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Sample records for non-o157 enterohemorrhagic escherichia

  1. Highly Virulent Non-O157 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Serotypes Reflect Similar Phylogenetic Lineages, Providing New Insights into the Evolution of EHEC

    PubMed Central

    Eichhorn, Inga; Heidemanns, Katrin; Semmler, Torsten; Kinnemann, Bianca; Mellmann, Alexander; Harmsen, Dag; Anjum, Muna F.; Schmidt, Herbert; Fruth, Angelika; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Heesemann, Jürgen; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Karch, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the causative agent of bloody diarrhea and extraintestinal sequelae in humans, most importantly hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Besides the bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxin gene (stx), EHEC harbors the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which confers the ability to cause attaching and effacing lesions. Currently, the vast majority of EHEC infections are caused by strains belonging to five O serogroups (the “big five”), which, in addition to O157, the most important, comprise O26, O103, O111, and O145. We hypothesize that these four non-O157 EHEC serotypes differ in their phylogenies. To test this hypothesis, we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to analyze a large collection of 250 isolates of these four O serogroups, which were isolated from diseased as well as healthy humans and cattle between 1952 and 2009. The majority of the EHEC isolates of O serogroups O26 and O111 clustered into one sequence type complex, STC29. Isolates of O103 clustered mainly in STC20, and most isolates of O145 were found within STC32. In addition to these EHEC strains, STC29 also included stx-negative E. coli strains, termed atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), yet another intestinal pathogenic E. coli group. The finding that aEPEC and EHEC isolates of non-O157 O serogroups share the same phylogeny suggests an ongoing microevolutionary scenario in which the phage-encoded Shiga toxin gene stx is transferred between aEPEC and EHEC. As a consequence, aEPEC strains of STC29 can be regarded as post- or pre-EHEC isolates. Therefore, STC29 incorporates phylogenetic information useful for unraveling the evolution of EHEC. PMID:26231647

  2. Interventions for the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 and non-O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on beef surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cutter, C N; Rivera-Betancourt, M

    2000-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine if slaughter interventions currently used by the meat industry are effective against Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT 104) and two non-O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Three separate experiments were conducted by inoculating prerigor beef surfaces with a bovine fecal slurry containing Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 (experiment 1), E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O111:H8 (experiment 2), or E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O26:H11 (experiment 3) and spray washing with water, hot water (72 degrees C), 2% acetic acid, 2% lactic acid, or 10% trisodium phosphate (15 s, 125 +/- 5 psi, 35 +/- 2 degrees C). Remaining bacterial populations were determined immediately after treatments (day 0), after 2 days of aerobic storage at 4 degrees C, and after 7, 21, and 35 days of vacuum-packaged storage at 4 degrees C. In addition to enumeration, confirmation of pathogen serotypes was performed for all treatments on all days. Of the interventions investigated, spray treatments with trisodium phosphate were the most effective, resulting in pathogen reductions of >3 log10 CFU/cm2, followed by 2% lactic acid and 2% acetic acid (>2 log10 CFU/cm2). Results also indicated that interventions used to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium on beef surfaces were equally effective against Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 immediately after treatment and again after long-term, refrigerated, vacuum-packaged storage. Similarly, E. coli O111:H8 and E. coli O26:H11 associated with beef surfaces were reduced by the interventions to approximately the same extent as E. coli O157:H7 immediately after treatment and again after long-term, refrigerated, vacuum-packaged storage. It was also demonstrated that phenotypic characterization may not be sufficient to identify EHECs and that the organisms should be further confirmed with antibody- or genetic-based techniques. Based on these findings, interventions used by the meat industry to

  3. Persistence of non-O157 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli on fresh produce surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: The illnesses attributed to non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have increased in the past decade with 22 foodborne outbreaks associated with non-O157 STEC. Lettuce and salad bars have been implicated in those outbreaks. Prevalence of the six major non-O157 STEC sero...

  4. Current trends in detecting non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Qianru; Kase, Julie A; Meng, Jianghong; Clotilde, Laurie M; Lin, Andrew; Ge, Beilei

    2013-08-01

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC) strains are increasingly recognized as important foodborne pathogens worldwide. Together with E. coli O157:H7, six additional STEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are now regulated as adulterants in certain raw beef products in the United States. However, effective detection and isolation of non-O157 STEC strains from food matrices remain challenging. In the past decade, great attention has been paid to developing rapid and reliable detection methods for STEC in general (targeting common virulence factors) and specific STEC serogroups in particular (targeting serogroup-specific traits). This review summarizes current trends in detecting non-O157 STEC in food, including culture, immunological, and molecular methods, as well as several novel technologies.

  5. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jincai; Mark Ibekwe, A; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2014-08-15

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups are known to cause serious diseases in human. However, research on the persistence of E. coli non-O157 serogroups in preharvest environment is limited. In the current study, we compared the survival behavior of E. coli O157 to that of non-O157 E. coli strains in agricultural soils collected from three major fresh produce growing areas of California (CA) and Arizona (AZ). Results showed that the nonpathogenic E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived longer than the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in Imperial Valley CA and Yuma AZ, but not in soils from the Salinas area. However, E. coli O157:NM was found to persist significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soil tested from the three regions. Furthermore, two non-O157 (E. coli O26:H21 and E. coli O103:H2) survived significantly longer than E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 in all soils tested. Pearson correlation analysis showed that survival of the E. coli strains was affected by different environmental factors. Our data suggest that survival of E. coli O157 and non-O157 may be strain and soil specific, and therefore, care must be taken in data interpretation with respect to survival of this pathogen in different soils.

  6. Effect of stress on non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157 STEC) have emerged as important food-borne pathogens worldwide. Non-O157 STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. While documentation is limited, tre...

  7. Characterization of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 Isolates from Ruminant Feces in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Perera, Asanthi; Clarke, Charles M; Dykes, Gary A; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and several other serogroups of non-O157 STEC are causative agents of severe disease in humans world-wide. The present study was conducted to characterize STEC O157 and non-O157 serogroups O26, O103, O111, O121, O45, and O145 in ruminants in Malaysia. A total of 136 ruminant feces samples were collected from 6 different farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Immunomagnetic beads were used to isolate E. coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups, while PCR was used for the detection and subtyping of STEC isolates. STEC O157:H7 was isolated from 6 (4%) feces samples and all isolates obtained carried stx 2c, eaeA-γ1, and ehxA. Non-O157 STEC was isolated from 2 (1.5%) feces samples with one isolate carrying stx 1a, stx 2a, stx 2c, and ehxA and the other carrying stx 1a alone. The presence of STEC O157 and non-O157 in a small percentage of ruminants in this study together with their virulence characteristics suggests that they may have limited impact on public health.

  8. Characterization of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 Isolates from Ruminant Feces in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Asanthi; Clarke, Charles M.; Dykes, Gary A.; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and several other serogroups of non-O157 STEC are causative agents of severe disease in humans world-wide. The present study was conducted to characterize STEC O157 and non-O157 serogroups O26, O103, O111, O121, O45, and O145 in ruminants in Malaysia. A total of 136 ruminant feces samples were collected from 6 different farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Immunomagnetic beads were used to isolate E. coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups, while PCR was used for the detection and subtyping of STEC isolates. STEC O157:H7 was isolated from 6 (4%) feces samples and all isolates obtained carried stx 2c,  eaeA-γ1, and ehxA. Non-O157 STEC was isolated from 2 (1.5%) feces samples with one isolate carrying stx 1a, stx 2a, stx 2c, and ehxA and the other carrying stx 1a alone. The presence of STEC O157 and non-O157 in a small percentage of ruminants in this study together with their virulence characteristics suggests that they may have limited impact on public health. PMID:26539484

  9. Classification of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli(STEC) serotypes with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. A conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and needs long time for the results. Since ...

  10. Genome Sequences of 64 Non-O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Rump, Lydia; Nagaraja, T. G.; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are human pathogens. Although >400 non-O157 serotypes have been involved in human disease, whole-genome sequencing information is missing for many serotypes. We sequenced 64 STEC strains comprising 38 serotypes, isolated from clinical sources, animals, and environmental samples, to improve the phylogenetic understanding of these important foodborne pathogens. PMID:26430026

  11. Biofilm formation of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) on equipment surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 has been the most commonly recognized STEC serotype responsible for foodborne outbreaks in the US. Numerous outbreaks associated with non-O157 serotypes have also been reported due to consumption of contaminated food. The ...

  12. Characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on veal hides and carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared to E....

  13. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in U. S. retail ground beef.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Te; Miller, Markus F; Loneragan, Guy H; Brooks, J Chance; Echeverry, Alejandro; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-07-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are the leading cause of STEC-associated infections in humans in the United States. In the United States, these organisms are considered adulterants in raw nonintact beef products and in intact beef destined to be made into or used in nonintact raw beef products. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the burden of the six serogroups of non-O157 STEC in ground beef obtained from retail stores across the United States. A convenience sample of commercial ground beef products (n = 1,129) were purchased from retail stores in 24 states from October 2011 to May 2012. The samples had various lean/fat proportions, muscle group of origin (chuck, round, sirloin, or not specified), and packaging types. For each ground beef sample, 25 g was inoculated in 225 ml of modified tryptic soy broth, stomached for 1 min, and then incubated at 41°C for 18 ± 2 h. These enrichment cultures were then screened for stx, eae, and O group genes using a commercially available, closed-platform PCR-based method. The potential positive samples were subjected to immunomagnetic separation and plated on modified Rainbow agar. Morphologically typical colonies were subjected to latex agglutination and PCR determination of stx and eae genes. Nine (0.8%) of the ground beef samples were potentially positive for at least one STEC serogroup after PCR screening. The serogroups detected by PCR assay were O26 (four samples), O103 (four samples), O145 (three samples), O45 (two samples), and O121 (one sample). No STEC isolates belonging to these serogroups were recovered from the sample cultures. The current research provides updated surveillance data for non-O157 STEC isolates among commercial ground beef products and information regarding the potential sources of contamination from different parts of beef trims destined for ground beef production.

  14. Shiga Toxin Subtypes of Non-O157 Escherichia coli Serogroups Isolated from Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Pragathi B; Siepker, Chris; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, T G; Bai, Jianfa

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important foodborne pathogens responsible for human illnesses. Cattle are a major reservoir that harbor the organism in the hindgut and shed in the feces. Shiga toxins (Stx) are the primary virulence factors associated with STEC illnesses. The two antigenically distinct Stx types, Stx1 and Stx2, encoded by stx1 and stx2 genes, share approximately 56% amino acid sequence identity. Genetic variants exist within Stx1 and Stx2 based on differences in amino acid composition and in cytotoxicity. The objective of our study was to identify the stx subtypes in strains of STEC serogroups, other than O157, isolated from cattle feces. Shiga toxin gene carrying E. coli strains (n = 192), spanning 27 serogroups originating from cattle (n = 170) and human (n = 22) sources, were utilized in the study. Shiga toxin genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acid sequences using CLC main workbench software. Shiga toxin subtypes were identified based on the amino acid motifs that define each subtype. Shiga toxin genotypes were also identified at the nucleotide level by in silico restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Of the total 192 STEC strains, 93 (48.4%) were positive for stx1 only, 43 (22.4%) for stx2 only, and 56 (29.2%) for both stx1 and stx2. Among the 149 strains positive for stx1, 132 (88.6%) were stx1a and 17 (11.4%) were stx1c. Shiga toxin 1a was the most common subtype of stx1 among cattle (87.9%; 123/140) and human strains (100%; 9/9) of non-O157 serogroups. Of the total 99 strains positive for stx2, 79 were stx2a (79.8%), 11 (11.1%) were stx2c, 12 (12.1%) were stx2d. Of the 170 strains originating from cattle feces, 58 (34.1%) were stx2a subtype, 11 (6.5%) were stx2c subtype, and 11 were of subtype stx2d (6.5%). All but one of the human strains were positive for stx2a. Three strains of cattle origin were positive for both stx2a and stx2d. In conclusion, a number

  15. Growth and survival of non-O157:H7 Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cow manure.

    PubMed

    Fremaux, B; Delignette-Muller, M L; Prigent-Combaret, C; Gleizal, A; Vernozy-Rozand, C

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of non-O157:H7 Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains in cow manure. A mixture of eight green-fluorescent-protein-labelled STEC strains was inoculated around 10(6)-10(7) CFU g(-1) into four manure heaps. Two heaps were regularly turned and the two others remained unturned. STEC counts and physical parameters (temperature, pH, moisture content and oxido-reduction potential) were monitored for 1000 manure samples. The highest mean pH values were obtained near the surface at the base of all manure heaps. At the surface, the moisture content decreased from 76.5% to 42% in turned heaps. Temperatures reached 65 degrees C near the main body of all manure heaps, and only 35 degrees C near the superficial parts located at the base of them. These two sites (the centre and the base) were associated with D values for the STEC counts of 0.48 and 2.39 days, respectively. We were able to detect STEC strains during 42 days in turned manure heaps and during at least 90 days in unturned ones. These results emphasize the long-term survival of non-O157:H7 STEC in cow manure. Good management practices (e.g. turning) should be respected in order to minimize the risk of environmental contamination by STEC.

  16. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevalence associated with meat animals and controlling interventions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of non-O157 STEC in products of meat animals. There is a wide range in pathogenicity of STEC strains. Potential regulation in meat products is currently focused on the group of six O groups the CDC indicates accounts of 71% of non-O157 STEC illness...

  17. Serotypes and Virulence Profiles of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Bovine Farms▿

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Áine; Byrne, Brian; Fanning, Séamus; Sweeney, Torres; McDowell, David; Bolton, Declan J.

    2011-01-01

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are clinically significant food-borne pathogens. However, there is a dearth of information on serotype prevalence and virulence gene distribution, data essential for the development of public health protection monitoring and control activities for the meat and dairy industries. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of non-O157 STEC on beef and dairy farms and to characterize the isolates in terms of serotype and virulence markers. Bovine fecal samples (n = 1,200) and farm soil samples (n = 600) were collected from 20 farms throughout Ireland over a 12-month period. Shiga toxin-positive samples were cultured and colonies examined for the presence of stx1 and/or stx2 genes by PCR. Positive isolates were serotyped and examined for a range of virulence factors, including eaeA, hlyA, tir, espA, espB, katP, espP, etpD, saa, sab, toxB, iha, lpfAO157/OI-141, lpfAO113, and lpfAO157/OI-154. Shiga toxin and intimin genes were further examined for known variants. Significant numbers of fecal (40%) and soil (27%) samples were stx positive, with a surge observed in late summer-early autumn. One hundred seven STEC isolates were recovered, representing 17 serotypes. O26:H11 and O145:H28 were the most clinically significant, with O113:H4 being the most frequently isolated. However, O2:H27, O13/O15:H2, and ONT:H27 also carried stx1 and/or stx2 and eaeA and may be emerging pathogens. PMID:22003024

  18. Disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the big six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from food animals and humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 144 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. An overall moderate prevalence of 38.9% antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed in these strains. Animal strains had a lower p...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic farm animals in Northwestern Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and non-O157 is a matter of increasing concern. Inappropriate antimicrobial use in human and animal therapy has been associated with an acquired resistance in enteric microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to de...

  20. Inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Escherichia coli in brine-injected, gas-grilled steaks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We quantified translocation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) into beef subprimals following chemical tenderization and subsequently monitored their viability after cooking steaks cut therefrom. Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with c...

  1. Antimicrobial interventions for O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on beef subprimal and mechanically tenderized steaks.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Te; Brooks, J Chance; Martin, Jennifer N; Echeverry, Alejandro; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an emerging risk for food safety. Although numerous postharvest antimicrobial interventions have been effectively used to control E. coli O157:H7 during beef harvesting, research regarding their effectiveness against non-O157 STEC is scarce. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate effects of the spray treatments-ambient water, 5% lactic acid (LA), 200 ppm of hypobromous acid (HA), and 200 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (PA)-on the reduction of O157:H7 or non-O157 STEC (O26, O103, O111, and O145) with high (10(6) log CFU/50 cm(2)) or low (10(2) log CFU/50 cm(2)) levels on beef subprimals after vacuum storage for 14 days and (ii) to evaluate the association of the antimicrobial treatments and cooking (50 or 70°C) on the reduction of the pathogens in blade-tenderized steaks. The treatment effects were only observed (P = 0.012) on samples taken immediately after spray intervention treatment following inoculation with a high level of O157:H7. The LA and PA treatments significantly reduced low-inoculated non-O157 STEC after spray intervention; further, the LA and HA treatments resulted in significant reductions of non-O157 STEC on the low-inoculated samples after storage. Although cooking effectively reduced the detection of pathogens in internal steak samples, internalized E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC were able to survive in steaks cooked to a medium degree of doneness (70°C). This study indicated that the reduction on surface populations was not sufficient enough to eliminate the pathogen's detection following vacuum storage, mechanical tenderization, and cooking. Nevertheless, the findings of this study emphasize the necessity for a multihurdle approach and further investigations of factors that may influence thermal tolerance of internalized pathogenic STEC.

