulthood. We also use archaeological data to estimate the variation of the Mesolithic population density with distance, and use this information to predict the slowdown of the Neolithic front speed. The new equation leads to a substantial correction, up to 37%, relative to previous results. The new model is able to provide a satisfactory explanation not only to the relative speed but also to the absolute speed of the Neolithic front obtained from archaeological data.

  14. Social forces can impact the circadian clocks of cohabiting hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Matthew J.; Indic, Premananda; Schwartz, William J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of field and laboratory studies have shown that the social environment influences daily rhythms in numerous species. However, underlying mechanisms, including the circadian system's role, are not known. Obstacles to this research have been the inability to track and objectively analyse rhythms of individual animals housed together. Here, we employed temperature dataloggers to track individual body temperature rhythms of pairs of cohabiting male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in constant darkness and applied a continuous wavelet transform to determine the phase of rhythm onset before, during, and after cohabitation. Cohabitation altered the predicted trajectory of rhythm onsets in 34% of individuals, representing 58% of pairs, compared to 12% of hamsters single-housed as ‘virtual pair’ controls. Deviation from the predicted trajectory was by a change in circadian period (τ), which tended to be asymmetric—affecting one individual of the pair in nine of 11 affected pairs—with hints that dominance might play a role. These data implicate a change in the speed of the circadian clock as one mechanism whereby social factors can alter daily rhythms. Miniature dataloggers coupled with wavelet analyses should provide powerful tools for future studies investigating the principles and mechanisms mediating social influences on daily timing. PMID:24500164

  15. Of Sex and Romance: Late Adolescent Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation

    PubMed Central

    Crissey, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the social factors that influence the diverse pathways to family formation young adults experience today, this research investigates the association between opposite-gender relationships during late adolescence and union formation in early adulthood. Using data from the first and third waves of the Add Health (n = 4,911), we show that, for both men and women, there is continuity between adolescent and adult relationship experiences. Those involved in adolescent romantic relationships at the end of high school are more likely to marry and to cohabit in early adulthood. Moreover, involvement in a nonromantic sexual relationship is positively associated with cohabitation, but not marriage. We conclude that the precursors to union formation patterns in adulthood are observable in adolescence. PMID:20221420

  16. Of Sex and Romance: Late Adolescent Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Crissey, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2007-11-11

    To better understand the social factors that influence the diverse pathways to family formation young adults experience today, this research investigates the association between opposite-gender relationships during late adolescence and union formation in early adulthood. Using data from the first and third waves of the Add Health (n = 4,911), we show that, for both men and women, there is continuity between adolescent and adult relationship experiences. Those involved in adolescent romantic relationships at the end of high school are more likely to marry and to cohabit in early adulthood. Moreover, involvement in a nonromantic sexual relationship is positively associated with cohabitation, but not marriage. We conclude that the precursors to union formation patterns in adulthood are observable in adolescence.

  17. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age.

  18. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  19. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  20. The Timing of Cohabitation and Engagement: Impact on First and Second Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Amato, Paul R.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multistate sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200) and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without…

  1. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  2. Family Structure and Child Well-being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families N=35,938 were used to examine the relationship between family structure and child well-being. I extended prior research by including children in two-biological-parent cohabiting families, as well as co-habiting stepfamilies, in an investigation of the roles of economic and parental resources…

  3. The Timing of Cohabitation and Engagement: Impact on First and Second Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Amato, Paul R.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multistate sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200) and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without…

  4. Couples' Reasons for Cohabitation: Associations with Individual Well-Being and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new measure to examine how different types of reasons for cohabitation are associated with individual well-being and relationship quality in a sample of 120 cohabiting heterosexual couples (N = 240). Spending more time together and convenience are the most strongly endorsed reasons. The degree to which individuals report…

  5. Contemporaneous versus Retrospective Reports of Cohabitation in the Fragile Families Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Koball, Heather

    2006-01-01

    We compare contemporaneous and retrospective reports of cohabitation among unmarried mothers in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 2,524). We find that (a) many mothers revise their reports of whether they cohabited at the time of the birth of their child and (b) revisions in reports are systematically related to individuals'…

  6. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability: A Test of the Unconventionality Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Alfred; MacDonald, William

    1993-01-01

    Examined whether greater instability of marriage begun by premarital cohabitation can be accounted for by cohabitors' greater unconventionality in family ideology. Hypothesis was largely unsupported. Family attitudes/beliefs did not account for differences in stability. Controlling for background differences, only serial cohabitation was…

  7. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  8. Commitment across the Transition to Parenthood among Married and Cohabiting Couples

    PubMed Central

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Commitment has long been hypothesized to increase across the transition to parenthood, even though much research has found that relationship functioning declines during this period. We examined change in interpersonal commitment, measured as personal dedication and relationship confidence, and constraint commitment, measured as felt constraint, across the transition to parenthood. We tested for marital status differences in the change in commitment across the transition among three groups: cohabitation, marriage preceded by cohabitation, and direct marriage. Data came from the New Parents Project, a community sample of 173 married and cohabiting couples. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated that cohabiting fathers, in comparison to married fathers, dropped further in personal dedication and relationship confidence and increased more in felt constraint across the transition to parenthood. No significant differences across the transition were found between cohabiting and married mothers. Further research on the transition to parenthood among unmarried couples is suggested. PMID:25506512

  9. The Timing of Cohabitation and Engagement: Impact on First and Second Marriages.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott M; Rhoades, Galena K; Amato, Paul R; Markman, Howard J; Johnson, Christine A

    2010-08-01

    Using a multi-state sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200), and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without first being engaged or married was associated with more negative interaction, higher self-reported divorce proneness, and a greater probability of divorce compared to cohabiting after engagement or marriage (with patterns in the same direction for marital positivity). In contrast, there was a general risk associated with premarital cohabitation for second marriages on self-reported indices of marital quality, with or without engagement when cohabitation began.

  10. The Timing of Cohabitation and Engagement: Impact on First and Second Marriages

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Amato, Paul R.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multi-state sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200), and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without first being engaged or married was associated with more negative interaction, higher self-reported divorce proneness, and a greater probability of divorce compared to cohabiting after engagement or marriage (with patterns in the same direction for marital positivity). In contrast, there was a general risk associated with premarital cohabitation for second marriages on self-reported indices of marital quality, with or without engagement when cohabitation began. PMID:20640241

  11. Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women's Health at Midlife.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Despite high rates of nonmarital childbearing in the U.S., little is known about the health of women who have nonmarital births. We use data from the NLSY79 to examine differences in age 40 self-assessed health between women who had a premarital birth and those whose first birth occurred within marriage. We then differentiate women with a premarital first birth according to their subsequent union histories and estimate the effect of marrying or cohabiting versus remaining never-married on midlife self-assessed health, paying particular attention to the paternity status of the mother's partner and the stability of marital unions. To partially address selection bias, we employ multivariate propensity score techniques. Results suggest that premarital childbearing is negatively associated with midlife health for white and black (but not Hispanic) women. We find no evidence that these negative health consequences of nonmarital childbearing are mitigated by either marriage or cohabitation for black women. For other women, only enduring marriage to the biological father is associated with better health than remaining unpartnered.

  12. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  13. Training Union Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Edward

    1974-01-01

    The Union Leadership Academy (ULA) combines Pennsylvania State, Rutgers, West Virginia, and Atlantic Community College, 3 departments of the ALL-CIO, and 12 unions into an innovative curriculum covering aspects of labor law, union administration, and labor history. (Author/PG)

  14. Unions on the Margin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchington, Mick

    1990-01-01

    Longitudinal case studies of four British organizations tested theories that union membership is waning, collective bargaining is being separated from strategic decision making, and employee involvement is lessening union impact. The conclusion reached was that the marginalization of unions has more complex causes; employee relations need to be…

  15. Training Union Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Edward

    1974-01-01

    The Union Leadership Academy (ULA) combines Pennsylvania State, Rutgers, West Virginia, and Atlantic Community College, 3 departments of the ALL-CIO, and 12 unions into an innovative curriculum covering aspects of labor law, union administration, and labor history. (Author/PG)

  16. Prevalence and predictors of HIV sero-discordance among cohabiting couples tested in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngilangwa, David Paul; Ochako, Rhoune; Mboya, Beati Alphonce; Noronha, Rita Honoratha; Mgomella, George Suleman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In sub-Saharan Africa where HIV/AIDS epidemic is predominantly generalized, majority of HIV infections occur among heterosexual couples. The majority of people do not know their sero-status. Thus, utilisation of Couples’ HIV Counselling and Testing (CHCT) services remain to be critical in preventing new infections. The objective was to establish prevalence and predictors of HIV sero-discordance among cohabiting couples presenting for CHCT services in northern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study inteveviewed 1,333 couples aged 18-49 years tested from 2005 to 2007 in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions. A CHCT checklist was used to collect data from couples. Data were analyzed using STATA 10. Results Generally, 220(16%) out of 1,333 couples were HIV sero-discordant. In sero-discordance unions, women were likely to be HIV positive than men (71% versus 29% respectively p<0.001). HIV sero-discordant relationship was associated with age (35-45 years) for both men and women (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.7-3.2) and (AOR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.7) respectively. Women with older men partners were less likely to be in HIV sero-discordance relationships (AOR: 0.5 95% CI 0.3-09). Arusha couples were likely to be HIV sero-discordant than those of Kilimanjaro (AOR: 2.3 95% CI 1.7-3.2). Couples living far away from CHCT centres were less likely to be sero-discordant than those live nearby (AOR: 0.4 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Conclusion HIV sero-discordance prevalence is high among our participants. Thus, we recommend CHCT utilization should widely be promoted as entry point in treatment as prevention strategy in order to protect uninfected partners in HIV sero-discordance relationships. PMID:26958138

  17. Food Service and the College Union. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterheld, Douglas C.

    This publication, one in a series of monographs on college unions, explores the importance, role, and function of food services in the college union. Major topics discussed include: (1) food service and the college union, (2) union food service and the campus, (3) union food service and the community, (4) organization of union food services, (5)…

  18. Cohabitation, gender, and alcohol consumption in 19 countries: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wilsnack, Richard; Wilsnack, Sharon; Kristjanson, Arlinda

    2010-12-01

    We used an ecological paradigm and multilevel analytic techniques to analyze gender-specific relationships of cohabitation (versus marriage) to drinking in 19 countries (n = 32,922) and to "heavy episodic drinking" (HED) in 17 countries (n = 24,525) in surveys (1996-2004) from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study. Cohabitation was associated with elevated risk of HED among drinkers of both genders, controlling for age, education, and societal characteristics. The association between cohabitation and HED tended to be stronger for female drinkers than for male drinkers. HED was more prevalent among younger drinkers, especially among younger women in countries with higher per capita gross domestic product. Cross-culturally, cohabiters deserve special attention in prevention efforts for hazardous drinking, considering both individual-level and societal factors.

  19. Couples’ Reasons for Cohabitation: Associations with Individual Well-Being and Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a new measure to examine how different types of reasons for cohabitation were associated with individual well-being and relationship quality in a sample of 120 cohabiting heterosexual couples (N = 240). Spending more time together and convenience were the most strongly endorsed reasons. The degree to which individuals reported cohabiting to test their relationships was associated with more negative couple communication and more physical aggression as well as lower relationship adjustment, confidence, and dedication. Testing the relationship was also associated with higher levels of attachment insecurity and more symptoms of depression and anxiety. Men were more likely than women to endorse testing their relationships and less likely to endorse convenience as a reason for cohabiting. PMID:19756225

  20. Poverty and union formation among never-married single mothers in the Netherlands, 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Monden, Christiaan

    2010-11-01

    Using panel data from Dutch tax records linked to the municipality registry, we investigate how the partner status of never-married single mothers changes in the years after the birth of their first child. To explore a possible accumulation of financial problems, we study the effects of income on the chances of entering a marital or cohabiting union. We also examine the effects of finding a partner on income for never-married single mothers. Finding a partner substantially improves income. We find that about half of the never-married single mothers marry or start cohabiting within 10 years of the first birth, but that these are usually mothers with average and higher incomes. Not only are never-married single mothers more likely to be poor at the time of first birth, the poor are also more likely to remain single. There seems to be an accumulation of disadvantage in this special group in Dutch society.

  1. The educational homogamy gap between married and cohabiting couples in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel; McCaa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The explosive expansion of non-marital cohabitation in Latin America since the 1970s has led to the narrowing of the gap in educational homogamy between married and cohabiting couples (what we call “homogamy gap”) as shown by our analysis of 29 census samples encompassing eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Panama (N = 2,295,160 young couples). Most research on the homogamy gap is limited to a single decade and a small group of developed countries (the United States, Canada, and Europe). We take a historical and cross-national perspective and expand the research to a range of developing countries, where since early colonial times traditional forms of cohabitation among the poor, uneducated sectors of society have coexisted with marriage, although to widely varying degrees from country to country. In recent decades, cohabitation is emerging in all sectors of society. We find that among married couples educational homogamy continues to be higher than for those who cohabit, but in recent decades the difference has narrowed substantially in all countries. We argue that assortative mating between cohabiting and married couples tend to be similar when the contexts in which they are formed are also increasingly similar. PMID:25506110

  2. Adding a baby to the equation. married and cohabiting women's relationship satisfaction in the transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Øystein; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Melkevik, Ole; Thuen, Frode

    2012-03-01

    The trajectory of relationship satisfaction among married and cohabiting women in their transition to parenthood was compared in a potential sample of 71,504 women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prospective longitudinal data were collected in 4 waves over a 2-year period starting 6 months prebirth. Results from latent curve models suggested that married and cohabiting women experience similar negative change in relationship satisfaction during the transition to parenthood. However, cohabiting women start off and stay less satisfied throughout the transition period, suggesting the presence of a negative cohabitation effect that prevailed after controlling for various covariates. Extending investigation on the cohabitation effect to the transition to parenthood, and replicating it in a Scandinavian context, is discussed in relation to the understanding of what causes the cohabitation effect, and its clinical implications. © FPI, Inc.

  3. Progesterone transfer among cohabitating female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2017-02-07

    Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ((3)H-E2) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with (3)H-E2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ((3)H-P4) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered (3)H-P4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with (3)H-E2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts.

  4. Soviet Union`s Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union`s nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry`s strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources.

  5. The compositional and institutional sources of union dissolution for married and unmarried parents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tach, Laura; Edin, Kathryn

    2013-10-01

    Unmarried parents have less stable unions than married parents, but there is considerable debate over the sources of this instability. Unmarried parents may be more likely than married parents to end their unions because of compositional differences, such as more disadvantaged personal and relationship characteristics, or because they lack the normative and institutional supports of marriage, thus rendering their relationships more sensitive to disadvantage. In this article, we evaluate these two sources of union instability among married, cohabiting, and dating parents following the birth of a shared child, using five waves of longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Using discrete-time event history models, we find that demographic, economic, and relationship differences explain more than two-thirds of the increased risk of dissolution for unmarried parents relative to married parents. We also find that differential responses to economic or relationship disadvantage do not explain why unmarried parents are more likely to end their unions than married parents.

