Eichhorn, Inga; Heidemanns, Katrin; Semmler, Torsten; Kinnemann, Bianca; Mellmann, Alexander; Harmsen, Dag; Anjum, Muna F.; Schmidt, Herbert; Fruth, Angelika; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Heesemann, Jürgen; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Karch, Helge
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the causative agent of bloody diarrhea and extraintestinal sequelae in humans, most importantly hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Besides the bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxin gene (stx), EHEC harbors the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which confers the ability to cause attaching and effacing lesions. Currently, the vast majority of EHEC infections are caused by strains belonging to five O serogroups (the “big five”), which, in addition to O157, the most important, comprise O26, O103, O111, and O145. We hypothesize that these four non-O157 EHEC serotypes differ in their phylogenies. To test this hypothesis, we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to analyze a large collection of 250 isolates of these four O serogroups, which were isolated from diseased as well as healthy humans and cattle between 1952 and 2009. The majority of the EHEC isolates of O serogroups O26 and O111 clustered into one sequence type complex, STC29. Isolates of O103 clustered mainly in STC20, and most isolates of O145 were found within STC32. In addition to these EHEC strains, STC29 also included stx-negative E. coli strains, termed atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), yet another intestinal pathogenic E. coli group. The finding that aEPEC and EHEC isolates of non-O157 O serogroups share the same phylogeny suggests an ongoing microevolutionary scenario in which the phage-encoded Shiga toxin gene stx is transferred between aEPEC and EHEC. As a consequence, aEPEC strains of STC29 can be regarded as post- or pre-EHEC isolates. Therefore, STC29 incorporates phylogenetic information useful for unraveling the evolution of EHEC. PMID:26231647
Ma, Jincai; Mark Ibekwe, A; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups are known to cause serious diseases in human. However, research on the persistence of E. coli non-O157 serogroups in preharvest environment is limited. In the current study, we compared the survival behavior of E. coli O157 to that of non-O157 E. coli strains in agricultural soils collected from three major fresh produce growing areas of California (CA) and Arizona (AZ). Results showed that the nonpathogenic E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived longer than the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in Imperial Valley CA and Yuma AZ, but not in soils from the Salinas area. However, E. coli O157:NM was found to persist significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soil tested from the three regions. Furthermore, two non-O157 (E. coli O26:H21 and E. coli O103:H2) survived significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soils tested. Pearson correlation analysis showed that survival of the E. coli strains was affected by different environmental factors. Our data suggest that survival of E. coli O157 and non-O157 may be strain and soil specific, and therefore, care must be taken in data interpretation with respect to survival of this pathogen in different soils.
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157 STEC) have emerged as important food-borne pathogens worldwide. Non-O157 STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. While documentation is limited, tre...
Luna-Gierke, R E; Griffin, P M; Gould, L H; Herman, K; Bopp, C A; Strockbine, N; Mody, R K
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are increasingly detected, but sources are not well established. We summarize outbreaks to 2010 in the USA. Single-aetiology outbreaks were defined as ⩾2 epidemiologically linked culture-confirmed non-O157 STEC infections; multiple-aetiology outbreaks also had laboratory evidence of ⩾2 infections caused by another enteric pathogen. Twenty-six states reported 46 outbreaks with 1727 illnesses and 144 hospitalizations. Of 38 single-aetiology outbreaks, 66% were caused by STEC O111 (n = 14) or O26 (n = 11), and 84% were transmitted through food (n = 17) or person-to-person spread (n = 15); food vehicles included dairy products, produce, and meats; childcare centres were the most common setting for person-to-person spread. Of single-aetiology outbreaks, a greater percentage of persons infected by Shiga toxin 2-positive strains had haemolytic uraemic syndrome compared with persons infected by Shiga toxin 1-only positive strains (7% vs. 0·8%). Compared with single-aetiology outbreaks, multiple-aetiology outbreaks were more frequently transmitted through water or animal contact.
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared to E....
Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Rump, Lydia; Nagaraja, T. G.; Meng, Jianghong
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are human pathogens. Although >400 non-O157 serotypes have been involved in human disease, whole-genome sequencing information is missing for many serotypes. We sequenced 64 STEC strains comprising 38 serotypes, isolated from clinical sources, animals, and environmental samples, to improve the phylogenetic understanding of these important foodborne pathogens. PMID:26430026
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. A conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and needs long time for the results. Since ...
This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of non-O157 STEC in products of meat animals. There is a wide range in pathogenicity of STEC strains. Potential regulation in meat products is currently focused on the group of six O groups the CDC indicates accounts of 71% of non-O157 STEC illness...
Monaghan, Áine; Byrne, Brian; Fanning, Séamus; Sweeney, Torres; McDowell, David; Bolton, Declan J.
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are clinically significant food-borne pathogens. However, there is a dearth of information on serotype prevalence and virulence gene distribution, data essential for the development of public health protection monitoring and control activities for the meat and dairy industries. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of non-O157 STEC on beef and dairy farms and to characterize the isolates in terms of serotype and virulence markers. Bovine fecal samples (n = 1,200) and farm soil samples (n = 600) were collected from 20 farms throughout Ireland over a 12-month period. Shiga toxin-positive samples were cultured and colonies examined for the presence of stx1 and/or stx2 genes by PCR. Positive isolates were serotyped and examined for a range of virulence factors, including eaeA, hlyA, tir, espA, espB, katP, espP, etpD, saa, sab, toxB, iha, lpfAO157/OI-141, lpfAO113, and lpfAO157/OI-154. Shiga toxin and intimin genes were further examined for known variants. Significant numbers of fecal (40%) and soil (27%) samples were stx positive, with a surge observed in late summer-early autumn. One hundred seven STEC isolates were recovered, representing 17 serotypes. O26:H11 and O145:H28 were the most clinically significant, with O113:H4 being the most frequently isolated. However, O2:H27, O13/O15:H2, and ONT:H27 also carried stx1 and/or stx2 and eaeA and may be emerging pathogens. PMID:22003024
We quantified translocation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) into beef subprimals following chemical tenderization and subsequently monitored their viability after cooking steaks cut therefrom. Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with c...
Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and non-O157 is a matter of increasing concern. Inappropriate antimicrobial use in human and animal therapy has been associated with an acquired resistance in enteric microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to de...
The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 144 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. An overall moderate prevalence of 38.9% antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed in these strains. Animal strains had a lower p...
Liao, Yen-Te; Brooks, J Chance; Martin, Jennifer N; Echeverry, Alejandro; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an emerging risk for food safety. Although numerous postharvest antimicrobial interventions have been effectively used to control E. coli O157:H7 during beef harvesting, research regarding their effectiveness against non-O157 STEC is scarce. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate effects of the spray treatments-ambient water, 5% lactic acid (LA), 200 ppm of hypobromous acid (HA), and 200 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (PA)-on the reduction of O157:H7 or non-O157 STEC (O26, O103, O111, and O145) with high (10(6) log CFU/50 cm(2)) or low (10(2) log CFU/50 cm(2)) levels on beef subprimals after vacuum storage for 14 days and (ii) to evaluate the association of the antimicrobial treatments and cooking (50 or 70°C) on the reduction of the pathogens in blade-tenderized steaks. The treatment effects were only observed (P = 0.012) on samples taken immediately after spray intervention treatment following inoculation with a high level of O157:H7. The LA and PA treatments significantly reduced low-inoculated non-O157 STEC after spray intervention; further, the LA and HA treatments resulted in significant reductions of non-O157 STEC on the low-inoculated samples after storage. Although cooking effectively reduced the detection of pathogens in internal steak samples, internalized E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC were able to survive in steaks cooked to a medium degree of doneness (70°C). This study indicated that the reduction on surface populations was not sufficient enough to eliminate the pathogen's detection following vacuum storage, mechanical tenderization, and cooking. Nevertheless, the findings of this study emphasize the necessity for a multihurdle approach and further investigations of factors that may influence thermal tolerance of internalized pathogenic STEC.
Bai, Xiangning; Hu, Bin; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Ailan; Ba, Pengbin; Fu, Shanshan; Fan, Ruyue; Jin, Yujuan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Qiusheng; Xu, Xuebin; Lu, Shan; Xiong, Yanwen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC strains from different resources in China and illustrate the role of animal reservoirs or animal-derived foodstuffs in human STEC infections. A collection of 301 non-O157 STEC isolates from domestic and wild animals (i.e., cattle, goat, pig, yak, pika, and antelope), raw meats (i.e., beef, pork, mutton, chicken, and duck), diarrheal patients, and healthy carriers in different regions of China were selected in this study. Of the 301 analyzed STEC isolates, 67 serogroups, and 118 serotypes were identified; this included some predominant serogroups associated with human disease, such as O26, O45, O103, O111, and O121. Eighteen different combinations of stx subtypes were found. Eleven isolates carried the intimin gene eae, 93 isolates contained ehxA, and 73 isolates carried astA. The prevalence of other putative adhesion genes saa, paa, efa1, and toxB was 28.90% (87), 6.98% (21), 2.31% (7), and 1% (3), respectively. The phylogenetic distribution of isolates was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety-four sequence types were assigned across the 301 isolates. A subset of isolates recovered from yak and pika residing in the similar wild environments, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, showed similar genetic profiles and more tendencies to cluster together. Isolates from goat and mutton exhibited close genetic relatedness with those from human-derived isolates, providing evidence that transmission may have occurred locally within intraspecies or interspecies, and importantly, from animal reservoirs, or raw meats to humans. Comparing isolates in this study with highly virulent strains by MLST, along with serotyping and virulence profiles, it is conceivable that some of isolates from goat, yak, or raw meats may have potential
Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Hinkley, Susanne; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared with E. coli O157:H7-positive samples collected from veal trimmings than from products produced from other cattle slaughter classes. Therefore samples were collected from hides and preevisceration carcasses at five veal processors to assess E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC contamination during bob veal and formula-fed veal dressing procedures. E. coli O157:H7 prevalence was measured by culture isolation and found to be on 20.3% of hides and 6.7% of carcasses. In contrast, a non-O157 EHEC molecular screening assay identified 90.3% of hides and 68.2% of carcasses as positive. Only carcass samples were taken forward to culture confirmation and 38.7% yielded one or more non-O157 EHEC isolates. The recovery of an EHEC varied by plant and sample collection date; values ranged from 2.1 to 87.8% among plants and from 4.2 to 64.2% within the same plant. Three plants were resampled after changes were made to sanitary dressing procedures. Between the two collection times at the three plants, hide-to-carcass transfer of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC was significantly reduced. All adulterant EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were isolated from veal carcasses as well as four other potentially pathogenic serogroups (O5, O84, O118, and O177). Bob veal was found to have a greater culture prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and greater positive molecular screens for non-O157 EHEC than formula-fed veal (P < 0.05), but the percentage of culture-confirmed non-O157 EHEC was not different (P > 0.05) between the two types of calves. EHEC-O26, -O111, and -O121 were found more often in bob veal (P < 0.05), whereas EHEC-O103 was found more often in formula-fed veal (P < 0.05).
The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and...
Verhaegen, Bavo; Van Damme, Inge; Heyndrickx, Marc; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Verstraete, Karen; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah; De Zutter, Lieven; De Reu, Koen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major foodborne pathogen of concern across the globe. Rapid detection and isolation of this pathogen is of great importance for public health reasons. In this study the detection and isolation of four non-O157 STEC strains (O26, O103, O111, O145) from different artificially contaminated matrices, namely ground (minced) beef, cattle carcass swab, lettuce mix and sprouted soy beans, were evaluated. Low amounts of STEC were used (0.25-1.40 cfu/g) to spike the samples. All samples were enriched in parallel in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) and Brila broth. After enrichment, detection was performed using real-time PCR (qPCR), and isolation using two chromogenic agar media, CHROMagar™ STEC and ChromID™ EHEC. Inoculation on the agar media was performed either directly after enrichment or after the use of an acid treatment procedure. Furthermore, the use of this procedure was also tested on naturally contaminated food products, using 150 stx-positive samples. Although the qPCR Cycle Threshold (Ct) values were lower after enrichment in Brila broth, no significant differences in recovery were observed between both enrichment broths. Both agar media were equally suitable for the isolation of STEC, although a significantly higher recovery was obtained when using both agar media in parallel. For samples with a Ct value above 25, an acid treatment step prior to isolation ensured a significant improvement in the recovery of STEC due to the reduction in background microbiota. This acid treatment procedure proved especially useful for the isolation of STEC from sprouted soy bean samples.
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in major fresh produce-growing soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different ...
Shaw, Angela; Helterbran, Kara; Evans, Michael R; Currey, Christopher
The desire for local, fresh produce year round is driving the growth of hydroponic growing systems in the United States. Many food crops, such as leafy greens and culinary herbs, grown within hydroponics systems have their root systems submerged in recirculating nutrient-dense fertilizer solutions from planting through harvest. If a foodborne pathogen were introduced into this water system, the risk of contamination to the entire crop would be high. Hence, this study was designed to determine whether Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli , and Salmonella were able to survive and reproduce in two common hydroponic fertilizer solutions and in water or whether the bacteria would be killed or suppressed by the fertilizer solutions. All the pathogens grew by 1 to 6 log CFU/ml over a 24-h period, depending on the solution. E. coli O157:H7 reached higher levels in the fertilizer solution with plants (3.12 log CFU/ml), whereas non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and Salmonella reached higher levels in the fertilizer solution without plants (1.36 to 3.77 log CFU/ml). The foodborne pathogens evaluated here survived for 24 h in the fertilizer solution, and populations grew more rapidly in these solutions than in plain water. Therefore, human pathogens entering the fertilizer solution tanks in hydroponic systems would be expected to rapidly propagate and spread throughout the system and potentially contaminate the entire crop.
Varela-Hernández, J J; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Cardona-López, M A; Ibarra-Velázquez, L M; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Castillo, A; Torres-Vitela, M R; Ramírez-Alvarez, A
The contamination of beef carcasses with Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC) obtained from a slaughter plant in Guadalajara, Mexico was investigated. A total of 258 beef carcasses were sampled during a 12-month period. All samples were assayed for STEC by selective enrichment in modified tryptone soy broth supplemented with cefixime, cefsulodin and vancomycin, followed by plating on Sorbitol MacConkey Agar supplemented with cefixime and tellurite (CT-SMAC). Simultaneously, all samples were assayed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and plated on CT-SMAC and CHROMagar. The presence of the stx1, stx2, eaeA and hly933 genes, recognized as major virulence factors of STEC, was tested for O157:H7 and non-O157 E. coli isolates by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STEC was detected in two (0.8%) samples. One of these STEC isolates corresponded to the serotype O157:H7 showing stx2, eaeA and hyl933 genes. The other isolate corresponded to non-O157 STEC and only had the stx1 gene. Thirteen carcasses (5%) were positive for nonmotile E. coli O157 and 7 (2.7%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7. The presence of O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC on beef carcasses in this slaughter plant in Guadalajara, Mexico, emphasizes the importance of implementing the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as well as the need for implementing, evaluating, and validating antimicrobial interventions to reduce the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms.
Hovde, Carolyn J.; John, Manohar
Abstract This study presents evidence that the pattern (diffuse or aggregative) of adherence of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells is similar to that of E. coli O157, although the mechanisms of adherence appear to be distinct. Our results further suggest that novel adhesins, and not Intimin, are likely involved in non-O157 STEC adherence to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells. These findings have important implications for the development of efficacious modalities for blocking adherence of non-O157 STEC to bovine gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID:23510495
Mei, Gui-Ying; Tang, Joshua; Bach, Susan; Kostrzynska, Magdalena
Disease outbreaks of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes associated with leafy green vegetables are becoming a growing concern. A better understanding of the behavior of VTEC, particularly non-O157 serotypes, on lettuce under stress conditions is necessary for designing more effective control strategies. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a sanitizer to reduce the microbial load in leafy green vegetables, particularly in fresh produce destined for the organic market. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that H2O2 treatment of contaminated lettuce affects in the same manner transcription of stress-associated and virulence genes in VTEC strains representing O157 and non-O157 serotypes. Six VTEC isolates representing serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O104:H4, O111:NM, O145:NM, and O157:H7 were included in this study. The results indicate that 50 mM H2O2 caused a population reduction of 2.4–2.8 log10 (compared to non-treated control samples) in all six VTEC strains present on romaine lettuce. Following the treatment, the transcription of genes related to oxidative stress (oxyR and sodA), general stress (uspA and rpoS), starvation (phoA), acid stress (gadA, gadB, and gadW), and virulence (stx1A, stx2A, and fliC) were dramatically downregulated in all six VTEC serotypes (P ≤ 0.05) compared to not treated control samples. Therefore, VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce showed similar survival rates and gene transcription profiles in response to 50 mM H2O2 treatment. Thus, the results derived from this study provide a basic understanding of the influence of H2O2 treatment on the survival and virulence of VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce. PMID:28377761
Ibekwe, Abasiofiok M; Ma, Jincai; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong; Johnson, Alexis M; Petrossian, Tanya C; Lum, Pek Y
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different environmental variables and bacterial taxa. There is a continuing need to distinguish the various environmental variables and different bacterial groups to understand the relationships among these factors and the pathogen survival. Using an approach called Topological Data Analysis (TDA); we reconstructed the relationship structure of E. coli O157 and non-O157 survival in 32 soils (16 organic and 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) with a multi-resolution output. In our study, we took a community approach based on total soil microbiome to study community level survival and examining the network of the community as a whole and the relationship between its topology and biological processes. TDA produces a geometric representation of complex data sets. Network analysis showed that Shiga toxin negative strain E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived significantly longer in comparison to E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933, while the survival time of E. coli O157:NM was comparable to that of E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933 in all of the tested soils. Two non-O157 strains, E. coli O26:H11 and E. coli O103:H2 survived much longer than E. coli O91:H21 and the three strains of E. coli O157. We show that there are complex interactions between E. coli strain survival, microbial community structures, and soil parameters.
Wang, Jiaying; Niu, Yan D; Chen, Jinding; Anany, Hany; Ackermann, Hans-W; Johnson, Roger P; Ateba, Collins N; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A
This study aimed to isolate and characterize bacteriophages that lyse non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle feces. Of 37 non-O157 STEC-infecting phages isolated, those targeting O26 (AXO26A, AYO26A, AYO26B), O103 (AXO103A, AYO103A), O111 (AXO111A, AYO111A), O121 (AXO121A, AXO121B), and O145 (AYO145A, AYO145B) were further characterized. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the 11 isolates belonged to 3 families and 6 genera: the families Myoviridae (types rV5, T4, ViI, O1), Siphoviridae (type T5), and Podoviridae (type T7). Genome size of the phages as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ranged from 38 to 177 kb. Excluding phages AXO26A, AYO103A, AYO145A, and AYO145B, all other phages were capable of lysing more than 1 clinically important strain from serogroups of O26, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, and O128, but none exhibited infectivity across all serogroups. Moreover, phages AYO26A, AXO121A, and AXO121B were also able to lyse 4 common phage types of STEC O157:H7. Our findings show that a diversity of non-O157 STEC-infecting phages are harbored in bovine feces. Phages AYO26A, AYO26B, AXO103A, AXO111A, AYO111A, AXO121A, and AXO121B exhibited a broad host range against a number of serogroups of STEC and have potential for the biocontrol of STEC in the environment.
Ghanbarpour, Reza; Kiani, Mojtaba
The objectives of this study were to determine the presence and prevalence of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from faeces of healthy fat-tailed sheep and detection of phylogenetic background and antibiotic resistance profile of isolates. One hundred ninety-two E. coli isolates were recovered from obtained rectal swabs and were confirmed by biochemical tests. Antibiotic resistance profiles of isolates were detected and phylogenetic background of isolates was determined according to the presence of the chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2 genetic markers. The isolates were examined to determine stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes. Non-O157 STEC isolates were identified by using O157 specific antiserum. Forty-three isolates (22.40 %) were positive for one of the stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes, whereas 10.42 % were positive for stx (1), 19.38 % for eae and 2.60 % for stx (2) gene. None of the positive isolates belonged to O157 serogroup. Twenty isolates possessed stx ( 1 ) were distributed in A (six isolates), B1 (13) and D (one) phylogroups, whereas stx (2) positive isolates fell into A (three isolates) and B1 (two) phylogenetic groups. Eighteen isolates contained eae gene belonged to A (five isolates), B1 (seven) and D (six) phylogroups. The maximum and minimum resistance rates were recorded against to penicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. The positive isolates for stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes showed several antibiotic resistance patterns, whereas belonged to A, B1 and D phylogroups. In conclusion, faeces of healthy sheep could be considered as the important sources of non-O157 STEC and also multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates.
Wheeler, Sarita Raengpradub; Heard, Preciaus; Dufour, Christophe; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine; Loukiadis, Estelle; Flowers, Russell S; McMahon, Wendy
Although serotype O157:H7 remains the pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of primary concern worldwide, some focus in the United States has shifted to six particular non-O157 STEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). Some of these serogroups have also emerged as concerns elsewhere around the world, including Europe. The objective of this work was to compare commercial detection methods with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reference method for detection of non-O157 STEC in 375 g of beef trim using a limit of detection study design. Overall, the commercial platforms performed well, showing similar levels of sensitivity for detection of presumptive positives for O45, O26, O103, and O121 (PCR screen results only). For O111, one method that utilizes an integrated immunomagnetic separation and PCR approach was more sensitive than a PCR-only screen approach. Additionally, one commercial method showed more presumptive and confirmed positives overall. Use of an immunomagnetic separation tool, such as antibody-coated beads, aided considerably with the confirmation procedures and is an important step when confirming suspect samples. A secondary goal of this study was to evaluate isolation and International Organization for Standardization confirmation protocols used in Europe compared with strategies provided by the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG). Generally, results from the USDA confirmation plates (modified Rainbow agar) were better than the European Union confirmation plates (MacConkey agar with or without rhamnose). In summary, detection of non-O157 STEC in 375 g of beef trim can be performed by any of the three methods on the market evaluated in the study.
Amézquita-López, Bianca A.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Cooley, Michael B.; León-Félix, Josefina; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia; Mandrell, Robert E.; Jiménez, Maribel; Chaidez, Cristóbal
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic enteric pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region located in Northwest Mexico. A total of 240 fecal samples from domestic animals were collected from five sampling sites in the Culiacan Valley and were subjected to an enrichment protocol followed by either direct plating or immunomagnetic separation before plating on selective media. Serotype O157:H7 isolates with the virulence genes stx2, eae, and ehxA were identified in 40% (26/65) of the recovered isolates from cattle, sheep and chicken feces. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped most O157:H7 isolates into two clusters with 98.6% homology. The use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) differentiated isolates that were indistinguishable by PFGE. Analysis of the allelic diversity of MLVA loci suggested that the O157:H7 isolates from this region were highly related. In contrast to O157:H7 isolates, a greater genotypic diversity was observed in the non-O157 isolates, resulting in 23 PFGE types and 14 MLVA types. The relevant non-O157 serotypes O8:H19, O75:H8, O111:H8 and O146:H21 represented 35.4% (23/65) of the recovered isolates. In particular, 18.5% (12/65) of all the isolates were serotype O75:H8, which was the most variable serotype by both PFGE and MLVA. The non-O157 isolates were predominantly recovered from sheep and were identified to harbor either one or two stx genes. Most non-O157 isolates were ehxA-positive (86.5%, 32/37) but only 10.8% (4/37) harbored eae. These findings indicate that zoonotic STEC with genotypes associated with human illness are present in animals on small farms within rural communities in the Culiacan Valley and emphasize the need for the development of control
Roy, Subrana; Metgud, Sharada
Introduction Outbreaks due to non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) resulting in Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS) have garnered much attention because of associated mortality transcending across continents and also because diarrhoea due to E.coli itself is rare in developed countries. The actual incidence of non-O157:H7 STEC in sporadic acute diarrhoea is not fully elucidated, both in developing as well as in developed countries. Due to larger extent of faecal-oral transmission in developing countries it is prudent to look for non-O157: H7 STEC in such epidemiological settings because of very high potential to spread across larger geographical regions and cause life threatening illness. Aim To determine the extent of acute diarrhoea caused by Shiga toxin producing E. coli and measure their genotypic diversity. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional study and conducted between 2009-2011 in department of Microbiology at JN Medical College Belgaum (Karnataka) and Regional Medical Research Center, Belgaum (RMRC-ICMR). Stool samples from 300 sporadic cases of acute diarrhoea were processed by microscopy, culture, for the identification of diarrhoeagenic pathogens viz. Vibrio cholera, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and protozoan parasites. PCR was performed for the detection of eae and stx genes in E. coli isolates. Their relatedness was determined by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Results PCR detected stx along with eae in 23.2% culture isolates of E.coli isolated from diarrhoea samples. Only three isolates were identified as STEC by serology as O59, O60 and O69 serotypes. Eleven clones were detected by RAPD fingerprinting in the 46 STEC isolates. Conclusion Non-O157:H7 STEC are prevalent in this region and laboratories shall look beyond O157:H7 serotype of E.coli. These isolates have potential of causing outbreaks transcending borders. Hence they shall be reported and efforts be made to identify their
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Javier
Data about the behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on seeds and alfalfa sprouts are not available. The behavior of STEC, EIEC, ETEC, and EPEC was determined during germination and sprouting of alfalfa seeds at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C and on alfalfa sprouts at 3 ± 2°C. When alfalfa seeds were inoculated with STEC, EIEC, ETEC, or EPEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 and 6 log CFU/g after 1 day at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seed germination and stored at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C, no growth was observed for any DEP during sprouting at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C for 9 days. Refrigeration reduced significantly (P < 0.0.5) the number of viable DEPs on sprouts after 20 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance for the safety of the sprouts.
Ju, Wenting; Shen, Jinling; Li, Yi; Toro, Magaly A; Zhao, Shaohua; Ayers, Sherry; Najjar, Mohamed Badaoui; Meng, Jianghong
The prevalence and characteristics of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in retail ground meat from the Washington D.C. area were investigated in this study. STEC from 480 ground beef and pork samples were identified using PCR screening followed by colony hybridization. The STEC isolates were serogrouped and examined for the presence of virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA), and antimicrobial susceptibility. PFGE was used to identify the clonal relationships of STEC isolates, and PCR-RFLP was employed to determine stx subtypes. In addition, the cytotoxicity of STEC isolates was determined using a Vero cell assay. STEC were identified in 12 (5.2%) of 231 ground pork and 13 (5.2%) of 249 ground beef samples. Among 32 STEC isolates recovered from the 25 samples, 12 (37.5%) carried stx2dact and 7 (21.9%) carried hlyA, but none carried eae. Nine isolates were identified as O91, and 17 (53.1%) isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Verotoxicity was detected in 26 (81.3%) of the STEC isolates. Thus, the retail ground meat was contaminated with a heterogeneous population of non-O157 STEC, some of which were potential human pathogens.
Shen, Jinling; Rump, Lydia; Ju, Wenting; Shao, Jingdong; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong
A total of 359 non-O157 STEC isolates from food, humans and animals were examined for serotypes, Shiga toxin subtypes and intimin subtypes. Isolates solely harboring stx2 from the three sources were selected for Vero cell cytotoxicity test. stx subtypes in eae negative isolates were more diverse than in eae positive isolates primarily carrying stx2a. Four eae subtypes (eaeβ,eaeε1,eaeγ1 and eaeγ2/θ) were observed and correlated with serotypes and flagella. Food isolates showed more diverse serotypes, virulence factors and cell cytotoxicities than human isolates. Some isolates from produce belonged to serotypes that have been implicated in human diseases, carried stx2a or/and stx2dact and exhibited high cell cytotoxicity similar to human isolates. This indicates that foods can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic STEC isolates that may cause human diseases. Given the increased produce consumption and growing burden of foodborne outbreaks due to produce, produce safety should be given great importance.
Tanaro, José D; Galli, Lucía; Lound, Liliana H; Leotta, Gerardo A; Piaggio, Mercedes C; Carbonari, Carolina C; Irino, Kinue; Rivas, Marta
The purposes of this study were to detect non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in bovine rectums and water in a beef cattle farm in Argentina, and to determine the pathogenic potential of the circulating strains. During the study, 292 rectal swabs from healthy animals and 79 environmental water samples were collected. The rectal swabs and one loop of the Moore swabs, enriched in Escherichia coli broth for 24 h at 37°C, were streaked on MacConkey agar plates and incubated overnight at 37°C. The isolates were characterized by biochemical tests and serotyped. Nonmotile STEC strains were typed for their H-specific (fliC) antigens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Isolates were characterized by detection of stx1, stx2, and their variants, eae, ehxA, and saa genes. Macrorestriction fragment analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using the PulseNet standardized protocol. From 371 samples analyzed, 36.6% of rectal swabs and 34.2% of water samples were non-O157 STEC-positive by PCR, and 110 strains from rectal swabs, but only three from water, were isolated. The strains were grouped into 24 different serotypes, from which, O103:[H2] (n = 12), O136:H12 (n = 8), O178:H19 (n = 8), and O103:NM (n = 5) were most prevalent, representing 29.2% of the isolates. Predominant genotypes were stx1/eae/ehxA (16.8%) and stx2/saa/ehxA (15.9%). PFGE analysis revealed 56 different patterns, with 65 strains grouped in 19 clusters of 100% similarity. Two STEC O124:H19 strains isolated from rectal swabs and water with a 5-month interval harbored the stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA genotype, and showed an indistinguishable PFGE profile. By comparison, some XbaI-PFGE patterns identified in the present study were identical to the profiles of strains isolated from human, food, and animal sources included in the Argentine PulseNet database. By PCR, similar non-O157 detection rates were found in rectal swabs and water. However, the methodology for water samples
Yoon, Seung Chul; Windham, William R.; Ladely, Scott; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C.
We investigated the feasibility of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging for rapid presumptive-positive screening of six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) on spread plates of mixed cultures. Although the traditional culture method is still the "gold standard" for presumptive-positive pathogen screening, it is time-consuming, labor-intensive, not effective in testing large amount of food samples, and cannot completely prevent unwanted background microflora from growing together with target microorganisms on agar media. A previous study was performed using the data obtained from pure cultures individually inoculated on spot and/or spread plates in order to develop multivariate classification models differentiating each colony of the six non-O157 STEC serogroups and to optimize the models in terms of parameters. This study dealt with the validation of the trained and optimized models with a test set of new independent samples obtained from colonies on spread plates of mixed cultures. A new validation protocol appropriate to a hyperspectral imaging study for mixed cultures was developed. One imaging experiment with colonies obtained from two serial dilutions was performed. A total of six agar plates were prepared, where O45, O111 and O121 serogroups were inoculated into all six plates and each of O45, O103 and O145 serogroups was added into the mixture of the three common bacterial cultures. The number of colonies grown after 24-h incubation was 331 and the number of pixels associated with the grown colonies was 16,379. The best model found from this validation study was based on pre-processing with standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD), first derivative, spectral smoothing, and k-nearest neighbor classification (kNN, k=3) of scores in the principal component subspace spanned by 6 principal components. The independent testing results showed 95% overall
Shridhar, P B; Noll, L W; Shi, X; An, B; Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G; Bai, J
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, called non-O157 STEC, are important foodborne pathogens. Cattle, a major reservoir, harbor the organisms in the hindgut and shed them in the feces. Although limited data exist on fecal shedding, concentrations of non-O157 STEC in feces have not been reported. The objectives of our study were (i) to develop and validate two multiplex quantitative PCR (mqPCR) assays, targeting O-antigen genes of O26, O103, and O111 (mqPCR-1) and O45, O121, and O145 (mqPCR-2); (ii) to utilize the two assays, together with a previously developed four-plex qPCR assay (mqPCR-3) targeting the O157 antigen and three virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eae), to quantify seven serogroups and three virulence genes in cattle feces; and (iii) to compare the three mqPCR assays to a 10-plex conventional PCR (cPCR) targeting seven serogroups and three virulence genes and culture methods to detect seven E. coli serogroups in cattle feces. The two mqPCR assays (1 and 2) were shown to be specific to the target genes, and the detection limits were 4 and 2 log CFU/g of pure culture-spiked fecal samples, before and after enrichment, respectively. A total of 576 fecal samples collected from a feedlot were enriched in E. coli broth and were subjected to quantification (before enrichment) and detection (after enrichment). Of the 576 fecal samples subjected, before enrichment, to three mqPCR assays for quantification, 175 (30.4%) were quantifiable (≥4 log CFU/g) for at least one of the seven serogroups, with O157 being the most common serogroup. The three mqPCR assays detected higher proportions of postenriched fecal samples (P > 0.01) as positive for one or more serogroups compared with cPCR and culture methods. This is the first study to assess the applicability of qPCR assays to detect and quantify six non-O157 serogroups in cattle feces and to generate data on fecal concentration of the six serogroups.
This study evaluated the effects of free chlorine (FC) concentration, contact time, and organic load on the inactivation of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in suspension. Four strains each of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, or non-O157 STEC cells were inoculated separately or as a multi-...
Beier, Ross C; Franz, Eelco; Bono, James L; Mandrell, Robert E; Fratamico, Pina M; Callaway, Todd R; Andrews, Kathleen; Poole, Toni L; Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J
The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 138 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was moderate (39.1% of strains) in response to 15 antimicrobial agents. Animal strains had a lower AMR prevalence (35.6%) than did human strains (43.9%) but a higher prevalence of the resistance profile GEN-KAN-TET. A decreasing prevalence of AMR was found among animal strains from serogroups O45 > O145 > O121 > O111 > O26 > O103 and among human strains from serogroups O145 > O103 > O26 > O111 > O121 > O45. One animal strain from serogroups O121 and O145 and one human strain from serogroup O26 had extensive drug resistance. A high prevalence of AMR in animal O45 and O121 strains and no resistance or a low prevalence of resistance in human strains from these serogroups suggests a source other than food animals for human exposure to these strains. Among the 24 disinfectants evaluated, all strains were susceptible to triclosan. Animal strains had a higher prevalence of resistance to chlorhexidine than did human strains. Both animal and human strains had a similar low prevalence of low-level benzalkonium chloride resistance, and animal and human strains had similar susceptibility profiles for most other disinfectants. Benzyldimethylammonium chlorides and C10AC were the primary active components in disinfectants DC&R and P-128, respectively, against non-O157 STECs. A disinfectant FS512 MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml was more prevalent among animal O121 strains (61.5%) than among human O121 strains (25%), which may also suggest a source of human exposure to STEC O121 other than food animals. Bacterial inhibition was not dependent solely on pH but was correlated with the presence of dissociated organic acid species and some undissociated acids.
Johnson, R. P.; Holtslander, B.; Mazzocco, A.; Roche, S.; Thomas, J. L.; Pollari, F.
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains are the cause of food-borne and waterborne illnesses around the world. Traditionally, surveillance of the human population as well as the environment has focused on the detection of E. coli O157:H7. Recently, increasing recognition of non-O157 VTEC strains as human pathogens and the German O104:H4 food-borne outbreak have illustrated the importance of considering the broader group of VTEC organisms from a public health perspective. This study presents the results of a comparison of three methods for the detection of VTEC in surface water, highlighting the efficacy of a direct VT immunoblotting method without broth enrichment for detection and isolation of O157 and non-O157 VTEC strains. The direct immunoblot method eliminates the need for an enrichment step or the use of immunomagnetic separation. This method was developed after 4 years of detecting low frequencies (1%) of E. coli O157:H7 in surface water in a Canadian watershed, situated within one of the FoodNet Canada integrated surveillance sites. By the direct immunoblot method, VTEC prevalence estimates ranged from 11 to 35% for this watershed, and E. coli O157:H7 prevalence increased to 4% (due to improved method sensitivity). This direct testing method provides an efficient means to enhance our understanding of the prevalence and types of VTEC in the environment. This study employed a rapid evidence assessment (REA) approach to frame the watershed findings with watershed E. coli O157:H7 prevalences reported in the literature since 1990 and the knowledge gap with respect to VTEC detection in surface waters. PMID:24487525
This study was conducted to investigate the growth of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in spinach leaves and to develop kinetic models to describe the bacterial growth. Six serogroups of non-O157 STEC, including O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, were used in the growth studies conducted isothermally at 4, 8, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. Both STEC and background microflora were enumerated to develop kinetic models. Growth of STEC in spinach leaves was observed at elevated temperatures (15-35 °C), but not at 4 and 8 °C. This study considered the dynamic interactions between the STEC cells and the background microflora. A modified Lotka-Volterra and logistic equation was used to simulate the bacterial growth. In combination with an unconstrained optimization procedure, the differential growth equations were solved numerically to evaluate the dynamic interactions between the STEC cells and the background microflora, and to determine the kinetic parameters by fitting each growth curve to the growth equations. A close agreement between the experimental growth curves and the numerical analysis results was obtained. The analytical results showed that the growth of STEC in spinach leaves was unhindered when the population was low, but the growth was suppressed by the background microflora as the STEC population approached the maximum population density. The effect of temperature on the growth of both STEC and background microflora was also evaluated. Secondary models, evaluating the effect of temperature on growth rates, were also developed. The estimated apparent minimum growth temperature for STEC was 11 °C in commercial spinach leaves. The methodology and results of this study can be used to examine the dynamic interactions and growth between different bacteria in foods, and to conduct risk assessments of STEC in spinach leaves.
Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important foodborne pathogens. Among these, E. coli O157:H7 is the most frequently isolated STEC serotype responsible for foodborne diseases. However, the non-O157 serotypes have been associated with serious outbreaks and sporadic diseases as...
Food borne infection caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major worldwide health concern. The best known STEC serotype is E. coli O157:H7, which can be easily identified when cultured on sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar. Recently, six non-O157 STEC serotypes have been found t...
Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Koohmaraie, Mohammad
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a Shiga toxin (stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) strain that has been classified as an adulterant in U.S. beef. However, numerous other non-O157 STEC strains are associated with diseases of various severities and have become an increasing concern to the beef industry, regulatory officials, and the public. This study reports on the prevalence and characterization of non-O157 STEC in commercial ground beef samples (n = 4,133) obtained from numerous manufacturers across the United States over a period of 24 months. All samples were screened by DNA amplification for the presence of Shiga toxin genes, which were present in 1,006 (24.3%) of the samples. Then, culture isolation of an STEC isolate from all samples that contained stx1 and/or stx2 was attempted. Of the 1,006 positive ground beef samples screened for stx, 300 (7.3% of the total of 4,133) were confirmed to have at least one strain of STEC present by culture isolation. In total, 338 unique STEC isolates were recovered from the 300 samples that yielded an STEC isolate. All unique STEC isolates were serotyped and were characterized for the presence of known virulence factors. These included Shiga toxin subtypes, intimin subtypes, and accessory virulence factors related to adherence (saa, iha, lifA), toxicity (cnf, subA, astA), iron acquisition (chuA), and the presence of the large 60-MDa virulence plasmid (espP, etpD, toxB, katP, toxB). The isolates were also characterized by use of a pathogenicity molecular risk assessment (MRA; based on the presence of various O-island nle genes). Results of this characterization identified 10 STEC isolates (0.24% of the 4,133 total) that may be considered a significant food safety threat, defined by the presence of eae, subA, and nle genes. PMID:21257806
Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Fratamico, Pina; Oh, Deog-Hwan
The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and 30 °C for 25 min with or without glutamic acid. Furthermore, the molecular subgrouping of the STEC strains was analyzed with the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) method using a DiversiLab(TM) system. Results for a total of 52 strains ranged from 0.31 to 5.45 log reduction CFU/mL in the absence of glutamic acid and 0.02 to 0.33 CFU/mL in the presence of glutamic acid except for B447 (O26:H11), B452 (O45:H2), and B466 (O104:H4) strains. Strains belonging to serogroups O111, O121, and O103 showed higher AR than serotype O157:H7 strains in the absence of glutamic acid. All STEC O157:H7 strains exhibited a comparable DNA pattern with more than 95% similarity in the rep-PCR results, as did the strains belonging to serogroups O111 and O121. Surprisingly, the DNA pattern of B458 (O103:H2) was similar to that of O157:H7 strains with 82% similarity, and strain B458 strain showed the highest AR to AAS among the O103 strains with 0.44 log reduction CFU/mL without glutamic acid. In conclusion, STEC serotypes isolated from different sources exhibited diverse AR and genetic subtyping patterns. Results indicated that some non-O157 STEC strains may have higher AR than STEC O157:H7 strains under specific acidic conditions, and the addition of glutamic acid provided enhanced protection against exposure to AAS.
Cobbold, R N; Davis, M A; Rice, D H; Szymanski, M; Tarr, P I; Besser, T E; Hancock, D D
A survey for Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk and beef was conducted within a defined geographic region of the United States. Prevalence rates based on detection of Shiga toxin gene (stx) were 36% for retail beef, 23% for beef carcasses, and 21% for raw milk samples, which were significantly higher than were Shiga toxigenic E. coli isolation rates of 7.5, 5.8, and 3.2%, respectively. Seasonal prevalence differences were significant for stx positivity among ground beef and milk samples. Distribution of stx subtypes among isolates varied according to sample type, with stx1 predominating in milk, stx2 on carcasses, and the combination of both stx1 and stx2 in beef. Ancillary virulence markers eae and ehx were evident in 23 and 15% of isolates, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated associations between food isolates and sympatric bovine fecal, and human clinical isolates. These data demonstrate that non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli is present in the food chain in the Pacific Northwest, and its risk to health warrants critical assessment.
Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H
The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°C greater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°C was significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°C for non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°C for O157. D55°C for pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°C of Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and
Gilmour, Matthew W.; Tabor, Helen; Wang, Gehua; Clark, Clifford G.; Tracz, Dobryan M.; Olson, Adam B.; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Karmali, Mohamed A.; Mailman, Tim; Ng, Lai-King
A coinfection of O177:NM and O55:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was identified for a child with acute bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome by using culture and serotype-specific molecular reagents. The profile of O157-related genetic islands revealed that the O55:H7 isolate was highly similar to O157 STEC whereas the O177:NM isolate lacked several fimbrial O islands and non-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement effector determinants. However, both STEC serotypes are known to cause serious disease, and the significant repertoire of virulence determinants in both strains made it impossible to determine their individual contributions to the clinical symptoms. PMID:17804662
Stromberg, Loreen R; Stromberg, Zachary R; Banisadr, Afsheen; Graves, Steven W; Moxley, Rodney A; Mukundan, Harshini
Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are virulent human pathogens that are most often acquired through contaminated food. The United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared several serogroups of STEC as adulterants in non-intact raw beef products. Hence, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of these STEC are a necessity for implementation in food safety programs. E. coli serogroups are identified by their respective O-antigen moiety on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) macromolecule. We propose that the development of O-antigen-specific immunological assays can facilitate simple and rapid discriminatory detection of STEC in beef. However, the resources (antigens and antibodies) required for such development are not readily available. To overcome this, we extracted and characterized LPS and O-antigen from six STEC strains. Using hot phenol extraction, we isolated the LPS component from each strain and purified it using a series of steps to eliminate proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid A antigens. Antigens and crude LPS extracts were characterized using gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and modified Western blotting with commercially available antibodies, thus assessing the serogroup specificity and sensitivity of available ligands as well. The results indicate that, while many commercially available antibodies bind LPS, their activities and specificities are highly variable, and often not as specific as those required for serogroup discrimination. This variability could be minimized by the production of antibodies specific for the O-antigen. Additionally, the antigens generated from this study provide a source of characterized LPS and O-antigen standards for six serogroups of STEC.
Cadona, Jimena S.; Bustamante, Ana V.; González, Juliana; Sanso, A. Mariel
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a foodborne pathogen responsible for severe disease in humans such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and cattle, the principal reservoir. Identification of the clones/lineages is important as several characteristics, among them propensity to cause disease varies with STEC phylogenetic origin. At present, we do not know what STEC clones, especially of non-O157:H7, are circulating in Argentina. To fill this knowledge gap we assessed the genetic diversity of STEC strains isolated in Argentina from various sources, mostly cattle and food, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our objectives were to determine the phylogenetic relationships among strains and to compare them with strains from different geographic origins, especially with those from clinical human cases, in order to evaluate their potential health risk. A total of 59 STEC isolates from 41 serotypes were characterized by MLST. Analysis using EcMLST database identified 38 sequence types (ST), 17 (45%) of which were new STs detected in 18 serotypes. Fifteen out of 38 STs identified were grouped into 11 clonal groups (CGs) and, 23 not grouped in any of the defined CGs. Different STs were found in the same serotype. Results highlighted a high degree of phylogenetic heterogeneity among Argentinean strains and they showed that several cattle and food isolates belonged to the same STs that are commonly associated with clinical human cases in several geographical areas. STEC is a significant public health concern. Argentina has the highest incidence of HUS in the world and this study provides the first data about which STEC clones are circulating. Data showed that most of them might pose a serious zoonotic risk and this information is important for developing public health initiatives. However, the actual potential risk will be defined by the virulence profiles, which may differ among isolates belonging to the same ST. PMID:27625995
Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli O157 and non-O157 strains is a matter of increasing concern, and the association with some virulence traits in the same bacteria remains unclear. Inappropriate antimicrobial use in human and animal therapy has been associated with selective pressure in enteric mi...
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are among the most important foodborne pathogens in the United States and worldwide. Nearly half of all STEC-induced diarrheal disease in the United States is caused by STEC O157:H7 while non-O157 STEC account for the remaining illnesses. Thus, the USDA Food Safe...
Jiang, Yun; Scheinberg, Joshua A; Senevirathne, Reshani; Cutter, Catherine N
High pressure processing (HPP) has previously been shown to be effective at reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat products. However, few studies have determined whether HPP may be effective at reducing non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in ground beef. This study investigated the efficacy of short and repeated HPP treatments to reduce non-O157:H7 STEC inoculated into ground beef. Irradiated ground beef patties (80:20, 90:10 [lean:fat]) were inoculated with pairs of E. coli serogroups O103, O111, O26, O145, O121, O45, O157:H7, and DH5α, vacuum-packaged and high-pressure processed (four, 60 s cycles, 400 MPa, 17°C). Surviving E. coli populations were enumerated on Rainbow Agar O157 and Tryptic Soy Agar. HPP treatments produced >2.0 log₁₀ CFU/g reductions of each E. coli serogroup, and reductions ranged from 2.35-3.88 and 2.26-4.31 log₁₀ CFU/g in 80:20 and 90:10 samples, respectively. These results suggest that HPP could be an effective, post-processing intervention to reduce the risk of non-O157:H7 STEC contamination in ground beef.
The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of seven non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121 and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and 30°...
Influence of primer sequences and DNA extraction method on detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by real-time PCR targeting the eae, stx, and serogroup-specific genes.
Wasilenko, Jamie L; Fratamico, Pina M; Narang, Neelam; Tillman, Glenn E; Ladely, Scott; Simmons, Mustafa; Cray, William C
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, particularly those caused by the "big six" or "top six" non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) can result in severe illness and complications. Because of their significant public health impact and the notable prevalence of STEC in cattle, methods for detection of the big six non-O157 STEC in ground beef have been established. Currently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service detection methods for screening beef samples for non-O157 STEC target the stx(1), stx(2), and eae virulence genes, with the 16S rRNA gene as an internal control, in a real-time PCR multiplex assay. Further, the serogroup is determined by PCR targeting genes in the E. coli O-antigen gene clusters of the big six non-O157 serogroups. The method that we previously reported was improved so that additional stx variants, stx(1d), stx(2e), and stx(2g), are detected. Additionally, alignments of the primers targeting the eae gene were used to improve the detection assay so that eae subtypes that could potentially be of clinical significance would also be detected. Therefore, evaluation of alternative real-time PCR assay primers and probes for the stx and eae reactions was carried out in order to increase the stx and eae subtypes detected. Furthermore, a Tris-EDTA DNA extraction method was compared with a previously used procedure that was based on a commercially available reagent. The Tris-EDTA DNA extraction method significantly decreased the cycle threshold values for the stx assay (P < 0.0001) and eae assay (P < 0.0001), thereby increasing the ability to detect the targets. The use of different stx primers and probes increased the subtypes detected to include stx(1d), stx(2e), and stx(2g), and sequence data showed that modification of the eae primer should allow the known eae subtypes to be detected.
Paoli, George C; Wijey, Chandi; Uhlich, Gaylen A
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is an important group of foodborne pathogens in the United States and worldwide. Nearly half of STEC-induced diarrheal disease in the United States is caused by serotype O157:H7, while non-O157 STEC account for the remaining illnesses. Thus, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service has instituted regulatory testing of beef products and has a zero-tolerance policy for regulatory samples that test positive for STEC O157:H7 and six other non-O157 STEC (serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). In this study, positive control (PC) strains for the detection of STEC O157:H7 and the six USDA-regulated non-O157 STEC were constructed. To ensure that the food testing samples are not cross-contaminated by the PC sample, it is important that the STEC-PC strains are distinguishable from STEC isolated from test samples. The PC strains were constructed by integrating a unique DNA target sequence and a gene for spectinomycin (Sp) resistance into the chromosomes of the seven STEC strains. End-point and real-time PCR assays were developed for the specific detection of the PC strains and were tested using 93 strains of E. coli (38 STEC O157:H7, at least 6 strains of each of the USDA-regulated non-O157 STEC, and 2 commensal E. coli) and 51 strains of other bacteria (30 species from 20 genera). The PCR assays demonstrated high specificity for the unique target sequence. The target sequence was detectable by PCR after 10 culture passages (∼100 generations), demonstrating the stability of the integrated target sequence. In addition, the strains were tested for their potential use in modeling the growth of STEC. Plating the PC strains mixed with ground beef flora on modified rainbow agar containing Sp eliminated the growth of the background flora that grew on modified rainbow agar without Sp. Thus, these strains could be used to enumerate and model the growth of STEC in the presence of foodborne background
Behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, non-O157-shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on mung bean seeds and sprout.
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Vázquez-Barrios, Ma Estela; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier
The behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C and during germination and sprouting of mung bean seeds at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C and on mung bean sprouts at 3±2 °C was determined. When mung bean seeds were inoculated with EAEC, non-O157 STEC, EIEC, EPEC or ETEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) survived at least 90 days on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C. All DEPs grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 Log and 7 Log CFU/g after 2 days at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seeds germination and stored at 20±2 ° or 30±2 °C, no growth was observed for any DEPs during sprouting at 20±2 °C per 9 d; however, a significant increase in the concentration of DEPs of approximately 0.7 log CFU/g was observed during sprouting at 30±2 °C after 1 day of sprout contamination. Refrigeration reduced the number of viable DEPs strains on sprouts after 10 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance in the safety of the sprouts.
Wang, Rong; Bono, James L; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Shackelford, Steven; Harhay, Dayna M
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important foodborne pathogens. Among these, E. coli O157:H7 is the most frequently isolated STEC serotype responsible for foodborne diseases. However, the non-O157 serotypes have been associated with serious outbreaks and sporadic diseases as well. It has been shown that various STEC serotypes are capable of forming biofilms on different food or food contact surfaces that, when detached, may lead to cross-contamination. Bacterial cells at biofilm stage also are more tolerant to sanitizers compared with their planktonic counterparts, which makes STEC biofilms a serious food safety concern. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of biofilm formation by a variety of STEC strains from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:H8; we also compared biofilm tolerance with two types of common sanitizers, a quaternary ammonium chloride-based sanitizer and chlorine. Our results demonstrated that biofilm formation by various STEC serotypes on a polystyrene surface was highly strain-dependent, whereas the two non-O157 serotypes showed a higher potency of pellicle formation at air-liquid interfaces on a glass surface compared with serotype O157:H7. Significant reductions of viable biofilm cells were achieved with sanitizer treatments. STEC biofilm tolerance to sanitization was strain-dependent regardless of the serotypes. Curli expression appeared to play a critical role in STEC biofilm formation and tolerance to sanitizers. Our data indicated that multiple factors, including bacterial serotype and strain, surface materials, and other environmental conditions, could significantly affect STEC biofilm formation. The high potential for biofilm formation by various STEC serotypes, especially the strong potency of pellicle formation by the curli-positive non-O157 strains with high sanitization tolerance, might contribute to bacterial colonization on food contact surfaces, which may result in downstream product
Mohammed, Hussni O; Stipetic, Korana; Salem, Ahmed; McDonough, Patrick; Chang, Yung Fu; Sultan, Ali
Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. are among the top-ranked pathogens that threaten the safety of food supply systems around the world. The associated risks and predisposing factors were investigated in a dynamic animal population using a repeat-cross-sectional study design. Animal and environmental samples were collected from dairy and camel farms, chicken processing plants, and abattoirs and analyzed for the presence of these pathogens using a combination of bacterial enrichment and real-time PCR tests without culture confirmation. Data on putative risk factors were also collected and analyzed. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by PCR at higher levels in sheep and camel feces than in cattle feces (odds ratios [OR], 6.8 and 21.1, respectively). Although the genes indicating E. coli O157:H7 were detected at a relatively higher rate (4.3%) in fecal samples from dairy cattle, they were less common in milk and udder swabs from the same animals (1 and 2%, respectively). Among the food adulterants, E. coli O103 was more common in cattle fecal samples, whereas O26 was more common in sheep feces and O45 in camel feces compared with cattle (OR, 2.6 and 3.1, respectively). The occurrence of E. coli in the targeted populations differed by the type of sample and season of the year. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were more common in sheep and camel feces than in cattle feces. Most of the survey and surveillance of E. coli focused on serogroup O157 as a potential foodborne hazard; however, based on the PCR results, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotypes appeared to be more common, and efforts should be made to include them in food safety programs.
Kanankege, Kaushi S T; Anklam, Kelly S; Fick, Catherine M; Kulow, Megan J; Kaspar, Charles W; Ingham, Barbara H; Milkowski, Andrew; Döpfer, Dörte
Six major Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups: O26, O103, O145, O111, O121, and O45 have been declared as adulterants in federally inspected raw beef in the USA effective June 4th, 2012 in addition to the routinely tested STEC O157: H7. This study tests a real-time multiplex PCR assay and pooling of the samples to optimize the detection and quantification (prevalence and contamination) of six major non-O157 STEC, regardless of possessing Shiga toxins. To demonstrate the practicality, one large-scale slaughter plant (Plant LS) and one small-scale slaughter plant (Plant SS) located in the Mid-Western USA were sampled, in 2011, before the establishment of 2013 USDA laboratory protocols. Carcasses were sampled at consecutive intervention stations and beef trimmings were collected at the end of the fabrication process. Plant SS had marginally more contaminated samples than Plant LS (p-value 0.08). The post-hide removal wash, steam pasteurization, and lactic acid (≤5%) spray used in Plant LS seemed to reduce the six serogroups effectively, compared to the hot-water wash and 7-day chilling at Plant SS. Compared to the culture isolation methods, quantification of the non-O157 STEC using real-time PCR may be an efficient way to monitor the efficacy of slaughter line interventions.
Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Deer, Deanne M; Borenstein, Stacey; Prezioso, Samantha; Hammack, Thomas S
The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method for the detection/isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) involves enrichment of produce rinses, blended homogenates or stomached homogenates. However, the effectiveness of rinsing produce to remove attached bacteria is largely unknown. Moreover, PCR inhibitors can be released under physical treatment. The study objective was to determine the relative effectiveness of recovery methods for STEC contaminated produce. Spinach, lettuce, and cilantro were contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 or a non-O157 STEC, subjected to both the BAM method and a soak method, and tested by real-time PCR and cultural methods. For O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 STECs, the soak method was significantly more productive than leafy green rinses. Of 320 test portions, PCR of recovered colonies confirmed 148 were positive by rinsing and 271 were positive by soaking (an 83% increase in sensitivity). For recovery of O157:H7 from cilantro, of 60 test portions, positives were 38 by soaking, 41 by stomaching, and 28 by blending. Soaking and stomaching were significantly more productive than blending, although soaking was only arithmetically superior to stomaching. Based upon these results, it is recommended that a soak method replace the current BAM procedures.
Brudzinski, L; Harrison, M A
The increasing frequency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, especially in acidic foods, raises the concern of an acid tolerance response (ATR). Organic acids can be present in processed and preserved foods: shifts in the acid levels of foods due to these acids may allow E. coli to adapt and later tolerate pH levels that would normally inactivate the organism. The effect of temperature and agitation on the ATRs of three E. coli O157:H7 and two non-O157:H7 isolates were determined. Triggered at pH 5.0, the adaptive system of the ATR allowed for up to nearly 1,000-fold enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 cells in some cases compared to survival of nonadapted cells at pH 4.0. E. coli O157:H7 isolates revealed greater acid tolerance responses when incubated statically at 32 degrees C, whereas the non-O157:H7 E. coli isolates exhibited a greater acid tolerance response with orbital agitation at 25 degrees C. The magnitude of response changed over the incubation period.
Monu, Emefa Angelica; Valladares, Malcond; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael
Produce has been associated with a rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. While much produce is consumed raw, some is treated with mild heat, such as blanching or cooking. The objectives of this research were to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) and a spinach homogenate and to provide an estimate of the safety of mild heat processes for spinach. Five individual strains of S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC were tested in PBS in 2-ml glass vials, and cocktails of the organisms were tested in blended spinach in vacuum-sealed bags. For Listeria and Salmonella at 56 to 60°C, D-values in PBS ranged from 4.42 ± 0.94 to 0.35 ± 0.03 min and 2.11 ± 0.14 to 0.16 ± 0.03 min, respectively. D-values at 54 to 58°C were 5.18 ± 0.21 to 0.53 ± 0.04 min for STEC O157:H7 and 5.01 ± 0.60 to 0.60 ± 0.13 min for non-O157 STEC. In spinach at 56 to 60°C, Listeria D-values were 11.77 ± 2.18 to 1.22 ± 0.12 min and Salmonella D-values were 3.51 ± 0.06 to 0.47 ± 0.06 min. D-values for STEC O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC were 7.21 ± 0.17 to 1.07 ± 0.11 min and 5.57 ± 0.38 to 0.99 ± 0.07 min, respectively, at 56 to 60°C. In spinach, z-values were 4.07 ± 0.16, 4.59 ± 0.26, 4.80 ± 0.92, and 5.22 ± 0.20°C for Listeria, Salmonella, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC, respectively. Results indicated that a mild thermal treatment of blended spinach at 70°C for less than 1 min would result in a 6-log reduction of all pathogens tested. These findings may assist the food industry in the design of suitable mild thermal processes to ensure food safety.
Guzman-Hernandez, Rosa; Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Hernandez-Velez, Rosa; Perez-Martinez, Iza; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa
Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items.
Influence of primer sequences and DNA extraction method on detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by real-time PCR targeting the eae, stx, and serogroup-specific genes
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections, particularly those caused by the “big six”/”top six” non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) can result in severe illness and complications. Due to their significant public health impact and the notable prevalence of STEC ...
Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesus E; Mora, Azucena; González, Enrique A; Bernárdez, Maria I; Alonso, Maria P; Coira, Amparo; Rodriguez, Asuncion; Rey, Joaquin; Alonso, Juan M; Usera, Miguel A
In Spain, as in many other countries, verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains have been frequently isolated from cattle, sheep, and foods. VTEC strains have caused seven outbreaks in Spain (six caused by E. coli O157:H7 and one by E. coli O111:H- [nonmotile]) in recent years. An analysis of the serotypes indicated serological diversity. Among the strains isolated from humans, serotypes O26:H11, O111:H-, and O157:H7 were found to be more prevalent. The most frequently detected serotypes in cattle were O20:H19, O22:H8, O26:H11, O77:H41, O105:H18, O113:H21, O157:H7, O171:H2, and OUT (O untypeable):H19. Different VTEC serotypes (e.g., O5:H-, O6:H10, O91:H-, O117:H-, O128:H-, O128:H2, O146:H8, O146:H21, O156:H-, and OUT:H21) were found more frequently in sheep. These observations suggest a host serotype specificity for some VTEC. Numerous bovine and ovine VTEC serotypes detected in Spain were associated with human illnesses, confirming that ruminants are important reservoirs of pathogenic VTEC. VTEC can produce one or two toxins (VT1 and VT2) that cause human illnesses. These toxins are different proteins encoded by different genes. Another virulence factor expressed by VTEC is the protein intimin that is responsible for intimate attachment of VTEC and effacing lesions in the intestinal mucosa. This virulence factor is encoded by the chromosomal gene eae. The eae gene was found at a much less frequency in bovine (17%) and ovine (5%) than in human (45%) non-O157 VTEC strains. This may support the evidence that the eae gene contributes significantly to the virulence of human VTEC strains and that many animal non-O157 VTEC strains are less pathogenic to humans.
Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S
The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices.
Li, Shuliu; Kundu, Devapriya; Holley, Richard A
Lactic acid pre-treatment was examined to enhance the antimicrobial action of electron (e-) beam irradiation of beef trim. Meat samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 VTEC E. coli or Salmonella cocktails and treated with 5% lactic acid at 55 °C. Samples were packaged aerobically or vacuum-packed, kept at 4 °C and treated with 1 kGy e-beam energy. Frozen samples were treated with 1, 3 or 7 kGy and stored at -20 °C for ≤ 5 d. Lactic acid enhanced the antimicrobial action of 1 kGy e-beam treatment against Salmonella by causing an additional <1.8 log CFU/g reduction. One kGy treatment of refrigerated samples reduced VTEC E. coli viability by 4.5 log CFU/g, and while lactic acid did not improve the reduction, after freezing additive effects were found. After 3 kGy irradiation, Salmonella was reduced by 2 and 4 log CFU/g in the irradiated and lactic acid plus irradiated samples, respectively. Lactic acid pre-treatment was of limited value with 1 kGy treatment for improving control of toxigenic E. coli in fresh beef trim, however, it would be useful with low dose irradiation for controlling both VTEC E. coli and Salmonella in frozen product.
Biofilm formation in most Escherichia coli strains is dependent on curli fimbriae and cellulose, and the expression of both varies widely among pathogenic strains. Curli and cellulose expression are often identified by their affinity for Congo red dye (CR). However, media composition and incubation ...
Escherichia coli are gram negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that colonize within the intestines of animals and humans. Enterohemorragic strains of E. coli (EHEC) pose a serious health risk to humans yet reside asymptomatically within ruminants. In particular, bovine serve as the major reser...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an...
Validation comparing the effectiveness of a lactic acid dip with a lactic acid spray for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli on beef trim and ground beef.
Wolf, M J; Miller, M F; Parks, A R; Loneragan, G H; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Echeverry, A; Brashears, M M
The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two application methods (dip versus spray) of 4.4% lactic acid for reducing pathogens on inoculated beef trim and in ground beef. Beef trim inoculated with cocktail mixtures of E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC), or Salmonella (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g) at separate times was subjected to five treatments: lactic acid spray (LS), lactic acid dip (LD), water spray (WS), water dip (WD), and untreated control (CTL). Intervention effectiveness for pathogen reduction was measured at 1 and 20 h after treatment on beef trim. Trim was then ground and intervention effectiveness was measured 1 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after grinding. The LD treatment reduced all pathogens significantly (P < 0.05); E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 0.91 to 1.41 log CFU/g on beef trim and ground beef, non-O157 STEC by 0.48 to 0.82 log CFU/g, and Salmonella by 0.51 to 0.81 log CFU/g. No other treatment significantly reduced any pathogen, although the WD treatment noticeably reduced (P > 0.05) both E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC populations compared with the CTL. The LS treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by up to 0.5 log CFU/g on beef trim, but these reduced counts did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the CTL counts. Overall, the LD treatment was most effective for reducing all pathogens and is the best of these options for improving the safety of beef trim and subsequently produced ground beef.
Interrogation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in gnd provides a novel method for molecular serogrouping of clinically important Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) targeted by regulation in the United States, including the "big six" non-O157 STEC and STEC O157.
Elder, J R; Bugarel, M; den Bakker, H C; Loneragan, G H; Nightingale, K K
Escherichia coli O157:H7 has frequently been associated with foodborne infections and is considered an adulterant in raw non-intact beef in the U.S. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 (known as the "big six" non-O157) were estimated to cause >70% of foodborne infections attributed to non-O157 serogroups in the U.S., as a result, these six serogroups have also been targeted by regulation in the U.S. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and high-throughput molecular method to group STEC isolates into seven clinically important serogroups (i.e., O157 and the "big six" non-O157 serogroups) targeted by regulation in the U.S. by interrogating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gnd. A collection of 195 STEC isolates, including isolates belonging to O157:H7 (n=18), O26 (n=21), O45 (n=19), O103 (n=24), O111 (n=24), O121 (n=23), O145 (n=21), and ten other STEC serogroups (n=45), was assembled and characterized by full gnd sequencing to identify informative SNPs for molecular serogrouping. A multiplex SNP typing assay was developed to interrogate twelve informative gnd SNPs by single base pair extension chemistry and used to characterize the STEC isolate collection assembled here. SNP types were assigned to each isolate by the assay and polymorphisms were confirmed with gnd sequence data. O-serogroup-specific SNP types were identified for each of the seven clinically important STEC serogroups, which allowed the differentiation of these seven STEC serogroups from other non-O157 STEC serogroups. Although serogroups of the "big six" non-O157 STEC and O157:H7 contained multiple SNP types per O-serogroup, there were no overlapping SNP types between serogroups. Our results demonstrate that molecular serogrouping of STEC isolates by interrogation of informative SNPs in gnd represents an alternative to traditional serogrouping by agglutination for rapid and high-throughput identification of clinically
Evaluation of lactic acid as an initial and secondary subprimal intervention for Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and a nonpathogenic E. coli surrogate for E. coli O157:H7.
Pittman, C I; Geornaras, I; Woerner, D R; Nightingale, K K; Sofos, J N; Goodridge, L; Belk, K E
Lactic acid can reduce microbial contamination on beef carcass surfaces when used as a food safety intervention, but effectiveness when applied to the surface of chilled beef subprimal sections is not well documented. Studies characterizing bacterial reduction on subprimals after lactic acid treatment would be useful for validations of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems. The objective of this study was to validate initial use of lactic acid as a subprimal intervention during beef fabrication followed by a secondary application to vacuum-packaged product that was applied at industry operating parameters. Chilled beef subprimal sections (100 cm(2)) were either left uninoculated or were inoculated with 6 log CFU/cm(2) of a 5-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7, a 12-strain mixture of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), or a 5-strain mixture of nonpathogenic (biotype I) E. coli that are considered surrogates for E. coli O157:H7. Uninoculated and inoculated subprimal sections received only an initial or an initial and a second "rework" application of lactic acid in a custombuilt spray cabinet at 1 of 16 application parameters. After the initial spray, total inoculum counts were reduced from 6.0 log CFU/cm(2) to 3.6, 4.4, and 4.4 log CFU/cm(2) for the E. coli surrogates, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC inoculation groups, respectively. After the second (rework) application, total inoculum counts were 2.6, 3.2, and 3.6 log CFU/cm(2) for the E. coli surrogates, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC inoculation groups, respectively. Both the initial and secondary lactic acid treatments effectively reduced counts of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of E. coli and natural microflora on beef subprimals. These data will be useful to the meat industry as part of the HACCP validation process.
Ishijima, Nozomi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Yoneda, Saori; Iguchi, Atsushi; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Ohnishi, Makoto; Iyoda, Sunao
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26 infections cause severe human diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy, and is the predominant serogroup among non-O157 EHEC in many countries. Shiga toxin (Stx), which consists of two distinct types (Stx1 and Stx2), plays a central role in EHEC pathogenesis. The major stx gene type in EHEC O26 strains is stx1, although isolates with only stx2 have emerged in Japan since 2012 and have been reported in Europe. In this study, we selected 27 EHEC O26 strains isolated in Japan and identified a distinct genetic clade within sequence type (ST) 29, designated ST29C1, that carried only stx2 and had the plasmid gene profile ehxA+/katP−/espP+/etpD−. We showed that ST29C1 strains produced higher Stx2a levels, and greater virulence in Vero cells and in germ-free mice than other lineages. We also showed that ST29C1 was a distinct phylogenetic clade by SNP analysis using whole genome sequences and clearly differed from the major European EHEC O26 virulent clone, which was designated ST29C2 in this study. The combination of toxin production analysis, virulence analysis in Vero cells and germ-free mice, and phylogenetic analysis identified a newly emerging virulent EHEC clade. PMID:28230102
Kimura, Richard; Mandrell, Robert E.; Galland, John C.; Hyatt, Doreene; Riley, Lee W.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen in industrialized countries. We developed a rapid and simple test for detecting E. coli O157:H7 using a method based on restriction site polymorphisms. Restriction-site-specific PCR (RSS-PCR) involves the amplification of DNA fragments using primers based on specific restriction enzyme recognition sequences, without the use of endonucleases, to generate a set of amplicons that yield “fingerprint” patterns when resolved electrophoretically on an agarose gel. The method was evaluated in a blinded study of E. coli isolates obtained from environmental samples collected at beef cattle feedyards. The 54 isolates were all initially identified by a commonly used polyclonal antibody test as belonging to O157:H7 serotype. They were retested by anti-O157 and anti-H7 monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The RSS-PCR method identified all 28 isolates that were shown to be E. coli O157:H7 by the monoclonal antibody ELISA as belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. Of the remaining 26 ELISA-confirmed non-O157:H7 strains, the method classified 25 strains as non-O157:H7. The specificity of the RSS-PCR results correlated better with the monoclonal antibody ELISA than with the polyclonal antibody latex agglutination tests. The RSS-PCR method may be a useful test to distinguish E. coli O157:H7 from a large number of E. coli isolates from environmental samples. PMID:10831431
Cull, Charley A; Renter, David G; Dewsbury, Diana M; Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Ives, Samuel E; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia
The objective of this study was to determine feedlot- and pen-level fecal prevalence of seven enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) belonging to serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157, or EHEC-7) in feces of feedlot cattle in two feeding areas in the United States. Cattle pens from four commercial feedlots in each of the two major U.S. beef cattle areas were sampled. Up to 16 pen-floor fecal samples were collected from each of 4-6 pens per feedlot, monthly, for a total of three visits per feedlot, from June to August, 2014. Culture procedures including fecal enrichment in E. coli broth, immunomagnetic separation, and plating on selective media, followed by confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, were conducted. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to estimate feedlot-, pen-, and sample-level fecal prevalence of EHEC-7 and to evaluate associations between potential demographic and management risk factors with feedlot and within-pen prevalence of EHEC-7. All study feedlots and 31.0% of the study pens had at least one non-O157 EHEC-positive fecal sample, whereas 62.4% of pens tested positive for EHEC O157; sample-level prevalence estimates ranged from 0.0% for EHEC O121 to 18.7% for EHEC O157. Within-pen prevalence of EHEC O157 varied significantly by sampling month; similarly within-pen prevalence of non-O157 EHEC varied significantly by month and by the sex composition of the pen (heifer, steer, or mixed). Feedlot management factors, however, were not significantly associated with fecal prevalence of EHEC-7. Intraclass correlation coefficients for EHEC-7 models indicated that most of the variation occurred between pens, rather than within pens, or between feedlots. Hence, the potential combination of preharvest interventions and pen-level management strategies may have positive food safety impacts downstream along the beef chain.
Certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups have emerged as important public health threats. The development of methods for rapid and reliable detection of this heterogeneous group of pathogens has been challenging. A GeneDisc real-time PCR assay was evaluated for det...
Easton, Donna M.; Allsopp, Luke P.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Moriel, Danilo Gomes; Goh, Guan Kai; Beatson, Scott A.; Mahony, Timothy J.; Cobbold, Rowland N.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a Shiga-toxigenic pathogen capable of inducing severe forms of enteritis (e.g., hemorrhagic colitis) and extraintestinal sequelae (e.g., hemolytic-uremic syndrome). The molecular basis of colonization of human and animal hosts by EHEC is not yet completely understood, and an improved understanding of EHEC mucosal adherence may lead to the development of interventions that could disrupt host colonization. FdeC, also referred to by its IHE3034 locus tag ECOK1_0290, is an intimin-like protein that was recently shown to contribute to kidney colonization in a mouse urinary tract infection model. The expression of FdeC is tightly regulated in vitro, and FdeC shows promise as a vaccine candidate against extraintestinal E. coli strains. In this study, we characterized the prevalence, regulation, and function of fdeC in EHEC. We showed that the fdeC gene is conserved in both O157 and non-O157 EHEC and encodes a protein that is expressed at the cell surface and promotes biofilm formation under continuous-flow conditions in a recombinant E. coli strain background. We also identified culture conditions under which FdeC is expressed and showed that minor alterations of these conditions, such as changes in temperature, can significantly alter the level of FdeC expression. Additionally, we demonstrated that the transcription of the fdeC gene is repressed by the global regulator H-NS. Taken together, our data suggest a role for FdeC in EHEC when it grows at temperatures above 37°C, a condition relevant to its specialized niche at the rectoanal junctions of cattle. PMID:25239893
Cabal, A; Gómez-Barrero, S; Porrero, C; Bárcena, C; López, G; Cantón, R; Gortázar, C; Domínguez, L; Álvarez, J
The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species.
Cabal, A.; Gómez-Barrero, S.; Porrero, C.; Bárcena, C.; López, G.; Cantón, R.; Gortázar, C.; Domínguez, L.
The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species. PMID:23603685
Datz, M; Janetzki-Mittmann, C; Franke, S; Gunzer, F; Schmidt, H; Karch, H
In this study, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the p gene contained within a 5-kb EcoRI restriction fragment cloned from Shiga-like toxin II (SLT-II)-converting phage 933W of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. The p gene was 702 bp long and had 95.3% sequence similarity to the p gene of phage lambda. Multiple hybridization patterns were obtained when genomic DNA fragments were hybridized with both p and slt-I, slt-II, or slt-IIc sequences. All O157 isolates also possessed an analog of lambda gene p which was not linked with either slt-I or slt-II. Restriction fragment length polymorphism comparisons of clinical O157 isolates and derivates undergoing genotype turnover during infection were made, and loss of large DNA fragments that hybridized with slt-II and p sequences was observed. To further analyze the DNA region containing the p and slt genes, we amplified fragments by using a PCR with one primer complementary to p and the other complementary to either the slt-I or the slt-II gene. PCR analysis with enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157 and non-O157 strains yielded PCR products that varied in size between 5.1 and 7.8 kb. These results suggest that even within O157 isolates, the genomes of SLT-converting phages differ. The methods described here may assist in further investigation of SLT-encoding phages and their role in the epidemiology of infection with enterohemorrhagic E. coli. PMID:8975608
Zhang, Yong; Qi, Zhimin; Liu, Yan; He, Wenqi; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quan; Dong, Jing; Deng, Xuming
Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 poses grave challenges to public health by its ability to cause severe colonic diseases and renal failure in both human and animals. Shiga-like toxins are the major pathogenic factor for some highly virulent E. coli expecially Shiga-like toxin 2. Conventional treatments such as antibiotics can facilitate the release of the toxin thus potentially exacerbate the diseases. Small molecule inhibitors and antibodies capable of neutralizing the toxins are the two major venues for the development of therapeutics against enterohemorrhagic serotype E. coli infection. While promising and potentially effective at clinical settings, these approaches need to overcome obstacles such as the limited routes of administration, responses from the host immune system, which are known to differ greatly among individuals. Our previous studies demonstrate that Baicalin (BAI), a flavonoid compound isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis protects against rStx2-induced cell cytotoxicity and also protects mice from lethal rStx2 challenges by inducing Stx2 to form inactive oligomers. In this manuscript, we present some exciting work showing that baicalin is an effective agent for therapeutic treatment of STEC O157:H7 infection.
Lai, YuShuan; Riley, Kathleen; Cai, Andrew; Leong, John M.; Herman, Ira M.
A member of the attaching and effacing (AE) family of pathogens, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) induces dramatic changes to the intestinal cell cytoskeleton, including effacement of microvilli. Effacement by the related pathogen enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) requires the activity of the Ca+2-dependent host protease, calpain, which participates in a variety of cellular processes, including cell adhesion and motility. We found that EHEC infection results in an increase in epithelial (CaCo-2a) cell calpain activity and that EHEC-induced microvillar effacement was blocked by ectopic expression of calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, or by pretreatment of intestinal cells with a cell-penetrating version of calpastatin. In addition, ezrin, a known calpain substrate that links the plasma membrane to axial actin filaments in microvilli, was cleaved in a calpain-dependent manner during EHEC infection and lost from its normal locale within microvilli. Calpain may be a central conduit through which EHEC and other AE pathogens induce enterocyte cytoskeletal remodeling and exert their pathogenic effects. PMID:22073041
Zhang, Yong; Qi, Zhimin; Liu, Yan; He, Wenqi; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quan; Dong, Jing; Deng, Xuming
Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 poses grave challenges to public health by its ability to cause severe colonic diseases and renal failure in both human and animals. Shiga-like toxins are the major pathogenic factor for some highly virulent E. coli expecially Shiga-like toxin 2. Conventional treatments such as antibiotics can facilitate the release of the toxin thus potentially exacerbate the diseases. Small molecule inhibitors and antibodies capable of neutralizing the toxins are the two major venues for the development of therapeutics against enterohemorrhagic serotype E. coli infection. While promising and potentially effective at clinical settings, these approaches need to overcome obstacles such as the limited routes of administration, responses from the host immune system, which are known to differ greatly among individuals. Our previous studies demonstrate that Baicalin (BAI), a flavonoid compound isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis protects against rStx2-induced cell cytotoxicity and also protects mice from lethal rStx2 challenges by inducing Stx2 to form inactive oligomers. In this manuscript, we present some exciting work showing that baicalin is an effective agent for therapeutic treatment of STEC O157:H7 infection. PMID:28337193
Perrin, Frédérique; Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Michel, Valérie; Miszczycha, Stéphane; Bel, Nadège; Sanaa, Moez
Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains may cause human infections ranging from simple diarrhea to Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). The five main pathogenic serotypes of STEC (MPS-STEC) identified thus far in Europe are O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8, and O145:H28. Because STEC strains can survive or grow during cheese making, particularly in soft cheeses, a stochastic quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed to assess the risk of HUS associated with the five MPS-STEC in raw milk soft cheeses. A baseline scenario represents a theoretical worst-case scenario where no intervention was considered throughout the farm-to-fork continuum. The risk level assessed with this baseline scenario is the risk-based level. The impact of seven preharvest scenarios (vaccines, probiotic, milk farm sorting) on the risk-based level was expressed in terms of risk reduction. Impact of the preharvest intervention ranges from 76% to 98% of risk reduction with highest values predicted with scenarios combining a decrease of the number of cow shedding STEC and of the STEC concentration in feces. The impact of postharvest interventions on the risk-based level was also tested by applying five microbiological criteria (MC) at the end of ripening. The five MCs differ in terms of sample size, the number of samples that may yield a value larger than the microbiological limit, and the analysis methods. The risk reduction predicted varies from 25% to 96% by applying MCs without preharvest interventions and from 1% to 96% with combination of pre- and postharvest interventions.
Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N
This study compared biofilm formation by 7 serogroups of pathogenic Escherichia coli and 2 or 3 phenotypes of Salmonella (susceptible, multidrug-resistant [MDR], and/or multidrug resistant with ampC gene [MDR-AmpC]). One-week mature biofilms were also exposed to water, quaternary ammonium compound-based (QAC), and acid-based (AB) sanitizers. Seven groups (strain mixture) of above-mentioned pathogens were separately spot-inoculated onto stainless steel coupons surfaces for target inoculation of 2 log CFU/cm2, then stored statically, partially submerged in 10% nonsterilized meat homogenate at 4, 15, and 25 °C. Biofilm cells were enumerated on days 0, 1, 4, and 7 following submersion in 30 mL for 1 min in water, QAC, and AB. Counts on inoculation day ranged from 1.6 ± 0.4 to 2.4 ± 0.6 log CFU/cm2 and changed to 1.2 ± 0.8 to 1.9 ± 0.8 on day 7 at 4 °C with no appreciable difference among the 7 pathogen groups. After treatment with QAC and AB on day 7, counts were reduced (P < 0.05) to less than 0.7 ± 0.6 and 1.2 ± 0.5, respectively, with similar trends among pathogens. Biofilm formation at higher temperatures was more enhanced; E. coli O157:H7, as an example, increased (P < 0.05) from 1.4 ± 0.6 and 2.0 ± 0.3 on day 0 to 4.8 ± 0.6 and 6.5 ± 0.2 on day 7 at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. As compared to 4 °C, after sanitation, more survivors were observed for 15 and 25 °C treatments with no appreciable differences among pathogens. Overall, we observed similar patterns of growth and susceptibility to QAC and AB sanitizers of the 7 tested pathogen groups with enhanced biofilm formation capability and higher numbers of treatment survivors at higher temperatures.
Carlson-Banning, Kimberly M.
ABSTRACT The biogeography of the gut is diverse in its longitudinal axis, as well as within specific microenvironments. Differential oxygenation and nutrient composition drive the membership of microbial communities in these habitats. Moreover, enteric pathogens can orchestrate further modifications to gain a competitive advantage toward host colonization. These pathogens are versatile and adept when exploiting the human colon. They expertly navigate complex environmental cues and interkingdom signaling to colonize and infect their hosts. Here we demonstrate how enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) uses three sugar-sensing transcription factors, Cra, KdpE, and FusR, to exquisitely regulate the expression of virulence factors associated with its type III secretion system (T3SS) when exposed to various oxygen concentrations. We also explored the effect of mucin-derived nonpreferred carbon sources on EHEC growth and expression of virulence genes. Taken together, the results show that EHEC represses the expression of its T3SS when oxygen is absent, mimicking the largely anaerobic lumen, and activates its T3SS when oxygen is available through Cra. In addition, when EHEC senses mucin-derived sugars heavily present in the O-linked and N-linked glycans of the large intestine, virulence gene expression is initiated. Sugars derived from pectin, a complex plant polysaccharide digested in the large intestine, also increased virulence gene expression. Not only does EHEC sense host- and microbiota-derived interkingdom signals, it also uses oxygen availability and mucin-derived sugars liberated by the microbiota to stimulate expression of the T3SS. This precision in gene regulation allows EHEC to be an efficient pathogen with an extremely low infectious dose. PMID:27879335
Lopez, Maryoris E Soto; Batalha, Laís Silva; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Albino, Luiz Augusto A; Boggione, Delaine Meireles Gouveia; Gontijo, Marco Tulio Pardini; Bazzolli, Denise M Soares; Mendonca, Regina C Santos
Here, we present the genome sequence of the Escherichia coli bacteriophage UFV-AREG1. This phage was isolated from cowshed wastewater and showed specificity for enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895), E. coli 0111 (CDC O11ab) and E. coli (ATCC 23229).
Batalha, Laís Silva; Albino, Luiz Augusto A.; Boggione, Delaine Meireles Gouveia; Gontijo, Marco Tulio Pardini; Bazzolli, Denise M. Soares; Mendonca, Regina C. Santos
Here, we present the genome sequence of the Escherichia coli bacteriophage UFV-AREG1. This phage was isolated from cowshed wastewater and showed specificity for enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895), E. coli 0111 (CDC O11ab) and E. coli (ATCC 23229). PMID:27738021
The increased association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) with veal calves has led the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to report results of veal meat contaminated with the Top 7 serogroups separately from beef cattle. However, detection methods...
Cattle are a primary reservoir of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared the presence of seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157...
The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and concentration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 (EHEC-7) in fecal, hide, and pre-intervention carcass surface samples from culled dairy cows at harvest. Matched samples were ...
Delannoy, Sabine; Chaves, Byron D.; Ison, Sarah A.; Webb, Hattie E.; Beutin, Lothar; Delaval, José; Billet, Isabelle; Fach, Patrick
Current methods for screening Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 and non-O157 in beef enrichments typically rely on the molecular detection of stx, eae, and serogroup-specific wzx or wzy gene fragments. As these genetic markers can also be found in some non-EHEC strains, a number of “false positive” results are obtained. Here, we explore the suitability of five novel molecular markers, espK, espV, ureD, Z2098, and CRISPRO26:H11 as candidates for a more accurate screening of EHEC strains of greater clinical significance in industrialized countries. Of the 1739 beef enrichments tested, 180 were positive for both stx and eae genes. Ninety (50%) of these tested negative for espK, espV, ureD, and Z2098, but 12 out of these negative samples were positive for the CRISPRO26:H11 gene marker specific for a newly emerging virulent EHEC O26:H11 French clone. We show that screening for stx, eae, espK, and espV, in association with the CRISPRO26:H11 marker is a better approach to narrow down the EHEC screening step in beef enrichments. The number of potentially positive samples was reduced by 48.88% by means of this alternative strategy compared to the European and American reference methods, thus substantially improving the discriminatory power of EHEC screening systems. This approach is in line with the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) opinion on pathogenic STEC published in 2013. PMID:26834723
Fate of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within refrigerated, frozen, or frozen then thawed ground beef patties cooked on a commercial open-flame gas or a clamshell electric grill.
Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Phillips, John; Chen, Vivian; Eblen, Denise R; Cook, L Victor; Mohr, Tim B; Esteban, Emilio; Bauer, Nathan
Both high-fat and low-fat ground beef (percent lean:fat = ca. 70:30 and 93:7, respectively) were inoculated with a 6-strain cocktail of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) or a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g). Patties were pressed (ca. 2.54 cm thick, ca. 300 g each) and then refrigerated (4°C, 18 to 24 h), or frozen (-18°C, 3 weeks), or frozen (-18°C, 3 weeks) and then thawed (4°C for 18 h or 21°C for 10 h) before being cooked on commercial gas or electric grills to internal temperatures of 60 to 76.6°C. For E. coli O157:H7, regardless of grill type or fat level, cooking refrigerated patties to 71.1 or 76.6°C decreased E. coli O157:H7 numbers from an initial level of ca. 7.0 log CFU/g to a final level of ≤1.0 log CFU/g, whereas decreases to ca. 1.1 to 3.1 log CFU/g were observed when refrigerated patties were cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 71.1 or 76.6°C, E. coli O157:H7 numbers decreased to ca. 1.7 or ≤0.7 log CFU/g. Likewise, pathogen numbers decreased to ca. 0.7 to 3.7 log CFU/g in patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For STEC, regardless of grill type or fat level, cooking refrigerated patties to 71.1 or 76.6°C decreased pathogen numbers from ca. 7.0 to ≤0.7 log CFU/g, whereas decreases to ca. 0.7 to 3.6 log CFU/g were observed when refrigerated patties were cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 71.1 or 76.6°C, STEC numbers decreased to a final level of ca. 1.5 to ≤0.7 log CFU/g. Likewise, pathogen numbers decreased from ca. 7.0 to ca. 0.8 to 4.3 log CFU/g in patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. Thus, cooking ground beef patties that were refrigerated, frozen, or freeze-thawed to internal temperatures of 71.1 and 76.6°C was effective for eliminating ca. 5.1 to 7.0 log CFU of E. coli O157:H7 and STEC per g.
Polifroni, Rosana; Etcheverría, Analía I; Arroyo, Guillermo H; Padola, Nora L
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is the etiologic agent of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which typically affects children ranging in age from six months to five years old. Transmission is produced by consumption of contaminated food, by direct contact with animals or the environment and from person to person. In previous studies we determined that the environment of a dairy farm is a non-animal reservoir; thus, we proposed to study the survival of 4 VTEC isolates (O20:H19; O91:H21; O157:H7 and O178:H19) in sterile water troughs and bovine feces by viable bacteria count and detection of virulence genes by PCR. It was demonstrated that the survival of different VTEC isolates (O157 and non-O157) varied in terms of their own characteristics as well as of the environmental conditions where they were found. The main differences between isolates were their survival time and the maximal counts reached. The competitive and adaptive characteristics of some isolates increase the infection risk for people that are visiting or working on a farm, as well as the risk for reinfection of the animals and food contamination.
Yen, Hilo; Karino, Masaki; Tobe, Toru
Innate immunity is an essential component in the protection of a host against pathogens. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) are known to modulate the innate immune responses of infected cells. The interference is dependent on their type III secretion system (T3SS) and T3SS-dependent effector proteins. Furthermore, these cytosolically injected effectors have been demonstrated to engage multiple immune signaling pathways, including the IFN/STAT, MAPK, NF-κB, and inflammasome pathways. In this review, recent work describing the interaction between EPEC/EHEC and the inflammasome pathway will be discussed. PMID:27617233
Latex agglutination assays were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups utilizing polyclonal antibodies. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through Protein A/G columns and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgG) were covalently immobilized onto pol...
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial solution made with chitosan, lauric arginate ester, and organic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli cocktails and to test its potential to b...
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been shown to produce variants that either express or are repressed in the expression of curli fimbriae promoting bacterial attachment, aggregation, and biofilm formation. The variant expression of curli fimbriae in some instances could result fr...
Yang, Weiming; Zhou, Yanjun; Wu, Chunrong; Tang, Jianguo
The principal aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro co-infection of Caco-2 cells with Candida albicans and enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli (EHEC). The ability of both species to colonize or invade the Caco-2 cells was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence and inverted microscopy. The damage to Caco-2 cells was evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. C. albicans virulence gene expression (HWP1, ALS3, PLB1, SAP4, and EFG1) was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Compared to single infections with enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli or C. albicans, a co-infection colonized or invaded Caco-2 cells more quickly, and C. albicans tended to accumulate more easily, accompanied by the upregulation of related genes. In addition, the LDH activity in the co-infected group was higher than in cells infected with C. albicans or with enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli, accompanied by the upregulation of toxicity-related genes. Using Caco-2 cells as an infection model, this study demonstrated that co-infecting in vitro enterocytes with C. albicans and enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli enhanced the invasiveness and tissue damaging effects of C. albicans. PMID:27874093
Contamination of beef products by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a concern for food safety with a particular subset, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), being the most relevant to human disease. To mitigate food safety risks, pre-harvest intervention strategies have been implemen...
The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) classified E. coli O157:H7 as an adulterant in raw ground beef and began a verification testing program for this pathogen in 1994 in response to a large outbreak associated with undercooked ground beef. It has become evident that non-O157 Shiga tox...
Cobeljić, Miloje; Bojić, Ivanko; Opacić, Dolores; Lepsanović, Zorica; Lazić, Srdan
A 'new' group of pathogenic agents, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) (particularly the strains of O157 serogroup), emerged in the last 20 years, causing an increased number of sporadic and epidemic diarrhoeal diseases with hemorrhagic enterocolitis as a most common clinical manifestation of the infection. As a consequence of the absorption and cytotoxic effect of the main virulence factor of these bacteria--verotoxin (shiga-toxin), in about 10% of the affected persons extraintestinal complications, most frequently hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), occurred 7-14 days after an episode of diarrhoeal disease. The first case of hemorrhagic enterocolitis with the documented EHEC O157 infection in Yugoslavia is presented in this paper. Considering the existing expansion trend of these carriers, practitioners should be aware of them in case of the occurrence of diarrhoeal disease, (particularly hemorrhagic enterocolitis), and keep these patients under control during the reconvalescence period because of potential development of extraintestinal complications, such as HUS.
Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans.
Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans. PMID:25791315
Kim, Jong Chul; Yoon, Jang W; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Park, Mi-Sun; Cho, Seung-Hak
Whole genome-scale transcriptome analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 EDL933 was performed to investigate the influence of mucin components on the EHEC gene expression. Here we report that the 732 candidate genes were differentially expressed by the presence of 0.5% porcine stomach mucin, including the 8 flagella-related genes. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the transcription expression of the flg genes (encoding the structural components for flagella basal body) was down-regulated by the mucin components. Indeed, bacterial swarming motility was drastically reduced when grown on 0.3% trypton agar plates containing the mucin. These results imply that gastrointestinal (GI) mucin is a possible environmental signal which negatively regulates the flagellation of EHEC O157:H7 in the GI tract.
Jenke, Christian; Harmsen, Dag; Weniger, Thomas; Rothgänger, Jörg; Hyytiä-Trees, Eija; Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge
Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a subtyping technique for characterizing human pathogenic bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157. We determined the phylogeny of 202 epidemiologically unrelated EHEC O157:H7/H– clinical isolates through 8 MLVA loci obtained in Germany during 1987–2008. Biodiversity in the loci ranged from 0.66 to 0.90. Four of 8 loci showed null alleles and a frequency <44.1%. These loci were distributed among 48.5% of all strains. Overall, 141 MLVA profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis assigned 67.3% of the strains to 19 MLVA clusters. Specific MLVA profiles with an evolutionary persistence were identified, particularly within sorbitol-fermenting EHEC O157:H–.These pathogens belonged to the same MLVA cluster. Our findings indicate successful persistence of this clone. PMID:20350374
Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Huter, Veronika; Higgins, Lisa M.; Goncalves, Nathalie S.; Dougan, Gordon; Phillips, Alan D.; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Frankel, Gad
The carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids (Int280) of the bacterial adhesion molecule intimin include the receptor-binding domain. At least five different types of Int280, designated α, β, γ, δ, and ɛ, have been described based on sequence variation in this region. Importantly, the intimin types are associated with different evolutionary branches and contribute to distinct tissue tropism of intimin-positive bacterial pathogens. In this study we engineered a strain of Citrobacter rodentium, which normally displays intimin β, to express intimin γ from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. We show that intimin γ binds to the translocated intimin receptor (Tir) from C. rodentium and has the ability to produce attaching and effacing lesions on HEp-2 cells. However, C. rodentium expressing intimin γ could not colonize orally infected mice or induce mouse colonic hyperplasia. These results suggest that intimin may contribute to host specificity, possibly through its interaction with a receptor on the host cell surface. PMID:10899867
Tahamtan, Yahya; Namavari, Mehdi
The aim of the present study was the isolation of both E. coli O157 and non-O157 in sheep. Verotoxins (VT) 1, 2 and eae genes were tested for this propose. Sheep faces are an important source of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a highly virulent food-borne pathogen and threat to public health. Rectal swab samples from sheep were collected during 2009-2010. Conventional plating and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were carried out according to virulence factors (Stx1, Stx2 and eaeA).There significant differences between prevalence of STEC and session were observed. It was at highest in spring and late summer. Six (3.92%) sheep carcasses were contaminated by E. coli O157:H7.Only six samples were positive by PCR specific for the VT2 gene and produced verocytotoxin VT2, whereas all isolates were negative for the presence of VT1 and eae virulence genes considered. Geographical variations and season may be influenced in the prevalence rate. The composition of the gastrointestinal flora may be changed by different diet and, therefore O157 STEC rate in sheep and lamb was different. Iranian sheep indicated as a natural host of E. coli O157 strains therefore, may be potentially pathogenic for humans. This is the first report of E. coli O157 detection from sheep in Iran.
Klein, Eileen J.; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Thomas, Anita A.; Stapp, Jennifer R.; Rich, Shannon; Buccat, Anne Marie; Tarr, Phillip I.
Timely accurate diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections is important. We evaluated a laboratory-developed real-time PCR (LD-PCR) assay targeting stx1, stx2, and rfbEO157 with 2,386 qualifying stool samples submitted to the microbiology laboratory of a tertiary care pediatric center between July 2011 and December 2013. Broth cultures of PCR-positive samples were tested for Shiga toxins by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (ImmunoCard STAT! enterohemorrhagic E. coli [EHEC]; Meridian Bioscience) and cultured in attempts to recover both O157 and non-O157 STEC. E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC were detected in 35 and 18 cases, respectively. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred in 12 patients (10 infected with STEC O157, one infected with STEC O125ac, and one with PCR evidence of STEC but no resulting isolate). Among the 59 PCR-positive STEC specimens from 53 patients, only 29 (54.7%) of the associated specimens were toxin positive by EIA. LD-PCR differentiated STEC O157 from non-O157 using rfbEO157, and LD-PCR results prompted successful recovery of E. coli O157 (n = 25) and non-O157 STEC (n = 8) isolates, although the primary cultures and toxin assays were frequently negative. A rapid “mega”-multiplex PCR (FilmArray gastrointestinal panel; BioFire Diagnostics) was used retrospectively, and results correlated with LD-PCR findings in 25 (89%) of the 28 sorbitol-MacConkey agar culture-negative STEC cases. These findings demonstrate that PCR is more sensitive than EIA and/or culture and distinguishes between O157 and non-O157 STEC in clinical samples and that E. coli O157:H7 remains the predominant cause of HUS in our institution. PCR is highly recommended for rapid diagnosis of pediatric STEC infections. PMID:25926491
Sanderson, Michael W.; Lee, Chihoon; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G.; Lanzas, Cristina
ABSTRACT Understanding the transmission dynamics of pathogens is essential to determine the epidemiology, ecology, and ways of controlling enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in animals and their environments. Our objective was to estimate the epidemiological fitness of common EHEC strains in cattle populations. For that purpose, we developed a Markov chain model to characterize the dynamics of 7 serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) in cattle production environments based on a set of cross-sectional data on infection prevalence in 2 years in two U.S. states. The basic reproduction number (R0) was estimated using a Bayesian framework for each serogroup based on two criteria (using serogroup alone [the O-group data] and using O serogroup, Shiga toxin gene[s], and intimin [eae] gene together [the EHEC data]). In addition, correlations between external covariates (e.g., location, ambient temperature, dietary, and probiotic usage) and prevalence/R0 were quantified. R0 estimates varied substantially among different EHEC serogroups, with EHEC O157 having an R0 of >1 (∼1.5) and all six other EHEC serogroups having an R0 of less than 1. Using the O-group data substantially increased R0 estimates for the O26, O45, and O103 serogroups (R0 > 1) but not for the others. Different covariates had distinct influences on different serogroups: the coefficients for each covariate were different among serogroups. Our modeling and analysis of this system can be readily expanded to other pathogen systems in order to estimate the pathogen and external factors that influence spread of infectious agents. IMPORTANCE In this paper we describe a Bayesian modeling framework to estimate basic reproduction numbers of multiple serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli according to a cross-sectional study. We then coupled a compartmental model to reconstruct the infection dynamics of these serotypes and quantify their risk
Nowicki, Dariusz; Rodzik, Olga; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka
Production of Shiga toxins by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) which is responsible for the pathogenicity of these strains, is strictly correlated with induction of lambdoid bacteriophages present in the host’s genome, replication of phage DNA and expression of stx genes. Antibiotic treatment of EHEC infection may lead to induction of prophage into a lytic development, thus increasing the risk of severe complications. This, together with the spread of multi-drug resistance, increases the need for novel antimicrobial agents. We report here that isothiocyanates (ITC), plant secondary metabolites, such as sulforaphane (SFN), allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), benzyl isothiocynanate (BITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) and isopropyl isothiocyanate (IPRITC), inhibit bacterial growth and lytic development of stx-harboring prophages. The mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effect of ITCs involves the induction of global bacterial stress regulatory system, the stringent response. Its alarmone, guanosine penta/tetraphosphate ((p)ppGpp) affects major cellular processes, including nucleic acids synthesis, which leads to the efficient inhibition of both, prophage induction and toxin synthesis, abolishing in this way EHEC virulence for human and simian cells. Thus, ITCs could be considered as potential therapeutic agents in EHEC infections. PMID:26922906
Shimizu, Masaki; Kuroda, Mondo; Sakashita, Natsumi; Konishi, Michio; Kaneda, Hisashi; Igarashi, Noboru; Yamahana, Junya; Taneichi, Hiromichi; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Ito, Mika; Saito, Shigeru; Ohta, Kazuhide; Taniguchi, Takumi; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masaru; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Yachie, Akihiro
Proinflammatory cytokines are related to the pathogenesis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We assessed the kinetics of the release of cytokines such as neopterin, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the soluble forms of type I and II TNF receptors during EHEC O111-induced HUS (EHEC O111/HUS). Fourteen patients with EHEC O111/HUS were enrolled in this study. Serum concentrations of all cytokines other than TNF-α were significantly elevated in patients with severe HUS compared with those in patients with mild HUS. Although serum concentrations of TNF-α were not significantly higher in patients with severe HUS, most patients with acute encephalopathy showed elevated TNF-α levels. Serum concentrations of these cytokines rapidly and markedly increased, and massive hypercytokinaemia developed 1 day before the diagnosis of HUS in patients with severe HUS. Changes in the number of white blood cells and concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase were significantly larger between the onset of hemorrhagic colitis and the time of the diagnosis of HUS in patients with severe HUS compared with those in patients with mild HUS. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of EHEC infection and development of severe complications, including HUS and encephalopathy. Monitoring the cytokine profile may be useful for assessing disease activity of EHEC O111 infections.
Soysal, Nurcan; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Smail, Yasmine; Liguori, Sandrine; Gouali, Malika; Loukiadis, Estelle; Fach, Patrick; Bruyand, Mathias; Blanco, Jorge; Bidet, Philippe
We describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections caused by the singular hybrid pathotype O80:H2, and we examine the influence of antibiotics on Shiga toxin production. In France, during 2005–2014, a total of 54 patients were infected with EHEC O80:H2; 91% had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Two patients had invasive infections, and 2 died. All strains carried stx2 (variants stx2a, 2c, or 2d); the rare intimin gene (eae-ξ); and at least 4 genes characteristic of pS88, a plasmid associated with extraintestinal virulence. Similar strains were found in Spain. All isolates belonged to the same clonal group. At subinhibitory concentrations, azithromycin decreased Shiga toxin production significantly, ciprofloxacin increased it substantially, and ceftriaxone had no major effect. Antibiotic combinations that included azithromycin also were tested. EHEC O80:H2, which can induce hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated by bacteremia, is emerging in France. However, azithromycin might effectively combat these infections. PMID:27533474
Soysal, Nurcan; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Smail, Yasmine; Liguori, Sandrine; Gouali, Malika; Loukiadis, Estelle; Fach, Patrick; Bruyand, Mathias; Blanco, Jorge; Bidet, Philippe; Bonacorsi, Stéphane
We describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections caused by the singular hybrid pathotype O80:H2, and we examine the influence of antibiotics on Shiga toxin production. In France, during 2005-2014, a total of 54 patients were infected with EHEC O80:H2; 91% had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Two patients had invasive infections, and 2 died. All strains carried stx2 (variants stx2a, 2c, or 2d); the rare intimin gene (eae-ξ); and at least 4 genes characteristic of pS88, a plasmid associated with extraintestinal virulence. Similar strains were found in Spain. All isolates belonged to the same clonal group. At subinhibitory concentrations, azithromycin decreased Shiga toxin production significantly, ciprofloxacin increased it substantially, and ceftriaxone had no major effect. Antibiotic combinations that included azithromycin also were tested. EHEC O80:H2, which can induce hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated by bacteremia, is emerging in France. However, azithromycin might effectively combat these infections.
van Diemen, Pauline M.; Dziva, Francis; Stevens, Mark P.; Wallis, Timothy S.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections in humans are an important public health problem and are commonly acquired via contact with ruminant feces. The serogroups that are predominantly associated with human infection in the United States and Europe are O157 and O26. Serotypes O157:H7 and O26:H− differ in their virulence and tissue tropism in calves and therefore may colonize calves by distinct mechanisms. The mechanisms underlying EHEC intestinal colonization and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Signature-tagged mutagenesis was used to identify 59 genes of EHEC O26:H− that are required for the intestinal colonization of calves. Our results indicate important roles for locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type III secreted proteins in intestinal colonization. In addition, colonization is facilitated by cytotoxins, putative type III secreted proteins unlinked to the LEE, a putative fimbrial operon, and numerous genes involved in central metabolism and transport and genes of unknown function. Our data also imply that the elaboration of type I fimbriae by EHEC O26:H− is disadvantageous for persistence within the bovine intestines. These observations have important implications for the design of vaccines to control these important zoonotic pathogens. PMID:15731074
Zeighami, Habib; Haghi, Fakhri; Hajiahmadi, Fahimeh; Kashefiyeh, Mehdi; Memariani, Mojtaba
Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) has rapidly spread worldwide and represents the most serious threat to the management of diarrhea in developing countries. During the period from March 2011 to January 2012, a total of 450 stool samples of diarrheal children aged 0-60 months were studied. In order to detect enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) simultaneously, a mixture of four primer pairs specific for eltB, estA, vt1, and vt2 genes was used in a multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A total of 140 (31·1%) DEC were isolated from 450 stool samples. Diarrheagenic E. coli exhibited high-level resistance to aztreonam (80·7%), amoxicillin (74·4%), and tetracycline (69·3%). Also, 86·4% of E. coli isolates were resistant to at least three different classes of antimicrobial agents and considered as MDR. The frequency of ETEC and EHEC pathotypes was 46·4 and 12·1%, respectively and all of these isolates were MDR. In conclusion, MDR ETEC continues to be an important agent associated with diarrhea in children from Tabriz, Iran.
Cordonnier, Charlotte; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Thévenot, Jonathan; Rougeron, Amandine; Rénier, Sandra; Chassaing, Benoit; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Barnich, Nicolas; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Livrelli, Valérie
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens whose survival and virulence in the human digestive tract remain unclear owing to paucity of relevant models. EHEC interact with the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer’s patches of the distal ileum and translocate across the intestinal epithelium via M-cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of Long polar fimbriae (Lpf) in EHEC pathogenesis. Of the 236 strains tested, a significant association was observed between the presence of lpf operons and pathogenicity. In sophisticated in vitro models of the human gastro-intestinal tract, lpf expression was induced during transit through the simulated stomach and small intestine, but not in the colonic compartment. To investigate the involvement of Lpf in EHEC pathogenesis, lpf isogenic mutants and their relative trans-complemented strains were generated. Translocation across M-cells, interactions with murine ileal biopsies containing Peyer’s patches and the number of hemorrhagic lesions were significantly reduced with the lpf mutants compared to the wild-type strain. Complementation of lpf mutants fully restored the wild-type phenotypes. Our results indicate that (i) EHEC might colonize the terminal ileum at the early stages of infection, (ii) Lpf are an important player in the interactions with Peyer’s patches and M-cells, and could contribute to intestinal colonization. PMID:28317910
Jenke, Christian; Leopold, Shana R.; Weniger, Thomas; Rothgänger, Jörg; Harmsen, Dag; Karch, Helge
Highly pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 cause a spectrum of clinical signs that include diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The current evolutionary model of EHEC O157:H7/H– consists of a stepwise evolution scenario proceeding from O55:H7 to a node (hypothetical intermediate) that then branches into sorbitol-fermenting (SF) O157:H– and non-SF (NSF) O157:H7. To identify this hypothetical intermediate, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by sequencing of 92 randomly distributed backbone genomic regions of 40 O157:H7/H– isolates. Overall, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 75/92 partial open reading frames after sequencing 51,041 nt/strain. The EHEC O157:H7 strain LSU-61 from deer occupied an intermediate position between O55:H7 and both O157 branches (SF and NSF O157), complementing the stepwise evolutionary model of EHEC O157:H7/H–. The animal origin of this intermediate emphasizes the value of nonhuman reservoirs in the clarification of the evolution of human pathogens. PMID:22469031
Garcia-Angulo, Victor A; Kalita, Anjana; Torres, Alfredo G
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are food borne pathogens with importance in public health. EHEC colonizes the large intestine and causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and in some cases, life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) due to the production of Shiga toxins (Stx). The lack of effective clinical treatment, sequelae after infection and mortality rate in humans supports the urgent need of prophylactic approaches, such as development of vaccines. Shedding from cattle, the main EHEC reservoir and considered the principal food contamination source, has prompted the development of licensed vaccines that reduce EHEC colonization in ruminants. Although murine models do not fully recapitulate human infection, they are commonly used to evaluate EHEC vaccines and the immune/protective responses elicited in the host. Mice susceptibility differs depending of the EHEC inoculums; displaying different mortality rates and Stx-mediated renal damage. Therefore, several experimental protocols have being pursued in this model to develop EHEC-specific vaccines. Recent candidate vaccines evaluated include those composed of virulence factors alone or as fused-subunits, DNA-based, attenuated bacteria and bacterial ghosts. In this review, we summarize progress in the design and testing of EHEC vaccines and the use of different strategies for the evaluation of novel EHEC vaccines in the murine model.
Cabrera, Gabriel; Fernández-Brando, Romina J.; Abrey-Recalde, María Jimena; Baschkier, Ariela; Pinto, Alipio; Goldstein, Jorge; Zotta, Elsa; Meiss, Roberto; Rivas, Marta
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that produces Shiga toxin (Stx) and causes hemorrhagic colitis. Under some circumstances, Stx produced within the intestinal tract enters the bloodstream, leading to systemic complications that may cause the potentially fatal hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although retinoids like vitamin A (VA) and retinoic acid (RA) are beneficial to gut integrity and the immune system, the effect of VA supplementation on gastrointestinal infections of different etiologies has been controversial. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the influence of different VA status on the outcome of an EHEC intestinal infection in mice. We report that VA deficiency worsened the intestinal damage during EHEC infection but simultaneously improved survival. Since death is associated mainly with Stx toxicity, Stx was intravenously inoculated to analyze whether retinoid levels affect Stx susceptibility. Interestingly, while VA-deficient (VA-D) mice were resistant to a lethal dose of Stx2, RA-supplemented mice were more susceptible to it. Given that peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are known to potentiate Stx2 toxicity, we studied the influence of retinoid levels on the absolute number and function of PMNs. We found that VA-D mice had decreased PMN numbers and a diminished capacity to produce reactive oxygen species, while RA supplementation had the opposite effect. These results are in line with the well-known function of retinoids in maintaining the homeostasis of the gut but support the idea that they have a proinflammatory effect by acting, in part, on the PMN population. PMID:25001607
Nakano, Masanori; Itoh, Youko; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Kogenta; Sumitomo, Makoto; Nitta, Masakazu
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection causes several hundred cases of food poisoning every year in Japan. In severe cases, this type of food poisoning can be fatal. In the present study, we examined the induction of HSP70 in E. coli O157:H7 cells at various temperatures and the thermotolerance of E. coli O157:H7 cells alone and in contaminated food following pre-heating. We evaluated the possibility that thermotolerance by E. coli O157:H7 increases the likelihood of food poisoning. E. coli O157:H7 cells were heated at 43-51 °C, and the survival rate was examined. The temperature of highest induction of HSP70 was used as the pre-heating temperature. We measured the thermotolerance of E. coli O157:H7 cells following pre-heating as the survival after heating at 53 °C (lethal temperature). Additionally, we evaluated the thermotolerance of E. coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef following pre-heating. Heating at 47 °C for 30 min caused the highest induction of HSP70 and this temperature was selected as the pre-heating temperature. The survival rate was significantly higher for 0-90 min compared to that in cultures incubated at 53 °C without pre-heating indicating thermotolerance. Additionally, in ground beef, thermotolerance in E. coli O157:H7 cells was induced by pre-heating. We showed that E. coli O157:H7 cells acquired thermotolerance after pre-heating, which significantly increased survival after a lethal temperature, and increased the likelihood of food poisoning.
Shimizu, Takeshi; Ohta, Yuko; Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Noda, Masatoshi
A novel chromosome-plasmid hybrid bioluminescent reporter system (C-P reporter system) utilizing Photorhabdus luminescens luxCDABE genes has been constructed to monitor the expression of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in real time. The luxCDABE genes of P. luminescens have been cloned and divided into a luxCDAB cassette and a luxE gene. A promoter-less luxE gene introduced downstream from stx1 and from stx2 on EHEC chromosomes in single copies, and other luxCDAB genes were expressed on a multicopy number expression plasmid into the same cells. These Stx1- and Stx2-bioluminescent reporter strains expressed bioluminescence into bacteria cells when the expression of the promoter-less luxE gene was expressed in response to the promoter activity of stx1 and stx2, respectively. The expression levels of bioluminescence were identical to the production levels of Stx1 and Stx2 in the Stx1- and Stx2-bioluminescent reporter strains, and these strains produced both Stxs at the same respective levels as those of the parent EHEC strains. Using these reporter strains, we examined the profiles of Stx1 and Stx2 expression in EHEC. We found that production of both Stx1 and Stx2 in EHEC was enhanced upon contact with intestinal epithelial cells and within macrophages. However, the expression profiles between Stx1 and Stx2 in EHEC were different from each other under these conditions. Thus, these results suggested that this C-P reporter system is useful for determining the gene expression profile of bacteria.
Njoroge, Jacqueline W.; Nguyen, Y.; Curtis, Meredith M.; Moreira, Cristiano G.; Sperandio, Vanessa
ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria sense diverse environmental signals as cues for differential gene regulation and niche adaptation. Pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), which causes bloody diarrhea, use these signals for the temporal and energy-efficient regulation of their virulence factors. One of the main virulence strategies employed by EHEC is the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on enterocytes. Most of the genes necessary for the formation of these lesions are grouped within a pathogenicity island, the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), whose expression requires the LEE-encoded regulator Ler. Here we show that growth of EHEC in glycolytic environments inhibits the expression of ler and consequently all other LEE genes. Conversely, growth within a gluconeogenic environment activates expression of these genes. This sugar-dependent regulation is achieved through two transcription factors: KdpE and Cra. Both Cra and KdpE directly bind to the ler promoter, and Cra’s affinity to this promoter is catabolite dependent. Moreover, we show that the Cra and KdpE proteins interact in vitro and that KdpE’s ability to bind DNA is enhanced by the presence of Cra. Cra is important for AE lesion formation, and KdpE contributes to this Cra-dependent regulation. The deletion of cra and kdpE resulted in the ablation of AE lesions. One of the many challenges that bacteria face within the GI tract is to successfully compete for carbon sources. Linking carbon metabolism to the precise coordination of virulence expression is a key step in the adaptation of pathogens to the GI environment. PMID:23073764
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, confocal laser...
In enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type III secretion system with an extracellular filamentous structure consisting of the polymerized translocator protein EspA. The EspA filaments provide transient interactions between bacterial ...
Introduction and Objectives: QseA is one of several transcriptional regulators that regulates the virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 through quorum sensing. QseA has been shown to regulate the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), non-LEE...
QseA and SdiA are two of several transcriptional regulators that regulate virulence gene expression of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 via quorum sensing (QS). QseA regulates the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). LEE encodes for a type III secretion (T3S) sys...
Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Medrano-López, Abraham; Nuñez-Reza, Karen J; Puente, José Luis; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G
The molecular mechanisms controlling expression of the long polar fimbriae 2 (Lpf2) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were evaluated. Primer extension was used to locate the lpfA2 transcriptional start site in EHEC strain EDL933 at 171 bp upstream of the lpfA2 start codon. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the highest lpfA2 expression occurs between an OD600 of 1.0 and 1.2 in DMEM at pH 6.5 and 37 °C. The level of lpfA2 transcription at OD600 1.2 and pH 6.5 was four times greater than that at pH 7.2. Although lpfA2 expression was decreased under iron-depleted conditions, its expression was increased in a ferric-uptake-regulator (Fur) mutant strain. The lpfA2 transcript was 0.7 and 2 times more abundant in wt EHEC grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth at 25 °C, respectively, than in DMEM at pH 6.5. The lpf2 expression in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and bile salts was 2.7 times more abundant than baseline conditions. Further, transcription in the EDL933∆fur was 0.6 and 0.8 times higher as compared with the wt strain grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that purified Fur interacts with the lpf2 regulatory region, indicating that Fur repression is exerted by direct binding to the promoter region. In summary, we demonstrated that the EHEC lpf2 operon is regulated in response to temperature, pH, bile salts and iron, during the exponential phase of growth, and is controlled by Fur.
Ro, Eun Young; Ko, Young Mi; Yoon, Ki Sun
This study investigated both the level of microbial contamination and the presence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in frozen meat products, followed by the evaluation of its survival over 180 days under frozen temperature. We also examined the effect of calcium oxide on the populations of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC under both 10 °C and -18 °C storage conditions. Afterward, the morphological changes occurring in EHEC cells in response to freezer storage temperature and calcium oxide (CaO) treatments were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Among the frozen meat products tested, the highest contamination levels of total aerobic counts, coliforms and E. coli were observed in pork cutlets. Examination showed that 20% of the frozen meat products contained virulence genes, including verotoxin (VT) 1 and 2. Over 180 days of frozen storage and after 3 freeze-thaw cycles, the population of EHEC did not change regardless of the type of products or initial inoculated concentration, indicating the strong survival ability of EHEC. Subsequent testing revealed that the growth of three pathogenic E. coli strains was completely inhibited in meat patties prepared with 1% CaO, stored at 10 °C. However, the addition of 2% CaO was necessary to control the survival of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC in meat patties stored at -18 °C. CaO reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 more effectively than the other EHEC and EPEC strains at both 10 °C and -18 °C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that exposed EHEC cells were resistant to the freezer storage temperature, although some cells incurred injury and death after several freeze-thaw cycles. Most of the cells exposed to CaO were found to have died or lost their cellular integrity and membranes, indicating that CaO has the potential to be used as a powerful antimicrobial agent for manufacturing frozen meat products.
Snyder, Abigail B; Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E
Bacteriophages are potentially useful in controlling foodborne pathogens on minimally processed products since phage application is a non-destructive treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly isolated environmental bacteriophage against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce, and optimize the treatment with consideration for potential application. Seven anti E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 bacteriophages were isolated from various sources; the most promising was isolated from municipal wastewater. This isolate (designated as E. coli phage OSY-SP) was propagated with the host, in a growth medium, to a titer of 10(8) PFU/ml. Before inoculation into fresh produce, E. coli phage OSY-SP was incubated with the host bacterium, spent medium was filter-sterilized, and the resulting crude lysate was used as a source of phage inocula for preliminary experiments. For optimized testing, phage in the crude lysate was purified by ultra-centrifugation and resuspension in phosphate-buffered saline. Efficacy of phage treatments was determined as a function of fresh produce type (cut green pepper or spinach leaves), treatment time (2 or 5min rinsing), and temperature of holding treated produce (4°C, 25°, or a combination of both temperatures). Cut green pepper was treated with UV light, to eliminate background microbiota, then spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 on cut edges, and the inoculum was allowed to dry. Because of its susceptibility to damage, baby spinach leaves were not subjected to a decontamination treatment. These leaves were inoculated with the green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 B6-914 to facilitate inoculum enumeration in the presence of background microbiota. Phage suspension was applied to the inoculated fresh produce that was subsequently held for three days under variable storage conditions. The optimized phage treatment decreased the populations of pathogenic E. coli by 2.4-3.0logCFU/g on cut green
Luedtke, Brandon E.; Bosilevac, Joseph M.