  2. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Brusa, Victoria; Restovich, Viviana; Galli, Lucía; Teitelbaum, David; Signorini, Marcelo; Brasesco, Hebe; Londero, Alejandra; García, Diego; Padola, Nora Lía; Superno, Valeria; Sanz, Marcelo; Petroli, Sandra; Costa, Magdalena; Bruzzone, Mariana; Sucari, Adriana; Ferreghini, Marcela; Linares, Luciano; Suberbie, Germán; Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965) from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193) from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%), 111 pools of cuts (5.8%) and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0%) were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200) were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b) and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a stringent

  3. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Victoria; Restovich, Viviana; Galli, Lucía; Teitelbaum, David; Signorini, Marcelo; Brasesco, Hebe; Londero, Alejandra; García, Diego; Padola, Nora Lía; Superno, Valeria; Sanz, Marcelo; Petroli, Sandra; Costa, Magdalena; Bruzzone, Mariana; Sucari, Adriana; Ferreghini, Marcela; Linares, Luciano; Suberbie, Germán; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2017-01-01

    Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965) from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193) from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%), 111 pools of cuts (5.8%) and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0%) were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200) were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b) and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a stringent

  4. Molecular and Phylogenetic Characterization of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains in China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiangning; Hu, Bin; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Ailan; Ba, Pengbin; Fu, Shanshan; Fan, Ruyue; Jin, Yujuan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Qiusheng; Xu, Xuebin; Lu, Shan; Xiong, Yanwen

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC strains from different resources in China and illustrate the role of animal reservoirs or animal-derived foodstuffs in human STEC infections. A collection of 301 non-O157 STEC isolates from domestic and wild animals (i.e., cattle, goat, pig, yak, pika, and antelope), raw meats (i.e., beef, pork, mutton, chicken, and duck), diarrheal patients, and healthy carriers in different regions of China were selected in this study. Of the 301 analyzed STEC isolates, 67 serogroups, and 118 serotypes were identified; this included some predominant serogroups associated with human disease, such as O26, O45, O103, O111, and O121. Eighteen different combinations of stx subtypes were found. Eleven isolates carried the intimin gene eae, 93 isolates contained ehxA, and 73 isolates carried astA. The prevalence of other putative adhesion genes saa, paa, efa1, and toxB was 28.90% (87), 6.98% (21), 2.31% (7), and 1% (3), respectively. The phylogenetic distribution of isolates was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety-four sequence types were assigned across the 301 isolates. A subset of isolates recovered from yak and pika residing in the similar wild environments, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, showed similar genetic profiles and more tendencies to cluster together. Isolates from goat and mutton exhibited close genetic relatedness with those from human-derived isolates, providing evidence that transmission may have occurred locally within intraspecies or interspecies, and importantly, from animal reservoirs, or raw meats to humans. Comparing isolates in this study with highly virulent strains by MLST, along with serotyping and virulence profiles, it is conceivable that some of isolates from goat, yak, or raw meats may have potential

  5. Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 Isolates Are More Susceptible to l-Lactate than to d-Lactate

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, E. C. McWilliam; Stewart, C. S.

    2002-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of l-lactate was much greater than that of d-lactate over a range of concentrations for Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains. Despite this, the intracellular pHs and membrane potentials of l-lactate- and d-lactate-treated cells were similar, suggesting that these factors are not involved in the antimicrobial action of l-lactate. PMID:12200331

  6. Acid resistance and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and different Non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli serogroups

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and...

  7. Evaluation of detection methods for non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Bavo; Van Damme, Inge; Heyndrickx, Marc; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Verstraete, Karen; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah; De Zutter, Lieven; De Reu, Koen

    2016-02-16

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major foodborne pathogen of concern across the globe. Rapid detection and isolation of this pathogen is of great importance for public health reasons. In this study the detection and isolation of four non-O157 STEC strains (O26, O103, O111, O145) from different artificially contaminated matrices, namely ground (minced) beef, cattle carcass swab, lettuce mix and sprouted soy beans, were evaluated. Low amounts of STEC were used (0.25-1.40 cfu/g) to spike the samples. All samples were enriched in parallel in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) and Brila broth. After enrichment, detection was performed using real-time PCR (qPCR), and isolation using two chromogenic agar media, CHROMagar™ STEC and ChromID™ EHEC. Inoculation on the agar media was performed either directly after enrichment or after the use of an acid treatment procedure. Furthermore, the use of this procedure was also tested on naturally contaminated food products, using 150 stx-positive samples. Although the qPCR Cycle Threshold (Ct) values were lower after enrichment in Brila broth, no significant differences in recovery were observed between both enrichment broths. Both agar media were equally suitable for the isolation of STEC, although a significantly higher recovery was obtained when using both agar media in parallel. For samples with a Ct value above 25, an acid treatment step prior to isolation ensured a significant improvement in the recovery of STEC due to the reduction in background microbiota. This acid treatment procedure proved especially useful for the isolation of STEC from sprouted soy bean samples.

  8. Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on Veal Hides and Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Hinkley, Susanne; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared with E. coli O157:H7-positive samples collected from veal trimmings than from products produced from other cattle slaughter classes. Therefore samples were collected from hides and preevisceration carcasses at five veal processors to assess E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC contamination during bob veal and formula-fed veal dressing procedures. E. coli O157:H7 prevalence was measured by culture isolation and found to be on 20.3% of hides and 6.7% of carcasses. In contrast, a non-O157 EHEC molecular screening assay identified 90.3% of hides and 68.2% of carcasses as positive. Only carcass samples were taken forward to culture confirmation and 38.7% yielded one or more non-O157 EHEC isolates. The recovery of an EHEC varied by plant and sample collection date; values ranged from 2.1 to 87.8% among plants and from 4.2 to 64.2% within the same plant. Three plants were resampled after changes were made to sanitary dressing procedures. Between the two collection times at the three plants, hide-to-carcass transfer of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC was significantly reduced. All adulterant EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were isolated from veal carcasses as well as four other potentially pathogenic serogroups (O5, O84, O118, and O177). Bob veal was found to have a greater culture prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and greater positive molecular screens for non-O157 EHEC than formula-fed veal (P < 0.05), but the percentage of culture-confirmed non-O157 EHEC was not different (P > 0.05) between the two types of calves. EHEC-O26, -O111, and -O121 were found more often in bob veal (P < 0.05), whereas EHEC-O103 was found more often in formula-fed veal (P < 0.05).

  9. Topological data analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 survival in soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in major fresh produce-growing soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different ...

  10. Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli , and Salmonella in Water and Hydroponic Fertilizer Solutions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Angela; Helterbran, Kara; Evans, Michael R; Currey, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    The desire for local, fresh produce year round is driving the growth of hydroponic growing systems in the United States. Many food crops, such as leafy greens and culinary herbs, grown within hydroponics systems have their root systems submerged in recirculating nutrient-dense fertilizer solutions from planting through harvest. If a foodborne pathogen were introduced into this water system, the risk of contamination to the entire crop would be high. Hence, this study was designed to determine whether Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli , and Salmonella were able to survive and reproduce in two common hydroponic fertilizer solutions and in water or whether the bacteria would be killed or suppressed by the fertilizer solutions. All the pathogens grew by 1 to 6 log CFU/ml over a 24-h period, depending on the solution. E. coli O157:H7 reached higher levels in the fertilizer solution with plants (3.12 log CFU/ml), whereas non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and Salmonella reached higher levels in the fertilizer solution without plants (1.36 to 3.77 log CFU/ml). The foodborne pathogens evaluated here survived for 24 h in the fertilizer solution, and populations grew more rapidly in these solutions than in plain water. Therefore, human pathogens entering the fertilizer solution tanks in hydroponic systems would be expected to rapidly propagate and spread throughout the system and potentially contaminate the entire crop.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 from beef carcasses at a slaughter plant in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Varela-Hernández, J J; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Cardona-López, M A; Ibarra-Velázquez, L M; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Castillo, A; Torres-Vitela, M R; Ramírez-Alvarez, A

    2007-01-25

    The contamination of beef carcasses with Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC) obtained from a slaughter plant in Guadalajara, Mexico was investigated. A total of 258 beef carcasses were sampled during a 12-month period. All samples were assayed for STEC by selective enrichment in modified tryptone soy broth supplemented with cefixime, cefsulodin and vancomycin, followed by plating on Sorbitol MacConkey Agar supplemented with cefixime and tellurite (CT-SMAC). Simultaneously, all samples were assayed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and plated on CT-SMAC and CHROMagar. The presence of the stx1, stx2, eaeA and hly933 genes, recognized as major virulence factors of STEC, was tested for O157:H7 and non-O157 E. coli isolates by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STEC was detected in two (0.8%) samples. One of these STEC isolates corresponded to the serotype O157:H7 showing stx2, eaeA and hyl933 genes. The other isolate corresponded to non-O157 STEC and only had the stx1 gene. Thirteen carcasses (5%) were positive for nonmotile E. coli O157 and 7 (2.7%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7. The presence of O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC on beef carcasses in this slaughter plant in Guadalajara, Mexico, emphasizes the importance of implementing the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as well as the need for implementing, evaluating, and validating antimicrobial interventions to reduce the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 recovered from domestic farm animals in rural communities in Northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A; Quiñones, Beatriz; Soto-Beltrán, Marcela; Lee, Bertram G; Yambao, Jaszemyn C; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia Y; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and non-O157 is a matter of increasing concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of STEC O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic farm animals in the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Northwestern Mexico. All of the examined STEC strains showed susceptibility to five antimicrobials, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. However, resistance to the four antimicrobials, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin was commonly observed. Interestingly, non-susceptibility to cephalothin was predominant among the examined STEC strains, corresponding to 85 % (22/26) of the O157:H7 from cattle, sheep and chicken and 73 % (24/33) of the non-O157 strains from cattle and sheep. Statistical analyses revealed that resistance to ampicillin was significantly correlated to 38 % (10/26) of STEC O157:H7 strains from multiple animal sources. Another significant correlation was found between serotype, source, and antimicrobial resistance; all of the O20:H4 strains, recovered from sheep, were highly resistant to tetracycline. Multidrug resistance profiles were identified in 42 % (22/53) of the non-susceptible STEC strains with clinically-relevant serotypes O8:H9, O75:H8, O146:H21, and O157:H7. STEC O157 and non-O157 strains, recovered from domestic farm animals in the Culiacan Valley, exhibited resistance to classes of antimicrobials commonly used in Mexico, such as aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins and penicillin but were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, quinolones, and sulfonamides. These findings provide fundamental information that would aid in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in an important agricultural region in Northwestern Mexico.

  13. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Biofilm Forming Capabilities in Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Christopher S.; Cottrell, Bryan J.; Strobaugh Jr, Terence P.; Paoli, George C.; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Yan, Xianghe

    2013-01-01

    The biofilm life style helps bacteria resist oxidative stress, desiccation, antibiotic treatment, and starvation. Biofilm formation involves a complex regulatory gene network controlled by various environmental signals. It was previously shown that prophage insertions in mlrA and heterogeneous mutations in rpoS constituted major obstacles limiting biofilm formation and the expression of extracellular curli fibers in strains of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7. The purpose of this study was to test strains from other important serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, and O145) for similar regulatory restrictions. In a small but diverse collection of biofilm-forming and non-forming strains, mlrA prophage insertions were identified in only 4 of the 19 strains (serotypes O103, O113, and O145). Only the STEC O103 and O113 strains could be complemented by a trans-copy of mlrA to restore curli production and Congo red (CR) dye affinity. RpoS mutations were found in 5 strains (4 serotypes), each with low CR affinity, and the defects were moderately restored by a wild-type copy of rpoS in 2 of the 3 strains attempted. Fourteen strains in this study showed no or weak biofilm formation, of which 9 could be explained by prophage insertions or rpoS mutations. However, each of the remaining five biofilm-deficient strains, as well as the two O145 strains that could not be complemented by mlrA, showed complete or nearly complete lack of motility. This study indicates that mlrA prophage insertions and rpoS mutations do limit biofilm and curli expression in the non-serotype O157:H7 STEC but prophage insertions may not be as common as in serotype O157:H7 strains. The results also suggest that lack of motility provides a third major factor limiting biofilm formation in the non-O157:H7 STEC. Understanding biofilm regulatory mechanisms will prove beneficial in reducing pathogen survival and enhancing food safety. PMID:24386426

  14. Adherence of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli to Bovine Recto-anal Junction Squamous Epithelial Cells Appears to Be Mediated by Mechanisms Distinct from Those Used by O157

    PubMed Central

    Hovde, Carolyn J.; John, Manohar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study presents evidence that the pattern (diffuse or aggregative) of adherence of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells is similar to that of E. coli O157, although the mechanisms of adherence appear to be distinct. Our results further suggest that novel adhesins, and not Intimin, are likely involved in non-O157 STEC adherence to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells. These findings have important implications for the development of efficacious modalities for blocking adherence of non-O157 STEC to bovine gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID:23510495

  15. Changes in Gene Transcription Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 Serotypes on Romaine Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Gui-Ying; Tang, Joshua; Bach, Susan; Kostrzynska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Disease outbreaks of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes associated with leafy green vegetables are becoming a growing concern. A better understanding of the behavior of VTEC, particularly non-O157 serotypes, on lettuce under stress conditions is necessary for designing more effective control strategies. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a sanitizer to reduce the microbial load in leafy green vegetables, particularly in fresh produce destined for the organic market. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that H2O2 treatment of contaminated lettuce affects in the same manner transcription of stress-associated and virulence genes in VTEC strains representing O157 and non-O157 serotypes. Six VTEC isolates representing serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O104:H4, O111:NM, O145:NM, and O157:H7 were included in this study. The results indicate that 50 mM H2O2 caused a population reduction of 2.4–2.8 log10 (compared to non-treated control samples) in all six VTEC strains present on romaine lettuce. Following the treatment, the transcription of genes related to oxidative stress (oxyR and sodA), general stress (uspA and rpoS), starvation (phoA), acid stress (gadA, gadB, and gadW), and virulence (stx1A, stx2A, and fliC) were dramatically downregulated in all six VTEC serotypes (P ≤ 0.05) compared to not treated control samples. Therefore, VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce showed similar survival rates and gene transcription profiles in response to 50 mM H2O2 treatment. Thus, the results derived from this study provide a basic understanding of the influence of H2O2 treatment on the survival and virulence of VTEC O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes on lettuce. PMID:28377761

  16. Topological data analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 survival in soils

    PubMed Central

    Ibekwe, Abasiofiok M.; Ma, Jincai; Crowley, David E.; Yang, Ching-Hong; Johnson, Alexis M.; Petrossian, Tanya C.; Lum, Pek Y.

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different environmental variables and bacterial taxa. There is a continuing need to distinguish the various environmental variables and different bacterial groups to understand the relationships among these factors and the pathogen survival. Using an approach called Topological Data Analysis (TDA); we reconstructed the relationship structure of E. coli O157 and non-O157 survival in 32 soils (16 organic and 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) with a multi-resolution output. In our study, we took a community approach based on total soil microbiome to study community level survival and examining the network of the community as a whole and the relationship between its topology and biological processes. TDA produces a geometric representation of complex data sets. Network analysis showed that Shiga toxin negative strain E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived significantly longer in comparison to E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933, while the survival time of E. coli O157:NM was comparable to that of E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933 in all of the tested soils. Two non-O157 strains, E. coli O26:H11 and E. coli O103:H2 survived much longer than E. coli O91:H21 and the three strains of E. coli O157. We show that there are complex interactions between E. coli strain survival, microbial community structures, and soil parameters. PMID:25250242

  17. Topological data analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 survival in soils.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, Abasiofiok M; Ma, Jincai; Crowley, David E; Yang, Ching-Hong; Johnson, Alexis M; Petrossian, Tanya C; Lum, Pek Y

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 have been implicated in many foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. However, data on their persistence in soils are limited due to the complexity in datasets generated from different environmental variables and bacterial taxa. There is a continuing need to distinguish the various environmental variables and different bacterial groups to understand the relationships among these factors and the pathogen survival. Using an approach called Topological Data Analysis (TDA); we reconstructed the relationship structure of E. coli O157 and non-O157 survival in 32 soils (16 organic and 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) with a multi-resolution output. In our study, we took a community approach based on total soil microbiome to study community level survival and examining the network of the community as a whole and the relationship between its topology and biological processes. TDA produces a geometric representation of complex data sets. Network analysis showed that Shiga toxin negative strain E. coli O157:H7 4554 survived significantly longer in comparison to E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933, while the survival time of E. coli O157:NM was comparable to that of E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933 in all of the tested soils. Two non-O157 strains, E. coli O26:H11 and E. coli O103:H2 survived much longer than E. coli O91:H21 and the three strains of E. coli O157. We show that there are complex interactions between E. coli strain survival, microbial community structures, and soil parameters.

  18. Feces of feedlot cattle contain a diversity of bacteriophages that lyse non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaying; Niu, Yan D; Chen, Jinding; Anany, Hany; Ackermann, Hans-W; Johnson, Roger P; Ateba, Collins N; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize bacteriophages that lyse non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle feces. Of 37 non-O157 STEC-infecting phages isolated, those targeting O26 (AXO26A, AYO26A, AYO26B), O103 (AXO103A, AYO103A), O111 (AXO111A, AYO111A), O121 (AXO121A, AXO121B), and O145 (AYO145A, AYO145B) were further characterized. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the 11 isolates belonged to 3 families and 6 genera: the families Myoviridae (types rV5, T4, ViI, O1), Siphoviridae (type T5), and Podoviridae (type T7). Genome size of the phages as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ranged from 38 to 177 kb. Excluding phages AXO26A, AYO103A, AYO145A, and AYO145B, all other phages were capable of lysing more than 1 clinically important strain from serogroups of O26, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, and O128, but none exhibited infectivity across all serogroups. Moreover, phages AYO26A, AXO121A, and AXO121B were also able to lyse 4 common phage types of STEC O157:H7. Our findings show that a diversity of non-O157 STEC-infecting phages are harbored in bovine feces. Phages AYO26A, AYO26B, AXO103A, AXO111A, AYO111A, AXO121A, and AXO121B exhibited a broad host range against a number of serogroups of STEC and have potential for the biocontrol of STEC in the environment.

  19. Characterization of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy fat-tailed sheep in southeastern of Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarpour, Reza; Kiani, Mojtaba

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence and prevalence of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from faeces of healthy fat-tailed sheep and detection of phylogenetic background and antibiotic resistance profile of isolates. One hundred ninety-two E. coli isolates were recovered from obtained rectal swabs and were confirmed by biochemical tests. Antibiotic resistance profiles of isolates were detected and phylogenetic background of isolates was determined according to the presence of the chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2 genetic markers. The isolates were examined to determine stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes. Non-O157 STEC isolates were identified by using O157 specific antiserum. Forty-three isolates (22.40 %) were positive for one of the stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes, whereas 10.42 % were positive for stx (1), 19.38 % for eae and 2.60 % for stx (2) gene. None of the positive isolates belonged to O157 serogroup. Twenty isolates possessed stx ( 1 ) were distributed in A (six isolates), B1 (13) and D (one) phylogroups, whereas stx (2) positive isolates fell into A (three isolates) and B1 (two) phylogenetic groups. Eighteen isolates contained eae gene belonged to A (five isolates), B1 (seven) and D (six) phylogroups. The maximum and minimum resistance rates were recorded against to penicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. The positive isolates for stx (1), stx (2) and eae genes showed several antibiotic resistance patterns, whereas belonged to A, B1 and D phylogroups. In conclusion, faeces of healthy sheep could be considered as the important sources of non-O157 STEC and also multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates.