  6. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  7. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  8. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  9. Unionism and Professionalism: Siblings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Alfred; Nielsen, Robert

    The controversy surrounding the meaning of professionalism on American campuses is approached by examining the subject from an historical and trade union perspective. It is contended that faculty unions are compatible with professional needs and desires of faculty. The roots of the American college and university system are examined in conjunction…

  10. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  11. Unions, Contractors and CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

  12. Unions, Contractors and CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

  13. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  14. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  15. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy; Brown, Susan; Stykes, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life. PMID:27383844

  16. Marital Status, Duration of Cohabitation, and Psychosocial Well-Being Among Childbearing Women: A Canadian Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    O’Campo, Patricia J.; Ray, Joel G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the joint associations of marital status and duration of cohabitation on self-reported intimate partner violence, substance use, and postpartum depression among childbearing women. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2006–2007 Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey, a cross-sectional nationwide sample of 6421 childbearing women. Cohabiting women were married or nonmarried women living with a partner; noncohabiters were single, divorced, or separated women. We further categorized cohabiters by their duration of cohabitation (≤ 2, 3–5, or > 5 years). We used logistic regression to generate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results. About 92% of women were cohabiters. Compared with married women living with a husband more than 5 years, unmarried women cohabiting for 2 years or less were at higher odds of intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85, 7.56), substance use (AOR = 5.36; 95% CI = 3.06, 9.39), and postpartum depression (AOR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.25, 2.80); these risk estimates declined with duration of cohabitation. Conclusions. Research on maternal and child health would benefit from distinguishing between married and unmarried cohabiting women, and their duration of cohabitation. PMID:23237180

  17. Cohabitating Partners and Domestic Labor in Low-Income Black Families.

    PubMed

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew; Vazan, Peter

    2014-12-01

    This article examines the division of domestic labor in low-income cohabiting Black stepfamilies. We analyze survey data collected from 136 such families in order to understand how stepparent gender and relationship length impact the distribution of domestic labor. We hypothesize that women do more domestic work than men across all three family types, and that stepfathers are more involved in domestic labor in established relationships compared to new relationships. Findings indicate that cohabiting stepfathers in both new and established cohabiting Black stepfamilies make substantial contributions to domestic labor. These families demonstrate a division of labor consistent with traditional gender roles, though both partners agree on how much work each does. Parents, regardless of gender, are more involved in domestic labor than stepparents.

  18. Cohabitation and Children’s Externalizing Behavior in Low-Income Latino Families

    PubMed Central

    Fomby, Paula; Estacion, Angela

    2011-01-01

    We consider the association of cohabitation experience with externalizing behavior among children of Latina mothers whose ethnic origin is in Mexico, Puerto Rico, or the Dominican Republic. Data were drawn from three waves of the Three-City Study (N=656 mother-child pairs). Children of Mexican-origin mothers had higher externalizing problems in childhood and adolescence when their mothers were born in the United States or immigrated as minors. For children of Caribbean-origin mothers, being born to a cohabiting or married mother had a statistically equivalent association with externalizing behavior when mothers were born outside the mainland United States (Dominican and island-born Puerto Rican mothers). Children of mainland-born Puerto Rican mothers had more behavior problems when their mothers cohabited at birth. PMID:21927505

  19. Cohabitating Partners and Domestic Labor in Low-Income Black Families

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew; Vazan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the division of domestic labor in low-income cohabiting Black stepfamilies. We analyze survey data collected from 136 such families in order to understand how stepparent gender and relationship length impact the distribution of domestic labor. We hypothesize that women do more domestic work than men across all three family types, and that stepfathers are more involved in domestic labor in established relationships compared to new relationships. Findings indicate that cohabiting stepfathers in both new and established cohabiting Black stepfamilies make substantial contributions to domestic labor. These families demonstrate a division of labor consistent with traditional gender roles, though both partners agree on how much work each does. Parents, regardless of gender, are more involved in domestic labor than stepparents. PMID:25400532

  20. West Union Green Downtown

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    West Union, Iowa, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  1. [Aesthetic surgery: the Union].

    PubMed

    Hepner, Y

    2003-10-01

    The author reports an evaluation and a retrospective study of the union's different activities. A quality approach, a serious commitment, a high level of competence and an openness as seen in the brochure and on the web site are discussed. Survey results carried out on our patients, which explore the perception and image of cosmetic surgery, the methods of recruitment the reputation of the union and the degree of information received by the public are also discussed.

  2. Change in the Association between Premarital Cohabitation and Separation, Australia 1945 - 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Belinda; de Vaus, David

    2009-01-01

    We investigate change in the association between premarital cohabitation and the risk of separation. Using retrospective marriage history data from the first wave (2001) of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australian survey, we examine 6,210 first marriages formed between 1945 and 2000. We find the association between premarital…

  3. Are Gay and Lesbian Cohabiting Couples Really Different from Heterosexual Married Couples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    Both partners from gay and lesbian cohabiting couples without children were compared longitudinally with both partners from heterosexual married couples with children (N at first assessment = 80, 53, and 80 couples, respectively) on variables from 5 domains indicative of relationship health. For 50% of the comparisons, gay and lesbian partners did…

  4. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  5. Remarriage, Unmarried Cohabitation, Living Apart Together: Partner Relationships Following Bereavement or Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    Substantial proportions of people enter into new partner relationships after bereavement or divorce. Nowadays in Europe, unmarried cohabitation and living-apart-together relationships are frequently opted for at repartnering. Drawing on the Netherlands Living Arrangements and Social Networks survey of men and women aged 55 to 89 years (N=4,494),…

  6. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  7. Residential Differences in Family Formation: The Significance of Co-Habitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia R.; Brown, Susan L.; Condo, Erin P.

    2004-01-01

    We update and extend prior research on residential differences in women's family formation experiences using data from the 1995 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth. Residential differences in the timing of family formation behaviors are examined, including first birth, first cohabitation, and first marriage. Our study emphasizes the…

  8. Cohabitation and U.S Adult Mortality: An Examination by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to explore the relationship between cohabitation and U.S. adult mortality using a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey-Longitudinal Mortality Follow-up files 1997-2004 (N = 193,851), the authors found that divorced, widowed, and never-married White men had higher mortality…

  9. Diverse bacterial communities exist on canine skin and are impacted by cohabitation and time.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sheila; Clayton, Jonathan B; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Ward, Tonya; Huang, Hu; Knights, Dan; Johnson, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    It has previously been shown that domestic dogs and their household owners share bacterial populations, and that sharing of bacteria between humans is facilitated through the presence of dogs in the household. However, less is known regarding the bacterial communities of dogs, how these communities vary by location and over time, and how cohabitation of dogs themselves influences their bacterial community. Furthermore, the effects of factors such as breed, hair coat length, sex, shedding, and age on the canine skin microbiome is unknown. This study sampled the skin bacterial communities of 40 dogs belonging to 20 households longitudinally across three seasons (spring, summer, and winter). Significant differences in bacterial community structure between samples were identified when stratified by season, but not by dog sex, age, breed, hair type, or skin site. Cohabitating dogs were more likely to share bacteria of the skin than non-cohabitating dogs. Similar to human bacterial microbiomes, dogs' microbiomes were more similar to their own microbiomes over time than to microbiomes of other individuals. Dogs sampled during the same season were also more similar to each other than to dogs from different seasons, irrespective of household. However, there were very few core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified across all dogs sampled. Taxonomic classification revealed Propionibacterium acnes and Haemophilus sp. as key members of the dog skin bacterial community, along with Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis. This study shows that the skin bacterial community structure of dogs is highly individualized, but can be shared among dogs through cohabitation.

  10. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  11. Correlates of Attitudes toward Cohabitation: Looking at the Associations with Demographics, Relational Attitudes, and Dating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how demographics, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes toward sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and dating experience are associated with three different attitudes toward cohabitation among never-married young adults. Results from a sample of 1,036 young adult college students suggest that the endorsement of…

  12. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  13. Economic Factors and Relationship Quality among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Lucas, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997…

  14. Cohabitation and Children's Externalizing Behavior in Low-Income Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomby, Paula; Estacion, Angela

    2011-01-01

    We consider the association of cohabitation experience with externalizing behavior among children of Latina mothers whose ethnic origin is in Mexico, Puerto Rico, or the Dominican Republic. Data were drawn from three waves of the Three-City Study (N = 656 mother-child pairs). Children of Mexican-origin mothers had greater externalizing problems in…

  15. Who's in the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how family structure affected children's delinquency and math test scores, parenting practices as a mediator, and racial differences in these effects. Findings indicated that single parenthood related to reduced well-being among European American children, but not African American children. Cohabitation related to greater…

  16. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  17. Correlates of Attitudes toward Cohabitation: Looking at the Associations with Demographics, Relational Attitudes, and Dating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how demographics, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes toward sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and dating experience are associated with three different attitudes toward cohabitation among never-married young adults. Results from a sample of 1,036 young adult college students suggest that the endorsement of…

  18. Economic Factors and Relationship Quality among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Lucas, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997…

  19. The Reproductive Context of Cohabitation in the United States: Recent Change and Variation in Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Megan M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from 2 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 11,065), the current research addressed 2 overarching questions about the reproductive context of cohabitation in the United States. First, did patterns of contraceptive use among cohabitors change during the last 2 decades of the 20th century? Second, did patterns of…

  20. For Better or for Worse? The Consequences of Marriage and Cohabitation for Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Nicholson, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether the mental and physical health of single mothers benefit from marriage or cohabitation compared to childless women who marry. Results indicate that marrying is associated with similar declines in psychological distress for single mothers and childless women, but only when that marriage endures. Single mothers do not…

  1. Change in the Association between Premarital Cohabitation and Separation, Australia 1945 - 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Belinda; de Vaus, David

    2009-01-01

    We investigate change in the association between premarital cohabitation and the risk of separation. Using retrospective marriage history data from the first wave (2001) of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australian survey, we examine 6,210 first marriages formed between 1945 and 2000. We find the association between premarital…

  2. Are Gay and Lesbian Cohabiting Couples Really Different from Heterosexual Married Couples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    Both partners from gay and lesbian cohabiting couples without children were compared longitudinally with both partners from heterosexual married couples with children (N at first assessment = 80, 53, and 80 couples, respectively) on variables from 5 domains indicative of relationship health. For 50% of the comparisons, gay and lesbian partners did…

  3. Diverse bacterial communities exist on canine skin and are impacted by cohabitation and time

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sheila; Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Ward, Tonya; Knights, Dan

    2017-01-01

    It has previously been shown that domestic dogs and their household owners share bacterial populations, and that sharing of bacteria between humans is facilitated through the presence of dogs in the household. However, less is known regarding the bacterial communities of dogs, how these communities vary by location and over time, and how cohabitation of dogs themselves influences their bacterial community. Furthermore, the effects of factors such as breed, hair coat length, sex, shedding, and age on the canine skin microbiome is unknown. This study sampled the skin bacterial communities of 40 dogs belonging to 20 households longitudinally across three seasons (spring, summer, and winter). Significant differences in bacterial community structure between samples were identified when stratified by season, but not by dog sex, age, breed, hair type, or skin site. Cohabitating dogs were more likely to share bacteria of the skin than non-cohabitating dogs. Similar to human bacterial microbiomes, dogs’ microbiomes were more similar to their own microbiomes over time than to microbiomes of other individuals. Dogs sampled during the same season were also more similar to each other than to dogs from different seasons, irrespective of household. However, there were very few core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified across all dogs sampled. Taxonomic classification revealed Propionibacterium acnes and Haemophilus sp. as key members of the dog skin bacterial community, along with Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis. This study shows that the skin bacterial community structure of dogs is highly individualized, but can be shared among dogs through cohabitation. PMID:28289569

  4. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  5. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship: Their Effects on Subsequent Marital Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Roy E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the effects of cohabitation on subsequent marital adjustment. A comparison of couples (N=54) who had lived together before marriage with couples (N=30) who had not, showed significant differences. Unexpectedly, noncohabiters obtained higher marital satisfaction scores. Possible explanations in terms of test items are suggested.…

  6. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julie A.; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2005-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (N=4,547) to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. We find that the nature and strength of the estimated effects of several risk factors for disruption differ across groups. In particular,…

  7. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship and Subsequent Marital Adjustment: A Replication and Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Roy E. L.; DeMeo, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    Replicated earlier study of couples in first year of marriage. Conducted follow-up study of couples in fourth year of marriage who had participated in original or replication studies. Concludes that premarital relationships of the couples, whether cohabitation or traditional courtship, does not appear to have had long-term effect on marital…

  8. Premarital Sex, Premarital Cohabitation, and the Risk of Subsequent Marital Dissolution among Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Examines association between intimate premarital relationships and subsequent marital dissolution. Results suggest neither premarital sex nor premarital cohabitation by itself indicate either preexisting characteristics or subsequent relationship environments that weaken marriages. Findings are consistent with the notion that premarital sex and…

  9. Remarriage, Unmarried Cohabitation, Living Apart Together: Partner Relationships Following Bereavement or Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    Substantial proportions of people enter into new partner relationships after bereavement or divorce. Nowadays in Europe, unmarried cohabitation and living-apart-together relationships are frequently opted for at repartnering. Drawing on the Netherlands Living Arrangements and Social Networks survey of men and women aged 55 to 89 years (N=4,494),…

  10. Cohabiting Couple, Filing Jointly? Resource Pooling and U.S. Poverty Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Social policy in the United States is inconsistent in its treatment of cohabiting-parent households. For example, although welfare policy generally assumes that marital status should not affect the extent to which children benefit from each adult's income, tax policy and the poverty classification assume income pooling among married but not…

  11. Cohabitation and Children's Externalizing Behavior in Low-Income Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomby, Paula; Estacion, Angela

    2011-01-01

    We consider the association of cohabitation experience with externalizing behavior among children of Latina mothers whose ethnic origin is in Mexico, Puerto Rico, or the Dominican Republic. Data were drawn from three waves of the Three-City Study (N = 656 mother-child pairs). Children of Mexican-origin mothers had greater externalizing problems in…

  12. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julie A.; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2005-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (N=4,547) to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. We find that the nature and strength of the estimated effects of several risk factors for disruption differ across groups. In particular,…

  13. Mothers' union histories and the mental and physical health of adolescents born to unmarried mothers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.

  14. MOTHERS’ UNION HISTORIES AND THE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH OF ADOLESCENTS BORN TO UNMARRIED MOTHERS

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children’s well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the NLSY79 indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health, but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers’ subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers’ subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with the biological father without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health when compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered. PMID:23956357

  15. Union Township Wastewater Treatment Plant - Union Charter Township

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA proposes to reissue a NPDES permit,treated wastewater discharges from the Union Township Wastewater Treatment Plant near Isabella Indian Reservation located in Union Charter Township, Michigan (Isabella County)

  16. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  17. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  18. Unions and Workplace Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

  19. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    Manyukov, S. And the Cherries Are in Blossom Again 21 Merganov, S. Parpishakh—Fighter of the Red Army 21 Novikov, V. The Spectator Does Not...the 20th Komsomol Congress with important labor successes; to take an active part in the 2nd All-Union Festival of Artistic Folk Activities

  20. Governance: Senates and Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polishook, Irwin H.; Naples, Caesar J.

    1989-01-01

    Edited versions of two conference papers are presented. The first paper, "The Debate Over Academic Unions and Faculty Governance," by Irwin H. Polishook, discusses why the concept of collective bargaining continues to be a significant issue in academe and is considered to be incompatible with faculty governance. It examines the union…

  1. Unions and Workplace Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

  2. Unions, Solidarity, and Striking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Marc; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Hodson, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Organizational resources and group solidarity are central foci in literature on social movements generally and worker insurgency specifically. Research, however, seldom deals with both simultaneously and their potential interrelations. In this article, we examine the complex relationships between union organization and worker solidarity relative…

  3. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  4. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  5. Union Proposals for Washington Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, William H.

    1970-01-01

    President of the Washington, D.C. Teachers' Union presents the Union's recommendations for short range solutions to their extensive educational problems in testimony before the Senate Public Health, Education, Welfare, and Safety Committee on the District of Columbia. (DM)

  6. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  7. Health consequences of same and opposite-sex unions: partnership, parenthood, and cardiovascular risk among young adults.