The increased association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) with veal calves has led the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to report results of veal meat contaminated with the Top 7 serogroups separately from beef cattle. However, detection methods that can also provide concentration for determining the prevalence and abundance of EHEC associated with veal are lacking. Here we compared the ability of qPCR and a molecular based most probable number assay (MPN) to detect and enumerate EHEC from veal hides at the abattoir and the resulting pre-intervention carcasses. In addition, digital PCR (dPCR) was used to analyze select samples. The qPCR assay was able to enumerate total EHEC in 32% of the hide samples with a range of approximately 34 to 91,412 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 4-113,460 CFUs/100 cm2). Using the MPN assay, total EHEC was enumerable in 48% of the hide samples and ranged from approximately 1 to greater than 17,022 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 0.4–72,000 CFUs/100 cm2). The carcass samples had lower amounts of EHEC with a range of approximately 4–275 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 3–953 CFUs/100 cm2) from 17% of samples with an enumerable amount of EHEC by qPCR. For the MPN assay, the carcass samples ranged from 0.1 to 1 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 0.02–4 CFUs/100 cm2) from 29% of the samples. The correlation coefficient between the qPCR and MPN enumeration methods indicated a moderate relation (R2 = 0.39) for the hide samples while the carcass samples had no relation (R2 = 0.002), which was likely due to most samples having an amount of total EHEC below the reliable limit of quantification for qPCR. Interestingly, after enrichment, 81% of the hide samples and 94% of the carcass samples had a detectable amount of total EHEC by qPCR. From our analysis, the MPN assay provided a higher percentage of enumerable hide and carcass samples, however determining an appropriate dilution range and the limited throughput offer additional
Introduction: Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157 (EHEC-7) account for the majority of EHEC cases in the U.S. and are adulterants in non-intact, raw beef according to the USDA-FSIS. Purpose: The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine the pre...
Miller, Melinda; Ramsaroop, Shawn; Lopez, Chris; Brahmanda, Bharath
RAPID-B(®) is a high performance, integrated microbiology/infectious disease diagnostic system. The system uses hardware and software that are specifically designed for optimal detection using custom, immuno-based reagents designed to react to cell surface antigens of the target bacteria. The Vivione Bioscience RAPID-B Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) kits were validated alongside the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 5.07 (for E. coli O157) and FSIS MLG 5B.04 (for non-O157 STEC) reference methods for the detection of E. coli O157 and STEC. The matrixes, ground beef and beef trim, were inoculated with appropriate CFU/test portion of E. coli O157 and STEC so as to generate fractional positives results, 5 to 15 positives out of 20 inoculated samples. Samples were enriched in prewarmed Brain Heart Infusion broth at 42 ± 1°C for 6.5-7.5 h or 8.5-9.5 h depending on the sample size. All samples were confirmed using the MLG reference method, regardless of initial screen result. The RAPID-B test methods were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the detection of E. coli O157 and STEC in all tested samples. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing of the RAPID-B methods showed 100% specificity for both kits. Finally, the RAPID-B test methods were shown to be robust when variations were applied to enrichment time, broth temperature, and vortexing time.
Goldstein, Jorge; Carden, Tomás R; Perez, María J; Taira, Carlos A; Höcht, Christian; Gironacci, Mariela M
Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing enterohemorrhagic induced brain damage. Since a cerebroprotective action was reported for angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), our aim was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) protects from brain damage induced by Stx2-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli The anterior hypothalamic area of adult male Wistar rats was injected with saline solution or Stx2 or Stx2 plus Ang-(1-7) or Stx2 plus Ang-(1-7) plus A779. Rats received a single injection of Stx2 at the beginning of the experiment, and Ang-(1-7), A779, or saline was administered daily in a single injection for 8 days. Cellular ultrastructural changes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Stx2 induced neurodegeneration, axonal demyelination, alterations in synapse, and oligodendrocyte and astrocyte damage, accompanied by edema. Ang-(1-7) prevented neuronal damage triggered by the toxin in 55.6 ± 9.5% of the neurons and the Stx2-induced synapse dysfunction was reversed. In addition, Ang-(1-7) blocked Stx2-induced demyelination in 92 ± 4% of the axons. Oligodendrocyte damage caused by Stx2 was prevented by Ang-(1-7) but astrocytes were only partially protected by the peptide (38 ± 5% of astrocytes were preserved). Ang-(1-7) treatment resulted in 50% reduction in the number of activated microglial cells induced by Stx2, suggesting an anti-inflammatory action. All these beneficial effects elicited by Ang-(1-7) were blocked by the Mas receptor antagonist and thus it was concluded that Ang-(1-7) protects mainly neurons and oligodendrocytes, and partially astrocytes, in the central nervous system through Mas receptor stimulation.
Eberhart, Lauren J.; Deringer, James R.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Sawant, Ashish A.; Besser, Thomas E.
A novel phenotype was recently identified in which specific strains of Escherichia coli inhibit competing E. coli strains via a mechanism that was designated “proximity-dependent inhibition” (PDI). PDI-expressing (PDI+) E. coli is known to inhibit susceptible (PDI−) E. coli strains, including several enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enterotoxigenic (ETEC) E. coli strains. In this study, every strain from a genetically diverse panel of E. coli O157:H7 (n = 25) and additional strains of E. coli serovar O26 were susceptible to the PDI phenotype. LIVE/DEAD staining was consistent with inhibition by killing of susceptible cells. Comparative genome analysis identified the genetic component of PDI, which is composed of a plasmid-borne (Incl1) operon encoding a putative microcin and associated genes for transport, immunity, and microcin activation. Transfer of the plasmid to a PDI− strain resulted in transfer of the phenotype, and deletion of the genes within the operon resulted in loss of the inhibition phenotype. Deletion of chromosomally encoded tolC also resulted in loss of the inhibitory phenotype, and this confirmed that the putative microcin is most likely secreted via a type I secretion pathway. Deletion of an unrelated plasmid gene did not affect the PDI phenotype. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR demonstrated that microcin expression is correlated with logarithmic-phase growth. The ability to inhibit a diversity of E. coli strains indicates that this microcin may influence gut community composition and could be useful for control of important enteric pathogens. PMID:22773653
Chekabab, Samuel Mohammed; Daigle, France; Charette, Steve J; Dozois, Charles M; Harel, Josée
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are involved in outbreaks of food-borne illness and transmitted to humans through bovine products or water contaminated by cattle feces. Microbial interaction is one of the strategies used by pathogenic bacteria to survive in the environment. Among protozoa, the free-living amoebae are known to host and protect several water-borne pathogens. In this study, the interaction between EHEC and the predacious protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii was investigated. Using monoculture and cocultures, growth of both organisms was estimated for 3 weeks by total and viable cell counts. The numbers of EHEC were significantly higher when cultured with amoebae than without, and less EHEC shifted into a viable but nonculturable state in the presence of amoebae. Using several mutants, we observed that the Pho regulon is required for EHEC growth when cocultured with amoebae. In contrast, the Shiga toxins (Stx) were not involved in this association phenotype. Cocultures monitored by electron microscopy revealed a loss of the regular rod shape of EHEC and the secretion of multilamellar vesicles by the amoebae, which did not contain bacteria. As the interaction between A. castellanii and EHEC appears beneficial for bacterial growth, this supports a potential role for protozoa in promoting the persistence of EHEC in the environment.
Chekabab, Samuel Mohammed; Daigle, France; Charette, Steve J; Dozois, Charles M; Harel, Josée
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are involved in outbreaks of food-borne illness and transmitted to humans through bovine products or water contaminated by cattle feces. Microbial interaction is one of the strategies used by pathogenic bacteria to survive in the environment. Among protozoa, the free-living amoebae are known to host and protect several water-borne pathogens. In this study, the interaction between EHEC and the predacious protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii was investigated. Using monoculture and cocultures, growth of both organisms was estimated for 3 weeks by total and viable cell counts. The numbers of EHEC were significantly higher when cultured with amoebae than without, and less EHEC shifted into a viable but nonculturable state in the presence of amoebae. Using several mutants, we observed that the Pho regulon is required for EHEC growth when cocultured with amoebae. In contrast, the Shiga toxins (Stx) were not involved in this association phenotype. Cocultures monitored by electron microscopy revealed a loss of the regular rod shape of EHEC and the secretion of multilamellar vesicles by the amoebae, which did not contain bacteria. As the interaction between A. castellanii and EHEC appears beneficial for bacterial growth, this supports a potential role for protozoa in promoting the persistence of EHEC in the environment. PMID:23233434
Ni, Jinjing; Wen, Donghua; Li, Jun; Xiao, Haihan; He, Ping; Ou, Hong-yu; Tao, Jing; Lu, Jie; Wu, Wenjuan
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one major type of contagious and foodborne pathogens. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been shown to be involved in the bacterial pathogenicity and bacteria-bacteria competition. Here, we show that EHEC could secrete a novel effector KatN, a Mn-containing catalase, in a T6SS-dependent manner. Expression of katN is promoted by RpoS and OxyR and repressed by H-NS, and katN contributes to bacterial growth under oxidative stress in vitro. KatN could be secreted into host cell cytosol after EHEC is phagocytized by macrophage, which leads to decreased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and facilitates the intramacrophage survival of EHEC. Finally, animal model results show that the deletion mutant of T6SS was attenuated in virulence compared with the wild type strain, while the deletion mutant of katN had comparable virulence to the wild type strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that EHEC could sense oxidative stress in phagosome and decrease the host cell ROS by secreting catalase KatN to facilitate its survival in the host cells. PMID:28288207
Lee, Won-Chang; Kwon, Young Hwan
Background/Aims: To compare the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) between Korea and Japan by analyzing the current state of EHEC infection outbreaks and related risk factors. Methods: We investigated the epidemiological aspects of EHEC infection cases between Korea and Japan from 2006 to 2010. The following factors were analyzed: national prevalence rate (PR), regional prevalence rate, epidemic aspects (i.e., Cases related to gender), male to female morbidity ratio, age, and seasonal distribution. Results: In total, there were 254 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 0.11 per 100,000 populations in Korea from 2006 to 2010. During the same period in Japan, there were 20,883 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 3.26 per 100,000 populations. The PR in Japan was significantly higher than that in Korea (p < 0.01). In both countries, more females than males had EHEC infections, with the highest incidence of infections (> 50%) observed for individuals younger than 9 years. EHEC is an emerging zoonosis and may be caused by consumption of raw or undercooked meat products from ruminants. Conclusions: This study provides a quantitative analysis of the epidemiological aspects and risk factors of EHEC infections in Korea and Japan and will provide insight on effective future strategies to reduce these infections. PMID:26886212
Eitzinger, Christian; Ehrlenbach, Silvia; Lindner, Herbert; Kremser, Leopold; Gottardi, Waldemar; Debabov, Dmitri; Anderson, Mark
N-chlorotaurine (NCT), the main representative of long-lived oxidants produced by granulocytes and monocytes, is known to exert broad-spectrum microbicidal activity. Here we show that NCT directly inactivates Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), used as a model toxin secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Bacterial growth and Stx2 production were both inhibited by 2 mM NCT. The cytotoxic effect of Stx2 on Vero cells was removed by ≥5.5 mM NCT. Confocal microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the binding of Stx2 to human kidney glomerular endothelial cells was inhibited, and no NCT-treated Stx2 entered the cytosol. Mass spectrometry displayed oxidation of thio groups and aromatic amino acids of Stx2 by NCT. Therefore, long-lived oxidants may act as powerful tools of innate immunity against soluble virulence factors of pathogens. Moreover, inactivation of virulence factors may contribute to therapeutic success of NCT and novel analogs, which are in development as topical antiinfectives. PMID:23139739
Luzader, Deborah H.; Willsey, Graham G.; Wargo, Matthew J.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome throughout the world. A defining feature of EHEC pathogenesis is the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on colonic epithelial cells. Most of the genes that code for AE lesion formation, including a type three secretion system (T3SS) and effectors, are carried within a chromosomal pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this study, we report that a putative regulator, which is encoded in the cryptic E. coli type three secretion system 2 (ETT2) locus and herein renamed EtrB, plays an important role in EHEC pathogenesis. The etrB gene is expressed as a monocistronic transcript, and EtrB autoregulates expression. We provide evidence that EtrB directly interacts with the ler regulatory region to activate LEE expression and promote AE lesion formation. Additionally, we mapped the EtrB regulatory circuit in EHEC to determine a global role for EtrB. EtrB is regulated by the transcription factor QseA, suggesting that these proteins comprise a regulatory circuit important for EHEC colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27324484
Wan, Baoshan; Zhang, Qiufen; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Aiping; Yao, Yu-Feng; Ni, Jinjing
As a global transcriptional regulator, H-NS, the histone-like nucleoid-associated DNA-binding and bridging protein, plays a wide range of biological roles in bacteria. In order to determine the role of H-NS in regulating gene transcription and further find out the biological significance of this protein in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), we conducted transcriptome analysis of hns mutant by RNA sequencing. A total of 983 genes were identified to be regulated by H-NS in EHEC. 213 and 770 genes were down-regulated and up-regulated in the deletion mutant of hns, respectively. Interestingly, 34 of 97 genes on virulence plasmid pO157 were down-regulated by H-NS. Although the deletion mutant of hns showed a decreased survival rate in macrophage compared with the wild type strain, it exhibited the higher ability to colonize mice gut and became more virulent to BALB/c mice. The BALB/c mice infected with the deletion mutant of hns showed a lower survival rate, and a higher bacterial burden in the gut, compared with those infected with wild type strain, especially when the gut microbiota was not disturbed by antibiotic administration. These findings suggest that H-NS plays an important role in virulence of EHEC by interacting with host gut microbiota.
Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W
Pulsed electric fields (PEF), heat-assisted PEF (H-PEF), and virulent bacteriophage (VP) are non-thermal techniques for pathogen inactivation in liquids that were investigated individually, and in combination (PEF/VP, H-PEF/VP) to control enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and Ringer's solution (RS). Treated cells were subsequently incubated at refrigeration (4°C) and temperature-abuse conditions (12°C) for 5 days. When EHEC cells grown in LBB were subjected to non-thermal processing and subsequently stored at 12°C for 5 days, reductions in count of between 0.1 and 0.6 log cycles were observed and following storage at 4°C the decrease in counts varied between 0.2 and 1.1 log10 . For bacteria cells suspended in RS values ranged from 0.1 to ≥3.9 log cycles at both storage temperatures. The most effective treatments were H-PEF and H-PEF/VP, both producing a >3.4 log cycle reduction of cells suspended in non-nutrient RS. Analysis of EHEC recovery on selective and non-selective media indicated no occurrence of sub-lethal damage for VP, PEF/VP, and H-PEF/VP-treated cells. The findings indicate that combining PEF and lytic phage may represent a suitable alternative to conventional fluid decontamination following further process optimization.
Zeinhom, Mohamed; Tellez, Angela M; Delcenserie, Veronique; El-Kholy, A M; El-Shinawy, S H; Griffiths, Mansel W
An active fraction extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 cell-free spent medium (LAla-5AF) was incorporated in a dairy matrix and tested to assess its antivirulent effect against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Mice in experimental groups were fed for 4 days with yogurt supplemented with LAla-5AF. On the fifth day, mice were challenged with a single dose (10(7) CFU per mouse) of E. coli O157:H7. The clinical manifestations of the infection were significantly less severe in mice fed the yogurt supplemented with LAla-5AF. EHEC attachment and colonization was attenuated by LAla-5AF. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production was down-regulated, which might indicate a protective effect in the kidney during EHEC infection. To investigate the mechanisms associated with the in vivo effects observed, LAla-5AF was tested by reverse transcription real-time PCR to confirm its effects on the expression of several virulence genes of EHEC O157. The results showed that these fractions were able to down-regulate several virulence genes of EHEC, including stxB2, qseA, luxS, tir, ler, eaeA, and hlyB.
The human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has two histidine sensor kinases, QseC and QseE, which respond to the mammalian adrenergic hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine by increasing their autophosphorylation. Although QseC and QseE are present in nonpathogenic strains of E. coli, EHEC exploits these kinases for virulence regulation. To further investigate the full extent of epinephrine and its sensors' impact on EHEC virulence, we performed transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of single and double deletions of qseC and qseE genes in the absence or presence of epinephrine. We showed that in EHEC, epinephrine sensing seems to occur primarily through QseC and QseE. We also observed that QseC and QseE regulate expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes positively and negatively, respectively. LEE activation, which is required for the formation of the characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions by EHEC on epithelial cells, is epinephrine dependent. Regulation of the LEE and the non-LEE-contained virulence factor gene nleA by QseE is indirect, through transcription inhibition of the RcsB response regulator. Finally, we show that coincubation of HeLa cells with epinephrine increases EHEC infectivity in a QseC- and QseE-dependent manner. These results genetically and phenotypically map the contributions of the two adrenergic sensors QseC and QseE to EHEC pathogenesis. PMID:22144490
Kundu, Devapriya; Gill, Alexander; Lui, Chenyuan; Goswami, Namita; Holley, Richard
This study determined the extent that irradiation of fresh beef surfaces with an absorbed dose of 1 kGy electron (e-) beam irradiation might reduce the viability of mixtures of O157 and non-O157 verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Salmonella. These were grouped together based on similar resistances to irradiation and inoculated on beef surfaces (outside flat and inside round, top and bottom muscle cuts), and then e-beam irradiated. Salmonella serovars were most resistant to 1 kGy treatment, showing a reduction of ≤1.9 log CFU/g. This treatment reduced the viability of two groups of non-O157 E. coli mixtures by ≤4.5 and ≤3.9 log CFU/g. Log reductions of ≤4.0 log CFU/g were observed for E. coli O157:H7 cocktails. Since under normal processing conditions the levels of these pathogens on beef carcasses would be lower than the lethality caused by the treatment used, irradiation at 1 kGy would be expected to eliminate the hazard represented by VTEC E. coli.
Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Medrano-López, Abraham; Nuñez-Reza, Karen J.; Puente, José Luis; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.
The molecular mechanisms controlling expression of the Long Polar Fimbriae 2 (Lpf2) of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were evaluated. Primer extension was used to locate the lpfA2 transcriptional start site in EHEC strain EDL933 at 171 bp upstream of the lpfA2 start codon. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the highest lpfA2 expression occurs between an OD600 of 1.0 and 1.2 in DMEM at pH 6.5 and 37°C. The level of lpfA2 transcription at OD600 1.2 and pH 6.5 was 4-times greater than that at pH 7.2. Although lpfA2 expression was decreased under iron-depleted conditions, its expression was increased in a Ferric-uptake-regulator (Fur) mutant strain. The lpfA2 transcript was 0.7 and 2-times more abundant in wt EHEC grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth at 25°C, respectively, than in DMEM at pH 6.5. The lpf2 expression in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and bile salts was 2.7-times more abundant and similar to MacConkey. Further, transcription in the EDL933Δfur was 0.6 and 0.8-times higher as compared to the wt strain grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that purified Fur interacts with the lpf2 regulatory region, indicating that Fur-repression is exerted by direct binding to the promoter region. In summary, we demonstrated that the EHEC lpf2 operon is regulated in response to temperature, pH, bile salts and iron, during exponential phase of growth, and controlled by Fur. PMID:24966050
Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC) strains have emerged as foodborne pathogens caused numerous foodborne illness outbreaks worldwide. Seafood (fish) consumption has significantly increased in recent years and it could be more common for STEC outbreaks due to non-O15...
Calderon Toledo, Carla; Arvidsson, Ida; Karpman, Diana
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are related attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. The genes responsible for the A/E pathology are carried on a chromosomal pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Both pathogens share a high degree of homology in the LEE and additional O islands. EHEC prevalence is much lower in areas where EPEC is endemic. This may be due to the development of antibodies against common EPEC and EHEC antigens. This study investigated the hypothesis that EPEC infections may protect against EHEC infections. We used a mouse model to inoculate BALB/c mice intragastrically, first with EPEC and then with EHEC (E. coli O157:H7). Four control groups received either a nonpathogenic E. coli (NPEC) strain followed by EHEC (NPEC/EHEC), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) followed by EHEC (PBS/EHEC), EPEC/PBS, or PBS/PBS. Mice were monitored for weight loss and symptoms. EPEC colonized the intestine after challenge, and mice developed serum antibodies to intimin and E. coli secreted protein B (encoded in the LEE). Prechallenge with an EPEC strain had a protective effect after EHEC infection, as only a few mice developed mild symptoms, from which they recovered. These mice had an increase in body weight similar to that in control animals, and tissue morphology exhibited mild intestinal changes and normal renal histology. All mice that were not prechallenged with the EPEC strain developed mild to severe symptoms after EHEC infection, with weight loss as well as intestinal and renal histopathological changes. These data suggest that EPEC may protect against EHEC infection in this mouse model. PMID:21402761
Luedtke, Brandon E; Bono, James L; Bosilevac, Joseph M
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are a growing concern in the area of food safety, and the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified the serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 as adulterants in certain types of raw beef. The most relevant to human disease are the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains that possess intimin (eae), Shiga toxin 1 and/or 2 (stx1-2), and in most cases the conserved pO157 or pO157 like virulence plasmid. Contamination of raw beef with EHEC is likely to occur via the transfer of cattle feces on hides to the carcass. To detect EHEC directly from cattle feces, we evaluated the utility of a multiplex real time PCR assay that targets the EHEC associated gene target ecf1 in combination with eae and stx1-2. Our assay had an increased sensitivity and provided a reliable limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(3)colony-forming unitspermL (CFUs/mL) in an EHEC spiked fecal background. In addition, we evaluated the use of a duplex qPCR assay using ecf1 for the enumeration of total EHEC directly from cattle feces. The reliable limit of quantification (LOQ) was determined to be 1.25×10(3)CFUs/mL. Our assay requires minimal sample processing and provides LOD and LOQ of EHEC directly from cattle feces that are the lowest reported. The application of this assay towards the identification of cattle shedding EHEC at a level above 1.25×10(3)CFUs/mL could be a first line of defense in identifying cattle shedding these pathogens.
The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare revised the Manual for Hygiene Management at Large-scale Food Preparation Facilities (Shokuan; Issue No. 0618005) on June 18, 2008. This manual was issued for the purpose of food poisoning prevention in mass food service facilities based on the concept of hazard analysis and critical control point(HACCP). Especially this revision of the manual made verotoxin(VT examination indispensable in the practice of regular fecal examination for cooking staff (stool examination). Out of 150 fecal specimens that were examined on May 12, 2009, a specimen from a dietician revealed a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli EHEC O103: H2 producing type I verotoxin (VT1). We studied the following with regard to EHEC O103: H2 producing VT1(EHEC O103): colony forms of the bacteria on the selective media for EHEC as well as the differential media for VT in use for stool examination in the laboratory and the usefulness of the hospital PCR based detection of VT genes. CHROMagar O26/O157 agar plates were used to select and isolate EHEC. Enterohemolysin blood agar plates were used to confirm VT. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using primers set EVT-1, 2 as well as EVS-1, 2. CHROMagar O26/O157 agar plates and enterohemolysin blood agar plates can distinguish EHEC strains easily, rapidly, and effectively, although not always correctly. The PCR method employs PCR technology targeting VT genes, so that it can verify VT genes in all strains of E. coli. This examination is useful for defining EHEC especially in stool examinations of asymptomatic patients. The PCR-based detection of VT genes was considered as a rational method for fecal examination compatible with the revised Manual for Hygiene Management at Large-scale Food Preparation Facilities.
Sharma, Vijay K; Zuerner, Richard L
The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which includes five major operons (LEE1 through LEE4 and tir), enables enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 to produce attaching and effacing lesions on host cells. Expression of LEE2, LEE3, and tir is positively regulated by ler, a gene located in LEE1. Transcriptional regulation of the esp operon (LEE4), however, is not well defined. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify transcriptional regulators of the esp operon by screening for mutants with increased beta-galactosidase activity in an EHEC O157:H7 strain harboring an esp::lac transcriptional fusion. All mutants with significant increases in beta-galactosidase activity had transposon insertions in hha (hha::Tn). Specific complementation of the hha::Tn mutation with a plasmid-encoded copy of hha reduced beta-galactosidase activity to the level expressed in the parental esp::lac strain. Purified Hha, however, bound poorly to the esp promoter, suggesting that Hha might repress the transcription of a positive regulator of esp. Transposon mutagenesis of a Deltahha esp::lac strain expressing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase resulted in ler mutants with reduced beta-galactosidase activity. Purified Hha bound to the ler promoter with a higher affinity, and complementation of a Deltahha mutation in a Deltahha ler::lac strain repressed beta-galactosidase activity to the level expressed in a ler::lac strain. A positive regulatory role of ler in esp expression was demonstrated by specific binding of Ler to the esp promoter, reduced expression of beta-galactosidase in Deltaler esp::lac strains with and without hha, and severalfold-increased transcription of ler and espA in strains lacking hha. These results indicate that hha-mediated repression of ler causes reduced expression of the esp operon.
Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Harhay, Dayna M; Arthur, Terrance M
Contamination of beef products by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a concern for food safety with a particular subset, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), being the most relevant to human disease. To mitigate food safety risks, preharvest intervention strategies have been implemented with the aim to reduce EHEC in cattle. One class of interventions that has been widely used in feedlots is direct-fed microbials (DFMs), which can contain various dosing rates of probiotic bacteria. Here we compare the use of two different doses of a commercially available DFM on total EHEC load in a commercial feedlot setting. The DFMs used were the standard 10(9) Propionibacterium freudenreichii and 10(6) Lactobacillus acidophilus colony forming units (CFUs)/head/day dose of Bovamine(®) (Nutrition Physiology Company, Guymon, OK) and the higher dose, Bovamine Defend™ (Nutrition Physiology Company), which is dosed at 10(9) P. freudenreichii and 10(9) Lactobacillus acidophilus CFUs/head/day. To analyze the total EHEC fecal concentration, 2200 head of cattle were assigned a DFM feed regimen lasting approximately 5 months. At harvest, 480 head of cattle were sampled using rectoanal mucosal swabs. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay targeting ecf1 was used to enumerate the total EHEC fecal concentration for 240 head fed the low-dose DFM and 240 head fed the high-dose DFM. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the fecal concentration of total EHEC was observed between the two doses. This suggests that using an increased dosage provides no additional reduction in the total EHEC fecal concentration of feedlot cattle compared to the standard dosage.
Kunsmann, Lisa; Greune, Lilo; Bauwens, Andreas; Zhang, Wenlan; Kuczius, Thorsten; Kim, Kwang Sik; Mellmann, Alexander; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Karch, Helge
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains cause diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome resulting from toxin-mediated microvascular endothelial injury. EHEC hemolysin (EHEC-Hly), a member of the RTX (repeats-in-toxin) family, is an EHEC virulence factor of increasingly recognized importance. The toxin exists as free EHEC-Hly and as EHEC-Hly associated with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by EHEC during growth. Whereas the free toxin is lytic towards human endothelium, the biological effects of the OMV-associated EHEC-Hly on microvascular endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells, which are the major targets during EHEC infection, are unknown. Using microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometry and functional analyses of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and Caco-2 cells we demonstrate that OMV-associated EHEC-Hly does not lyse the target cells but triggers their apoptosis. The OMV-associated toxin is internalized by HBMEC and Caco-2 cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis of OMVs and trafficked with OMVs into endo-lysosomal compartments. Upon endosome acidification and subsequent pH drop, EHEC-Hly is separated from OMVs, escapes from the lysosomes, most probably via its pore-forming activity, and targets mitochondria. This results in decrease of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and translocation of cytochrome c to the cytosol, indicating EHEC-Hly-mediated permeabilization of the mitochondrial membranes. Subsequent activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 leads to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation in the intoxicated cells. The ability of OMV-associated EHEC-Hly to trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human microvascular endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells indicates a novel mechanism of EHEC-Hly involvement in the pathogenesis of EHEC diseases. The OMV-mediated intracellular delivery represents a newly recognized mechanism for a bacterial toxin to enter host cells in
Gagnon, Mélanie; Kheadr, Ehab E; Dabour, Nassra; Richard, Denis; Fliss, Ismaïl
The effectiveness of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum RBL 71 as a probiotic against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection was studied using a murine model. BALB/c mice were fed the probiotic for 7 days before or after single challenge with E. coli O157:H7. Fecal B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 and E. coli O157:H7 counts obtained by selective culturing methods were assessed for 1 week before and after infection while feed intake, body weight and composition were monitored during 1 week after infection. Histology of gut tissue (jejunum, ileum and colon) and production of fecal IgA antibodies and serum IgG+IgM antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 were analyzed until 1 and 2 weeks post-infection, respectively. The pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7, marked by body weight loss and intestinal histopathological changes in the infected group, was significantly reduced in the B. thermacidophilum-treated group. Feeding B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 for 7 days before infection resulted in greater post-challenge feed intake and weight gain and lower fecal levels of E. coli O157:H7. Post-infection levels of anti-E. coli O157:H7-specific IgA in feces and IgG+IgM in serum were higher in mice fed bifidobacteria. Intestinal injuries were also attenuated and reaction of the lymphoid component in the mucosa of the ileum was greater in the bifidobacteria-fed group. A lesser degree of protection against E. coli O157:H7 infection was observed when bifidobacteria were given during the 7 days after E. coli O157:H7 infection. These results demonstrate that feeding the probiotic B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 to mice can reduce the severity of E. coli O157:H7 infection, and suggest that this strain represents a good candidate for the prevention of enteric infections in human.
Implications of down regulation of rcsA and rcsA-regulated colanic acid biosynthesis genes in increased acid sensitivity and enhanced curli and biofilm production in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 strain 86-24, originally linked to a disease outbreak in the western USA in 1982, exhibits acid resistance as indicated by its ability to survive exposure to acidic conditions (pH2.5) for several hours. The strain 86-24 is a poor biofilm producer ...
Oelschlaeger, T A; Barrett, T J; Kopecko, D J
Several enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains of serotype O157:H7 isolated from patients with hemorrhagic colitis, ischemic colitis, or hemolytic uremic syndrome were all found to be able to invade certain human epithelial cell lines in vitro. Their ability to gain entry into epithelial cells was compared with those of known invasive Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi strains and the noninvasive E. coli strain HB101 in invasion assays utilizing gentamicin to kill extracellular bacteria. All EHEC strains under investigation were efficiently internalized into T24 bladder and HCT-8 ileocecal cells. In striking contrast to shigellae, the same EHEC strains were not taken up into human embryonic intestinal INT407 cells or HEp-2 cells any more than the noninvasive E. coli strain HB101. The mechanism(s) of EHEC internalization was characterized by comparing the invasion efficiencies in the absence and presence of a variety of inhibitors acting on structures and processes of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. Also, wild-type, plasmid-containing EHEC strains were compared with their plasmid-cured isogenic derivative strains to determine if plasmid genes affect invasion ability. Plasmid-cured EHEC invaded as well as wild-type EHEC, indicating that invasion ability is chromosomally encoded. Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by simultaneous addition of bacteria and chloramphenicol to the monolayer blocked EHEC uptake dramatically, suggesting the presence of an invasion protein(s) with a short half-life. Studies utilizing inhibitors which act on eukaryotic cells demonstrated a strong dependence on microfilaments in the process of uptake of all EHEC strains into both T24 and HCT-8 cells. In general, depolymerization of microtubules as well as inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis reduced the efficiency of EHEC invasion of T24 cells, whereas interference with endosome acidification reduced EHEC entry into only HCT-8 cells. Taxol-induced stabilization of
Cruz, Jenniffer; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Fanny; Cárdenas, Constanza; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Torres, Rodrigo
Lactoferrampin 265-284 (LFampin 265-284) is a peptide consisting of residues 265-284 of N1-domain of bovine Lactoferrin (LF). This peptide has several cationic groups in the C-terminal lobe, exhibiting an antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. However, LFampin 265-284 exhibits low antimicrobial activity against the O157:H7 enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7) when compared with Lactoferrin chimera and Lactoferricin. Here, we have designed three analogues of LFampin 265-284 based on the distribution of cationic groups, hydrophobicity, size, and sequence. Analogues were synthesized by solid phase chemistry using Fmoc methodology obtaining peptides with 95% purity. All peptides maintain the ability to adopt helical conformations (checked by circular dichroism spectra and molecular simulations). Some of these analogues exhibited a significant increase in antimicrobial activity by counting colony forming units against EHEC O157:H7 compared to native LFampin 265-284, with MIC of 10 and 40 µM for 264G-D265K and 264G-D265K/S272R, respectively. The incorporation of a GKLI sequence in the N-terminal lobe increased dramatically its antibacterial activity, an effect which has been attributed to the addition of cationic groups in the N-terminal side that may stabilize the helical conformation of the new designed peptides.
Mayerhauser, C M
Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in acid foods such as unpasteurized apple cider and fermented sausage is well documented. Researchers have determined that E. coli O157:H7 can survive in refrigerated acid foods for weeks. The potential of acid foods to serve as a vector of E. coli O157:H7 foodborne illness prompted this study to determine the fate of this organism in retail mustard containing acetic acid when stored at room and refrigerated temperatures. Various retail brands of dijon, yellow, and deli style mustard, pH ranging from 3.17 to 3.63, were inoculated individually with three test strains of E. coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated with approximately 1.0 x 10(6) CFU/g, incubated at room (25+/-2.5 degrees C) and refrigerated (5+/-3 degrees C) temperatures, and assayed for surviving test strains at predetermined time intervals. An aliquot was appropriately diluted and plated using sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC). When the test strain was not recoverable by direct plating, the sample was assayed by enrichment in modified tryptic soy broth and recovered using SMAC. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 test strains was inhibited in all retail mustard styles. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in dijon style mustard beyond 3 h at room and 2 days at refrigerated temperatures. Survival in yellow and deli style mustard was not detected beyond 1 h. Overall, test strain survival was greater at refrigerated than room temperature. Retail mustard demonstrated the ability to eliminate effectively any chance contamination by this organism within hours to days, suggesting that these products are not a likely factor in E. coli O157:H7 foodborne illness.
Wang, G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P
Dairy cattle have been identified as a principal reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The fate of this pathogen in bovine feces at 5, 22, and 37 degrees C was determined. Two levels of inocula (10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g) of a mixture of five nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strains were used. E. coli O157:H7 survived at 37 degrees C for 42 and 49 days with low and high inocula, respectively, and at 22 degrees C for 49 and 56 days with low and high inocula, respectively. Fecal samples at both temperatures had low moisture contents (about 10%) and water activities ( < 0.5) near the end of the study. E. coli O157:H7 at 5 degrees C survived for 63 to 70 days, with the moisture content (74%) of feces remaining high through the study. Chromosomal DNA fingerprinting of E. coli O157:H7 isolates surviving near the completion of the study revealed that the human isolate strain 932 was the only surviving strain at 22 or 37 degrees C. All five strains were isolated near the end of incubation from feces held at 5 degrees C. Isolates at each temperature were still capable of producing both verotoxin 1 and verotoxin 2. Results indicate that E. coli O157:H7 can survive in feces for a long period of time and retain its ability to produce verotoxins. Hence, bovine feces are a potential vehicle for transmitting E. coli O157:H7 to cattle, food, and the environment. Appropriate handling of bovine feces is important to control the spread of this pathogen. PMID:8779595
Zhao, T; Doyle, M P; Shere, J; Garber, L
The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy herds is poorly understood, even though young dairy animals have been reported to be a host. From February to May 1993, 662 fecal samples from 50 control herds in 14 states, and from June to August 1993, 303 fecal samples from 14 case herds in 11 states were collected for isolation of E. coli O157:H7. Case herds were those in which E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from preweaned calves in a previous U.S. Department of Agriculture study, whereas control herds from which E. coli O157:H7 had not been isolated previously were randomly selected from the same states as case herds. Among the control herds, E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 6 of 399 calves (1.5%) that were between 24 h old and the age of weaning and from 13 of 263 calves (4.9%) that were between the ages of weaning and 4 months. Eleven of 50 control herds (22%) were positive. Among the case herds, E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 5 of 171 calves (2.9%) that were between 24 h old and the age of weaning and from 7 of 132 calves (5.3%) that were between the ages of weaning and 4 months. Seven of 14 case herds (50%) were positive. Sixteen of 31 isolates were obtained by direct plating, with populations ranging from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU/g. Fifteen of 31 isolates were isolated by enrichment only. Nineteen of the isolates produced both verocytotoxin 1 (VT-1) and VT-2, whereas 12 produced VT-2 only. PMID:7747951
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service has determined that six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are adulterants in raw beef. Isolate and phenotypic discrimination of non-O157 STEC is problematic due ...
Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; West, Joe W; Bernard, John K; Cross, Heath G; Doyle, Michael P
Cattle drinking water is a source of on-farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission. The antimicrobial activities of disinfectants to control E. coli O157:H7 in on-farm drinking water are frequently neutralized by the presence of rumen content and manure that generally contaminate the drinking water. Different chemical treatments, including lactic acid, acidic calcium sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, caprylic acid, ozone, butyric acid, sodium benzoate, and competing E. coli, were tested individually or in combination for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in the presence of rumen content. Chlorine (5 ppm), ozone (22 to 24 ppm at 5 degrees C), and competing E. coli treatment of water had minimal effects (<1 log CFU/ml reduction) on killing E. coli O157:H7 in the presence of rumen content at water-to-rumen content ratios of 50:1 (vol/wt) and lower. Four chemical-treatment combinations, including (i) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.05% caprylic acid (treatment A); (ii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.1% sodium benzoate (treatment B); (iii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.5% butyric acid (treatment C); and (iv) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 100 ppm chlorine dioxide (treatment D); were highly effective (>3 log CFU/ml reduction) at 21 degrees C in killing E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM in water heavily contaminated with rumen content (10:1 water/rumen content ratio [vol/wt]) or feces (20:1 water/feces ratio [vol/wt]). Among them, treatments A, B, and C killed >5 log CFU E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM/ml within 30 min in water containing rumen content or feces, whereas treatment D inactivated approximately 3 to 4 log CFU/ml under the same conditions. Cattle given water containing treatment A or C or untreated water (control) ad libitum for two 7-day periods drank 15.2, 13.8, and 30.3 liters/day, respectively, and cattle given water containing 0.1% lactic
Yokoyama, Eiji; Uchimura, Masako
Ninety-five enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serovar O157 strains, including 30 strains isolated from 13 intrafamily outbreaks and 14 strains isolated from 3 mass outbreaks, were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and the resulting data were subjected to cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the VNTR typing data revealed that 57 (60.0%) of 95 strains, including all epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with at least 95% similarity. Cluster analysis of the PFGE patterns revealed that 67 (70.5%) of 95 strains, including all but 1 of the epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with 90% similarity. The number of epidemiologically unlinked strains forming clusters was significantly less by VNTR cluster analysis than by PFGE cluster analysis. The congruence value between PFGE and VNTR cluster analysis was low and did not show an obvious correlation. With two-step cluster analysis, the number of clustered epidemiologically unlinked strains by PFGE cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent VNTR cluster analysis was significantly higher than the number by VNTR cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent PFGE cluster analysis. These results indicate that VNTR cluster analysis is more efficient than PFGE cluster analysis as an epidemiological tool to trace the transmission of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157.
Periplasmic chaperones HdeA and HdeB are known to be important for cell survival at low pH (pH<3) in E. coli and Shigella spp. Here we investigated the roles of these two acid chaperones in survival of various enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) following exposure to pH 2.0. Similar to K-12 strains, th...
A cluster of illnesses linked to contamination of ground beef with an E. coli serotype O26 strain, and the subsequent recall, reinforces the need for additional research on control of STEC in beef. Ground beef (percent lean:fat = 70:30 and 93:7) was inoculated with about 7.0 log CFU/g of a serotype...
Czajkowska, Danuta; Boszczyk-Maleszak, Hanka; Sikorska, I Rena; Sochaj, Agnieszka
Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain isolated from milk in Poland and an environmental E. coli strain in wastewater from Garwolin and Łowicz dairies and in activated sludges from dairy sewage treatment plants as well as in dairy wastewater with activated sludges was examined. Environmental materials were contaminated with about 10(8) of target bacteria/ml of sample. The experiments were performed under temperature conditions typical of autumn-winter (6 degrees) and spring-summer (24 degrees C) seasons. It was found that the non-pathogenic E. coli strain survived longer in all media than the enterohemorrhagic serotype. E. coli O157:H7 bacteria were not detected (in direct plating method) in activated sludges after 21-28 days; in dairy wastewater as well as in wastewater with activated sludges after 21-25 days. These periods for environmental E. coli strain were 35-42 days (activated sludges), 25-28 days (wastewater with activated sludges). At higher temperature environmental E. coli were not detected in wastewater from Łowicz dairy sewage treatment plant after 25 days, but the bacteria were still present in wastewater from Garwolin dairy sewage tratment plant after 34 days. The obtained results show that the lack of environmental E. coli bacteria (as a indicator bacteria of fecal contamination) in dairy wastewater and in dairy wastewater with activated sludges could indicate the absence of pathogenic E. coli bacteria. Prolonged existence of the enterohemorrhagic serotype in activated sludges shows the need to treat activated sludges prior to the utilization of these materials as fertilizer.
Morgan, Jason K.; Harro, Carly M.; Vendura, Khoury W.; Shaw, Lindsey N.
ABSTRACT Global regulator of virulence A (GrvA) is a ToxR-family transcriptional regulator that activates locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-dependent adherence in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). LEE activation by GrvA requires the Rcs phosphorelay response regulator RcsB and is sensitive to physiologically relevant concentrations of bicarbonate, a known stimulant of virulence systems in intestinal pathogens. This study determines the genomic scale of GrvA-dependent regulation and uncovers details of the molecular mechanism underlying GrvA-dependent regulation of pathogenic mechanisms in EHEC. In a grvA-null background of EHEC strain TW14359, RNA sequencing analysis revealed the altered expression of over 700 genes, including the downregulation of LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors and the upregulation of genes for glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR). Upregulation of GDAR genes corresponded with a marked increase in acid resistance. GrvA-dependent regulation of GDAR and the LEE required gadE, the central activator of GDAR genes and a direct repressor of the LEE. Control of gadE by GrvA was further determined to occur through downregulation of the gadE activator GadW. This interaction of GrvA with GadW-GadE represses the acid resistance phenotype, while it concomitantly activates the LEE-dependent adherence and secretion of immune subversion effectors. The results of this study significantly broaden the scope of GrvA-dependent regulation and its role in EHEC pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an intestinal human pathogen causing acute hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. For successful transmission and gut colonization, EHEC relies on the glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system and a type III secretion apparatus, encoded on the LEE pathogenicity island. This study investigates the mechanism whereby the DNA-binding regulator GrvA coordinates activation of the LEE with
Howe, Kathryn L.; Reardon, Colin; Wang, Arthur; Nazli, Aisha; McKay, Derek M.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is an enteric pathogen that causes potentially fatal symptoms after intimate adhesion, modulation of intestinal epithelial signal transduction, and alteration of epithelial function (eg, barrier disruption). Although the epithelial barrier is critical to gut homeostasis, only a few agents, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, can enhance or protect epithelial barrier function. Our aims were to delineate the mechanism(s) behind TGF-β-induced barrier enhancement and to determine whether TGF-β could prevent EHEC-induced barrier disruption. Using monolayers of the human T84 colonic epithelial cell line, we found that TGF-β induced a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (a measure of paracellular permeability) through activation of ERK MAPK and SMAD signaling pathways and up-regulation of the tight junction protein claudin-1. Additionally, TGF-β pretreatment of epithelia blocked the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in transepithelial passage of [3H]-mannitol caused by EHEC infection. EHEC infection was associated with reduced expression of zonula occludens-1, occludin, and claudin-2 (but not claudin-1 or claudin-4); TGF-β pretreatment prevented these changes. These studies provide insight into EHEC pathogenesis by illustrating the mechanisms underlying TGF-β-induced epithelial barrier enhancement and identifying TGF-β as an agent capable of blocking EHEC-induced increases in epithelial permeability via maintenance of claudin-2, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 levels. PMID:16314472
Shimizu, Takeshi; Ichimura, Kimitoshi; Noda, Masatoshi
Although the adhesion of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is central to the EHEC-host interaction during infection, it remains unclear how such adhesion regulates virulence factors. Adhesion to abiotic surfaces by E. coli has been reported to be an outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE-dependent activation cue of the Cpx pathway. Therefore, we investigated the role of NlpE in EHEC on the adhesion-mediated expression of virulence genes. NlpE in EHEC contributed to upregulation of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes encoded type III secretion system and to downregulated expression of the flagellin gene by activation of the Cpx pathway during adherence to hydrophobic glass beads and undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, LysR homologue A (LrhA) in EHEC was involved in regulating the expression of the LEE genes and flagellin gene in response to adhesion. Gel mobility shift analysis revealed that response regulator CpxR bound to the lrhA promoter region and thereby regulated expressions of the LEE genes and flagellin gene via the transcriptional regulator LrhA in EHEC. Therefore, these results suggest that the sensing of adhesion signals via NlpE is important for regulation of the expression of the type III secretion system and flagella in EHEC during infection.
Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Teng, Ching-Hao; Hsu, Tai-I; Lu, Pei-Jung; Syu, Wan-Jr; Wang, Sin-Tian; Chou, Ting-Chen; Chen, Chang-Shi
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen causing severe diseases in humans worldwide. Currently, there is no specific treatment available for EHEC infection and the use of conventional antibiotics is contraindicated. Therefore, identification of potential therapeutic targets and development of effective measures to control and treat EHEC infection are needed. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are surface glycolipids found on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, including EHEC, and LPS biosynthesis has long been considered as potential anti-bacterial target. Here, we demonstrated that the EHEC rfaD gene that functions in the biosynthesis of the LPS inner core is required for the intestinal colonization and pathogenesis of EHEC in vivo. Disruption of the EHEC rfaD confers attenuated toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and less bacterial colonization in the intestine of C. elegans and mouse. Moreover, rfaD is also involved in the control of susceptibility of EHEC to antimicrobial peptides and host intestinal immunity. It is worth noting that rfaD mutation did not interfere with the growth kinetics when compared to the wild-type EHEC cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that mutations of the EHEC rfaD confer hypersusceptibility to host intestinal innate immunity in vivo, and suggested that targeting the RfaD or the core LPS synthesis pathway may provide alternative therapeutic regimens for EHEC infection. PMID:27570746
Bhatt, Shantanu; Egan, Marisa; Jenkins, Valerie; Muche, Sarah; El-Fenej, Jihad
Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that disrupt the intestinal microvilli to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected cells and cause diarrhea. This pathomorphological trait is encoded within the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The LEE houses a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), which upon assembly bridges the bacterial cytosol to that of the host and enables the bacterium to traffic dozens of effectors into the host where they hijack regulatory and signal transduction pathways and contribute to bacterial colonization and disease. Owing to the importance of the LEE to EHEC and EPEC pathogenesis, much of the research on these pathogens has centered on its regulation. To date, over 40 proteinaceous factors have been identified that control the LEE at various hierarchical levels of gene expression. In contrast, RNA-based regulatory mechanisms that converge on the LEE have only just begun to be unraveled. In this minireview, we highlight major breakthroughs in small RNAs (sRNAs)-dependent regulation of the LEE, with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and/or LEE-encoded targets. PMID:27709103
Makino, K; Ishii, K; Yasunaga, T; Hattori, M; Yokoyama, K; Yutsudo, C H; Kubota, Y; Yamaichi, Y; Iida, T; Yamamoto, K; Honda, T; Han, C G; Ohtsubo, E; Kasamatsu, M; Hayashi, T; Kuhara, S; Shinagawa, H
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, derived from an outbreak in Sakai city, Japan in 1996, possesses two kinds of plasmids: a 93-kb plasmid termed pO157, found in clinical EHEC isolates world-wide and a 3.3-kb plasmid termed pOSAK1, prevalent in EHEC strains isolated in Japan. Complete nucleotide sequences of both plasmids have been determined, and the putative functions of the encoded proteins and the cis-acting DNA sequences have been analyzed. pO157 shares strikingly similar genes and DNA sequences with F-factor and the transmissible drug-resistant plasmid R100 for DNA replication, copy number control, plasmid segregation, conjugative functions and stable maintenance in the host, although it is defective in DNA transfer by conjugation due to the truncation and deletion of the required genes and DNA sequences. In addition, it encodes several proteins implicated in EHEC pathogenicity such as an EHEC hemolysin (HlyA), a catalase-peroxidase (KatP), a serine protease (EspP) and type II secretion system. pOSAK1 possesses a ColE1-like replication system, and the DNA sequence is extremely similar to that of a drug-resistant plasmid, NTP16, derived from Salmonella typhimurium except that it lacks drug resistance transposons.
García-Heredia, Alam; García, Santos; Merino-Mascorro, José Ángel; Feng, Peter; Heredia, Norma
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plant products on the growth, swarming motility, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 and a strain of O104:H4 serotype. Extracts of Lippia graveolens and Haematoxylon brassiletto, and carvacrol, brazilin were tested by an antimicrobial microdilution method using citral and rifaximin as controls. All products showed bactericidal activity with minimal bactericidal concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 8.1 mg/ml. Swarming motility was determined in soft LB agar. Most compounds reduced swarming motility by 7%-100%; except carvacrol which promoted motility in two strains. Biofilm formation studies were done in microtiter plates. Rifaximin inhibited growth and reduced biofilm formation, but various concentrations of other compounds actually induced biofilm formation. Real time PCR showed that most compounds decreased stx2 expression. The expression of pic and rpoS in E. coli 042 were suppressed but in E. coli O104:H4 they varied depending on compounds. In conclusion, these extracts affect E. coli growth, swarming motility and virulence gene expression. Although these compounds were bactericidal for pathogenic E. coli, sublethal concentrations had varied effects on phenotypic and genotypic traits, and some increased virulence gene expression.
Levine, Jonathan A.; Hansen, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Jane M.; Hazen, Tracy H.; Rasko, David A.; Kaper, James B.
Background Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These enteric pathogens contain a type III secretion system (T3SS) responsible for the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion phenotype. The T3SS is encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. The H-NS-mediated repression of LEE expression is counteracted by Ler, the major activator of virulence gene expression in A/E pathogens. A regulator present in EPEC, H-NST, positively affects expression of H-NS regulon members in E. coli K-12, although the effect of H-NST on LEE expression and virulence of A/E pathogens has yet-to-be determined. Results We examine the effect of H-NST on LEE expression and A/E lesion formation on intestinal epithelial cells. We find that H-NST positively affects the levels of LEE-encoded proteins independently of ler and induces A/E lesion formation. We demonstrate H-NST binding to regulatory regions of LEE1 and LEE3, the first report of DNA-binding by H-NST. We characterize H-NST mutants substituted at conserved residues including Ala16 and residues Arg60 and Arg63, which are part of a potential DNA-binding domain. The single mutants A16V, A16L, R60Q and the double mutant R60Q/R63Q exhibit a decreased effect on LEE expression and A/E lesion formation. DNA mobility shift assays reveal that these residues are important for H-NST to bind regulatory LEE DNA targets. H-NST positively affects Ler binding to LEE DNA in the presence of H-NS, and thereby potentially helps Ler displace H-NS bound to DNA. Conclusions H-NST induces LEE expression and A/E lesion formation likely by counteracting H-NS-mediated repression. We demonstrate that H-NST binds to DNA and identify arginine residues that are functionally important for DNA-binding. Our study suggests that H-NST provides an additional means for A/E pathogens to alleviate repression of virulence gene expression by H-NS to promote virulence
Toro, M.; Rump, L. V.; Cao, G.; Meng, J.; Brown, E. W.
Although new serotypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) emerge constantly, the mechanisms by which these new pathogens arise and the reasons emerging serotypes tend to carry more virulence genes than other E. coli are not understood. An insertion sequence (IS) excision enhancer (IEE) was discovered in EHEC O157:H7 that promoted the excision of IS3 family members and generating various genomic deletions. One IS3 family member, IS629, actively transposes and proliferates in EHEC O157:H7 and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) O139 and O149. The simultaneous presence of the IEE and IS629 (and other IS3 family members) may be part of a system promoting not only adaptation and genome diversification in E. coli O157:H7 but also contributing to the development of pathogenicity among predominant serotypes. Prevalence comparisons of these elements in 461 strains, representing 72 different serotypes and 5 preassigned seropathotypes (SPT) A to E, showed that the presence of these two elements simultaneously was serotype specific and associated with highly pathogenic serotypes (O157 and top non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [STEC]) implicated in outbreaks and sporadic cases of human illness (SPT A and B). Serotypes lacking one or both elements were less likely to have been isolated from clinical cases. Our comparisons of IEE sequences showed sequence variations that could be divided into at least three clusters. Interestingly, the IEE sequences from O157 and the top 10 non-O157 STEC serotypes fell into clusters I and II, while less commonly isolated serotypes O5 and O174 fell into cluster III. These results suggest that IS629 and IEE elements may be acting synergistically to promote genome plasticity and genetic diversity among STEC strains, enhancing their abilities to adapt to hostile environments and rapidly take up virulence factors. PMID:26292302
... Food Safety and Inspection Service Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products... manufacturing trimmings for six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45..., non-intact product, that are contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26,...
Tsuboi, Isami; Ida, Hirohisa; Yoshikawa, Eiji; Hiyoshi, Suehiro; Yamaji, Emiko; Nakayama, Issei; Nonomiya, Tomoko; Shigenobu, Fritz; Shimizu, Masaki; O’Hara, Koji; Sawai, Tetsuo; Mizuoka, Keiji
The antibiotic susceptibilities of 43 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 identified in the summer of 1996 in Japan were investigated. Growth of 90% of O157 strains was inhibited at a concentration of ≤0.5 μg/ml by several agents including fosfomycin with glucose-6-phosphate. PMID:9527800
Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli are a growing concern in the area of food safety, and the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified the serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 as adulterants in certain types of raw beef. The most re...
Modeling Stochastic Variability in the Numbers of Surviving Salmonella enterica, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes Cells at the Single-Cell Level in a Desiccated Environment.
Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu
Despite effective inactivation procedures, small numbers of bacterial cells may still remain in food samples. The risk that bacteria will survive these procedures has not been estimated precisely because deterministic models cannot be used to describe the uncertain behavior of bacterial populations. We used the Poisson distribution as a representative probability distribution to estimate the variability in bacterial numbers during the inactivation process. Strains of four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated for survival. We prepared bacterial cell numbers following a Poisson distribution (indicated by the parameter λ, which was equal to 2) and plated the cells in 96-well microplates, which were stored in a desiccated environment at 10% to 20% relative humidity and at 5, 15, and 25°C. The survival or death of the bacterial cells in each well was confirmed by adding tryptic soy broth as an enrichment culture. Changes in the Poisson distribution parameter during the inactivation process, which represent the variability in the numbers of surviving bacteria, were described by nonlinear regression with an exponential function based on a Weibull distribution. We also examined random changes in the number of surviving bacteria using a random number generator and computer simulations to determine whether the number of surviving bacteria followed a Poisson distribution during the bacterial death process by use of the Poisson process. For small initial cell numbers, more than 80% of the simulated distributions (λ = 2 or 10) followed a Poisson distribution. The results demonstrate that variability in the number of surviving bacteria can be described as a Poisson distribution by use of the model developed by use of the Poisson process.
Cabal, Adriana; Geue, Lutz; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Barth, Stefanie; Bárcena, Carmen; Hamm, Katharina; Porrero, M Concepción; Valverde, Aránzazu; Cantón, Rafael; Menge, Christian; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio
Cattle are reservoirs of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; however, their role in the epidemiology of other pathogenic E. coli remains undefined. A new set of quantitative real-time PCR assays for the direct detection and quantification of nine virulence-associated genes (VAGs) characteristic of the most important human E. coli pathotypes and four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 , fliCH4 , rbfO157 , fliCH7 ) that can be used as a surveillance tool for detection of pathogenic strains was developed. A total of 970 cattle fecal samples were collected in slaughterhouses in Germany and Spain, pooled into 134 samples and analyzed with this tool. stx1, eae and invA were more prevalent in Spanish samples whereas bfpA, stx2, ehxA, elt, est and the rbfO157 /fliCH7 combination were observed in similar proportions in both countries. Genes characteristic of the hybrid O104:H4 strain of the 2011 German outbreak (stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 ) were simultaneously detected in six fecal pools from one German abattoir located near the outbreak epicenter. Although no isolate harboring the full stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 combination was cultured, sequencing of the aggR positive PCR products revealed 100% homology to the aggR from the outbreak strain. Concomitant detection by this direct approach of VAGs from a novel human pathogenic E. coli strain in cattle samples implies that the E. coli gene pool in these animals can be implicated in de novo formation of such highly-virulent strains. The application of this set of qPCRs in surveillance studies could be an efficient early-warning tool for the emergence of zoonotic E. coli in livestock.
Askari Badouei, Mahdi; Morabito, Stefano; Najafifar, Arash; Mazandarani, Emad
In the present study we investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli strains harboring the gene encoding enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin (EHEC-HlyA) in cattle and the association of this gene with various diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes. First, the bovine E. coli isolates were screened for EHEC-hlyA gene by PCR, and then they were characterized for the phylogenetic groups and the presence of the major virulence genes of different DEC pathotypes. In total, 25 virulence gene profiles were observed in 54 EHEC-hlyA+ isolates that reflect a considerable heterogeneity. The EHEC-hlyA+ strains were mostly associated with EHEC (72%), while only 7.4% were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We also showed the presence of estA gene of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 6 isolates (11.1%). Interestingly, two of the estA+ strains showed hybrid pathotypes with one carrying eae/estA (EPEC/ETEC), and the other one stx2/astA/estA (EHEC/ETEC). None of the isolates were related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). The EHEC-plasmid encoded genes occurred in seven different combinations with EHEC-hlyA/saa/subA/espP being the most prevalent (46.3%). All stx-/eae+ strains carried O island 57 (OI-57) molecular marker(s) that may indicate these to be the progenitors of EHEC or strains losing stx. The most prevalent phylogroup was B1 (61.1%), but the most heterogeneous strains including the hybrid strains belonged to A phylogroup. Overall, our results indicate that cattle EHEC-hlyA encoding E. coli isolates consist of diverse diarrheagenic strains with the possible existence of hybrid pathotypes. Future studies are required to clarify the evolutionary aspects and clinical significance of these strains in humans and domestic animals.
Nguyen, Y N.; Sheng, Haiqing; Dakarapu, Rambabu; Falck, John R.; Hovde, Carolyn J.