  20. Detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in 375 grams of beef trim enrichments across multiple commercial PCR detection platforms.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarita Raengpradub; Heard, Preciaus; Dufour, Christophe; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine; Loukiadis, Estelle; Flowers, Russell S; McMahon, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Although serotype O157:H7 remains the pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of primary concern worldwide, some focus in the United States has shifted to six particular non-O157 STEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). Some of these serogroups have also emerged as concerns elsewhere around the world, including Europe. The objective of this work was to compare commercial detection methods with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reference method for detection of non-O157 STEC in 375 g of beef trim using a limit of detection study design. Overall, the commercial platforms performed well, showing similar levels of sensitivity for detection of presumptive positives for O45, O26, O103, and O121 (PCR screen results only). For O111, one method that utilizes an integrated immunomagnetic separation and PCR approach was more sensitive than a PCR-only screen approach. Additionally, one commercial method showed more presumptive and confirmed positives overall. Use of an immunomagnetic separation tool, such as antibody-coated beads, aided considerably with the confirmation procedures and is an important step when confirming suspect samples. A secondary goal of this study was to evaluate isolation and International Organization for Standardization confirmation protocols used in Europe compared with strategies provided by the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG). Generally, results from the USDA confirmation plates (modified Rainbow agar) were better than the European Union confirmation plates (MacConkey agar with or without rhamnose). In summary, detection of non-O157 STEC in 375 g of beef trim can be performed by any of the three methods on the market evaluated in the study.

  1. Non-O157:H7 Shiga Toxin Producing Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in Southern India: A Tinderbox for Starting Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Subrana; Metgud, Sharada

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Outbreaks due to non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) resulting in Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS) have garnered much attention because of associated mortality transcending across continents and also because diarrhoea due to E.coli itself is rare in developed countries. The actual incidence of non-O157:H7 STEC in sporadic acute diarrhoea is not fully elucidated, both in developing as well as in developed countries. Due to larger extent of faecal-oral transmission in developing countries it is prudent to look for non-O157: H7 STEC in such epidemiological settings because of very high potential to spread across larger geographical regions and cause life threatening illness. Aim To determine the extent of acute diarrhoea caused by Shiga toxin producing E. coli and measure their genotypic diversity. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional study and conducted between 2009-2011 in department of Microbiology at JN Medical College Belgaum (Karnataka) and Regional Medical Research Center, Belgaum (RMRC-ICMR). Stool samples from 300 sporadic cases of acute diarrhoea were processed by microscopy, culture, for the identification of diarrhoeagenic pathogens viz. Vibrio cholera, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and protozoan parasites. PCR was performed for the detection of eae and stx genes in E. coli isolates. Their relatedness was determined by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Results PCR detected stx along with eae in 23.2% culture isolates of E.coli isolated from diarrhoea samples. Only three isolates were identified as STEC by serology as O59, O60 and O69 serotypes. Eleven clones were detected by RAPD fingerprinting in the 46 STEC isolates. Conclusion Non-O157:H7 STEC are prevalent in this region and laboratories shall look beyond O157:H7 serotype of E.coli. These isolates have potential of causing outbreaks transcending borders. Hence they shall be reported and efforts be made to identify their

  2. Genotypic Analyses of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 Recovered from Feces of Domestic Animals on Rural Farms in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Cooley, Michael B.; León-Félix, Josefina; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia; Mandrell, Robert E.; Jiménez, Maribel; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic enteric pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region located in Northwest Mexico. A total of 240 fecal samples from domestic animals were collected from five sampling sites in the Culiacan Valley and were subjected to an enrichment protocol followed by either direct plating or immunomagnetic separation before plating on selective media. Serotype O157:H7 isolates with the virulence genes stx2, eae, and ehxA were identified in 40% (26/65) of the recovered isolates from cattle, sheep and chicken feces. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped most O157:H7 isolates into two clusters with 98.6% homology. The use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) differentiated isolates that were indistinguishable by PFGE. Analysis of the allelic diversity of MLVA loci suggested that the O157:H7 isolates from this region were highly related. In contrast to O157:H7 isolates, a greater genotypic diversity was observed in the non-O157 isolates, resulting in 23 PFGE types and 14 MLVA types. The relevant non-O157 serotypes O8:H19, O75:H8, O111:H8 and O146:H21 represented 35.4% (23/65) of the recovered isolates. In particular, 18.5% (12/65) of all the isolates were serotype O75:H8, which was the most variable serotype by both PFGE and MLVA. The non-O157 isolates were predominantly recovered from sheep and were identified to harbor either one or two stx genes. Most non-O157 isolates were ehxA-positive (86.5%, 32/37) but only 10.8% (4/37) harbored eae. These findings indicate that zoonotic STEC with genotypes associated with human illness are present in animals on small farms within rural communities in the Culiacan Valley and emphasize the need for the development of control

  3. Genotypic analyses of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic animals on rural farms in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A; Quiñones, Beatriz; Cooley, Michael B; León-Félix, Josefina; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia; Mandrell, Robert E; Jiménez, Maribel; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic enteric pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region located in Northwest Mexico. A total of 240 fecal samples from domestic animals were collected from five sampling sites in the Culiacan Valley and were subjected to an enrichment protocol followed by either direct plating or immunomagnetic separation before plating on selective media. Serotype O157:H7 isolates with the virulence genes stx2, eae, and ehxA were identified in 40% (26/65) of the recovered isolates from cattle, sheep and chicken feces. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped most O157:H7 isolates into two clusters with 98.6% homology. The use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) differentiated isolates that were indistinguishable by PFGE. Analysis of the allelic diversity of MLVA loci suggested that the O157:H7 isolates from this region were highly related. In contrast to O157:H7 isolates, a greater genotypic diversity was observed in the non-O157 isolates, resulting in 23 PFGE types and 14 MLVA types. The relevant non-O157 serotypes O8:H19, O75:H8, O111:H8 and O146:H21 represented 35.4% (23/65) of the recovered isolates. In particular, 18.5% (12/65) of all the isolates were serotype O75:H8, which was the most variable serotype by both PFGE and MLVA. The non-O157 isolates were predominantly recovered from sheep and were identified to harbor either one or two stx genes. Most non-O157 isolates were ehxA-positive (86.5%, 32/37) but only 10.8% (4/37) harbored eae. These findings indicate that zoonotic STEC with genotypes associated with human illness are present in animals on small farms within rural communities in the Culiacan Valley and emphasize the need for the development of control

  4. Increased recognition of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States during 2000-2010: epidemiologic features and comparison with E. coli O157 infections.

    PubMed

    Gould, L Hannah; Mody, Rajal K; Ong, Kanyin L; Clogher, Paula; Cronquist, Alicia B; Garman, Katie N; Lathrop, Sarah; Medus, Carlota; Spina, Nancy L; Webb, Tameka H; White, Patricia L; Wymore, Katie; Gierke, Ruth E; Mahon, Barbara E; Griffin, Patricia M

    2013-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of diarrhea and the major cause of postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Non-O157 STEC infections are being recognized with greater frequency because of changing laboratory practices. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) site staff conducted active, population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed STEC infections. We assessed frequency and incidence of STEC infections by serogroup and examined and compared demographic factors, clinical characteristics, and frequency of international travel among patients. During 2000-2010, FoodNet sites reported 2006 cases of non-O157 STEC infection and 5688 cases of O157 STEC infections. The number of reported non-O157 STEC infections increased from an incidence of 0.12 per 100,000 population in 2000 to 0.95 per 100,000 in 2010; while the rate of O157 STEC infections decreased from 2.17 to 0.95 per 100,000. Among non-O157 STEC, six serogroups were most commonly reported: O26 (26%), O103 (22%), O111 (19%), O121 (6%), O45 (5%), and O145 (4%). Non-O157 STEC infections were more common among Hispanics, and infections were less severe than those caused by O157 STEC, but this varied by serogroup. Fewer non-O157 STEC infections were associated with outbreaks (7% versus 20% for O157), while more were associated with international travel (14% versus 3% for O157). Improved understanding of the epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC infections can inform food safety and other prevention efforts. To detect both O157 and non-O157 STEC infections, clinical laboratories should routinely and simultaneously test all stool specimens submitted for diagnosis of acute community-acquired diarrhea for O157 STEC and for Shiga toxin and ensure that isolates are sent to a public health laboratory for serotyping and subtyping.

  5. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in retail ground beef and pork in the Washington D.C. area.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wenting; Shen, Jinling; Li, Yi; Toro, Magaly A; Zhao, Shaohua; Ayers, Sherry; Najjar, Mohamed Badaoui; Meng, Jianghong

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in retail ground meat from the Washington D.C. area were investigated in this study. STEC from 480 ground beef and pork samples were identified using PCR screening followed by colony hybridization. The STEC isolates were serogrouped and examined for the presence of virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA), and antimicrobial susceptibility. PFGE was used to identify the clonal relationships of STEC isolates, and PCR-RFLP was employed to determine stx subtypes. In addition, the cytotoxicity of STEC isolates was determined using a Vero cell assay. STEC were identified in 12 (5.2%) of 231 ground pork and 13 (5.2%) of 249 ground beef samples. Among 32 STEC isolates recovered from the 25 samples, 12 (37.5%) carried stx2dact and 7 (21.9%) carried hlyA, but none carried eae. Nine isolates were identified as O91, and 17 (53.1%) isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Verotoxicity was detected in 26 (81.3%) of the STEC isolates. Thus, the retail ground meat was contaminated with a heterogeneous population of non-O157 STEC, some of which were potential human pathogens.

  6. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli: identification of non-O157:H7-Super-Shedding cows and related risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of human gastro-enteritis and extraintestinal sequelae, with ruminants, especially cattle, as the major source of infection and reservoir. In this study, the fecal STEC shedding of 133 dairy cows was analyzed over a period of twelve months by monthly sampling with the aim to investigate shedding patterns and risk factors. Results Overall, 24.7% (in total 407) of 1,646 fecal samples were tested positive for stx by PCR with inner-herd prevalences on the different farms of 11.1% to 32.3%. At individual levels, cows were stx-positive on zero to eight consecutive samplings. According to a strictly longitudinal definition of Super-Shedding, in the present study 14 cows were identified as Super-Shedders of non-O157 serotypes. Significant risk factors for the shedding of STEC were the month of sampling, the number of lactations and days in lactation, the nutritional condition, the somatic cell count and the content of protein in milk. Most notably, the presence of STEC Super-Shedding cows in the herd was a significant risk factor, revealing that STEC Super-Shedding is not restricted to STEC O157:H7 alone. Conclusions These data have implications for possible interventions, as removing single non-O157:H7 STEC Super-Shedding cattle from farms would significantly reduce STEC burden. PMID:20618953

  7. Seasonal prevalence of potentially positive non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bovine hides and carcasses in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Byron D; Echeverry, Alejandro; García, Lyda G; Brashears, M Todd; Miller, Markus F; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of potentially positive Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bovine hides and carcasses in three abattoirs in Costa Rica was estimated. Two export facilities (A and B) and one non-export establishment (C) were visited during the dry and rainy seasons of 2013. Swabs of hides pre-eviscerated and treated (180-220 peroxyacetic acid spray) carcasses were tested for the potential presence of STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. The prevalence on hides during the rainy season was 86.7, 96.7 and 96.7% for facilities A, B, and C, respectively. During the dry season, the prevalence on hides was significantly lower in plants A and B (40% and 26.7%, respectively), but was marginally associated with the season in plant C (76.7%, P=0.0523). The prevalence of non-O157 STEC markers on treated carcasses was low (0 to 3.3%), suggesting that all plants were effective in minimizing the target non-O157 STEC in beef destined for export and for domestic consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on alfalfa sprouts.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Data about the behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on seeds and alfalfa sprouts are not available. The behavior of STEC, EIEC, ETEC, and EPEC was determined during germination and sprouting of alfalfa seeds at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C and on alfalfa sprouts at 3 ± 2°C. When alfalfa seeds were inoculated with STEC, EIEC, ETEC, or EPEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 and 6 log CFU/g after 1 day at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seed germination and stored at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C, no growth was observed for any DEP during sprouting at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C for 9 days. Refrigeration reduced significantly (P < 0.0.5) the number of viable DEPs on sprouts after 20 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance for the safety of the sprouts.

  9. A case-control study of sporadic infection with O157 and non-O157 verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Piérard, D; Crowcroft, N; De Bock, S; Potters, D; Crabbe, G; Van Loock, F; Lauwers, S

    1999-06-01

    Potential risk factors for sporadic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in Belgium were investigated in a matched case-control study. Thirty-seven cases, 8 infected with O157 VTEC strains (all eaeA-positive), 29 with non-O157 VTEC strains (13 eaeA-positive and 16 eaeA-negative) and 69 matched controls were interviewed. In a conditional logistic regression analysis, consumption of fish appeared to be a risk factor for infection (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.25, P = 0.04). Contact with dogs (OR 0.27, P = 0.04) and consumption of shellfish (OR 0.19, P = 0.05) showed a negative association, corresponding to a decrease in risk. These findings might be explained if low level environmental exposure to VTEC induces protective immunity. Eating raw meat, a frequent habit in Belgium, or hamburgers, or eating in a fast-food restaurant was not more frequently reported by cases than controls. The exposures causing sporadic infections with VTEC, in particular non-O157 strains, may be very different from those which led to outbreaks, and may account for more cases overall.

  10. Virulence characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from food, humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinling; Rump, Lydia; Ju, Wenting; Shao, Jingdong; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-09-01

    A total of 359 non-O157 STEC isolates from food, humans and animals were examined for serotypes, Shiga toxin subtypes and intimin subtypes. Isolates solely harboring stx2 from the three sources were selected for Vero cell cytotoxicity test. stx subtypes in eae negative isolates were more diverse than in eae positive isolates primarily carrying stx2a. Four eae subtypes (eaeβ,eaeε1,eaeγ1 and eaeγ2/θ) were observed and correlated with serotypes and flagella. Food isolates showed more diverse serotypes, virulence factors and cell cytotoxicities than human isolates. Some isolates from produce belonged to serotypes that have been implicated in human diseases, carried stx2a or/and stx2dact and exhibited high cell cytotoxicity similar to human isolates. This indicates that foods can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic STEC isolates that may cause human diseases. Given the increased produce consumption and growing burden of foodborne outbreaks due to produce, produce safety should be given great importance.

  11. Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in bovine rectums and surface water streams on a beef cattle farm in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tanaro, José D; Galli, Lucía; Lound, Liliana H; Leotta, Gerardo A; Piaggio, Mercedes C; Carbonari, Carolina C; Irino, Kinue; Rivas, Marta

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to detect non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in bovine rectums and water in a beef cattle farm in Argentina, and to determine the pathogenic potential of the circulating strains. During the study, 292 rectal swabs from healthy animals and 79 environmental water samples were collected. The rectal swabs and one loop of the Moore swabs, enriched in Escherichia coli broth for 24 h at 37°C, were streaked on MacConkey agar plates and incubated overnight at 37°C. The isolates were characterized by biochemical tests and serotyped. Nonmotile STEC strains were typed for their H-specific (fliC) antigens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Isolates were characterized by detection of stx1, stx2, and their variants, eae, ehxA, and saa genes. Macrorestriction fragment analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using the PulseNet standardized protocol. From 371 samples analyzed, 36.6% of rectal swabs and 34.2% of water samples were non-O157 STEC-positive by PCR, and 110 strains from rectal swabs, but only three from water, were isolated. The strains were grouped into 24 different serotypes, from which, O103:[H2] (n = 12), O136:H12 (n = 8), O178:H19 (n = 8), and O103:NM (n = 5) were most prevalent, representing 29.2% of the isolates. Predominant genotypes were stx1/eae/ehxA (16.8%) and stx2/saa/ehxA (15.9%). PFGE analysis revealed 56 different patterns, with 65 strains grouped in 19 clusters of 100% similarity. Two STEC O124:H19 strains isolated from rectal swabs and water with a 5-month interval harbored the stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA genotype, and showed an indistinguishable PFGE profile. By comparison, some XbaI-PFGE patterns identified in the present study were identical to the profiles of strains isolated from human, food, and animal sources included in the Argentine PulseNet database. By PCR, similar non-O157 detection rates were found in rectal swabs and water. However, the methodology for water samples

  12. Multiplex Quantitative PCR Assays for the Detection and Quantification of the Six Major Non-O157 Escherichia coli Serogroups in Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, P B; Noll, L W; Shi, X; An, B; Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G; Bai, J

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, called non-O157 STEC, are important foodborne pathogens. Cattle, a major reservoir, harbor the organisms in the hindgut and shed them in the feces. Although limited data exist on fecal shedding, concentrations of non-O157 STEC in feces have not been reported. The objectives of our study were (i) to develop and validate two multiplex quantitative PCR (mqPCR) assays, targeting O-antigen genes of O26, O103, and O111 (mqPCR-1) and O45, O121, and O145 (mqPCR-2); (ii) to utilize the two assays, together with a previously developed four-plex qPCR assay (mqPCR-3) targeting the O157 antigen and three virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eae), to quantify seven serogroups and three virulence genes in cattle feces; and (iii) to compare the three mqPCR assays to a 10-plex conventional PCR (cPCR) targeting seven serogroups and three virulence genes and culture methods to detect seven E. coli serogroups in cattle feces. The two mqPCR assays (1 and 2) were shown to be specific to the target genes, and the detection limits were 4 and 2 log CFU/g of pure culture-spiked fecal samples, before and after enrichment, respectively. A total of 576 fecal samples collected from a feedlot were enriched in E. coli broth and were subjected to quantification (before enrichment) and detection (after enrichment). Of the 576 fecal samples subjected, before enrichment, to three mqPCR assays for quantification, 175 (30.4%) were quantifiable (≥4 log CFU/g) for at least one of the seven serogroups, with O157 being the most common serogroup. The three mqPCR assays detected higher proportions of postenriched fecal samples (P > 0.01) as positive for one or more serogroups compared with cPCR and culture methods. This is the first study to assess the applicability of qPCR assays to detect and quantify six non-O157 serogroups in cattle feces and to generate data on fecal concentration of the six serogroups.