    PubMed

    Frech, Adrianne; Lynch, Jamie L; Barr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health to examine union and parenthood differences across same and opposite-sex couples in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference) among partnered (dating, cohabiting, married) young adults ages 25-33. Relative to women dating men, women cohabiting with women reported lower DBP and were less likely to have high CRP. Mothers reported lower SBP and DBP than non-mothers, but were more likely to have high waist circumference if they lived with a biological or step-child. Among men, nonresidential fathers reported higher DBP than nonfathers, and married men were more likely to have high waist circumference than men dating an opposite-sex partner. Same-sex cohabitation was neither a risk factor nor a health resource for men. Although the sample sizes for same-sex couples are quite small compared with those for opposite-sex couples, this study provides initial insight that occupying a sexual minority status while partnered is associated with some health benefits and few or no health risks relative to those who are dating an opposite sex partner.

  8. Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative “Éminences Grises”?

    PubMed Central

    Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lenzi, Henrique L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term “cohabitant” is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together. PMID:21785696

  9. The negligible influence of premarital cohabitation on marital fertility in current Danish cohorts, 1975.

    PubMed

    Hoem, J M; Selmer, R

    1984-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of premarital cohabitation on marital fertility by applying life table methods to data for cohorts of Danish women born in 1926-1955, collected in retrospective interviews made in 1975. For each five-year cohort, the data have been analyzed by duration of marriage or by duration since previous birth, for women who had no reported births before marriage. Our main empirical results are: (a) that women who married at age 15-19 had higher rates of marital first and second births than those married at ages 20-24, and (b) that premarital cohabitation had very little influence on births of these two first orders in our data.

  10. IPV--bridging the juridical gap between scratches and DNA detection under fingernails of cohabitating partners.

    PubMed

    Kettner, M; Cappel-Hoffmann, S; Makuch, D; Schmidt, P; Ramsthaler, F

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global health issue with lifetime prevalences of physical and sexual violence against women of 12-71% in various populations. Due to its clandestine nature third party eye witnesses are scarce and prosecution of these cases has to rely on medical examination results, e.g. injury patterns of the victim and the perpetrator. Medicolegal assessment of DNA of the male partner found in fingernail specimen of the female partner after an assault is difficult since cohabitating couples are known to carry DNA of the respective partner in 17% of examined couples. In this study, male and total DNA content in fingernail specimen of 34 couples was analyzed after vigorous scratching of the male partners flank. Scratching and non-scratching fingers showed a highly significant difference in absolute and relative male DNA content allowing for the differentiation of DNA transfer caused by normal cohabitation and scratching during an assault.

  11. Stable maternal cohabitation, couple relationship quality, and characteristics of the home environment in the child's first two years.

    PubMed

    Klausli, Julia F; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    2009-02-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was used to address how cohabitation of unmarried 2-biological-parent families is associated with characteristics of young children's family environment using longitudinal assessments of maternal depression and observed parenting sensitivity collected across the child's first 2 years and mothers' reports of couple relationship conflict and ambivalence. We compared 43 cohabiting 2-biological-parent families and 877 married 2-biological-parent families, all of whom had stable relationships over the child's first 2 years. Demographic factors of lower parental education, non-White race/ethnicity, and low income characterized the cohabiting parents, in comparison with married parents. After controlling for these demographic differences, we found that stably cohabiting mothers reported more depressive symptoms and were less sensitive with their child than were married mothers. Cohabiting couple relationships were characterized by more ambivalence and conflict, each of which partially mediated associations of cohabitation with maternal depression and parenting sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Big wigs and small wigs: Time, sex, size and shelter affect cohabitation in the maritime earwig (Anisolabis maritima).

    PubMed

    Hack, Nicole L; Iyengar, Vikram K

    2017-01-01

    Animal aggregations can occur for a variety of abiotic factors, such as resource limitation, or biotic factors, including group foraging and protection from predators. In our study, we examined whether time, sex, body size or shelter availability affected aggregation behavior of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Order Dermaptera), an insect found globally at high densities under driftwood. Specifically, we monitored the distribution of two individuals in arenas with either two shelters (no habitat limitation) or one shelter (habitat limitation) to determine their propensity for cohabitation at times of peak activity and times of quiescence. Females, whose high levels of aggression are often associated with maternal care, were particularly averse to cohabitation, whereas males were generally more tolerant of other earwigs. Females initially preferred not to cohabitate when placed with a male, but were more tolerant of cohabitation later, regardless of the number of shelters. Same-sex pairs, on the other hand, were less likely to cohabitate with only one shelter present, but males were again more tolerant of conspecifics than females regardless of habitat limitation. When competition for one shelter did not lead to cohabitation, the lone occupant was more likely to be the larger individual in same-sex trials and females in mixed-sex trials. Understanding the tolerance for close proximity under these varying conditions may provide insight into aggregative behavior and spatial distribution patterns in the maritime earwig.

  13. Relationship characteristics and contraceptive use among dating and cohabiting young adult couples.

    PubMed

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Steward-Streng, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Contraceptive decision making occurs in the context of relationships. Although many individual-level characteristics have been linked to youths' contraceptive use, less is known about associations between contraceptive use and relationship-level characteristics. Data from the 2001-2002 romantic pair subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to describe characteristics of 322 dating relationships and 406 cohabiting relationships among young adults aged at least 18 years. Logistic regression was employed to assess associations between these characteristics and hormonal or long-acting contraceptive use and condom use. Data from both partners allowed discordance in reports between partners in some measures to be examined. Cohabiting couples were less likely than dating couples to have used condoms (19% vs. 37%) and hormonal or long-acting methods (40% vs. 57%) at last sex. In dating relationships, couples reporting discordant levels of intimacy and couples in which neither partner reported a high level of intimacy had greater odds of condom use than couples in which both partners reported high intimacy (odds ratios, 4.5 and 3.3, respectively); mistrust and male problem drinking were negatively associated with condom use (0.3 for each). For cohabiting couples, frequency of sex was negatively associated with condom use and hormonal method use (0.8 for each). At least for dating couples, contraceptive use is linked to multiple dimensions of relationships, particularly measures reflecting relationship quality-both positive and negative. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  14. Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Se Jin; Lauber, Christian; Costello, Elizabeth K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Humphrey, Gregory; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knights, Dan; Clemente, Jose C; Nakielny, Sara; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Human-associated microbial communities vary across individuals: possible contributing factors include (genetic) relatedness, diet, and age. However, our surroundings, including individuals with whom we interact, also likely shape our microbial communities. To quantify this microbial exchange, we surveyed fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 60 families (spousal units with children, dogs, both, or neither). Household members, particularly couples, shared more of their microbiota than individuals from different households, with stronger effects of co-habitation on skin than oral or fecal microbiota. Dog ownership significantly increased the shared skin microbiota in cohabiting adults, and dog-owning adults shared more ‘skin’ microbiota with their own dogs than with other dogs. Although the degree to which these shared microbes have a true niche on the human body, vs transient detection after direct contact, is unknown, these results suggest that direct and frequent contact with our cohabitants may significantly shape the composition of our microbial communities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00458.001 PMID:23599893

  15. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-04

    K . Pikalov and N. T. Antoshkin—were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Of course, some positive steps in renewing ideological activity...the new philosophy,« writes F. Engels in the second chapter of his book, »is the question of the relationship of thought to existence. ( K . Marx, F...Spirin, I. T. Chernyshov, G. I. Domanin, K . I. Mukhin, A. G. Zhoromskiy, V. S. Grigorkin, N. V. Gryaznov, V. N. Charkin, K . F. Pogorelov, V. I. Drakin

  16. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  17. Introduction of African Swine Fever into the European Union through Illegal Importation of Pork and Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union. PMID:23613795

  18. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    PubMed

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  19. Planning for a College Union. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noffke, Frank

    This publication, one in a series of monographs on college unions, focuses on the planning of a student union, taking into consideration both the physical structure and the program for the personal, social, and cultural development of the student. Major topics include: (1) fundamentals of the planning process, (2) basic facts and factors to be…

  20. PLANNING AND OPERATING COLLEGE UNION BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUTTS, PORTER

    THIS MONOGRAPH IS A DISCUSSION OF FOUR ASPECTS OF STUDENT UNIONS. PART ONE DISCUSSES THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF A UNION AND THE UNION AS A CAMPUS CENTER. PART TWO DEALS WITH THE PLANNING OF UNION BUILDINGS AND GIVES PROCEDURES, PRINCIPLES AND CAUTIONS. UNION FACILITIES AND SERVICES ARE LISTED. PART THREE DISCUSSES THE ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES OF…

  1. Earth Day at Union Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    NASA's Earth Dome is seen at Union Station, Monday, April 22, 2013 in Washington. The Earth Dome housed two of NASA's Science Gallery exhibits as part of a NASA-sponsored Earth Day event at Union Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  3. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  4. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  5. Recent Developments in Compulsory Unionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchnick, Morton G.

    1993-01-01

    Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)

  6. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  7. Planning a College Union Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chester Arthur

    This volume examines the background and characteristics of the college union and its buildings, discusses its purposes and the means by which they may be achieved, and considers the impact of these means on the building requirements. General planning principles are developed and applied to the union building and its various areas. The translation…

  8. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  9. Toward a More Perfect Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  10. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  11. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  12. The Intergenerational Transmission of Smoking Across Three Cohabitant Generations: A Count Data Approach.

    PubMed

    Escario, José-Julián; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the extent to which parent and grandparent smoking influences adolescent smoking and its quantitative implications for tobacco control. It extends similar prior studies by investigating the effects on the probability of becoming a smoker and on the number of cigarettes smoked. Count regressions were used to assess the intergenerational transmission of smoking across three cohabitant generations, simultaneously, using data from the 2010 survey "Encuesta Estatal Sobre Uso De Drogas en Estudiantes de Enseñanzas Secundarias". This survey, of 32,234 students, constitutes a representative sample of Spanish students between 14 and 18 years of age. Living with a mother who smokes, a father who smokes, or a grandparent who smokes reduces the odds of being a non-smoker by 36.1% (OR 0.639), 26.1% (OR 0.739) and 20.3% (OR 0.797), respectively. Parental smoking increases cigarette consumption levels among adolescents. Having a cohabitant mother who smokes increases the number of cigarettes smoked by children by around 18.7% (IRR 1.187), while having a cohabitant father who smokes increases the number by around 12.1% (IRR 1.121). Estimates support the hypothesis that visibility of smoking among parents and grandparents is a strong predictor of smoking among adolescents. Accordingly, quitting smoking by parents and grandparents before children become adolescents appears to be a powerful means to both reduce smoking rates among adolescents and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers; such decisions appear to exert a stronger influence on the prevalence of smoking and consumption levels than exposure to smoking prevention campaigns at school.

  13. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred.

  14. Having a birth outside marriage: the proportions of lone mothers and cohabiting mothers who subsequently marry.

    PubMed

    Haskey, J

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a study in which a sample of just over 2 1/2 thousand women giving birth to a child outside marriage during 1988 in England and Wales were traced in the marriage registers to see whether they subsequently married. Since they were not married at the time of the birth, they would have been either lone mothers or cohabiting mothers. For those who did marry during the 8 year period of tracing, information was extracted from copies of the appropriate marriage entries to give a first-time picture of the proportions and characteristics of mothers who subsequently married.

  15. Social Anxiety Level in Adult Patients With Epilepsy and Their First-Degree Cohabiting Relatives.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ebru; Yerdelen, V Deniz; Taskintuna, Nilgün

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy affects not only the patient but also the patient's cohabiting relatives, to various degrees. This study investigated state and trait anxiety, depression, and social fear and avoidance levels in 48 adult patients with epilepsy and 48 family members, compared with 43 healthy control subjects, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. The results suggested that the patients and their first-degree relatives had higher levels of depression, state and trait anxiety, and avoidance compared with healthy subjects. The mothers of patients with epilepsy had the highest level of depression and anxiety.

  16. The course of marriage/sustained cohabitation and parenthood among borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Wedig, Michelle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of marriage/sustained cohabitation and parenthood reported by recovered and nonrecovered borderline patients, the age first undertaken, and the stability of these relationships. Borderline patients were interviewed about these topics during their index admission and eight times over 16 years of prospective follow-up. Recovered borderline patients were significantly more likely than nonrecovered borderline patients to have married/lived with an intimate partner and to have become a parent. In addition, they first married/cohabited and became a parent at a significantly older age. They were also significantly less likely to have been divorced or ended a cohabiting relationship. In addition, they were significantly less likely to have given up or lost custody of a child. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that stable functioning as a spouse/partner and as a parent are strongly associated with recovery status for borderline patients.

  17. Relationship quality of partners in heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabiting, and gay and lesbian relationships.

    PubMed

    Kurdek, L A; Schmitt, J P

    1986-10-01

    The relationship quality of partners in 44 married, 35 heterosexual cohabiting, 50 gay, and 56 lesbian monogamous couples was studied. Each couple lived together and did not have children living with them. Relationship quality was dimensionalized as love for partner, liking of partner, and relationship satisfaction. Cohabiting partners had the lowest Love for Partner and Relationship Satisfaction scores. Differences were also found among partner types on: barriers to leaving the relationship, alternatives to the relationship, a belief that mindreading is expected in the relationship, masculinity, femininity, androgyny, dyadic attachment, shared decision making, and perceived social support from family. The four partner groups did not differ in psychological adjustment. For each type of partner, love for partner was related to many barriers to leaving the relationship and high dyadic attachment; liking of partner was related to few alternatives to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making; and relationship satisfaction was related to many attractions, few alternatives, few beliefs regarding disagreement is destructive to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making. Stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to identify the best set of predictors for each partner type. Results are discussed in the context of existing models of relationship quality.

  18. Disparities in health and disability among older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2015-04-01

    The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Data were obtained on men (n = 698) and women (n = 630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health, and disability status. Compared with their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, functional limitations, and psychological distress. This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties.

    PubMed

    Birch Petersen, Kathrine; Sylvest, Randi; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Pinborg, Anja; Westring Hvidman, Helene; Schmidt, Lone

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34-39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. A sample of 10 single women and 10 cohabiting women was chosen with equal distribution of postgraduate education length. Data were analysed using content analysis following the method of Graneheim and Lundman and consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). The general attitude towards family formation was characterized by a fear of the consequences of choosing motherhood on one hand, and a 'ticking biological clock' and a wish to establish a nuclear family on the other. The women idealized the perception of perfect mothering in terms of uncompromising expectations of child rearing and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s and may be useful in a fertility assessment and counselling setting.

  20. A MOLECULAR EXAMINATION OF RELATEDNESS, MULTIPLE PATERNITY, AND COHABITATION OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WOODRAT (NEOTOMA MICROPUS)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, B. Dnate’; Mendez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-two individuals of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) were captured from 198 excavated middens at 10 discrete collecting sites from a single population in south-central Texas. Field data, mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, and polymorphic microsatellite loci (5–7) were used to determine genetic patterns in parentage, relatedness, and mating strategy. Microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (average observed heterozygosity = 0.859) and were used to construct genotypes that were unique for each individual (probability of identical genotypes: 1 in 2,104,567). Results indicated a high frequency of multiple paternity (6 of 9 litters), evidence of repeat mating between the same 2 individuals, and no indication of male dominance at any collection site. Examination of these data suggested a promiscuous mating system. Within a site, average relatedness between adult females was similar to that between adult males. A higher level of cohabitation from that previously documented was recorded and finer-scale analyses revealed high levels of relatedness between most cohabiting individuals. Taken with results from other studies of mating behaviors of N. micropus, our results suggest that mating and social behavior of this species are likely influenced by population density. PMID:20011670

  1. Laboratory cohabitation challenge model for shrimp hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).

    PubMed

    Salachan, Paul Vinu; Jaroenlak, Pattana; Thitamadee, Siripong; Itsathitphaisarn, Ornchuma; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2017-01-05

    Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) causes hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) in shrimp. It is probably endemic in Australasia and was first characterized and named from the giant or black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand in 2009. Later, it was also found to infect exotic Penaeus vannamei imported for cultivation in Asia. HPM is not normally associated with shrimp mortality, but information from shrimp farmers indicates that it is associated with significant growth retardation that is not clearly noticeable until 2-3 months of cultivation. In order to study modes of HPM transmission and to test possible control measures, a laboratory challenge model was needed that would mimic the mode of infection in shrimp ponds. We describe successful transmission in a cohabitation model with natural E. hepatopenaei (EHP)-infected shrimp in closed, perforated plastic containers placed in aquaria together with free-swimming, uninfected shrimp. After a period of 14 days all the free-swimming shrimp tested positive by PCR (approximately 60% with heavy infections evident by 1-step PCR positive test results) and gave positive histological and in situ hybridization results for E. hepatopenaei (EHP) in the hepatopancreas. A laboratory cohabitation model for studying E. hepatopenaei (EHP) has been developed and used to confirm that E. hepatopenaei (EHP) can be directly transmitted horizontally among shrimp via water. The model will facilitate studies on methods to prevent the E. hepatopenaei (EHP) transmission.