The human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 colonizes the rectoanal junction (RAJ) in cattle, its natural reservoir. Colonization at the RAJ poses a serious risk for fecal shedding and contamination of the environment. We previously demonstrated that EHEC senses acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by the microbiota in the rumen to activate the gad acid resistance genes necessary for survival through the acidic stomachs in cattle and to repress the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes important for colonization of the RAJ, but unnecessary in the rumen. Devoid of AHLs, the RAJ is the prominent site of colonization of EHEC in cattle. To determine if the presence of AHLs in the RAJ could repress colonization at this site, we engineered EHEC to express the Yersinia enterocolitica AHL synthase gene yenI, which constitutively produces AHLs, to mimic a constant exposure of AHLs in the environment. The yenI+ EHEC produces oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (oxo-C6-HSL) and had a significant reduction in LEE expression, effector protein secretion, and attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion formation in vitro compared to the wild type (WT). The yenI+ EHEC also activated expression of the gad genes. To assess whether AHL production, which decreases LEE expression, would decrease RAJ colonization by EHEC, cattle were challenged at the RAJ with WT or yenI+ EHEC. Although the yenI+ EHEC colonized the RAJ with efficiency equal to that of the WT, there was a trend for the cattle to shed the WT strain longer than the yenI+ EHEC. PMID:23980115
Garbaj, Aboubaker M.; Awad, Enas M.; Azwai, Salah M.; Abolghait, Said K.; Naas, Hesham T.; Moawad, Ashraf A.; Gammoudi, Fatim T.; Barbieri, Ilaria; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim M.
Aim: The aim of this work was to isolate and molecularly identify enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 in milk and dairy products in Libya, in addition; to clear the accuracy of cultural and biochemical identification as compared with molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA for the existing isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 samples of raw milk (cow, she-camel, and goat) and locally made dairy products (fermented cow’s milk, Maasora, Ricotta and ice cream) were collected from some regions (Janzour, Tripoli, Kremiya, Tajoura and Tobruk) in Libya. Samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for isolation of E. coli that was detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using polymerase chain reaction and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Results: Out of 108 samples, only 27 isolates were found to be EHEC O157 based on their cultural characteristics (Tellurite-Cefixime-Sorbitol MacConkey) that include 3 isolates from cow’s milk (11%), 3 isolates from she-camel’s milk (11%), two isolates from goat’s milk (7.4%) and 7 isolates from fermented raw milk samples (26%), isolates from fresh locally made soft cheeses (Maasora and Ricotta) were 9 (33%) and 3 (11%), respectively, while none of the ice cream samples revealed any growth. However, out of these 27 isolates, only 11 were confirmed to be E. coli by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and E. coli O157 Latex agglutination test. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority of local E. coli isolates were related to E. coli O157:H7 FRIK944 strain. Conclusion: These results can be used for further studies on EHEC O157 as an emerging foodborne pathogen and its role in human infection in Libya. PMID:27956766
Shringi, Smriti; García, Alexis; Lahmers, Kevin K.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Swennes, Alton G.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Call, Douglas R.; Fox, James G.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is an important cause of food and waterborne illness in the developed countries. Cattle are a reservoir host of EHEC O157 and a major source of human exposure through contaminated meat products. Shiga toxins (Stxs) are an important pathogenicity trait of EHEC O157. The insertion sites of the Stx-encoding bacteriophages differentiate EHEC O157 isolates into genogroups commonly isolated from cattle but rarely from sick humans (bovine-biased genotypes [BBG]) and those commonly isolated from both cattle and human patients (clinical genotypes [CG]). Since BBG and CG share the cardinal virulence factors of EHEC O157 and are carried by cattle at similar prevalences, the infrequent occurrence of BBG among human disease isolates suggests that they may be less virulent than CG. We compared the virulence potentials of human and bovine isolates of CG and BBG in newborn conventional pig and weaned Dutch Belted rabbit models. CG-challenged piglets experienced severe disease accompanied by early and high mortality compared to BBG-challenged piglets. Similarly, CG-challenged rabbits were likely to develop lesions in kidney and intestine compared with the BBG-challenged rabbits. The CG strains used in this study carried stx2 and produced significantly higher amounts of Stx, whereas the BBG strains carried the stx2c gene variant only. These results suggest that BBG are less virulent than CG and that this difference in virulence potential is associated with the Stx2 subtype(s) carried and/or the amount of Stx produced. PMID:22025512
Licois, D; Reynaud, A; Federighi, M; Gaillard-Martinie, B; Guillot, J F; Joly, B
The GV strain (serotype O103:H2:K-), originally isolated from a diarrheic rabbit, is an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain that produces diarrhea without synthesizing the classical enterotoxins and that is not invasive. This strain is characterized by a 117-kb plasmid (pREC-1). Histological study of the gut by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed on the GV strain, on a derivative strain cured of pREC-1, and on transconjugants obtained by transfer of pREC-1 to nonpathogenic strains E. coli K-12 and 6100, not belonging to the O103 serogroup. The GV strain adhered to the epithelial cells of the ileum and large intestine, whereas the cured GV strain did not. Transfer of plasmid pREC-1 to E. coli K-12 or 6100 allowed the bacteria to attach to the intestinal mucosa in the same manner as that of the wild-type GV strain. Thus, pREC-1 seems to play an important role in attachment to and colonization of the intestinal tract of rabbits by E. coli serogroup O103. Scanning electron microscopy showed numerous bacteria attached together and closely associated with intestinal villi. Transmission electron microscopy revealed effacing lesions characteristic of enteropathogenic E. coli strains: effacing of microvilli and cuplike projections (pedestal formations) associated with an acute inflammatory and hemorrhagic response. In contrast with the results reported for rabbit pathogenic O15 strains, it appeared that the Peyer's patches were not involved in the early stages of infection with the O103 GV strain. This strain may represent a model for the study of the virulence and pathogenic effects of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Images PMID:1894377
Lin, Ruqin; Zhang, Yiduo; Long, Beiguo; Li, Yawen; Wu, Yuhua; Duan, Siqin; Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xianbo; Fan, Hongying
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157:H7) causes hemorrhagic colitis and the formation of characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in humans. Given the severe sequelae of EHEC O157:H7 infection, it is critical to develop effective vaccines for human use. However, for achieving this goal many hurdles need to be addressed, such as the type or subset of antigens, adjuvant, and the delivery route. We developed a candidate vaccine by inserting the bivalent antigen espA-Tir-M composed of espA and the Tir central domain into Lactobacillus acidophilus. The recombinant L. acidophilus (LA-ET) was safe in a cell model and excluded EHEC O157:H7 from LoVo cells at rates of nearly 94 and 60% in exclusion and competition assays, respectively. LA-ET inhibited the induction of A/E lesions by EHEC O157:H7 cells in vitro. Oral immunization with LA-ET induced higher levels of specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice. Moreover, LA-ET enhanced interferon-γ and interleukin-4 and -10 production, which was associated with mixed helper T (Th1/Th2) cell responses, and protected against EHEC O157:H7 colonization and infection in mice at a rate of 80%. Histopathological analyses revealed that orally administered LA-ET reduced or inhibited A/E lesions and toxin-induced systemic injury. These findings demonstrate that LA-ET induces both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice and is therefore a promising vaccine against EHEC O157:H7 infection. PMID:28360900
Iyoda, Sunao; Honda, Naoko; Saitoh, Takehito; Shimuta, Ken; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto
The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island is required for the intimate adhesion of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to the intestinal epithelial cells. GrlR and GrlA are LEE-encoded negative and positive regulators, respectively. The interaction of these two regulators is important for controlling the transcription of LEE genes through Ler, a LEE-encoded central activator for the LEE. The GrlR-GrlA regulatory system controls not only LEE but also the expression of the flagellar and enterohemolysin (Ehx) genes in EHEC. Since Ehx levels were markedly induced in a grlR mutant but not in a grlR grlA double mutant and significantly increased by overexpression of GrlA in a ler mutant, GrlA is responsible for this regulation (T. Saitoh et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:4822-4830, 2008). In this study, additional investigations of the regulation of ehx gene expression determined that Ler also acts as an activator for Ehx expression without requiring GrlA function. We recently reported that the LysR-type regulator LrhA positively controls LEE expression (N. Honda et al., Mol. Microbiol. 74:1393-1411, 2009). The hemolytic activity of the lrhA mutant strain of EHEC was lower than that of the wild-type strain, and LrhA markedly induced ehx transcription in an E. coli K-12 strain, suggesting that LrhA also activates the transcription of ehx without GrlA and Ler. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that Ler and LrhA directly bind to the regulatory region of ehxC. Together, these results indicate that transcription of ehx is positively regulated by Ler, GrlA, and LrhA, which all act as positive regulators for LEE expression. PMID:21844237
Martínez, Aida Juliana; Bossio, Carolina Paba; Durango, Adriana Coral; Vanegas, Maria Consuelo
The aim of this study was to characterize Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) by PCR using strains isolated from ham, beef, and cattle in Colombia. A total of 189 E. coli strains were tested for the presence of the uidA, stx1, and stx2 genes, and identification was confirmed by the automated PCR BAX system for E. coli O157:H7. Genes encoding Shiga-like toxins (stx) were found in eight (6.06%) of 132 strains previously isolated from minced beef; four (50%) of these strains yielded amplification products for both toxin genes (stx1 and stx2), and four (50%) yielded products only for the stx2 toxin. None of the strains analyzed were positive by PCR for the presence of the single base-pair mutation in the uidA gene from E. coli O157:H7; these results were confirmed by the BAX system analysis. A multiplex PCR assay was standardized for the three genes. Results from this study confirmed previous data about the low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Shiga-like toxins in Colombia and is the first known report of the prevalence of non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli in this country.
De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Morgan, Jason K.; Ares, Miguel A.; Yáñez-Santos, Jorge A.; Riordan, James T.; Girón, Jorge A.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system (TCS) consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR). In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system–associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32), which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC's ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators. PMID:26904510
De la Cruz, Miguel A; Morgan, Jason K; Ares, Miguel A; Yáñez-Santos, Jorge A; Riordan, James T; Girón, Jorge A
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system (TCS) consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR). In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system-associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32), which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC's ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators.
Greune, Lilo; Jarosch, Kevin-André; Steil, Daniel; Zhang, Wenlan; He, Xiaohua; Lloubes, Roland; Fruth, Angelika; Kim, Kwang Sik; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Mellmann, Alexander; Karch, Helge
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, and bioassays, we investigated OMVs secreted by EHEC O157 clinical isolates for virulence factors cargoes, interactions with pathogenetically relevant human cells, and mechanisms of cell injury. We demonstrate that O157 OMVs carry a cocktail of key virulence factors of EHEC O157 including Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a), cytolethal distending toxin V (CdtV), EHEC hemolysin, and flagellin. The toxins are internalized by cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis of OMVs and differentially separate from vesicles during intracellular trafficking. Stx2a and CdtV-B, the DNase-like CdtV subunit, separate from OMVs in early endosomes. Stx2a is trafficked, in association with its receptor globotriaosylceramide within detergent-resistant membranes, to the Golgi complex and the endoplasmic reticulum from where the catalytic Stx2a A1 fragment is translocated to the cytosol. CdtV-B is, after its retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, translocated to the nucleus to reach DNA. CdtV-A and CdtV-C subunits remain OMV-associated and are sorted with OMVs to lysosomes. EHEC hemolysin separates from OMVs in lysosomes and targets mitochondria. The OMV-delivered CdtV-B causes cellular DNA damage, which activates DNA damage responses leading to G2 cell cycle arrest. The arrested cells ultimately die of apoptosis induced by Stx2a and CdtV via caspase-9 activation. By demonstrating that naturally secreted EHEC O157 OMVs carry and deliver into cells a cocktail of biologically active virulence factors, thereby causing cell death, and by performing first comprehensive analysis of intracellular trafficking of OMVs and OMV-delivered virulence factors
Botkin, Douglas J.; Galli, Lucía; Sankarapani, Vinoth; Soler, Michael; Rivas, Marta; Torres, Alfredo G.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic E. coli strains are enteric pathogens associated with food safety threats and which remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the current study, we investigated whether enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains can be rapidly and specifically differentiated with multiplex PCR (mPCR) utilizing selected biomarkers associated with each strain’s respective virulence genotype. Primers were designed to amplify multiple intimin (eae) and long polar fimbriae (lpfA) variants, the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA, and the Shiga toxin-encoding genes stx1 and stx2. We demonstrated consistent amplification of genes specific to the prototype EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 (lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, stx1, stx2, and eae-γ) and EPEC O127:H6 E2348/69 (eae-α, lpfA1-1, and bfpA) strains using the optimized mPCR protocol with purified genomic DNA (gDNA). A screen of gDNA from isolates in a diarrheagenic E. coli collection revealed that the mPCR assay was successful in predicting the correct pathotype of EPEC and EHEC clones grouped in the distinctive phylogenetic disease clusters EPEC1 and EHEC1, and was able to differentiate EHEC1 from EHEC2 clusters. The assay detection threshold was 2 × 104 CFU per PCR reaction for EHEC and EPEC. mPCR was also used to screen Argentinean clinical samples from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrheal patients, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity when compared to established molecular diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, our mPCR methodology permitted differentiation of EPEC, STEC and EHEC strains from other pathogenic E. coli; therefore, the assay becomes an additional tool for rapid diagnosis of these organisms. PMID:22919600
Modeling Stochastic Variability in the Numbers of Surviving Salmonella enterica, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes Cells at the Single-Cell Level in a Desiccated Environment
Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso
ABSTRACT Despite effective inactivation procedures, small numbers of bacterial cells may still remain in food samples. The risk that bacteria will survive these procedures has not been estimated precisely because deterministic models cannot be used to describe the uncertain behavior of bacterial populations. We used the Poisson distribution as a representative probability distribution to estimate the variability in bacterial numbers during the inactivation process. Strains of four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated for survival. We prepared bacterial cell numbers following a Poisson distribution (indicated by the parameter λ, which was equal to 2) and plated the cells in 96-well microplates, which were stored in a desiccated environment at 10% to 20% relative humidity and at 5, 15, and 25°C. The survival or death of the bacterial cells in each well was confirmed by adding tryptic soy broth as an enrichment culture. Changes in the Poisson distribution parameter during the inactivation process, which represent the variability in the numbers of surviving bacteria, were described by nonlinear regression with an exponential function based on a Weibull distribution. We also examined random changes in the number of surviving bacteria using a random number generator and computer simulations to determine whether the number of surviving bacteria followed a Poisson distribution during the bacterial death process by use of the Poisson process. For small initial cell numbers, more than 80% of the simulated distributions (λ = 2 or 10) followed a Poisson distribution. The results demonstrate that variability in the number of surviving bacteria can be described as a Poisson distribution by use of the model developed by use of the Poisson process. IMPORTANCE We developed a model to enable the quantitative assessment of bacterial survivors of inactivation procedures
Pinto, Alipio; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Brener, Gabriela J.; Goldstein, Jorge
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic–uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood–brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test), and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope). Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group), sub-lethal dose of 0.5 and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n = 6). Blood–brain barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1 ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance. PMID:26904009
D'Alessio, Luciana; Pinto, Alipio; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia A; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Brener, Gabriela J; Goldstein, Jorge
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic-uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood-brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test), and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope). Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group), sub-lethal dose of 0.5 and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n = 6). Blood-brain barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1 ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance.
de Sablet, Thibaut; Chassard, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vareille, Marjolaine; Gobert, Alain P; Martin, Christine
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, especially in children. The main virulence factor responsible for the more serious disease is the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), which is released in the gut after oral ingestion of the organism. Although it is accepted that the amount of Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 in the gut is critical for the development of disease, the eukaryotic or prokaryotic gut factors that modulate Stx2 synthesis are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of prokaryotic molecules released by a complex human microbiota on Stx2 synthesis by E. coli O157:H7. Stx2 synthesis was assessed after growth of E. coli O157:H7 in cecal contents of gnotobiotic rats colonized with human microbiota or in conditioned medium having supported the growth of complex human microbiota. Extracellular prokaryotic molecules produced by the commensal microbiota repress stx(2) mRNA expression and Stx2 production by inhibiting the spontaneous and induced lytic cycle mediated by RecA. These molecules, with a molecular mass of below 3 kDa, are produced in part by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a predominant species of the normal human intestinal microbiota. The microbiota-induced stx(2) repression is independent of the known quorum-sensing pathways described in E. coli O157:H7 involving SdiA, QseA, QseC, or autoinducer 3. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the regulatory activity of a soluble factor produced by the complex human digestive microbiota on a bacterial virulence factor in a physiologically relevant context.
Sanz, Susana; Giménez, Mercedes; Olarte, Carmen
The ability of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated by immersion (at 4.6 and 5.5 log CFU/ g, respectively) to survive on artichokes during various stages of preparation was determined. Peeling, cutting, and disinfecting operations (immersion in 50 ppm of a free chlorine solution at 4 degrees C for 5 min) reduced populations of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 by only 1.6 and 0.8 log units, respectively. An organic acid rinse (0.02% citric acid and 0.2% ascorbic acid) was more effective than a tap water rinse in removing these pathogens. Given the possibility of both pathogens being present on artichokes at the packaging stage, their behavior during the storage of minimally processed artichokes was investigated. For this purpose, batches of artichokes inoculated with L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 (at 5.5 and 5.2 log CFU/g, respectively) were packaged in P-Plus film bags and stored at 4 degrees C for 16 days. During this period, the equilibrium atmosphere composition and natural background microflora (mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobes, and fecal coliforms) were also analyzed. For the two studied pathogens, the inoculum did not have any effect on the final atmospheric composition (10% O2, 13% CO2) or on the survival of the natural background microflora of the artichokes. L. monocytogenes was able to survive during the entire storage period in the inoculated batches, while the E. coli O157:H7 level increased by 1.5 log units in the inoculated batch during the storage period. The modified atmosphere was unable to control the behavior of either pathogen.
Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ostadgavahi, Ali Toloue; Ghotaslou, Reza; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Sorayaei Sowmesarayi, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef
Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a food-borne pathogen and infection with this organism causes illnesses such as bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Objectives: Considering the lack of any information about the prevalence rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern of O157:H7 serotype in Tabriz, finding answers to the above mentioned subjects was among the goals of this study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred E. coli strains from diarrheal or non-diarrheal stools of outpatients and hospitalized cases in Tabriz Imam Reza hospital were isolated between September and December 2014 using MacConkey agar and standard biochemical tests and then cultured on sorbitol MacConkey agar. The sorbitol-negative isolates were confirmed as the O157 serotype using O157 antisera. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the detection of stx-1, stx-2, eae, and mdh genes and the antibiotic resistance pattern of these isolates was determined using Kirby-Bauer method and clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) standards. Results: Of the isolates 11 (5.5%) were sorbitol-negative, which were later analyzed by multiplex PCR and the results revealed that 2 (18.18%) isolates contained the stx-1 gene, 10 (90.91%) contained the stx-2 gene, and 5 (45.45%) contained the eae gene. The stx-2 and eae genes were the most commonly encountered virulence factors. All or most of the isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime (100%), gentamicin (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), nalidixic acid (90.9%), trimetoprim sulfamethoxazole (90.9%), chloramphenicol (90.9%), ampicillin (81.8%), and cephalothin (72.7%). On the contrary, moderate susceptibility of the isolates to doxycycline (54.5%) was observed. Conclusions: Due to the low frequency of STEC O157 and the high susceptibility rates of the isolates to the tested antibiotics in this study, STEC O157 has not become a major problem in Tabriz yet, but comprehensive
Cooley, Michael B.; Miller, William G.; Mandrell, Robert E.
Enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7, have been shown to contaminate fresh produce. Under appropriate conditions, these bacteria will grow on and invade the plant tissue. We have developed Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) as a model system with the intention of studying plant responses to human pathogens. Under sterile conditions and at 100% humidity, S. enterica serovar Newport and E. coli O157:H7 grew to 109 CFU g−1 on A. thaliana roots and to 2 × 107 CFU g−1 on shoots. Furthermore, root inoculation led to contamination of the entire plant, indicating that the pathogens are capable of moving on or within the plant in the absence of competition. Inoculation with green fluorescent protein-labeled S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 showed invasion of the roots at lateral root junctions. Movement was eliminated and invasion decreased when nonmotile mutants of S. enterica were used. Survival of S. enterica serovar Newport and E. coli O157:H7 on soil-grown plants declined as the plants matured, but both pathogens were detectable for at least 21 days. Survival of the pathogen was reduced in unautoclaved soil and amended soil, suggesting competition from indigenous epiphytes from the soil. Enterobacter asburiae was isolated from soil-grown A. thaliana and shown to be effective at suppressing epiphytic growth of both pathogens under gnotobiotic conditions. Seed and chaff harvested from contaminated plants were occasionally contaminated. The rate of recovery of S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 from seed varied from undetectable to 19% of the seed pools tested, depending on the method of inoculation. Seed contamination by these pathogens was undetectable in the presence of the competitor, Enterobacter asburiae. Sampling of 74 pools of chaff indicated a strong correlation between contamination of the chaff and seed (P = 0.025). This suggested that contamination of the seed occurred directly from contaminated chaff or by invasion of
... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... methods for controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef... Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef products and product components on or before December...
Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P.; Harmon, Barry G.; Brown, Cathy A.; Mueller, P. O. Eric; Parks, Andrew H.
Bacteria inhibitory to Escherichia coli O157:H7 were isolated from cattle and evaluated for their potential for reducing carriage of E. coli O157:H7 in calves. Eighteen of 1,200 bacterial isolates from cattle feces and intestinal tissue samples were screened and determined to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in vitro. Seventeen of the isolates were E. coli and one was Proteus mirabilis. None produced Shiga toxin. Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 13 distinguishable profiles among the 18 isolates. Two calves inoculated perorally with a mixture of all 18 isolates (1010 CFU) appeared to be normal and did not develop signs of clinical disease throughout a 25- to 27-day observation period. These bacteria colonized segments of the gastrointestinal tract and were in feces at the termination of the experiment (25 and 27 days postinoculation) at levels of 50 to 200 CFU/g. Fifteen cannulated calves were studied to determine the efficiency of the probiotic bacteria in reducing or eliminating the carriage of E. coli O157:H7. Nine calves served as controls, with each animal receiving perorally 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was detected intermittently in the rumen samples from all control animals throughout 3 weeks postinoculation, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was shed at various levels in feces continuously throughout the experiment (mean, 28 days). E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from the rumens and colons of eight of nine and nine of nine calves, respectively, at the termination of the study. Six calves each received perorally 1010 CFU of probiotic bacteria and then 2 days later received 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the rumen for only 9 days postinoculation in two animals, for 16 days in one animal, for 17 days in two animals, and for 29 days in one animal. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in feces for only 11 days postinoculation in one animal, for 15 days in one animal, for 17 days in one animal
Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; Morabito, Stefano; Croughs, Peter D.; de Boer, Richard F.; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; Friedrich, Alexander W.
The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (nonmotile) isolates from patients with gastrointestinal complaints. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and their virulence properties and phylogenetic relationship were determined. Because of the presence of the eae gene but lack of the bfpA gene, the stx-negative isolates were considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). However, they had phenotypic characteristics similar to those of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates and belonged to the same sequence type, ST11. Furthermore, EPEC and STEC isolates shared similar virulence genes, the locus of enterocyte effacement region, and plasmids. Core genome phylogenetic analysis using a gene-by-gene typing approach showed that the sorbitol-fermenting (SF) stx-negative isolates clustered together with an SF STEC isolate and that one non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) stx-negative isolate clustered together with NSF STEC isolates. Therefore, these stx-negative isolates were thought either to have lost the Stx phage or to be a progenitor of STEC O157:H7/NM. As detection of STEC infections is often based solely on the identification of the presence of stx genes, these may be misdiagnosed in routine laboratories. Therefore, an improved diagnostic approach is required to manage identification, strategies for treatment, and prevention of transmission of these potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26311863
Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; Mellmann, Alexander; Morabito, Stefano; Croughs, Peter D; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Rossen, John W A; Friedrich, Alexander W
The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (nonmotile) isolates from patients with gastrointestinal complaints. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and their virulence properties and phylogenetic relationship were determined. Because of the presence of the eae gene but lack of the bfpA gene, the stx-negative isolates were considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). However, they had phenotypic characteristics similar to those of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates and belonged to the same sequence type, ST11. Furthermore, EPEC and STEC isolates shared similar virulence genes, the locus of enterocyte effacement region, and plasmids. Core genome phylogenetic analysis using a gene-by-gene typing approach showed that the sorbitol-fermenting (SF) stx-negative isolates clustered together with an SF STEC isolate and that one non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) stx-negative isolate clustered together with NSF STEC isolates. Therefore, these stx-negative isolates were thought either to have lost the Stx phage or to be a progenitor of STEC O157:H7/NM. As detection of STEC infections is often based solely on the identification of the presence of stx genes, these may be misdiagnosed in routine laboratories. Therefore, an improved diagnostic approach is required to manage identification, strategies for treatment, and prevention of transmission of these potentially pathogenic strains.
We compared translocation of genetically-marked strains of serotype O157:H7 Escherichia coli (ECOH) to non-O157:H7 Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) following blade tenderization of beef subprimals and the subsequent lethality of these pathogens following cooking of steaks prepared from ...
Rocelle, M; Clavero, S; Beuchat, L R
The efficacy of tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified sorbitol MacConkey agar (MSMA), modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar, and modified SD-39 (MSD) agar in recovering a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and five non-O157 strains of E. coli heated in tryptic soy broth at 52, 54, or 56 degrees C for 10, 20, and 30 min was determined. Nonselective TSA supported the highest recovery of heated cells. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower recovery of heat-stressed cells was observed on MSMA than on TSA, MEMB agar, or MSD agar. The suitability of MEMB agar or MSD agar for recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated or frozen (-20 degrees C) low- or high-fat ground beef was determined. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated ground beef was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher on TSA than on MEMB agar, which in turn supported higher recovery than MSD agar did; MSMA was inferior. Recovery from frozen ground beef was also higher on MEMB and MSD agars than on MSMA. Higher populations were generally recovered from high-fat beef than from low-fat beef, but the relative performance of the recovery media was the same. The inability of MSMA to recover stressed cells of E. coli O157:H7 underscores the need to develop a better selective medium for enumerating E. coli O157:H7.
Rocelle, M; Clavero, S; Beuchat, L R
The efficacy of tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified sorbitol MacConkey agar (MSMA), modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar, and modified SD-39 (MSD) agar in recovering a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and five non-O157 strains of E. coli heated in tryptic soy broth at 52, 54, or 56 degrees C for 10, 20, and 30 min was determined. Nonselective TSA supported the highest recovery of heated cells. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower recovery of heat-stressed cells was observed on MSMA than on TSA, MEMB agar, or MSD agar. The suitability of MEMB agar or MSD agar for recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated or frozen (-20 degrees C) low- or high-fat ground beef was determined. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated ground beef was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher on TSA than on MEMB agar, which in turn supported higher recovery than MSD agar did; MSMA was inferior. Recovery from frozen ground beef was also higher on MEMB and MSD agars than on MSMA. Higher populations were generally recovered from high-fat beef than from low-fat beef, but the relative performance of the recovery media was the same. The inability of MSMA to recover stressed cells of E. coli O157:H7 underscores the need to develop a better selective medium for enumerating E. coli O157:H7. PMID:7574637
Branchu, Priscilla; Hindré, Thomas; Fang, Xin; Thomas, Robynn; Gomelsky, Mark; Claret, Laurent; Harel, Josée; Gobert, Alain P; Martin, Christine
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that resists the acidic gastric environment, colonizes the gut epithelium, and causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, especially in children. The genomic island OI-47 of E. coli O157:H7 contains a gene, z1528, encoding an EAL-domain protein potentially involved in c-di-GMP hydrolysis that is absent in non-pathogenic E. coli. This gene, designated vmpA, is co-transcribed with ycdT, which is present in non pathogenic E. coli and encodes a diguanylate cyclase involved in c-di-GMP synthesis. To test for vmpA function, we constructed a vmpA knockout mutant. We also overexpressed vmpA, purified the VmpA protein and assayed for its activity in vitro. We found that VmpA possesses c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity and that the vmpA mutation results in increased biofilm formation, and reduced swimming motility, which is consistent with the function determined in vitro. Unexpectedly, suppressor mutations arise frequently in the vmpA background suggesting that VmpA plays an important regulatory role in E. coli O157:H7. These findings represent an example of remarkable flexibility in the organization of c-di-GMP signaling pathways in closely related species.
Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Rivera, Alejandra; Sáez, Darwin; Fernández, Pablo; Osorio, Gonzalo; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan C.; Vidal, Roberto M.; Oñate, Angel
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1′) in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1′ gene (pVAXefa-1′) into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1′, EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10, and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1′ have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle. PMID:26835434
Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Rivera, Alejandra; Sáez, Darwin; Fernández, Pablo; Osorio, Gonzalo; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan C; Vidal, Roberto M; Oñate, Angel
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1') in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1' gene (pVAXefa-1') into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1', EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10, and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1' have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle.
Asakura, Hiroshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Makino, Sou-Ichi
In an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 outbreak caused by salted salmon roe that occurred in Japan, 1998, a food isolate (F2) was NaCl-resistant and a patient isolate (P5) was sensitive to NaCl. We show here that hydrogen peroxide, like NaCl, induced a significant loss of culturability in P5. The BacLight assay suggested that the EHEC O157:H7 entered a viable but nonculturable (VNC) state. We used the passage through mice in an attempt to model this transition in phenotype. Mouse-passaged isogenic variants of F2 became NaCl- and oxidation-sensitive, entered the nonculturable state in response to either of these stresses, and could be resuscitated by sodium pyruvate. Since the expression of RpoS in response to these stresses correlated with the isolates' culturabilities, we concluded that in vivo passage negatively modulated RpoS expression, and the subsequent stress exposure induced the VNC state in the EHEC O157:H7 isolates.
Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Islam, Md Rakibul; Mako, Toshihiro; Arisawa, Kokichi; Katsura, Keisuke; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Murase, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hayashi, Tetsuya
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Their major virulence factor is Shiga toxin (Stx), which is encoded by bacteriophages. Of the two types of Stx, the production of Stx2, particularly that of Stx2a (a subtype of Stx2), is a major risk factor for severe EHEC infections, but the Stx2 production level is highly variable between strains. Here, we define four major and two minor subtypes of Stx2a-encoding phages according to their replication proteins. The subtypes are correlated with Stx2a titers produced by the host O157 strains, suggesting a critical role of the phage subtype in determining the Stx2a production level. We further show that one of the two subclades in the clade 8, a proposed hyper-virulent lineage of O157, carries the Stx2 phage subtype that confers the highest Stx2 production to the host strain. The presence of this subclade may explain the proposed high virulence potential of clade 8. These results provide novel insights into the variation in virulence among O157 strains and highlight the role of phage variation in determining the production level of the virulence factors that phages encode. PMID:26567959
Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Islam, Md Rakibul; Mako, Toshihiro; Arisawa, Kokichi; Katsura, Keisuke; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Murase, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hayashi, Tetsuya
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Their major virulence factor is Shiga toxin (Stx), which is encoded by bacteriophages. Of the two types of Stx, the production of Stx2, particularly that of Stx2a (a subtype of Stx2), is a major risk factor for severe EHEC infections, but the Stx2 production level is highly variable between strains. Here, we define four major and two minor subtypes of Stx2a-encoding phages according to their replication proteins. The subtypes are correlated with Stx2a titers produced by the host O157 strains, suggesting a critical role of the phage subtype in determining the Stx2a production level. We further show that one of the two subclades in the clade 8, a proposed hyper-virulent lineage of O157, carries the Stx2 phage subtype that confers the highest Stx2 production to the host strain. The presence of this subclade may explain the proposed high virulence potential of clade 8. These results provide novel insights into the variation in virulence among O157 strains and highlight the role of phage variation in determining the production level of the virulence factors that phages encode.
Assessing the performance of novel software Strain Solution on automated discrimination of Escherichia coli serotypes and their mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.
Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Iijima, Yoshio; Tamura, Hiroto
O157, O26, and O111 are the most important O serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli worldwide. Recently we reported a strategy for discriminating these serotypes from the others using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) method. To realize the fully automated identification of microorganisms at species- or serotype-level with the concept of S10-GERMS method, novel software named Strain Solution for MALDI-TOF MS was developed. In this study, the Strain Solution was evaluated with a total of 45 E. coli isolates including O26, O91, O103, O111, O115, O121, O128, O145, O157, O159, and untyped serotypes. The Strain Solution could accurately discriminate 92% (11/12) of O157 strains, 100% (13/13) of O26 and O111 strains from the others with three biomarkers in an automated manner. In addition, this software could identify 2 different E. coli strains (K-12 as a non-O157 representative and O157) in mixed samples. The results suggest that Strain Solution will be useful for species- or serotype-level classification of microorganisms in the fields of food safety and diagnostics.
Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. Since a conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and time-consuming process, optica...
Introduction: Relatively little information is available regarding the translocation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) into beef subprimals following chemical tenderization. Purpose: Quantify translocation of ECOH or STEC from the surface into the i...
The resistance of thirty two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and six major serotypes of non-O157 Shiga toxin- producing E. coli (STEC) plus E. coli O104 was tested against Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water using two different methods; modified AOAC 955.16 sequential inoculation method and minim...
In recent years, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli(STEC) have become an emerging problem. Efforts have been devoted to facilitating and speeding their detection, however, their isolation from high background microbiota foods remains problematic. To solve this problem, immunomagnetic se...
Rice, Thomas; Quinn, Noreen; Lucey, Brigid
The recent paradigm shift in infectious disease diagnosis from culture-based to molecular-based approaches is exemplified in the findings of a national study assessing the detection of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in Ireland. The methodologic changes have been accompanied by a dramatic increase in detections of non-O157 verotoxigenic E. coli serotypes. PMID:27322897
In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed incr...
Böhnlein, Christina; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Franz, Charles M A P; Pichner, Rohtraud
In 2011, one of the world's largest outbreaks of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred, caused by a rare Escherichia coli serotype, O104:H4, that shared the virulence profiles of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). The persistence and fitness factors of the highly virulent EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain, grown either in food or in vitro, were compared with those of E. coli O157 outbreak-associated strains. The log reduction rates of the different EHEC strains during the maturation of fermented sausages were not significantly different. Both the O157:NM and O104:H4 serotypes could be shown by qualitative enrichment to be present after 60 days of sausage storage. Moreover, the EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain appeared to be more viable than E. coli O157:H7 under conditions of decreased pH and in the presence of sodium nitrite. Analysis of specific EHEC strains in experiments with an EHEC inoculation cocktail showed a dominance of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4, which could be isolated from fermented sausages for 60 days. Inhibitory activities of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 toward several E. coli strains, including serotype O157 strains, could be determined. Our study suggests that EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 is well adapted to the multiple adverse conditions occurring in fermented raw sausages. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that STEC strain cocktails composed of several serotypes, instead of E. coli O157:H7 alone, be used in food risk assessments. The enhanced persistence of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 as a result of its robustness, as well as the production of bacteriocins, may account for its extraordinary virulence potential.
Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O121:H19 belong to a specific clonal type distinct from other classical EHEC and major enteropathogenic E. coli groups and is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. Sequencing of the fliC genes associated with the flagellar antigen H19 (fliCH19) revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH19 gene sequences in E. coli. A cluster analysis of 12 fliCH19 sequences, 4 from O121 and 8 from non-O121 E. coli strains, revealed five different genotypes. All O121:H19 strains fell into one cluster, whereas a second cluster was formed by five non-O121:H19 strains. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 strains differ by 27 single nucleotide exchanges in their fliCH19 genes (98.5% homology). Based on allele discrimination of the fliCH19 genes, a real-time PCR test was designed for specific identification of EHEC O121:H19. The O121 fliCH19 PCR tested negative in 73 E. coli H19 strains that belonged to serogroups other than O121, including 28 different O groups, O-nontypeable H19, and O-rough:H19 strains. The O121 fliCH19 PCR reacted with all 16 tested O121:H19 strains and 1 O-rough:H19 strain which was positive for the O121 wzx gene. A cross-reaction was observed only with E. coli H32 strains which share sequence similarities in the target region of the O121 fliCH19 PCR. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O121 wzx) and the detection of O121 fliCH19 allele type contributes to improving the identification and molecular serotyping of EHEC O121:H19 motile and nonmotile strains and variants of these strains lacking stx genes.
Brusa, Victoria; Aliverti, Virginia; Aliverti, Florencia; Ortega, Emanuel E; de la Torre, Julian H; Linares, Luciano H; Sanz, Marcelo E; Etcheverría, Analía I; Padola, Nora L; Galli, Lucía; Peral García, Pilar; Copes, Julio; Leotta, Gerardo A
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfb(O157)] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx(2)/eae/ehxA/fliC(H7) (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx(1)/stx(2)/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx(2) (29.7%); and stx(2)/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.
Brusa, Victoria; Aliverti, Virginia; Aliverti, Florencia; Ortega, Emanuel E.; de la Torre, Julian H.; Linares, Luciano H.; Sanz, Marcelo E.; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.; Galli, Lucía; Peral García, Pilar; Copes, Julio; Leotta, Gerardo A.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfbO157] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliCH7 (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx2 (29.7%); and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected. PMID:23346554
E. coli serogroup O111 is among the six most commonly reported non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which are emerging foodborne pathogens that have caused numerous outbreaks and sporadic cases of enteric illness in industrialized countries. We have assembled a collection of en...
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) was the first Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotype to be associated with bloody diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. It has since been implicated in several outbreaks in the U.S. and globally. Non-O157 STEC have not bee...
Escherichia coli O111 is an emerging non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). We previously reported that outbreak and environmental, but not sporadic case, strains of STEC O111 share a distinct aggregation phenotype (M. E. Diodati, A. H. Bates, M. B. Cooley, S. Walker, R. E. Mandrell, and ...
Antibody array was developed for the detection of the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O serogroups. Sensitivity of the array was 10**5 CFU, and the limit of detection of serogroups in ground beef was 1-10 CFU following 12 h of enrichment. The array utilized a minimal amount...
Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh
In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.
Szu, Shousun Chen; Ahmed, Amina
Pediatric immunization has been the most effective measure to prevent and reduce the burden of infectious diseases in children. The recent inclusion of pneumococcal and meningococcal polysaccharide conjugates in infant immunization further reinforces their importance. Currently there is no human vaccine against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. This review focuses on the human EHEC vaccine that has been studied clinically, in particular, the polysaccharide conjugate against E. coli O157. The surface polysaccharide antigen, O-specific polysaccharide, was linked to rEPA, recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In adults and children 2 to 5 years old, O157-rEPA conjugates, shown to be safe, induced high levels of antilipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G with bactericidal activities against E. coli O157, a functional bioassay that mimics the killing of inoculum in vivo. A similar construct using the B subunit of Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 as the carrier protein elicited both bactericidal and toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice. So far there is no clinical study of Stx-based human vaccine. Passive immunization of Stx-specific antibodies with humanized, chimeric, or human monoclonal antibodies, produced in transgenic mice, showed promising data in animal models and offered high prospects. Demonstrations of their safety and effectiveness in treating hemolytic-uremic syndrome or patients with EHEC infections are under way, and results are much anticipated. For future development, other virulence factors such as the nontoxic Stx B subunit or intimin should be included, either as carrier protein in conjugates or as independent components. The additional antigens from O157 may provide broader coverage to non-O157 Stx-producing E. coli and facilitate both preventive and therapeutic treatment.
Hazen, Tracy H.; Sahl, Jason W.; Fraser, Claire M.; Donnenberg, Michael S.; Scheutz, Flemming; Rasko, David A.
The attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) are characterized by the presence of a type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are often identified as isolates that are LEE+ and carry the Shiga toxin (stx)-encoding phage, which are labeled Shiga toxin-producing E. coli; whereas enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are LEE+ and often carry the EPEC adherence factor plasmid-encoded bundle-forming pilus (bfp) genes. All other LEE+/bfp−/stx− isolates have been historically designated atypical EPEC. These groups have been defined based on the presence or absence of a limited number of virulence factors, many of which are encoded on mobile elements. This study describes the comparative analysis of the genomes of 114 LEE+ E. coli isolates. Based on a whole-genome phylogeny and analysis of type III secretion system effectors, the AEEC are divided into five distinct genomic lineages. The LEE+/stx+/bfp− genomes were primarily divided into two genomic lineages, the O157/O55 EHEC1 and non-O157 EHEC2. The LEE+/bfp+/stx− AEEC isolates sequenced in this study separated into the EPEC1, EPEC2, and EPEC4 genomic lineages. A multiplex PCR assay for identification of each of these AEEC genomic lineages was developed. Of the 114 AEEC genomes analyzed, 31 LEE+ isolates were not in any of the known AEEC lineages and thus represent unclassified AEEC that in most cases are more similar to other E. coli pathovars than to text modification AEEC. Our findings demonstrate evolutionary relationships among diverse AEEC pathogens and the utility of phylogenomics for lineage-specific identification of AEEC clinical isolates. PMID:23858472
Venkateswaran, K; Kamijoh, Y; Ohashi, E; Nakanishi, H
Primers, specific for a unique base substitution in uidA of Escherichia coli O157:H7, were coupled with oligonucleotides for the shiga-like toxin I (SLT-I) and SLT-II genes in a multiplex PCR assay. A minimum of 10(2) CFU per PCR (10 microliters) was necessary to amplify E. coli O157:H7-specific bands by multiplex PCR. Food particles as well as various unknown metabolic by-products of bacteria inhibited the PCR, but a simple two-step filtration procedure eliminated this inhibition. To reliably generate PCR products, an E. coli inoculum of 10(3) CFU g of food slurry-1 in a nonspecific medium was required with 6 h of enrichment at 37 degrees C. However, when the food homogenate was incubated overnight, E. coli O157:H7 at an initial inoculum of even 1 CFU g-1 was detected. PMID:9327582
Lee, Kang-Mu; Kim, Wan-Seok; Lim, Jeesun; Nam, Sunyoung; Youn, Min; Nam, Seong-Won; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae-Hun; Park, Woojun; Park, Sungsu
The inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on virulence phenotypes and gene expression regulated by quorum sensing (QS) in Escherichia coli O157:H7 were demonstrated at concentrations of 1 to 100 microg/ml, which are lower than the MIC (539 +/- 22 microg/ml). At 25 microg/ml, the growth rate was not affected, but autoinducer 2 concentration, biofilm formation, and swarm motility decreased to 13.2, 11.8, and 50%, respectively. Survival at 5 days of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) that were fed the pathogen without and with EGCG were 47.1 and 76%, respectively. Real-time PCR data indicated decreased transcriptional level in many quorum sensing-regulated virulence genes at 25 microg/ml. Our results suggest that EGCG at concentrations below itsMIC has significant antipathogenic effects against E. coli O157:H7.
Introduction: Previous studies have shown that chemical or mechanical tenderization transfers Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) throughout the interior of beef subprimals. Purpose: Evaluate the viability of ECOH or STEC in brine-injected beef subprimal...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O145 is one of the major non-O157 serotypes associated with severe human disease. Here we examined the genetic diversity, population structure, virulence potential, and antibiotic resistance profile of environmental O145 strains isolated from a ...
Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...
Introduction: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens that cause outbreaks and serious cases of food-borne illness. Methods for detection and isolation of STEC, particularly the non-O157 STEC, are needed to prevent their transmission through contaminated fo...
We quantified thermal destruction of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and Shiga toxin-producing non-O157 E. coli (STEC) cells within mechanically tenderized veal cutlets following cooking on an electric skillet. For each of five trials, flattened veal cutlets (ca. 71.6 g; ca. 1/...
The risk of non-O157 Escherichia coli strains has become a growing public health concern. Several studies characterized the behavior of E. coli O157:H7; however, no reports are available on the influence of multiple factors on E. coli O104:H4. This study examined the effects and interactions of tem...
Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Upadhyaya, Indu; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Roshni Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Schreiber, David; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar
This study investigated the efficacy of 3 GRAS-status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and β-resorcylic acid (BR) applied as an antimicrobial wash for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples. "Red delicious" apples inoculated with a 5 strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to washing in sterile deionized water containing 0% PDA (control), 0.15% TC, 0.35% TC, 0.15% CR, 0.30% CR, 0.5% BR, or 1% BR for 1, 3, and 5 min at 23 °C in the presence and absence of 1% soil, and surviving pathogen populations on apples were enumerated at each specified time. All PDAs were more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 compared to the water wash treatment (P < 0.05) and reduced the pathogen by 4- to 5-log CFU/apple in 5 min. Chlorine (1%) was the most effective treatment reducing the pathogen on apples to undetectable levels in 1 min (P < 0.05). Moreover, the antimicrobial effect of CR and BR was not affected by the presence of soil, whereas the efficacy of TC and BR was decreased in the presence of soil. Further, no bacteria were detected in the wash solution containing CR and BR; however, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered in the control wash water and treatment solutions containing TC and chlorine, in the presence of 1% soil (P < 0.05). Results suggest that the aforementioned PDAs, especially CR and BR could be used effectively to kill E. coli O157:H7 on apples when used as a wash treatment. Studies on the sensory and quality characteristics of apples treated with PDAs are needed before recommending their usage.
Gannon, V P; D'Souza, S; Graham, T; King, R K; Rahn, K; Read, S
PCR products of 1.8 kb were generated with DNAs from all Escherichia coli H7 strains tested by using oligonucleotide primers which flank the fliC gene. Three RsaI digestion profiles of these PCR products were evident on agarose gels; the first occurred with serotype O55:H7, O157:H7, or nonmotile (NM) strains, the second occurred with serotype O1:H7 and O18:H7 strains, and the third occurred with serotype O?:H7, O19:H7, O121:H7, O88:H7, and O156:H7 strains. Despite these differences, the nucleotide sequences of the E. coli E32511 (O157:NM) and U5-41 (O1:H7) fliC genes were 97% homologous. Two PCR primer pairs synthesized on the basis of the E32511 H7 fliC sequence amplified specific DNA fragments from all E. coli H7 strains, but did not amplify DNA fragments from the other bacterial strains. The H7-specific primers were used in combination with other primers which target the Verotoxin 1(VT1) and VT2 genes and the E. coli O157:H7 eaeA gene in multiplex PCR assays. In these assays, vt and eaeA PCR products were observed with DNAs from the majority of EHEC strains and vt, eaeA, and fliC PCR products were observed with DNAs from E. coli O157:H7 or NM strains. Only eaeA PCR products were present with DNA from enteropathogenic E. coli, and only vt PCR products occurred with VT-producing E. coli which are not EHEC. The multiplex PCR assays described allow for the specific identification of E. coli O157:H7 or NM and other EHEC strains. PMID:9041407
Sharma, Vijay K.; Kudva, Indira T.; Bearson, Bradley L.; Stasko, Judith A.
In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed increased adherence to HEp-2 cells and produced abundant biofilms. Transcriptional analysis revealed increased expression of espA as well as the csgA gene, which encodes curli fimbriae that are essential for biofilm formation. In the present study, we constructed hha espA, hha csgA, and hha csgA espA deletion mutants to determine the relative importance of EspA and CsgA in O157 adherence to HEp-2 cells and biofilm formation. In vitro adherence assays, conducted at 37°C in a tissue culture medium containing 0.1% glucose, showed that HEp-2 cell adherence required EspA because hha espA and hha csgA espA mutants adhered to HEp-2 cells at higher levels only when complemented with an espA-expressing plasmid. Biofilm assays performed at 28°C in a medium lacking glucose showed dependency of biofilm formation on CsgA; however EspA was not produced under these conditions. Despite production of detectable levels of EspA at 37°C in media supplemented with 0.1% glucose, the biofilm formation occurred independent of EspA. These results indicate dependency of O157 adherence to epithelial cells on EspA filaments, while CsgA promoted biofilm formation under conditions mimicking those found in the environment (low temperature with nutrient limitations) and in the digestive tract of an host animal (higher temperature and low levels of glucose). PMID:26900701
Taormina, P J; Beuchat, L R
The behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds subjected to conditions similar to those used commercially to grow and market sprouts as it is affected by applications of NaOCl, Ca(OCl)2, acidified NaClO2, acidified ClO2, Na3PO4, Vegi-Clean, Tsunami, Vortexx, or H2O2 at various stages of the sprouting process was determined. Application of 2,000 ppm of NaOCl, 200 and 2,000 ppm of Ca(OCl)2, 500 ppm of acidified ClO2, 10,000 ppm of Vegi-Clean, 80 ppm of Tsunami, or 40 and 80 ppm of Vortexx to germinated seeds significantly reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7. With the exception of acidified NaOCl2 at 1,200 ppm, spray applications of these chemicals did not significantly reduce populations or control the growth of E. coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts during the sprouting process. Populations of E. coli on alfalfa sprouts peaked at 6 to 7 log10 CFU/g 48 h after initiation of the sprouting process and remained stable despite further spraying with chemicals. The population of E. coli O157:H7 on sprouts as they entered cold storage at 9 +/- 2 degrees C remained essentially unchanged for up to 6 days. None of the chemical treatments evaluated was able to eliminate or satisfactorily reduce E. coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds and sprouts. Observations on the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to grow during production of alfalfa sprouts not subjected to chemical treatments are similar to those from a previous study in our laboratory on the behavior of Salmonella Stanley. Our results do not reveal a chemical treatment method to eliminate the pathogen from alfalfa sprouts. We have demonstrated that currently recommended procedures for sanitizing alfalfa seeds fail to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 and that the pathogen can grow to populations exceeding 7 1og10 CFU/g of sprouts produced using techniques not dissimilar to those used in the sprout industry.
Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Thomas, James; Reuter, Tim
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are food-borne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of human infections worldwide. Ruminant livestock harbor STEC in their intestinal tract, and through fecal contamination possess the potential to compromise the safety of food and water. As a human health safety risk, STEC detection methods on beef carcasses and trim are needed as mandated by the USDA-FSIS. In order to monitor STEC prior to harvest and human consumption, our goal was to evaluate and/or improve detection of seven STEC serogroups in cattle feces. In comparison to traditional approaches, sample processing methods in bovine feces were evaluated using a multi-factorial Latin square design which involved freezing or freeze drying feces. Autoclaved versus non-autoclaved feces were spiked with O26:H11 or O157:H7 serotypes in various dilutions and enriched for up to 6h. Each hour, enriched aliquots were compared using traditional culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Furthermore, a 7-serogroup multiplex PCR (mPCR) was developed to detect O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157 serogroups simultaneously. The diagnostic sensitivity of our mPCR assay following 6h enrichment was superior (10CFU/g across all serogroups) compared to a previously established PCR assay (10CFU/g for O26, and O103; ≥10(4)CFU/g for all other serogroups). Obtaining viable isolates appeared to be limited by the efficiency of current immunomagnetic separation (IMS) methods, which ranged from 20 to 100% effectiveness at retrieving colonies depending on serogroup. After IMS, 70 putative STEC isolates were screened for Shiga toxin and attachment genes by mPCR. Sixty-five isolates contained one or both Shiga toxin genes.
Zweifel, C; Giezendanner, N; Corti, S; Krause, G; Beutin, L; Danuser, J; Stephan, R
Food is an important vehicle for transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). To assess the potential public health impact of STEC in Swiss raw milk cheese produced from cow's, goat's, and ewe's milk, 1,422 samples from semihard or hard cheese and 80 samples from soft cheese were examined for STEC, and isolated strains were further characterized. By PCR, STEC was detected after enrichment in 5.7% of the 1,502 raw milk cheese samples collected at the producer level. STEC-positive samples comprised 76 semihard, 8 soft, and 1 hard cheese. By colony hybridization, 29 STEC strains were isolated from 24 semihard and 5 soft cheeses. Thirteen of the 24 strains typeable with O antisera belonged to the serogroups O2, O22, and O91. More than half (58.6%) of the 29 strains belonged to O:H serotypes previously isolated from humans, and STEC O22:H8, O91:H10, O91:H21, and O174:H21 have also been identified as agents of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Typing of Shiga toxin genes showed that stx(1) was only found in 2 strains, whereas 27 strains carried genes encoding for the Stx(2) group, mainly stx(2) and stx(2vh-a/b). Production of Stx(2) and Stx(2vh-a/b) subtypes might be an indicator for a severe outcome in patients. Nine strains harbored hlyA (enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin), whereas none tested positive for eae (intimin). Consequently, semihard and hard raw milk cheese may be a potential source of STEC, and a notable proportion of the isolated non-O157 STEC strains belonged to serotypes or harbored Shiga toxin gene variants associated with human infections.
Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with about 3.5 or 5.5 log CFU/g of a five-strain mixture of rifampicin resistant (Rifr) Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and/or kanamycin resistant (Kanr) non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and then passed once throu...
Chen, Chunsheng; Lyte, Mark; Stevens, Mark P.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Brown, David R.
The sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine has been found to increase mucosal adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in explants of murine cecum and porcine distal colon. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that norepinephrine augments the initial, loose adherence of this important pathogen to the intestinal mucosa. In mucosal sheets of porcine cecum or proximal, spiral and distal colon mounted in Ussing chambers, norepinephrine (10 µM, contraluminal addition) increased mucosal adherence of wild-type E. coli O157:H7 strain 85–170; in the cecal mucosa, this effect occurred within 15 – 90 min after bacterial inoculation. In addition, norepinephrine transiently increased short-circuit current in cecal and colonic mucosal sheets, a measure of active anion transport. Norepinephrine was effective in promoting cecal adherence of a non-O157 E. coli strain as well as E. coli O157:H7 eae or espA mutant strains that are incapable of intimate mucosal attachment. Nerve fibers immunoreactive for the norepinephrine synthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase appeared in close proximity to the cecal epithelium, and the norepinephrine reuptake blocker cocaine, like norepinephrine and the selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist UK-14,304, increased E. coli O157:H7 adherence. These results suggest that norepinephrine, acting upon the large bowel mucosa, modulates early, non-intimate adherence of E. coli O157:H7 and probably other mucosa-associated bacteria. Sympathetic nerves innervating the cecocolonic mucosa may link acute stress exposure or psychostimulant abuse with an increased microbial colonization of the intestinal surface. This in turn may alter host susceptibility to enteric infections. PMID:16687138
Quinones, Beatriz; He, Xiaohua; Zhong, Wayne; Louie, Jacqueline W.; Lee, Bertram G.; Yambao, Jaszemyn C.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Cooley, Michael B.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O145 is one of the major non-O157 serotypes associated with severe human disease. Here we examined the genetic diversity, population structure, virulence potential, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of environmental O145 strains recovered from a major produce production region in California. Multilocus sequence typing analyses revealed that sequence type 78 (ST-78), a common ST in clinical strains, was the predominant genotype among the environmental strains. Similarly, all California environmental strains belonged to H28, a common H serotype in clinical strains. Although most environmental strains carried an intact fliC gene, only one strain retained swimming motility. Diverse stx subtypes were identified, including stx1a, stx2a, stx2c, and stx2e. Although no correlation was detected between the stx genotype and Stx1 production, high Stx2 production was detected mainly in strains carrying stx2a only and was correlated positively with the cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin. All environmental strains were capable of producing enterohemolysin, whereas only 10 strains were positive for anaerobic hemolytic activity. Multidrug resistance appeared to be common, as nearly half of the tested O145 strains displayed resistance to at least two different classes of antibiotics. The core virulence determinants of enterohemorrhagic E. coli were conserved in the environmental STEC O145 strains; however, there was large variation in the expression of virulence traits among the strains that were highly related genotypically, implying a trend of clonal divergence. Several cattle isolates exhibited key virulence traits comparable to those of the STEC O145 outbreak strains, emphasizing the emergence of hypervirulent strains in agricultural environments. PMID:26637597
Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Bell, Charlotte R.; Elshina, Elizaveta; Hope, Jayne C.; Stevens, Mark P.
ABSTRACT Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally encoded 365-kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonization of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111, and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill defined. Using purified recombinant protein, we demonstrated that lymphostatin inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of bovine T cells and, to a lesser extent, proliferation of cytokine-stimulated B cells, but not NK cells. It broadly affected the T cell compartment, inhibiting all cell subsets (CD4, CD8, WC-1, and γδ T cell receptor [γδ-TCR]) and cytokines examined (interleukin 2 [IL-2], IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A, and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and rendered T cells refractory to mitogen for a least 18 h after transient exposure. Lymphostatin was also able to inhibit proliferation of T cells stimulated by IL-2 and by antigen presentation using a Theileria-transformed cell line and autologous T cells from Theileria-infected cattle. We conclude that lymphostatin is likely to act early in T cell activation, as stimulation of T cells with concanavalin A, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate combined with ionomycin, was inhibited. Finally, a homologue of lymphostatin from E. coli O157:H7 (ToxB; L7095) was also found to possess comparable inhibitory activity against T cells, indicating a potentially conserved strategy for interference in adaptive responses by attaching and effacing E. coli. PMID:27920212
The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of stresses on the growth and cytotoxicity of pathogenic Escherichia coli in beef and spinach. A mixture of three strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 or four strains of non-O157 STEC O26:H11, O103:H1, O104:H4, and O145:NM wa...