  13. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups on spread plates of mixed cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Windham, William R.; Ladely, Scott; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging for rapid presumptive-positive screening of six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) on spread plates of mixed cultures. Although the traditional culture method is still the "gold standard" for presumptive-positive pathogen screening, it is time-consuming, labor-intensive, not effective in testing large amount of food samples, and cannot completely prevent unwanted background microflora from growing together with target microorganisms on agar media. A previous study was performed using the data obtained from pure cultures individually inoculated on spot and/or spread plates in order to develop multivariate classification models differentiating each colony of the six non-O157 STEC serogroups and to optimize the models in terms of parameters. This study dealt with the validation of the trained and optimized models with a test set of new independent samples obtained from colonies on spread plates of mixed cultures. A new validation protocol appropriate to a hyperspectral imaging study for mixed cultures was developed. One imaging experiment with colonies obtained from two serial dilutions was performed. A total of six agar plates were prepared, where O45, O111 and O121 serogroups were inoculated into all six plates and each of O45, O103 and O145 serogroups was added into the mixture of the three common bacterial cultures. The number of colonies grown after 24-h incubation was 331 and the number of pixels associated with the grown colonies was 16,379. The best model found from this validation study was based on pre-processing with standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD), first derivative, spectral smoothing, and k-nearest neighbor classification (kNN, k=3) of scores in the principal component subspace spanned by 6 principal components. The independent testing results showed 95% overall

  14. The effects of free chlorine concentration, organic load, and exposure time on the inactivation of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the effects of free chlorine (FC) concentration, contact time, and organic load on the inactivation of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in suspension. Four strains each of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, or non-O157 STEC cells were inoculated separately or as a multi-...

  15. Detection and Prevalence of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 and Non-O157 Serotypes in a Canadian Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R. P.; Holtslander, B.; Mazzocco, A.; Roche, S.; Thomas, J. L.; Pollari, F.

    2014-01-01

    Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains are the cause of food-borne and waterborne illnesses around the world. Traditionally, surveillance of the human population as well as the environment has focused on the detection of E. coli O157:H7. Recently, increasing recognition of non-O157 VTEC strains as human pathogens and the German O104:H4 food-borne outbreak have illustrated the importance of considering the broader group of VTEC organisms from a public health perspective. This study presents the results of a comparison of three methods for the detection of VTEC in surface water, highlighting the efficacy of a direct VT immunoblotting method without broth enrichment for detection and isolation of O157 and non-O157 VTEC strains. The direct immunoblot method eliminates the need for an enrichment step or the use of immunomagnetic separation. This method was developed after 4 years of detecting low frequencies (1%) of E. coli O157:H7 in surface water in a Canadian watershed, situated within one of the FoodNet Canada integrated surveillance sites. By the direct immunoblot method, VTEC prevalence estimates ranged from 11 to 35% for this watershed, and E. coli O157:H7 prevalence increased to 4% (due to improved method sensitivity). This direct testing method provides an efficient means to enhance our understanding of the prevalence and types of VTEC in the environment. This study employed a rapid evidence assessment (REA) approach to frame the watershed findings with watershed E. coli O157:H7 prevalences reported in the literature since 1990 and the knowledge gap with respect to VTEC detection in surface waters. PMID:24487525

  16. Disinfectant and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of the Big Six Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains from Food Animals and Humans.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ross C; Franz, Eelco; Bono, James L; Mandrell, Robert E; Fratamico, Pina M; Callaway, Todd R; Andrews, Kathleen; Poole, Toni L; Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2016-08-01

    The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 138 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was moderate (39.1% of strains) in response to 15 antimicrobial agents. Animal strains had a lower AMR prevalence (35.6%) than did human strains (43.9%) but a higher prevalence of the resistance profile GEN-KAN-TET. A decreasing prevalence of AMR was found among animal strains from serogroups O45 > O145 > O121 > O111 > O26 > O103 and among human strains from serogroups O145 > O103 > O26 > O111 > O121 > O45. One animal strain from serogroups O121 and O145 and one human strain from serogroup O26 had extensive drug resistance. A high prevalence of AMR in animal O45 and O121 strains and no resistance or a low prevalence of resistance in human strains from these serogroups suggests a source other than food animals for human exposure to these strains. Among the 24 disinfectants evaluated, all strains were susceptible to triclosan. Animal strains had a higher prevalence of resistance to chlorhexidine than did human strains. Both animal and human strains had a similar low prevalence of low-level benzalkonium chloride resistance, and animal and human strains had similar susceptibility profiles for most other disinfectants. Benzyldimethylammonium chlorides and C10AC were the primary active components in disinfectants DC&R and P-128, respectively, against non-O157 STECs. A disinfectant FS512 MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml was more prevalent among animal O121 strains (61.5%) than among human O121 strains (25%), which may also suggest a source of human exposure to STEC O121 other than food animals. Bacterial inhibition was not dependent solely on pH but was correlated with the presence of dissociated organic acid species and some undissociated acids.

  17. Mathematical modeling and numerical analysis of the growth of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in spinach leaves and to develop kinetic models to describe the bacterial growth. Six serogroups of non-O157 STEC, including O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, were used in the growth studies conducted isothermally at 4, 8, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. Both STEC and background microflora were enumerated to develop kinetic models. Growth of STEC in spinach leaves was observed at elevated temperatures (15-35 °C), but not at 4 and 8 °C. This study considered the dynamic interactions between the STEC cells and the background microflora. A modified Lotka-Volterra and logistic equation was used to simulate the bacterial growth. In combination with an unconstrained optimization procedure, the differential growth equations were solved numerically to evaluate the dynamic interactions between the STEC cells and the background microflora, and to determine the kinetic parameters by fitting each growth curve to the growth equations. A close agreement between the experimental growth curves and the numerical analysis results was obtained. The analytical results showed that the growth of STEC in spinach leaves was unhindered when the population was low, but the growth was suppressed by the background microflora as the STEC population approached the maximum population density. The effect of temperature on the growth of both STEC and background microflora was also evaluated. Secondary models, evaluating the effect of temperature on growth rates, were also developed. The estimated apparent minimum growth temperature for STEC was 11 °C in commercial spinach leaves. The methodology and results of this study can be used to examine the dynamic interactions and growth between different bacteria in foods, and to conduct risk assessments of STEC in spinach leaves. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The effect of regions of interest and spectral pre-processing on the detection of non-O157 shiga-toxin producing escherichia coli serogroups on agar media by hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food borne infection caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major worldwide health concern. The best known STEC serotype is E. coli O157:H7, which can be easily identified when cultured on sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar. Recently, six non-O157 STEC serotypes have been found t...

  19. Biofilm formation by Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains and their tolerance to sanitizers commonly used in the food processing environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important foodborne pathogens. Among these, E. coli O157:H7 is the most frequently isolated STEC serotype responsible for foodborne diseases. However, the non-O157 serotypes have been associated with serious outbreaks and sporadic diseases as...

  20. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli cells in mechanically tenderized veal.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Amaya, Jesus R; Lemler, Michael

    2014-07-01

    non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing strains investigated herein.

  1. Outbreak of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection from consumption of beef sausage.

    PubMed

    Ethelberg, Steen; Smith, Birgitte; Torpdahl, Mia; Lisby, Morten; Boel, Jeppe; Jensen, Tenna; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Mølbak, Kåre

    2009-04-15

    We describe an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 infection in 20 patients (median age, 2 years). The source of the infection was an organic fermented beef sausage. The source was discovered by using credit card information to obtain and compare customer transaction records from the computer systems of supermarkets.

  2. Acid Resistance and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Different Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli Serogroups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Fratamico, Pina; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and 30 °C for 25 min with or without glutamic acid. Furthermore, the molecular subgrouping of the STEC strains was analyzed with the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) method using a DiversiLab(TM) system. Results for a total of 52 strains ranged from 0.31 to 5.45 log reduction CFU/mL in the absence of glutamic acid and 0.02 to 0.33 CFU/mL in the presence of glutamic acid except for B447 (O26:H11), B452 (O45:H2), and B466 (O104:H4) strains. Strains belonging to serogroups O111, O121, and O103 showed higher AR than serotype O157:H7 strains in the absence of glutamic acid. All STEC O157:H7 strains exhibited a comparable DNA pattern with more than 95% similarity in the rep-PCR results, as did the strains belonging to serogroups O111 and O121. Surprisingly, the DNA pattern of B458 (O103:H2) was similar to that of O157:H7 strains with 82% similarity, and strain B458 strain showed the highest AR to AAS among the O103 strains with 0.44 log reduction CFU/mL without glutamic acid. In conclusion, STEC serotypes isolated from different sources exhibited diverse AR and genetic subtyping patterns. Results indicated that some non-O157 STEC strains may have higher AR than STEC O157:H7 strains under specific acidic conditions, and the addition of glutamic acid provided enhanced protection against exposure to AAS.

  3. Prevalence and Characterization of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Commercial Ground Beef in the United States▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a Shiga toxin (stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) strain that has been classified as an adulterant in U.S. beef. However, numerous other non-O157 STEC strains are associated with diseases of various severities and have become an increasing concern to the beef industry, regulatory officials, and the public. This study reports on the prevalence and characterization of non-O157 STEC in commercial ground beef samples (n = 4,133) obtained from numerous manufacturers across the United States over a period of 24 months. All samples were screened by DNA amplification for the presence of Shiga toxin genes, which were present in 1,006 (24.3%) of the samples. Then, culture isolation of an STEC isolate from all samples that contained stx1 and/or stx2 was attempted. Of the 1,006 positive ground beef samples screened for stx, 300 (7.3% of the total of 4,133) were confirmed to have at least one strain of STEC present by culture isolation. In total, 338 unique STEC isolates were recovered from the 300 samples that yielded an STEC isolate. All unique STEC isolates were serotyped and were characterized for the presence of known virulence factors. These included Shiga toxin subtypes, intimin subtypes, and accessory virulence factors related to adherence (saa, iha, lifA), toxicity (cnf, subA, astA), iron acquisition (chuA), and the presence of the large 60-MDa virulence plasmid (espP, etpD, toxB, katP, toxB). The isolates were also characterized by use of a pathogenicity molecular risk assessment (MRA; based on the presence of various O-island nle genes). Results of this characterization identified 10 STEC isolates (0.24% of the 4,133 total) that may be considered a significant food safety threat, defined by the presence of eae, subA, and nle genes. PMID:21257806

  4. Associations between bovine, human, and raw milk, and beef isolates of non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli within a restricted geographic area of the United States.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, R N; Davis, M A; Rice, D H; Szymanski, M; Tarr, P I; Besser, T E; Hancock, D D

    2008-05-01

    A survey for Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in raw milk and beef was conducted within a defined geographic region of the United States. Prevalence rates based on detection of Shiga toxin gene (stx) were 36% for retail beef, 23% for beef carcasses, and 21% for raw milk samples, which were significantly higher than were Shiga toxigenic E. coli isolation rates of 7.5, 5.8, and 3.2%, respectively. Seasonal prevalence differences were significant for stx positivity among ground beef and milk samples. Distribution of stx subtypes among isolates varied according to sample type, with stx1 predominating in milk, stx2 on carcasses, and the combination of both stx1 and stx2 in beef. Ancillary virulence markers eae and ehx were evident in 23 and 15% of isolates, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated associations between food isolates and sympatric bovine fecal, and human clinical isolates. These data demonstrate that non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli is present in the food chain in the Pacific Northwest, and its risk to health warrants critical assessment.

  5. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of a Coinfection of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Matthew W.; Tabor, Helen; Wang, Gehua; Clark, Clifford G.; Tracz, Dobryan M.; Olson, Adam B.; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Karmali, Mohamed A.; Mailman, Tim; Ng, Lai-King

    2007-01-01

    A coinfection of O177:NM and O55:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was identified for a child with acute bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome by using culture and serotype-specific molecular reagents. The profile of O157-related genetic islands revealed that the O55:H7 isolate was highly similar to O157 STEC whereas the O177:NM isolate lacked several fimbrial O islands and non-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement effector determinants. However, both STEC serotypes are known to cause serious disease, and the significant repertoire of virulence determinants in both strains made it impossible to determine their individual contributions to the clinical symptoms. PMID:17804662

  6. Thermal tolerance of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, in frankfurter batter and ground beef of varying fat levels.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2014-09-01

    The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°C greater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°C was significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°C for non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°C for O157. D55°C for pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°C of Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and

  7. Purification and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from six strains of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Loreen R; Stromberg, Zachary R; Banisadr, Afsheen; Graves, Steven W; Moxley, Rodney A; Mukundan, Harshini

    2015-09-01

    Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are virulent human pathogens that are most often acquired through contaminated food. The United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared several serogroups of STEC as adulterants in non-intact raw beef products. Hence, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of these STEC are a necessity for implementation in food safety programs. E. coli serogroups are identified by their respective O-antigen moiety on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) macromolecule. We propose that the development of O-antigen-specific immunological assays can facilitate simple and rapid discriminatory detection of STEC in beef. However, the resources (antigens and antibodies) required for such development are not readily available. To overcome this, we extracted and characterized LPS and O-antigen from six STEC strains. Using hot phenol extraction, we isolated the LPS component from each strain and purified it using a series of steps to eliminate proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid A antigens. Antigens and crude LPS extracts were characterized using gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and modified Western blotting with commercially available antibodies, thus assessing the serogroup specificity and sensitivity of available ligands as well. The results indicate that, while many commercially available antibodies bind LPS, their activities and specificities are highly variable, and often not as specific as those required for serogroup discrimination. This variability could be minimized by the production of antibodies specific for the O-antigen. Additionally, the antigens generated from this study provide a source of characterized LPS and O-antigen standards for six serogroups of STEC.

  8. Genetic Relatedness and Novel Sequence Types of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cadona, Jimena S; Bustamante, Ana V; González, Juliana; Sanso, A Mariel

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a foodborne pathogen responsible for severe disease in humans such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and cattle, the principal reservoir. Identification of the clones/lineages is important as several characteristics, among them propensity to cause disease varies with STEC phylogenetic origin. At present, we do not know what STEC clones, especially of non-O157:H7, are circulating in Argentina. To fill this knowledge gap we assessed the genetic diversity of STEC strains isolated in Argentina from various sources, mostly cattle and food, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our objectives were to determine the phylogenetic relationships among strains and to compare them with strains from different geographic origins, especially with those from clinical human cases, in order to evaluate their potential health risk. A total of 59 STEC isolates from 41 serotypes were characterized by MLST. Analysis using EcMLST database identified 38 sequence types (ST), 17 (45%) of which were new STs detected in 18 serotypes. Fifteen out of 38 STs identified were grouped into 11 clonal groups (CGs) and, 23 not grouped in any of the defined CGs. Different STs were found in the same serotype. Results highlighted a high degree of phylogenetic heterogeneity among Argentinean strains and they showed that several cattle and food isolates belonged to the same STs that are commonly associated with clinical human cases in several geographical areas. STEC is a significant public health concern. Argentina has the highest incidence of HUS in the world and this study provides the first data about which STEC clones are circulating. Data showed that most of them might pose a serious zoonotic risk and this information is important for developing public health initiatives. However, the actual potential risk will be defined by the virulence profiles, which may differ among isolates belonging to the same ST.

  9. Genetic Relatedness and Novel Sequence Types of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cadona, Jimena S.; Bustamante, Ana V.; González, Juliana; Sanso, A. Mariel

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a foodborne pathogen responsible for severe disease in humans such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and cattle, the principal reservoir. Identification of the clones/lineages is important as several characteristics, among them propensity to cause disease varies with STEC phylogenetic origin. At present, we do not know what STEC clones, especially of non-O157:H7, are circulating in Argentina. To fill this knowledge gap we assessed the genetic diversity of STEC strains isolated in Argentina from various sources, mostly cattle and food, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our objectives were to determine the phylogenetic relationships among strains and to compare them with strains from different geographic origins, especially with those from clinical human cases, in order to evaluate their potential health risk. A total of 59 STEC isolates from 41 serotypes were characterized by MLST. Analysis using EcMLST database identified 38 sequence types (ST), 17 (45%) of which were new STs detected in 18 serotypes. Fifteen out of 38 STs identified were grouped into 11 clonal groups (CGs) and, 23 not grouped in any of the defined CGs. Different STs were found in the same serotype. Results highlighted a high degree of phylogenetic heterogeneity among Argentinean strains and they showed that several cattle and food isolates belonged to the same STs that are commonly associated with clinical human cases in several geographical areas. STEC is a significant public health concern. Argentina has the highest incidence of HUS in the world and this study provides the first data about which STEC clones are circulating. Data showed that most of them might pose a serious zoonotic risk and this information is important for developing public health initiatives. However, the actual potential risk will be defined by the virulence profiles, which may differ among isolates belonging to the same ST. PMID:27625995

  10. Numbers of coliforms, Escherichia coli, F-RNA phage, rotavirus, bovine enteric calicivirus and presence of non-O157 STEC on commercial vacuum packaged beef.

    PubMed

    Jones, T H; Nattress, F M; Dilts, B; Olsen, D; Muehlhauser, V

    2014-09-01

    The numbers of coliforms, Escherichia coli, F-RNA coliphages, bovine enteric calicivirus (BEC) and rotavirus (RV) and presence of non-O157 shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) were determined on commercial vacuum packaged beef subprimals at the retail level from swabs obtained from the entire surfaces of 150 cuts that originated from federally and provincially registered plants. The prevalence and log mean numbers of E. coli were higher in provincially registered plants than in federally registered plants; 64% vs 20%, respectively, and -0.3 vs -1.22 log cfu/100 cm(2), respectively. In contrast, the prevalence and mean log numbers of F-RNA coliphages were lower for the provincially registered plants than for the federally registered plants; 31% vs 68% and -0.86 vs -0.13 log cfu/100 cm(2), respectively. One E. coli sample tested positive for stx2 and eae. F-RNA coliphages associated with human origin (GII/GIII) were detected in 12% and 30% of samples that originated from provincially and federally registered plants, respectively. RV RNA was detected in 4% of samples while BEC RNA was not detected. Although the infectivity of RV is unknown, the presence of viable F-RNA coliphages suggests that consumers could potentially be at risk when consuming undercooked meat that is contaminated with RV. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 isolated from feces of domestic farm animals in Culiacan, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli O157 and non-O157 strains is a matter of increasing concern, and the association with some virulence traits in the same bacteria remains unclear. Inappropriate antimicrobial use in human and animal therapy has been associated with selective pressure in enteric mi...