  2. The mental health of married, cohabiting, and non-coresident parents with infants.

    PubMed

    DeKlyen, Michelle; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara; Knab, Jean

    2006-10-01

    We compared recent parents (married, cohabiting, not cohabiting but romantically involved, and not romantically involved) to examine the association between mental health problems and relationship status. We analyzed data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study that followed a cohort of approximately 4900 births in large US cities. Our study included a large oversample of nonmarital births (n=3700) and interviews with both mothers and fathers. We used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form to assess depression and generalized anxiety 1 year after the birth. Self reports were used to measure heavy drinking, illicit drug use, incarceration, and partner violence. Unmarried parents reported more mental health and behavioral problems than did married parents, and unmarried parents whose relationships ended before the birth reported more impairment compared with other groups of unmarried parents. A substantial number of children are born to unmarried parents and are at risk for poor parenting and poor developmental outcomes. Government initiatives aimed at increasing marriage rates among low-income couples need to consider the mental health status of unmarried parents.

  3. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  4. The dynamics of professional commitment: immigrant physicians from the former Soviet Union in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shuval, J T; Bernstein, J

    1996-04-01

    The paper examines professional commitment among physicians who immigrated to Israel form the former Soviet Union during the early 1990s. This population faces severe limits regarding occupational continuity because of the highly saturated market in which non-negligible groups will, in the long run, of necessity undergo occupational change. The theoretical background for the analysis is drawn from the literature regarding recent changes in professional roles with particular reference to the shifting meaning of work in post-modern societies and its consequences for occupational commitment. The professional context of medical practice in the former Soviet Union and the social and economic constraints of Israeli society in the 1990s set the scene for the analysis. Several dimensions of professional commitment are examined empirically, on the assumption that there are a variety of ways to consider the notion of commitment and that no one measure tells a complete story. Prolonged processes of deprofessionalization of medicine in the Soviet Union, suggest that medicine for most immigrant physicians is not so much a 'calling' to which they are devoted; rather it is a necessary means to gain a livelihood, the only occupation for which they have been trained for many years after stringent selection to medical school and the only job in which they have worked consistently since completing their formal training. Two and a half years after arrival in Israel the immigrant doctors are characterized by a short-range time perspective which makes them unwilling to accept the constraints of the saturated market; intense efforts are made by most to obtain a license despite the fact that only a fraction of them will be able to work in their profession on a regular basis. Despite this over-riding reality, many hope that they will be among the selected few who will be able to obtain a medical post.

  5. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  6. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  7. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  8. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  9. 76 FR 54991 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD95 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... its rule governing corporate credit unions (corporates). The proposed amendments clarify...

  10. 76 FR 79531 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD95 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... credit unions (corporates). The final amendments make technical corrections to and clarify...

  11. The Evolving Role of Union Learning Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sian; Ross, Cilla

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that the union learning representative (ULR) is increasingly situated at the heart of trade union activity. The paper draws upon recent research based on interviews with national trade union officers and case studies of union learning activity to explore the competing demands being made upon ULRs and the implications for…

  12. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to any...

  13. 75 FR 75648 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 704, and 741 RIN 3133-AD74 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union... Board issued a proposed rule amending its corporate credit union rule. 75 FR 73000 (November 29, 2010...

  14. 75 FR 73000 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...; ] NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 704, and 741 RIN 3133-AD74 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: NCUA is issuing proposed amendments to its rule governing corporate credit unions (corporates). The amendments include internal...

  15. 76 FR 23861 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD74 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... credit unions (corporates). The amendments include internal control and reporting requirements for...

  16. 76 FR 44866 - Credit Union Service Organizations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...-44872] [FR Doc No: 2011-18906] NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 712 and 741 RIN 3133-AD93 Credit Union Service Organizations AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: NCUA proposes to amend its credit union service organization (CUSO) regulation to...

  17. Cells of Escherichia coli are protected against severe chemical stress by co-habiting cell aggregates formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jagmann, Nina; Henke, Sebastian Franz; Philipp, Bodo

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial cells within biofilms and cell aggregates show increased resistance against chemical stress compared with suspended cells. It is not known whether bacteria that co-habit biofilms formed by other bacteria also acquire such resistance. This scenario was investigated in a proof-of-principle experiment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as cell aggregate-forming bacterium and Escherichia coli strain MG1655 as potential co-habiting bacterium equipped with an inducible bioluminescence system. Cell aggregation of strain PAO1 can be induced by the toxic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In single cultures of strain MG1655, bioluminescence was inhibited by the protonophor carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) but the cells were still viable. By applying CCCP and SDS together, cells of strain MG1655 lost their bioluminescence and viability indicating the importance of energy-dependent resistance mechanisms against SDS. In co-suspensions with strain PAO1, bioluminescence of strain MG1655 was sustained in the presence of SDS and CCCP. Image analysis showed that bioluminescent cells were located in cell aggregates formed by strain PAO1. Thus, cells of strain MG1655 that co-habited cell aggregates formed by strain PAO1 were protected against a severe chemical stress that was lethal to them in single cultures. Co-habiting could lead to increased survival of pathogens in clinical settings and could be employed in biotechnological applications involving toxic milieus.

  18. Correlates of male cohabiting partner's involvement in child-rearing tasks in low-income urban Black stepfamilies.

    PubMed

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2014-06-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children. This study examines the link between family relationships (child relationship with mother and the cohabiting partner; parent and cohabiting partner relationship) and involvement of biologically unrelated male cohabiting partners (MCP) in child rearing. The participants were 121 low-income urban Black families consisting of a single mother, MCP, and an adolescent (56% female, M age = 13.7). Assessments were conducted individually with mothers, MCPs, and adolescents via measures administered by interview. MCPs were involved in both domains of child rearing assessed (daily child-related tasks and setting limits) and those identified as coparents by the mother were more involved in child-rearing tasks than those not identified as coparents. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the mother-MCP relationship (both support and conflict) and the adolescent-MCP relationship were related to MCP's involvement in both domains of child rearing. The findings indicate that MCPs are actively involved in child rearing and family relationship variables are associated with their involvement in these tasks.

  19. Correlates of Male Cohabiting Partner’s Involvement in Childrearing Tasks in Low-Income Urban Black Stepfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children. This study examines the link between family relationships (child relationship with mother and the cohabiting partner; parent and cohabiting partner relationship) and involvement of biologically unrelated male cohabiting partners (MCP) in childrearing. The participants were 121 low-income urban Black families consisting of a single mother, MCP, and an adolescent (56% female, M age = 13.7). Assessments were conducted individually with mothers, MCPs, and adolescents via measures administered by interview. MCPs were involved in both domains of childrearing assessed (Daily Child-Related Tasks and Setting limits) and those identified as coparents by the mother were more involved in childrearing tasks than those not identified as coparents. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the mother-MCP relationship (both support and conflict) and the adolescent-MCP relationship were related to MCP’s involvement in both domains of childrearing. The findings indicate that MCPs are actively involved in childrearing and family relationship variables are associated with their involvement in these tasks. PMID:24749653

  20. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  1. Parental Mindfulness and Dyadic Relationship Quality in Low-income Cohabiting Black Stepfamilies: Associations with Parenting Experienced by Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Justin; Clifton, Jessica; Forehand, Rex; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Pichler, Emily R.

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children; yet, we have limited understanding of how personal and interpersonal processes operate within these families to influence the parenting provided to these children. Informed by both family systems theory and the spillover hypothesis and utilizing a model to account for the interdependence of the mother and her partner, the current study sought to understand the direct and indirect associations among parental mindfulness, the mother-partner relationship quality, and firm parenting practices in a sample of 121 Black cohabiting low-income stepfamilies. Assessment consisted of standardized measurements of maternal and male cohabiting partner reports on mindfulness (i.e., acting with awareness) and relationship quality (i.e., relationship satisfaction, ability to resolve conflict, and coparenting conflict) as well as adolescent report on parenting (i.e., parent’s firm control). Mindfulness was directly related to each individual’s own perceptions of relationship quality and some support emerged for a cross-informant link (e.g., mother’s mindfulness related to partner report of relationship quality). Furthermore, maternal perceptions of relationship quality, as well as mindfulness operating through relationship quality, were related to youth reports of maternal firm parenting. The results suggest that both mindfulness and the relationship quality of adults are variables deserving attention when studying the parenting received by children in cohabiting stepfamilies. Clinical implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25544936

  2. Trends in marriage and cohabitation: the decline in marriage and the changing pattern of living in partnerships.

    PubMed

    Haskey, J

    1995-01-01

    The number of marriages in England and Wales fell to its lowest level for 50 years in 1993 at just under 300 thousand. In addition, the number of marriages which were the first for both partners was the lowest recorded this century. This article examines the trends in marriage, cohabitation, and of living outside a partnership, to provide some background information to the decline in marriage. Seven out of ten first marriages in the early 1990s were preceded by premarital cohabitation, compared with only one in ten in the early 1970s. Of the couples who lived together before marriage, the median duration of premarital cohabitation was about 2 years for those who first married in the early 1990s, compared with about 1 year for those who first married in the early 1970s. Over one in 5 of non-married men and women were cohabiting in 1993, compared with under one in 7 in the mid-1980s. On the basis of these trends which have persisted for a number of years, as well as the growing tendency to live outside a partnership, the incidence of marriage, particularly at the younger ages, seems likely to decline further.

  3. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  4. Dynamics of non-cohabiting sex partnering in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study with implications for HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Omori, Ryosuke; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2015-09-01

    To develop an analytical understanding of non-cohabiting sex partnering in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using nationally representative sexual behaviour data. A non-homogenous Poisson stochastic process model was used to describe the dynamics of non-cohabiting sex. The model was applied to 25 countries in SSA and was fitted to Demographic and Health Survey data. The country-specific mean values and variances of the distributions of number of non-cohabiting partners were estimated. The model yielded overall robust fits to the empirical distributions stratified by marital status and sex. The median across all country-specific mean values was highest for unmarried men at 0.574 non-cohabiting partners over the last 12 months, followed by that of unmarried women at 0.337, married men at 0.192 and married women at 0.038. The median of variances was highest for unmarried men at 0.127, followed by married men at 0.057, unmarried women at 0.003 and married women at 0.000. The largest variability in mean values across countries was for unmarried men (0.103-1.206), and the largest variability in variances was among unmarried women (0.000-1.994). Non-cohabiting sex appears to be a random 'opportunistic' phenomenon linked to situations that may facilitate it. The mean values and variances of number of partners in SSA show wide variation by country, marital status and sex. Unmarried individuals have larger mean values than their married counterparts, and men have larger mean values than women. Unmarried individuals appear to play a disproportionate role in driving heterogeneity in sexual networks and possibly epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cage mate rely on olfactory information.

    PubMed

    Alves, Glaucie J; Ribeiro, Alison; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation for 14 days with Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice was shown to increase locomotor activity, to decrease hypothalamic noradrenaline (NA) levels, to increase NA turnover and to decrease innate immune responses and decrease the animals' resistance to tumor growth. Cage mates of a B16F10 melanoma-bearer mice were also reported to show neuroimmune changes. Chemosignals released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice have been reported to be relevant for the neutrophil activity changes induced by cohabitation. The present experiment was designed to further analyze the effects of odor cues on neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with a sick cage mate. Specifically, the relevance of chemosignals released by an Ehrlich tumor-bearing mouse was assessed on the following: behavior (open-field and plus maze); hypothalamic NA levels and turnover; adrenaline (A) and NA plasmatic levels; and host resistance induced by tumor growth. To comply with such objectives, devices specifically constructed to analyze the influence of chemosignals released from tumor-bearing mice were employed. The results show that deprivation of odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice reversed the behavioral, neurochemical and immune changes induced by cohabitation. Mice use scents for intraspecies communication in many social contexts. Tumors produce volatile organic compounds released into the atmosphere through breath, sweat, and urine. Our results strongly suggest that volatile compounds released by Ehrlich tumor-injected mice are perceived by their conspecifics, inducing the neuroimmune changes reported for cohabitation with a sick companion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamics of non-cohabiting sex partnering in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study with implications for HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Ryosuke; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an analytical understanding of non-cohabiting sex partnering in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using nationally representative sexual behaviour data. Method A non-homogenous Poisson stochastic process model was used to describe the dynamics of non-cohabiting sex. The model was applied to 25 countries in SSA and was fitted to Demographic and Health Survey data. The country-specific mean values and variances of the distributions of number of non-cohabiting partners were estimated. Results The model yielded overall robust fits to the empirical distributions stratified by marital status and sex. The median across all country-specific mean values was highest for unmarried men at 0.574 non-cohabiting partners over the last 12 months, followed by that of unmarried women at 0.337, married men at 0.192 and married women at 0.038. The median of variances was highest for unmarried men at 0.127, followed by married men at 0.057, unmarried women at 0.003 and married women at 0.000. The largest variability in mean values across countries was for unmarried men (0.103–1.206), and the largest variability in variances was among unmarried women (0.000–1.994). Conclusions Non-cohabiting sex appears to be a random ‘opportunistic’ phenomenon linked to situations that may facilitate it. The mean values and variances of number of partners in SSA show wide variation by country, marital status and sex. Unmarried individuals have larger mean values than their married counterparts, and men have larger mean values than women. Unmarried individuals appear to play a disproportionate role in driving heterogeneity in sexual networks and possibly epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25746040

  7. Relational Uncertainty, Perceived Fairness, and the Division of Household Labor in Cohabiting and Married Couples

    PubMed Central

    Le, Yen-Chi; Aune, Krystyna S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between relational uncertainty and perceptions of division of household labor (DHL) in cohabiting and married couples. Specifically, research questions explored perceived fairness in DHL and relational uncertainty, perceptual convergence of contributions, convergence of perceptions and relational uncertainty, and convergence of perceptions and relationship satisfaction. A behavioral methodology called the Household Portrait Technique was employed to examine how couples discuss how they decide who does what in the household. A total of 33 couples independently completed a self-report instrument and jointly participated in the Household Portrait activity. Results showed that husbands and wives were agreed in their perceptions of fairness. Couples agreed that husbands do more of the outdoor work and automobile maintenance whereas wives do more of the childcare. Convergent perceptions regarding DHL was positively associated with relational certainty and marginally associated with relationship satisfaction. PMID:25083172

  8. The cellular composition of the human immune system is shaped by age and cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Carr, Edward J; Dooley, James; Garcia-Perez, Josselyn E; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lee, James C; Wouters, Carine; Meyts, Isabelle; Goris, An; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Linterman, Michelle A; Liston, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Detailed population-level description of the human immune system has recently become achievable. We used a 'systems-level' approach to establish a resource of cellular immune profiles of 670 healthy individuals. We report a high level of interindividual variation, with low longitudinal variation, at the level of cellular subset composition of the immune system. Despite the profound effects of antigen exposure on individual antigen-specific clones, the cellular subset structure proved highly elastic, with transient vaccination-induced changes followed by a return to the individual's unique baseline. Notably, the largest influence on immunological variation identified was cohabitation, with 50% less immunological variation between individuals who share an environment (as parents) than between people in the wider population. These results identify local environmental conditions as a key factor in shaping the human immune system.