Kehl, K S; Havens, P; Behnke, C E; Acheson, D W
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Shiga toxins (Premier EHEC assay; Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.) was compared to conventional sorbitol-MacConkey culture for the recovery of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. A total of 74 enteric pathogens, including 8 E. coli O157:H7 isolates, were recovered from 974 stool specimens. Two of these specimens were not tested by Premier assaying due to insufficient sample and are not considered in the data analysis. The Premier EHEC assay detected the 6 evaluable specimens which were culture positive for E. coli O157:H7 and identified an additional 10 specimens as containing Shiga toxin. Seven isolates were recovered from these 10 specimens by an immunoblot assay and were confirmed as toxin producers by a cytotoxin assay. Of these seven, four isolates were serotype O157:H7, one was O26:NM, one was O6:H-, and one was O untypeable:H untypeable. Three specimens contained Shiga toxin by both EHEC immunoassaying and cytotoxin testing; however, no cytotoxin-producing E. coli could be recovered. The sorbitol-MacConkey method had a sensitivity and a specificity of 60 and 100%, respectively, while the Premier EHEC assay had a sensitivity and a specificity of 100 and 99.7%, respectively, for E. coli O157:H7 only. The Premier EHEC assay also detected an additional 20% Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that were non-O157:H7. Thus, the Premier EHEC assay is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of all STEC isolates. Routine use would improve the detection of E. coli O157:H7 and allow for determination of the true incidence of STEC other than O157:H7. The presence of blood in the stool and/or the ages of the patients were poor predictors of the presence of STEC. Criteria need to be determined which would allow for the cost-effective incorporation of this assay into the routine screen for enteric pathogens in high-risk individuals, especially children. PMID:9230380
Jiang, Yun; Yin, Shuang; Dudley, Edward G; Cutter, Catherine N
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, including those of O157:H7 and the "big six" serogroups (i.e., O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are food-borne pathogens that pose a serious health threat to humans. Ruminants, especially cattle, are a major reservoir for O157 and non-O157 STEC. In the present study, 115 E. coli strains isolated from small and very small beef processing plants were screened for virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae) using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thirteen (11.3%) of the 115 isolates tested positive for stx1, stx2, or eae genes, but only 4 (3.5%) tested positive for either stx1 or stx2. A multiplex PCR reaction targeting eight O-serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, O157) identified 12 isolates as O26, O103, O111, or O145, with E. coli O26 being the most predominant serogroup (61.5%). The thirteen isolates were further analyzed using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) subtyping. Consistent with previous studies, CRISPR alleles from strains of the same serogroup were similar in their spacer content and order, regardless of the isolation source. A completely different CRISPR allele was observed in one isolate ("7-J") which exhibited a different O-serogroup (O78). Our results confirmed previous findings that CRISPR loci are conserved among phylogenetically-related strains. In addition, 8 E. coli O26 isolates and a collection of 42 E. coli O26 isolates were screened for 12 enterohemorrhagic E. coli-specific genes. Seven genes (ECs848-Hypothetical Protein, ECs2226-Hypothetical Protein, ECs3857-nleB, ECs3858-Hypothetical Protein, ECs4552-escF, ECs4553-Hypothetical Protein, and ECs4557-sepL) were found in all 50 isolates. An additional 5 genes (ECs1322-ureA urease subunit γ, ECs1323-ureB urease subunit β, ECs1326-ureF, ECs1561-Hypothetical Protein, and ECs1568-Hypothetical Protein) were found to be highly prevalent in isolates from human sources, while lower in
Badri, S; Fassouane, A; Filliol, I; Hassar, M; Cohen, N
The contamination of meat and meat products with Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC), obtained from markets in Casablanca, Morocco, was investigated. A total of 460 meat and meat products were sampled between March 2004 and July 2006 analysed and 176 strains of E. coli were isolated from these samples. The presence of the stx1, stx2, eae and ehxA genes, recognized as major virulence factors of STEC, was tested in E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STEC was detected in 4 (0.9%) samples. The result of serotyping by molecular method showed that two of these STEC isolates corresponded to the serotype O157:H7. The others Shiga toxin-producing E. coli non-O157 corresponded to O6:H21 and O76:H19. The presence of O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC in meat and meat products marketed in Casablanca, Morocco, emphasizes the importance of implementing the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as well as the need for implementing, evaluating, and validating antimicrobial interventions to reduce the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms.
Brusa, Victoria; Costa, Magdalena; Londero, Alejandra; Leotta, Gerardo A; Galli, Lucía
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important emerging foodborne human pathogens. Ruminants are the main animal reservoir of STEC currently known, and meat can become contaminated at different stages of the production chain. The aim of this work was to subtype and establish the epidemiological relatedness of non-O157 STEC strains isolated from ground beef and the environment in butcher shops before (evaluation stage, 2010-2011 period) and after (verification stage, 2013) implementing improvement actions. Sixty-eight non-O157 STEC strains were tested for eae, saa, ehxA, iha, efa1, toxB, subAB, cdt-V, astA, aggR, and aaiC genes, and stx1 and stx2 variants were determined. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was carried out with XbaI and XmaJI. From the 68 strains, 92.6%, 75.0%, 58.8%, 53.5%, 10.3%, 7.3%, and 4.4% were positive for iha, ehxA, subAB, saa, cdt-V, astA, and eae, respectively. All strains were aggR/aaiC-negative. PFGE showed that 19 strains grouped in 9 clusters and 41 showed unique XbaI patterns. During the evaluation stage (2010-2011), we identified clonal strains in different samples, circulating clones in different butcher shops, and more than one different strain in the same butcher shop. The bovine origin of meat and its manufacturing process could not ensure the total absence of all non-O157 STEC serotypes in this foodstuff. Most strains isolated during the evaluation (2010-2011) and verification (2013) stages did not exhibit a genotypic profile associated with human disease. It is necessary to conduct periodic reviews of the new epidemiological information and verify that the analyses of non-O157 STEC in food are appropriate to identify strains affecting the population.
Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliCH25 and fliCH28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O145:H25 and O145:H28.
Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH25 and fliCH28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliCH25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliCH25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliCH28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC) O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1-10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy) and detection of the respective fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates.
Shiga-toxin producing 0157:H7 and non-0157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within refrigerated, frozen, or frozen then thawed ground beef patties cooked on commercial open-flame gas or clam-shell electric grills
We evaluated the possible effect of both fat and grill type on the fate of serotype O157:H7 strains of Escherichia coli (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing strains of E. coli (STEC) in cooked ground beef patties. Both high fat and low fat ground beef (percent lean:fat = ca. 70:30 and 93:7, ...
Background In the less-sensitive mouse model, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) challenges result in shedding that reflect the amount of infection and the expression of virulence factors such as Shiga toxins (Stx). The purpose of this study was to characterize the contribution of STEC diversity and Stx expression to shedding in beef feeder calves and to evaluate the effectiveness of a prebiotic, Celmanax®, to alleviate STEC shedding. Fecal samples were collected from calves at entry and after 35 days in the feedlot in spring and summer. STECs were evaluated using selective media, biochemical profile, serotyping and Stx detection. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and logistic regression. Results At entry, non-O157 STEC were dominant in shedding calves. In spring, 21%, 14% and 14% of calves acquired O157, non-O157 and mixed STEC infections, respectively. In contrast, 45%, 48% and 46% of calves in summer acquired O157, non-O157 and mixed STEC infections, respectively. Treatment with a prebiotic, Celmanax®, in spring significantly reduced 50% of the O157 STEC infections, 50% of the non-O157 STEC infections and 36% of the STEC co-infections (P = 0.037). In summer, there was no significant effect of the prebiotic on STEC infections. The amount of shedding at entry was significantly related to the number and type of STECs present and Stx expression (r2 = 0.82). The same relationship was found for shedding at day 35 (r2 = 0.85), but it was also related to the number and type of STECs present at entry. Stx - producing STEC infections resulted in 100 to 1000 × higher shedding in calves compared with Stx-negative STECs. Conclusions STEC infections in beef feeder calves reflect the number and type of STECs involved in the infection and STEC expression of Stx. Application of Celmanax® reduced O157 and non-O157 STEC shedding by calves but further research is required to determine appropriate dosages to manage STEC
Johnson, Roger P.; Alexander, Trevor W.; McAllister, Tim A.; Reuter, Tim
Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6–54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated. PMID:27482711
Cooley, Michael B; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G; Mandrell, Robert E
During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%), feral swine (4.7%), sediment (4.4%), and water (3.3%) samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%), feral swine (21.4%), birds (2.4%), small mammals (3.5%), deer or elk (8.3%), water (14.0%), sediment (12.3%), produce (0.3%) and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%). stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the "Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment.
Cooley, Michael B.; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R.; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G.; Mandrell, Robert E.
During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%), feral swine (4.7%), sediment (4.4%), and water (3.3%) samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%), feral swine (21.4%), birds (2.4%), small mammals (3.5%), deer or elk (8.3%), water (14.0%), sediment (12.3%), produce (0.3%) and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%). stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the “Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment. PMID:23762414
Hsu, HsinYun; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Sites, Joseph; Cassidy, Jennifer; Scullen, Butch; Sommers, Christopher
High pressure processing (HPP) is a safe and effective technology for improving food safety. Non-O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls, and the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has designated them as adulterants in meat (e.g. ground beef). In this study we compared the inactivation of multi-isolate cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 versus the non-O157:H7 STEC "Big Six" (i.e. O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef (83% lean) using HPP at refrigeration temperature (4-7 °C). A >5-log CFU/g inactivation of both the Big Six and O157:H7 cocktails were observed at 450 MPa for 15 min. In general, the Big Six cocktail was found more sensitive to pressure stress (p < 0.05). In contrast, HPP treatment at 250 MPa (30 min) inactivated only 2.3 log of the Big Six versus 1.0 log of O157:H7. HPP treatment at 350 MPa (30 min) inactivated 4.7 log of the Big Six vs. 3.2 log of O157:H7. Multiple-cycle HPP cycles (250 or 350 MPa, three 5 min treatments) did not result in a 5 log reduction of the non-O157:H7 or O157:H7 STEC. Our results indicate that HPP inactivation parameters which are effective for O157:H7 STEC can be used for the non-O157:H7 Big Six isolates in ground beef.
Wales, A D; Pearson, G R; Roe, J M; Hayes, C M; La Ragione, R M; Woodward, M J
Four conventionally reared goats aged 6 days were inoculated orally with approximately 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of a non-verotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. All remained clinically normal. Tissues were sampled under terminal anaesthesia at 24 (two animals), 48 and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). E. coli O157:H7 was cultured from the ileum, caecum, colon and rectum of all animals, but the number of bacteria recovered at these sites varied between animals. Attaching-effacing (AE) lesions associated with O157 organisms, as confirmed by immunolabelling, were observed in the ileum of one of the two animals examined at 24 hpi, and in the ileum, caecum and proximal colon of an animal examined at 72 hpi. E. coli O157 organisms were detected at > or =10(5) cfu/g of tissue at these sites. In addition, AE lesions associated with unidentified bacteria were observed at various sites in the large bowel of the same animals. Lesions containing both E. coli O157 and unidentified bacteria (non-O157) were not observed. Non-O157 AE lesions were also observed in the large bowel of one of two uninoculated control animals. This indicated that three (one control and two inoculated) animals were colonized with an unidentified AE organism before the commencement of the experiment. The O157-associated AE lesions were observed only in animals colonized by non-O157 AE organisms and this raises questions about individual host susceptibility to AE lesions and whether non-O157 AE organisms influence colonization by E. coli O157.
Carson, C A; Keller, J M; McAdoo, K K; Wang, D; Higgins, B; Bailey, C W; Thorne, J G; Payne, B J; Skala, M; Hahn, A W
An artificial neural network model for the recognition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 restriction patterns was designed. In the training phase, images of two classes of E. coli isolates (O157:H7 and non-O157:H7) were digitized and transmitted to the neural network. The system was then tested for recognition of images not included in the training set. Promising results were achieved with the designed network configuration, providing a basis for further study. This application of a new generation of computation technology serves as an example of its usefulness in microbiology. PMID:8576341
Virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and of multidrug-resistant E. coli from foods of animal origin illegally imported to the EU by flight passengers.
Nagy, B; Szmolka, A; Smole Možina, S; Kovač, J; Strauss, A; Schlager, S; Beutlich, J; Appel, B; Lušicky, M; Aprikian, P; Pászti, J; Tóth, I; Kugler, R; Wagner, M
The aim of this study was to reveal phenotype/genotype characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and multidrug resistant E. coli in food products of animal origin confiscated as illegal import at Austrian, German and Slovenian airports. VTEC isolates were obtained by using ISO guidelines 16654:2001 for O157 VTEC or ISO/ TS13136:2012 for non-O157 VTEC, with additional use of the RIDASCREEN® Verotoxin immunoassay. The testing of 1526 samples resulted in 15 VTEC isolates (1.0%) primarily isolated from hard cheese from Turkey and Balkan countries. Genotyping for virulence by using a miniaturized microarray identified a wide range of virulence determinants. One VTEC isolate (O26:H46) possessing intimin (eae) and all other essential genes of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) was designated as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). None of the other VTEC strains belonged to serogroups O157, O145, O111, O104 or O103. VTEC strains harbored either stx(1) (variants stx1(a) or stx(1c)) or st(x2) (variants stx(2a), stx(2b), stx(2a/d) or stx(2c/d)) genes. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated high genetic diversity and identified three new sequence types (STs): 4505, 4506 and 4507. Food samples collected from the Vienna airport were also tested for E. coli quantities using the ISO 16649:2001, and for detection of multidrug resistant phenotypes and genotypes. The resulting 113 commensal E. coli isolates were first tested in a pre-screening against 6 selected antimicrobials to demonstrate multidrug resistance. The resulting 14 multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates, representing 0.9% of the samples, were subjected to further resistance phenotyping and to microarray analyses targeting genetic markers of antimicrobial resistance and virulence. Genotyping revealed various combinations of resistance determinants as well as the presence of class 1, class 2 integrons. The isolates harbored 6 to 11 antibiotic
Mercado, Elsa C
Cattle are recognized as the major reservoir of STEC and the source of infection for human beings. Until recently, intervention strategies to decrease the contamination of meat products have been focused on the slaughter plant with the application of practices to reduce the contamination and proliferation of STEC. This has now changed following the development of intervention strategies in the farm. This could be one of the most important points of intervention to lower the incidence of human infection. Vaccines, probiotics, bacteriophages, and changes in production practices may be useful as strategies to control EHEC in the cattle. The application of such intervention measures could be difficult due to the fact that this zoonotic agent rarely causes disease in bovines. The HUS is endemic in Argentina, and the factors leading to this epidemiological situation remain unknown. However, intervention strategies undoubtedly will contribute to reduce the incidence of this zoonosis.
Parsons, Brendon D.; Zelyas, Nathan; Berenger, Byron M.; Chui, Linda
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases reported in numerous outbreaks around the world. Given the public health importance of STEC, effective detection, characterization and typing is critical to any medical laboratory system. While non-O157 serotypes account for the majority of STEC infections, frontline microbiology laboratories may only screen for STEC using O157-specific agar-based methods. As a result, non-O157 STEC infections are significantly under-reported. This review discusses recent advances on the detection, characterization and typing of STEC with emphasis on work performed at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab). Candidates for the detection of all STEC serotypes include chromogenic agars, enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Culture methods allow further characterization of isolates, whereas qPCR provides the greatest sensitivity and specificity, followed by EIA. The virulence gene profiles using PCR arrays and stx gene subtypes can subsequently be determined. Different non-O157 serotypes exhibit markedly different virulence gene profiles and a greater prevalence of stx1 than stx2 subtypes compared to O157:H7 isolates. Finally, recent innovations in whole genome sequencing (WGS) have allowed it to emerge as a candidate for the characterization and typing of STEC in diagnostic surveillance isolates. Methods of whole genome analysis such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and k-mer analysis are concordant with epidemiological data and standard typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis while offering additional strain differentiation. Together these findings highlight improved strategies for STEC detection using currently available systems and the development of novel approaches for future surveillance. PMID:27148176
Barnett Foster, Debora
Enteric pathogens must not only survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract but must also coordinate expression of virulence determinants in response to localized microenvironments with the host. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a serious food and waterborne human pathogen, is well equipped with an arsenal of molecular factors that allows it to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and successfully colonize the large intestine. This review will explore how EHEC responds to various environmental cues associated with particular microenvironments within the host and how it employs these cues to modulate virulence factor expression, with a view to developing a conceptual framework for understanding modulation of EHEC’s virulence program in response to the host. In vitro studies offer significant insights into the role of individual environmental cues but in vivo studies using animal models as well as data from natural infections will ultimately provide a more comprehensive picture of the highly regulated virulence program of this pathogen. PMID:23552827
Moxley, Rodney A; Acuff, Gary R
Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important causes of food-borne disease, with hemorrhagic colitis and, in some cases, hemolytic-uremic syndrome as the clinical manifestations of illness. Six serogroups and one serotype of STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157:H7) are responsible for the vast majority of cases in the United States. Based on recent data for all food commodities combined, 55.3% and 50.0% of the outbreaks of STEC O157 and non-O157 in the United States, respectively, are attributable to beef as a food source. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service declared these organisms as adulterants in raw, nonintact beef. In North America, cattle are a major reservoir of STEC strains, with organisms shed in the feces and contaminated hides of the animals being the main vehicle for spread to carcasses at slaughter. A number of peri- and postharvest interventions targeting STEC have been developed, and significant progress has been made in improving the microbiological quality of beef in the past 20 years as a result. However, continued improvements are needed, and accurate assessment of these interventions, especially for non-O157 STEC, would greatly benefit from improvements in detection methods for these organisms.
Chattaway, Marie A.; Dallman, Timothy J.; Gentle, Amy; Wright, Michael J.; Long, Sophie E.; Ashton, Philip M.; Perry, Neil T.; Jenkins, Claire
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are considered to be a significant threat to public health due to the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with human infection. In England STEC O157 is the most commonly detected STEC serogroup, however, the implementation of PCR at local hospital laboratories has resulted in an increase in the detection of non-O157 STEC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for routine public health surveillance of non-O157 STEC by comparing this approach to phenotypic serotyping and PCR for subtyping the stx-encoding genes. Of the 102 isolates where phenotypic and genotypic serotyping could be compared, 98 gave fully concordant results. The most common non-O157 STEC serogroups detected were O146 (22) and O26 (18). All but one of the 38 isolates that could not be phenotypically serotyped (designated O unidentifiable or O rough) were serotyped using the WGS data. Of the 73 isolates where a flagella type was available by traditional phenotypic typing, all results matched the H-type derived from the WGS data. Of the 140 sequenced non-O157 isolates, 52 (37.1%) harboured stx1 only, 42 (30.0%) had stx2 only, 46 (32.9%) carried stx1 and stx2. Of these, stx subtyping PCR results were available for 131 isolates and 121 of these had concordant results with the stx subtype derived from the WGS data. Of the 10 discordant results, non-specific primer binding during PCR amplification, due to the similarity of the stx2 subtype gene sequences was the most likely cause. The results of this study showed WGS provided a reliable and robust one-step process for characterization of STEC. Deriving the full serotype from WGS data in real time has enabled us to report a higher level of strain discrimination while stx subtyping provides data on the pathogenic potential of each isolate, enabling us to predict clinical outcome of each case and to monitor the emergence of hyper-virulent strains. PMID:26973632
Noll, Lance W; Baumgartner, William C; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Cull, Charley A; Dewsbury, Diana M; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of the serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, often called non-O157 STEC, are foodborne pathogens. Cattle are asymptomatic reservoirs for STEC; the organisms reside in the hindgut and are shed in the feces, which serve as the source of food product contaminations. Culture-based detection of non-O157 STEC involves an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) step to capture the specific serogroups in complex matrices, such as feces. The IMS procedure is time consuming and labor intensive because of the need to subject each fecal sample to six individual beads. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate whether pooling of IMS beads affects sensitivity of non-O157 STEC detection compared with using individual IMS beads. The evaluation was done by comparing detection of serogroups in feces spiked with pure cultures (experiments 1 and 2) and from feces (n = 384) of naturally shedding cattle (experiment 3). In spiked fecal samples, detection with pools of three, four, six, or seven beads was similar to, or at times higher than, detection with individual IMS beads. In experiment 3, the proportions of fecal samples that tested positive for the six serogroups as detected by individual or pooled beads were similar. Based on noninferiority tests, detection with pooled beads was not substantially inferior to detection with individual beads (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the pooling of IMS beads is a better option for detection of STEC serogroups in fecal samples compared with individual beads because the procedure saves time and labor and has the prospect of a higher throughput.
Pradel, Nathalie; Boukhors, Karima; Bertin, Yolande; Forestier, Christiane; Martin, Christine; Livrelli, Valérie
A detailed analysis of the molecular epidemiology of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was performed by using isolates from sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), animal reservoirs, and food products. The isolates belonged to the O91 and OX3 serogroups and were collected in the same geographical area over a short period of time. Five typing methods were used; some of these were used to explore potentially mobile elements like the stx genes or the plasmids (stx2-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP], stx2 gene variant, and plasmid analyses), and others were used to study the whole genome (ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]). The techniques revealed that there was great diversity among the O91 and OX3 STEC strains isolated in central France. A close relationship between strains of the same serotype having the same virulence factor pattern was first suggested by ribotyping. However, stx2-RFLP and stx2 variant analyses differentiated all but 5 of 21 isolates, and plasmid analysis revealed further heterogeneity; a unique combination of characteristics was obtained for all strains except two O91:H21 isolates from beef. The latter strains were shown by PFGE to be the most closely related isolates, with >96% homology, and hence may be subtypes of the same strain. Overall, our results indicate that the combination of stx2-RFLP, stx2 variant, and plasmid profile analyses is as powerful as PFGE for molecular investigation of STEC diversity. Finally, the non-O157:H7 STEC strains isolated from HUS patients were related to but not identical to those isolated from cattle and food samples in the same geographical area. The possibility that there are distinct lineages of non-O157:H7 STEC, some of which are more virulent for humans, should be investigated further. PMID:11375151
Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier
The behavior of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC) on whole and slices of jalapeño and serrano peppers as well as in blended sauce at 25 ± 2 °C and 3 ± 2 °C was investigated. Chili peppers were collected from markets of Pachuca city, Hidalgo, Mexico. On whole serrano and jalapeño stored at 25 ± 2 °C or 3 ± 2 °C, no growth was observed for EPEC, ETEC, EIEC and non-O157-STEC rifampicin resistant strains. After twelve days at 25 ± 2 °C, on serrano peppers all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEP) strains had decreased by a total of approximately 3.7 log, whereas on jalapeño peppers the strains had decreased by approximately 2.8 log, and at 3 ± 2 °C they decreased to approximately 2.5 and 2.2 log respectively, on serrano and jalapeño. All E. coli pathotypes grew onto sliced chili peppers and in blended sauce: after 24 h at 25 ± 2 °C, all pathotypes had grown to approximately 3 and 4 log CFU on pepper slices and sauce, respectively. At 3 ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited.
Kim, Jong-Chul; Chui, Linda; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Jeon, Byeonghwa
Antibiotics are routinely used in food-producing animals to promote growth and prevent infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of bovine antibiotic growth promoters (bAGPs) on the propagation and spread of Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding phages in Escherichia coli. Co-culture of E. coli O157:H7 and other E. coli isolated from cattle in the presence of sublethal concentrations of bAGPs significantly increased the emergence of non-O157, Stx-producing E. coli by triggering the SOS response system in E. coli O157:H7. The most substantial mediation of Stx phage transmission was induced by oxytetracyline and chlortetracycline, which are commonly used in agriculture. bAGPs may therefore contribute to the expansion of pathogenic Stx-producing E. coli.
Kim, Jong-Chul; Chui, Linda; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong
Antibiotics are routinely used in food-producing animals to promote growth and prevent infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of bovine antibiotic growth promoters (bAGPs) on the propagation and spread of Shiga toxin (Stx)–encoding phages in Escherichia coli. Co-culture of E. coli O157:H7 and other E. coli isolated from cattle in the presence of sublethal concentrations of bAGPs significantly increased the emergence of non-O157, Stx-producing E. coli by triggering the SOS response system in E. coli O157:H7. The most substantial mediation of Stx phage transmission was induced by oxytetracyline and chlortetracycline, which are commonly used in agriculture. bAGPs may therefore contribute to the expansion of pathogenic Stx-producing E. coli. PMID:27088186
Friesema, I; van der Zwaluw, K; Schuurman, T; Kooistra-Smid, M; Franz, E; van Duynhoven, Y; van Pelt, W
The Shiga toxins of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can be divided into Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) with several sub-variants. Variant Stx2f is one of the latest described, but has been rarely associated with symptomatic human infections. In the enhanced STEC surveillance in the Netherlands, 198 STEC O157 cases and 351 STEC non-O157 cases, including 87 stx2f STEC isolates, were reported between 2008 and 2011. Most stx2f strains belonged to the serogroups O63:H6 (n=47, 54%), O113:H6 (n=12, 14%) and O125:H6 (n=12, 14%). Of the 87 stx2f isolates, 84 (97%) harboured the E. coli attaching and effacing (eae) gene, but not the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli haemolysin (hly) gene. stx2f STEC infections show milder symptoms and a less severe clinical course than STEC O157 infections. Almost all infections with stx2f (n=83, 95%) occurred between June and December, compared to 170/198 (86%) of STEC O157 and 173/264 (66%) of other STEC non-O157. stx2f STEC infections in the Netherlands are more common than anticipated, and form a distinct group within STEC with regard to virulence genes and the relatively mild disease.
Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J; Hedberg, Craig W; Kaneene, John B; Ruegg, Pamela L; Warnick, Lorin D; Bender, Jeffrey B
This study compared the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from organic dairy farms, conventional dairy farms, and Minnesota county fairs. A total of 83 STEC isolates (43 O157 and 40 non-O157 STEC) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility as determined by the automated broth microdilution method. Resistance to tetracycline was identified in 19 (23%) isolates and to sulphadimethoxine in 40 (48%) isolates. Half of the STEC isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was observed in 18 (62%) isolates from conventional farms and in 11 (48%) isolates from organic farms. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was more frequent in isolates from calves (77%) than from cows (39%). Multidrug resistant patterns were more common in non-O157 STEC than O157 STEC. This study provides data to document the degree of STEC antimicrobial resistance from dairy cattle sources in Minnesota. The use of antimicrobial agents on farms, and other environmental influences, may affect resistance patterns in isolates from cattle sources. Systematic surveillance of STEC from cattle could potentially detect emergence of antimicrobial resistance that may be spread to humans through the food chain.
The putative virulence factor enterohemolysin, encoded for by the ehlyA gene, has been closely associated with the pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) group. E. coli isolates from effluents from seven geographically dispersed municipal ...
Vidal, Roberto; Vidal, Maricel; Lagos, Rossana; Levine, Myron; Prado, Valeria
A multiplex PCR for detection of three categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. With this method, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli were identified in fecal samples from patients with hemorrhagic colitis, watery diarrhea, or hemolytic-uremic syndrome and from food-borne outbreaks. PMID:15071051
Verstraete, Karen; De Zutter, Lieven; Robyn, Joris; Daube, Georges; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; De Reu, Koen
An isolation method described by Possé et al. (FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008;282:124-131) was satisfactorily validated in an international ring-trial using artificially contaminated minced beef samples. Until now, no validated method existed for the simultaneous isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 in food. Twelve laboratories from five European countries participated and received 16 inoculated beef samples contaminated with cold-stressed cells of the four serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 in two levels (approximately 30 and 300 CFU 25 g⁻¹) in duplicate. In addition, they received four non-inoculated samples. The isolation protocol comprised a selective enrichment step, a selective isolation step on a non-O157 agar plate differentiating the serogroups by color, followed by confirmation by plating on confirmation agar media and agglutination. All laboratories were able to isolate the inoculated serogroups from the samples, both for the high and the low inoculation level. Results did not differ whether in-house-prepared or ready-to-use non-O157 agar plates were used, demonstrating that by following the instructions laboratories managed to perform the complete protocol with success.
Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.
Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432
Infection by human pathogens through fresh, minimally processed produce and solid plant-derived foods is a major concern of U.S. and global food industry and public health services. The enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a frequent and potent food borne pathogen that causes severe disease...
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that produces a broad-spectrum of diarrheal illnesses in infected humans. Although the genetic and molecular mechanisms enabling EHEC O157:H7 to produce characteristic adherence on epithelial cells are well characterized, the g...
Outbreaks of disease due to vegetative bacterial pathogens associated with acid foods (such as apple cider) have raised concerns about acidified vegetables and related products that have a similar pH (3.2 to 4.0). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related strains of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) have ...
The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 bares the characteristics of both enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga...
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is a major cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide, although the annual reported incidence of EHEC O157 associated HUS in various countries ranges forty-fold (0.01 to 0.41 cases per 100,000 population). Cattle are ...
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that produces a broad-spectrum of diarrheal illnesses in infected humans. Although molecular mechanisms enabling EHEC O157:H7 to produce characteristic adherence on epithelial cells are well characterized, regulatory mechanisms...
In a recent study we demonstrated that in comparison to the wild-type enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, a motility-compromised hha deletion mutant with an up-regulated type III secretion system and increased secretion of adherence proteins showed reduced fecal shedding in cattle. In...
The qseBC encoded quorum-sensing system (QS) regulates motility of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in response to bacterial autoinducer-3 (AI-3) and mammalian stress hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). The qseC gene encodes a sensory kinase that post-autophosphorylati...
The outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 from leafy greens are serious food-safety concerns at the present period. Several phytopathogens have been suggested to help persistence and proliferation of the human enteropathogens in phyllosphere. In this work, influence of virulence ...
Escherichia coli is a diverse species of bacteria, including several pathotypes that cause a variety of diseases in humans. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and recently emerged shigatoxingenic enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) produce Shigatoxins and are major foodborne pathogens that can cause hem...
Ruckly, Corinne; Carle, Isabelle; Lejay-Collin, Monique
The performance of CHROMagar STEC and CHROMagar STEC O104 (CHROMagar Microbiology, Paris, France) media for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was assessed with 329 stool specimens collected over 14 months from patients with suspected STEC infections (June 2011 to August 2012). The CHROMagar STEC medium, after an enrichment broth step, allowed the recovery of the STEC strain from 32 of the 39 (82.1%) Shiga toxin-positive stool specimens, whereas the standard procedure involving Drigalski agar allowed the recovery of only three additional STEC strains. The isolates that grew on CHROMagar STEC medium belonged to 15 serotypes, including the prevalent non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) O157:H7, O26:H11, and O104:H4 serotypes. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the CHROMagar STEC medium were between 89.1% and 91.4%, 83.7% and 86.7%, 40% and 51.3%, and 98% and 98.8%, respectively, depending on whether or not stx-negative eae-positive E. coli was considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) or STEC that had lost Shiga toxin genes during infection. In conclusion, the good performance of CHROMagar STEC agar medium, in particular, the high negative predictive value, and its capacity to identify NSF O157:H7 as well as common non-O157 STEC may be useful for clinical bacteriology, public health, and reference laboratories; it could be used in addition to a method targeting Shiga toxins (detection of stx genes by PCR, immunodetection of Shiga toxins in stool specimens, or Vero cell cytotoxicity assay) as an alternative to O157 culture medium. This combined approach should allow rapid visualization of both putative O157 and non-O157 STEC colonies for subsequent characterization, essential for real-time surveillance of STEC infections and investigations of outbreaks. PMID:23284030
Leung, P. H.; Yam, W. C.; Ng, W. W.; Peiris, J. S.
The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in cattle and pigs in a Hong Kong abattoir. Faecal and carcass samples collected from 986 cattle and 487 pigs from an abattoir were tested for verotoxin (VT) by PCR and cytotoxicity assays. VTEC was isolated from 415 and 1-8% of cattle faecal and carcass samples and from 2.1 and 0.2% of porcine faecal and carcass samples, respectively. Amongst 409 VTEC isolates from cattle, 9 were serotype O157:H7 and eaeA+. The most prevalent vt genotype among bovine VTEC was vtl+vt2 (73.8%) and in porcine VTEC was vt2e+ (30%). None of the porcine VTEC isolates and 9.3% of the bovine VTEC isolates was eaeA+. The non-O157 serogroup VTEC isolates carrying eaeA and EHEC-hlyA belonged to serogroups O172, O15, O84, O91, O110 and O121. The local dietary preference for pork or chicken (rather than beef), the low VTEC carriage in pigs, the rarity of additional virulence factors (caeA) in VTEC isolated from cattle may explain the apparently low incidence of human diarrhoeal disease associated with VTEC in Hong Kong hitherto. However, the presence of non-O157 VTEC strains carrying the eacA virulence marker in cattle highlights the fact that sole reliance on sorbitol-MacConkey agar for screening human VTEC isolates may underestimate the human disease burden. The changing dietary habits of the population in Hong Kong reinforce the need for continued vigilance. PMID:11349966
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which are typically associated with water- or food-borne outbreaks, are not considered to be “select agents”, presumably because they have low morality rates and are already present in water and raw foods. However, as “stealth” bioterrorism agents, designed to dest...
Curli are adhesive fimbriae of Enterobactericaeae and are involved in surface attachment, cell aggregation and biofilm formation. They also mediate host cell invasion and are potent inducers of the host inflammatory response. Here we report that curli variants are distributed widely in Enterohemorrh...
the proteins were digested with 5 µL of trypsin in 240 µL of ABC solution plus 5 µL of acetonitrile ( ACN ). Proteins were digested overnight at 37 °C...on an orbital shaker set to 90 rpm. To quench the trypsin digestion, 60 µL of 5% ACN /0.5% formic acid (FA) was added to each filter followed by 2...min of vortexing to mix the sample. The tubes were centrifuged for 10 min at 14,100×g. An additional 60 mL of 5% ACN /0.5% FA mixture was added to the
ending support for me as a scientist and a person. You instilled in me the ability and the desire to understand the mechanisms of bacterial ...examined in 24 25 26 27 this study. 28 VI. speciric Aims 30 Materials and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Plasmids and bacterial ...earlier, is associated with intimate bacterial attachment to host cells by EPEC. The eae locus may also be important in EHEC adherence (reviewed by Tesh
Typhlocolltlsd genotype· adherence" LAlFAS + NA LAlFAS NAIweak DAIweak FAS· 118 Intimate bacterial adherence and NE lesions, as described by Staley...Additionally, two independent TnphoA mutants of EHEC strain CL-8 (0157:H7) were isolated and found deficient in bacterial factors necessary for NE lesion...intestinal NE lesions in gnotobiotic piglets. In vitro attachment and in vivo lesion formation by 86-24eaeMO was fully restored by a clone of EHEC 86-24
40 solution (10 mM Tris pH 7.3; 0.5 M NaCI; 0.5% Nonidet P40 ) by centrlfugation (5,000 x g for 5 minutes), and the pellet was resuspended to the...urea, 0.1% Nonidet P-40, and 0.0125% bromophenol blue). The lysed bacterial cells were boiled for 5 minutes and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate
Dewsbury, Diana M A; Renter, David G; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia
The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw, nonintact beef products. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of these seven serogroups and the associated virulence genes (Shiga toxin [stx1, stx2], and intimin [eae]) in cattle feces during summer (June-August 2013) and winter (January-March 2014) months. Twenty-four pen floor fecal samples were collected from each of 24 cattle pens, in both summer and winter months, at a commercial feedlot in the United States. Samples were subjected to culture-based detection methods that included enrichment, serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation and plating on selective media, followed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for serogroup confirmation and virulence gene detection. A sample was considered STEC positive if a recovered isolate harbored an O gene, stx1, and/or stx2, and eae genes. All O serogroups of interest were detected in summer months, and model-adjusted prevalence estimates are as follows: O26 (17.8%), O45 (14.6%), O103 (59.9%), O111 (0.2%), O121 (2.0%), O145 (2.7%), and O157 (41.6%); however, most non-O157 isolates did not harbor virulence genes. The cumulative model-adjusted sample-level prevalence estimates of STEC O26, O103, O145, and O157 during summer (n=576) were 1.0, 1.6, 0.8, and 41.4%, respectively; STEC O45, O111, and O121 were not detected during summer months. In winter, serogroups O26 (0.9%), O45 (1.5%), O103 (40.2%), and O121 (0.2%) were isolated; however, no virulence genes were detected in isolates from cattle feces collected during winter (n=576). Statistically significant seasonal differences in prevalence were identified for STEC O103 and O157 (p<0.05), but data on other STEC were sparse. The results of this study indicate that although non-O157 serogroups were present, non-O157 STEC were
Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Auvray, Frédéric; Forest, Karine; Oswald, Eric; Madec, Jean-Yves
We report the discovery of a CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serogroup O111:H8, a major serotype responsible for human enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. In line with the recent CTX-M-15/O104:H4 E. coli outbreak, these data may reflect an accelerating spread of resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins within the E. coli population, including STEC isolates. PMID:22156432
Trueba, Gabriel; Garcés, Verónica; V, Verónica Barragan; Colman, Rebecca E; Seymour, Meagan; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is frequently isolated from cases of diarrhea in many industrialized countries; however, it is seldom found in developing countries. The present manuscript reports the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in Ecuadorian livestock, a country where enterohemorrhagic E. coli disease in humans has never been reported. The Ecuadorian isolates were genetically related to some strains linked to clinical cases in the United States as assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis.
Dean-Nystrom, E A; Bosworth, B T; Moon, H W; O'Brien, A D
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains require intimin to induce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in newborn piglets. Infection of newborn calves with intimin-positive or intimin-negative EHEC O157:H7 demonstrated that intimin is needed for colonization, A/E lesions, and disease in cattle. These results suggest that experiments to determine if intimin-based vaccines reduce O157:H7 levels in cattle are warranted.
Category: methodology improvements Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses of commercial Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection systems and kits in a side by side fashion. Experimental Design: Three commercial Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection tests (BAX, GDS, and GeneDisc) and two t...
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 (strain 86-24) harbors a 3.3 kb, cryptic plasmid (pSP70) that does not encode a selectable phenotype. A transposon (Tn) encoding kanamycin resistance (Kan**r) was inserted by in vitro transposon mutagenesis at a random location on pSP70 to construct...
Biofilm formation, which is an important bacterial survival and virulence attribute, is controlled by intricate regulatory networks. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen because infections with this agent could lead to hemorrhagic colitis, kidney dysfunction,...
Guillard, Thomas; Limelette, Anne; Le Magrex-Debar, Elisabeth; Wynckel, Alain; Gouali, Malika; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Guyot-Colosio, Charlotte; de Champs, Christophe
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, belonging to serogroup O91 has rarely been described. We report here a case of post-diarrheal HUS due to EHEC O91 in an elderly patient for whom diagnosis was delayed given a previously diagnosed C. difficile infection. This case highlights the usefulness of Shiga-toxin detection.
Flowers, Laurice J.; Bou Ghanem, Elsa N.; Leong, John M.
Upon colonization of the intestinal epithelium, the attaching and effacing (AE) pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) effaces microvilli and forms pedestal-like structures beneath the adherent bacterium. The production of one of its virulence factors, the phage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) results in systemic disease, including the development of renal failure. Although EHEC does not productively infect conventional mice, EHEC infection can be modeled in mice utilizing a derivative of the natural murine AE pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Gavage of mice with CR(ΦStx2dact), a C. rodentium lysogenized by a phage encoding an Stx variant with high potency in mice, features AE lesion formation on intestinal epithelium and Stx-mediated systemic disease, including renal damage. This model is somewhat limited by mouse-to-mouse variation in the course of disease, with the time to severe morbidity (and required euthanasia) varying by as many as 5 days, a feature that limits pathological analysis at defined stages of disease. In the current study, we altered and optimized the preparation, dose, and mode of delivery of CR(ΦStx2dact), using food-borne route of infection to generate highly synchronous disease model. We found that food-borne inoculation of as few as 3 × 104 CR(ΦStx2dact) resulted in productive colonization and severe systemic disease. Upon inoculation of 1 × 108 bacteria, the majority of infected animals suffered weight loss beginning 5 days post-infection and all required euthanasia on day 6 or 7. This enhanced murine model for EHEC infection should facilitate characterization of the pathology associated with specific phases of Stx-mediated disease. PMID:27857935
Tostes, Renata; Goji, Noriko; Amoako, Kingsley; Chui, Linda; Kastelic, John; DeVinney, Rebekah; Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim
Clinical outcomes of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli infection are largely determined by virulence gene subtypes. This study used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-pyrosequencing assay to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms for subtyping three major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae) of pathogenic E. coli (O157, O26, O111, and O103) isolated from cattle over a 2-year interval (n = 465) and human clinical cases (n = 42) in western Canada. Most bovine isolates were PCR positive for at least one target virulence gene (367/465), whereas 100% of human isolates harbored eae in combination with at least one stx gene. Four Shiga toxin (1a, 2a, 2c, and 2e) and four eae (λ/γ1-eae, ɛ-eae, θ/γ2-eae, and β-eae) subtypes were identified in over 25 distinct virulence genotypes. Among cattle isolates, every serogroup, but O103, presented a dominant genotype (O157: stx1a+stx2a+λ/γ1-eae, O26: β-eae alone, and O111: stx1a+θ/γ2-eae). Similar patterns were found in human isolates, although it was not possible to establish a clear genotypic association between the two sources. Many O157 and non-O157 cattle isolates lacked stx genes; the absence was greater in non-O157 (75/258) and O157:non-H7 (19/40) than in O157:H7 strains (1/164). In addition, there was a greater diversity of virulence genotypes of E. coli isolated from cattle than those of human diseases, which could be due to sample characteristics (e.g., source and clinical condition). However, the majority of cattle strains had virulence profiles identical to those of clinical cases. Consequently, determining the presence of certain stx (stx1a and stx2a) and eae (λ/γ1-eae) subtypes known to cause human disease would be a valuable tool for risk assessment and prediction of disease outcome along the farm-to-fork continuum.
Nielsen, Eva Møller; Andersen, Marianne Thorup
In recent years increased attention has been focused on infections caused by isolates of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) serotypes other than O157. These non-O157 VTEC isolates are commonly present in food and food production animals. Easy detection, isolation, and characterization of non-O157 VTEC isolates are essential for improving our knowledge of these organisms. In the present study, we detected VTEC isolates in bovine fecal samples by a duplex 5′ nuclease PCR assay (real-time PCR) that targets vtx1 and vtx2. VTEC isolates were obtained by colony replication by use of hydrophobic-grid membrane filters and DNA probe hybridization. Furthermore, we have developed 5′ nuclease PCR assays for the detection of virulence factors typically present in VTEC isolates, including subtypes of three genes of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. The 22 assays included assays for the detection of verocytotoxin genes (vtx1, vtx2), pO157-associated genes (ehxA, katP, espP, and etpD), a recently identified adhesin (saa), intimin (eae, all variants), seven subtypes of eae, four subtypes of tir, and three subtypes of espD. A number of reference strains (VTEC and enteropathogenic E. coli strains) and VTEC strains isolated from calves were tested to validate the PCR assays. The expected virulence profiles were detected for all reference strains. In addition, new information on the subtypes of LEE genes was obtained. For reference strains as well as bovine isolates, a consistent relationship between subtypes of the LEE genes was found, so that a total of seven different combinations of these were recognized (corresponding to the seven subtypes of eae). Isolates with 15 different serogroup-virulence profiles were isolated from 16 calves. Among these, 53% harbored LEE and 73% harbored factors carried by the large virulence plasmid. One LEE-negative isolate had the gene for the adhesin Saa. The most common virulence profile among the bovine
Freeman, R.; Sisson, P. R.; Jenkins, D. R.; Ward, A. C.; Lightfoot, N. F.; O'Brien, S. J.
Thirty-six encoded isolates of Escherichia coli. 32 of which were of serotype O157, were examined by pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PyMS). Thirty-one of the serotype O157 isolates possessed the flagellar antigen H7 and produced Verocytotoxin (VT), the other isolate serotyped as H45 and was non-toxigenic. Eighteen of the VT-producing E. coli (VTEC) isolates were from sporadic disease in residents of the Northern Region. Standard principal component (PC) and canonical variate (CV) analysis of the data distinguished only the four non-O157 isolates from the remainder which were indistinguishable by this approach. A similarity matrix based on differences between individual CV means distinguished a further ten isolates. The matrix correctly clustered 2 pairs of isolates from siblings and 4 isolates from an affected family. A further 5 clusters of 3 or more isolates and 6 pairs of isolates were defined. These groupings proved to be homogenous for toxin phenotype but occasionally entrained isolates of dissimilar phage type. However, in general, PyMS-derived clustering of apparently sporadic isolates accorded with geographical locations as determined by postcode. PyMS, which is a quick and high volume capacity phenotypic technique, may be a useful addition to existing methods in the investigation of the epidemiology of sporadic VTEC disease. PMID:7781731
Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.; Ladely, Scott R.; Gurram, Prudhvi; Kwon, Heesung; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C.
Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. A conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and needs long time for the results. Since optical detection method is promising for realtime, in-situ foodborne pathogen detection, acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTF)-based hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) method has been developed for identifying pathogenic bacteria because of its capability to differentiate both spatial and spectral characteristics of each bacterial cell from microcolony samples. Using the AOTF-based HMI method, 89 contiguous spectral images could be acquired within approximately 30 seconds with 250 ms exposure time. From this study, we have successfully developed the protocol for live-cell immobilization on glass slides to acquire quality spectral images from STEC bacterial cells using the modified dry method. Among the contiguous spectral imagery between 450 and 800 nm, the intensity of spectral images at 458, 498, 522, 546, 570, 586, 670 and 690 nm were distinctive for STEC bacteria. With two different classification algorithms, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Sparse Kernel-based Ensemble Learning (SKEL), a STEC serotype O45 could be classified with 92% detection accuracy.
Kudva, I T; Hatfield, P G; Hovde, C J
The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains from sheep are described. One flock was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive sheep was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of chromosomal DNA and toxin gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Ten PFGE patterns and five RFLP patterns, identified among the isolates, showed that multiple E. coli O157:H7 strains were isolated from one flock, that a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli O157:H7 strains, and that the strains shed by individuals changed over time. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture off 10 g of ovine feces. In contrast, strains of eight STEC serotypes other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of sheep from a separate flock without enrichment. The predominant non-O157 STEC serotype found was O91:NM (NM indicates nonmotile), and others included O128:NM, O88:NM, O6:H49, and O5:NM. Irrespective of serotype, 98% of the ovine STEC isolates possessed various combinations of the virulence-associated genes for Shiga toxin(s) and the attaching-and-effacing lesion (stx1, stx2, and eae), suggesting their potential for human pathogenicity. The most common toxin-eae genotype was positive for stx1, stx2, and eae. A Vero cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that 90% of the representative STEC isolates tested expressed the toxin gene. The report demonstrates that sheep transiently shed a variety of STEC strains, including E. coli O157:H7, that have potential as human pathogens. PMID:9157149
Green, Alice L; Seys, Scott; Douris, Aphrodite; Levine, Jeoff; Robertson, Kis
We described characteristics of the Escherichia coli O157 and Escherichia coli non-O157 illness investigations conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) during the 5-year period from 2006 through 2010. We created a multivariable logistic regression model to determine characteristics of these investigations that were associated with FSIS regulatory action, which was defined as having occurred if a product recall occurred or if FSIS personnel performed an environmental health assessment (Food Safety Assessment) at the implicated establishment. During this period, FSIS took regulatory action in 38 of 88 (43%) investigations. Illness investigations in which FoodNet states were involved were more likely to result in regulatory action. Illness investigations in which state and local traceback, or FSIS traceback occurred were more likely to result in regulatory action. Reasons for lack of action included evidence of cross-contamination after the product left a regulated establishment, delayed notification, lack of epidemiological information, and insufficient product information.
Skinner, Craig; Zhang, Guodong; Patfield, Stephanie
Treating Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) gastrointestinal infections is difficult. The utility of antibiotics for STEC treatment is controversial, since antibiotic resistance among STEC isolates is widespread and certain antibiotics dramatically increase the expression of Shiga toxins (Stxs), which are some of the most important virulence factors in STEC. Stxs contribute to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which develops in considerable proportions of patients with STEC infections. Understanding the antibiotic resistance profiles of STEC isolates and the Stx induction potential of promising antibiotics is essential for evaluating any antibiotic treatment of STEC. In this study, 42 O157:H7 or non-O157 STEC isolates (including the “big six” serotypes) were evaluated for their resistance against 22 antibiotics by using an antibiotic array. Tigecycline inhibited the growth of all of the tested STEC isolates and also inhibited the production of Stxs (Stx2 in particular). In combination with neutralizing antibodies to Stx1 and Stx2, the tigecycline-antibody treatment fully protected Vero cells from Stx toxicity, even when the STEC bacteria and the Vero cells were cultured together. The combination of an antibiotic such as tigecycline with neutralizing antibodies presents a promising strategy for future STEC treatments. PMID:26100707
Kerangart, Stéphane; Douëllou, Thomas; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar; Sergentet-Thévenot, Delphine; Cournoyer, Benoit; Loukiadis, Estelle
Tellurite (Tel)-amended selective media and resistance (Tel-R) are widely used for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from foodstuffs. Tel-R of 81 O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from animal, food and human was thus investigated. Variations of STEC tellurite minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been observed and suggest a multifactorial and variable tellurite resistome between strains. Some clinically-relevant STEC were found highly susceptible and could not be recovered using a tellurite-based detection scheme. The ter operon was highly prevalent among highly Tel-R STEC but was not always detected among intermediately-resistant strains. Many STEC serogroup strains were found to harbor sublines showing a gradient of MIC values. These Tel-R sublines showed statistically significant log negative correlations with increasing tellurite concentration. Whatever the tellurite concentration, the highest number of resistant sublines was observed for STEC belonging to the O26 serogroup. Variations in the number of these Tel-R sublines could explain the poor recovery of some STEC serogroups on tellurite-amended media especially from food products with low levels of contamination. Comparison of tellurite MIC values and distribution of virulence-related genes showed Tel-R and virulence to be related.
In May 2011, public health authorities in Europe began investigating an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 infections that ultimately involved more than 4,000 persons in 16 countries. Early in the outbreak, it became evident that international surveillance would be necessary to determine the scope of the outbreak, characterize the disease, and identify the source. This report describes surveillance conducted in the United States, which involved active case-finding, use of laboratory testing protocols specific to non-O157 STEC, interviews to identify potential exposures of interest, and documentation of clinical courses. Six cases in the United States were associated with the outbreak. Although European epidemiologic studies, including analyses of restaurant cohorts and traceback investigations, ultimately implicated raw fenugreek sprouts as the food vehicle, none of the patients in the United States definitively recalled sprout consumption. These events highlight challenges in investigating outbreaks, particularly those caused by rare pathogens or associated with food vehicles that are consumed in small quantities as part of other dishes. Clinical laboratories should adhere to STEC testing recommendations because they are critical for identification of rare or novel STEC pathogens. Robust public health infrastructure is necessary to effectively manage and resolve foodborne outbreaks.
Shamsul, Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Adamu, Muhammad Tukur; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Khairani-Bejo, Siti
Background Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for characterisation and serotyping. Results The results have shown that no Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated on the hands of abattoir workers before and after work. However, a total prevalence of 9.7% was recorded for all samples during work. For non-O157:H7, total prevalence of 33.3% during work and 13% after work were obtained. High prevalence was recorded in sample taken during work from Tampin, Jasin and Kemaman (100% each) while low prevalence where observed in Shah Alam, Banting and Ipoh (20% each). Conclusions Based on the findings the hygienic practices of hand washing among the workers in few locations was found to be low especially after work. PMID:27904427
Weiss, André; Joerss, Hanna; Brockmeyer, Jens
EspPα and EspI are serine protease autotransporters found in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. They both belong to the SPATE autotransporter family and are believed to contribute to pathogenicity via proteolytic cleavage and inactivation of different key host proteins during infection. Here, we describe the specific cleavage and functional inactivation of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) by EspPα and compare this activity with the related SPATE EspI. Serpins are structurally related proteins that regulate vital protease cascades, such as blood coagulation and inflammatory host response. For the rapid determination of serpin cleavage sites, we applied direct MALDI-TOF-MS or ESI-FTMS analysis of coincubations of serpins and SPATE proteases and confirmed observed cleavage positions using in-gel-digest of SDS-PAGE-separated degradation products. Activities of both serpin and SPATE protease were assessed in a newly developed photometrical assay using chromogenic peptide substrates. EspPα cleaved the serpins α1-protease inhibitor (α1-PI), α1-antichymotrypsin, angiotensinogen, and α2-antiplasmin. Serpin cleavage led to loss of inhibitory function as demonstrated for α1-PI while EspPα activity was not affected. Notably, EspPα showed pronounced specificity and cleaved procoagulatory serpins such as α2-antiplasmin while the anticoagulatory antithrombin III was not affected. Together with recently published research, this underlines the interference of EspPα with hemostasis or inflammatory responses during infection, while the observed interaction of EspI with serpins is likely to be not physiologically relevant. EspPα-mediated serpin cleavage occurred always in flexible loops, indicating that this structural motif might be required for substrate recognition. PMID:25347319
Januszkiewicz, A; Wołkowicz, T; Chróst, A; Szych, J
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 infections can be comparable with STEC O157 infections in severity of the acute haemolytic-uremic syndrome HUS and long-term sequelae. Among O26 STEC isolates, highly virulent clone O26:H11/H- Sequence Type 29 (ST 29) emerged in Germany in mid-1990s and spread to European countries. However, up to date, no STEC O26:H11/H- belonging to ST29 has been documented in Poland. In this study, we determined the relationship and clonal structure, stx genotypes, plasmid gene profiles and antimicrobial resistance of nine human STEC O26:H11/H- strains from human patients in Poland between 1996 and 2014. Of the 9 human STEC O26:H11/H- strains, two belonged to ST29 and were isolated from two children with HUS and renal failure with sepsis respectively. These strains showed the molecular characteristics of the emerging human-pathogenic ST29 clone (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+, ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). The remaining STEC O26:H11/H- strains examined in this study, belonged to ST21, with plasmid genes profiles frequently reported in ST21 strains in Europe. STEC O26 infections with serious human health consequences highlight the need of continuous surveillance of non-O157 STEC and implementation of the diagnostic approaches focused on their detection. Significance and impact of the study: These study provides the first data on the occurrence of emerging Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 ST 29 clone in human patients in Poland. Those strains show the molecular characteristics of highly virulent new ST29 pathotype (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+ ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). These results demonstrated prompt efforts to implement diagnostic approaches detection of those pathogen in the European countries.
Palmer, Christine E; Bratcher, Christy L; Singh, Manpreet; Wang, Luxin
In addition to Escherichia coli O157:H7, shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O26 was added to the zero-tolerance adulterant list together with other 5 non-O157 STEC serogroups in 2012. Four farm O26 isolates were used in this study; they were obtained from a on-farm survey study conducted in Alabama. The presence of 3 major pathogenic genes (stx1, stx2, and eaeA) was determined through multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two major pathogenic gene profiles were observed: 3 of the farm isolates contain only the eaeA gene whereas 1 farm isolate has both the eaeA and the stx1 genes. No significant difference was seen among the 4 farm isolates in the antibiotic resistance tests. To test their survival in ground beef and environmental samples, 2 inoculums were prepared and inoculated at various concentrations into samples of ground beef, bovine feces, bedding materials, and trough water. One inoculum was made of 3 farm isolates containing only the eaeA gene and another inoculum contained the isolate with both the eaeA and stx1 genes. Inoculated beef samples were stored at 4 °C for 10 d and the inoculated environmental samples were stored at ambient temperature for 30 d. Results showed that virulence gene profiles do not have an impact on O26's ability to survive in ground beef and in environment (P > 0.05). The inoculation levels, sample types as well as the storage times are the major factors that impact O26 survival (P < 0.05).
Armstrong, Glen D; Mulvey, George L; Marcato, Paola; Griener, Thomas P; Kahan, Melvyn C; Tennent, Glenys A; Sabin, Caroline A; Chart, Henrik; Pepys, Mark B
Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 causes hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), an intractable and often fatal complication of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Here, we show that serum amyloid P component (SAP), a normal human plasma protein, specifically protects mice against the lethal toxicity of Stx2, both when injected into wild-type mice and when expressed transgenically; in the presence of human SAP, there was greatly reduced in vivo localization of Stx2 to the kidneys, suggesting a possible mechanism of protection. In humans, circulating SAP concentrations did not differ between patients with suspected enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection with antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide and those without antibodies or between patients with HUS and those without it. However, the potent protection conferred by human SAP in the mouse model suggests that infusion of supplemental SAP may be a useful novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of this devastating condition.
Introduction: In response to the growing food safety issues surrounding fresh cut lettuce and other leafy green commodities in the U.S., the Leafy Green Marketing Agreement (LGMA) proposes new commodity-specific guidelines that encompass all steps on the production-to-distribution continuum to ensur...
Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in fresh produce processing facilities might play a role in foodborne outbreaks by providing protective microniches for pathogenic bacteria. Our previous study showed that a strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from a fresh produce processing plant could enhan...
Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Gonzalez-Lugo, Octavio; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando
The intestinal epithelium consists of a single cell layer, which is a critical selectively permeable barrier to both absorb nutrients and avoid the entry of potentially harmful entities, including microorganisms. Epithelial cells are held together by the apical junctional complexes, consisting of adherens junctions, and tight junctions (TJs), and by underlying desmosomes. TJs lay in the apical domain of epithelial cells and are mainly composed by transmembrane proteins such as occludin, claudins, JAMs, and tricellulin, that are associated with the cytoplasmic plaque formed by proteins from the MAGUK family, such as ZO-1/2/3, connecting TJ to the actin cytoskeleton, and cingulin and paracingulin connecting TJ to the microtubule network. Extracellular bacteria such as EPEC and EHEC living in the intestinal lumen inject effectors proteins directly from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm, where they play a relevant role in the manipulation of the eukaryotic cell functions by modifying or blocking cell signaling pathways. TJ integrity depends on various cell functions such as actin cytoskeleton, microtubule network for vesicular trafficking, membrane integrity, inflammation, and cell survival. EPEC and EHEC effectors target most of these functions. Effectors encoded inside or outside of locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) disrupt the TJ strands. EPEC and EHEC exploit the TJ dynamics to open this structure, for causing diarrhea. EPEC and EHEC secrete effectors that mimic host proteins to manipulate the signaling pathways, including those related to TJ dynamics. In this review, we focus on the known mechanisms exploited by EPEC and EHEC effectors for causing TJ disruption. PMID:27606286
Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology laboratory guidebook method.
Fratamico, Pina M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Garman, Bradley; Demarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Jensen, Mark; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George
The "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of foodborne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Regulatory testing in beef began in June 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DuPont BAX System method for detecting these top six STEC strains and strains of E. coli O157:H7. For STEC, the BAX System real-time STEC suite was evaluated, including a screening assay for the stx and eae virulence genes and two panel assays to identify the target serogroups: panel 1 detects O26, O111, and O121, and panel 2 detects O45, O103, O145. For E. coli O157:H7, the BAX System real-time PCR assay for this specific serotype was used. Sensitivity of each assay for the PCR targets was ≥1.23 × 10(3) CFU/ml in pure culture. Each assay was 100% inclusive for the strains tested (20 to 50 per assay), and no cross-reactivity with closely related strains was observed in any of the assays. The performance of the BAX System methods was compared with that of the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in ground beef and beef trim. Generally, results of the BAX System method were similar to those of the MLG methods for detecting non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. Reducing or eliminating novobiocin in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) may improve the detection of STEC O111 strains; one beef trim sample inoculated with STEC O111 produced a negative result when enriched in mTSB with 8 mg/liter novobiocin but was positive when enriched in mTSB without novobiocin. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of deploying a panel of real-time PCR assay configurations for the detection and monitoring of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in beef. The approach could easily be adapted
E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are food-borne pathogens responsible for severe outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis, which can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome and/or death. STEC strains belonging to serogroup O104 have been associated with sporadic cases of illness a...