  12. Genetically marked strains of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli: Tools for detection and modelling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are among the most important foodborne pathogens in the United States and worldwide. Nearly half of all STEC-induced diarrheal disease in the United States is caused by STEC O157:H7 while non-O157 STEC account for the remaining illnesses. Thus, the USDA Food Safe...

  13. The efficacy of short and repeated high-pressure processing treatments on the reduction of non-O157:H7 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli in ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Scheinberg, Joshua A; Senevirathne, Reshani; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) has previously been shown to be effective at reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat products. However, few studies have determined whether HPP may be effective at reducing non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in ground beef. This study investigated the efficacy of short and repeated HPP treatments to reduce non-O157:H7 STEC inoculated into ground beef. Irradiated ground beef patties (80:20, 90:10 [lean:fat]) were inoculated with pairs of E. coli serogroups O103, O111, O26, O145, O121, O45, O157:H7, and DH5α, vacuum-packaged and high-pressure processed (four, 60 s cycles, 400 MPa, 17°C). Surviving E. coli populations were enumerated on Rainbow Agar O157 and Tryptic Soy Agar. HPP treatments produced >2.0 log₁₀ CFU/g reductions of each E. coli serogroup, and reductions ranged from 2.35-3.88 and 2.26-4.31 log₁₀ CFU/g in 80:20 and 90:10 samples, respectively. These results suggest that HPP could be an effective, post-processing intervention to reduce the risk of non-O157:H7 STEC contamination in ground beef.

  14. Presence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella in fresh beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) juice from public markets in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Unpasteurized juice has been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks for many years. Beetroot is a vegetable grown all over the world in temperate areas. In Mexico beetroot is consumed cooked in salads or raw as fresh unpasteurized juices. No data about the microbiological quality or safety of unpasteurized beetroot juices are available. Indicator bacteria, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEP) and Salmonella frequencies were determined for fresh unpasteurized beetroot juice from restaurants. One hundred unpasteurized beetroot juice samples were collected from public markets in Pachuca, Mexico. Frequencies in these samples were 100%, 75%, 53%, 9% and 4% of positive samples, for coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms, E. coli, DEP and Salmonella, respectively. Identified DEP included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Identified Salmonella serotypes included Typhimurium and Enteritidis. This is the first report of microbiological quality and atypical EPEC, ETEC, non-O157 STEC and Salmonella isolation from fresh raw beetroot juice in Mexico. Fresh raw beetroot juice from markets is very probably an important factor contributing to the endemicity of atypical EPEC, ETEC, non-O157 STEC and Salmonella-related gastroenteritis in Mexico. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Acid Resistance and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and different non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serogroups

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare the acid resistance (AR) of seven non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121 and O145 with O157:H7 STEC isolated from various sources in 400 mM acetic acid solutions (AAS) at pH 3.2 and 30°...

  16. Comparative Effect of Heat Shock on Survival of O157:H7 and Non-O157 Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Lean Beef with or without Moisture-Enhancing Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Akhila; Ingham, Steven C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2017-06-01

    Thermal tolerance of pathogenic bacteria has been shown to increase after exposure to sublethal elevated temperatures, or heat shock. We evaluated the effect of heat shock at 48°C on thermal tolerance (D55°C) of cocktails of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella in lean ground beef with or without moisture-enhancing ingredients. Beef was moisture enhanced to 110% (w) with a 5% NaCl-2.5% sodium tripolyphosphate (w/w) brine. Meat, with or without added brine, was inoculated (∼10(8) CFU/g) and heat shocked at 48°C for 0, 5, or 30 min, followed by isothermal heating at 55°C. Inoculated control samples were unenhanced and were not subject to heat shock. From the linear portion of the log CFU per gram surviving cells over time plots, D55°C-values (minutes) were calculated. D55°C was 20.43, 28.78, and 21.15 min for O157, non-O157, and Salmonella controls, respectively. Overall, heat shock significantly increased D55°C, regardless of pathogen (P < 0.05). After 30 min of heat shock, D55°C increased 89 and 160% for O157 STEC, 32 and 49% for non-O157 STEC, and 29 and 57% for Salmonella, in unenhanced and enhanced samples, respectively, relative to the pathogen control. D55°C for Salmonella was the same or significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC, regardless of heat shock, and was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC in all trials with moisture-enhanced meat (P < 0.05). Moisture-enhancing ingredients significantly increased D55°C, regardless of pathogen (P < 0.05). We suggest that thermal processes validated against Salmonella may not prove effective against STEC in all cases and that regulators of the beef industry should focus attention on STEC in nonintact moisture-enhanced beef products.

  17. Influence of primer sequences and DNA extraction method on detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by real-time PCR targeting the eae, stx, and serogroup-specific genes.

    PubMed

    Wasilenko, Jamie L; Fratamico, Pina M; Narang, Neelam; Tillman, Glenn E; Ladely, Scott; Simmons, Mustafa; Cray, William C

    2012-11-01

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, particularly those caused by the "big six" or "top six" non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) can result in severe illness and complications. Because of their significant public health impact and the notable prevalence of STEC in cattle, methods for detection of the big six non-O157 STEC in ground beef have been established. Currently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service detection methods for screening beef samples for non-O157 STEC target the stx(1), stx(2), and eae virulence genes, with the 16S rRNA gene as an internal control, in a real-time PCR multiplex assay. Further, the serogroup is determined by PCR targeting genes in the E. coli O-antigen gene clusters of the big six non-O157 serogroups. The method that we previously reported was improved so that additional stx variants, stx(1d), stx(2e), and stx(2g), are detected. Additionally, alignments of the primers targeting the eae gene were used to improve the detection assay so that eae subtypes that could potentially be of clinical significance would also be detected. Therefore, evaluation of alternative real-time PCR assay primers and probes for the stx and eae reactions was carried out in order to increase the stx and eae subtypes detected. Furthermore, a Tris-EDTA DNA extraction method was compared with a previously used procedure that was based on a commercially available reagent. The Tris-EDTA DNA extraction method significantly decreased the cycle threshold values for the stx assay (P < 0.0001) and eae assay (P < 0.0001), thereby increasing the ability to detect the targets. The use of different stx primers and probes increased the subtypes detected to include stx(1d), stx(2e), and stx(2g), and sequence data showed that modification of the eae primer should allow the known eae subtypes to be detected.

  18. Genetically Marked Strains of Shiga Toxin-Producing O157:H7 and Non-O157 Escherichia coli: Tools for Detection and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Paoli, George C; Wijey, Chandi; Uhlich, Gaylen A

    2015-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is an important group of foodborne pathogens in the United States and worldwide. Nearly half of STEC-induced diarrheal disease in the United States is caused by serotype O157:H7, while non-O157 STEC account for the remaining illnesses. Thus, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service has instituted regulatory testing of beef products and has a zero-tolerance policy for regulatory samples that test positive for STEC O157:H7 and six other non-O157 STEC (serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). In this study, positive control (PC) strains for the detection of STEC O157:H7 and the six USDA-regulated non-O157 STEC were constructed. To ensure that the food testing samples are not cross-contaminated by the PC sample, it is important that the STEC-PC strains are distinguishable from STEC isolated from test samples. The PC strains were constructed by integrating a unique DNA target sequence and a gene for spectinomycin (Sp) resistance into the chromosomes of the seven STEC strains. End-point and real-time PCR assays were developed for the specific detection of the PC strains and were tested using 93 strains of E. coli (38 STEC O157:H7, at least 6 strains of each of the USDA-regulated non-O157 STEC, and 2 commensal E. coli) and 51 strains of other bacteria (30 species from 20 genera). The PCR assays demonstrated high specificity for the unique target sequence. The target sequence was detectable by PCR after 10 culture passages (∼100 generations), demonstrating the stability of the integrated target sequence. In addition, the strains were tested for their potential use in modeling the growth of STEC. Plating the PC strains mixed with ground beef flora on modified rainbow agar containing Sp eliminated the growth of the background flora that grew on modified rainbow agar without Sp. Thus, these strains could be used to enumerate and model the growth of STEC in the presence of foodborne background

  19. Comparison of Six Chromogenic Agar Media for the Isolation of a Broad Variety of Non-O157 Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegen, Bavo; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of non-O157 STEC from food samples has proved to be challenging. The selection of a suitable selective isolation agar remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate six chromogenic agar media for the isolation of STEC: Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar (TBX), Rainbow® Agar O157 (RB), Rapid E. coli O157:H7 (RE), Modified MacConkey Agar (mMac), CHROMagarTM STEC (Chr ST) and chromIDTM EHEC (Chr ID). During this study, 45 E. coli strains were used, including 39 STEC strains belonging to 16 different O serogroups and 6 non-STEC E. coli. All E. coli strains were able to grow on TBX and RB, whereas one STEC strain was unable to grow on Chr ID and a number of other STEC strains did not grow on mMac, CHROMagar STEC and Rapid E. coli O157:H7. However, only the latter three agars were selective enough to completely inhibit the growth of the non-STEC E. coli. Our conclusion was that paired use of a more selective agar such as CHROMagar STEC together with a less selective agar like TBX or Chr ID might be the best solution for isolating non-O157 STEC from food. PMID:26090610

  20. Comparison of Six Chromogenic Agar Media for the Isolation of a Broad Variety of Non-O157 Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Serogroups.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Bavo; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-06-17

    The isolation of non-O157 STEC from food samples has proved to be challenging. The selection of a suitable selective isolation agar remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate six chromogenic agar media for the isolation of STEC: Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar (TBX), Rainbow® Agar O157 (RB), Rapid E. coli O157:H7 (RE), Modified MacConkey Agar (mMac), CHROMagarTM STEC (Chr ST) and chromIDTM EHEC (Chr ID). During this study, 45 E. coli strains were used, including 39 STEC strains belonging to 16 different O serogroups and 6 non-STEC E. coli. All E. coli strains were able to grow on TBX and RB, whereas one STEC strain was unable to grow on Chr ID and a number of other STEC strains did not grow on mMac, CHROMagar STEC and Rapid E. coli O157:H7. However, only the latter three agars were selective enough to completely inhibit the growth of the non-STEC E. coli. Our conclusion was that paired use of a more selective agar such as CHROMagar STEC together with a less selective agar like TBX or Chr ID might be the best solution for isolating non-O157 STEC from food.

  1. Behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, non-O157-shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on mung bean seeds and sprout.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Vázquez-Barrios, Ma Estela; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2013-09-16

    The behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C and during germination and sprouting of mung bean seeds at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C and on mung bean sprouts at 3±2 °C was determined. When mung bean seeds were inoculated with EAEC, non-O157 STEC, EIEC, EPEC or ETEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) survived at least 90 days on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C. All DEPs grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 Log and 7 Log CFU/g after 2 days at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seeds germination and stored at 20±2 ° or 30±2 °C, no growth was observed for any DEPs during sprouting at 20±2 °C per 9 d; however, a significant increase in the concentration of DEPs of approximately 0.7 log CFU/g was observed during sprouting at 30±2 °C after 1 day of sprout contamination. Refrigeration reduced the number of viable DEPs strains on sprouts after 10 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance in the safety of the sprouts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biofilm formation by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 strains and their tolerance to sanitizers commonly used in the food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Bono, James L; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Shackelford, Steven; Harhay, Dayna M

    2012-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important foodborne pathogens. Among these, E. coli O157:H7 is the most frequently isolated STEC serotype responsible for foodborne diseases. However, the non-O157 serotypes have been associated with serious outbreaks and sporadic diseases as well. It has been shown that various STEC serotypes are capable of forming biofilms on different food or food contact surfaces that, when detached, may lead to cross-contamination. Bacterial cells at biofilm stage also are more tolerant to sanitizers compared with their planktonic counterparts, which makes STEC biofilms a serious food safety concern. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of biofilm formation by a variety of STEC strains from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:H8; we also compared biofilm tolerance with two types of common sanitizers, a quaternary ammonium chloride-based sanitizer and chlorine. Our results demonstrated that biofilm formation by various STEC serotypes on a polystyrene surface was highly strain-dependent, whereas the two non-O157 serotypes showed a higher potency of pellicle formation at air-liquid interfaces on a glass surface compared with serotype O157:H7. Significant reductions of viable biofilm cells were achieved with sanitizer treatments. STEC biofilm tolerance to sanitization was strain-dependent regardless of the serotypes. Curli expression appeared to play a critical role in STEC biofilm formation and tolerance to sanitizers. Our data indicated that multiple factors, including bacterial serotype and strain, surface materials, and other environmental conditions, could significantly affect STEC biofilm formation. The high potential for biofilm formation by various STEC serotypes, especially the strong potency of pellicle formation by the curli-positive non-O157 strains with high sanitization tolerance, might contribute to bacterial colonization on food contact surfaces, which may result in downstream product

  3. Risk of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter spp. in Food Animals and Their Products in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Hussni O; Stipetic, Korana; Salem, Ahmed; McDonough, Patrick; Chang, Yung Fu; Sultan, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. are among the top-ranked pathogens that threaten the safety of food supply systems around the world. The associated risks and predisposing factors were investigated in a dynamic animal population using a repeat-cross-sectional study design. Animal and environmental samples were collected from dairy and camel farms, chicken processing plants, and abattoirs and analyzed for the presence of these pathogens using a combination of bacterial enrichment and real-time PCR tests without culture confirmation. Data on putative risk factors were also collected and analyzed. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by PCR at higher levels in sheep and camel feces than in cattle feces (odds ratios [OR], 6.8 and 21.1, respectively). Although the genes indicating E. coli O157:H7 were detected at a relatively higher rate (4.3%) in fecal samples from dairy cattle, they were less common in milk and udder swabs from the same animals (1 and 2%, respectively). Among the food adulterants, E. coli O103 was more common in cattle fecal samples, whereas O26 was more common in sheep feces and O45 in camel feces compared with cattle (OR, 2.6 and 3.1, respectively). The occurrence of E. coli in the targeted populations differed by the type of sample and season of the year. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were more common in sheep and camel feces than in cattle feces. Most of the survey and surveillance of E. coli focused on serogroup O157 as a potential foodborne hazard; however, based on the PCR results, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotypes appeared to be more common, and efforts should be made to include them in food safety programs.

  4. Influence of incubation conditions on survival and acid tolerance response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 isolates exposed to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Brudzinski, L; Harrison, M A

    1998-05-01

    The increasing frequency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, especially in acidic foods, raises the concern of an acid tolerance response (ATR). Organic acids can be present in processed and preserved foods: shifts in the acid levels of foods due to these acids may allow E. coli to adapt and later tolerate pH levels that would normally inactivate the organism. The effect of temperature and agitation on the ATRs of three E. coli O157:H7 and two non-O157:H7 isolates were determined. Triggered at pH 5.0, the adaptive system of the ATR allowed for up to nearly 1,000-fold enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 cells in some cases compared to survival of nonadapted cells at pH 4.0. E. coli O157:H7 isolates revealed greater acid tolerance responses when incubated statically at 32 degrees C, whereas the non-O157:H7 E. coli isolates exhibited a greater acid tolerance response with orbital agitation at 25 degrees C. The magnitude of response changed over the incubation period.

  5. Evaluating the efficacy of beef slaughter line interventions by quantifying the six major non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli serogroups using real-time multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Kanankege, Kaushi S T; Anklam, Kelly S; Fick, Catherine M; Kulow, Megan J; Kaspar, Charles W; Ingham, Barbara H; Milkowski, Andrew; Döpfer, Dörte

    2017-05-01

    Six major Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups: O26, O103, O145, O111, O121, and O45 have been declared as adulterants in federally inspected raw beef in the USA effective June 4th, 2012 in addition to the routinely tested STEC O157: H7. This study tests a real-time multiplex PCR assay and pooling of the samples to optimize the detection and quantification (prevalence and contamination) of six major non-O157 STEC, regardless of possessing Shiga toxins. To demonstrate the practicality, one large-scale slaughter plant (Plant LS) and one small-scale slaughter plant (Plant SS) located in the Mid-Western USA were sampled, in 2011, before the establishment of 2013 USDA laboratory protocols. Carcasses were sampled at consecutive intervention stations and beef trimmings were collected at the end of the fabrication process. Plant SS had marginally more contaminated samples than Plant LS (p-value 0.08). The post-hide removal wash, steam pasteurization, and lactic acid (≤5%) spray used in Plant LS seemed to reduce the six serogroups effectively, compared to the hot-water wash and 7-day chilling at Plant SS. Compared to the culture isolation methods, quantification of the non-O157 STEC using real-time PCR may be an efficient way to monitor the efficacy of slaughter line interventions.

  6. Comparison of different sample preparation procedures for the detection and isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 STECs from leafy greens and cilantro.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Deer, Deanne M; Borenstein, Stacey; Prezioso, Samantha; Hammack, Thomas S

    2012-12-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method for the detection/isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) involves enrichment of produce rinses, blended homogenates or stomached homogenates. However, the effectiveness of rinsing produce to remove attached bacteria is largely unknown. Moreover, PCR inhibitors can be released under physical treatment. The study objective was to determine the relative effectiveness of recovery methods for STEC contaminated produce. Spinach, lettuce, and cilantro were contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 or a non-O157 STEC, subjected to both the BAM method and a soak method, and tested by real-time PCR and cultural methods. For O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 STECs, the soak method was significantly more productive than leafy green rinses. Of 320 test portions, PCR of recovered colonies confirmed 148 were positive by rinsing and 271 were positive by soaking (an 83% increase in sensitivity). For recovery of O157:H7 from cilantro, of 60 test portions, positives were 38 by soaking, 41 by stomaching, and 28 by blending. Soaking and stomaching were significantly more productive than blending, although soaking was only arithmetically superior to stomaching. Based upon these results, it is recommended that a soak method replace the current BAM procedures.