  9. Patterns of resistance and transgression in Eastern Indonesia: single women's practices of clandestine courtship and cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Linda Rae

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores how single women in the regional Indonesian city of Mataram express sexual desire in a social, cultural and political climate that idealizes the confinement of female sexuality within marriage. It is based on 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted with single women, their families and health care providers. Success for young women in negotiating sexual desire is dependent upon their ability to maintain a faultless public reputation and mediate between their desires and those of men. Many single women find ways to pursue their desires by bending the rules of courtship conventions, performing sexual purity in public, while resisting from within the hegemonic sexual culture. However, women who visibly transgress dominant sexual ideals (and in doing so offend the status quo) are stigmatized and ostracized. Single women's practice of resistance and sexual transgression in premarital relationships are represented using the examples of pacaran backstreet (clandestine courtship) and cohabitation prior to marriage.

  10. The cellular composition of the human immune system is shaped by age and cohabitation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Perez, Josselyn E.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lee, James C.; Wouters, Carine; Meyts, Isabelle; Goris, An; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Detailed population-level description of the human immune system has recently become achievable. We used a “systems-level” approach to establish a resource of cellular immune profiles of 670 healthy individuals. We report a high level of inter-individual variation, with low longitudinal variation, at the level of cellular subset composition of the immune system. Despite the profound effects of antigen exposure on individual antigen-specific clones, the cellular subset structure proved highly elastic, with transient vaccination-induced changes being followed by a return to the unique baseline of the individual. Strikingly, the largest influence on immunological variation identified was cohabitation, with a 50% reduction in immunological variation between individuals who share an environment (parents) compared to the wider population. These results identify local environmental conditions are a key shaper of the human immune system. PMID:26878114

  11. The Underlying Ecological Processes of Gut Microbiota Among Cohabitating Retarded, Overgrown and Normal Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Dai, Wenfang; Zhu, Jinyong; Liu, Keshao; Dong, Chunming; Qiu, Qiongfen

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence of tight links among the gut microbiota, obesity, and host health has emerged, but knowledge of the ecological processes that shape the variation in microbial assemblages across growth rates remains elusive. Moreover, inadequately control for differences in factors that profoundly affect the gut microbial community, hampers evaluation of the gut microbiota roles in regulating growth rates. To address this gap, we evaluated the composition and ecological processes of the gut bacterial community in cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimps from identically managed ponds. Gut bacterial community structures were distinct (P = 0.0006) among the shrimp categories. Using a structural equation modeling (SEM), we found that changes in the gut bacterial community were positively related to digestive activities, which subsequently affected shrimp growth rate. This association was further supported by intensified interspecies interaction and enriched lineages with high nutrient intake efficiencies in overgrown shrimps. However, the less phylogenetic clustering of gut microbiota in overgrown and retarded subjects may offer empty niches for pathogens invasion, as evidenced by higher abundances of predicted functional pathways involved in disease infection. Given no differences in biotic and abiotic factors among the cohabitating shrimps, we speculated that the distinct gut community assembly could be attributed to random colonization in larval shrimp (e.g., priority effects) and that an altered microbiota could be a causative factor in overgrowth or retardation in shrimp. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an integrated overview of the direct roles of gut microbiota in shaping shrimp growth rate and the underlying ecological mechanisms.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase Activity, Cohabitation with Floricultural Workers, and Blood Pressure in Ecuadorian Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are commonly used pesticides that can effect hemodynamic changes through increased cholinergic stimulation. Children of agricultural workers are likely to have paraoccupational exposures to pesticides, but the potential physiological impact of such exposures is unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether secondary pesticide exposures were associated with blood pressure and heart rate among children living in agricultural Ecuadorian communities. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 271 children 4–9 years of age [51% cohabited with one or more flower plantation workers (mean duration, 5.2 years)]. Erythrocyte AChE activity was measured using the EQM Test-mate system. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate with AChE activity, living with flower workers, duration of cohabitation with a flower worker, number of flower workers in the child’s home, and number of practices that might increase children’s exposure to pesticides. Results: Mean (± SD) AChE activity was 3.14 ± 0.49 U/mL. A 1-U/mL decrease in AChE activity was associated with a 2.86-mmHg decrease in SBP (95% CI: –5.20, –0.53) and a 2.89-mmHg decrease in DBP (95% CI: –5.00, –0.78), after adjustment for potential confounders. Children living with flower workers had lower SBP (–1.72 mmHg; 95% CI: –3.53, 0.08) than other children, and practices that might increase exposure also were associated with lower SBP. No significant associations were found between exposures and heart rate. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that subclinical secondary exposures to pesticides may affect vascular reactivity in children. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23359481

  13. Excessive drinking and history of unemployment and cohabitation in Danish men born in 1953.

    PubMed

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke

    2011-08-01

    Few studies exist on social inequality of excessive drinking in Denmark and differences seem to be less pronounced than in other European countries. The aims of this study were to investigate how history of employment and cohabitation is associated with excessive drinking and to study interaction between both. Birth-cohort study of 6112 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up in 2004 on excessive drinking at age 51 years. Excessive drinking (between 22 and 35 units of alcohol per week) differed little depending on history of unemployment and cohabitation. Risk of very excessive drinking (drinking >35 units of alcohol per week) increased with number of job losses-ranging from one job-loss [odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.14] to three or more job-losses (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.75-3.52)--and duration of unemployment--ranging from 1 to 5 years (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.63) to ≥10 years (OR 4.16, CI 3.13-5-53). Very excessive drinking was also associated with number of broken partnerships-ranging from one broken partnership (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.16-1.77) to three or more broken partnerships (OR 2.69, 95% CI 2.03-3.55)--and with living alone for >5 years--ranging from 6 to 9 years (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.30-2.29) to ≥10 years (OR 2.55, 95% CI 2.04-3.55). We found an interaction between the number of job-losses and of broken partnerships in relation to very excessive drinking. Very excessive drinking is related to number of job-losses, broken partnerships, living alone and duration of unemployment.

  14. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  15. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  16. The Union Recreation Area. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George F.

    Within the context of college union programs, the recreational games of bowling, billiards, table tennis, and some table games are discussed, including their history, facilities, and operation. Specific duties and responsibilities of the Recreation Area Manager are outlined, as are counter personnel and procedures, and maintenance personnel and…

  17. A comparison of intimate partner violence and associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women: a 5-year medical chart review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak; Choi, Edmond Pui Hang; Wong, John Kit-Shing; So, Fung Ling; Lau, Chu-Leung; Kam, Chak-Wah

    2016-11-29

    Cohabitation, referring to a co-residential romantic relationship between two intimate partners without a marriage license, has become widely accepted in contemporary societies. It has been found that cohabitating women have a higher risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) than married women. However, as yet, no studies have investigated the level and pattern of IPV-associated physical injuries and its mental health impact on cohabitating women. Therefore, we aim to compare IPV-associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women by conducting a review of 5-year medical records from the emergency departments of two major public hospitals in Hong Kong. This is a retrospective cohort study. Using two computerized systems, we identified the medical charts of 1011 women who had experienced IPV and presented at emergency departments between 2010 and 2014, of which, 132 were cohabitating and 833 were married. Cohabitating women were significantly younger (p-value < .0001) and had obtained a higher educational level (p-value = .008) than married women. After adjusting for those two variables, the logistic regression models showed that cohabitating women were approximately 2.1 times more likely than married women to present with head, neck, or facial injuries (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.30-3.40, p = .002), and the risk of having multiple injuries in different locations (head, neck, face, torso, limbs) was almost twice that for cohabitating women compared with married women (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.25-2.65, p = .001). Furthermore, cohabitating women were almost two times as likely as married women to experience more than one method of physical violence (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.18-2.51, p = .005). There were no significant differences regarding mental health, police reporting, and discharge plans. Owing to recent social changes to the family structure, including the growing acceptance of cohabitation, it is

  18. New Superpower, The European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    196 from Japan and 210 from the EC; in the Super Fifty non-American 27 are from the common market. It is clear that the European Union will be one of...C687e). (page 31, bottom)4 Mastrivh treaty, articulo 6Mastrich treaty, articulo 6Janes 1994, pag 31. 8ii JRATOM and Nuclear Safeguards. Darryl A

  19. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  20. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  1. Earth Day at Union Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Izolda Trakhtenberg, Science Educator at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, conducts an experiment with students to create a cloud in a bottle, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Earth Day at Union Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Todd Toth, Science Educator at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, conducts an experiment with students to create a cloud in a bottle, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Earth Day at Union Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Students assemble balloon race cars and Alka-Seltzer film canister rockets to demonstrate Newton's third Law of motion at the NASA Science Gallery at Union Station, Monday, April 22, 2013 in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Earth Day at Union Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    A participant at NASA's Earth Day Science Gallery Exhibit calculates his carbon footprint at the Carbon Footprint Estimator, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Union Education: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, R. Brooke

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the author's observations and experiences while designing and delivering a training program at the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada. A two-day course acquaints union stewards and prospective stewards with their functions; a three-day advanced course examines legislation and collective bargaining and deals with other…

  6. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  7. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  8. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  9. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

  10. Experience of being the spouse/cohabitant of a person with bipolar affective disorder: a cumulative process over time.

    PubMed

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Kristoffersen, Kjell

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and describe spouses'/cohabitants' experiences of living with a partner with bipolar affective disorder over time. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with eight spouses/cohabitants. Transcribed interviews were analysed structurally based on Ricoeur's phenomenological hermeneutics as described by Lindseth and Norberg. The participants' shared lives ranged from 6 to 51 years, and the study found three major aspects that characterized their experience along this time-dimension; experience formed part of a cumulative process containing up to 14 experiences. Each experience created a preunderstanding that affected how subsequent experiences were perceived, and mastered. These three major aspects had a reciprocal influence on the following 14 experiences over time: Fear and the incomprehensible. Accusations. Self-doubt and doubt about own powers of judgement. Care and information vs. being overlooked or turned away by health personnel. Stigmatization and loss of social network. Uncertainty, powerlessness and hope. Loneliness. Anger and despair. The persistent threat. Own health problems. Grief over loss. Dawning acceptance. Reconciliation. New hope. A theoretical understanding using gestalt therapy theory suggests that burdensome experience can be seen as an inner imbalance in the spouse/cohabitant when she/he cannot find meaning in their experiences. When only parts of the whole are perceived, an incomplete gestalt is formed in the person's lived-experience that counteracts the equilibrium of the organism. Insight and meaning can protect them against burdensome experiences and nurses can empower them through care, health-promoting education and guidance. Nursing research should develop methods of education and guidance sensitive enough to help each spouse/cohabitant, regardless of where they are in their cumulative process.

  11. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-05-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood.

  13. Understanding care of people with dementia in Spain: cohabitation arrangements, rotation and rejection to long term care institution.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jesús; Bermejo, Felix; Franco, Manuel; Morales-González, José Manuel; Benito-León, Julian

    2009-02-01

    Most people with dementia in Spain live at home with their families. Current changes in the family structure are transforming the care of people with dementia through new cohabitation arrangenments and rotation practices. To describe the cohabitation arrangements of families of people with dementia in Spain and to understand the caregivers' characteristics related to rotation and the rejection of long term care institutions. A cross sectional study -NEDICES study- was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies.150 caregivers of people with dementia from two communities from Madrid, Spain, were surveyed using a questionnaire designed to describe cohabitation arrangements and care. Qualitative methods included: 13 caregivers participating in focus groups, and 3 caregivers in Semi Structured Interviews aimed to understand rotation practices and rejection to long term care institution. Characteristics related with rotation were: sex of persons with dementia, widowhood, socio-economic status, caregiver relationship and burden of the caregiver. The qualitative study showed that the use of the rotation was related to normative behaviors and with obligation feelings, along with a change in the role of women in the current Spanish family. The use of long term care institutions was related to geographical distance of the family. The results of this study suggest that rotation has appeared in Spain as a new mechanism of care for people with dementia, and its related to the rejection of long term care institutions. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Landor, Antoinette M.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-01-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:26979445

  15. Unionizing: A Guide for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    Including excerpts from contracts protecting unionized child care workers, this booklet explains basic terminology and facts about unionizing and addresses child care workers' concerns. Section 1 answers commonly asked questions about unions and offers advice about how to answer parents' questions about workers' attempts to organize. Section 2…

  16. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  17. Professors, Unions, and American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Everett Carll, Jr.; Lipset, Seymour Martin

    This document analyzes the union movement among higher education faculty members; why it has been successful in some institutions and a failure in others; why the different unions and professional organizations appeal to different factions within the faculty; how administrators, students, and legislators have responded to unionization, and other…

  18. Unions and Job Satisfaction: An Alternative View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Davis-Blake, Alison

    1990-01-01

    The dominant theoretical perspective suggests that unions reduce job satisfaction by making workers more critical of the workplace and more willing to complain. However, unions reduce wage inequality and increase worker control and commitment. A survey of 978 workers shows that unionization has a positive effect on job satisfaction. (JOW)

  19. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  20. The First Attempts to Unionize the Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Faculty unionization is an important topic in modern higher education, but the history of the phenomenon has not yet been fully considered. This article brings together issues of professionalization and unionization and provides needed historical background to ongoing unionization efforts and debates. Purpose/Objective/Research…

  1. Teacher Union Contracts and High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Are teachers unions and collective bargaining agreements barriers to high school reform and redesign efforts in Washington, California, and Ohio? The short answer: sometimes, but not as often as many educators seem to think. Rather than wade into the pro- versus anti-union debate, this report instead aims to offer guidance for educators, unions,…

  2. Iranian National Union Catalog Description and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    This outline of how to establish and maintain an Asian national union catalog contains basic instruction for the staff and for the participating libraries of one of West Asia's largest union catalogs. It has been prepared to: (1) define and clarify the purposes of the Iranian National Union Catalog; (2) explain the policies and procedures under…

  3. A Different Role for Teachers Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc

    2012-01-01

    American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power, or even eviscerate them. Looking at this scene, one would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions in the world. Are those unions in…

  4. Union-Management Ideological Frames of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Roger S.

    1982-01-01

    Looks at union-management (U-M) ideology as a potential explanatory variable in labor relations and demonstrates a method of measuring the ideology of union (N=34) and management (N=38) representatives. Semantic differential and antecedent-consequent techniques indicated significant union-management differences on all 10 U-M beliefs measured. (WAS)

  5. 78 FR 72537 - Credit Union Service Organizations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 712 and 741 RIN 3133-AD93 Credit Union Service Organizations AGENCY: National Credit... credit union service organization (CUSO) regulation to increase transparency and address certain safety...

  6. Negotiating Quality of Worklife, Productivity and Traditional Issues: Union Members' Preferred Roles of Their Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, William H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigates railroad union members strong preferences for collective bargaining in dealing with traditional union concerns and joint union-management efforts when quality of worklife issues are involved. Attitudinal measures were generally found to be more important in explaining members' preferences than demographic or union participation…

  7. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Notice of Funding Opportunity. SUMMARY: The National Credit...

  8. 75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  9. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-10-01

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials.

  10. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-10-21

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials.