Koluman, Ahmet; Akar, Nejat; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim C
Amaç: Ankaferd hemostat (Ankaferd Blood Stopper®, ABS) gamma fibrinojene etki ederek eritroid agregasyonuna neden olan farmakolojik modülasyondur. Topikal endoskopik ABS uygulaması gastrointestinal (Gİ) kanamalarda ve enfekte Gİ yaralarında etkili olmaktadır. Escherichia coli O157:H7, en sık karşılaşılan enterohemorajik Escherichia coli tipi olup sporadik veya salgınlar şeklinde hemorajik kolitin önemli bir etkenidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı ABS ile 6 farklı Shiga Toksijenik Escherichia coli serotipi (O26, O103, O104, O111, O145 ve O157) ve diğer önemli gıda kaynaklı patojenlerden Salmonella, Campylobacter ve Listeria monocytogenes üzerine etkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Tüm patojenler hazırlanarak ABS’nin farklı miktarları uygulanmış ve antimikrobiyel etki izlenmiştir. Salmonella canlılığı floresan in situ hibridizasyon tekniği ile izlenmiştir. Bulgular: ABS uygulamalarının sadece Escherichia coli O157 ve non-O157’ler üzerine değil aynı zamanda diğer patojenlerde de logaritmik azalma tetiklediği izlenmiştir. Bu çalışmada ABS ile farklı patojenler üzerine antibakteriyel etki gözlemlenmiştir. Sonuç: Bu çalışma özellikle trombositopenik purpura, hemolitik üremik sendrom ve hemorajik kolit yönünden önemli Escherichia coli O157:H7’nin üzerine ABS’nin antimikrobiyel etkisi olduğunu belirleyen ilk çalışmadır. ABS uygulamalarının kolitis, enfeksiyon ve hemostaz ilişkisi daha ileri seviyede araştırılmalıdır.
Lu, Zhongjing; Breidt, Fred
A novel phage, Φ241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH ≤ 3.7) and salinity (≥5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min and average burst size was 53 phage particles per infected cell. The phage was able to lyse 48 E. coli O157:H7 strains, but none of the 18 non-O157 strains (including E. coli O104:H7) or the 2 O antigen-negative mutants of O157:H7 strain, 43895Δper (also lacking H7 antigen) and F12 (still expressing H7 antigen). However, the phage was able to lyse a per-complemented strain (43895ΔperComp) which expresses O157 antigen. These results indicated that phage Φ241 is specific for O157 antigen, and E. coli strains lacking O157 antigen were resistant to the phage infection, regardless of the presence or absence of H7 antigen. SDS-PAGE profile revealed at least 13 structural proteins of the phage. The phage DNA was resistant to many commonly used restriction endonucleases, suggesting the presence of modified nucleotides in the phage genome. At the multiplicity of infection of 10, 3, or 0.3, the phage caused a rapid cell lysis within 1 or 2 h, resulting in 3.5- or 4.5-log-unit reduction in cell concentration. The high lytic activity, specificity and tolerance to low pH and high salinity make phage Φ241 a potentially ideal biocontrol agent of E. coli O157:H7 in various foods. To our knowledge, this is the first report on E. coli O157:H7 phage isolated from high acidity and salinity environment.
Rhoades, J R; Duffy, G; Koutsoumanis, K
This review examines the prevalence of three important pathogens, verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes, in cattle and beef from the farm to the final, ready-to-eat product. Factors affecting prevalence of pathogens in the beef chain, such as the season and cattle rearing method, are examined. Data from many key surveys are summarized in table form. The observed prevalence of pathogens in cattle and beef varies considerably from survey to survey. An indication of relative prevalence of pathogens at different stages can be obtained by calculating average prevalences observed over multiple surveys, weighted by sample number. Based on the data presented in the tables in this review, for E. coli O157 at selected processing stages the mean prevalences (and range of means from individual surveys) are faeces 6.2% (0.0-57%), hides 44% (7.3-76%), chilled carcasses 0.3% (0.0-0.5%), and raw beef products 1.2% (0.0-17%). For Salmonella the mean prevalence data are faeces 2.9% (0.0-5.5%), hides 60% (15-71%), chilled carcasses 1.3% (0.2-6.0%), and raw beef products 3.8% (0.0-7.5%). For L. monocytogenes the mean prevalence data are faeces 19% (4.8-29%), hides 12% (10-13%), and raw beef products 10% (1.6-24%). Seasonal variation was evident in many surveys, faecal prevalences of E. coli O157 and Salmonella generally being higher in the warmer months. The influence of animal type, animal age, feed and housing on pathogen carriage has also been examined. The significance of non-O157 serotypes of VTEC and their detection and classification are discussed.
Lu, Zhongjing; Breidt, Fred
A novel phage, Φ241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH ≤ 3.7) and salinity (≥5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min and average burst size was 53 phage particles per infected cell. The phage was able to lyse 48 E. coli O157:H7 strains, but none of the 18 non-O157 strains (including E. coli O104:H7) or the 2 O antigen-negative mutants of O157:H7 strain, 43895Δper (also lacking H7 antigen) and F12 (still expressing H7 antigen). However, the phage was able to lyse a per-complemented strain (43895ΔperComp) which expresses O157 antigen. These results indicated that phage Φ241 is specific for O157 antigen, and E. coli strains lacking O157 antigen were resistant to the phage infection, regardless of the presence or absence of H7 antigen. SDS-PAGE profile revealed at least 13 structural proteins of the phage. The phage DNA was resistant to many commonly used restriction endonucleases, suggesting the presence of modified nucleotides in the phage genome. At the multiplicity of infection of 10, 3, or 0.3, the phage caused a rapid cell lysis within 1 or 2 h, resulting in 3.5- or 4.5-log-unit reduction in cell concentration. The high lytic activity, specificity and tolerance to low pH and high salinity make phage Φ241 a potentially ideal biocontrol agent of E. coli O157:H7 in various foods. To our knowledge, this is the first report on E. coli O157:H7 phage isolated from high acidity and salinity environment. PMID:25741324
Shao, C C; Hu, B; Bi, Z W; Kou, Z Q; Fang, M; Chen, B L; Bi, Z Q
Objective: To determine the serotypes and drug resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animal stools from the Weishan area in Shandong Province, China. To provide the basis for further study. Methods: Five hundred animal stool samples (from pigs, cattle, sheep, dogs and birds) were collected from the Weishan area and STEC strains were isolated from these samples. Strains were serotyped by a serum agglutination test, and their drug resistance profiles were determined through antimicrobial sensitivity experiments. In this study, PCR was used to detect tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD) and beta-lactam resistance genes (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M, blaTEM). Results: Sixteen strains of STEC were isolated from animal stool samples. Thirteen strains were isolated from pig stool samples, two from bovine stool samples and one from a sheep stool sample. Two of the strains were identified as E. coli O157:H7, and other 14 strains were non-O157 STEC of different serotypes. Antimicrobial sensitivity experiments showed that 15 of the strains were multidrug resistant. The rates of resistance were as follows: nalidixic acid (12/16 strains), sulfisoxazole (11/16), trimethoprim and sulphame-thoxazole (11/16), doxycycline (9/16), azithromycin (9/16), tetracycline (9/16), chloramphenicol (8/16) and streptomycin (8/16). Therefore, nalidixic acid showed the highest rate of resistance among the strains, followed by trimethoprim and sulphame-thoxazole, and sulfisoxazole. Resistance to cefepime or imipenem was not detected. In total, three types of drug resistance genes (tetA, tetB and tetC) were detected among the 16 strains. Conclusion: The results showed that STEC strains isolated from animals in the Weishan area were of a range of serotypes. The 16 strains of STEC isolated from animal stools in this area were resistant to a number of antibiotics, with many strains displaying multidrug resistance.
Diodati, M. E.; Bates, A. H.; Miller, W. G.; Carter, M. Q.; Zhou, Y.
Escherichia coli O111 is an emerging non-O157:H7 serotype of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). We previously reported that outbreak and environmental, but not sporadic-case, strains of STEC O111 share a distinct aggregation phenotype (M. E. Diodati, A. H. Bates, M. B. Cooley, S. Walker, R. E. Mandrell, and M. T. Brandl, Foodborne Pathog Dis 12:235−243, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2014.1887). We show here the natural occurrence of nonaggregative variants in single STEC O111 strains. These variants do not produce curli fimbriae and lack RpoS function but synthesize cellulose. The deletion of csgBAC or rpoS in an aggregative outbreak strain abolished aggregate formation, which was rescued when curli biogenesis or RpoS function, respectively, was restored. Complementation of a nonaggregative variant with RpoS also conferred curli production and aggregation. These observations were supported by Western blotting with an anti-CsgA antibody. Immunomicroscopy revealed that curli were undetectable on the cells of the nonaggregative variant and the RpoS mutant but were present in large quantities in the intercellular matrix of the assemblages formed by aggregative strains. Sequence analysis of rpoS in the aggregative strain and its variant showed a single substitution of threonine for asparagine at amino acid 124. Our results indicate that the multicellular behavior of STEC O111 is RpoS dependent via positive regulation of curli production. Aggregation may confer a fitness advantage in O111 outbreak strains under stressful conditions in hydrodynamic environments along the food production chain and in the host, while the occurrence of nonaggregative variants may allow the cell population to adapt to conditions benefiting a planktonic lifestyle. PMID:26712542
Goodsell, David S.
Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…
Chatterjee, Abhishek; Caballero-Franco, Celia; Bakker, Dannika; Totten, Stephanie; Jardim, Armando
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a causative agent of gastrointestinal and diarrheal diseases. Pathogenesis associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli involves direct delivery of virulence factors from the bacteria into epithelial cell cytosol via a syringe-like organelle known as the type III secretion system. The type III secretion system protein EspD is a critical factor required for formation of a translocation pore on the host cell membrane. Here, we show that recombinant EspD spontaneously integrates into large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) lipid bilayers; however, pore formation required incorporation of anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and an acidic pH. Leakage assays performed with fluorescent dextrans confirmed that EspD formed a structure with an inner diameter of ∼2.5 nm. Protease mapping indicated that the two transmembrane helical hairpin of EspD penetrated the lipid layer positioning the N- and C-terminal domains on the extralumenal surface of LUVs. Finally, a combination of glutaraldehyde cross-linking and rate zonal centrifugation suggested that EspD in LUV membranes forms an ∼280–320-kDa oligomeric structure consisting of ∼6–7 subunits. PMID:26324713
Melli, Luciano J.; Ciocchini, Andrés E.; Caillava, Ana J.; Vozza, Nicolás; Chinen, Isabel; Rivas, Marta; Feldman, Mario F.
Human infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major cause of postdiarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. E. coli O157:H7 is the dominant STEC serotype associated with HUS worldwide, although non-O157 STEC serogroups can cause a similar disease. The detection of anti-O157 E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in combination with stool culture and detection of free fecal Shiga toxin considerably improves the diagnosis of STEC infections. In the present study, we exploited a bacterial glycoengineering technology to develop recombinant glycoproteins consisting of the O157, O145, or O121 polysaccharide attached to a carrier protein as serogroup-specific antigens for the serological diagnosis of STEC-associated HUS. Our results demonstrate that using these antigens in indirect ELISAs (glyco-iELISAs), it is possible to clearly discriminate between STEC O157-, O145-, and O121-infected patients and healthy children, as well as to confirm the diagnosis in HUS patients for whom the classical diagnostic procedures failed. Interestingly, a specific IgM response was detected in almost all the analyzed samples, indicating that it is possible to detect the infection in the early stages of the disease. Additionally, in all the culture-positive HUS patients, the serotype identified by glyco-iELISAs was in accordance with the serotype of the isolated strain, indicating that these antigens are valuable not only for diagnosing HUS caused by the O157, O145, and O121 serogroups but also for serotyping and guiding the subsequent steps to confirm diagnosis. PMID:25472487
Siriwan-Sirikaew; Rattanachuay, Pattamarat; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Sukhumungoonl, Pharanai
Escherichia coli O26 is the most important serotype in non-O157 group, which plays a significant role in gastrointestinal illnesses. However, information regarding the prevalence and its characteristics are lacking in Thailand. As raw meat is frequently a source of diarrheagenic E. coli, a total of 1,279 E. coli colonies were obtained from 157 raw meat samples obtained from retail markets in Hat Yai City, Songkhla Province, Thailand and E. coli O26 isolated using an immunemagnetic separation technique. Twenty-seven E. coli O26 strains were isolated from 18 samples of raw beef, chicken and pork meats. These E. coli O26 strains could not be classified into the six diarrheagenic E. coli categories and did not harbor virulence genes, except 5 strains carrying escV, encoding type III secretion system component. Phylogenetic group examination demonstrated that 26 strains belonged to phylogenetic group A, and one to group D. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that the E. coli O26 strains were the multi-drug resistant strains. Genetic relatedness employing (GTG)5-PCR and ERIC2-PCR showed that some of O26 which isolated from different samples and different time intervals revealed the identical fingerprint pattern, suggesting that they were derived from the same clone. Examination of five stx2-containing phage integration sites showed that 6 strains had prophage occupancy at sbcB, suggesting that these isolates have the potential in horizontal gene transfer of virulence trait. Moreover, the intactness of yecE and wrbA, the important integration sites in E. coli O26, indicated the possibility of stx2-phage lysogenization in the future.
Juneja, Vijay K; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Ukuku, Dike; Hwang, Cheng-An; Wu, Vivian C H; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan
The risk of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains has become a growing public health concern. Several studies characterized the behavior of E. coli O157:H7; however, no reports on the influence of multiple factors on E. coli O104:H4 are available. This study examined the effects and interactions of temperature (7 to 46°C), pH (4.5 to 8.5), and water activity (aw ; 0.95 to 0.99) on the growth kinetics of E. coli O104:H4 and developed predictive models to estimate its growth potential in foods. Growth kinetics studies for each of the 23 variable combinations from a central composite design were performed. Growth data were used to obtain the lag phase duration (LPD), exponential growth rate, generation time, and maximum population density (MPD). These growth parameters as a function of temperature, pH, and aw as controlling factors were analyzed to generate second-order response surface models. The results indicate that the observed MPD was dependent on the pH, aw, and temperature of the growth medium. Increasing temperature resulted in a concomitant decrease in LPD. Regression analysis suggests that temperature, pH, and aw significantly affect the LPD, exponential growth rate, generation time, and MPD of E. coli O104:H4. A comparison between the observed values and those of E. coli O157:H7 predictions obtained by using the U. S. Department of Agriculture Pathogen Modeling Program indicated that E. coli O104:H4 grows faster than E. coli O157:H7. The developed models were validated with alfalfa and broccoli sprouts. These models will provide risk assessors and food safety managers a rapid means of estimating the likelihood that the pathogen, if present, would grow in response to the interaction of the three variables assessed.
Cooley, Michael B.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Oryang, David; Mandrell, Robert E.; Gorski, Lisa
Produce contaminated with enteric pathogens is a major source of foodborne illness in the United States. Lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds were sampled with Moore swabs bi-monthly for over 2 years at 30 locations in the vicinity of a leafy green growing region on the Central California Coast and screened for Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes to evaluate the prevalence and persistence of pathogen subtypes. The prevalence of STEC from 1386 samples was 11%; 110 samples (8%) contained E. coli O157:H7 with the highest prevalence occurring close to cattle operations. Non-O157 STEC isolates represented major clinical O-types and 57% contained both shiga toxin types 1 and 2 and intimin. Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of STEC isolates indicated prevalent strains during the period of study. Notably, Salmonella was present at high levels throughout the sampling region with 65% prevalence in 1405 samples resulting in 996 isolates with slightly lower prevalence in late autumn. There were 2, 8, and 14 sites that were Salmonella-positive over 90, 80, and 70% of the time, respectively. The serotypes identified most often were 6,8:d:-, Typhimurium, and Give. Interestingly, analysis by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis indicated persistence and transport of pulsotypes in the region over several years. In this original study of L. monocytogenes in the region prevalence was 43% of 1405 samples resulting in 635 individual isolates. Over 85% of the isolates belonged to serotype 4b with serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 3a, 4d with 4e representing the rest, and there were 12 and 2 sites that were positive over 50 and 80% of the time, respectively. Although surface water is not directly used for irrigation in this region, transport to the produce can occur by other means. This environmental survey assesses initial contamination levels toward an understanding of transport leading to produce recalls or outbreaks. PMID
Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Ganet, Sarah; Duniere, Lysiane; Rozand, Christine; Loukiadis, Estelle; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine
Raw milk, raw milk cheeses, and raw ground meat have been implicated in Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Developing methods to detect these bacteria in raw milk and meat products is a major challenge for food safety. The aim of our study was to develop a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk cheeses and raw ground meat. Well-known primers targeting a mutation at position +93 of the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7 were chosen, and a specific TaqMan-minor groove binder probe was designed. This probe targets another mutation, at position +191 of the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7. The first step in the study was to evaluate the specificity of this probe with 156 different O157:H7/NM strains and 48 non-O157:H7/NM strains of E. coli. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated by pre- and postinoculation of cheeses and meat enrichments with different E. coli O157:H7 strains. All the E. coli O157:H7 isolates tested were positive, and none of the other bacteria were detected. Our results indicate that this method is sensitive enough to detect 10(2) E. coli O157:H7 isolates per ml of cheese or meat enrichment broth (24 h at 41.5° C) and is more sensitive than the International Organization for Standardization reference method. We can conclude that this new real-time PCR protocol is a useful tool for rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and raw ground meat products.
Sánchez, Sergio; Beristain, Xabier; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Martín, Carmen; Vidal, Dolors; Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Rey, Joaquín; Alonso, Juan M; Herrera-León, Silvia
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O128:H2 is recognised worldwide to be an important non-O157 STEC associated with human illness and in particular with causing haemolytic uraemic syndrome. This serotype is commonly isolated from sheep and is being increasingly isolated from deer. We determined the virulence profile and genetic relationships of one human, six sheep and five deer intimin-negative STEC O128:H2 strains isolated in Spain over a 7-year period. Our goals were to establish the presence of other virulence-associated factors, such as SubAB, in intimin-negative STEC O128:H2 strains involved in human disease and in that case, to determine if sheep and/or deer represent a reservoir of SubAB-positive STEC O128:H2. All the strains lacked the eae gene and carried subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) encoding genes (subAB) and tia genes, but not saa gene, suggesting the presence of the recently identified new variant of SubAB, encoded on a putative pathogenicity island together with tia. We report for the first time the presence of subtilase cytotoxin encoding genes in intimin-negative STEC O128:H2 strains pathogenic for humans and how this finding might explain their clinical relevance despite neither carrying eae nor stx subtypes associated with severe clinical outcomes, but only stx1c and stx2b. Multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed that STEC O128:H2 strains from sheep and deer belong to the clonal lineage of STEC O128:H2 strains involved in diarrhoeal and haemorrhagic diseases in humans. Our results indicate that sheep and deer represent a reservoir of SubAB-positive STEC O128:H2 strains and thus a potential source of human infection.
Tomat, David; Migliore, Leonel; Aquili, Virginia; Quiberoni, Andrea; Balagué, Claudia
Ten bacteriophages were isolated from faeces and their lytic effects assayed on 103 pathogenic and non-pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. Two phages (DT1 and DT6) were selected based on their host ranges, and their lytic effects on pathogenic E. coli strains inoculated on pieces of beef were determined. We evaluated the reductions of viable cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli strains on meat after exposure to DT6 at 5 and 24°C for 3, 6, and 24 h and the effect of both phages against an enteropathogenic E. coli strain. Significant viable cell reductions, compared to controls without phages, at both temperatures were observed, with the greatest decrease taking place within the first hours of the assays. Reductions were also influenced by phage concentration, being the highest concentrations, 1.7 × 1010 plaque forming units per milliliter (PFU/mL) for DT1 and 1.4 × 1010 PFU/mL for DT6, the most effective. When enteropathogenic E. coli and Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7) strains were tested, we obtained viable cell reductions of 0.67 log (p = 0.01) and 0.77 log (p = 0.01) after 3 h incubation and 0.80 log (p = 0.01) and 1.15 log (p = 0.001) after 6 h. In contrast, all nonpathogenic E. coli strains as well as other enterobacteria tested were resistant. In addition, phage cocktail was evaluated on two strains and further reductions were observed. However, E. coli bacteriophage insensitive mutants (BIMs) emerged in meat assays. BIMs isolated from meat along with those isolated by using the secondary culture method were tested to evaluate resistance phenotype stability and reversion. They presented low emergence frequencies (6.5 × 10−7–1.8 × 10−6) and variable stability and reversion. Results indicate that isolated phages were stable on storage, negative for all the virulence factors assayed, presented lytic activity for different E. coli virotypes and could be useful in reducing Shiga toxigenic E. coli and enteropathogenic E
Venegas-Vargas, Cristina; Henderson, Scott; Khare, Akanksha; Mosci, Rebekah E.; Lehnert, Jonathan D.; Singh, Pallavi; Ouellette, Lindsey M.; Norby, Bo; Funk, Julie A.; Rust, Steven; Bartlett, Paul C.; Grooms, Daniel
ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Cattle are the primary reservoir for STEC, and food or water contaminated with cattle feces is the most common source of infections in humans. Consequently, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,096 cattle in six dairy herds (n = 718 animals) and five beef herds (n = 378 animals) in the summers of 2011 and 2012 to identify epidemiological factors associated with shedding. Fecal samples were obtained from each animal and cultured for STEC. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with STEC positivity. The prevalence of STEC was higher in beef cattle (21%) than dairy cattle (13%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 2.47), with considerable variation occurring across herds (range, 6% to 54%). Dairy cattle were significantly more likely to shed STEC when the average temperature was >28.9°C 1 to 5 days prior to sampling (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.25, 4.91), during their first lactation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.8), and when they were <30 days in milk (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.2). These data suggest that the stress or the negative energy balance associated with lactation may result in increased STEC shedding frequencies in Michigan during the warm summer months. Future prevention strategies aimed at reducing stress during lactation or isolating high-risk animals could be implemented to reduce herd-level shedding levels and avoid transmission of STEC to susceptible animals and people. IMPORTANCE STEC shedding frequencies vary considerably across cattle herds in Michigan, and the shedding frequency of strains belonging to non-O157 serotypes far exceeds the shedding frequency of O157 strains, which is congruent with human infections in the state. Dairy cattle sampled at higher temperatures, in their first lactation, and early in the milk production stage were
James, C E; Stanley, K N; Allison, H E; Flint, H J; Stewart, C S; Sharp, R J; Saunders, J R; McCarthy, A J
A verocytotoxigenic bacteriophage isolated from a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, into which a kanamycin resistance gene (aph3) had been inserted to inactivate the verocytotoxin gene (vt2), was used to infect Enterobacteriaceae strains. A number of Shigella and E. coli strains were susceptible to lysogenic infection, and a smooth E. coli isolate (O107) was also susceptible to lytic infection. The lysogenized strains included different smooth E. coli serotypes of both human and animal origin, indicating that this bacteriophage has a substantial capacity to disseminate verocytotoxin genes. A novel indirect plaque assay utilizing an E. coli recA441 mutant in which phage-infected cells can enter only the lytic cycle, enabling detection of all infective phage, was developed.
The “top-six” non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of food-borne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), and regulatory testing for these serogroups in beef began in...
De Gheldre, Yves; Dediste, Anne; de Moreau, Anne-Isabelle; Mascart, Georges; Simon, Anne; Allemeersch, Daniël; Scheutz, Flemming; Lauwers, Sabine; Piérard, Denis
The incidence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) was investigated by PCR in all human stools from Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZB) and in selected stools from six other hospital laboratories in the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium, collected between April 2008 and October 2010. The stools selected to be included in this study were those from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), patients with a history of bloody diarrhea, patients linked to clusters of diarrhea, children up to the age of 6 years, and stools containing macroscopic blood. Verocytotoxin genes (vtx) were detected significantly more frequently in stools from patients with the selected conditions (2.04%) than in unselected stools from UZB (1.20%) (P = 0.001). VTEC was detected most frequently in patients with HUS (35.3%), a history of bloody diarrhea (5.15%), or stools containing macroscopic blood (1.85%). Stools from patients up to the age of 17 years were significantly more frequently vtx positive than those from adult patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years (P = 0.022). Although stools from patients older than 65 years were also more frequently positive for vtx than those from patients between 18 and 65 years, this trend was not significant. VTEC was isolated from 140 (67.9%) vtx-positive stools. One sample yielded two different serotypes; thus, 141 isolates could be characterized. Sixty different O:H serotypes harboring 85 different virulence profiles were identified. Serotypes O157:H7/H− (n = 34), O26:H11/H− (n = 21), O63:H6 (n = 8), O111:H8/H− (n = 7), and O146:H21/H− (n = 6) accounted for 53.9% of isolates. All O157 isolates carried vtx2, eae, and a complete O island 122 (COI-122); 15 also carried vtx1. Non-O157 isolates (n = 107), however, accounted for the bulk (75.9%) of isolates. Fifty-nine (55.1%) isolates were positive for vtx1, 36 (33.6%) were positive for vtx2, and 12 (11.2%) carried both vtx1 and vtx2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed
Sanjar, Fatemeh; Rusconi, Brigida; Hazen, Tracy H.; Koenig, Sara S.K.; Mammel, Mark K.; Feng, Peter C.H.; Rasko, David A.; Eppinger, Mark
Escherichia coli of the O157 serogroup are comprised of a diverse collection of more than 100 O157:non-H7 serotypes that are found in the environment, animal reservoir and infected patients and some have been linked to severe outbreaks of human disease. Among these, the enteropathogenic E. coli O157:non-H7 serotypes carry virulence factors that are hallmarks of enterohemorrhagic E. coli, such as causing attaching and effacing lesions during human gastrointestinal tract infections. Given the shared virulence gene pool between O157:H7 and O157:non-H7 serotypes, our objective was to examine the prevalence of virulence traits of O157:non-H7 serotypes within and across their H-serotype and when compared to other E. coli pathovars. We sequenced six O157:non-H7 genomes complemented by four genomes from public repositories in an effort to determine their virulence state and genetic relatedness to the highly pathogenic enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 lineage and its ancestral O55:H7 serotype. Whole-genome-based phylogenomic analysis and molecular typing is indicative of a non-monophyletic origin of the heterogeneous O157:non-H7 serotypes that are only distantly related to the O157:H7 serotype. The availability of multiple genomes enables robust phylogenomic placement of these strains into their evolutionary context, and the assessment of the pathogenic potential of the O157:non-H7 strains in causing human disease. PMID:25962987
Sanjar, Fatemeh; Rusconi, Brigida; Hazen, Tracy H; Koenig, Sara S K; Mammel, Mark K; Feng, Peter C H; Rasko, David A; Eppinger, Mark
Escherichia coli of the O157 serogroup are comprised of a diverse collection of more than 100 O157:non-H7 serotypes that are found in the environment, animal reservoir and infected patients and some have been linked to severe outbreaks of human disease. Among these, the enteropathogenic E. coli O157:non-H7 serotypes carry virulence factors that are hallmarks of enterohemorrhagic E. coli, such as causing attaching and effacing lesions during human gastrointestinal tract infections. Given the shared virulence gene pool between O157:H7 and O157:non-H7 serotypes, our objective was to examine the prevalence of virulence traits of O157:non-H7 serotypes within and across their H-serotype and when compared to other E. coli pathovars. We sequenced six O157:non-H7 genomes complemented by four genomes from public repositories in an effort to determine their virulence state and genetic relatedness to the highly pathogenic enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 lineage and its ancestral O55:H7 serotype. Whole-genome-based phylogenomic analysis and molecular typing is indicative of a non-monophyletic origin of the heterogeneous O157:non-H7 serotypes that are only distantly related to the O157:H7 serotype. The availability of multiple genomes enables robust phylogenomic placement of these strains into their evolutionary context, and the assessment of the pathogenic potential of the O157:non-H7 strains in causing human disease.
Parker, Christopher T; Russell, Regan; Njoroge, Jacqueline W; Jimenez, Angel G; Taussig, Ron; Sperandio, Vanessa
The histidine sensor kinase (HK) QseC, senses autoinducer-3 (AI-3), and the adrenergic hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. Upon sensing these signals, QseC acts through three response regulators (RRs) to regulate expression of virulence genes in enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). The QseB, QseF and KdpE RRs that are phosphorylated by QseC constitute a tripartite signaling cascade having different and overlapping targets, including flagella and motility, the type three secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), and Shiga toxin. We modeled the tertiary structure of QseC's periplasmic sensing domain, and also aligned these sequences from 12 different species to identify the most conserved amino acids. We selected eight conserved aminoacids in all of these QseC homologs. These QseC site directed mutants were expressed and still able to autophosphorylate, albeit four mutants depicted increased basal level of phosphorylation. These mutants have differential flagella and motility, LEE and Shiga toxin expression phenotypes. We selected four mutants for more in depth analyses and found that they differed in their ability to phosphorylate QseB, KdpE and QseF. This suggests that these mutations in the periplasmic sensing domain affected the downstream of the QseC signaling cascade, and therefore, can influence which pathway QseC regulates.
sharing their expertise in molecular biology and animal work and for their indispensable advice on bringing theory into practice. Cristina Kerry...Zandoli - for their continuing friendship through these years. Thank you all for your support and friendship. From you, I have learned that...by Northern hybridization, p. 4.91-4.98. jn Ausubel , F.M., R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith, and K. Struhl (eds
Sawamura, S; Tanaka, K; Koga, Y
Though O157 can cause a life-threatening diseases, the therapeutic protocol using antibiotics for the infection is still controversial. Main reasons for hesitating the uses of antibiotics for the infection is their possibility to enhance the release of verotoxins (VT). We have recently established the mouse model of O157 infection using germfree mice. Using this animal model of O157 infection, we examined therapeutic efficacy of antibiotics. Fosfomycin (FOM) and norfloxacin (NFLX) were selected for in vivo examination, because of their lower MIC under anaerobic condition (MIC:FOM = 0.78; NFLX = 0.10 microgram/ml) than those of the other antibiotics including kanamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, choramphenicol, cefaclor and ampicilin. When germfree BALB/c mice were orally infected with 1 x 10(5)CFU of O157 (clinically-isolated strain, TI001) at day 0, all mice died at 8 to 9 d after the infection. Oral treatment of the mice with FOM (500 mg/kg/d, twice a day) or NFLX (50 mg/kg/d, twice a day) everyday for 5 days starting at 3 hr after the infection significantly improved the survival rate from 0% to 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. VT could not be detected in the feces of the mice in either groups, suggesting that neither of these antibiotics enhanced the release of VT. Interestingly, when FOM treatment was started at 3, 6, 12 or 24 hr after the infection, the survival rate was 100%, 100%, 0% and 0%, respectively. Thus, in conclusion, FOM and NFLX are both useful as the therapeutic agents for O157 infection. However, the treatment should be started in the early phase after the infection.
Although numerous antimicrobial interventions targeting E. coli O157:H7 have been developed and implemented to decontaminate meat and meat products during the harvesting process, the information on efficacy of these interventions, against the “big six” non-O157 STEC strains is limited. One-hundred a...
Microbial predictive models are food safety tools that can be used to evaluate potential risk of pathogen growth in foods to facilitate effective decision-making. Research is limited regarding growth characteristics of non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) in food and on Salmonella spp. in lettuc...
Direct plating onto solid agar media has been widely used in microbiology laboratories for presumptive-positive pathogen detection in spite of the fact that it is often subjective, labor intensive and time consuming. Rainbow agar is a selective and chromogenic medium that helps to detect pathogenic ...
Tang, Yanjie; Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K.; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Bae, Euiwon; Rajwa, Bartek; Fratamico, Pina M.; Bhunia, Arun K.
Background Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have emerged as important foodborne pathogens, among which seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, O157) are most frequently implicated in human infection. The aim was to determine if a light scattering sensor can be used to rapidly identify the colonies of STEC serogroups on selective agar plates. Methodology/Principal Findings Initially, a total of 37 STEC strains representing seven serovars were grown on four different selective agar media, including sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC), Rainbow Agar O157, BBL CHROMagarO157, and R&F E. coli O157:H7, as well as nonselective Brain Heart Infusion agar. The colonies were scanned by an automated light scattering sensor, known as BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology), to acquire scatter patterns of STEC serogroups, and the scatter patterns were analyzed using an image classifier. Among all of the selective media tested, both SMAC and Rainbow provided the best differentiation results allowing multi-class classification of all serovars with an average accuracy of more than 90% after 10–12 h of growth, even though the colony appearance was indistinguishable at that early stage of growth. SMAC was chosen for exhaustive scatter image library development, and 36 additional strains of O157:H7 and 11 non-O157 serovars were examined, with each serogroup producing unique differential scatter patterns. Colony scatter images were also tested with samples derived from pure and mixed cultures, as well as experimentally inoculated food samples. BARDOT accurately detected O157 and O26 serovars from a mixed culture and also from inoculated lettuce and ground beef (10-h broth enrichment +12-h on-plate incubation) in the presence of natural background microbiota in less than 24 h. Conclusions BARDOT could potentially be used as a screening tool during isolation of the most important STEC serovars on selective agar plates from food samples in
Lee, Heyn; Ku, Hye-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, You-Tae; Shin, Hakdong; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon
Background Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella flexneri are well-known food-borne pathogens causing severe food poisoning at low infectious doses. Bacteriophages have been approved for food applications by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have been suggested as natural food preservatives to control specific food-borne pathogens. To develop a novel natural food preservative against E. coli O157:H7 and S. flexneri, a new bacteriophage needs to be isolated and characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacteriophage HY01 infecting both E. coli O157:H7 and S. flexneri was isolated from a swine fecal sample. HY01 belongs to the family Myoviridae and is stable under various temperature and pH conditions. One-step growth curve analysis showed relatively short eclipse and latent periods as well as large burst size. The 167-kb genome sequence of HY01 was sequenced, and a comparative genome analysis with T4 for non-O157:H7 E. coli suggests that the receptor recognition protein of HY01 plays an important role in determination of host recognition and specificity. In addition, food applications using edible cabbage were conducted with two E. coli O157:H7 strains (ATCC 43890 and ATCC 43895), showing that treatment with HY01 inhibits these clinical and food isolates with >2 log reductions in bacterial load during the first 2 h of incubation. Conclusions/Significance HY01 can inhibit both E. coli O157:H7 and S. flexneri with large burst size and stability under stress conditions. The ability of HY01 to infect both E. coli O157:H7 and S. flexneri may be derived from the presence of two different host specificity-associated tail genes in the genome. Food applications revealed the specific ability of HY01 to inhibit both pathogens in food, suggesting its potential as a novel biocontrol agent or novel natural food preservative against E. coli O157:H7 and potentially S. flexneri. PMID:28036349
Background Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and related non-O157 STEC strains are enteric pathogens of public health concern worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases. Cattle are considered the principal hosts and have been shown to be a source of infection for both foodborne and environmental outbreaks in humans. The aims of this study were to investigate risk factors associated with sporadic STEC infections in humans in New Zealand and to provide epidemiological information about the source and exposure pathways. Methods During a national prospective case–control study from July 2011 to July 2012, any confirmed case of STEC infection notified to regional public health units, together with a random selection of controls intended to be representative of the national demography, were interviewed for risk factor evaluation. Isolates from each case were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion (SBI) typing. Results Questionnaire data from 113 eligible cases and 506 controls were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Statistically significant animal and environmental risk factors for human STEC infections were identified, notably 'Cattle livestock present in meshblock’ (the smallest geographical unit) (odds ratio 1.89, 95% CI 1.04–3.42), 'Contact with animal manure’ (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.12–3.90), and 'Contact with recreational waters’ (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.30–6.70). No food-associated risk factors were identified as sources of STEC infection. E. coli O157:H7 caused 100/113 (88.5%) of clinical STEC infections in this study, and 97/100 isolates were available for molecular analysis. PFGE profiles of isolates revealed three distinctive clusters of genotypes, and these were strongly correlated with SBI type. The variable 'Island of residence’ (North or South Island of New Zealand) was significantly associated with PFGE genotype (p = 0.012). Conclusions Our
Niu, Yan D.; Stanford, Kim; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Johnson, Roger P.; She, Yi-Min; Ahmed, Rafiq; Villegas, Andre; McAllister, Tim A.
Despite multiple control measures, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157:H7) continues to be responsible for many food borne outbreaks in North America and elsewhere. Bacteriophage therapy may prove useful for controlling this pathogen in the host, their environment and food. Bacteriophage vB_EcoS_AKFV33 (AKFV33), a T5-like phage of Siphoviridae lysed common phage types of STEC O157:H7 and not non-O157 E. coli. Moreover, STEC O157:H7 isolated from the same feedlot pen from which the phage was obtained, were highly susceptible to AKFV33. Adsorption rate constant and burst size were estimated to be 9.31×10−9 ml/min and 350 PFU/infected cell, respectively. The genome of AKVF33 was 108,853 bp (38.95% G+C), containing 160 open reading frames (ORFs), 22 tRNA genes and 32 strong promoters recognized by host RNA polymerase. Of 12 ORFs without homologues to T5-like phages, 7 predicted novel proteins while others exhibited low identity (<60%) to proteins in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database. AKVF33 also lacked the L-shaped tail fiber protein typical of T5, but was predicted to have tail fibers comprised of 2 novel proteins with low identity (37–41%) to tail fibers of E. coli phage phiEco32 of Podoviridae, a putative side tail fiber protein of a prophage from E. coli IAI39 and a conserved domain protein of E. coli MS196-1. The receptor-binding tail protein (pb5) shared an overall identify of 29–72% to that of other T5-like phages, with no region coding for more than 6 amino acids in common. Proteomic analysis identified 4 structural proteins corresponding to the capsid, major tail, tail fiber and pore-forming tail tip (pb2). The genome of AKFV33 lacked regions coding for known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. Phage AKFV33 is a unique, highly lytic STEC O157:H7-specific T5-like phage that may have considerable potential as a pre- and post-harvest biocontrol agent. PMID:22514640
Murinda, Shelton E; Nguyen, Lien T; Landers, Tippi L; Draughon, F Ann; Mathew, Alan G; Hogan, Joseph S; Smith, K Larry; Hancock, Dale D; Oliver, Stephen P
The objective of this study was to characterize Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cows/feedlots, calves, mastitis, pigs, dogs, parrot, iguana, human disease, and food products for prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) virulence markers. The rationale of the study was that, isolates of the same serotypes that were obtained from different sources and possessed the same marker profiles, could be cross-species transmissible. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect presence of genes encoding Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2), H7 flagella (flicC), enterohemolysin (hly) and intimin (eaeA) in E. coli isolates (n = 400). Shiga toxin-producing isolates were tested for production of Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2 and enterohemolysin. Of the E. coli O157:H7/H- strains, 150 of 164 (mostly human, cattle, and food) isolates were stx+. Sixty-five percent of O157 STEC produced both Stx1 and Stx2; 32% and 0.7% produced Stx2 or Stx1, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of O157 STEC had sequences for genes encoding intimin and enterohemolysin. Five of 20 E. coli O111, 4 of 14 O128 and 4 of 10 O26 were stx+ . Five of 6 stx+ O26 and O111 produced Stx1, however, stx+ O128 were Stx-negative. Acid resistance (93.3%) and tellurite resistance (87.3%) were common attributes of O157 STEC, whereas, non-O157 stx+ strains exhibited 38.5% and 30.8% of the respective resistances. stx-positive isolates were mostly associated with humans and cattle, whereas, all isolates from mastitis (n = 105), and pigs, dogs, parrot and iguanas (n = 48) were stx-negative. Multiplex PCR was an effective tool for characterizing STEC pathogenic profiles and distinguished STEC O157:H7 from other STEC. Isolates from cattle and human disease shared similar toxigenic profiles, whereas isolates from other disease sources had few characteristics in common with the former isolates. These data suggest interspecies transmissibility of certain serotypes, in particular, STEC O157:H7, between
Liu, Hui; Magoun, Loranne; Leong, John M.
Intimin is a bacterial outer membrane protein required for intimate attachment of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) to mammalian cells. β1-chain integrins have been proposed as candidate receptors for intimin. We found that binding of mammalian cells to immobilized intimin was not detectable unless mammalian cells were preinfected with EPEC or EHEC. β1-chain integrin antagonists or inactivation of the gene encoding the β1-chain did not affect binding of preinfected mammalian cells to intimin or the actin condensation associated with the attachment of EPEC. The results indicate that β1-chain integrins are not essential for intimin-mediated cell attachment or EPEC-mediated actin polymerization. PMID:10085058
Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Podsiadły, Edyta; Szych, Jolanta; Semkowicz-Chmielewska, Anna; Demkow, Urszula; Pierzchlewicz, Anna; Rastawicki, Waldemar
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 and non-O157 are important emergance pathogens that can cause diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). A few cases of EHEC infections are documented per year in Poland. Among them only one patient with EHEC O157 infection developed HUS. We characterized the first VTEC non-O157 strain isolated from child with HUS in Poland. The VTEC O111 strain produced Stx2 which was cytotoxic for Vero cell. Using DNA microarray analysis we have found set of virulence genes in VTEC O111 strain as: stx2A, stx2B, ehly, eae, tir tccP espA, espJ, cif nleA, nleB, lpfA, iha, efa1, cba. The strain was fenotypic resistant to streptomycin, tetracyclin and sulphonamides (strA, tetA, sul2 genes were detected).
Beutin, L; Geier, D; Zimmermann, S; Karch, H
Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin)-producing strains of Escherichia coli (SLTEC) originating from healthy cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, cats, and dogs were investigated for properties which are related to virulence of E. coli for humans. The slt-II (Shiga-like toxin II) and slt-IIc genes were frequent in SLTEC from healthy cattle and dogs but were rarely found in SLTEC from other animals. The slt-IIe gene was detected only in porcine SLTEC. SLTEC from goats and SLTEC from sheep were found to carry different SLT-II determinants which were not further characterized genetically. Sixty (28.8%) of 208 SLTEC from healthy animals showed diffuse adherence to HEp-2 cells. However, none of the strains was positive for genes specific for the local adherence (eaf), diffuse adherence (daa), or enteroaggregative (EAggEC) E. coli type. Only 3 (1.4%) of the 208 SLTEC were positive for attaching and effacing E. coli (eae) sequences. The enterohemolytic phenotype was present in 128 of the 208 SLTEC. Almost all enterohemolytic animal SLTEC were found to carry DNA sequences specific for the plasmid-encoded enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin of E. coli O157. Bacteriophage-associated enterohemolysin (Ehly1 and Ehly2)-specific sequences were detected only in 14.4% of the 208 SLTEC and were linked with certain serotypes. The SLTEC from healthy animals constitute a very heterogeneous group of E. coli, and many of these strains appeared to be specific for their hosts. The absence of eae sequences in most animal SLTEC could indicate that these strains are less virulent for humans than the classical eae-positive enterohemorrhagic E. coli types. PMID:7538509
Brown, C A; Harmon, B G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P
Nine weaned calves (6 to 8 weeks of age) were given 10(10) CFU of a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by oral-gastric intubation. After an initial brief period of pyrexia in three calves and transient mild diarrhea in five calves, calves were clinically normal throughout the 13- to 27-day study. The population of E. coli O157:H7 in the faces decreased dramatically in all calves during the first 2 weeks after inoculation. Thereafter, small populations of E. coli O157:H7 persisted in all calves, where they were detected intermittently in the feces and rumen contents. While withholding food increased fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by 1 to 2 log10/g in three of four calves previously shedding small populations of E. coli O157:H7, the effect of fasting on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 was variable in calves shedding larger populations. At necropsy, E. coli O157:H7 was not isolated from sites outside the alimentary tract. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from the forestomach or colon of all calves at necropsy. Greater numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were present in the gastrointestinal contents than in the corresponding mucosal sections, and there was no histologic or immunohistochemical evidence of E. coli O157:H7 adhering to the mucosa. In conclusion, under these experimental conditions, E. coli O157:H7 is not pathogenic in weaned calves, and while it does not appear to colonize mucosal surfaces for extended periods, E. coli O157:H7 persists in the contents of the rumen and colon as a source for fecal shedding. PMID:8979335
Amor, K; Heinrichs, D E; Frirdich, E; Ziebell, K; Johnson, R P; Whitfield, C
In the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli there are five distinct core oligosaccharide (core OS) structures, designated K-12 and R1 to R4. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalences of these core OS types within the species. Unique sequences in the waa (core OS biosynthesis) gene operon were used to develop a PCR-based system that facilitated unequivocal determination of the core OS types in isolates of E. coli. This system was applied to the 72 isolates in the E. coli ECOR collection, a compilation of isolates that is considered to be broadly representative of the genetic diversity of the species. Fifty (69. 4%) of the ECOR isolates contained the R1 core OS, 8 (11.1%) were representatives of R2, 8 (11.1%) were R3, 2 (2.8%) were R4, and only 4 (5.6%) were K-12. R1 is the only core OS type found in all four major phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) in the ECOR collection. Virulent extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates tend to be closely related to group B2 and, to a lesser extent, group D isolates. All of the ECOR representatives from the B2 and D groups had the R1 core OS. In contrast, commensal E. coli isolates are more closely related to group A, which contains isolates representing each of the five core OS structures. R3 was the only core OS type found in 38 verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) isolates from humans and cattle belonging to the common enterohemorrhagic E. coli serogroups O157, O111, and O26. Although isolates from other VTEC serogroups showed more core OS diversity, the R3 type (83.1% of all VTEC isolates) was still predominant. When non-VTEC commensal isolates from cattle were analyzed, it was found that most possessed the R1 core OS type.
Nguyen, Trung Vu; Le Van, Phung; Le Huy, Chinh; Gia, Khanh Nguyen; Weintraub, Andrej
Diarrhea continues to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among infants and children in developing countries. Escherichia coli is an emerging agent among pathogens that cause diarrhea. The development of a highly applicable technique for the detection of different categories of diarrheagenic E. coli is important. We have used multiplex PCR by combining eight primer pairs specific for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). This facilitates the identification of five different categories of diarrheagenic E. coli from stool samples in a single reaction simultaneously. The prevalences of diarrheagenic E. coli were 22.5 and 12% in the diarrhea group and the control group, respectively. Among 587 fecal samples from Vietnamese children under 5 years of age with diarrhea, this technique identified 132 diarrheagenic E. coli strains. This included 68 samples (11.6%) with EAEC, 12 samples (2.0%) with EIEC, 39 samples (6.6%) with EPEC, and 13 samples (2.2%) with ETEC. Among the 249 age-matched controls, 30 samples were positive for diarrheagenic E. coli. The distribution was 18 samples (7.2%) with EAEC, 11 samples (4.4%) with EPEC, and 1 sample (0.4%) with ETEC. PMID:15695676
Bokhari, Habib; Shah, Muhammad Ali; Asad, Saba; Akhtar, Sania; Akram, Muhammad; Wren, Brendan W
This study compares Escherichia coli pathotypes circulating among children in Pakistan during the floods of 2010 and 2011 and from sporadic cases outside flood affected areas. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction 115 of 205 stool samples (56.29%) were positive for diarrheagenic E. coli from specimens taken during the floods compared with 50 of 400 (12.5%) stool samples being positive for sporadic cases. The E. coli pathotypes were categorized as Enteropathogenic E. coli 33 (28.69%) and 13 (26%), Enterotoxigenic E. coli 29 (25.21%) and 15 (30%), Enteroaggregative E. coli 21 (18.2%) and 18 (36%), Enterohemorrhagic E. coli 5 (4.34%) and 1 (2%) from flood and sporadic cases, respectively. Furthermore, patients co-infected with more than one pathotype were 26 (22.60%) and 3 (6%) from flood and sporadic cases, respectively. The study shows an unexpectedly high rate of isolation of E. coli pathotypes suggesting Pakistan as an endemic region that requires active surveillance particularly during flood periods.
Higgins, James A.; Belt, Kenneth T.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Shelton, Daniel R.
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, which may include the enteropathogenic E. coli and the enterohemorrhagic E. coli, are a significant cause of diarrheal disease among infants and children in both developing and developed areas. Disease outbreaks related to freshwater exposure have been documented, but the presence of these organisms in the urban aquatic environment is not well characterized. From April 2002 through April 2004 we conducted weekly surveys of streams in the metropolitan Baltimore, Md., area for the prevalence of potentially pathogenic E. coli by using PCR assays targeting the tir and stx1 and stx2 genes. Coliforms testing positive for the presence of the tir gene were cultured from 653 of 1,218 samples (53%), with a greater prevalence associated with urban, polluted streams than in suburban and forested watershed streams. Polluted urban streams were also more likely to test positive for the presence of one of the stx genes. Sequence analysis of the tir amplicon, as well as the entire tir gene from three isolates, indicated that the pathogenic E. coli present in the stream waters has a high degree of sequence homology with the E. coli O157:H7 serotype. Our data indicate that pathogenic E. coli are continually deposited into a variety of stream habitats and suggest that this organism may be a permanent member of the gastrointestinal microflora of humans and animals in the metropolitan Baltimore area. PMID:15870341
Mack, D R; Blain-Nelson, P L; Mauger, J W
Anionic polyacrylic acid polymers, such as polycarbophil, have a number of properties that would make them suitable carriers for sustained antibiotic release formulations in the intestinal tract. However, little is known with regards to possible microbial adhesion to polycarbophil. The aim of this study was to evaluate for such an interaction using the rabbit enteric pathogen Escherichia coli RDEC-1 (serotype O15:H-). RDEC-1 mediates attaching and effacing binding to intestinal epithelium in a manner morphologically identical to that observed in both human enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections. RDEC-1 bacteria were grown to promote the expression of the mannose-resistant AF/R1 adhesion pili. A nonpiliated mutant, strain M34, was used as a negative control. Using radioactive labeling of bacteria, we quantitated adhesion of piliated RDEC-1 in the presence of polycarbophil using an in vitro adhesion assay system. Binding of piliated RDEC-1 in the adhesion assay was greater than for nonpiliated M34 for all concentrations of bacteria greater than 10(9) (P < .05). Polycarbophil did not cause concentration-dependent inhibition of piliated RDEC-1 binding (P > .05). We conclude polycarbophil does not interfere with the AF/R1 adhesin ligand of RDEC-1. Use of this polymer as a mucoadhesive drug delivery vehicle for nonabsorbable antibiotics in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections would not be expected to interfere with the protective effects of intestinal mucins.
Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Parissi-Crivelli, Joaquín M.; Girón, Jorge A.
Human colostra and sera collected from Mexican mothers and their children at birth and 6 months thereafter were studied for the presence of antibodies against the bundle-forming pilus and several chromosomal virulence gene products (intimin and secreted proteins EspA and EspB) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Among 21 colostrum samples studied, 76, 71.5, 57, and 47% of them contained immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against EspA, intimin, EspB, and BfpA, respectively. Interestingly, there was a difference in IgG response to EPEC antigens between the sera from neonates and sera from the same children 6 months later. While the number of neonates reacting to Esps and intimin diminished when they reached 6 months of age, those reacting with BfpA increased from 9 to 71%. Intimin from an enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain was also recognized by most of the samples reacting with EPEC intimin. These data suggest that Bfp and Esps elicit an antibody response during the early days of life of neonates and support the value of breast-feeding in areas of the world where bacterial diarrheal infections are endemic. PMID:10878066
McLean, Sarah K; Dunn, Louise A; Palombo, Enzo A
Escherichia coli can contaminate raw milk during the milking process or via environmental contamination in milk-processing facilities. Three bacteriophages, designated EC6, EC9, and EC11, were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of three strains of E. coli in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) treated and raw bovine milk. A cocktail of the three phages completely inhibited E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli O127:H6 in UHT milk at 25 °C and under refrigeration temperatures (5-9 °C). The phage cocktail produced similar results in raw milk; however, E. coli ATCC 25922 and O127:H6 in raw milk controls also declined to below the level of detection at both temperatures. This observation indicated that competition by the raw milk microbiota might have contributed to the decline in viable E. coli cells. A cocktail containing EC6 and EC9 completely inhibited E. coli O5:H-, an enterohemorrhagic strain, in UHT milk at both temperatures. In raw milk, the phage cocktail initially inhibited growth of E. coli O5:H- but regrowth occurred following incubation for 9 h at 25 °C and 144 h at 5-9 °C. In contrast to the other E. coli strains, O5:H- was not inhibited in the raw milk controls. This study demonstrates that bacteriophages are effective biocontrol agents against E. coli host strains in UHT and raw bovine milk at various storage temperatures.
Diedrich, Jonathan; Rehse, Steven J.; Palchaudhuri, Sunil
A pathogenic strain of bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (enterohemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC), has been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with nanosecond pulses and compared to three nonpathogenic E. coli strains: a laboratory strain of K-12 (AB), a derivative of the same strain termed HF4714, and an environmental strain, E. coli C (Nino C). A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was performed on the LIBS spectra obtained from live colonies of all four strains. Utilizing the emission intensity of 19 atomic and ionic transitions from trace inorganic elements, the DFA revealed significant differences between EHEC and the Nino C strain, suggesting the possibility of identifying and discriminating the pathogenic strain from commonly occurring environmental strains. EHEC strongly resembled the two K-12 strains, in particular, HF4714, making discrimination between these strains difficult. DFA was also used to analyze spectra from two of the nonpathogenic strains cultured in different media: on a trypticase soy (TS) agar plate and in a liquid TS broth. Strains cultured in different media were identified and effectively discriminated, being more similar than different strains cultured in identical media. All bacteria spectra were completely distinct from spectra obtained from the nutrient medium or ablation substrate alone. The ability to differentiate strains prepared and tested in different environments indicates that matrix effects and background contaminations do not necessarily preclude the use of LIBS to identify bacteria found in a variety of environments or grown under different conditions.
The design, synthesis, and characterization of enterobactin–antibiotic conjugates, hereafter Ent-Amp/Amx, where the β-lactam antibiotics ampicillin (Amp) and amoxicillin (Amx) are linked to a monofunctionalized enterobactin scaffold via a stable poly(ethylene glycol) linker are reported. Under conditions of iron limitation, these siderophore-modified antibiotics provide enhanced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli strains, including uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 and UTI89, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and enterotoxigenic E. coli O78:H11, compared to the parent β-lactams. Studies with E. coli K-12 derivatives defective in ferric enterobactin transport reveal that the enhanced antibacterial activity observed for this strain requires the outer membrane ferric enterobactin transporter FepA. A remarkable 1000-fold decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value is observed for uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 relative to Amp/Amx, and time-kill kinetic studies demonstrate that Ent-Amp/Amx kill this strain more rapidly at 10-fold lower concentrations than the parent antibiotics. Moreover, Ent-Amp and Ent-Amx selectively kill E. coli CFT073 co-cultured with other bacterial species such as Staphylococcus aureus, and Ent-Amp exhibits low cytotoxicity against human T84 intestinal cells in both the apo and iron-bound forms. These studies demonstrate that the native enterobactin platform provides a means to effectively deliver antibacterial cargo across the outer membrane permeability barrier of Gram-negative pathogens utilizing enterobactin for iron acquisition. PMID:24927110
Kobayashi, H; Shimada, J; Nakazawa, M; Morozumi, T; Pohjanvirta, T; Pelkonen, S; Yamamoto, K
The prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Japan was examined by using stool samples from 87 calves, 88 heifers, and 183 cows on 78 farms. As determined by screening with stx-PCR, the prevalence was 46% in calves, 66% in heifers, and 69% in cows; as determined by nested stx-PCR, the prevalence was 100% in all animal groups. Of the 962 isolates picked by colony stx hybridization, 92 isolates from 54 farms were characterized to determine their O serogroups, virulence factor genes, and antimicrobial resistance. Of these 92 isolates, 74 (80%) could be classified into O serogroups; 50% of these 74 isolates belonged to O serogroups O8, O26, O84, O113, and O116 and 1 isolate belonged to O serogroup O157. Locus of enterocyte effacement genes were detected in 24% of the isolates, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) hlyA genes were detected in 72% of the isolates. Neither the bundle-forming pilus gene nor the enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor plasmid was found. STEC strains with characteristics typical of isolates from human EHEC infections, which were regarded as potential EHEC strains, were present on 11.5% of the farms.
Rajendran, Priya; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Chidambaram, Divya; Chandrabose, Gunasekaran; Thangaraj, Bhuvaneswari; Sarkar, Rajiv; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajan, Deva Prasanna; Kang, Gagandeep
The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in children under 5 years was studied in children with diarrhea and controls in South India. Four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) “schemes” were used to detect genes of the 6 pathotypes of DEC. In 394 children with diarrhea, 203 (52%) DEC infections were found. Among the 198 controls, 126 (63%) DEC infections were found. Enteroaggregative E. coli was the most common pathotype by multiplex PCR both in cases (58, 14.7%) and controls (47, 23.7%), followed by enteropathogenic E. coli seen in 10% cases and 8% of controls. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) were found in 4.1%, 2.0%, 1.0%, and 0.5% of cases, respectively. ETEC was found in 2.5% of controls, but EHEC, EIEC, and DAEC were not detected. Overall, no single assay worked well, but by discounting genes with a pathogenicity index of less than 1, it was possible to use the PCR assays to identify DEC in 75/394 (19%) cases and 12/198 (6.1%) controls, while mixed infection could be identified in 8/394 (2%) cases and 2/198 (1%) controls. PMID:20846583
Fernandez-Brando, Romina J.; Yamaguchi, Nao; Tahoun, Amin; McAteer, Sean P.; Gillespie, Trudi; Wang, Dai; Argyle, Sally A.; Palermo, Marina S.
A subset of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to open up a conduit into eukaryotic cells in order to inject effector proteins. These modulate pathways to enhance bacterial colonization. In this study, we screened established bioactive compounds for any that could repress T3SS expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157. The ketolides telithromycin and, subsequently, solithromycin both demonstrated repressive effects on expression of the bacterial T3SS at sub-MICs, leading to significant reductions in bacterial binding and actin-rich pedestal formation on epithelial cells. Preincubation of epithelial cells with solithromycin resulted in significantly less attachment of E. coli O157. Moreover, bacteria expressing the T3SS were more susceptible to solithromycin, and there was significant preferential killing of E. coli O157 bacteria when they were added to epithelial cells that had been preexposed to the ketolide. This killing was dependent on expression of the T3SS. Taken together, this research indicates that the ketolide that has accumulated in epithelial cells may traffic back into the bacteria via the T3SS. Considering that neither ketolide induces the SOS response, nontoxic members of this class of antibiotics, such as solithromycin, should be considered for future testing and trials evaluating their use for treatment of EHEC infections. These antibiotics may also have broader significance for treating infections caused by other pathogenic bacteria, including intracellular bacteria, that express a T3SS. PMID:26525795
Zhang, Xin; Li, Yuxia; Li, Bingjuan; Mao, Yan; Wu, Xun; Zou, Xiaohua; Gao, Peng; Yan, Hexin; Yang, Dan; Ling, Yan; Chen, Huipeng
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain and a major food-borne pathogen, causing severe disease in humans worldwide. Multiple sensitive, accurate, and quantitative methods are needed to provide a comprehensive analysis of cell damage caused by O157:H7. However, the current, universally adopted methods for O157:H7 virulence assessment fail to investigate the interactive effects of O157:H7 and its host cells, neglect the effects of infection of host cells by O157:H7, and fail to comprehensively and accurately reflect the true pathogenicity of O157:H7. In this study, three different accurate, sensitive, and quantifiable methods were supplementary to provide standard operating procedures to analyze the cytotoxicity of O157:H7. This set of methods can be applied to toxicity studies of newly discovered O157:H7 clinical isolates and used to study how a clinical isolate's toxicity correlates with its pathogenicity. These methods can also be used in future studies of latent virulence factors and to explore the pathogenic mechanisms of O157:H7.