  7. Distribution of tccP in Clinical Enterohemorrhagic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates‡

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, Junkal; Ren, Zhihong; Tennant, Sharon; Midolli Viera, Monica Aparecida; Chong, Yuwen; Whale, Andrew; Azzopardi, Kristy; Dahan, Sivan; Sircili, Marcelo Palma; Franzolin, Marcia Regina; Trabulsi, Luiz R.; Phillips, Alan; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Xu, Jianguo; Robins-Browne, Roy; Frankel, Gad

    2005-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are diarrheagenic pathogens that colonize the gut through the formation of attaching and effacing lesions, which depend on the translocation of effector proteins via a locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded type III secretion system. Recently, two effector proteins, EspJ and TccP, which are encoded by adjacent genes on prophage CP-933U in EHEC O157:H7, have been identified. TccP consists of a unique N-terminus region and several proline-rich domains. In this project we determined the distribution of tccP in O157:H7, in non-O157 EHEC, and in typical and atypical EPEC isolates. All the EHEC O157:H7 strains tested were tccP+. Unexpectedly, tccP was also found in non-O157 EHEC, and in typical and atypical EPEC isolates, particularly in strains belonging to serogroups O26 (EHEC), O119 (typical EPEC), and O55 (atypical EPEC). We recorded some variation in the length of tccP, which reflects diversity in the number of the proline-rich repeats. These results show the existence of a class of “attaching and effacing” pathogens which express a combination of EPEC and EHEC virulence determinants. PMID:16272509

  8. Determination of the Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 in Buffer and a Spinach Homogenate.

    PubMed

    Monu, Emefa Angelica; Valladares, Malcond; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael

    2015-08-01

    Produce has been associated with a rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. While much produce is consumed raw, some is treated with mild heat, such as blanching or cooking. The objectives of this research were to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) and a spinach homogenate and to provide an estimate of the safety of mild heat processes for spinach. Five individual strains of S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC were tested in PBS in 2-ml glass vials, and cocktails of the organisms were tested in blended spinach in vacuum-sealed bags. For Listeria and Salmonella at 56 to 60°C, D-values in PBS ranged from 4.42 ± 0.94 to 0.35 ± 0.03 min and 2.11 ± 0.14 to 0.16 ± 0.03 min, respectively. D-values at 54 to 58°C were 5.18 ± 0.21 to 0.53 ± 0.04 min for STEC O157:H7 and 5.01 ± 0.60 to 0.60 ± 0.13 min for non-O157 STEC. In spinach at 56 to 60°C, Listeria D-values were 11.77 ± 2.18 to 1.22 ± 0.12 min and Salmonella D-values were 3.51 ± 0.06 to 0.47 ± 0.06 min. D-values for STEC O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC were 7.21 ± 0.17 to 1.07 ± 0.11 min and 5.57 ± 0.38 to 0.99 ± 0.07 min, respectively, at 56 to 60°C. In spinach, z-values were 4.07 ± 0.16, 4.59 ± 0.26, 4.80 ± 0.92, and 5.22 ± 0.20°C for Listeria, Salmonella, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC, respectively. Results indicated that a mild thermal treatment of blended spinach at 70°C for less than 1 min would result in a 6-log reduction of all pathogens tested. These findings may assist the food industry in the design of suitable mild thermal processes to ensure food safety.

  9. Mexican unpasteurised fresh cheeses are contaminated with Salmonella spp., non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli and potential uropathogenic E. coli strains: A public health risk.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Hernandez, Rosa; Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Hernandez-Velez, Rosa; Perez-Martinez, Iza; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2016-11-21

    Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of primer sequences and DNA extraction method on detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by real-time PCR targeting the eae, stx, and serogroup-specific genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections, particularly those caused by the “big six”/”top six” non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) can result in severe illness and complications. Due to their significant public health impact and the notable prevalence of STEC ...

  11. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in Spain: prevalence, serotypes, and virulence genes of O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC in ruminants, raw beef products, and humans.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesus E; Mora, Azucena; González, Enrique A; Bernárdez, Maria I; Alonso, Maria P; Coira, Amparo; Rodriguez, Asuncion; Rey, Joaquin; Alonso, Juan M; Usera, Miguel A

    2003-04-01

    In Spain, as in many other countries, verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains have been frequently isolated from cattle, sheep, and foods. VTEC strains have caused seven outbreaks in Spain (six caused by E. coli O157:H7 and one by E. coli O111:H- [nonmotile]) in recent years. An analysis of the serotypes indicated serological diversity. Among the strains isolated from humans, serotypes O26:H11, O111:H-, and O157:H7 were found to be more prevalent. The most frequently detected serotypes in cattle were O20:H19, O22:H8, O26:H11, O77:H41, O105:H18, O113:H21, O157:H7, O171:H2, and OUT (O untypeable):H19. Different VTEC serotypes (e.g., O5:H-, O6:H10, O91:H-, O117:H-, O128:H-, O128:H2, O146:H8, O146:H21, O156:H-, and OUT:H21) were found more frequently in sheep. These observations suggest a host serotype specificity for some VTEC. Numerous bovine and ovine VTEC serotypes detected in Spain were associated with human illnesses, confirming that ruminants are important reservoirs of pathogenic VTEC. VTEC can produce one or two toxins (VT1 and VT2) that cause human illnesses. These toxins are different proteins encoded by different genes. Another virulence factor expressed by VTEC is the protein intimin that is responsible for intimate attachment of VTEC and effacing lesions in the intestinal mucosa. This virulence factor is encoded by the chromosomal gene eae. The eae gene was found at a much less frequency in bovine (17%) and ovine (5%) than in human (45%) non-O157 VTEC strains. This may support the evidence that the eae gene contributes significantly to the virulence of human VTEC strains and that many animal non-O157 VTEC strains are less pathogenic to humans.

  12. Latex agglutination assays for detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marjorie B; Shelver, Weilin L; Fratamico, Pina M; Fortis, Laurie; Tillman, Glenn; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C; Esteban, Emilio; Debroy, Andchitrita

    2012-05-01

    Latex agglutination assays utilizing polyclonal antibodies were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through protein A/G columns, and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgGs) were covalently immobilized onto polystyrene latex particles. The resulting latex-IgG complex had a protein (IgG) load of 0.20 to 0.28 mg/ml in a 1% latex suspension. Optimum conditions for the agglutination assay consisted of utilizing 20 μm l of latex-IgG reagent containing 2.0 to 2.8 μm g IgG in a 0.5% latex suspension. Agglutination or flocculation was observed almost instantly after mixing the colonies with the latex-IgG, indicating STEC strains. More than 100 target and nontarget strains were tested in more than 3,000 test replicates. All target organisms produced positive results, but three antisera (anti-O26, anti-O103, and anti-O145) cross-reacted with some other STECs. The anti-O103 and anti-O145 latex reagents cross-reacted with O26 strains, and the anti-O26 cross-reacted with O103 strains. The latex-IgG reagents are stable for at least 1 year and are easy to prepare. These agglutination assays can be used for identification of presumptive non-O157 STEC colonies from agar media. The techniques used to prepare the latex reagents also can be utilized for testing other STEC serogroups, other E. coli serotypes, or other pathogens to ensure safe foods to consumers.

  13. Comparative genomics of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145:H28 demonstrates a common evolutionary lineage with Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although serotype O157:H7 is the predominant enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC that cause severe foodborne illness, including hemolytic uremic syndrome have increased worldwide. In fact, non-O157 serotypes are now estimated to cause over half of all the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cases, and outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC infections are frequently associated with serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. Currently, there are no complete genomes for O145 in public databases. Results We determined the complete genome sequences of two O145 strains (EcO145), one linked to a US lettuce-associated outbreak (RM13514) and one to a Belgium ice-cream-associated outbreak (RM13516). Both strains contain one chromosome and two large plasmids, with genome sizes of 5,737,294 bp for RM13514 and 5,559,008 bp for RM13516. Comparative analysis of the two EcO145 genomes revealed a large core (5,173 genes) and a considerable amount of strain-specific genes. Additionally, the two EcO145 genomes display distinct chromosomal architecture, virulence gene profile, phylogenetic origin of Stx2a prophage, and methylation profile (methylome). Comparative analysis of EcO145 genomes to other completely sequenced STEC and other E. coli and Shigella genomes revealed that, unlike any other known non-O157 EHEC strain, EcO145 ascended from a common lineage with EcO157/EcO55. This evolutionary relationship was further supported by the pangenome analysis of the 10 EHEC str ains. Of the 4,192 EHEC core genes, EcO145 shares more genes with EcO157 than with the any other non-O157 EHEC strains. Conclusions Our data provide evidence that EcO145 and EcO157 evolved from a common lineage, but ultimately each serotype evolves via a lineage-independent nature to EHEC by acquisition of the core set of EHEC virulence factors, including the genes encoding Shiga toxin and the large virulence plasmid. The large variation between the two EcO145 genomes

  14. Acid tolerance of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M M; Datta, A R

    1995-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains were tested for their ability to survive in acid pH at 37 degrees C. No loss of viability was observed in an O157:H7 EHEC strain (ATCC 43895) at pH levels of 3.0 and 2.5 for at least 5 h. The level of acid tolerance of most EHEC isolates was very high, similar to that of Shigella flexneri strains. The acid tolerance was dependent on the growth phase and pH of the growth medium. PMID:7747983

  15. Genotypic analyses of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic animals in rural farms in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an...

  16. Growth media and temperature effects on biofilm formation by serotype O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofilm formation in most Escherichia coli strains is dependent on curli fimbriae and cellulose, and the expression of both varies widely among pathogenic strains. Curli and cellulose expression are often identified by their affinity for Congo red dye (CR). However, media composition and incubation ...

  17. Survival of O157:H7 and non-o157 serogroups of Escherichia coli in bovine rumen fluid and bile salts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli are gram negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that colonize within the intestines of animals and humans. Enterohemorragic strains of E. coli (EHEC) pose a serious health risk to humans yet reside asymptomatically within ruminants. In particular, bovine serve as the major reser...

  18. Comparison of immunomagnetic separation beads for detection of six Non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups in different matrices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A concern in public health and food safety in the United States involves the need to accurately and efficiently detect Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 which have caused outbreaks on numerous occasions. The detection of these organisms is challenging becau...

  19. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Use of lactic acid with electron beam irradiation for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 VTEC E. coli, and Salmonella serovars on fresh and frozen beef.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuliu; Kundu, Devapriya; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid pre-treatment was examined to enhance the antimicrobial action of electron (e-) beam irradiation of beef trim. Meat samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 VTEC E. coli or Salmonella cocktails and treated with 5% lactic acid at 55 °C. Samples were packaged aerobically or vacuum-packed, kept at 4 °C and treated with 1 kGy e-beam energy. Frozen samples were treated with 1, 3 or 7 kGy and stored at -20 °C for ≤ 5 d. Lactic acid enhanced the antimicrobial action of 1 kGy e-beam treatment against Salmonella by causing an additional <1.8 log CFU/g reduction. One kGy treatment of refrigerated samples reduced VTEC E. coli viability by 4.5 log CFU/g, and while lactic acid did not improve the reduction, after freezing additive effects were found. After 3 kGy irradiation, Salmonella was reduced by 2 and 4 log CFU/g in the irradiated and lactic acid plus irradiated samples, respectively. Lactic acid pre-treatment was of limited value with 1 kGy treatment for improving control of toxigenic E. coli in fresh beef trim, however, it would be useful with low dose irradiation for controlling both VTEC E. coli and Salmonella in frozen product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Citrus Byproducts on Survival of O157:H7 and Non-O157 Escherichia coli Serogroups within In Vitro Bovine Ruminal Microbial Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Duoss-Jennings, Heather A.; Schmidt, Ty B.; Callaway, Todd R.; Carroll, Jeffery A.; Martin, James M.; Shields-Menard, Sara A.; Broadway, Paul R.; Donaldson, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus byproducts (CBPs) are utilized as a low cost nutritional supplement to the diets of cattle and have been suggested to inhibit the growth of both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. The objective of this study was to examine the effects in vitro that varying concentrations of CBP in the powdered or pelleted variety have on the survival of Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes O26:H11, O103:H8, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 in bovine ruminal microorganism media. The O26:H11, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 serotypes did not exhibit a change in populations in media supplemented with CBP with either variety. The O103:H8 serotype displayed a general trend for an approximate 1log10 reduction in 5% powdered CBP and 20% pelleted CBP over 6 h. There was a trend for reductions in populations of a variant form of O157:H7 mutated in the stx1 and stx2 genes in higher concentrations of CBP. These results suggest that variations exist in the survival of these serotypes of STEC within mixed ruminal microorganism fluid media when supplemented with CBP. Further research is needed to determine why CBPs affect STEC serotypes differently. PMID:23401690

  2. Antibodies to intimin and Escherichia coli secreted proteins A and B in patients with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections.

    PubMed

    Karpman, Diana; Békássy, Zivile D; Sjögren, Ann-Christine; Dubois, Maria S; Karmali, Mohamed A; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Jarvis, Karen G; Gansheroff, Lisa J; O'Brien, Alison D; Arbus, Gerald S; Kaper, James B

    2002-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli produce an attaching and effacing lesion upon adhering to the intestinal epithelium. Bacterial factors involved in this histopathology include the intimin adhesin and E. coli secreted proteins (Esps) A and B. In this study we investigated the serum antibody responses to recombinant E. coli O157:H7 intimin, EspA, and EspB by immunoblotting. Canadian patients with O157:H7 infection (n=10), Swedish patients with O157:H7 (n=21), non-O157 (n=18), or infection from which the serotype was not available (n=3), and asymptomatic household members (n=25) were studied and compared with Canadian (n=20) and Swedish controls (n=52). In Canadian patients, IgG antibodies to intimin, EspA, and EspB were analyzed, in Swedish patients and their household members IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies to EspA and EspB were studied. Patients and household members mounted an antibody response to the antigens. Significantly more patients developed an acute response to EspB compared with controls (P<0.01 Canadian patients, P<0.0001 Swedish patients). EspB IgA, IgG, and IgM had a specificity of 100%, 86%, and 86%, positive predictive value of 100%, 83%, and 81%, and sensitivity of 57%, 69%, and 63%, respectively, and appear to be an appropriate assay for the detection of EHEC infection. In cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome or hemorrhagic colitis this assay may be useful when a fecal strain has not been isolated, or in epidemics of non-O157 infection.

  3. Effect of antibiotics on cellular stress generated in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 biofilms.

    PubMed

    Angel Villegas, Natalia; Baronetti, José; Albesa, Inés; Etcheverría, Analía; Becerra, M Cecilia; Padola, Nora L; Paraje, M Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens, with the main virulence factor of this bacterium being its capacity to secrete Shiga toxins (Stxs). Therefore, the use of certain antibiotics for the treatment of this infection, which induces the liberation of Stxs, is controversial. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are also involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of antibiotics on biofilms of STEC and the relationships between cellular stress and the release of Stx. To this end, biofilms of reference and clinical strains were treated with antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin and rifaximin) and the production of oxidants, the antioxidant defense system and toxin release were evaluated. Ciprofloxacin altered the prooxidant-antioxidant balance, with a decrease of oxidant metabolites and an increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, being associated with high-levels of Stx production. Furthermore, inhibition of oxidative stress by exogenous antioxidants was correlated with a reduction in the liberation of Stx, indicating the participation of this phenomenon in the release of this toxin. In contrast, fosfomycin and rifaximin produced less alteration with a minimal production of Stx. Our data show that treatment of biofilm-STEC with these antibiotics induces oxidative stress-mediated release of Stx. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth media and temperature effects on biofilm formation by serotype O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Uhlich, Gaylen A; Chen, Chin-Yi; Cottrell, Bryan J; Nguyen, Ly-Huong

    2014-05-01

    Biofilm formation in most Escherichia coli strains is dependent on curli fimbriae and cellulose, and the production of both varies widely among pathogenic strains. Curli and cellulose production by colonies growing on agar are often identified by their affinity for Congo red dye (CR). However, media composition and incubation temperature can affect dye affinity and impose limitations on red phenotype detection by this method. In this study, we compared different Shiga toxin-producing E. coli for CR affinity and biofilm formation under different media/temperature conditions. We found strain and serotype differences in CR affinities and biofilm formation, as well as temperature and media requirements for maximum CR binding. We also constructed strains with deletions of curli and/or cellulose genes to determine their contributions to the phenotypes and identified two O45 strains with a medium-dependent induction of cellulose. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Validation comparing the effectiveness of a lactic acid dip with a lactic acid spray for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli on beef trim and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M J; Miller, M F; Parks, A R; Loneragan, G H; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Echeverry, A; Brashears, M M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two application methods (dip versus spray) of 4.4% lactic acid for reducing pathogens on inoculated beef trim and in ground beef. Beef trim inoculated with cocktail mixtures of E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC), or Salmonella (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g) at separate times was subjected to five treatments: lactic acid spray (LS), lactic acid dip (LD), water spray (WS), water dip (WD), and untreated control (CTL). Intervention effectiveness for pathogen reduction was measured at 1 and 20 h after treatment on beef trim. Trim was then ground and intervention effectiveness was measured 1 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after grinding. The LD treatment reduced all pathogens significantly (P < 0.05); E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 0.91 to 1.41 log CFU/g on beef trim and ground beef, non-O157 STEC by 0.48 to 0.82 log CFU/g, and Salmonella by 0.51 to 0.81 log CFU/g. No other treatment significantly reduced any pathogen, although the WD treatment noticeably reduced (P > 0.05) both E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC populations compared with the CTL. The LS treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by up to 0.5 log CFU/g on beef trim, but these reduced counts did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the CTL counts. Overall, the LD treatment was most effective for reducing all pathogens and is the best of these options for improving the safety of beef trim and subsequently produced ground beef.

  6. Interrogation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in gnd provides a novel method for molecular serogrouping of clinically important Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) targeted by regulation in the United States, including the "big six" non-O157 STEC and STEC O157.