  11. Electroosmotic fluid motion and late-time solute transport at non-negligible zeta potentials

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson

    1999-12-01

    Analytical and numerical methods are employed to determine the electric potential, fluid velocity and late-time solute distribution for electroosmotic flow in a tube and channel when the zeta potential is not small. The electric potential and fluid velocity are in general obtained by numerical means. In addition, new analytical solutions are presented for the velocity in a tube and channel in the extremes of large and small Debye layer thickness. The electroosmotic fluid velocity is used to analyze late-time transport of a neutral non-reacting solute. Zeroth and first-order solutions describing axial variation of the solute concentration are determined analytically. The resulting expressions contain eigenvalues representing the dispersion and skewness of the axial concentration profiles. These eigenvalues and the functions describing transverse variation of the concentration field are determined numerically using a shooting technique. Results are presented for both tube and channel geometries over a wide range of the normalized Debye layer thickness and zeta potential. Simple analytical approximations to the eigenvalues are also provided for the limiting cases of large and small values of the Debye layer thickness. The methodology developed here for electroosmotic flow is also applied to the Taylor problem of late-time transport and dispersion in pressure-driven flows.

  12. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials. PMID:27767082

  13. Non-negligible Occurrence of Errors in Gender Description in Public Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Park, Jong-Luyl

    2016-01-01

    Due to advances in omics technologies, numerous genome-wide studies on human samples have been published, and most of the omics data with the associated clinical information are available in public repositories, such as Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress. While analyzing several public datasets, we observed that errors in gender information occur quite often in public datasets. When we analyzed the gender description and the methylation patterns of gender-specific probes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD], ephrin-B1 [EFNB1], and testis specific protein, Y-linked 2 [TSPY2]) in 5,611 samples produced using Infinium 450K HumanMethylation arrays, we found that 19 samples from 7 datasets were erroneously described. We also analyzed 1,819 samples produced using the Affymetrix U133Plus2 array using several gender-specific genes (X (inactive)-specific transcript [XIST], eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A, Y-linked [EIF1AY], and DEAD [Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp] box polypeptide 3, Y-linked [DDDX3Y]) and found that 40 samples from 3 datasets were erroneously described. We suggest that the users of public datasets should not expect that the data are error-free and, whenever possible, that they should check the consistency of the data. PMID:27103889

  14. Revisiting the Logan plot to account for non-negligible blood volume in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Schain, Martin; Fazio, Patrik; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Amini, Nahid; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Bronzova, Juliana; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Sampaio, Christina; Halldin, Christer; Varrone, Andrea

    2017-08-18

    Reference tissue-based quantification of brain PET data does not typically include correction for signal originating from blood vessels, which is known to result in biased outcome measures. The bias extent depends on the amount of radioactivity in the blood vessels. In this study, we seek to revisit the well-established Logan plot and derive alternative formulations that provide estimation of distribution volume ratios (DVRs) that are corrected for the signal originating from the vasculature. New expressions for the Logan plot based on arterial input function and reference tissue were derived, which included explicit terms for whole blood radioactivity. The new methods were evaluated using PET data acquired using [(11)C]raclopride and [(18)F]MNI-659. The two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), with which signal originating from blood can be explicitly modeled, was used as a gold standard. DVR values obtained for [(11)C]raclopride using the either blood-based or reference tissue-based Logan plot were systematically underestimated compared to 2TCM, and for [(18)F]MNI-659, a proportionality bias was observed, i.e., the bias varied across regions. The biases disappeared when optimal blood-signal correction was used for respective tracer, although for the case of [(18)F]MNI-659 a small but systematic overestimation of DVR was still observed. The new method appears to remove the bias introduced due to absence of correction for blood volume in regular graphical analysis and can be considered in clinical studies. Further studies are however required to derive a generic mapping between plasma and whole-blood radioactivity levels.

  15. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  16. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  17. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  18. Cohabitation of Two Different lexA Regulons in Pseudomonas putida▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Abella, Marc; Campoy, Susana; Erill, Ivan; Rojo, Fernando; Barbé, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to the vast majority of the members of the domain Bacteria, several Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas species have two lexA genes, whose products have been shown to recognize different LexA binding motifs, making them an interesting target for studying the interplay between cohabiting LexA regulons in a single species. Here we report an analysis of the genetic composition of the two LexA regulons of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 performed with a genomic microarray. The data obtained indicate that one of the two LexA proteins (LexA1) seems to be in control of the conventional Escherichia coli-like SOS response, while the other LexA protein (LexA2) regulates only its own transcriptional unit, which includes the imuA, imuB, and dnaE2 genes, and a gene (PP_3901) from a resident P. putida prophage. Furthermore, PP_3901 is also regulated by LexA1 and is required for DNA damage-mediated induction of several P. putida resident prophage genes. In silico searches suggested that this marked asymmetry in regulon contents also occurs in other Pseudomonas species with two lexA genes, and the implications of this asymmetry in the evolution of the SOS network are discussed. PMID:17933893

  19. Social synchronization of circadian rhythmicity in female mice depends on the number of cohabiting animals

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Matthew J.; Indic, Premananda; Schwartz, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Communal animals often engage in group activities that require temporal synchrony among its members, including synchrony on the circadian timescale. The principles and conditions that foster such collective synchronization are not understood, but existing literature hints that the number of interacting individuals may be a critical factor. We tested this by recording individual circadian body temperature rhythms of female house mice housed singly, in twos (pairs), or in groups of five (quintets) in constant darkness; determining the daily phases of the circadian peak for each animal; and then calculating the cycle-to-cycle phase relationship between cohabiting animals over time. Significant temporal coherence was observed in quintets: the proportion of quintets (4/7), but not pairs (2/8), that became synchronized was greater than could be achieved by the complete simulated reassortment of all individuals. We speculate that the social coupling of individual circadian clocks of group members may be adaptive under certain conditions, and we propose that optimal group sizes in nature may depend not only on species-specific energetics, spatial behaviour and natural history but also on the mathematics of synchronizing assemblies of weakly coupled animal oscillators. PMID:26063754

  20. The gut eukaryotic microbiota influences the growth performance among cohabitating shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wenfang; Yu, Weina; Zhang, Jinjie; Zhu, Jinyong; Tao, Zhen; Xiong, Jinbo

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed a close interplay between the gut bacterial communities and host growth performance. However, until recently, studies generally ignored the contribution of eukaryotes, endobiotic organisms. To fill this gap, we used Illumina sequencing technology on eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene to compare the structures of gut eukaryotic communities among cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimp obtained from identically managed ponds. Results showed that a significant difference between gut eukaryotic communities differed significantly between water and intestine and among three shrimp categories. Structural equation modeling revealed that changes in the gut eukaryotic community were positively related to digestive enzyme activities, which in turn influenced shrimp growth performance (λ = 0.97, P < 0.001). Overgrown shrimp exhibited a more complex and cooperative gut eukaryotic interspecies interaction than retarded and normal shrimp, which may facilitate their nutrient acquisition efficiency. Notably, the distribution of dominant eukaryotic genera and shifts in keystone species were closely concordant with shrimp growth performance. In summary, this study provides an integrated overview on direct roles of gut eukaryotic communities in shrimp growth performance instead of well-studied bacterial assembly.

  1. Co-habiting amphibian species harbor unique skin bacterial communities in wild populations.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Bowers, Robert M; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob; Lauber, Christian L

    2012-03-01

    Although all plant and animal species harbor microbial symbionts, we know surprisingly little about the specificity of microbial communities to their hosts. Few studies have compared the microbiomes of different species of animals, and fewer still have examined animals in the wild. We sampled four pond habitats in Colorado, USA, where multiple amphibian species were present. In total, 32 amphibian individuals were sampled from three different species including northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens), western chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). We compared the diversity and composition of the bacterial communities on the skin of the collected individuals via barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Dominant bacterial phyla included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. In total, we found members of 18 bacterial phyla, comparable to the taxonomic diversity typically found on human skin. Levels of bacterial diversity varied strongly across species: L. pipiens had the highest diversity; A. tigrinum the lowest. Host species was a highly significant predictor of bacterial community similarity, and co-habitation within the same pond was not significant, highlighting that the skin-associated bacterial communities do not simply reflect those bacterial communities found in their surrounding environments. Innate species differences thus appear to regulate the structure of skin bacterial communities on amphibians. In light of recent discoveries that some bacteria on amphibian skin have antifungal activity, our finding suggests that host-specific bacteria may have a role in the species-specific resistance to fungal pathogens.

  2. Assessment of personality and demographic aspects of cohabitation and marital success.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, M D; Bentler, P M

    1980-02-01

    The outcomes of 68 marriages of four-year duration were compared on the basis of whether the partners had or had not cohabited premaritally. Background characteristics and personality data were assessed on those couples when there were newly married, and they were followed-up four years later to determine their current marital status, level of satisfaction, difficulty with various problem areas and the number of children born to them. No reliable differences on marital satisfaction or divorce rates between premarital cohabitors and noncohabitors were found. Cohabitors who divorced did so while reporting less marital distress than noncohabitors who divorced. Premarital cohabitors had significantly fewer children than noncohabitors. Degree of difficulty experienced on various problem areas differed between the groups. Certain personality and background variables predicted marital success differently for the two groups. Using the same selected set of six predictor variables, multiple regression equations were generated for cohabitors and noncohabitors. The cohabitors equation (R2 = .56) predicted marital success significantly more effectively than the noncohabitors equation (R2 = .28), When comparing the tri-weight vectors for these two equations, none of the predictor variables had the same influence in both groups. Theoretical implications of the findings were discussed.

  3. Cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cagemate induces immune but not behavioral changes in male mice.

    PubMed

    Machado, Thalita R M; Alves, Glaucie J; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Palermo-Neto, João

    2017-02-01

    Cohabitation with Ehrlich ascitic tumor-injected conspecifics induces behavioral, neurochemical, endocrine and immune changes indicative of stress and immune impairment in female mice. The present work analyzed the effects of similar cohabitation in Swiss and Balb/C male mice. At least 12 pairs of male mice were divided into a control group and an experimental group. On experimental day 1 (ED1), one animal within each experimental pair was inoculated with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells intraperitoneally (i.p.); the other animal was kept undisturbed and was referred to as the CSP (companion of a sick partner). One male mouse of each control pair was treated i.p. with 0.9% NaCl (1mL/kg); the other animal (the CHP, companion of a healthy partner) was kept undisturbed. Cohabitation with a sick partner for 11days did not induce any behavioral, hypothalamic noradrenergic, corticosterone or adrenal weight changes in the Swiss CSP male mice compared to those of the Swiss CHP group. However, impairments in neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst as well as increased levels of catecholamines were observed in Swiss and Balb/C CSP mice relative to CHP male animals of the same strains on ED11 and ED14, respectively. Moreover, after a challenge with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells on ED11 of cohabitation, the number and concentration of tumor cells found in the ascitic fluid were higher in the Swiss CSP male mice than in the CHP mice. These data suggest that the immune changes observed in Swiss and Balb/C male CSP mice after cohabitation with a sick cagemate might, ultimately, depend on the changes induced by catecholamines, as previously reported for CSP female mice. However, contrary to that reported in Swiss CSP female mice, changes in behavioral and hypothalamic noradrenaline activity were not found in the Swiss CSP male mice analyzed in this work. This fact suggests that male and female CSP mice might use similar immune but different CNS strategies against the threats posed

  4. A comparative study of marine salmonid alphavirus subtypes 1-6 using an experimental cohabitation challenge model.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Frost, P; McLaughlin, K; Rowley, H M; Gabestad, I; Gordon, A; McLoughlin, M F

    2011-04-01

    A comparative challenge study of six marine isolates representing subtypes 1-6 of salmonid alphavirus (salmon pancreas disease virus, Genus Alphavirus, Family Togaviridae) was conducted in Atlantic salmon in a fresh water cohabitation trial. Histopathological lesions typical of pancreas disease were observed with all subtypes, and virus was re-isolated from serum of cohabitant fish in each case. Using a virus neutralization (VN) test neutralizing salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 1 strain F93-125, VN antibodies were detected in all challenge groups, consistent with serological cross-reactivity between these subtypes. Using real-time RT-PCR, SAV RNA was detected in heart tissue from 2 to 3 weeks post-challenge (wpc) in all cohabitant groups excluding controls. The results obtained suggested differences in the dynamics of infection between strains of SAV and potentially between subtypes. Results for SAV subtypes 1 and 3 suggested essentially synchronous infection of cohabitant fish. These two study groups also had the highest virus load in heart tissue as measured by quantitative RT-PCR and also had the most extensive histopathological changes. In contrast, results for SAV subtypes 2 and 6 strains were consistent with asynchronous infection in the cohabitant fish and were characterized by slow spread, low virus loads and mild histopathological changes. The SAV subtype 4 and 5 strains occupied an intermediate position in this regard. Despite the use of concentration procedures, it was not possible to detect SAV RNA in water samples from selected study tanks. However, testing of faeces from the SAV subtypes 1, 3 and 6 challenge groups found positive signals in each beginning at 1-3 wpc and remaining detectable for a further 2-3 weeks. Parallel testing of mucus samples found these became positive at 2-3 wpc and remained positive for a further 1-3 weeks. These results demonstrate for the first time that shedding and transmission of virus may occur by both these routes

  5. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.222 Credit union...

  6. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.222 Credit union...

  7. Divorce or end of cohabitation among Danish women evaluated for fertility problems.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Trille; Albieri, Vanna; Jensen, Allan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne O

    2014-03-01

    Couples with fertility problems may experience marital or sexual distress which could potentially result in dissolved relationships. We investigated the likelihood of ending a relationship among women who did not have a child after a fertility evaluation. Longitudinal cohort study. Danish women ever referred for primary or secondary fertility problems to a public Danish hospital or private fertility clinic between 1990 and 2006. A total of 47,515 women. The data were linked to Danish administrative population-based registries containing demographic and socioeconomic information. Discrete-time survival models were used with person-period data. Each woman was followed from the year of her initial fertility evaluation through to 2007. Effects of parity after a fertility evaluation on the likelihood of ending a marital or cohabitation relationship. After up to 12 years of follow up, nearly 27% of the women were no longer living with the person with whom they had lived at the time of the fertility evaluation. Women who did not have a child after the evaluation had significantly higher odds ratios for ending a relationship up to 12 years after the evaluation (with odds ratios up to 3.13, 95% CI 2.88-3.41) than women who had a child, regardless of their parity before the evaluation. Parity after a fertility evaluation may be an important component in the longitudinal relationships of couples with fertility problems. Studies with detailed information on marital quality and relational well-being of couples with fertility problems are needed. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. A novel cohabitation between two diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the oligotrophic ocean.

    PubMed

    Momper, Lily M; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Carvalho, Gustavo; Lee, Patrick; Webb, Eric A

    2015-03-17

    The cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium is biogeochemically significant because of its dual role in nitrogen and carbon fixation in the oligotrophic ocean. Trichodesmium species form colonies that can be easily enriched from the water column and used for shipboard rate measurements to estimate their contribution to oceanic carbon and nitrogen budgets. During a July 2010 cruise near the Hawaiian Islands in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, a specific morphology of Trichodesmium puff-form colonies were examined under epifluorescent microscopy and found to harbor a colonial endobiont, morphologically identified as the heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Calothrix. Using unialgal enrichments obtained from this cruise, we show that these Calothrix-like heterocystous cyanobionts (hetDA for 'Trichodesmium-associated heterocystous diazotroph') fix nitrogen on a diurnal cycle (maximally in the middle of the light cycle with a detectable minimum in the dark). Gene sequencing of nifH from the enrichments revealed that this genus was likely not quantified using currently described quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers. Guided by the sequence from the isolate, new hetDA-specific primers were designed and subsequent qPCR of environmental samples detected this diazotroph from surface water to a depth of 150 m, reaching densities up to ∼ 9 × 10(3) l(-1). Based on phylogenetic relatedness of nifH and 16S rRNA gene sequences, it is predicted that the distribution of this cyanobiont is not limited to subtropical North Pacific but likely reaches to the South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Therefore, this previously unrecognized cohabitation, if it reaches beyond the oligotrophic North Pacific, could potentially influence Trichodesmium-derived nitrogen fixation budgets in the world ocean.