Abe, Hiroyuki; Miyahara, Akira; Oshima, Taku; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Kuhara, Satoru; Ogasawara, Naotake; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Tobe, Toru
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is an emerging pathogen that causes diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Much of the genomic information that affects virulence is acquired by horizontal transfer. Genes necessary for attaching and effacing lesions are located in the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. LEE gene transcription is positively regulated by Ler, which is also encoded by the LEE, and by Pch regulators, which are encoded at other loci. Here we identified genes whose transcription profiles were similar to those of the LEE genes, by comparing the effects of altering ler and pch transcript levels. We assigned these genes into two classes, according to their transcription profiles. By determining the binding profiles for Ler and Pch, we showed that both were involved in regulating one class of genes, but only Pch was involved in regulating the other class. Binding sites were found in the coding region as well as the promoter region of regulated genes, which include genes common to K12 strains as well as 0157-specific genes, suggesting that both act as a global regulator. These results indicate that Ler and Pch orchestrate the transcription of virulence genes, which are captured by horizontal transfer and scattered throughout the chromosome. PMID:18222925
Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Shi, Xiaorong; An, Baoyan; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Bai, Jianfa
Several real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been developed to detect and quantify Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, but none have targeted the O-antigen specific gene (rfbEO157) in combination with the three major virulence genes, stx1, stx2, and eae. Our objectives were to develop and validate a four-plex, quantitative PCR (mqPCR) assay targeting rfbE(O157), stx1, stx2, and eae for the detection and quantification of STEC O157 in cattle feces, and compare the applicability of the assay to detect STEC O157 to a culture method and conventional PCR (cPCR) targeting the same four genes. Specificity of the mqPCR assay to differentially detect the four genes was confirmed with strains of O157 and non-O157 STEC with different profiles of target genes. In cattle feces spiked with pure cultures, detection limits were 2.8×10(4) and 2.8×10(0) colony-forming units/g before and after enrichment, respectively. Detection of STEC O157 in feedlot cattle fecal samples (n=278) was compared between mqPCR, cPCR, and a culture method. The mqPCR detected 48.9% (136/278) of samples as positive for E. coli O157. Of the 100 samples that were randomly picked from 136 mqPCR-positive samples, 35 and 48 tested positive by cPCR and culture method, respectively. Of the 100 samples randomly chosen from 142 mqPCR-negative samples, all were negative by cPCR, but 21 samples tested positive by the culture method. McNemar's chi-square tests indicated significant disagreement between the proportions of positive samples detected by the three methods. In conclusion, the mqPCR assay that targets four genes is a novel and more sensitive method than the cPCR or culture method to detect STEC O157 in cattle feces. However, the use of real-time PCR as a screening method to identify positive samples and then subjecting only positive samples to a culture method may underestimate the presence of STEC O157 in fecal samples.
Lissner, R; Schmidit, H; Karch, H
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes a variety of clinical conditions, the most important being hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A curative therapy of EHEC diseases is not yet feasible. This study investigates the antibody reactivity of Lactobin, a standardized immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation, obtained from the colostra of non-immunized cows. Three different batches of Lactobin exhibited equally high titers of specific antibodies against Shiga-like toxins (SLTs, verocytotoxins) and EHEC hemolysin (EHEC-Hly) produced by E. coli O157. In addition, Lactobin blocked the cytotoxic effect of SLT-I and SLT-II on Vero cell monolayers and inhibited the cytolytic effects of EHEC-Hly on human erythrocytes. Since Lactobin contains high levels of antibodies and neutralizing activity against important virulence factors of EHEC O157, this drug has potential use in the treatment of diarrhea and the prevention of EHEC-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Rhee, Ki-Jong; Cheng, Hao; Harris, Antoneicka; Morin, Cara; Kaper, James B; Hecht, Gail
Infectious diarrhea is a major contributor of child morbidity and mortality in developing nations. Murine models to study the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhea caused by organisms such as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are not fully characterized. More emphasis has been placed on infection of mice with the murine specific pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. While these three organisms are genetically related they are not identical. Our goal was to better characterize the murine model of EPEC and EHEC infection by using bioluminescent bacteria to determine temporal and spatial colonization of these two human pathogens. EPEC and EHEC were transformed with a bacterial luciferase expression plasmid containing the constitutive OmpC promoter. C57BL/6 mice were orally inoculated with bioluminescent EPEC or EHEC and bacterial localization in the intestine was monitored ex vivo and in vivo by IVIS. At 3 days after infection, EPEC, EHEC and Citrobacter rodentium were all localized in the cecum and colon. EPEC colonization peaked at day 2-3 and was undetectable by day 7. The bioluminescent EPEC adheres to the cecum and colon of the mouse intestine. However, when EPEC infected mice were administered xylazine/ketamine for in vivo live imaging, the EPEC persisted at high densities for up to 31 days. This is the first report of a bioluminescent imaging of luciferase expressing EPEC in a mouse model.
Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...
Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...
Permpalung, Nitipong; Sentochnik, Deborah E.
Escherichia hermannii was first identified as a new species in 1982. It has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. We report the first case of E. hermannii as the sole pathogen in a catheter-related bloodstream infection. PMID:23740732
Yeo, Kwon Joo; Park, Jin-Wan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jeon, Young Ho; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Cheong, Hae-Kap
In enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), the QseEF two-component system causes attaching and effacing (AE) lesion on epithelial cells. QseE histidine kinase senses the host hormone epinephrine, sulfate, and phosphate; it also regulates QseF response regulator, which activates LEE gene that encodes AE lesion. In order to understand the recognition of ligand molecules and signal transfer mechanism in pathogenic bacteria, structural studies of the sensor domain of QseE of Escherichia coli should be conducted. In this study, we describe the overexpression, purification, and structural and biophysical properties of the sensor domain of QseE. The fusion protein had a 6×His tag at its N-terminus; this protein was overexpressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The protein was denatured in 7M guanidine hydrochloride and refolded by dialysis. The purification of the refolded protein was carried out using Ni-NTA affinity column and size-exclusion chromatography. Thereafter, the characteristics of the refolded protein were determined from NMR, CD, and MALS spectroscopies. In a pH range of 7.4-5.0, the folded protein existed in a monomeric form with a predominantly helical structure. (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR spectra shows that approximately 93% backbone amide peaks are detected at pH 5.0, suggesting that the number of backbone signals is sufficient for NMR studies. These data might provide an opportunity for structural and functional studies of the sensor domain of QseE.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli positive samples collected from veal trimmings than from products produced from other cattle slaughter classes. During site ...
Williams, Anna J; Cooper, Willie M; Summage-West, Christine V; Sims, Lillie M; Woodruff, Robert; Christman, Jessica; Moskal, Ted J; Ramsaroop, Shawn; Sutherland, John B; Alusta, Pierre; Wilkes, Jon G; Buzatu, Dan A
The Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method currently used by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in spinach was systematically compared to a new flow cytometry based method. This Food and Drug Administration (FDA) level 2 external laboratory validation study was designed to determine the latter method's sensitivity and speed for analysis of this pathogen in raw spinach. Detection of target cell inoculations with a low cell count is critical, since enterohemorrhagic strains of E. coli require an infective dose of as few as 10 cells (Schmid-Hempel and Frank, 2007). Although, according to the FDA, the infectious dose is unknown (Food and Drug Administration, 1993). Therefore, the inoculation level into the spinach, a total of 2.0±2.6 viable E. coli O157 cells, was specified to yield between 25% and 75% detection by the new method, out of 20 samples (10 positives and 10 negatives). This criterion was met in that the new method detected 60% of the nominally positive samples; the corresponding sensitivity of the reference method was 50%. For both methods the most likely explanation for false negatives was that no viable cells were actually introduced into the sample. In this validation study, the flow cytometry method was equal to the BAM in sensitivity and far superior in speed.
González, R; Díaz, C; Mariño, M; Cloralt, R; Pequeneze, M; Pérez-Schael, I
To evaluate the epidemiological significance of HEp-2 cell-adherent Escherichia coli isolates in diarrheal disease, we performed a study with 513 Venezuelan infants with diarrhea and 241 age-matched controls to determine the prevalence of enteropathogenic E. coli (enteroadherent E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli) and their correlation with O:H serotypes. E. coli isolates exhibiting localized and aggregative adherence in the HEp-2 cell assay were significantly more frequently isolated from the patients (8.5 and 26.9%, respectively) than from the controls (1.7 and 15%, respectively). This difference was significant for the group 0 to 2 months of age but for older infants. Regardless of age, E. coli isolates with diffuse adherence were found at similar frequencies in both the patients and the controls. A striking correlation between classic O serogroups and localized adherence was also observed. These findings confirm the pathogenic role of E. coli with localized and aggregative adherence in diarrheal disease, as well as the epidemiological importance of O:H serotyping for characterizing localized-adhering E. coli.
Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Guy; Ryu, Shi Yong; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae
Infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a worldwide problem, and there is no effective therapy. Biofilm formation is closely related to EHEC infection and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiofilm screening of 560 purified phytochemicals against EHEC showed that ginkgolic acids C15:1 and C17:1 at 5μg/ml and Ginkgo biloba extract at 100μg/ml significantly inhibited EHEC biofilm formation on the surfaces of polystyrene and glass, and on nylon membranes. Importantly, at their working concentrations, ginkgolic acids and G. biloba extract did not affect bacterial growth. Transcriptional analyses showed that ginkgolic acid C15:1 repressed curli genes and prophage genes in EHEC, and these findings were in-line with reduced fimbriae production and biofilm reductions. Interestingly, ginkgolic acids and G. biloba extract did not inhibit the biofilm formation of a commensal E. coli K-12 strain. In addition, ginkgolic acids and G. biloba extract inhibited the biofilm formation of three Staphylococcus aureus strains. The findings of this study suggest that plant secondary metabolites represent an important resource for biofilm inhibitors.
Pasupuleti, Sasikiran; Sule, Nitesh; Cohn, William B.; MacKenzie, Duncan S.
Norepinephrine (NE), the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, has been reported to be a chemoattractant for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Here we show that nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 grown in the presence of 2 μM NE is also attracted to NE. Growth with NE induces transcription of genes encoding the tyramine oxidase, TynA, and the aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase, FeaB, whose respective activities can, in principle, convert NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DHMA). Our results indicate that the apparent attractant response to NE is in fact chemotaxis to DHMA, which was found to be a strong attractant for E. coli. Only strains of E. coli K-12 that produce TynA and FeaB exhibited an attractant response to NE. We demonstrate that DHMA is sensed by the serine chemoreceptor Tsr and that the chemotaxis response requires an intact serine-binding site. The threshold concentration for detection is ≤5 nM DHMA, and the response is inhibited at DHMA concentrations above 50 μM. Cells producing a heterodimeric Tsr receptor containing only one functional serine-binding site still respond like the wild type to low concentrations of DHMA, but their response persists at higher concentrations. We propose that chemotaxis to DHMA generated from NE by bacteria that have already colonized the intestinal epithelium may recruit E. coli and other enteric bacteria that possess a Tsr-like receptor to preferred sites of infection. PMID:25182492
Cho, Hyun Seob; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ryu, Shi Yong; Joo, Sang Woo; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae
Pathogenic biofilms are associated with persistent infection due to their high resistances to diverse antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects plants, animals, and humans and is a major cause of nosocomial diseases in patients with cystic fibrosis. In the present study, the antibiofilm abilities of 522 plant extracts against P. aeruginosa PA14 were examined. Three Carex plant extracts at a concentration of 200 μg/mL inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by >80% without affecting planktonic cell growth. In the most active extract of Carex pumila , resveratrol dimer ε-viniferin was one of the main antibiofilm compounds against P. aeruginosa. Interestingly, ε-viniferin at 10 μg/mL inhibited biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 98%. Although Carex extracts and trans-resveratrol are known to possess antimicrobial activity, this study is the first to report that C. pumila extract and ε-viniferin have antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa and E. coli O157:H7.
Lu, Huiying J; Breidt, Frederick; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M; Osborne, Jason A
Outbreaks of disease due to vegetative bacterial pathogens associated with acid foods (such as apple cider) have raised concerns about acidified vegetables and related products that have a similar pH (3.2 to 4.0). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related strains of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) have been identified as the most acid resistant vegetative pathogens in these products. Previous research has shown that the lack of dissolved oxygen in many hermetically sealed acid or acidified food products can enhance survival of EHEC compared with their survival under aerobic conditions. We compared the antimicrobial effects of several food acids (acetic, malic, lactic, fumaric, benzoic, and sorbic acids and sulfite) on a cocktail of EHEC strains under conditions representative of non-heat-processed acidified vegetables in hermetically sealed jars, holding the pH (3.2) and ionic strength (0.342) constant under anaerobic conditions. The overall antimicrobial effectiveness of weak acids used in this study was ranked, from most effective to least effective: sulfite > benzoic acid > sorbic acid > fumaric acid > L- and D-lactic acid > acetic acid > malic acid. These rankings were based on the estimated protonated concentrations required to achieve a 5-log reduction in EHEC after 24 h of incubation at 30°C. This study provides information that can be used to formulate safer acid and acidified food products and provides insights about the mode of action of weak acids against EHEC.
de Souza, Cristiane S; Torres, Alfredo G; Caravelli, Andressa; Silva, Anderson; Polatto, Juliana M; Piazza, Roxane M F
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) are heterogeneous strains in terms of serotypes, adherence patterns and the presence of novel virulence factors. This heterogeneity is intriguing, promoting studies trying to characterize these novel proteins and to better comprehend this pathotype group. In a previous study analyzing low-molecular mass proteomes of four representative aEPEC strains of three different adhesion phenotypes, we classified proteins according to their annotated function, with most of them being involved in metabolism and transport; while some of them were classified as hypothetical proteins. The majority of the hypothetical proteins were homologue products of genes identified in the genome of enterohemorrhagic E. coli. One of the hypothetical proteins was annotated as Z2335, with orthologue in EPEC, and by bioinformatics analysis, this protein was revealed to be the universal stress protein F (UspF). Thus, herein we successfully obtained a recombinant UspF protein from aEPEC, which is a α/β, ATP-binding protein involved in stress response, with comparable protein production among the four studied strains, but showing noteworthy differences when cultivated in different stress conditions, also present in other enterobacterial species, such as Shigella sonnei and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, our results confirm that the Usp protein superfamily encompasses a conserved group of proteins involved in stress resistance in aEPEC and other Enterobacteriaceae.
Bielaszewska, Martina; Idelevich, Evgeny A; Zhang, Wenlan; Bauwens, Andreas; Schaumburg, Frieder; Mellmann, Alexander; Peters, Georg; Karch, Helge
The role of antibiotics in treatment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections is controversial because of concerns about triggering hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) by increasing Shiga toxin (Stx) production. During the recent large EHEC O104:H4 outbreak, antibiotic therapy was indicated for some patients. We tested a diverse panel of antibiotics to which the outbreak strain is susceptible to interrogate the effects of subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations on induction of stx(2)-harboring bacteriophages, stx(2) transcription, and Stx2 production in this emerging pathogen. Ciprofloxacin significantly increased stx(2)-harboring phage induction and Stx2 production in outbreak isolates (P values of <0.001 to <0.05), while fosfomycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin insignificantly influenced them (P > 0.1) and chloramphenicol, meropenem, azithromycin, rifaximin, and tigecycline significantly decreased them (P ≤ 0.05). Ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol significantly upregulated and downregulated stx(2) transcription, respectively (P < 0.01); the other antibiotics had insignificant effects (P > 0.1). Meropenem, azithromycin, and rifaximin, which were used for necessary therapeutic or prophylactic interventions during the EHEC O104:H4 outbreak, as well as tigecycline, neither induced stx(2)-harboring phages nor increased stx(2) transcription or Stx2 production in the outbreak strain. These antibiotics might represent therapeutic options for patients with EHEC O104:H4 infection if antibiotic treatment is inevitable. We await further analysis of the epidemic to determine if usage of these agents was associated with an altered risk of developing HUS.
de Souza, Cristiane S.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Caravelli, Andressa; Silva, Anderson; Polatto, Juliana M.
Abstract Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) are heterogeneous strains in terms of serotypes, adherence patterns and the presence of novel virulence factors. This heterogeneity is intriguing, promoting studies trying to characterize these novel proteins and to better comprehend this pathotype group. In a previous study analyzing low‐molecular mass proteomes of four representative aEPEC strains of three different adhesion phenotypes, we classified proteins according to their annotated function, with most of them being involved in metabolism and transport; while some of them were classified as hypothetical proteins. The majority of the hypothetical proteins were homologue products of genes identified in the genome of enterohemorrhagic E. coli. One of the hypothetical proteins was annotated as Z2335, with orthologue in EPEC, and by bioinformatics analysis, this protein was revealed to be the universal stress protein F (UspF). Thus, herein we successfully obtained a recombinant UspF protein from aEPEC, which is a α/β, ATP‐binding protein involved in stress response, with comparable protein production among the four studied strains, but showing noteworthy differences when cultivated in different stress conditions, also present in other enterobacterial species, such as Shigella sonnei and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, our results confirm that the Usp protein superfamily encompasses a conserved group of proteins involved in stress resistance in aEPEC and other Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27616205
Kieckens, E; Rybarczyk, J; De Zutter, L; Duchateau, L; Vanrompay, D; Cox, E
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, of which E. coli O157:H7 is the best-studied serotype, are an important group of foodborne pathogens causing severe illness in humans worldwide. The main reservoirs for EHEC are ruminants, mostly cattle, which harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tracts without showing clinical symptoms. In this study, we used bovine lactoferrin, a natural occurring bactericidal and immunomodulating protein, as an antibacterial agent against EHEC infection in cattle. Nine 3-month-old Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with EHEC (strain NCTC12900). Three animals received a daily rectal spray treatment with bovine lactoferrin, three animals received an oral treatment, and three animals served as a control group. Blood samples were collected weekly and fecal samples twice weekly to monitor antibody responses and fecal excretion, respectively. Animals in the rectal group ceased shedding within 26 days of the experimental treatment and remained negative. This beneficial effect of bovine lactoferrin was not observed in the oral group, where animals were still shedding at the time of euthanasia (day 61). All groups developed serum responses, but no clear differences could be observed between the groups. However, the results indicate that the use of bovine lactoferrin as a rectal treatment can be a useful strategy to preclude further transmission of EHEC infections from cattle to humans.
Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Gansheroff, Lisa J; Mills, Melody; Moon, Harley W; O'Brien, Alison D
Cattle are important reservoirs of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 that cause disease in humans. Both dairy and beef cattle are asymptomatically and sporadically infected with EHEC. Our long-term goal is to develop an effective vaccine to prevent cattle from becoming infected and transmitting EHEC O157:H7 to humans. We used passive immunization of neonatal piglets (as a surrogate model) to determine if antibodies against EHEC O157 adhesin (intimin(O157)) inhibit EHEC colonization. Pregnant swine (dams) with serum anti-intimin titers of < or =100 were vaccinated twice with purified intimin(O157) or sham-vaccinated with sterile buffer. Intimin(O157)-specific antibody titers in colostrum and serum of dams were increased after parenteral vaccination with intimin(O157). Neonatal piglets were allowed to suckle vaccinated or sham-vaccinated dams for up to 8 h before they were inoculated with 10(6) CFU of a Shiga toxin-negative (for humane reasons) strain of EHEC O157:H7. Piglets were necropsied at 2 to 10 days after inoculation, and intestinal samples were collected for determination of bacteriological counts and histopathological analysis. Piglets that ingested colostrum containing intimin(O157)-specific antibodies from vaccinated dams, but not those nursing sham-vaccinated dams, were protected from EHEC O157:H7 colonization and intestinal damage. These results establish intimin(O157) as a viable candidate for an EHEC O157:H7 antitransmission vaccine.
Feng, Peter C H; Keys, Christine; Lacher, David W; Beutin, Lothar; Bentancor, Adriana; Heuvelink, Annet; Afset, Jan E; Rumi, Valeria; Monday, Steven
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is comprised of a large heterogeneous group of strains and serotypes that carry the intimin gene (eae) but no other EPEC virulence factors. In a previous study, we examined a few aEPEC strains of O157:H16 serotype from the U.S. and France and found these to be nearly homologous, and speculated that the same strain had been disseminated or perhaps they are part of a large clonal group that exists worldwide. To test that hypothesis, we examined additional 45 strains isolated from various sources from 4 other countries and determined that although there are a few eae-negative O157:H16 strains, most are aEPEC that carried eae and specifically, the ε-eae allele. Analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing showed that as a whole, O157:H16 strains are phylogenetically diverse and have different sequence types and PFGE profiles. But the aEPEC strains within the O157:H16 serotype, regardless of the eae allele carried, are a highly conserved and homologous group of sequence type (ST)-171 strains that shared similar PFGE profiles. These aEPEC strains of O157:H16 serotype are not closely related to any of the major EPEC and enterohemorrhagic E. coli clonal lineages and appear to be part of a large clonal group that are prevalent worldwide.
Fernandez-Brando, Romina Jimena; Cabrera, Gabriel; Baschkier, Ariela; Mejías, María Pilar; Panek, Cecilia Analia; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Abrey-Recalde, María Jimena; Bentancor, Leticia Verónica; Ramos, María Victoria; Rivas, Marta; Palermo, Marina Sandra
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the major complication of gastrointestinal infections with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and is mediated by the production of Shiga toxins (Stx). Although it has been previously reported that not only HUS patients but healthy children have anti-Stx antibodies, very little is known about how these infections impact on mucosal immune system to generate a specific immune response. This work aimed to evaluate the immune responses elicited after a single oral dose of EHEC in a mouse model of HUS at weaning. We found sequential activation of T and B lymphocytes together with an increased percentage of IgA-bearing B cells in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. We also found fecal anti-EHEC IgA and serum anti-Stx2 IgG in EHEC-inoculated mice. Besides, these mice were partially protected against an intravenous challenge with Stx2. These data demonstrate that one episode of EHEC infection is enough to induce activation in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, especially the B cell compartment, and lead to the production of specific IgA in mucosal tissue and the generation of systemic protection against Stx2 in a percentage of intragastrically inoculated mice. These data also support the epidemiologic observation that a second episode of HUS is very rare.
Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Gwon, Giyeon; Kim, Soon-Il; Park, Jae Gyu; Lee, Jintae
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. We investigated the abilities of various plant essential oils and their components to inhibit biofilm formation by EHEC. Bay, clove, pimento berry oils and their major common constituent eugenol at 0.005% (v/v) were found to markedly inhibit EHEC biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. In addition, three other eugenol derivatives isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol had antibiofilm activity, indicating that the C-1 hydroxyl unit, the C-2 methoxy unit, and C-4 alkyl or alkane chain on the benzene ring of eugenol play important roles in antibiofilm activity. Interestingly, these essential oils and eugenol did not inhibit biofilm formation by three laboratory E. coli K-12 strains that reduced curli fimbriae production. Transcriptional analysis showed that eugenol down-regulated 17 of 28 genes analysed, including curli genes (csgABDFG), type I fimbriae genes (fimCDH) and ler-controlled toxin genes (espD, escJ, escR, and tir), which are required for biofilm formation and the attachment and effacement phenotype. In addition, biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) coatings containing clove oil or eugenol exhibited efficient biofilm inhibition on solid surfaces. In a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model, clove oil and eugenol attenuated the virulence of EHEC. PMID:27808174
Beloin, Christophe; Roux, Agnès; Ghigo, Jean-Marc
Escherichia coli is a predominant species among facultative anaerobic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. Both its frequent community lifestyle and the availability of a wide array of genetic tools contributed to establish E. coli as a relevant model organism for the study of surface colonization. Several key factors, including different extracellular appendages, are implicated in E. coli surface colonization and their expression and activity are finely regulated, both in space and time, to ensure productive events leading to mature biofilm formation. This chapter will present known molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm development in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli. PMID:18453280
McMahon, Tanis C.; Blais, Burton W.; Wong, Alex; Carrillo, Catherine D.
Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E. coli, but no EHEC with both markers in a single cell. To reduce false-positive detection of EHEC in food enrichment samples, a Multiplexed, Single Intact Cell droplet digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) assay capable of detecting the co-occurrence of the stx and eae genes in a single bacterial cell was developed. This method requires: (1) dispersal of intact bacteria into droplets; (2) release of genomic DNA (gDNA) by heat lysis; and (3) amplification and detection of genetic targets (stx and eae) using standard TaqMan chemistries with ddPCR. Performance of the method was tested with panels of EHEC and non-target E. coli. By determining the linkage (i.e., the proportion of droplets in which stx and eae targets were both amplified), samples containing EHEC (typically greater than 20% linkage) could be distinguished from samples containing mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E. coli (0–2% linkage). The use of intact cells was necessary as this linkage was not observed with gDNA extracts. EHEC could be accurately identified in enrichment broth cultures containing excess amounts of background E. coli and in enrichment cultures derived from ground beef/pork and leafy-green produce samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dual-target detection in single bacterial cells using ddPCR. The application of MuSIC ddPCR to enrichment-culture screening would reduce false-positives, thereby improving the cost, speed, and accuracy of
McMahon, Tanis C; Blais, Burton W; Wong, Alex; Carrillo, Catherine D
Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E. coli, but no EHEC with both markers in a single cell. To reduce false-positive detection of EHEC in food enrichment samples, a Multiplexed, Single Intact Cell droplet digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) assay capable of detecting the co-occurrence of the stx and eae genes in a single bacterial cell was developed. This method requires: (1) dispersal of intact bacteria into droplets; (2) release of genomic DNA (gDNA) by heat lysis; and (3) amplification and detection of genetic targets (stx and eae) using standard TaqMan chemistries with ddPCR. Performance of the method was tested with panels of EHEC and non-target E. coli. By determining the linkage (i.e., the proportion of droplets in which stx and eae targets were both amplified), samples containing EHEC (typically greater than 20% linkage) could be distinguished from samples containing mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E. coli (0-2% linkage). The use of intact cells was necessary as this linkage was not observed with gDNA extracts. EHEC could be accurately identified in enrichment broth cultures containing excess amounts of background E. coli and in enrichment cultures derived from ground beef/pork and leafy-green produce samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dual-target detection in single bacterial cells using ddPCR. The application of MuSIC ddPCR to enrichment-culture screening would reduce false-positives, thereby improving the cost, speed, and accuracy of
Gomes, Tânia A T; Elias, Waldir P; Scaletsky, Isabel C A; Guth, Beatriz E C; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Piazza, Roxane M F; Ferreira, Luís C S; Martinez, Marina B
Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes.
Diamant, Eran; Palti, Yniv; Gur-Arie, Riva; Cohen, Helit; Hallerman, Eric M.; Kashi, Yechezkel
Multilocus sequencing of housekeeping genes has been used previously for bacterial strain typing and for inferring evolutionary relationships among strains of Escherichia coli. In this study, we used shorter intergenic sequences that contained simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of repeating mononucleotide motifs (mononucleotide repeats [MNRs]) to infer the phylogeny of pathogenic and commensal E. coli strains. Seven noncoding loci (four MNRs and three non-SSRs) were sequenced in 27 strains, including enterohemorrhagic (six isolates of O157:H7), enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, B, and K-12 strains. The four MNRs were also sequenced in 20 representative strains of the E. coli reference (ECOR) collection. Sequence polymorphism was significantly higher at the MNR loci, including the flanking sequences, indicating a higher mutation rate in the sequences flanking the MNR tracts. The four MNR loci were amplifiable by PCR in the standard ECOR A, B1, and D groups, but only one (yaiN) in the B2 group was amplified, which is consistent with previous studies that suggested that B2 is the most ancient group. High sequence compatibility was found between the four MNR loci, indicating that they are in the same clonal frame. The phylogenetic trees that were constructed from the sequence data were in good agreement with those of previous studies that used multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The results demonstrate that MNR loci are useful for inferring phylogenetic relationships and provide much higher sequence variation than housekeeping genes. Therefore, the use of MNR loci for multilocus sequence typing should prove efficient for clinical diagnostics, epidemiology, and evolutionary study of bacteria. PMID:15066845
Tsuji, Makiko; Yokoigawa, Kumio
We examined the attachment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 to abiotic surfaces of cooking utensils. When the cell suspension in 0.85% NaCl (about 100 cells/mL, 10 mL) was contacted with various abiotic surfaces (square pieces, 25 cm²) at 25 °C for 20 min, the number of attached cells varied depending on the types of abiotic materials. The pathogen well attached to stainless steel (about 50 cells/25 cm²), pure titanium (35 to 45 cells/25 cm²), and glass (about 20 cells/25 cm²), but little attached to aluminum foil and plastics, irrespective of strains used. Fewer cells (below 10 cells/25 cm²) attached to stainless steel, pure titanium, and glass surfaces conditioned with aseptically sliced beef (sirloin) and autoclaved beef tallow at 25 °C for 20 min, but bovine serum albumin did not reduce the number of attached cells. The cells grown at 15 °C to the stationary phase (OD660 = about 2.8) less attached to the abiotic surfaces than those grown at 25 °C and 37 °C. When we pretreated the cells at 37 °C for 2 h with 50 μM N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HHL), the number of cells attached to stainless steel was reduced by 70%. The number of cells attached to cooking utensils seemed to change depending on types of abiotic materials, adhesion of beef tallow to abiotic surfaces, growth temperature of the pathogen, and HHL-producing bacteria.
Nemser, Sarah M; Doran, Tara; Grabenstein, Michael; McConnell, Terri; McGrath, Timothy; Pamboukian, Ruiqing; Smith, Angele C; Achen, Maya; Danzeisen, Gregory; Kim, Sun; Liu, Yong; Robeson, Sharon; Rosario, Grisel; McWilliams Wilson, Karen; Reimschuessel, Renate
The Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network (Vet-LIRN), in collaboration with the Food Emergency Response Network (FERN) and its Microbiology Cooperative Agreement Program (MCAP) laboratories, conducted a study to evaluate the prevalence of selected microbial organisms in various types of pet foods. The goal of this blinded study was to help the Center for Veterinary Medicine prioritize potential future pet food-testing efforts. The study also increased the FERN laboratories' screening capabilities for foodborne pathogens in animal feed matrices, since such pathogens may also be a significant health risk to consumers who come into contact with pet foods. Six U.S. Food and Drug Administration FERN MCAP laboratories analyzed approximately 1056 samples over 2 years. Laboratories tested for Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Shiga toxin-producing strains of E. coli (STEC). Dry and semimoist dog and cat foods purchased from local stores were tested during Phase 1. Raw dog and cat foods, exotic animal feed, and jerky-type treats purchased through the Internet were tested in Phase 2. Of the 480 dry and semimoist samples, only 2 tested positive: 1 for Salmonella and 1 for Listeria greyii. However, of the 576 samples analyzed during Phase 2, 66 samples were positive for Listeria (32 of those were Listeria monocytogenes) and 15 samples positive for Salmonella. These pathogens were isolated from raw foods and jerky-type treats, not the exotic animal dry feeds. This study showed that raw pet foods may harbor food safety pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Consumers should handle these products carefully, being mindful of the potential risks to human and animal health.
Wu, Si-Ying; Park, Gil-Yong; Kim, So-Hee; Hulme, John; An, Seong Soo A
The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of diminazene aceturate (DA) against five strains of pathogenic bacteria and two strains of nonpathogenic bacteria. The results showed that 5 μg/mL of DA suppressed the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli by as much as 77% compared with the controls. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli EDL933 (an E. coli O157:H7 strain) was the most sensitive to DA with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 20 μg/mL. Additional investigations showed that DA induced the highest level of intracellular reactive oxygen species in EDL933. A positive correlation between the reactive oxygen species levels and DA concentration was demonstrated. DA (5 μg/mL) was also a potent uncoupler, inducing a stationary phase collapse (70%–75%) in both strains of E. coli O157:H7. Further investigation showed that the collapse was due to the NaCl:DA ratio in the broth and was potassium ion dependent. A protease screening assay was conducted to elucidate the underlying mechanism. It was found that at neutral pH, the hydrolysis of H-Asp-pNA increased by a factor of 2–3 in the presence of DA, implying that DA causes dysregulation of the proton motive force and a decrease in cellular pH. Finally, a commercial verotoxin test showed that DA did not significantly increase toxin production in EDL933 and was a suitable antibacterial agent for Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli. PMID:27789937
Ferens, Witold A.
Abstract This review surveys the literature on carriage and transmission of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in the context of virulence factors and sampling/culture technique. EHEC of the O157:H7 serotype are worldwide zoonotic pathogens responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. EHEC O157:H7 strains are carried primarily by healthy cattle and other ruminants, but most of the bovine strains are not transmitted to people, and do not exhibit virulence factors associated with human disease. Prevalence of EHEC O157:H7 is probably underestimated. Carriage of EHEC O157:H7 by individual animals is typically short-lived, but pen and farm prevalence of specific isolates may extend for months or years and some carriers, designated as supershedders, may harbor high intestinal numbers of the pathogen for extended periods. The prevalence of EHEC O157:H7 in cattle peaks in the summer and is higher in postweaned calves and heifers than in younger and older animals. Virulent strains of EHEC O157:H7 are rarely harbored by pigs or chickens, but are found in turkeys. The bacteria rarely occur in wildlife with the exception of deer and are only sporadically carried by domestic animals and synanthropic rodents and birds. EHEC O157:H7 occur in amphibian, fish, and invertebrate carriers, and can colonize plant surfaces and tissues via attachment mechanisms different from those mediating intestinal attachment. Strains of EHEC O157:H7 exhibit high genetic variability but typically a small number of genetic types predominate in groups of cattle and a farm environment. Transmission to people occurs primarily via ingestion of inadequately processed contaminated food or water and less frequently through contact with manure, animals, or infected people. PMID:21117940
Dean-Nystrom, E A; Bosworth, B T; Moon, H W
Cattle are an important reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) that cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemorrhagic uremic syndrome in humans. One strategy for reducing human foodborne EHEC infections is to reduce the levels of EHEC in cattle. Bovine O157:H7 infection models will facilitate identification of virulence factors involved in bovine infections. O157:H7 cause severe diarrhea and attaching and effacing (A/E) mucosal lesions in colostrum-deprived neonatal (< 2 h) calves. We hypothesized that O157:H7 also cause A/E lesions in older calves, but these were not detected in earlier studies because intestinal levels of O157:H7 were too low (< 10(6) CFU/g of tissue) for detection of focally distributed microscopic lesions. Weaned 3- to 4-month-old calves were fasted 48 h, inoculated via stomach tube with 10(10) CFU of O157:H7 or nonpathogenic E. coli, necropsied 4 d pi and examined histologically. Calves inoculated with O157:H7 had higher intestinal levels of inoculated E. coli than control animals. The rectum was the major site of colonization. A/E lesions were seen in the rectum and cecum of calves with high levels of O157:H7. Weaned calves, like neonatal calves, are susceptible to intestinal damage induced by EHEC O157:H7. The rectum and cecum may be principal sites of EHEC O157:H7 colonization during the carrier-shedder state in cattle.
Sampaio, Suely C. F.; Luiz, Wilson B.; Vieira, Mônica A. M.; Ferreira, Rita C. C.; Garcia, Bruna G.; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Sampaio, Jorge L. M.; Ferreira, Luís C. S.
The expression of flagella correlates with different aspects of bacterial pathogenicity, ranging from adherence to host cells to activation of inflammatory responses by the innate immune system. In the present study, we investigated the role of flagella in the adherence of an atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strain (serotype O51:H40) to human enterocytes. Accordingly, isogenic mutants deficient in flagellin (FliC), the flagellar structural subunit; the flagellar cap protein (FliD); or the MotAB proteins, involved in the control of flagellar motion, were generated and tested for binding to differentiated Caco-2 cells. Binding of the aEPEC strain to enterocytes was significantly impaired in strains with the fliC and fliD genes deleted, both of which could not form flagella on the bacterial surface. A nonmotile but flagellated MotAB mutant also showed impaired adhesion to Caco-2 cells. In accordance with these observations, adhesion of aEPEC strain 1711-4 to Caco-2 cells was drastically reduced after the treatment of Caco-2 cells with purified FliD. In addition, incubation of aEPEC bacteria with specific anti-FliD serum impaired binding to Caco-2 cells. Finally, incubation of Caco-2 cells with purified FliD, followed by immunolabeling, showed that the protein was specifically bound to the microvillus tips of differentiated Caco-2 cells. The aEPEC FliD or anti-FliD serum also reduced the adherence of prototype typical enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, our findings further strengthened the role of flagella in the adherence of aEPEC to human enterocytes and disclosed the relevant structural and functional involvement of FliD in the adhesion process. PMID:26831466
Steyert, Susan R; Rasko, David A; Kaper, James B
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that can cause severe health complications and utilizes a much lower infectious dose than other E. coli pathotypes. Despite having an intact ure locus, ureDABCEFG, the majority of EHEC strains are phenotypically urease negative under tested conditions. Urease activity potentially assists with survival fitness by enhancing acid tolerance during passage through the stomach or by aiding with colonization in either human or animal reservoirs. Previously, in the EHEC O157:H7 Sakai strain, a point mutation in ureD, encoding a urease chaperone protein, was identified, resulting in a substitution of an amber stop codon for glutamine. This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is observed in the majority of EHEC O157:H7 isolates and correlates with a negative urease phenotype in vitro. We demonstrate that the lack of urease activity in vitro is not solely due to the amber codon in ureD. Our analysis has identified two additional SNPs in ureD affecting amino acid positions 38 and 205, in both cases determining whether the encoded amino acid is leucine or proline. Phylogenetic analysis based on Ure protein sequences from a variety of urease-encoding bacteria demonstrates that the proline at position 38 is highly conserved among Gram-negative bacteria. Experiments reveal that the L38P substitution enhances urease enzyme activity; however, the L205P substitution does not. Multilocus sequence typing analysis for a variety of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli isolates combined with the ureD sequence reveals that except for a subset of the O157:H7 strains, neither the in vitro urease-positive phenotype nor the ureD sequence is phylogenetically restricted.
Doavi, Tahere; Mousavi, Seyed Latif; Kamali, Mehdi; Amani, Jafar; Fasihi Ramandi, Mahdi
Background: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an infectious zoonotic pathogen causing human infections. These infections, in some cases, can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome and its life-threatening complications and even death worldwide. The first intimate bacterial adhesion, intimin (I), with its own receptor translocated intimin receptor (Tir) and E. coli secreted protein A, acting as Tir conduit, are highly immunogenic proteins for vaccine development against E. coli O157:H7. Methods: A chimeric trivalent recombinant protein was previously found to be a suitable strategy for developing vaccines against E. coli O157:H7. In this study, the recombinant EIT (rEIT) was used to design a protective EHEC nasal nanovaccine. Chitosan and its water-soluble derivative, trimethylated chitosan (TMC), as muco-adhesive biopolymers, are good candidates for preparation of nanovaccines. Using the electrospraying technique, as a novel method, we could obtain particles of rEIT loaded with chitosan and TMC on a nanometer scale. Mice were immunized with intranasal administration or intrapretoneal injection of rEIT. Results: The rEIT-specific immune responses (IgG and IgA) were measured by indirect ELISA. Only nasal administration of chitosan electrospray and TMC formulation produced significant secretion IgA. Intranasal administration of nanovaccine reduced the duration of bacterial fecal shedding on mice challenged with E. coli O157:H7. Conclusion: Since development of mucosal vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases requires efficient antigen delivery; therefore, this research could be a new strategy for developing vaccine against E. coli O157:H7. PMID:26724233
Sedgwick, S.G.; Robson, M.; Malik, F.
The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli encodes mutagenic DNA repair. The umuDC regions of multiple isolates of E. coli, E. alkalescens, and E. dispar and a single stock of E. aurescens were mapped by nucleotide hybridization. umuDC is located at one end of a conserved tract of restriction endonuclease sites either 12.5 or 14 kilobase pairs long. Rearrangements, including possible deletions, were seen in the polymorphic DNA flanking the conserved tract. Restriction site polymorphisms were not found around the DNA repair gene recA or polA. The junctions of the conserved region contain direct repeats of nucleotide sequences resembling the termini of the Tn3 group of transposons. Possible mechanisms for the generation of these variants are discussed.
Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786
Huang, Zhen; Cui, Xi; Xie, Quan-Yuan; Liu, Dao-Feng; Lai, Wei-Hua
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli that was first identified as a human pathogen in 1982. This pathogen causes several serious diseases. In this study, immunomagnetic separation was coupled with a fluorescent nanobeads lateral flow assay to establish a sensitive and rapid detection method for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw milk. The pathogen was captured from raw milk by immunomagnetic separation with immunomagnetic nanobeads and then detected using a fluorescent nanobeads lateral flow assay. A fluorescent line was formed in the test line of the test strip and quantitatively detected using a fluorescent reader. Screening times, which included immunomagnetic separation and the fluorescent nanobeads lateral flow assay, were 8, 7, 6, and 5h when 1, 5, 25, and 125 cfu of E. coli O157:H7, respectively, were inoculated into 25mL of raw milk. The established method could be widely applied to the rapid onsite detection of other pathogens to ensure food safety.
Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 was first recognized as a human pathogen in 1982 and until recently was the only E. coli strain mandated for testing by the USDA. In June 2012, the USDA declared six additional Shiga-toxin producing E. coli serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) as adulterant...
Kiermeier, Andreas; Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John
We analyze the risk of contracting illness due to the consumption in the United States of hamburgers contaminated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of serogroup O157 produced from manufacturing beef imported from Australia. We have used a novel approach for estimating risk by using the prevalence and concentration estimates of E. coli O157 in lots of beef that were withdrawn from the export chain following detection of the pathogen. For the purpose of the present assessment an assumption was that no product is removed from the supply chain following testing. This, together with a number of additional conservative assumptions, leads to an overestimation of E. coli O157-associated illness attributable to the consumption of ground beef patties manufactured only from Australian beef. We predict 49.6 illnesses (95%: 0.0-148.6) from the 2.46 billion hamburgers made from 155,000 t of Australian manufacturing beef exported to the United States in 2012. All these illness were due to undercooking in the home and less than one illness is predicted from consumption of hamburgers cooked to a temperature of 68 °C in quick-service restaurants.
Jin, Qi; Yuan, Zhenghong; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Yu; Shen, Yan; Lu, Weichuan; Wang, Jinhua; Liu, Hong; Yang, Jian; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jiyu; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Hongtao; Qu, Di; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Xue, Ying; Zhao, Ailan; Gao, Yishan; Zhu, Junping; Kan, Biao; Ding, Keyue; Chen, Shuxia; Cheng, Hongsong; Yao, Zhijian; He, Bingkun; Chen, Runsheng; Ma, Dalong; Qiang, Boqin; Wen, Yumei; Hou, Yunde; Yu, Jun
We have sequenced the genome of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a, the most prevalent species and serotype that causes bacillary dysentery or shigellosis in man. The whole genome is composed of a 4 607 203 bp chromosome and a 221 618 bp virulence plasmid, designated pCP301. While the plasmid shows minor divergence from that sequenced in serotype 5a, striking characteristics of the chromosome have been revealed. The S.flexneri chromosome has, astonishingly, 314 IS elements, more than 7-fold over those possessed by its close relatives, the non-pathogenic K12 strain and enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain of Escherichia coli. There are 13 translocations and inversions compared with the E.coli sequences, all involve a segment larger than 5 kb, and most are associated with deletions or acquired DNA sequences, of which several are likely to be bacteriophage-transmitted pathogenicity islands. Furthermore, S.flexneri, resembling another human-restricted enteric pathogen, Salmonella typhi, also has hundreds of pseudogenes compared with the E.coli strains. All of these could be subjected to investigations towards novel preventative and treatment strategies against shigellosis. PMID:12384590
Shen, Zhiqiang; Hou, Nannan; Jin, Min; Qiu, Zhigang; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Junwen
This paper presents a functional nanoparticle-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FNP-ELISA) for detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7. Immunomagnetic nanoparticles (IMMPs) conjugated with monoclonal anti-O157:H7 antibody were used to capture E. coli O157:H7. Beacon gold nanoparticles (B-GNPs) coated with polyclonal anti-O157:H7 and biotin single-stranded DNA (B-DNA) were then subjective to immunoreaction with E. coli O157:H7, which was followed by streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (Strep-HRP) conjugated with B-GNPs based on a biotin-avidin system. The solutions containing E. coli O157:H7, IMMPs, B-GNPs, and Strep-HRP were collected for detecting color change. The signal was significantly amplified with detection limits of 68 CFU mL(-1) in PBS and 6.8 × 10(2) to 6.8 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1) in the food samples. The FNP-ELISA method developed in this study was two orders of magnitude more sensitive than immunomagnetic separation ELISA (IMS-ELISA) and four orders of magnitude more sensitive than C-ELISA. The entire detection process of E. coli O157:H7 lasted only 3 h, and thus FNP-ELISA is considered as a time-saving method.
Naylor, Stuart W; Nart, Pablo; Sales, Jill; Flockhart, Allen; Gally, David L; Low, J Christopher
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important intestinal pathogen of humans with a main reservoir of domesticated ruminants, particularly cattle. It is anticipated that the risk of human infection can be reduced by controlling the organism within its reservoir hosts. Several options for the control of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle have been proposed, but none have been demonstrated to be successful in the field. Here we describe a novel experimental method, based on the terminal-rectum-restricted colonization described previously, to eliminate fecal carriage of E. coli O157:H7. In experimentally challenged calves, direct application to the rectal mucosa of either of two therapeutic agents, polymyxin B or chlorhexidine, greatly reduced bacterial shedding levels in the immediate posttreatment period. The most efficacious therapeutic agent, chlorhexidine, was compared in orally and rectally challenged calves. The treatment eliminated high-level shedding and reduced low-level shedding by killing bacteria at the terminal rectum. A rapid-detection system based on the ability to identify E. coli O157:H7 from swabs of the rectal mucosa was also assessed. This test was sufficiently sensitive to identify high-level bacterial carriage. Thus, a combination of the detection method and treatment regimens could be used in the field to eliminate high-level fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7, so greatly reducing its prevalence within this host and the risk of human infection.
Thanabalasuriar, Ajitha; Kim, Jinoh; Gruenheid, Samantha
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause severe illnesses in humans. Citrobacter rodentium is a related mouse pathogen that serves as a small animal model for EPEC and EHEC infections. EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium translocate bacterial virulence proteins directly into host intestinal cells via a type III secretion system (T3SS). Non-LEE-encoded effector A (NleA) is a T3SS effector that is common to EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium. NleA interacts with and inhibits the mammalian COPII complex, impairing cellular secretion; this interaction is required for bacterial virulence. Although diarrhea is a hallmark of EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium infections, the underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. One of the essential functions of the intestine is to maintain a barrier between the lumen and submucosa. Tight junctions seal the space between adjacent epithelial cells creating this barrier. Consequently, it is thought that the disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium could result in a loss of barrier function. In this study, we demonstrate that NleA mediated COPII inhibition is required for EPEC- and C. rodentium-mediated disruption of tight junction proteins and increases in fecal water content.
Kolenda, Rafał; Burdukiewicz, Michał; Schierack, Peter
Escherichia coli bacteria are the most common causes of diarrhea and septicemia in calves. Moreover, calves form a major reservoir for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to humans. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of publications on E. coli as calf pathogens and the role of calves as reservoir have not been done so far. We reviewed studies between 1951 and 2013 reporting the presence of virulence associated factors (VAFs) in calf E. coli and extracted the following information: year(s) and country of sampling, animal number, health status, isolate number, VAF prevalence, serotypes, diagnostic methods, and biological assays. The prevalence of VAFs or E. coli pathotypes was compared between healthy and diarrheic animals and was analyzed for time courses. Together, 106 papers with 25,982 E. coli isolates from 27 countries tested for VAFs were included. F5, F17, and F41 fimbriae and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) - VAFs of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were significantly associated with calf diarrhea. On the contrary, ETEC VAF F4 fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin as well as enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) were not associated with diarrhea. The prevalence increased overtime for ST-positive isolates, but decreased for F5- and STEC-positive isolates. Our study provides useful information about the history of scientific investigations performed in this domain so far, and helps to define etiological agents of calf disease, and to evaluate calves as reservoir hosts for human pathogenic E. coli.
Konno, Takayuki; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Saito, Shioko
Between 2007 and 2009, a total of 2168 Escherichia coli strains derived from diarrheal patients, defined as putative diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC), were collected from medical institutions in Akita prefecture, Japan. Thirty five of the strains lacked typical pathogenic determinants of DEC other than astA, which encodes enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1). These E. coli strains are referred to as EAST1EC. Several studies have suggested a role of EAST1 in diarrhea; however, the correlation between diarrhea and the presence of astA remains inconclusive. To investigate whether EAST1EC strains derived from diarrheal patients shared pathogenic factors other than EAST1, virulence gene profiling of 12 virulence genes - iha, lpfA, ldaG, pilS, pic, pet, irp2, daa, aah, aid, cdtB and hlyA - was carried out. PCR analysis revealed that four of the 35 EAST1EC strains harbored only astA, 24 harbored genes associated with adhesins and intestinal colonization, three strains harbored the gene for α-hemolysin, and 24 strains harbored the gene for a siderophore. These results indicated that some EAST1EC strains harbor various virulence genes associated with distinct E. coli pathotypes, primarily enterohemorrhagic E. coli and EAggEC, which may represent additional pathogenic determinants of EAST1EC.
Tobe, Toru; Beatson, Scott A.; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Bailey, Christopher M.; Fivian, Amanda; Younis, Rasha; Matthews, Sophie; Marches, Olivier; Frankel, Gad; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Pallen, Mark J.
Several pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli exploit type III secretion to inject “effector proteins” into human cells, which then subvert eukaryotic cell biology to the bacterium's advantage. We have exploited bioinformatics and experimental approaches to establish that the effector repertoire in the Sakai strain of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is much larger than previously thought. Homology searches led to the identification of >60 putative effector genes. Thirteen of these were judged to be likely pseudogenes, whereas 49 were judged to be potentially functional. In total, 39 proteins were confirmed experimentally as effectors: 31 through proteomics and 28 through translocation assays. At the protein level, the EHEC effector sequences fall into >20 families. The largest family, the NleG family, contains 14 members in the Sakai strain alone. EHEC also harbors functional homologs of effectors from plant pathogens (HopPtoH, HopW, AvrA) and from Shigella (OspD, OspE, OspG), and two additional members of the Map/IpgB family. Genes encoding proven or predicted effectors occur in >20 exchangeable effector loci scattered throughout the chromosome. Crucially, the majority of functional effector genes are encoded by nine exchangeable effector loci that lie within lambdoid prophages. Thus, type III secretion in E. coli is linked to a vast phage “metagenome,” acting as a crucible for the evolution of pathogenicity. PMID:16990433
Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Aznar, Rosa
The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) is enjoying increased popularity among researchers in different fields of microbiology. Its use in combination with real-time PCR (qPCR) represents one of the most successful approaches to detect viable cells. PMA-qPCR has successfully been used to evaluate the efficacy of various disinfection technologies in different microorganisms. Initially, in this study the effect of four essential oils (EOs), cumin, clove, oregano and cinnamon, was evaluated on suspensions of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by PMA-qPCR, LIVE/DEAD BacLight flow cytometry analysis (LIVE/DEAD-FCM), and plate count. E. coli O157:H7 cells treated with EOs at killing concentrations were permeable to PMA which was confirmed by LIVE/DEAD-FCM. However, the PMA-qPCR assay allows specific quantification among the autochthonous microbiota of food products. Therefore, the PMA-qPCR assay was used to evaluate its applicability in artificially contaminated iceberg lettuce and soya sprouts. Amplification signal was negative for the spiking tests performed with any of the EO-killed E. coli cells. It demonstrates that the PMA-qPCR assay is a suitable technique for monitoring E. coli O157:H7 inactivation by essential oils in fresh-cut vegetables.
Kroj, Andrea; Schmidt, Herbert
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains are important foodborne pathogens that are often transmitted to humans by the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat of bovine origin. To investigate adaptation of this pathogen during persistence and growth in ground meat, we established an in vivo expression technology model to identify genes that are expressed during growth in this food matrix under elevated temperatures (42°C). To improve on the antibiotic-based selection method, we constructed the promoter trap vector pAK-1, containing a promoterless kanamycin resistance gene. A genomic library of E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 was constructed in pAK-1 and used for promoter selection in ground meat. The 20 in vivo expressed genes identified were associated with transport processes, metabolism, macromolecule synthesis, and stress response. For most of the identified genes, only hypothetical functions could be assigned. The results of our study provide the first insights into the complex response of E. coli O157:H7 to a ground meat environment under elevated temperatures and establish a suitable vector for promoter studies or selection of in vivo induced promoters in foods such as ground meat.
Tapia, Daniel; Ross, Brittany N; Kalita, Anjana; Kalita, Mridul; Hatcher, Christopher L; Muruato, Laura A; Torres, Alfredo G
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide and is a common serotype linked to hemorrhagic colitis and an important cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of EHEC O157:H7 infections is complicated, as antibiotics can exacerbate Shiga toxin (Stx) production and lead to more severe symptoms including HUS. To date, no vaccines have been approved for human use, exposing a void in both treatment and prevention of EHEC O157:H7 infections. Previously, our lab has shown success in identifying novel vaccine candidates via bio- and immunoinformatics approaches, which are capable of reducing bacterial colonization in an in vivo model of intestinal colonization. In this study, we further characterized 17 of the identified vaccine candidates at the bioinformatics level and evaluated the protective capacity of the top three candidates when administered as DNA vaccines in our murine model of EHEC O157:H7 colonization. Based on further immunoinformatic predictions, these vaccine candidates were expected to induce neutralizing antibodies in a Th2-skewed immunological response. Immunization of BALB/c mice with two of these candidates resulted in reduced bacterial colonization following EHEC O157:H7 challenge. Additionally, immune sera was shown to prevent bacterial adhesion in vitro to Caco-2 cells. Together, this study provides further validation of our immunoinformatic analyses and identifies promising vaccine candidates against EHEC O157:H7.
De Vocht, Melanie; Cauberghe, Verolien; Sas, Benedikt; Uyttendaele, Mieke
This article describes and analyzes Flemish consumers' real-life reactions after reading online newspaper articles related to the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O104:H4 outbreak associated with fresh produce in May and June 2011 in Germany. Using the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM) as the theoretical framework, the present study explored the impact of Flemish (Belgian) online news coverage on consumers' perception of the risk induced by the EHEC outbreak and their behavioral intentions as consumers of fresh produce. After the consumers read a newspaper article related to the outbreak, EPPM concepts were measured, namely, perceived severity, susceptibility, self-efficacy, and affective response, combined with behavioral intentions to eat less fresh produce, to rinse fresh produce better, and to alert loved ones concerning the risk. The consumers' reactions were measured by inserting a link to an online survey below every online newspaper article on the EHEC outbreak that appeared in two substantial Flemish newspapers. The reactions of 6,312 respondents were collected within 9 days for 17 different online newspaper articles. Looking at the perceived values of the EPPM concepts, the perceived severity and the perceived susceptibility of the risk were, as expected, high. However, the consumers thought they could prevent the risk from happening, which stresses the importance of increasing consumers' knowledge of emerging food safety risks. Furthermore, analyses showed the moderating role of government trust and its influence on the way consumers perceived the risk, how worried they were, and their behavioral intentions.
Tapia, Daniel; Ross, Brittany N.; Kalita, Anjana; Kalita, Mridul; Hatcher, Christopher L.; Muruato, Laura A.; Torres, Alfredo G.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide and is a common serotype linked to hemorrhagic colitis and an important cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of EHEC O157:H7 infections is complicated, as antibiotics can exacerbate Shiga toxin (Stx) production and lead to more severe symptoms including HUS. To date, no vaccines have been approved for human use, exposing a void in both treatment and prevention of EHEC O157:H7 infections. Previously, our lab has shown success in identifying novel vaccine candidates via bio- and immunoinformatics approaches, which are capable of reducing bacterial colonization in an in vivo model of intestinal colonization. In this study, we further characterized 17 of the identified vaccine candidates at the bioinformatics level and evaluated the protective capacity of the top three candidates when administered as DNA vaccines in our murine model of EHEC O157:H7 colonization. Based on further immunoinformatic predictions, these vaccine candidates were expected to induce neutralizing antibodies in a Th2-skewed immunological response. Immunization of BALB/c mice with two of these candidates resulted in reduced bacterial colonization following EHEC O157:H7 challenge. Additionally, immune sera was shown to prevent bacterial adhesion in vitro to Caco-2 cells. Together, this study provides further validation of our immunoinformatic analyses and identifies promising vaccine candidates against EHEC O157:H7. PMID:27625996
Sharma, Vijay K; Carlson, Steven A; Casey, Thomas A
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 virulence factors, specifically those conferring intimate adherence to and formation of attaching and effacing lesions (A/E) on host cells, are encoded by a horizontally acquired locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Expression of several LEE-encoded genes, which are organized into operons LEE1 through LEE5, is under the positive regulation of ler, the first gene in the LEE1 operon. We have recently demonstrated that EHEC O157:H7 lacking hha exhibited greater than a 10-fold increase in ler expression and that the repression of ler results from the binding of Hha to the ler promoter. In this report, we show that an hha mutant of EHEC O157:H7 exhibited increased adherence to Hep-2 cells, had increased transcriptional activities of LEE1, LEE2, LEE3, and LEE5 as determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, and expressed LEE5::lac transcriptional fusion at levels that were several-fold higher than that expressed by the parental hha+ strain. These results demonstrate that hha is an important regulatory component of the cascade that governs the expression of LEE operons and the resulting ability of EHEC O157:H7 to intimately adhere to host cells.
Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H.; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway. PMID:26351689
Lee, Jin-Hyung; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Kim, Jung-Ae; Cho, Moo Hwan; Yun, Hyungdon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Jintae
Pathogenic biofilms have been associated with persistent infections due to their high resistance to antimicrobial agents, while commensal biofilms often fortify the host's immune system. Hence, controlling biofilm formation of both pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria is important in bacterium-related diseases. We investigated the effect of plant flavonoids on biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. The antioxidant phloretin, which is abundant in apples, markedly reduced E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation without affecting the growth of planktonic cells, while phloretin did not harm commensal E. coli K-12 biofilms. Also, phloretin reduced E. coli O157:H7 attachment to human colon epithelial cells. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that phloretin repressed toxin genes (hlyE and stx2), autoinducer-2 importer genes (lsrACDBF), curli genes (csgA and csgB), and dozens of prophage genes in E. coli O157:H7 biofilm cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that phloretin reduced fimbria production in E. coli O157:H7. Also, phloretin suppressed the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced inflammatory response in vitro using human colonic epithelial cells. Moreover, in the rat model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), phloretin significantly ameliorated colon inflammation and body weight loss. Taken together, our results suggest that the antioxidant phloretin also acts as an inhibitor of E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation as well as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel diseases without harming beneficial commensal E. coli biofilms. PMID:21930760
Giammanco, A; Maggio, M; Giammanco, G; Morelli, R; Minelli, F; Scheutz, F; Caprioli, A
Fifty-five Escherichia coli strains belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serogroups were examined for phenotypic and genetic factors associated with virulence. The strains were isolated in Italy from children with diarrhea and identified as EPEC by clinical laboratories using commercially available antisera. O:H serotyping showed that 35 strains (27 of O26, O111, and O128 serogroups) belonged to 11 serotypes considered to be classical EPEC O:H serotypes. The other 20 isolates were classified as 15 nonclassical EPEC O:H serotypes. All the potential EPEC virulence factors associated with bacterial adhesion (localized adherence, fluorescentactin staining test positivity, presence of the attaching and effacing [eaeA] gene), the production of verotoxin, and the positivity with the enterohemorrhagic E. coli probe were significantly more frequent among isolates belonging to classical than nonclassical serotypes. Strains displaying an aggregative adhesion and hybridizing with the enteroaggregative DNA probe were found in serogroups O86, O111, and O126. Verotoxin-producing isolates belonged to serogroups O26, O111, and O128. Only one of the isolates hybridized with the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) probe, but 33 strains gave positive results with the eae probe, confirming that the former is more suitable in epidemiological studies in European countries. These results indicate that up to 75% of strains identified as EPEC by commercial antisera may possess potential virulence properties and/or belong to classical EPEC O:H serotypes and suggest that O grouping is still a useful diagnostic tool for presumptive identification of diarrheagenic E. coli in clinical laboratories. PMID:8904439
Nagy, Attila; Mowery, Joseph; Bauchan, Gary R.; Wang, Lili; Nichols-Russell, Lydia
Infection by human pathogens through the consumption of fresh, minimally processed produce and solid plant-derived foods is a major concern of the U.S. and global food industries and of public health services. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a frequent and potent foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Biofilms formed by E. coli O157:H7 facilitate cross-contamination by sheltering pathogens and protecting them from cleaning and sanitation operations. The objective of this research was to determine the role that several surface structures of E. coli O157:H7 play in adherence to biotic and abiotic surfaces. A set of isogenic deletion mutants lacking major surface structures was generated. The mutant strains were inoculated onto fresh spinach and glass surfaces, and their capability to adhere was assessed by adherence assays and fluorescence microscopy methods. Our results showed that filament-deficient mutants bound to the spinach leaves and glass surfaces less strongly than the wild-type strain did. We mimicked the switch to the external environment—during which bacteria leave the host organism and adapt to lower ambient temperatures of cultivation or food processing—by decreasing the temperature from 37°C to 25°C and 4°C. We concluded that flagella and some other cell surface proteins are important factors in the process of initial attachment and in the establishment of biofilms. A better understanding of the specific roles of these structures in early stages of biofilm formation can help to prevent cross-contaminations and foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:25956766
Pauling, Josch; Röttger, Richard; Neuner, Andreas; Salgado, Heladia; Collado-Vides, Julio; Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Azevedo, Vasco; Tauch, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Baumbach, Jan
Pathogenic Escherichia coli, such as Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), are globally widespread bacteria. Some may cause the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Varying strains cause epidemics all over the world. Recently, we observed an epidemic outbreak of a multi-resistant EHEC strain in Western Europe, mainly in Germany. The Robert Koch Institute reports >4300 infections and >50 deaths (July, 2011). Farmers lost several million EUR since the origin of infection was unclear. Here, we contribute to the currently ongoing research with a computer-aided study of EHEC transcriptional regulatory interactions, a network of genetic switches that control, for instance, pathogenicity, survival and reproduction of bacterial cells. Our strategy is to utilize knowledge of gene regulatory networks from the evolutionary relative E. coli K-12, a harmless strain mainly used for wet lab studies. In order to provide high-potential candidates for human pathogenic E. coli bacteria, such as EHEC, we developed the integrated online database and an analysis platform EhecRegNet. We utilize 3489 known regulations from E. coli K-12 for predictions of yet unknown gene regulatory interactions in 16 human pathogens. For these strains we predict 40,913 regulatory interactions. EhecRegNet is based on the identification of evolutionarily conserved regulatory sites within the DNA of the harmless E. coli K-12 and the pathogens. Identifying and characterizing EHEC's genetic control mechanism network on a large scale will allow for a better understanding of its survival and infection strategies. This will support the development of urgently needed new treatments. EhecRegNet is online via http://www.ehecregnet.de.
Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn
Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131
Isogai, Emiko; Isogai, Hiroshi; Kimura, Koichi; Hayashi, Shunji; Kubota, Toru; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Takeshi, Koichi
Gnotobiotic mice inoculated with an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain developed a flaccid paresis, usually culminating in death. The bacteria colonized feces at 109 to 1010 CFU per g (inoculum size: 2.0 × 109 CFU/mouse), and Shiga-like toxins (SLTs) were detected in the feces. A microscopic examination of colons showed mild inflammatory cell infiltration, thinning of the intestinal wall, or necrotic foci. Necrosis of tubular cells was noted in these symptomatic mice. Microhemorrhage, thrombosis, and edematous changes of the brain were also seen. Inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1α (IL-1α), and IL-6, were detected in the kidney after EHEC infection, but not in the serum. In the brain, only TNF-α was detected. When 2.0 × 102 CFU of EHEC O157:H7 was fed to germ-free mice, the number of bacteria began to rise rapidly on day 1 and was maintained at 108 to 109 CFU/g of feces. SLTs were detected in the feces of the mice. However, the mice showed no histological changes and no cytokine responses, similar to what was found for controls. Treatment with TNF-α modified the clinical neural signs, histopathological changes, and cytokine responses; mice treated with TNF-α developed severe neurotoxic symptoms and had higher frequencies of systemic symptoms and glomerular pathology. Strong cytokine responses were seen in the kidney and brain. Serum cytokines were also detected in this group. In contrast, a TNF-α inhibitor (protease inhibitor) inhibited these responses, especially in the brain. However, local synthesis of the cytokines was observed in the kidney. Thus, TNF-α and the other proinflammatory cytokines could be important in modifying the disease caused by EHEC. PMID:9423858
Singh, Pallavi; Sha, Qiong; Lacher, David W; Del Valle, Jacquelyn; Mosci, Rebekah E; Moore, Jennifer A; Scribner, Kim T; Manning, Shannon D
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen. Cattle are suggested to be an important reservoir for STEC; however, these pathogens have also been isolated from other livestock and wildlife. In this study we sought to investigate transmission of STEC, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) between cattle and white-tailed deer in a shared agroecosystem. Cattle feces were collected from 100 animals in a Michigan dairy farm in July 2012, while 163 deer fecal samples were collected during two sampling periods (March and June). The locations of deer fecal pellets were recorded via geographic information system mapping and microsatellite multi-locus genotyping was used to link the fecal samples to individual deer at both time points. Following subculture to sorbitol MacConkey agar and STEC CHROMagar, the pathogens were characterized by serotyping, stx profiling, and PCR-based fingerprinting; multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on a subset. STEC and EHEC were cultured from 12 to 16% of cattle, respectively, and EPEC was found in 36%. Deer were significantly less likely to have a pathogen in March vs. June where the frequency of STEC, EHEC, and EPEC was 1, 6, and 22%, respectively. PCR fingerprinting and MLST clustered the cattle- and deer-derived strains together in a phylogenetic tree. Two STEC strains recovered from both animal species shared MLST and fingerprinting profiles, thereby providing evidence of interspecies transmission and highlighting the importance of wildlife species in pathogen shedding dynamics and persistence in the environment and cattle herds.
Stephenson, Stacy Ann-Marie; Brown, Paul D.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently encountered infections in clinical practice globally. Predominantly a burden among female adults and infants, UTIs primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) results in high morbidity and fiscal health strains. During pathogenesis, colonization of the urinary tract via fimbrial adhesion to mucosal cells is the most critical point in infection and has been linked to DNA methylation. Furthermore, with continuous exposure to antibiotics as the standard therapeutic strategy, UPEC has evolved to become highly adaptable in circumventing the effect of antimicrobial agents and host defenses. Hence, the need for alternative treatment strategies arises. Since differential DNA methylation is observed as a critical precursor to virulence in various pathogenic bacteria, this body of work sought to assess the influence of the DNA adenine methylase (dam) gene on gene expression and cellular adhesion in UPEC and its potential as a therapeutic target. To monitor the influence of dam on attachment and FQ resistance, selected UPEC dam mutants created via one-step allelic exchange were transformed with cloned qnrA and dam complement plasmid for comparative analysis of growth rate, antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm formation, gene expression, and mammalian cell attachment. The absence of DNA methylation among dam mutants was apparent. Varying deficiencies in cell growth, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, alongside low-level increases in gene expression (recA and papI), and adherence to HEK-293 and HTB-9 mammalian cells were also detected as a factor of SOS induction to result in increased mutability. Phenotypic characteristics of parental strains were restored in dam complement strains. Dam’s vital role in DNA methylation and gene expression in local UPEC isolates was confirmed. Similarly to dam-deficient Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), these findings suggest unsuccessful therapeutic use
Stephenson, Stacy Ann-Marie; Brown, Paul D
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently encountered infections in clinical practice globally. Predominantly a burden among female adults and infants, UTIs primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) results in high morbidity and fiscal health strains. During pathogenesis, colonization of the urinary tract via fimbrial adhesion to mucosal cells is the most critical point in infection and has been linked to DNA methylation. Furthermore, with continuous exposure to antibiotics as the standard therapeutic strategy, UPEC has evolved to become highly adaptable in circumventing the effect of antimicrobial agents and host defenses. Hence, the need for alternative treatment strategies arises. Since differential DNA methylation is observed as a critical precursor to virulence in various pathogenic bacteria, this body of work sought to assess the influence of the DNA adenine methylase (dam) gene on gene expression and cellular adhesion in UPEC and its potential as a therapeutic target. To monitor the influence of dam on attachment and FQ resistance, selected UPEC dam mutants created via one-step allelic exchange were transformed with cloned qnrA and dam complement plasmid for comparative analysis of growth rate, antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm formation, gene expression, and mammalian cell attachment. The absence of DNA methylation among dam mutants was apparent. Varying deficiencies in cell growth, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, alongside low-level increases in gene expression (recA and papI), and adherence to HEK-293 and HTB-9 mammalian cells were also detected as a factor of SOS induction to result in increased mutability. Phenotypic characteristics of parental strains were restored in dam complement strains. Dam's vital role in DNA methylation and gene expression in local UPEC isolates was confirmed. Similarly to dam-deficient Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), these findings suggest unsuccessful therapeutic use of
Barth, Stefanie A.; Menge, Christian; Eichhorn, Inga; Semmler, Torsten; Wieler, Lothar H.; Pickard, Derek; Belka, Ariane; Berens, Christian
ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains can colonize cattle for several months and may, thus, serve as gene reservoirs for the genesis of highly virulent zoonotic enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Attempts to reduce the human risk for acquiring EHEC infections should include strategies to control such STEC strains persisting in cattle. We therefore aimed to identify genetic patterns associated with the STEC colonization type in the bovine host. We included 88 persistent colonizing STEC (STECper) (shedding for ≥4 months) and 74 sporadically colonizing STEC (STECspo) (shedding for ≤2 months) isolates from cattle and 16 bovine STEC isolates with unknown colonization types. Genoserotypes and multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) were determined, and the isolates were probed with a DNA microarray for virulence-associated genes (VAGs). All STECper isolates belonged to only four genoserotypes (O26:H11, O156:H25, O165:H25, O182:H25), which formed three genetic clusters (ST21/396/1705, ST300/688, ST119). In contrast, STECspo isolates were scattered among 28 genoserotypes and 30 MLSTs, with O157:H7 (ST11) and O6:H49 (ST1079) being the most prevalent. The microarray analysis identified 139 unique gene patterns that clustered with the genoserotypes and MLSTs of the strains. While the STECper isolates possessed heterogeneous phylogenetic backgrounds, the accessory genome clustered these isolates together, separating them from the STECspo isolates. Given the vast genetic heterogeneity of bovine STEC strains, defining the genetic patterns distinguishing STECper from STECspo isolates will facilitate the targeted design of new intervention strategies to counteract these zoonotic pathogens at the farm level. IMPORTANCE Ruminants, especially cattle, are sources of food-borne infections by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in humans. Some STEC strains persist in cattle for longer periods of time, while others are detected only sporadically
In vitro colonization of the muscle extracellular matrix components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: the influence of growth medium, temperature and pH on initial adhesion and induction of biofilm formation by collagens I and III.
Chagnot, Caroline; Agus, Allison; Renier, Sandra; Peyrin, Frédéric; Talon, Régine; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-α2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed.
Bhatt, Shantanu; Egan, Marisa; Ramirez, Jasmine; Xander, Christian; Jenkins, Valerie; Muche, Sarah; El-Fenej, Jihad; Palmer, Jamie; Mason, Elisabeth; Storm, Elizabeth; Buerkert, Thomas
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a significant cause of infantile diarrhea and death in developing countries. The pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for EPEC to cause diarrhea. Besides EPEC, the LEE is also present in other gastrointestinal pathogens, most notably enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Whereas transcriptional control of the LEE has been meticulously examined, posttranscriptional regulation, including the role of Hfq-dependent small RNAs, remains undercharacterized. However, the past few years have witnessed a surge in the identification of riboregulators of the LEE in EHEC. Contrastingly, the posttranscriptional regulatory landscape of EPEC remains cryptic. Here we demonstrate that the RNA-chaperone Hfq represses the LEE of EPEC by targeting the 5' untranslated leader region of grlR in the grlRA mRNA. Three conserved small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs)-MgrR, RyhB and McaS-are involved in the Hfq-dependent regulation of grlRA MgrR and RyhB exert their effects by directly base-pairing to the 5' region of grlR Whereas MgrR selectively represses grlR but activates grlA, RyhB represses gene expression from the entire grlRA transcript. Meanwhile, McaS appears to target the grlRA mRNA indirectly. Thus, our results provide the first definitive evidence that implicates multiple sRNAs in regulating the LEE and the resulting virulence of EPEC.
Jobling, Michael G.
Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are structurally and functionally related to cholera toxin (CT). LT-I toxins are plasmid-encoded and flanked by IS elements, while LT-II toxins of type II ETEC are chromosomally encoded with flanking genes that appear phage related. Here, I determined the complete genomic sequence of the locus for the LT-IIa type strain SA53, and show that the LT-IIa genes are encoded by a 51 239 bp lambdoid prophage integrated at the rac locus, the site of a defective prophage in E. coli K12 strains. Of 50 LT-IIa and LT-IIc, 46 prophages also encode one member of two novel two-gene ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin families that are both related to pertussis toxin, which I named eplBA or ealAB, respectively. The eplBA and ealAB genes are syntenic with the Shiga toxin loci in their lambdoid prophages of the enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli. These novel AB5 toxins show pertussis-toxin-like activity on tissue culture cells, and like pertussis toxin bind to sialic acid containing glycoprotein ligands. Type II ETEC are the first mucosal pathogens known to simultaneously produce two ADP-ribosylating toxins predicted to act on and modulate activity of both stimulatory and inhibitory alpha subunits of host cell heterotrimeric G-proteins. PMID:26755534
Russo, Pasquale; Botticella, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Massa, Salvatore; Spano, Giuseppe; Beneduce, Luciano
In the present work we developed a MPN quantitative real-time PCR (MPN-qPCR) method for a fast and reliable detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minimally processed vegetables. In order to validate the proposed technique, the results were compared with conventional MPN followed by phenotypic and biochemical assays methods. When L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were artificially inoculated in fresh-cut vegetables, a concentration as low as 1 CFU g−1 could be detected in 48 hours for both pathogens. qPCR alone allowed a limit of detection of 101 CFU g−1 after 2 hours of enrichment for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7. Since minimally processed ready-to-eat vegetables are characterized by very short shelf life, our method can potentially address the consistent reduction of time for microbial analysis, allowing a better management of quality control. Moreover, the occurrences of both pathogenic bacteria in mixed salad samples and fresh-cut melons were monitored in two production plants from the receipt of the raw materials to the early stages of shelf life. No sample was found to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. One sample of raw mixed salad was found positive to an H7 enterohemorrhagic serotype. PMID:24949460
Jobling, Michael G
Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are structurally and functionally related to cholera toxin (CT). LT-I toxins are plasmid-encoded and flanked by IS elements, while LT-II toxins of type II ETEC are chromosomally encoded with flanking genes that appear phage related. Here, I determined the complete genomic sequence of the locus for the LT-IIa type strain SA53, and show that the LT-IIa genes are encoded by a 51 239 bp lambdoid prophage integrated at the rac locus, the site of a defective prophage in E. coli K12 strains. Of 50 LT-IIa and LT-IIc, 46 prophages also encode one member of two novel two-gene ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin families that are both related to pertussis toxin, which I named eplBA or ealAB, respectively. The eplBA and ealAB genes are syntenic with the Shiga toxin loci in their lambdoid prophages of the enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli. These novel AB(5) toxins show pertussis-toxin-like activity on tissue culture cells, and like pertussis toxin bind to sialic acid containing glycoprotein ligands. Type II ETEC are the first mucosal pathogens known to simultaneously produce two ADP-ribosylating toxins predicted to act on and modulate activity of both stimulatory and inhibitory alpha subunits of host cell heterotrimeric G-proteins.
Efficacy of Urtoxazumab (TMA-15 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Shiga Toxin 2) Against Post-Diarrheal Neurological Sequelae Caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection in the Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglet Model
Moxley, Rodney A.; Francis, David H.; Tamura, Mizuho; Marx, David B.; Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Zhao, Mojun
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the most common cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in human patients, with brain damage and dysfunction the main cause of acute death. We evaluated the efficacy of urtoxazumab (TMA-15, Teijin Pharma Limited), a humanized monoclonal antibody against Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 for the prevention of brain damage, dysfunction, and death in a piglet EHEC infection model. Forty-five neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated orally with 3 × 109 colony-forming units of EHEC O157:H7 strain EDL933 (Stx1+, Stx2+) when 22–24 h old. At 24 h post-inoculation, piglets were intraperitoneally administered placebo or TMA-15 (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg body weight). Compared to placebo (n = 10), TMA-15 (n = 35) yielded a significantly greater probability of survival, length of survival, and weight gain (p <0.05). The efficacy of TMA-15 against brain lesions and death was 62.9% (p = 0.0004) and 71.4% (p = 0.0004), respectively. These results suggest that TMA-15 may potentially prevent or reduce vascular necrosis and infarction of the brain attributable to Stx2 in human patients acutely infected with EHEC. However, we do not infer that TMA-15 treatment will completely protect human patients infected with EHEC O157:H7 strains that produce both Stx1 and Stx2. PMID:28134751
Saile, Nadja; Voigt, Anja; Kessler, Sarah; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz
ABSTRACT Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 harbors multiple prophage-associated open reading frames (ORFs) in its genome which are highly homologous to the chromosomal nanS gene. The latter is part of the nanCMS operon, which is present in most E. coli strains and encodes an esterase which is responsible for the monodeacetylation of 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2). Whereas one prophage-borne ORF (z1466) has been characterized in previous studies, the functions of the other nanS-homologous ORFs are unknown. In the current study, the nanS-homologous ORFs of EDL933 were initially studied in silico. Due to their homology to the chromosomal nanS gene and their location in prophage genomes, we designated them nanS-p and numbered the different nanS-p alleles consecutively from 1 to 10. The two alleles nanS-p2 and nanS-p4 were selected for production of recombinant proteins, their enzymatic activities were investigated, and differences in their temperature optima were found. Furthermore, a function of these enzymes in substrate utilization could be demonstrated using an E. coli C600ΔnanS mutant in a growth medium with Neu5,9Ac2 as the carbon source and supplementation with the different recombinant NanS-p proteins. Moreover, generation of sequential deletions of all nanS-p alleles in strain EDL933 and subsequent growth experiments demonstrated a gene dose effect on the utilization of Neu5,9Ac2. Since Neu5,9Ac2 is an important component of human and animal gut mucus and since the nutrient availability in the large intestine is limited, we hypothesize that the presence of multiple Neu5,9Ac2 esterases provides them a nutrient supply under certain conditions in the large intestine, even if particular prophages are lost. IMPORTANCE In this study, a group of homologous prophage-borne nanS-p alleles and two of the corresponding enzymes of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 that may be important to provide
Rump, Lydia V.; Cao, Guojie; Nagaraja, T. G.; Meng, Jianghong
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli O26 is the second most important enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup worldwide. Serogroup O26 strains are categorized mainly into two groups: enteropathogenic (EPEC) O26, carrying a locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) and mostly causing mild diarrhea, and Shiga-toxigenic (STEC) O26, which carries the Shiga toxin (STX) gene (stx), responsible for more severe outcomes. stx-negative O26 strains can be further split into two groups. One O26 group differs significantly from O26 EHEC, while the other O26 EHEC-like group shows all the characteristics of EHEC O26 except production of STX. In order to determine the different populations of O26 E. coli present in U.S. cattle, we sequenced 42 O26:H11 strains isolated from feedlot cattle and compared them to 37 O26:H11 genomes available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) showed that O26:H11/H− strains in U.S. cattle were highly diverse. Most strains were sequence type 29 (ST29). By wgMLST, two clear lineages could be distinguished among cattle strains. Lineage 1 consisted of O26:H11 EHEC-like strains (ST29) (4 strains) and O26:H11 EHEC strains (ST21) (2 strains), and lineage 2 (36 strains) consisted of O26:H11 EPEC strains (ST29). Overall, our analysis showed U.S. cattle carried pathogenic (ST21; stx1+ ehxA+ toxB+) and also potentially pathogenic (ST29; ehxA+ toxB+) O26:H11 E. coli strains. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that 70% of the cattle strains carried at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. Our results showed that whole-genome sequence analysis is a robust and valid approach to identify and genetically characterize E. coli O26:H11, which is of importance for food safety and public health. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli O26 is the second most important type of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) worldwide. Serogroup O26 strains are categorized into two groups: enteropathogenic (EPEC) carrying LEE, causing mild diarrhea, and
MacDonald, Jacqueline; Miletic, Sean; Gaildry, Typhanie; Chin-Fatt, Adam; Menassa, Rima
Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) are utilized by pathogenic Escherichia coli to infect their hosts and many proteins from these systems are affected by chaperones specific to T3SS-containing bacteria. Toward developing a recombinant vaccine against enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), we expressed recombinant T3SS and related proteins from predominant EHEC serotypes in Nicotiana chloroplasts. Nicotiana benthamiana were transiently transformed to express chloroplast-targeted Tir, NleA, and EspD from the EHEC serotype O157:H7; a fusion of EspA proteins from serotypes O157:H7 and O26:H11; and a fusion of epitopes of Tir (Tir-ep) from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, O45:H2, and O111:H8. C-terminal GFP reporter fusion constructs were also developed and transiently expressed to confirm subcellular localization and quantify relative expression levels in situ. Recombinant proteins were co-expressed with chaperones specific to each T3SS protein with the goal of increasing their accumulation in the chloroplast. We found that co-expression with the chloroplast-targeted chaperone CesT significantly increases accumulation of recombinant Tir when the latter is either transiently expressed in the nucleus and targeted to the chloroplast of N. benthamiana or stably expressed in transplastomic Nicotiana tabacum. CesT also helped maintain higher levels of Tir:GFP fusion protein over time both in vivo and ex vivo, indicating that the favorable effect of CesT on accumulation of Tir is not specific to a single time point or to fresh material. By contrast, T3SS chaperones CesT, CesAB, CesD, and CesD2 did not increase accumulation of NleA:GFP, EspA:GFP, or EspD:GFP, which suggests dissimilar functioning of these chaperone–substrate combinations. CesT did not increase accumulation of Tir-ep:GFP, which may be due to the absence of the CesT binding domain from this fusion protein. The fusion to GFP improved accumulation of Tir-ep relative to the unfused protein, but not for the other recombinant
Perna, Nicole T.
The laboratory workhorse Escherichia coli K-12 is among the most intensively studied living organisms on earth, and this single strain serves as the model system behind much of our understanding of prokaryotic molecular biology. Dense genome sequencing and recent insightful comparative analyses are making the species E. coli, as a whole, an emerging system for studying prokaryotic population genetics and the relationship between system-scale, or genome-scale, molecular evolution and complex traits like host range and pathogenic potential. Genomic perspective has revealed a coherent but dynamic species united by intraspecific gene flow via homologous lateral or horizontal transfer and differentiated by content flux mediated by acquisition of DNA segments from interspecies transfers.
Díaz, Sandra; Vidal, Dolors; Herrera-León, Silvia; Sánchez, Sergio
We investigated the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in free-ranging red deer in south-central Spain, to assess their potential as reservoir hosts of sorbitol-fermenting (SF) E. coli O157:H7 strains, which are emerging causes of hemolytic uremic syndrome in Europe. Fecal samples from 264 hunter-harvested Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected in 25 different game estates and examined for E. coli O157:H7 by culture and PCR. E. coli O157:H7 was detected and isolated in 4 of the 25 game estates sampled (16%) and the isolates obtained (four in total) were further phenogenotypically characterized. One of them was biochemically typical of E. coli O157:H7, that is, neither fermented sorbitol nor exhibited β-glucuronidase (GUD) activity, and carried genes encoding Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2, the intimin subtype γ1, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)-hemolysin, and the ter gene cluster. The rest of the isolates (three of four) fermented sorbitol, exhibited GUD activity after 18-24 h incubation, and carried genes encoding the intimin subtype γ1 and the EHEC-hemolysin, although no Stx-encoding genes were detected. All these atypical isolates carried the sfp gene cluster, lacked the ter gene cluster, and were unable to grow on cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar, which are typical features of SF E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from patients. In total, SF, GUD-positive, Stx-negative E. coli O157:H7 strains were isolated in 3 of the 25 game estates sampled (12%), with an overall sample-level prevalence of 1.1% (3/264). Our findings indicate that free-ranging red deer may be one of the possible reservoir hosts of Stx-negative derivatives of SF E. coli O157:H7.
Rabinovitz, B C; Larzábal, M; Vilte, D A; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is responsible for intestinal disease and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious systemic complication which particularly affects children. In this study, we evaluated whether passive immunization protects from EHEC O157:H7 colonization and renal damage, by using a weaned BALB/c mouse model of infection. Recombinant proteins EspB and the carboxyl-terminal fragment of 280 amino acids of γ-intimin (γ-IntC280) were used in combination with a macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP) adjuvant to immunize pregnant mice by the intranasal route. Neonatal mice were allowed to suckle vaccinated or sham-vaccinated dams until weaning when they were challenged by the oral route with a suspension of an E. coli O157:H7 Stx2+ strain. The excretion of the inoculated strain was followed for 72h. All vaccinated dams exhibited elevated serum IgG response against both γ-Int C280 and EspB. Passive immunization of newborn mice resulted in a significant increase in serum IgG titers against γ-Int C280 and a slight increase in EspB-specific antibodies. The neonates from vaccinated dams showed a significant reduction in EHEC O157:H7 colonization 48h post challenge. In addition, the level of plasma urea concentration, a marker of renal failure, was significantly higher in offsprings of sham-vaccinated mice. In conclusion, vaccination of pregnant dams with γ-Int C280 and EspB could reduce colonization and systemic toxicity of EHEC O157:H7 in their suckling offsprings.
Zhang, Xuehan; Yu, Zhengyu; Zhang, Shuping; He, Kongwang
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is the causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. However, the bacterium can colonize the intestines of ruminants without causing clinical signs. EHEC O157:H7 needs flagella (H7) and hemorrhagic coli pili (HCP) to adhere to epithelial cells. Then the bacterium uses the translocated intimin receptor (Tir) and an outer membrane adhesion (Intimin) protein to colonize hosts. This leads to the attachment and effacement of (A/E) lesions. A tetravalent recombinant vaccine (H7-HCP-Tir-Intimin) composed of immunologically important portions of H7, HCP, Tir and Intimin proteins was constructed and its efficacy was evaluated using a caprine model. The results showed that the recombinant vaccine induced strong humoral and mucosal immune responses and protected the subjects from live challenges with EHEC O157:H7 86-24 stain. After a second immunization, the average IgG titer peaked at 7.2 × 10(5). Five days after challenge, E. coli O157:H7 was no longer detectable in the feces of vaccinated goats, but naïve goats shed the bacterium throughout the course of the challenge. Cultures of intestinal tissues showed that vaccination of goats with H7-HCP-Tir-Intimin reduced the amount of intestinal colonization by EHEC O157:H7 effectively. Recombinant H7-HCP-Tir-Intimin protein is an excellent vaccine candidate. Data from the present study warrant further efficacy studies aimed at reducing EHEC O157:H7 load on farms and the contamination of carcasses by this zoonotic pathogen.
Lorenz, Sandra C; Monday, Steven R; Hoffmann, Maria; Fischer, Markus; Kase, Julie A
Most Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains associated with severe disease, such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), carry large enterohemolysin-encoding (ehxA) plasmids, e.g., pO157 and pO103, that contribute to STEC clinical manifestations. Six ehxA subtypes (A through F) exist that phylogenetically cluster into eae-positive (B, C, F), a mix of eae-positive (E) and eae-negative (A), and a third, more distantly related, cluster of eae-negative (D) STEC strains. While subtype B, C, and F plasmids share a number of virulence traits that are distinct from those of subtype A, sequence data have not been available for subtype D and E plasmids. Here, we determined and compared the genetic composition of four subtype D and two subtype E plasmids to establish their evolutionary relatedness among ehxA subtypes and define their potential role in pathogenicity. We found that subtype D strains carry one exceptionally large plasmid (>200 kbp) that carries a variety of virulence genes that are associated with enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli, which, quite possibly, enables these strains to cause disease despite being food isolates. Our data offer further support for the hypothesis that this subtype D plasmid represents a novel virulence plasmid, sharing very few genetic features with other plasmids; we conclude that these plasmids have evolved from a different evolutionary lineage than the plasmids carrying the other ehxA subtypes. In contrast, the 50-kbp plasmids of subtype E (pO145), although isolated from HUS outbreak strains, carried only few virulence-associated determinants, suggesting that the clinical presentation of subtype E strains is largely a result of chromosomally encoded virulence factors.
Tietze, Erhard; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojciech; Prager, Rita; Radonic, Aleksandar; Fruth, Angelika; Auraß, Philipp; Nitsche, Andreas; Mielke, Martin; Flieger, Antje
A large outbreak of gastrointestinal disease occurred in 2011 in Germany which resulted in almost 4000 patients with acute gastroenteritis or hemorrhagic colitis, 855 cases of a hemolytic uremic syndrome and 53 deaths. The pathogen was an uncommon, multiresistant Escherichia coli strain of serotype O104:H4 which expressed a Shiga toxin characteristic of enterohemorrhagic E. coli and in addition virulence factors common to enteroaggregative E. coli. During post-epidemic surveillance of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) all but two of O104:H4 isolates were indistinguishable from the epidemic strain. Here we describe two novel STEC O104:H4 strains isolated in close spatiotemporal proximity to the outbreak which show a virulence gene panel, a Shiga toxin-mediated cytotoxicity towards Vero cells and aggregative adherence to Hep-2 cells comparable to the outbreak strain. They differ however both from the epidemic strain and from each other, by their antibiotic resistance phenotypes and some other features as determined by routine epidemiological subtyping methods. Whole genome sequencing of these two strains, of ten outbreak strain isolates originating from different time points of the outbreak and of one historical sporadic EHEC O104:H4 isolate was performed. Sequence analysis revealed a clear phylogenetic distance between the two variant strains and the outbreak strain finally identifying them as epidemiologically unrelated isolates from sporadic cases. These findings add to the knowledge about this emerging pathogen, illustrating a certain diversity within the bacterial core genome as well as loss and gain of accessory elements. Our results do also support the view that distinct new variants of STEC O104:H4 repeatedly might originate from yet unknown reservoirs, rather than that there would be a continuous diversification of a single epidemic strain established and circulating in Germany after the large outbreak in 2011.
Youn, Min; Lee, Kang-Mu; Kim, So Hyun; Lim, Jeesun; Yoon, Jang W; Park, Sungsu
As a model host, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used for studying unknown pathogen-host interactions and identifying novel virulence factors in bacterial pathogens. Among the bacterial pathogens that can induce death of C. elegans is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, a major serotype of EHEC that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and animals. However, it is unknown which EHEC O157:H7 factors are required for nematode death. In this study, bacterial ability to kill C. elegans was tested for several EHEC O157:H7 wild-type and mutant strains missing one virulence-associated factor, including Shiga toxins, enterohemolysin, pO157 (a large virulence plasmid in EHEC O157:H7), Type 3 secretion system, LuxS, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-side chains. Our results demonstrate that only mutants lacking either pO157 or LPS O-side chains cause full attenuation in killing C. elegans. The LPS O-side chain-defective ΔperA mutant strain was not able to colonize in the intestine even at 24h post-feeding with C. elegans, while the wild-type strain began to accumulate and colonize in the intestine as early as 3h post-feeding. A simple complementation of the mutant strain with the plasmid carrying the intact perA gene in trans completely restored the production of LPS O-side chains, as well as the ability to kill C. elegans. Our results show that pO157 and PerA are required for EHEC O157:H7 to kill C. elegans.
Amigo, Natalia; Mercado, Elsa; Bentancor, Adriana; Singh, Pallavi; Vilte, Daniel; Gerhardt, Elisabeth; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina; Manning, Shannon D.; Larzábal, Mariano; Cataldi, Angel
The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) whose main causative agent is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a disease that mainly affects children under 5 years of age. Argentina is the country with the highest incidence of HUS in the world. Cattle are a major reservoir and source of infection with E. coli O157:H7. To date, the epidemiological factors that contribute to its prevalence are poorly understood. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing has helped to define nine E. coli O157:H7 clades and the clade 8 strains were associated with most of the cases of severe disease. In this study, eight randomly selected isolates of EHEC O157:H7 from cattle in Argentina were studied as well as two human isolates. Four of them were classified as clade 8 through the screening for 23 SNPs; the two human isolates grouped in this clade as well, while two strains were closely related to strains representing clade 6. To assess the pathogenicity of these strains, we assayed correlates of virulence. Shiga toxin production was determined by an ELISA kit. Four strains were high producers and one of these strains that belonged to a novel genotype showed high verocytotoxic activity in cultured cells. Also, these clade 8 and 6 strains showed high RBC lysis and adherence to epithelial cells. One of the clade 6 strains showed stronger inhibition of normal water absorption than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in human colonic explants. In addition, two of the strains showing high levels of Stx2 production and RBC lysis activity were associated with lethality and uremia in a mouse model. Consequently, circulation of such strains in cattle may partially contribute to the high incidence of HUS in Argentina. PMID:26030198
Sheng, Haiqing; Shringi, Smriti; Baker, Katherine N. K.; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.
The increased summertime prevalence of cattle carriage of enterohemorrhagic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) is associated with the increased summertime incidence of human infection. The mechanism driving the seasonality of STEC O157 carriage among cattle is unknown. We conducted experimental challenge trials to distinguish whether factors extrinsic or intrinsic to cattle underlie the seasonality of STEC O157 colonization. Holstein steers (n = 20) exposed to ambient environmental conditions were challenged with a standardized pool of STEC O157 strains four times at 6-month intervals. The densities and durations of rectoanal junction mucosa (RAJ) colonization with STEC O157 were compared by season (winter versus summer), dose (109 CFU versus 107 CFU), and route of challenge (oral versus rectal). Following summer challenges, the RAJ STEC O157 colonization density was significantly lower (P = 0.016) and the duration was shorter (P = 0.052) than for winter challenges, a seasonal pattern opposite to that observed naturally. Colonization was unaffected by the challenge route, indicating that passage through the gastrointestinal microbiome did not significantly affect the infectious dose to the RAJ. A 2-log reduction of the challenge doses in the second-year trials was accompanied by similarly reduced RAJ colonization in both seasons (P < 0.001). These results refute the hypothesis that cattle are predisposed to STEC O157 colonization during the summer months, either due to intrinsic factors or indirectly due to gastrointestinal tract microbiome effects. Instead, the data support the hypothesis that the increased summertime STEC O157 colonization results from increased seasonal oral exposure to this pathogen. PMID:26607594
Abe, A; Kenny, B; Stein, M; Finlay, B B
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and rabbit EPEC (RDEC-1) cause unique histopathological features on intestinal mucosa, including attaching/effacing (A/E) lesions. Due to the human specificity of EPEC, RDEC-1 has been used as an animal model to study EPEC pathogenesis. At least two of the previously identified EPEC-secreted proteins, EspA and EspB, are required for triggering host epithelial signal transduction pathways, intimate adherence, and A/E lesions. However, the functions of these secreted proteins and their roles in pathogenesis have not been characterized. To investigate the function of EspA and EspB in RDEC-1, the espA and espB genes were cloned and their sequences were compared to that of EPEC O127. The EspA proteins showed high similarity (88.5% identity), while EspB was heterogeneous in internal regions (69.8% identity). However, RDEC-1 EspB was identical to that of enterohemorrhagic E. coli serotype O26. Mutations in RDEC-1 espA and espB revealed that the corresponding RDEC-1 gene products are essential for triggering of host signal transduction pathways and invasion into HeLa cells. Complementation with plasmids containing EPEC espA or/and espB genes into RDEC-1 mutant strains demonstrated that they were functionally interchangeable, although the EPEC proteins mediated higher levels of invasion. Furthermore, maximal expression of RDEC-1 and EPEC-secreted proteins occurred at their respective host body temperatures, which may contribute to the lack of EPEC infectivity in rabbits. PMID:9284118
Almeida, Felipe Alves de; Pinto, Uelinton Manoel; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas
Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism leading to differential gene expression in response to high population density. The autoinducer-1 (AI-1) type quorum sensing system is incomplete in Escherichia coli and Salmonella due to the lack of the AI-1 synthase (LuxI homolog) responsible for acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis. However, these bacteria encode the AHL receptor SdiA (a LuxR homolog) leading to gene regulation in response to AI-1 produced by other bacteria. This study aimed to model the SdiA protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 578 based on three crystallized SdiA structures from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) with different ligands. Molecular docking of these predicted structures with AHLs, furanones and 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol were also performed. The available EHEC SdiA structures provided good prototypes for modeling SdiA from Salmonella. The molecular docking of these proteins showed that residues Y63, W67, Y71, D80 and S134 are common binding sites for different quorum modulating signals, besides being conserved among other LuxR type proteins. We also show that AHLs with twelve carbons presented better binding affinity to SdiA than AHLs with smaller side chains in our docking analysis, regardless of the protein structures used. Interestingly, the conformational changes provided by AHL binding resulted in structural models with increased affinities to brominated furanones. These results suggest that the use of brominated furanones to inhibit phenotypes controlled by quorum sensing in Salmonella and EHEC may present a good strategy since these inhibitors seem to specifically compete with AHLs for binding to SdiA in both pathogens.
Piazza, Roxane M F; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Saridakis, Halha O; Pedroso, Margareth Z; Rocha, Letícia B; Gomes, Tânia A T; Vieira, Mônica A M; Beutin, Lothar; Guth, Beatriz E C
Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O26 comprise two distinct groups of pathogens, characterized as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among the several genes related to type III secretion system-secreted effector proteins, espK was found to be highly specific for EHEC O26:H11 and its stx-negative derivative strains isolated in European countries. E. coli O26 strains isolated in Brazil from infant diarrhea, foods, and the environment have consistently been shown to lack stx genes and are thus considered atypical EPEC. However, no further information related to their genetic background is known. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to discriminate and characterize these Brazilian O26 stx-negative strains by phenotypic, genetic, and biochemical approaches. Among 44 isolates confirmed to be O26 isolates, most displayed flagellar antigen H11 or H32. Out of the 13 nonmotile isolates, 2 tested positive for fliCH11, and 11 were fliCH8 positive. The identification of genetic markers showed that several O26:H11 and all O26:H8 strains tested positive for espK and could therefore be discriminated as EHEC derivatives. The presence of H8 among EHEC O26 and its stx-negative derivative isolates is described for the first time. The interaction of three isolates with polarized Caco-2 cells and with intestinal biopsy specimen fragments ex vivo confirmed the ability of the O26 strains analyzed to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions. The O26:H32 strains, isolated mostly from meat, were considered nonvirulent. Knowledge of the virulence content of stx-negative O26 isolates within the same serotype helped to avoid misclassification of isolates, which certainly has important implications for public health surveillance.
A major outbreak caused by Escherichia coli of serotype O104:H4 spread throughout Europe in 2011. This large outbreak was caused by an unusual strain that is most similar to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) of serotype O104:H4. A significant difference, however, is the presence of a prophage encoding the Shiga toxin, which is characteristic of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains. This combination of genomic features, associating characteristics from both EAEC and EHEC, represents a new pathotype. The 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak of hemorrhagic diarrhea in Germany is an example of the explosive cocktail of high virulence and resistance that can emerge in this species. A total of 46 deaths, 782 cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and 3,128 cases of acute gastroenteritis were attributed to this new clone of EAEC/EHEC. In addition, recent identification in France of similar O104:H4 clones exhibiting the same virulence factors suggests that the EHEC O104:H4 pathogen has become endemically established in Europe after the end of the outbreak. EAEC strains of serotype O104:H4 contain a large set of virulence-associated genes regulated by the AggR transcription factor. They include, among other factors, the pAA plasmid genes encoding the aggregative adherence fimbriae, which anchor the bacterium to the intestinal mucosa (stacked-brick adherence pattern on epithelial cells). Furthermore, sequencing studies showed that horizontal genetic exchange allowed for the emergence of the highly virulent Shiga toxin-producing EAEC O104:H4 strain that caused the German outbreak. This article discusses the role these virulence factors could have in EAEC/EHEC O104:H4 pathogenesis.
Subires, Alicia; Yuste, Josep; Capellas, Marta
Over the past years, products of non-animal origin have been increasingly linked to foodborne diseases caused by the enterohemorrhagic pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Contaminated fresh produce and derived ready-to-eat meals are of major concern, since no further or only minimal processing is applied. In this study, flow cytometry was evaluated as a rapid technique to detect E. coli O157:H7 by immunofluorescence, using polyclonal antibodies conjugated to R-phycoerythrin, in refrigerated ready-to-eat pasta salad containing acetic acid and benzoic acid. Signal filtering strategies were applied during sample analysis to reduce the limit of detection of the technique to 5 log CFU/g. Simultaneously with pathogen detection, physiological state was assessed by staining with the membrane integrity indicators propidium iodide and SYBR Green I. Fine tuning of dye concentrations and ratios allowed discrimination of not only cells with intact or damaged membranes, but also of cells with partially damaged membranes, which were considered injured cells. Then, changes in membrane integrity of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 cells were monitored throughout 14-day refrigerated storage. Most cells were injured at the beginning of refrigeration, but showed an intact membrane at the end. This suggests that injured E. coli O157:H7 cells underwent a membrane repair during exposure to refrigeration and acid stresses, and survived in ready-to-eat pasta salad. This highlights the importance of the implementation of control measures to limit the presence of this pathogen in non-animal origin food products. Additionally, the proposed immunodetection and membrane integrity three-color assay in food is a good tool to monitor the effect of a number of food-related treatments on E. coli O157:H7 cell membrane.
Han, Runhua; Xu, Letian; Wang, Ting; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 (O157) is one of the most notorious human pathogens, causing severe disease in humans worldwide. O157 specifically colonizes the large intestine of mammals after passing through the small intestine, and this process is influenced by differential signals between the two regions. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are able to sense and respond to environmental changes and regulate diverse physiological processes in pathogenic bacteria. Although some sRNAs of O157 have been extensively investigated, whether these molecules can sense differences between the small and large intestine and influence the preferential colonization in the large intestine by O157 remains unknown. In this study, we identified a new sRNA, Esr055, in O157 which senses the low DNA concentration in the large intestine and contributes to the preferential colonization of the bacteria in this region. The number of O157 wild-type that adhered to the colon is 30.18 times higher than the number that adhered to the ileum of mice, while the number of the ΔEsr055 mutant that adhered to the colon decreased to 13.27 times higher than the number adhered to the ileum. Furthermore, we found that the expression of Esr055 is directly activated by the regulator, DeoR, and its expression is positively affected by DNA, which is significantly more abundant in the ileum than in the colon of mice. Additionally, combining the results of informatics predictions and transcriptomic analysis, we found that several virulence genes are up-regulated in the ΔEsr055 mutant and five candidate genes (z0568, z0974, z1356, z1926, and z5187) may be its direct targets. PMID:28289405
Beutin, Lothar; Krüger, Ulrike; Krause, Gladys; Miko, Angelika; Martin, Annett; Strauch, Eckhard
Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e)-producing strains from food (n = 36), slaughtered pigs (n = 25), the environment (n = 21), diseased pigs (n = 19), and humans (n = 9) were investigated for production of Stx2e by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, for virulence markers by PCR, and for their serotypes to evaluate their role as potential human pathogens. Stx2e production was low in 64% of all 110 strains. Stx2e production was inducible by mitomycin C but differed considerably between strains. Analysis by nucleotide sequencing and transcription of stx(2e) genes in high- and low-Stx2e-producing strains showed that toxin production correlated with transcription rates of stx(2e) genes. DNA sequences specific for the int, Q, dam, and S genes of the stx(2e) bacteriophage P27 were found in 109 strains, indicating cryptic P27-like prophages, although 102 of these were not complete for all genes tested. Genes encoding intimin (eae), enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin (ehx), or other stx(1) or stx(2) variants were not found, whereas genes for heat-stable enterotoxins STI, STII, or EAST1 were present in 54.5% of the strains. Seven major serotypes that were associated with diseased pigs (O138:H14, O139:H1, and O141:H4) or with slaughter pigs, food, and the environment (O8:H4, O8:H9, O100:H30, and O101:H9) accounted for 60% of all Stx2e strains. The human Stx2e isolates did not belong to these major serotypes of Stx2e strains, and high production of Stx2e in human strains was not related to diarrheal disease. The results from this study and other studies do not point to Stx2e as a pathogenicity factor for diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans.
Amigo, Natalia; Mercado, Elsa; Bentancor, Adriana; Singh, Pallavi; Vilte, Daniel; Gerhardt, Elisabeth; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina; Manning, Shannon D; Larzábal, Mariano; Cataldi, Angel
The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) whose main causative agent is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a disease that mainly affects children under 5 years of age. Argentina is the country with the highest incidence of HUS in the world. Cattle are a major reservoir and source of infection with E. coli O157:H7. To date, the epidemiological factors that contribute to its prevalence are poorly understood. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing has helped to define nine E. coli O157:H7 clades and the clade 8 strains were associated with most of the cases of severe disease. In this study, eight randomly selected isolates of EHEC O157:H7 from cattle in Argentina were studied as well as two human isolates. Four of them were classified as clade 8 through the screening for 23 SNPs; the two human isolates grouped in this clade as well, while two strains were closely related to strains representing clade 6. To assess the pathogenicity of these strains, we assayed correlates of virulence. Shiga toxin production was determined by an ELISA kit. Four strains were high producers and one of these strains that belonged to a novel genotype showed high verocytotoxic activity in cultured cells. Also, these clade 8 and 6 strains showed high RBC lysis and adherence to epithelial cells. One of the clade 6 strains showed stronger inhibition of normal water absorption than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in human colonic explants. In addition, two of the strains showing high levels of Stx2 production and RBC lysis activity were associated with lethality and uremia in a mouse model. Consequently, circulation of such strains in cattle may partially contribute to the high incidence of HUS in Argentina.
Martínez-Santos, Verónica I; Medrano-López, Abraham; Saldaña, Zeus; Girón, Jorge A; Puente, José L
Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli are clinically important diarrheagenic pathogens that adhere to the intestinal epithelial surface. The E. coli common pili (ECP), or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (MAT) fimbriae, are ubiquitous among both commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains and play a role as colonization factors by promoting the interaction between bacteria and host epithelial cells and favoring interbacterial interactions in biofilm communities. The first gene of the ecp operon encodes EcpR (also known as MatA), a proposed regulatory protein containing a LuxR-like C-terminal helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif. In this work, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the ecp genes and the role of EcpR as a transcriptional regulator. EHEC and EPEC ecpR mutants produce less ECP, while plasmids expressing EcpR increase considerably the expression of EcpA and production of ECP. The ecp genes are transcribed as an operon from a promoter located 121 bp upstream of the start codon of ecpR. EcpR positively regulates this promoter by binding to two TTCCT boxes distantly located upstream of the ecp promoter, thus enhancing expression of downstream ecp genes, leading to ECP production. EcpR mutants in the putative HTH DNA-binding domain are no longer able to activate ecp expression or bind to the TTCCT boxes. EcpR-mediated activation is aided by integration host factor (IHF), which is essential for counteracting the repression exerted by histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) on the ecp promoter. This work demonstrates evidence about the interplay between a novel member of a diverse family of regulatory proteins and global regulators in the regulation of a fimbrial operon.
Douds, David D.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.; Nicholson, April M.; Phillips, John G.; Niemira, Brendan A.
A study was conducted to determine the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) in autoclaved soil and translocation into leek plants. Six-week-old leek plants (with [Myc+] or without [Myc−] AM fungi) were inoculated with composite suspensions of Salmonella or EHEC at ca. 8.2 log CFU/plant into soil. Soil, root, and shoot samples were analyzed for pathogens on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 postinoculation. Initial populations (day 1) were ca. 3.1 and 2.1 log CFU/root, ca. 2.0 and 1.5 log CFU/shoot, and ca. 5.5 and 5.1 CFU/g of soil for Salmonella and EHEC, respectively. Enrichments indicated that at days 8 and 22, only 31% of root samples were positive for EHEC, versus 73% positive for Salmonella. The mean Salmonella level in soil was 3.4 log CFU/g at day 22, while EHEC populations dropped to ≤0.75 log CFU/g by day 15. Overall, Salmonella survived in a greater number of shoot, root, and soil samples, compared with the survival of EHEC. EHEC was not present in Myc− shoots after day 8 (0/16 samples positive); however, EHEC persisted in higher numbers (P = 0.05) in Myc+ shoots (4/16 positive) at days 15 and 22. Salmonella, likewise, survived in statistically higher numbers of Myc+ shoot samples (8/8) at day 8, compared with survival in Myc− shoots (i.e., only 4/8). These results suggest that AM fungi may potentially enhance the survival of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in the stems of growing leek plants. PMID:23315740
Diallo, Alpha Amadou; Brugère, Hubert; Kérourédan, Monique; Dupouy, Véronique; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Oswald, Eric; Bibbal, Delphine
We compared the prevalence of pathogenic and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli in effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) receiving wastewater from a slaughterhouse. A total of 1248 isolates were screened for the presence of virulence genes associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) (stx1, stx2, and eae) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) (sfa/focDE, kpsMT K1, hlyA, papEF, afa/draBC, clbN, f17A and cnf). The prevalence of atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was 0.7%, 0.2% and 0.5% in city wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater and in the treated effluent, respectively. One stx1a and stx2b-positive E. coli isolate was detected in city wastewater. The prevalence of ExPEC was significantly higher in city wastewater (8.4%), compared to slaughterhouse wastewater (1.2%). Treatment in the WWTP did not significantly impact the prevalence of ExPEC in the outlet effluent (5.0%) compared to city wastewater. Moreover, the most potentially pathogenic ExPEC were isolated from city wastewater and from the treated effluent. ESBL-producing E. coli was also mainly detected in city wastewater (1.7%), compared to slaughterhouse wastewater (0.2%), and treated effluent (0.2%). One ESBL-producing E. coli, isolated from city wastewater, was eae-β1 positive. These results showed that pathogenic and/or ESBL-producing E. coli were mainly detected in human wastewater, and at a lesser extend in animal wastewater. Treatment failed to eliminate these strains which were discharged into the river, and then these strains could be transmitted to animals and humans via the environment.
Parma, Y. R.; Chacana, P. A.; Lucchesi, P. M. A.; Rogé, A.; Granobles Velandia, C. V.; Krüger, A.; Parma, A. E.; Fernández-Miyakawa, M. E.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-Stx2B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933, and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 115 ng/ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for two strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. PMID:22919675
... is E. coli?E. coli is short for Escherichia coli -- bacteria (germs) that cause severe cramps and diarrhea. ... staff Tags: bacterial endotoxin, bloody diarrhea, enterohemorrhagic infection, Escherichia coli, food-borne illness, gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, HUS, thrombotic ...
Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N.
Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for production of the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon that is channeled to the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose as well as other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, as well as the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate and the reliability of the performance under scale-up are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery compatible process will determine the economical commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets. PMID:21932253
Shafritz, K M; Sandigursky, M; Franklin, W A
The bacteria Escherichia coli contains several exonucleases acting on both double- and single-stranded DNA and in both a 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' direction. These enzymes are involved in replicative, repair and recombination functions. We have identified a new exonuclease found in E.coli, termed exonuclease IX, that acts preferentially on single-stranded DNA as a 3'-->5' exonuclease and also functions as a 3'-phosphodiesterase on DNA containing 3'-incised apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites to remove the product trans -4-hydroxy-2-pentenal 5-phosphate. The enzyme showed essentially no activity as a deoxyribophosphodiesterase acting on 5'-incised AP sites. The activity was isolated as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein from a sequence of the E.coli genome that was 60% identical to a 260 bp region of the small fragment of the DNA polymerase I gene. The protein has a molecular weight of 28 kDa and is free of AP endonuclease and phosphatase activities. Exonuclease IX is expressed in E.coli , as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and it may function in the DNA base excision repair and other pathways. PMID:9592142
Miko, Angelika; Pries, Karin; Haby, Sabine; Steege, Katja; Albrecht, Nadine; Krause, Gladys; Beutin, Lothar
A total of 140 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from wildlife meat (deer, wild boar, and hare) isolated in Germany between 1998 and 2006 were characterized with respect to their serotypes and virulence markers associated with human pathogenicity. The strains grouped into 38 serotypes, but eight O groups (21, 146, 128, 113, 22, 88, 6, and 91) and four H types (21, 28, 2, and 8) accounted for 71.4% and 75.7% of all STEC strains from game, respectively. Eighteen of the serotypes, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O26:[H11] and O103:H2, were previously found to be associated with human illness. Genes linked to high-level virulence for humans (stx2, stx2d, and eae) were present in 46 (32.8%) STEC strains from game. Fifty-four STEC isolates from game belonged to serotypes which are frequently found in human patients (O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O91:H21, O128:H2, O146:H21, and O146:H28). These 54 STEC isolates were compared with 101 STEC isolates belonging to the same serotypes isolated from farm animals, from their food products, and from human patients. Within a given serotype, most STEC strains were similar with respect to their stx genotypes and other virulence attributes, regardless of origin. The 155 STEC strains were analyzed for genetic similarity by XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. O103:H2, O26:H11, O113:H21, O128:H2, and O146:H28 STEC isolates from game were 85 to 100% similar to STEC isolates of the same strains from human patients. By multilocus sequence typing, game EHEC O103:H2 strains were attributed to a clonal lineage associated with hemorrhagic diseases in humans. The results from our study indicate that game animals represent a reservoir for and a potential source of human pathogenic STEC and EHEC strains. PMID:19700552
Miko, Angelika; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Strockbine, Nancy A; Lindstedt, Björn Arne; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Reetz, Jochen; Beutin, Lothar
Sixty-two Escherichia coli strains carrying the wzxO104-gene from different sources, origins and time periods were analyzed for their serotypes, virulence genes and compared for genomic similarity by pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE). The O104 antigen was present in 55 strains and the structurally and genetically related capsular antigen K9 in five strains. The presence of 49 genes associated with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) was investigated. Fifty-four strains of serotypes O104:H2 (n=1), O104:H4 (n=37), O104:H7 (n=5) and O104:H21 (n=11) produced Shiga-toxins (Stx). Among STEC O104, a close association between serotype, virulence gene profile and genomic similarity was found. EAEC virulence genes were only present in STEC O104:H4 strains. EHEC-O157 plasmid-encoded genes were only found in STEC O104:H2, O104:H7 and O104:H21 strains. None of the 62 O104 or K9 strains carried an eae-gene involved in the attaching and effacing phenotype. The 38 O104:H4 strains formed a single PFGE-cluster (>83.7% similarity). Thirty-one of these strains were from the European O104:H4 outbreak in 2011. The outbreak strains and older O104:H4 strains from Germany (2001), Georgia and France (2009) clustered together at>86.2% similarity. O104:H4 strains isolated between 2001 and 2009 differed for some plasmid-encoded virulence genes compared to the outbreak strains from 2011. STEC O104:H21 and STEC O104:H7 strains isolated in the U.S. and in Europe showed characteristic differences in their Stx-types, virulence gene and PFGE profiles indicating that these have evolved separately. E. coli K9 strains were not associated with virulence and were heterogeneous for their serotypes and PFGE profiles.
Schuster, Greta L; Donaldson, Janet R; Buntyn, Joe O; Duoss, Heather A; Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeff A; Falkenberg, Shollie M; Schmidt, Ty B
Researchers have documented that the housefly (Musca domestica) can serve as a vector for the spread of foodborne pathogens to livestock, food, and humans. Most studies have investigated Musca domestica as a vector only after the fly comes into contact or consumes the pathogen as an adult. The objective of this study was to determine whether the larvae of Musca domestica could ingest Escherichia coli from bovine manure and whether the E. coli could survive the metamorphosis process and be transmitted. Larvae (n=960) were incubated in sterilized bovine manure inoculated with 0, 3, 5, and 8 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of bioluminescent E. coli for 24 (larvae stage), 48 (larvae stage), 120 (pupae stage), and 192 h (adult stage). Larvae incubated for 24 h in bovine manure possessed 0.0, 2.7, 2.9, and 3.5 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli, from inoculated with 0, 3, 5, and 8 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli, respectively. Concentrations of E. coli within the pupae were 0.0, 1.7, 1.9, and 2.2 log(10) CFU/mL for each inoculation concentration, respectively. Flies that emerged from the pupae stage contained 0.0, 1.3, 2.2, and 1.7 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli from larvae incubated in manure inoculated with concentrations of E. coli, respectively. These results suggest the housefly can emerge with quantities of E. coli. While this was an enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), these data may suggest that if the fly is capable of retaining similar concentrations of an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), these concentrations may be capable of initiating illness in humans. Furthermore, the E. coli concentration within and on adult flies is related to environmental exposure. It must be noted that larvae were incubated in sterilized bovine manure, and there was no other bacterial competition for the E. coli. Thus, the rate of positive flies and concentrations present when flies emerged may vary under more realistic conditions.
Povolotsky, Tatyana L.
ABSTRACT The ubiquitous bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has recently become prominent as a trigger for biofilm formation in many bacteria. It is ge