    PubMed

    Elder, J R; Bugarel, M; den Bakker, H C; Loneragan, G H; Nightingale, K K

    2016-10-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has frequently been associated with foodborne infections and is considered an adulterant in raw non-intact beef in the U.S. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 (known as the "big six" non-O157) were estimated to cause >70% of foodborne infections attributed to non-O157 serogroups in the U.S., as a result, these six serogroups have also been targeted by regulation in the U.S. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and high-throughput molecular method to group STEC isolates into seven clinically important serogroups (i.e., O157 and the "big six" non-O157 serogroups) targeted by regulation in the U.S. by interrogating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gnd. A collection of 195 STEC isolates, including isolates belonging to O157:H7 (n=18), O26 (n=21), O45 (n=19), O103 (n=24), O111 (n=24), O121 (n=23), O145 (n=21), and ten other STEC serogroups (n=45), was assembled and characterized by full gnd sequencing to identify informative SNPs for molecular serogrouping. A multiplex SNP typing assay was developed to interrogate twelve informative gnd SNPs by single base pair extension chemistry and used to characterize the STEC isolate collection assembled here. SNP types were assigned to each isolate by the assay and polymorphisms were confirmed with gnd sequence data. O-serogroup-specific SNP types were identified for each of the seven clinically important STEC serogroups, which allowed the differentiation of these seven STEC serogroups from other non-O157 STEC serogroups. Although serogroups of the "big six" non-O157 STEC and O157:H7 contained multiple SNP types per O-serogroup, there were no overlapping SNP types between serogroups. Our results demonstrate that molecular serogrouping of STEC isolates by interrogation of informative SNPs in gnd represents an alternative to traditional serogrouping by agglutination for rapid and high-throughput identification of clinically

  7. Rapid and simple method by combining FTA(™) card DNA extraction with the adaptation of a two set multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of non-O157 shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli strains and virulence genes from food samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Ae; Park, Si Hong; Lee, Sang In; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-09-27

    The aim of this research was to optimize two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that could simultaneously detect six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as well as the three virulence genes. We also investigated the potential of combining the FTA(™) card-based DNA extraction with the multiplex PCR assays. Two multiplex PCR assays were optimized using six primer pairs for each non-O157 STEC serogroup and three primer pairs for virulence genes respectively. Each STEC strain specific primer pair only amplified 155, 238, 321, 438, 587, and 750 bp product for O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 respectively. Three virulence genes were successfully multiplexed: 375 bp for eae, 655 bp for stx1, and 477 bp for stx2. When two multiplex PCR assays were validated with ground beef samples, distinctive bands were also successfully produced. Since the two multiplex PCR examined here can be conducted under the same PCR conditions, the six non-O157 STEC and their virulence genes could be concurrent detected with one run on the thermocycler. In addition, all bands clearly appeared to be amplified by FTA card DNA extraction in multiplex PCR assay from the ground beef sample, suggesting that an FTA card could be a viable sampling approach for rapid and simple DNA extraction to reduce time and labor and therefore may have practical use for the food industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of lactic acid as an initial and secondary subprimal intervention for Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and a nonpathogenic E. coli surrogate for E. coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Pittman, C I; Geornaras, I; Woerner, D R; Nightingale, K K; Sofos, J N; Goodridge, L; Belk, K E

    2012-09-01

    Lactic acid can reduce microbial contamination on beef carcass surfaces when used as a food safety intervention, but effectiveness when applied to the surface of chilled beef subprimal sections is not well documented. Studies characterizing bacterial reduction on subprimals after lactic acid treatment would be useful for validations of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems. The objective of this study was to validate initial use of lactic acid as a subprimal intervention during beef fabrication followed by a secondary application to vacuum-packaged product that was applied at industry operating parameters. Chilled beef subprimal sections (100 cm(2)) were either left uninoculated or were inoculated with 6 log CFU/cm(2) of a 5-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7, a 12-strain mixture of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), or a 5-strain mixture of nonpathogenic (biotype I) E. coli that are considered surrogates for E. coli O157:H7. Uninoculated and inoculated subprimal sections received only an initial or an initial and a second "rework" application of lactic acid in a custombuilt spray cabinet at 1 of 16 application parameters. After the initial spray, total inoculum counts were reduced from 6.0 log CFU/cm(2) to 3.6, 4.4, and 4.4 log CFU/cm(2) for the E. coli surrogates, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC inoculation groups, respectively. After the second (rework) application, total inoculum counts were 2.6, 3.2, and 3.6 log CFU/cm(2) for the E. coli surrogates, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC inoculation groups, respectively. Both the initial and secondary lactic acid treatments effectively reduced counts of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of E. coli and natural microflora on beef subprimals. These data will be useful to the meat industry as part of the HACCP validation process.

  9. Identification of a New Virulent Clade in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H11/H- Sequence Type 29

    PubMed Central

    Ishijima, Nozomi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Yoneda, Saori; Iguchi, Atsushi; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Ohnishi, Makoto; Iyoda, Sunao

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26 infections cause severe human diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy, and is the predominant serogroup among non-O157 EHEC in many countries. Shiga toxin (Stx), which consists of two distinct types (Stx1 and Stx2), plays a central role in EHEC pathogenesis. The major stx gene type in EHEC O26 strains is stx1, although isolates with only stx2 have emerged in Japan since 2012 and have been reported in Europe. In this study, we selected 27 EHEC O26 strains isolated in Japan and identified a distinct genetic clade within sequence type (ST) 29, designated ST29C1, that carried only stx2 and had the plasmid gene profile ehxA+/katP−/espP+/etpD−. We showed that ST29C1 strains produced higher Stx2a levels, and greater virulence in Vero cells and in germ-free mice than other lineages. We also showed that ST29C1 was a distinct phylogenetic clade by SNP analysis using whole genome sequences and clearly differed from the major European EHEC O26 virulent clone, which was designated ST29C2 in this study. The combination of toxin production analysis, virulence analysis in Vero cells and germ-free mice, and phylogenetic analysis identified a newly emerging virulent EHEC clade. PMID:28230102

  10. Detection of non-O157 STEC in ground beef using the GeneDisc real-time PCR system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups have emerged as important public health threats. The development of methods for rapid and reliable detection of this heterogeneous group of pathogens has been challenging. A GeneDisc real-time PCR assay was evaluated for det...

  11. Restriction-Site-Specific PCR as a Rapid Test To Detect Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Richard; Mandrell, Robert E.; Galland, John C.; Hyatt, Doreene; Riley, Lee W.

    2000-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen in industrialized countries. We developed a rapid and simple test for detecting E. coli O157:H7 using a method based on restriction site polymorphisms. Restriction-site-specific PCR (RSS-PCR) involves the amplification of DNA fragments using primers based on specific restriction enzyme recognition sequences, without the use of endonucleases, to generate a set of amplicons that yield “fingerprint” patterns when resolved electrophoretically on an agarose gel. The method was evaluated in a blinded study of E. coli isolates obtained from environmental samples collected at beef cattle feedyards. The 54 isolates were all initially identified by a commonly used polyclonal antibody test as belonging to O157:H7 serotype. They were retested by anti-O157 and anti-H7 monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The RSS-PCR method identified all 28 isolates that were shown to be E. coli O157:H7 by the monoclonal antibody ELISA as belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. Of the remaining 26 ELISA-confirmed non-O157:H7 strains, the method classified 25 strains as non-O157:H7. The specificity of the RSS-PCR results correlated better with the monoclonal antibody ELISA than with the polyclonal antibody latex agglutination tests. The RSS-PCR method may be a useful test to distinguish E. coli O157:H7 from a large number of E. coli isolates from environmental samples. PMID:10831431

  12. Feedlot- and Pen-Level Prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feces of Commercial Feedlot Cattle in Two Major U.S. Cattle Feeding Areas.

    PubMed

    Cull, Charley A; Renter, David G; Dewsbury, Diana M; Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Ives, Samuel E; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine feedlot- and pen-level fecal prevalence of seven enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) belonging to serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157, or EHEC-7) in feces of feedlot cattle in two feeding areas in the United States. Cattle pens from four commercial feedlots in each of the two major U.S. beef cattle areas were sampled. Up to 16 pen-floor fecal samples were collected from each of 4-6 pens per feedlot, monthly, for a total of three visits per feedlot, from June to August, 2014. Culture procedures including fecal enrichment in E. coli broth, immunomagnetic separation, and plating on selective media, followed by confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, were conducted. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to estimate feedlot-, pen-, and sample-level fecal prevalence of EHEC-7 and to evaluate associations between potential demographic and management risk factors with feedlot and within-pen prevalence of EHEC-7. All study feedlots and 31.0% of the study pens had at least one non-O157 EHEC-positive fecal sample, whereas 62.4% of pens tested positive for EHEC O157; sample-level prevalence estimates ranged from 0.0% for EHEC O121 to 18.7% for EHEC O157. Within-pen prevalence of EHEC O157 varied significantly by sampling month; similarly within-pen prevalence of non-O157 EHEC varied significantly by month and by the sex composition of the pen (heifer, steer, or mixed). Feedlot management factors, however, were not significantly associated with fecal prevalence of EHEC-7. Intraclass correlation coefficients for EHEC-7 models indicated that most of the variation occurred between pens, rather than within pens, or between feedlots. Hence, the potential combination of preharvest interventions and pen-level management strategies may have positive food safety impacts downstream along the beef chain.

  13. The Intimin-Like Protein FdeC Is Regulated by H-NS and Temperature in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Easton, Donna M.; Allsopp, Luke P.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Moriel, Danilo Gomes; Goh, Guan Kai; Beatson, Scott A.; Mahony, Timothy J.; Cobbold, Rowland N.

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a Shiga-toxigenic pathogen capable of inducing severe forms of enteritis (e.g., hemorrhagic colitis) and extraintestinal sequelae (e.g., hemolytic-uremic syndrome). The molecular basis of colonization of human and animal hosts by EHEC is not yet completely understood, and an improved understanding of EHEC mucosal adherence may lead to the development of interventions that could disrupt host colonization. FdeC, also referred to by its IHE3034 locus tag ECOK1_0290, is an intimin-like protein that was recently shown to contribute to kidney colonization in a mouse urinary tract infection model. The expression of FdeC is tightly regulated in vitro, and FdeC shows promise as a vaccine candidate against extraintestinal E. coli strains. In this study, we characterized the prevalence, regulation, and function of fdeC in EHEC. We showed that the fdeC gene is conserved in both O157 and non-O157 EHEC and encodes a protein that is expressed at the cell surface and promotes biofilm formation under continuous-flow conditions in a recombinant E. coli strain background. We also identified culture conditions under which FdeC is expressed and showed that minor alterations of these conditions, such as changes in temperature, can significantly alter the level of FdeC expression. Additionally, we demonstrated that the transcription of the fdeC gene is repressed by the global regulator H-NS. Taken together, our data suggest a role for FdeC in EHEC when it grows at temperatures above 37°C, a condition relevant to its specialized niche at the rectoanal junctions of cattle. PMID:25239893

  14. Assessment of virulence factors characteristic of human Escherichia coli pathotypes and antimicrobial resistance in O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 isolates from livestock in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cabal, A; Gómez-Barrero, S; Porrero, C; Bárcena, C; López, G; Cantón, R; Gortázar, C; Domínguez, L; Álvarez, J

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species.

  15. Assessment of Virulence Factors Characteristic of Human Escherichia coli Pathotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance in O157:H7 and Non-O157:H7 Isolates from Livestock in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cabal, A.; Gómez-Barrero, S.; Porrero, C.; Bárcena, C.; López, G.; Cantón, R.; Gortázar, C.; Domínguez, L.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species. PMID:23603685

  16. [Successful treatment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111-induced hemolytic-uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hideki; Minouchi, Keiji; Aoyama, Shou; Hinoue, Yoshinobu

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of a woman in her twenties with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111-induced hemolytic-uremic syndrome who developed acute encephalopathy on day 5 of admission. She recovered after treatment with steroid pulse therapy, plasmapheresis, and recombinant thrombomodulin, without any adverse sequelae. We report this interesting case and provide a summary of the recent outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111.

  17. Quantitative risk assessment of haemolytic and uremic syndrome linked to O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli strains in raw milk soft cheeses.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Frédérique; Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Michel, Valérie; Miszczycha, Stéphane; Bel, Nadège; Sanaa, Moez

    2015-01-01

    Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains may cause human infections ranging from simple diarrhea to Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). The five main pathogenic serotypes of STEC (MPS-STEC) identified thus far in Europe are O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8, and O145:H28. Because STEC strains can survive or grow during cheese making, particularly in soft cheeses, a stochastic quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed to assess the risk of HUS associated with the five MPS-STEC in raw milk soft cheeses. A baseline scenario represents a theoretical worst-case scenario where no intervention was considered throughout the farm-to-fork continuum. The risk level assessed with this baseline scenario is the risk-based level. The impact of seven preharvest scenarios (vaccines, probiotic, milk farm sorting) on the risk-based level was expressed in terms of risk reduction. Impact of the preharvest intervention ranges from 76% to 98% of risk reduction with highest values predicted with scenarios combining a decrease of the number of cow shedding STEC and of the STEC concentration in feces. The impact of postharvest interventions on the risk-based level was also tested by applying five microbiological criteria (MC) at the end of ripening. The five MCs differ in terms of sample size, the number of samples that may yield a value larger than the microbiological limit, and the analysis methods. The risk reduction predicted varies from 25% to 96% by applying MCs without preharvest interventions and from 1% to 96% with combination of pre- and postharvest interventions.

  18. Biofilm formation of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and multidrug-resistant and susceptible Salmonella typhimurium and newport and their inactivation by sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N

    2013-06-01

    This study compared biofilm formation by 7 serogroups of pathogenic Escherichia coli and 2 or 3 phenotypes of Salmonella (susceptible, multidrug-resistant [MDR], and/or multidrug resistant with ampC gene [MDR-AmpC]). One-week mature biofilms were also exposed to water, quaternary ammonium compound-based (QAC), and acid-based (AB) sanitizers. Seven groups (strain mixture) of above-mentioned pathogens were separately spot-inoculated onto stainless steel coupons surfaces for target inoculation of 2 log CFU/cm2, then stored statically, partially submerged in 10% nonsterilized meat homogenate at 4, 15, and 25 °C. Biofilm cells were enumerated on days 0, 1, 4, and 7 following submersion in 30 mL for 1 min in water, QAC, and AB. Counts on inoculation day ranged from 1.6 ± 0.4 to 2.4 ± 0.6 log CFU/cm2 and changed to 1.2 ± 0.8 to 1.9 ± 0.8 on day 7 at 4 °C with no appreciable difference among the 7 pathogen groups. After treatment with QAC and AB on day 7, counts were reduced (P < 0.05) to less than 0.7 ± 0.6 and 1.2 ± 0.5, respectively, with similar trends among pathogens. Biofilm formation at higher temperatures was more enhanced; E. coli O157:H7, as an example, increased (P < 0.05) from 1.4 ± 0.6 and 2.0 ± 0.3 on day 0 to 4.8 ± 0.6 and 6.5 ± 0.2 on day 7 at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. As compared to 4 °C, after sanitation, more survivors were observed for 15 and 25 °C treatments with no appreciable differences among pathogens. Overall, we observed similar patterns of growth and susceptibility to QAC and AB sanitizers of the 7 tested pathogen groups with enhanced biofilm formation capability and higher numbers of treatment survivors at higher temperatures.

  19. [Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Mariana A; Padola, Nora L; Etcheverría, Analía I; Parma, Alberto E

    2004-01-01

    The hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a multisystemic disorder that is characterized by the onset of acute renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. It is the most common cause of acute renal failure and the second cause of chronic renal failure and renal transplantation in children in Argentina. Our country has the highest incidence of HUS in the world, with approximately 420 new cases observed each year with an incidence of 12.2 cases per 100,000 children in the age group 0-5 years. Numerous etiologic factors have been associated with HUS but the infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is considered the most common cause. The majority of outbreaks and sporadic cases in humans have been associated with serotype O157:H7, although other O:H serotypes have been isolated, and they are a subgroup of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). Cattle are the principal reservoir of VTEC. Infections in humans are a consequence of consumption of undercooked meat, raw milk and other contaminated food or water. Direct contact with animals or people infected is another source of infection.

  20. Baicalin Protects Mice from Lethal Infection by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Qi, Zhimin; Liu, Yan; He, Wenqi; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quan; Dong, Jing; Deng, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 poses grave challenges to public health by its ability to cause severe colonic diseases and renal failure in both human and animals. Shiga-like toxins are the major pathogenic factor for some highly virulent E. coli expecially Shiga-like toxin 2. Conventional treatments such as antibiotics can facilitate the release of the toxin thus potentially exacerbate the diseases. Small molecule inhibitors and antibodies capable of neutralizing the toxins are the two major venues for the development of therapeutics against enterohemorrhagic serotype E. coli infection. While promising and potentially effective at clinical settings, these approaches need to overcome obstacles such as the limited routes of administration, responses from the host immune system, which are known to differ greatly among individuals. Our previous studies demonstrate that Baicalin (BAI), a flavonoid compound isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis protects against rStx2-induced cell cytotoxicity and also protects mice from lethal rStx2 challenges by inducing Stx2 to form inactive oligomers. In this manuscript, we present some exciting work showing that baicalin is an effective agent for therapeutic treatment of STEC O157:H7 infection. PMID:28337193

  1. Baicalin Protects Mice from Lethal Infection by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Qi, Zhimin; Liu, Yan; He, Wenqi; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quan; Dong, Jing; Deng, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 poses grave challenges to public health by its ability to cause severe colonic diseases and renal failure in both human and animals. Shiga-like toxins are the major pathogenic factor for some highly virulent E. coli expecially Shiga-like toxin 2. Conventional treatments such as antibiotics can facilitate the release of the toxin thus potentially exacerbate the diseases. Small molecule inhibitors and antibodies capable of neutralizing the toxins are the two major venues for the development of therapeutics against enterohemorrhagic serotype E. coli infection. While promising and potentially effective at clinical settings, these approaches need to overcome obstacles such as the limited routes of administration, responses from the host immune system, which are known to differ greatly among individuals. Our previous studies demonstrate that Baicalin (BAI), a flavonoid compound isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis protects against rStx2-induced cell cytotoxicity and also protects mice from lethal rStx2 challenges by inducing Stx2 to form inactive oligomers. In this manuscript, we present some exciting work showing that baicalin is an effective agent for therapeutic treatment of STEC O157:H7 infection.

  2. Calpain Mediates Epithelial Cell Microvillar Effacement by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Lai, YuShuan; Riley, Kathleen; Cai, Andrew; Leong, John M.; Herman, Ira M.