  9. Humans and Great Apes Cohabiting the Forest Ecosystem in Central African Republic Harbour the Same Hookworms

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Shutt, Kathryn A.; Todd, Angelique; Kalousová, Barbora; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms are important pathogens of humans. To date, Necator americanus is the sole, known species of the genus Necator infecting humans. In contrast, several Necator species have been described in African great apes and other primates. It has not yet been determined whether primate-originating Necator species are also parasitic in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings The infective larvae of Necator spp. were developed using modified Harada-Mori filter-paper cultures from faeces of humans and great apes inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of mtDNA obtained from the hookworm larvae were sequenced and compared. Three sequence types (I–III) were recognized in the ITS region, and 34 cox1 haplotypes represented three phylogenetic groups (A–C). The combinations determined were I-A, II-B, II-C, III-B and III-C. Combination I-A, corresponding to N. americanus, was demonstrated in humans and western lowland gorillas; II-B and II-C were observed in humans, western lowland gorillas and chimpanzees; III-B and III-C were found only in humans. Pairwise nucleotide difference in the cox1 haplotypes between the groups was more than 8%, while the difference within each group was less than 2.1%. Conclusions/Significance The distinctness of ITS sequence variants and high number of pairwise nucleotide differences among cox1 variants indicate the possible presence of several species of Necator in both humans and great apes. We conclude that Necator hookworms are shared by humans and great apes co-habiting the same tropical forest ecosystems. PMID:24651493

  10. A novel cohabitation between two diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the oligotrophic ocean

    PubMed Central

    Momper, Lily M; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Carvalho, Gustavo; Lee, Patrick; Webb, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    The cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium is biogeochemically significant because of its dual role in nitrogen and carbon fixation in the oligotrophic ocean. Trichodesmium species form colonies that can be easily enriched from the water column and used for shipboard rate measurements to estimate their contribution to oceanic carbon and nitrogen budgets. During a July 2010 cruise near the Hawaiian Islands in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, a specific morphology of Trichodesmium puff-form colonies were examined under epifluorescent microscopy and found to harbor a colonial endobiont, morphologically identified as the heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Calothrix. Using unialgal enrichments obtained from this cruise, we show that these Calothrix-like heterocystous cyanobionts (hetDA for ‘Trichodesmium-associated heterocystous diazotroph') fix nitrogen on a diurnal cycle (maximally in the middle of the light cycle with a detectable minimum in the dark). Gene sequencing of nifH from the enrichments revealed that this genus was likely not quantified using currently described quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers. Guided by the sequence from the isolate, new hetDA-specific primers were designed and subsequent qPCR of environmental samples detected this diazotroph from surface water to a depth of 150 m, reaching densities up to ∼9 × 103 l−1. Based on phylogenetic relatedness of nifH and 16S rRNA gene sequences, it is predicted that the distribution of this cyanobiont is not limited to subtropical North Pacific but likely reaches to the South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Therefore, this previously unrecognized cohabitation, if it reaches beyond the oligotrophic North Pacific, could potentially influence Trichodesmium-derived nitrogen fixation budgets in the world ocean. PMID:25343510

  11. Smells Like Home: Chemically Mediated Co-Habitation of Two Termite Species in a Single Nest.

    PubMed

    Jirošová, Anna; Sillam-Dussès, David; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Kalinová, Blanka; Dolejšová, Klára; Jančařík, Andrej; Majer, Pavel; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; Hanus, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Termite nests often are referred to as the most elaborate constructions of animals. However, some termite species do not build a nest at all and instead found colonies inside the nests of other termites. Since these so-called inquilines do not need to be in direct contact with the host population, the two colonies usually live in separate parts of the nest. Adaptations of both the inquiline and its host are likely to occur to maintain the spatial exclusion and reduce the costs of potential conflicts. Among them, mutual avoidance, based on chemical cues, is expected. We investigated chemical aspects of cohabitation between Constrictotermes cavifrons (Nasutitermitinae) and its obligatory inquiline Inquilinitermes inquilinus (Termitinae). Inquiline soldiers produce in their frontal glands a blend of wax esters, consisting of the C12 alcohols (3Z)-dodec enol, (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienol, and dodecanol, esterified with different fatty acids. The C12 alcohols appear to be cleaved gradually from the wax esters, and they occur in the frontal gland, in soldier headspace, and in the walls of the inquiline part of the nest. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that (3Z)-dodecenol and (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienol are perceived by workers of both species. Bioassays indicated that inquiline soldier heads, as well as the two synthetic compounds, are attractive to conspecific workers and elicit an arresting behavior, while host soldiers and workers avoid these chemicals at biologically relevant amounts. These observations support the hypothesis that chemically mediated spatial separation of the host and the inquiline is an element of a conflict-avoidance strategy in these species.

  12. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen - a Danish multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Schmidt, Lone

    2015-05-01

    To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. All nine public fertility clinics in Denmark. In total n = 311 childless women initiating assisted reproduction using donor semen. Self-reported questionnaire responses from n = 184 single women seeking treatment by using donor semen were compared with responses from n = 127 cohabiting women. Sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, attitudes towards motherhood. Single women were 3.5 years older on average when initiating treatment compared with cohabiting women. No significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic characteristics, previous long-term relationships, previous pregnancies, or attitudes towards motherhood between single women and cohabiting women. The vast majority of single women wanted to achieve parenthood with a partner, 85.8% wished to have a partner in the future, and approximately half of them preferred for a partner to take parental responsibilities. In this study single women seeking treatment with donor semen in the public health system did not differ from cohabiting women, except that they were older. To be a single mother by choice is not their preferred way of parenthood, but a solution they needed to accept. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  14. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  15. Risk factors for dating violence versus cohabiting violence: Results from the third generation of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Ttofi, Maria M; Crago, Rebecca V

    2016-10-01

    Dating violence is an important problem. Evidence suggests that women are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. The present study investigates the prevalence of dating violence compared with cohabiting violence in a community sample of men and women and assesses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict this behaviour. A secondary aim is to construct a risk score for dating violence based on the strongest risk factors. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 men (generation 2) born in the 1950s in an inner London area. Most recently, their sons and daughters [generation 3 (G3)] have been interviewed regarding their perpetration of dating and cohabiting violence, utilising the Conflict Tactics Scale. Risk factors were measured in four domains (family, parental, socio-economic and individual). A larger proportion of women than men perpetrated at least one act of violence towards their dating partner (36.4 vs 21.7%). There was a similar pattern for cohabiting violence (39.6 vs 21.4%). A number of risk factors were significantly associated with the perpetration of dating violence. For G3 women, these included a convicted father, parental conflict, large family size and poor housing. For G3 men, these included having a young father or mother, separation from the father before age 16, early school leaving, frequent truancy and having a criminal conviction. A risk score for both men and women, based on 10 risk factors, significantly predicted dating violence. Risk factors from four domains were important in predicting dating violence, but they were different for G3 men and women. It may be important to consider different risk factors and different risk assessments for male compared with female perpetration of dating violence. Early identification and interventions are recommended. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Arab Maghreb Union: Achievement and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    be enough to save this union from collapse. Geographic and "’Hoffman, S, contemporary Theory in International relations , (Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1960...NAVAL POSTGRADU1ATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A283 604 THESIS w ’ : ’ ARAB MAGHREB UNION : ACHIEVEMENT AND PROSPECTS by Abderrahmen Messaoudi...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994 June Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Arab Maghreb Union

  17. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    PubMed Central

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  18. The Soviet Union in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Niiseki, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

  19. Common phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns found in a case study of multiresistant E. coli from cohabitant pets, humans, and household surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martins, Liliana Raquel Leite; Pina, Susana Maria Rocha; Simões, Romeo Luís Rocha; de Matos, Augusto José Ferreira; Rodrigues, Pedro; da Costa, Paulo Martins Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles among E. coli strains isolated from cohabitant pets and humans, evaluating the concurrent colonization of pets, owners, and home surfaces by bacteria carrying the same antimicrobial-resistant genes. The authors also intended to assess whether household surfaces and objects could contribute to the within-household antimicrobial-resistant gene diffusion between human and animal cohabitants. A total of 124 E. coli strains were isolated displaying 24 different phenotypic patterns with a remarkable percentage of multiresistant ones. The same resistance patterns were isolated from the dog's urine, mouth, the laundry floor, the refrigerator door, and the dog's food bowl. Some other multiresistant phenotypes, as long as resistant genes, were found repeatedly in different inhabitants and surfaces of the house. Direct, close contact between all the cohabitants and the touch of contaminated household surfaces and objects could be an explanation for these observations.

  20. Partner killing by men in cohabiting and marital relationships: a comparative, cross-national analysis of data from Australia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Todd K; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-10-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than were married women. Within marriages, the risk of uxoricide decreases with a woman's age. Within cohabiting relationships, middle-aged women were at greatest risk of uxoricide. The risk of uxoricide increased with greater age difference between partners. We sought to replicate the findings of Shackelford (2001) using a national-level database that includes information on more than 4,400 homicides that occurred in Australia between 1989 and 2002. Despite the higher rate of partner killing in the United States, and despite other cultural differences between the two countries, we replicated key patterns with the Australian data.

  1. Military Unions: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Unionization within the Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    advantages and disadvantages of military unionization are presented along with the possible limitations on a military union should it become a reality...Two military unions operating with some degree of success in West Germany and Norway, respectively, are analyzed. Limitations common to both the

  2. Teacher Unionism in Changing Times: Is This the Real "New Unionism"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a case study of union change in an environment in which radical school restructuring is taking place, and active strategies to weaken and marginalize organized teachers are being pursued by the state. The case study union is the National Union of Teachers in England. The article explores a number of different strategies open…

  3. Teacher Unionism in Changing Times: Is This the Real "New Unionism"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a case study of union change in an environment in which radical school restructuring is taking place, and active strategies to weaken and marginalize organized teachers are being pursued by the state. The case study union is the National Union of Teachers in England. The article explores a number of different strategies open…

  4. 12 CFR 701.2 - Federal credit union bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal credit union bylaws. 701.2 Section 701.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.2 Federal credit union bylaws. (a) Federal...

  5. 12 CFR 701.26 - Credit union service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit union service contracts. 701.26 Section 701.26 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.26 Credit union service contracts. A Federal...

  6. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Approval of National Credit Union Administration restoration plan. On September 16, 2010, the National Credit Union...

  7. Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popiel, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

  8. Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popiel, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

  9. Trade Union Libraries in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the trade union library system in China that has fallen on hard times amid economic and social changes of the past 20 years. Focuses on a history of the trade union library movement; services provided by trade union libraries; problems faced by union libraries; and reform of trade union libraries. (AEF)

  10. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corporate credit union capital. 704.3 Section... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.3 Corporate credit union capital. (a) Capital plan. A corporate credit union... activities, and the periodic review and reassessment of the capital position of the corporate credit union...

  11. union publique HR

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-30

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  12. Reported reasons for breakdown of marriage and cohabitation in Britain: Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).

    PubMed

    Gravningen, Kirsten; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Geary, Rebecca; Jones, Kyle G; Clifton, Soazig; Erens, Bob; Lu, Michelle; Chayachinda, Chenchit; Field, Nigel; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    Breakdown of marriage and cohabitation is common in Western countries and is costly for individuals and society. Most research on reasons for breakdown has focused on marriages ending in divorce and/or have used data unrepresentative of the population. We present prevalence estimates of, and differences in, reported reasons for recent breakdown of marriages and cohabitations in Britain. Descriptive analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years) undertaken 2010-2012, using computer-assisted personal interviewing. We examined participants' reported reasons for live-in partnership breakdown in the past 5 years and how these varied by gender and partnership type (married vs. cohabitation). Overall, 10.9% (95% CI: 9.9-11.9%) of men and 14.1% (13.2-15.0%) of women reported live-in partnership breakdown in the past 5 years. Mean duration of men's marriages was 14.2 years (95% CI: 12.8-15.7) vs. cohabitations; 3.5 years (3.0-4.0), and for women: 14.6 years (13.5-15.8) vs. 4.2 years (3.7-4.8). Among 706 men and 1254 women reporting experience of recent breakdown, the reasons 'grew apart' (men 39%, women 36%), 'arguments' (27%, 30%), 'unfaithfulness/adultery' (18%, 24%, p<0.05), and 'lack of respect/appreciation' (17%, 25%, p<0.05) were the most common, irrespective of partnership type. A total of 16% of women vs. 4% of men cited domestic violence. After adjusting for age at interview and duration of partnership, there were no significant differences in reasons given for breakup by partnership type, except that men more commonly cited 'moving due to changing circumstances' as a reason for a cohabitation ending than for a marriage (AOR = 3.78, 95% CI: 1.08-13.21); and among women, 'not sharing housework' (0.54, 0.35-0.83) and 'sexual difficulties' (0.45, 0.25-0.84) were less commonly cited as reasons for cohabitation ending than marriage. These representative

  13. Comparing violence over the life span in samples of same-sex and opposite-sex cohabitants.

    PubMed

    Tjaden, P; Thoennes, N; Allison, C J

    1999-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative telephone survey that was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996, this study compares lifetime experiences with violent victimization among men and women with a history of same-sex cohabitation and their counterparts with a history of marriage and/or opposite-sex cohabitation only. The study found that respondents who had lived with a same-sex intimate partner were significantly more likely than respondents who had married or lived with an opposite-sex partner only to have been: (a) raped as minors and adults; (b) physically assaulted as children by adult caretakers; and (c) physically assaulted as adults by all types of perpetrators, including intimate partners. The study also confirms previous reports that intimate partner violence is more prevalent among gay male couples than heterosexual couples. However, it contradicts reports that intimate partner violence is more prevalent among lesbian couples than heterosexual couples. Overall study findings suggest that intimate partner violence is perpetrated primarily by men, whether against same-sex or opposite-sex partners.

  14. Effects of relationship duration, cohabitation, and marriage on the frequency of intercourse in couples: Findings from German panel data.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jette; Schmiedeberg, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Research into the changes in the frequency of sexual intercourse is (with few exceptions) limited to cross-sectional analyses of marital duration. We investigate the frequency of intercourse while taking into account relationship duration as well as the duration of cohabitation and marriage, effects of parenthood, and relationship quality. For the analysis we apply fixed effects regression models using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), a nationwide randomly sampled German panel survey. Our findings imply that the drop in sex frequency occurs early in the relationship, whereas neither cohabitation nor marriage affects the frequency of intercourse to a significant extent. Sex frequency is reduced during pregnancy and as long as the couple has small children, but becomes revived later on. Relationship quality is found to play a role as well. These results are contrary to the honeymoon effect found in earlier research, but indicate that in times of postponed marriage an analogous effect may be at work in the initial period of the relationship.

  15. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  16. Increasing Union Safety at Ole Miss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Eldrid; Elmore, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of a police substation in the student union of the University of Mississippi and its positive impact on administrators and students. The importance of having visible security and how it was designed into the facility are discussed; and the desired goals, shared by Union staff and the university police, that drove the design…

  17. Women in Trade Unions: Organizing the Unorganized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Margaret Hosmer, Ed.; Mitter, Swasti, Ed.

    This book contains a comparative survey of efforts to organize female workers in trade unions in both developing and industrialized nations and 19 case studies of efforts to organize female workers in selected occupations. The following papers are included: "A Comparative Survey" (Swasti Mitter); "The Union of Women Domestic…

  18. Women in Trade Unions: Organizing the Unorganized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Margaret Hosmer, Ed.; Mitter, Swasti, Ed.

    This book contains a comparative survey of efforts to organize female workers in trade unions in both developing and industrialized nations and 19 case studies of efforts to organize female workers in selected occupations. The following papers are included: "A Comparative Survey" (Swasti Mitter); "The Union of Women Domestic…

  19. 75 FR 60651 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ..., employees and officials must be competent, experienced, honest, and of good character. NCUA will conduct... committee member, and senior management employee; and NCUA Form 4008, the credit union's organization... implemented; Anticipated corporate credit union staffing and credentials of key employees; Physical facility...

  20. Analysis of the Unionization of Academic Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bee, Richard H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of unionization of academic advisors at Youngstown State University in achieving economic, career, and professional goals. It was found that unionization has adequately addressed job security needs and defined workload requirements but fell short concerning annual salary increases, merit pay, and opportunities…

  1. International Education--Focus: Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFerriere, Jake; Broyles, India

    From March 8 to March 11, 1989, student schedules at Lake Region High School in Bridgton, Maine were replaced by Soviet Union culture and history classes. The project was called "Focus: Soviet Union," and was intended as only the first of a series of International Education Days designed to increase United States understanding of other…

  2. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  3. Labor Unions and Political Parties in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorwin, Val R.

    1975-01-01

    The balance of power inside the dominant socialist and Catholic blocs in Belgium, which were once incontestably led by the political elites, has been shifting toward the trade unions. Regionalism has fragmented the political system far more than the industrial relations system; the unions' political influence will continue in importance. (Author)

  4. Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Ed.

    This book contains the views of 40 contributors on women and unions, organized into 15 chapters on six topics: Closing the Wage Gap; Meeting Family Needs; Temporary and Part-Time Work: Opportunity or Danger?; Homework; Developing a Realistic Approach; New Directions in Organizing and Representing Women; and Female Leadership and Union Cultures:…

  5. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  6. 29 CFR 452.75 - Union newspapers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Union newspapers. 452.75 Section 452.75 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.75 Union newspapers. The provisions of section 401(g) prohibit any...

  7. Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Ed.

    This book contains the views of 40 contributors on women and unions, organized into 15 chapters on six topics: Closing the Wage Gap; Meeting Family Needs; Temporary and Part-Time Work: Opportunity or Danger?; Homework; Developing a Realistic Approach; New Directions in Organizing and Representing Women; and Female Leadership and Union Cultures:…

  8. Unions' Deals with Brokers Raise Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The New York state attorney general's office is close to announcing a settlement with the 525,000-member New York State United Teachers over a relationship between the union and ING Group, a large financial-services company based in the Netherlands. In that arrangement, the union's Member Benefits division--a separate trust that provides…

  9. University Union Student Preference Survey Spring 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David F.

    The University of North Carolina at Wilmington administered a 1986 University Union Spring Survey to 404 residential and nonresidential students to monitor student preferences and to evaluate their satisfaction with selected aspects of services and programs within the student union. The results revealed that students considered notices in their…

  10. Unions' Deals with Brokers Raise Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The New York state attorney general's office is close to announcing a settlement with the 525,000-member New York State United Teachers over a relationship between the union and ING Group, a large financial-services company based in the Netherlands. In that arrangement, the union's Member Benefits division--a separate trust that provides…

  11. Success and New Hurdles for T.A. Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Describes how unions organizing graduate students are enjoying unprecedented breakthroughs, such as their first recognition at a private university. Unions are facing obstacles as well, including continued administrative resistance and squabbles between national unions. (EV)

  12. Parenting across Racial and Class Lines: Assortative Mating Patterns of New Parents Who Are Married, Cohabiting, Dating or No Longer Romantically Involved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Harknett, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We examine the assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, romantically involved and no longer romantically involved. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, we find that relationship status at the time of a birth depends mainly on father's race rather than on whether mother and father's…

  13. Interaction of ectoparasites in cohabitating colonies of pond bats Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825) and species of genus Pipistrellus from northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Orlova, Maria V; Zapart, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    The article presents data on ectoparasites of pond bat (rare in Europe bat species) in northern Poland region. We discuss the species composition and relationship between ectoparasites of several bat species in mixed colonies. Temporary ectoparasites of pipistrelle bats suppress permanent ectoparasites of pond bats it the cohabitating colonies.

  14. Parenting across Racial and Class Lines: Assortative Mating Patterns of New Parents Who Are Married, Cohabiting, Dating or No Longer Romantically Involved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Harknett, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We examine the assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, romantically involved and no longer romantically involved. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, we find that relationship status at the time of a birth depends mainly on father's race rather than on whether mother and father's…

  15. Effect of cohabitation with white-faced ewes on estrous activity of Hampshire and Suffolk ewes exposed to rams in June.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R A; Notter, D R

    1990-06-01

    Two groups of 24 Hampshire and 26 Suffolk purebred ewes each were used to study effects of cohabitation with cyclic white-faced (WF) ewes on estrous activity in June. Ewes lambed in January, February and March and had been isolated from mature rams since the previous fall breeding. From June 1 to July 2, treated (T) ewes were exposed to vasectomized rams and to 65 WF ewes; control (C) ewes were exposed only to vasectomized rams. Ovulation was assessed with biweekly serum progesterone assays; crayon marks were used to detect estrus. Daily observations of ram behavior were conducted to assess sexual activity of rams joined with T and C ewes. Cohabitation with WF ewes increased (P less than .01) ovulation percentages from 46% in C (42% for Hampshires and 50% for Suffolks) to 76% in T ewes (79% for Hampshires and 73% for Suffolks). Mating percentage also was increased (P less than .05) by cohabitation with WF ewes from 14% for C ewes to 30% for T ewes. Rams with T + WF ewes spent more (P less than .05) time checking ewes for estrus than did rams with C ewes. Hence, cohabitation with cycling WF ewes increased ovulation and mating percentages. Many acyclic T ewes first ovulated after 10 or more days of teasing, possibly due to increased ram contact in the presence of WF ewes.

  16. A Systematic Approach towards Optimizing a Cohabitation Challenge Model for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Santi, Nina; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p<0.000) for use as challenge virus. The challenge dose was estimated at 1x10(7) TCID50/mL per fish while the proportion of virus shedders was estimated at 12.5% of the total number of fish per tank. The model was designed based on a three parallel tank system in which the Cox hazard proportional regression model was used to estimate the minimum number of fish required to show significant differences between the vaccinated and control fish in each tank. All input variables were optimized to generate mortality >75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for

  17. A Systematic Approach towards Optimizing a Cohabitation Challenge Model for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Santi, Nina; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p<0.000) for use as challenge virus. The challenge dose was estimated at 1x107 TCID50/mL per fish while the proportion of virus shedders was estimated at 12.5% of the total number of fish per tank. The model was designed based on a three parallel tank system in which the Cox hazard proportional regression model was used to estimate the minimum number of fish required to show significant differences between the vaccinated and control fish in each tank. All input variables were optimized to generate mortality >75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for use

  18. [Collective bargaining and trade unions in nursing].

    PubMed

    de Villiers, L

    1993-02-01

    Nurses are apparently striving towards collective bargaining in order to meet their professional and personal needs. The reasons might be rapid social change and dissatisfaction with values and norms imposed on them. Although the nursing profession has been represented by a professional association since 1914, interest in labour unions is increasing. Various factors, such as administrative practices, support the interest in labour unions. Although labour unions promise a utopia to potential members, membership leads to advantages and disadvantages both for the profession and the individual.

  19. Medicine in the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lisa J.; Busing, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    At the time this article was written, the Soviet Union was in a state of transition and turmoil. Its health care system was one of the areas most affected. This article is based on the observations the authors made during visits to the Soviet Union in 1990 and 1991. Although the situation in the Soviet Union seemed quite bleak, some very exciting initiatives for change were and still are under way, the result of which could be a system that provides more efficient and effective health care. PMID:21221331

  20. Do unions matter? An examination of the historical and contemporary role of labor unions in the social work profession.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-10-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work and unions is conceptualized as reciprocal in nature. Insights about social workers' current attitudes toward unions are informed through critical analysis of a recent research study that examined attitudes toward unions among social work union members. The authors discuss the potential for a collaborative progressive agenda between the social work profession and labor.

  1. Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Decreases the Neuroimmune Changes in Mice Induced by Cohabitation with an Ehrlich Tumor-Bearing Cage Mate.

    PubMed

    Margatho, Rafael O; Massoco, Cristina de O; Calefi, Atilio S; Cruz, Daniel S G; Sandini, Thaisa M; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Florio, Jorge C; Palermo-Neto, João

    2017-01-01

    Cohabitation with Ehrlich tumor-bearing (ETB) mice induced behavioral, neurochemical, hormonal, and immune effects in the conspecifics as a consequence of stress-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) with catecholamine release. In the current study, the nonspecific β-AR blocker d,l-propranolol and the specific β2-AR blocker ICI-118.551 were employed as pharmacological tools to assess the extent to which catecholamines participated in the effects induced by cohabitation with ETB mice. Two experiments were performed, 1 with d,l-propranolol treatment and the other with ICI-118.551. One mouse in the experimental group was called the "companion of the sick partner" (CSP) since it was forced to live in the same cage with 2 (experiment 1) or 1 (experiment 2) cage mate that had been i.p. injected with 5 × 106 Ehrlich tumor cells. The d,l-propranolol treatment, but not the ICI-118.551 treatment, attenuated the effects of cohabitation with 2 ETB mice on both open-field behavior and the hypothalamic levels and turnover rate of norepinephrine. The 2 β-AR blockers were unable to change the serum corticosterone levels and adrenal weights of the CSP mice; however, these drugs abrogated the effects of cohabitation on neutrophil oxidative burst and phagocytosis. Finally, an increase in the 5-HT turnover rate was observed in the olfactory bulb of CSP mice compared to their respective controls, an effect that was not modified by β-AR blockade. These results confirm and strengthen our hypothesis that the SNS is involved in the effects induced by cohabitation with ETB mice and point towards β2-AR participation in the immune effects analyzed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Longitudinal Patterns of Women’s Marital Quality: The Case of Divorce, Cohabitation, and Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    James, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    Previous work on marital quality has compared average levels of marital quality by demographic characteristics, such as cohabitation, divorce, or race-ethnicity. Less work has examined whether such differences persist over time. To begin to answer this question, this paper uses multigroup latent growth curves to examine changes in marital quality over time in addition to measuring differences in levels of reported marital quality among cohabitors vs. non-cohabitors, divorced vs. stably married women, and members of different racial-ethnic groups. Although many of the differences are small and statistically insignificant, the results show that non-normative and traditionally disadvantaged groups experience not only lower levels of marital quality but that these differences also persist throughout the life course. I also show that using marital instead of relationship duration for cohabitors has substantive implications when interpreting the results. PMID:25530643

  3. US student assistants win union rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The US National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has ruled that graduate students in private universities and colleges who work as teaching or research assistants are statutory employees of their institutions who have the right to join unions.

  4. Faculty Unions Growing Force on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1982-01-01

    Reviews factors influencing rise of faculty unions on college campuses, including low pay, faculty frustration toward increasingly centralized management in state systems, trustees insensitive to educational ideals, women's and minority rights, and the rising egalitarianism in society at large. (SK)

  5. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  6. Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

  7. Labor unions: a public health institution.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners.

  8. Tips for Carpeting Your Student Union Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbacci, Diann

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines for enhancing the investment value of carpeting in student union buildings, foyers and hallways, administrative offices, cafeterias and food courts, and recreation areas. Color coordination is briefly discussed. (GR)

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of party political work. Opinions are discussed and correct decisions are worked out together. Col A. PAVLOV , deputy chief of the social sciences...Marshal of the Soviet Union [MSU] Ivan Khristo- forovich Bagramyan.... They call him their son in Russia, in the Caucasus, in the Ukraine and in...Forces A. Babadzhanyan. The military biography of the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan, who would have been 90 years

  10. The Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-09

    TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) THE ECONOMY OF THE ARAB MAGHRIB UNION (UNCL) 12. PERSONAL...be released for open publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate militar- service or government agency. THE ECONOMY OF THE ARAB MAGHRIB...Chedly Khedimi, LTC, FA TITLE: The Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union FORMAT: Individual Study Project DATE: 9 April 1991 PAGES: 21 CLASSIFICATION

  11. AGU Union Fellows Elected for 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle; Williams, Danica

    2014-07-01

    The Union Fellows Selection Committee is proud to present the 2014 class of AGU Fellows. Established in 1962, the Fellows program recognizes AGU members who have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences as valued by their peers and vetted by a Union-wide committee of Fellows. Primary criteria for evaluation in scientific eminence are a major breakthrough or discovery, paradigm shift, or sustained impact.

  12. Using the OCLC union listing component for a statewide health sciences union list of serials.

    PubMed

    Sutton, L S; Wolfgram, P A

    1986-04-01

    Union lists of serials are critical to the effective operation of interlibrary loan networks. The Michigan Health Sciences Libraries Association used the OCLC union list component to produce the Michigan Statewide Health Sciences Union List of Serials (MISHULS). MISHULS, which includes the serials holdings of ninety-three hospital health sciences libraries, is a subset of a statewide multi-type union list maintained on OCLC. The rationale for a statewide list and the criteria for choosing vendors are discussed. Typical costs are provided. Funding sources are identified and a unique approach to decentralized input is described. The benefits of resource sharing in a larger, multi-type library network are also explored.

  13. Case study: Union of Raba River communities

    SciTech Connect

    Shewmake, T.

    1997-08-01

    This paper is a case study of the Union of Raba River Communities in Poland. The City of Cracow receives 60% of its water from the Dobczyce Reservoir, which is located in the Raba River Watershed. The water quality in this reservoir is threatened by pollution from non-point sources and untreated sewage. Because the reservoir and watershed are located outside of Cracow, protecting the water quality falls to communities that do not use the Reservoir. To meet this responsibility, communities in the watershed formed the Union of Raba River Communities (the Union). The Union hired a Cracow consulting firm to conduct a study of watershed management options, which was completed in January 1996. The Union is now evaluating the plan and looking for funding for implementation. The Union is also addressing specific problems in the watershed, including the siting of a much needed but unpopular landfill. There are numerous sources of pollution in the watershed including: sewage; runoff from urban areas, roads, agriculture, logged areas, landfills and dumps, fertilizer and pesticide storage areas, and petrol stations; and air pollution.

  14. Exploring Novice Teachers' Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Teacher Unionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Jones, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The distinct needs and interests of novice teachers are not always reflected in the priorities of teacher unions, which may impact novice teachers' attachment to teacher unionism. Using survey data from teachers, we examined novice teachers' involvement in their unions and their desire for union involvement in their work lives compared to their…

  15. The Third Contract: Theory and Practice in Trade Union Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael

    Through the use of anecdote, case study, and analysis, this book establishes a theoretical framework for union trainers to use. Part 1 describes union training--the trainers, participants, union culture, and language and methods. It also examines the differences between trade union training and other forms of adult education and training. Part 2…

  16. Leading the Local: Teachers Union Presidents Chart Their Own Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Munger, Mindy Sick; Papay, John P.; Qazilbash, Emily K.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers unions are among the most powerful, yet least studied, actors in public education today. Although public attention focuses on the influence of national unions, the policies that most affect teachers and schooling are bargained by local unions and school boards. Interviews with 30 recently elected local union presidents reveal that these…

  17. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  18. Open-Source Unionism: New Workers, New Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Julie M.

    2004-01-01

    In "Open-Source Unionism: Beyond Exclusive Collective Bargaining," published in fall 2002 in the journal Working USA, labor scholars Richard B. Freeman and Joel Rogers use the term "open-source unionism" to describe a form of unionization that uses Web technology to organize in hard-to-unionize workplaces. Rather than depend on the traditional…

  19. A Reinvented Union: A Concern for Teaching, Not Just Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demitchell, Todd A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of teachers' unions as adversaries of school boards in the 1960s. Today there are signs that unions are moving from an industrial model of labor relations to a more professional union model, one in which union leaders and school leaders can become allies in the effort to improve schools. (SLD)

  20. 12 CFR 715.5 - Audit of Federal Credit Unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of Federal Credit Unions. 715.5 Section 715.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE AUDITS AND VERIFICATIONS § 715.5 Audit of Federal Credit Unions. (a) Total assets...