    2011-01-01

    A member of the attaching and effacing (AE) family of pathogens, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) induces dramatic changes to the intestinal cell cytoskeleton, including effacement of microvilli. Effacement by the related pathogen enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) requires the activity of the Ca+2-dependent host protease, calpain, which participates in a variety of cellular processes, including cell adhesion and motility. We found that EHEC infection results in an increase in epithelial (CaCo-2a) cell calpain activity and that EHEC-induced microvillar effacement was blocked by ectopic expression of calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, or by pretreatment of intestinal cells with a cell-penetrating version of calpastatin. In addition, ezrin, a known calpain substrate that links the plasma membrane to axial actin filaments in microvilli, was cleaved in a calpain-dependent manner during EHEC infection and lost from its normal locale within microvilli. Calpain may be a central conduit through which EHEC and other AE pathogens induce enterocyte cytoskeletal remodeling and exert their pathogenic effects. PMID:22073041

  3. Catabolite and Oxygen Regulation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Carlson-Banning, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The biogeography of the gut is diverse in its longitudinal axis, as well as within specific microenvironments. Differential oxygenation and nutrient composition drive the membership of microbial communities in these habitats. Moreover, enteric pathogens can orchestrate further modifications to gain a competitive advantage toward host colonization. These pathogens are versatile and adept when exploiting the human colon. They expertly navigate complex environmental cues and interkingdom signaling to colonize and infect their hosts. Here we demonstrate how enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) uses three sugar-sensing transcription factors, Cra, KdpE, and FusR, to exquisitely regulate the expression of virulence factors associated with its type III secretion system (T3SS) when exposed to various oxygen concentrations. We also explored the effect of mucin-derived nonpreferred carbon sources on EHEC growth and expression of virulence genes. Taken together, the results show that EHEC represses the expression of its T3SS when oxygen is absent, mimicking the largely anaerobic lumen, and activates its T3SS when oxygen is available through Cra. In addition, when EHEC senses mucin-derived sugars heavily present in the O-linked and N-linked glycans of the large intestine, virulence gene expression is initiated. Sugars derived from pectin, a complex plant polysaccharide digested in the large intestine, also increased virulence gene expression. Not only does EHEC sense host- and microbiota-derived interkingdom signals, it also uses oxygen availability and mucin-derived sugars liberated by the microbiota to stimulate expression of the T3SS. This precision in gene regulation allows EHEC to be an efficient pathogen with an extremely low infectious dose. PMID:27879335

  4. Prevalence and level of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in culled dairy cows at harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and concentration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 (EHEC-7) in fecal, hide, and pre-intervention carcass surface samples from culled dairy cows at harvest. Matched samples were ...

  5. Comparison of methods for the enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from veal hides and carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increased association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) with veal calves has led the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to report results of veal meat contaminated with the Top 7 serogroups separately from beef cattle. However, detection methods...

  6. Genome Sequence of the Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Bacteriophage UFV-AREG1

    PubMed Central

    Batalha, Laís Silva; Albino, Luiz Augusto A.; Boggione, Delaine Meireles Gouveia; Gontijo, Marco Tulio Pardini; Bazzolli, Denise M. Soares; Mendonca, Regina C. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the genome sequence of the Escherichia coli bacteriophage UFV-AREG1. This phage was isolated from cowshed wastewater and showed specificity for enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895), E. coli 0111 (CDC O11ab) and E. coli (ATCC 23229). PMID:27738021

  7. Genome Sequence of the Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Bacteriophage UFV-AREG1.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Maryoris E Soto; Batalha, Laís Silva; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Albino, Luiz Augusto A; Boggione, Delaine Meireles Gouveia; Gontijo, Marco Tulio Pardini; Bazzolli, Denise M Soares; Mendonca, Regina C Santos

    2016-10-13

    Here, we present the genome sequence of the Escherichia coli bacteriophage UFV-AREG1. This phage was isolated from cowshed wastewater and showed specificity for enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895), E. coli 0111 (CDC O11ab) and E. coli (ATCC 23229). Copyright © 2016 Lopez et al.

  8. Evaluation of rectoanal mucosal swab sampling for molecular detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared the presence of seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157...

  9. Revisiting the STEC Testing Approach: Using espK and espV to Make Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Detection More Reliable in Beef

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Chaves, Byron D.; Ison, Sarah A.; Webb, Hattie E.; Beutin, Lothar; Delaval, José; Billet, Isabelle; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for screening Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 and non-O157 in beef enrichments typically rely on the molecular detection of stx, eae, and serogroup-specific wzx or wzy gene fragments. As these genetic markers can also be found in some non-EHEC strains, a number of “false positive” results are obtained. Here, we explore the suitability of five novel molecular markers, espK, espV, ureD, Z2098, and CRISPRO26:H11 as candidates for a more accurate screening of EHEC strains of greater clinical significance in industrialized countries. Of the 1739 beef enrichments tested, 180 were positive for both stx and eae genes. Ninety (50%) of these tested negative for espK, espV, ureD, and Z2098, but 12 out of these negative samples were positive for the CRISPRO26:H11 gene marker specific for a newly emerging virulent EHEC O26:H11 French clone. We show that screening for stx, eae, espK, and espV, in association with the CRISPRO26:H11 marker is a better approach to narrow down the EHEC screening step in beef enrichments. The number of potentially positive samples was reduced by 48.88% by means of this alternative strategy compared to the European and American reference methods, thus substantially improving the discriminatory power of EHEC screening systems. This approach is in line with the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) opinion on pathogenic STEC published in 2013. PMID:26834723

  10. Fate of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within refrigerated, frozen, or frozen then thawed ground beef patties cooked on a commercial open-flame gas or a clamshell electric grill.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Phillips, John; Chen, Vivian; Eblen, Denise R; Cook, L Victor; Mohr, Tim B; Esteban, Emilio; Bauer, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    Both high-fat and low-fat ground beef (percent lean:fat = ca. 70:30 and 93:7, respectively) were inoculated with a 6-strain cocktail of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) or a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g). Patties were pressed (ca. 2.54 cm thick, ca. 300 g each) and then refrigerated (4°C, 18 to 24 h), or frozen (-18°C, 3 weeks), or frozen (-18°C, 3 weeks) and then thawed (4°C for 18 h or 21°C for 10 h) before being cooked on commercial gas or electric grills to internal temperatures of 60 to 76.6°C. For E. coli O157:H7, regardless of grill type or fat level, cooking refrigerated patties to 71.1 or 76.6°C decreased E. coli O157:H7 numbers from an initial level of ca. 7.0 log CFU/g to a final level of ≤1.0 log CFU/g, whereas decreases to ca. 1.1 to 3.1 log CFU/g were observed when refrigerated patties were cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 71.1 or 76.6°C, E. coli O157:H7 numbers decreased to ca. 1.7 or ≤0.7 log CFU/g. Likewise, pathogen numbers decreased to ca. 0.7 to 3.7 log CFU/g in patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For STEC, regardless of grill type or fat level, cooking refrigerated patties to 71.1 or 76.6°C decreased pathogen numbers from ca. 7.0 to ≤0.7 log CFU/g, whereas decreases to ca. 0.7 to 3.6 log CFU/g were observed when refrigerated patties were cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 71.1 or 76.6°C, STEC numbers decreased to a final level of ca. 1.5 to ≤0.7 log CFU/g. Likewise, pathogen numbers decreased from ca. 7.0 to ca. 0.8 to 4.3 log CFU/g in patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. Thus, cooking ground beef patties that were refrigerated, frozen, or freeze-thawed to internal temperatures of 71.1 and 76.6°C was effective for eliminating ca. 5.1 to 7.0 log CFU of E. coli O157:H7 and STEC per g.

  11. [Survival of VTEC O157 and non-O157 in water troughs and bovine feces].

    PubMed

    Polifroni, Rosana; Etcheverría, Analía I; Arroyo, Guillermo H; Padola, Nora L

    2014-01-01

    Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is the etiologic agent of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which typically affects children ranging in age from six months to five years old. Transmission is produced by consumption of contaminated food, by direct contact with animals or the environment and from person to person. In previous studies we determined that the environment of a dairy farm is a non-animal reservoir; thus, we proposed to study the survival of 4 VTEC isolates (O20:H19; O91:H21; O157:H7 and O178:H19) in sterile water troughs and bovine feces by viable bacteria count and detection of virulence genes by PCR. It was demonstrated that the survival of different VTEC isolates (O157 and non-O157) varied in terms of their own characteristics as well as of the environmental conditions where they were found. The main differences between isolates were their survival time and the maximal counts reached. The competitive and adaptive characteristics of some isolates increase the infection risk for people that are visiting or working on a farm, as well as the risk for reinfection of the animals and food contamination.

  12. Characterization and Virulence Assessment of Two 091:821 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Isolates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-30

    by: Alison D. O’Brien, Ph.D. professor, Department of Microbiology Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cause food -borne hemorrhagic colitis...treated mice 5. Hematology and blood chemistry results of B2Fl(strr )-infected mice 6. Passive immunization of streptomycin-treated CD-l mice infected... food chain . Ten percent of the patients were infected by secondary transmission . Three children died. EHEC infections occur predominately in

  13. Evaluation of a novel antimicrobial solution and its potential for control E. coli O157:H7, non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Salmononella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial solution made with chitosan, lauric arginate ester, and organic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli cocktails and to test its potential to b...

  14. Latex agglutination assays for detection and of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Latex agglutination assays were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups utilizing polyclonal antibodies. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through Protein A/G columns and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgG) were covalently immobilized onto pol...

  15. Assessment of enhanced surveillance for non-O157 STEC in beef in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) classified E. coli O157:H7 as an adulterant in raw ground beef and began a verification testing program for this pathogen in 1994 in response to a large outbreak associated with undercooked ground beef. It has become evident that non-O157 Shiga tox...

  16. Modulation of the Inflammasome Signaling Pathway by Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Hilo; Karino, Masaki; Tobe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity is an essential component in the protection of a host against pathogens. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) are known to modulate the innate immune responses of infected cells. The interference is dependent on their type III secretion system (T3SS) and T3SS-dependent effector proteins. Furthermore, these cytosolically injected effectors have been demonstrated to engage multiple immune signaling pathways, including the IFN/STAT, MAPK, NF-κB, and inflammasome pathways. In this review, recent work describing the interaction between EPEC/EHEC and the inflammasome pathway will be discussed. PMID:27617233

  17. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli promotes the invasion and tissue damage of enterocytes infected with Candida albicans in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiming; Zhou, Yanjun; Wu, Chunrong; Tang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro co-infection of Caco-2 cells with Candida albicans and enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli (EHEC). The ability of both species to colonize or invade the Caco-2 cells was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence and inverted microscopy. The damage to Caco-2 cells was evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. C. albicans virulence gene expression (HWP1, ALS3, PLB1, SAP4, and EFG1) was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Compared to single infections with enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli or C. albicans, a co-infection colonized or invaded Caco-2 cells more quickly, and C. albicans tended to accumulate more easily, accompanied by the upregulation of related genes. In addition, the LDH activity in the co-infected group was higher than in cells infected with C. albicans or with enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli, accompanied by the upregulation of toxicity-related genes. Using Caco-2 cells as an infection model, this study demonstrated that co-infecting in vitro enterocytes with C. albicans and enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli enhanced the invasiveness and tissue damaging effects of C. albicans. PMID:27874093

  18. Presence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ST678/O104:H4 in France Prior to 2011▿

    PubMed Central

    Monecke, Stefan; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Bingen, Edouard; Weill, François-Xavier; Balière, Charlotte; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Two isolates of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O104:H4 were isolated in France in 2004 and 2009. Both were characterized and compared to the strain which caused the German outbreak in 2011 and to other O104:H4 strains. This suggests that different O104:H4 EHEC strains were present several years prior to the 2011 outbreak. PMID:22003010

  19. Transpositional inactivation of gadW enhances curli production and biofilm formation in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been shown to produce variants that either express or are repressed in the expression of curli fimbriae promoting bacterial attachment, aggregation, and biofilm formation. The variant expression of curli fimbriae in some instances could result fr...

  20. Effect of direct-fed microbial dosage on the fecal concentrations of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of beef products by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a concern for food safety with a particular subset, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), being the most relevant to human disease. To mitigate food safety risks, pre-harvest intervention strategies have been implemen...

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, Germany, 1987–2008

    PubMed Central

    Jenke, Christian; Harmsen, Dag; Weniger, Thomas; Rothgänger, Jörg; Hyytiä-Trees, Eija; Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a subtyping technique for characterizing human pathogenic bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157. We determined the phylogeny of 202 epidemiologically unrelated EHEC O157:H7/H– clinical isolates through 8 MLVA loci obtained in Germany during 1987–2008. Biodiversity in the loci ranged from 0.66 to 0.90. Four of 8 loci showed null alleles and a frequency <44.1%. These loci were distributed among 48.5% of all strains. Overall, 141 MLVA profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis assigned 67.3% of the strains to 19 MLVA clusters. Specific MLVA profiles with an evolutionary persistence were identified, particularly within sorbitol-fermenting EHEC O157:H–.These pathogens belonged to the same MLVA cluster. Our findings indicate successful persistence of this clone. PMID:20350374

  2. Expression of Intimin γ from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Citrobacter rodentium

    PubMed Central

    Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Huter, Veronika; Higgins, Lisa M.; Goncalves, Nathalie S.; Dougan, Gordon; Phillips, Alan D.; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Frankel, Gad

    2000-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids (Int280) of the bacterial adhesion molecule intimin include the receptor-binding domain. At least five different types of Int280, designated α, β, γ, δ, and ɛ, have been described based on sequence variation in this region. Importantly, the intimin types are associated with different evolutionary branches and contribute to distinct tissue tropism of intimin-positive bacterial pathogens. In this study we engineered a strain of Citrobacter rodentium, which normally displays intimin β, to express intimin γ from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. We show that intimin γ binds to the translocated intimin receptor (Tir) from C. rodentium and has the ability to produce attaching and effacing lesions on HEp-2 cells. However, C. rodentium expressing intimin γ could not colonize orally infected mice or induce mouse colonic hyperplasia. These results suggest that intimin may contribute to host specificity, possibly through its interaction with a receptor on the host cell surface. PMID:10899867

  3. [First documented case of enterocolitis in Yugoslavia caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157].

    PubMed

    Cobeljić, Miloje; Bojić, Ivanko; Opacić, Dolores; Lepsanović, Zorica; Lazić, Srdan

    2003-01-01

    A 'new' group of pathogenic agents, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) (particularly the strains of O157 serogroup), emerged in the last 20 years, causing an increased number of sporadic and epidemic diarrhoeal diseases with hemorrhagic enterocolitis as a most common clinical manifestation of the infection. As a consequence of the absorption and cytotoxic effect of the main virulence factor of these bacteria--verotoxin (shiga-toxin), in about 10% of the affected persons extraintestinal complications, most frequently hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), occurred 7-14 days after an episode of diarrhoeal disease. The first case of hemorrhagic enterocolitis with the documented EHEC O157 infection in Yugoslavia is presented in this paper. Considering the existing expansion trend of these carriers, practitioners should be aware of them in case of the occurrence of diarrhoeal disease, (particularly hemorrhagic enterocolitis), and keep these patients under control during the reconvalescence period because of potential development of extraintestinal complications, such as HUS.

  4. All blood, No stool: enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jang W.

    2008-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is a pathotype of diarrheagenic E. coli that produces one or more Shiga toxins, forms a characteristic histopathology described as attaching and effacing lesions, and possesses the large virulence plasmid pO157. The bacterium is recognized worldwide, especially in developed countries, as an emerging food-borne bacterial pathogen, which causes disease in humans and in some animals. Healthy cattle are the principal and natural reservoir of E. coli O157:H7, and most disease outbreaks are, therefore, due to consumption of fecally contaminated bovine foods or dairy products. In this review, we provide a general overview of E. coli O157:H7 infection, especially focusing on the bacterial characteristics rather than on the host responses during infection. PMID:18716441

  5. Repression of flagella motility in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by mucin components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Chul; Yoon, Jang W; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Park, Mi-Sun; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2012-07-13

    Whole genome-scale transcriptome analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 EDL933 was performed to investigate the influence of mucin components on the EHEC gene expression. Here we report that the 732 candidate genes were differentially expressed by the presence of 0.5% porcine stomach mucin, including the 8 flagella-related genes. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the transcription expression of the flg genes (encoding the structural components for flagella basal body) was down-regulated by the mucin components. Indeed, bacterial swarming motility was drastically reduced when grown on 0.3% trypton agar plates containing the mucin. These results imply that gastrointestinal (GI) mucin is a possible environmental signal which negatively regulates the flagellation of EHEC O157:H7 in the GI tract.

  6. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli senses low biotin status in the large intestine for colonization and infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans. PMID:25791315

  7. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli senses low biotin status in the large intestine for colonization and infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-20

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans.

  8. Prevalence of O157:H7 and non-O157 E. coli in Iranian domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tahamtan, Yahya; Namavari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the isolation of both E. coli O157 and non-O157 in sheep. Verotoxins (VT) 1, 2 and eae genes were tested for this propose. Sheep faces are an important source of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a highly virulent food-borne pathogen and threat to public health. Rectal swab samples from sheep were collected during 2009-2010. Conventional plating and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were carried out according to virulence factors (Stx1, Stx2 and eaeA).There significant differences between prevalence of STEC and session were observed. It was at highest in spring and late summer. Six (3.92%) sheep carcasses were contaminated by E. coli O157:H7.Only six samples were positive by PCR specific for the VT2 gene and produced verocytotoxin VT2, whereas all isolates were negative for the presence of VT1 and eae virulence genes considered. Geographical variations and season may be influenced in the prevalence rate. The composition of the gastrointestinal flora may be changed by different diet and, therefore O157 STEC rate in sheep and lamb was different. Iranian sheep indicated as a natural host of E. coli O157 strains therefore, may be potentially pathogenic for humans. This is the first report of E. coli O157 detection from sheep in Iran.

  9. Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eileen J.; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Thomas, Anita A.; Stapp, Jennifer R.; Rich, Shannon; Buccat, Anne Marie; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2015-01-01

    Timely accurate diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections is important. We evaluated a laboratory-developed real-time PCR (LD-PCR) assay targeting stx1, stx2, and rfbEO157 with 2,386 qualifying stool samples submitted to the microbiology laboratory of a tertiary care pediatric center between July 2011 and December 2013. Broth cultures of PCR-positive samples were tested for Shiga toxins by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (ImmunoCard STAT! enterohemorrhagic E. coli [EHEC]; Meridian Bioscience) and cultured in attempts to recover both O157 and non-O157 STEC. E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC were detected in 35 and 18 cases, respectively. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred in 12 patients (10 infected with STEC O157, one infected with STEC O125ac, and one with PCR evidence of STEC but no resulting isolate). Among the 59 PCR-positive STEC specimens from 53 patients, only 29 (54.7%) of the associated specimens were toxin positive by EIA. LD-PCR differentiated STEC O157 from non-O157 using rfbEO157, and LD-PCR results prompted successful recovery of E. coli O157 (n = 25) and non-O157 STEC (n = 8) isolates, although the primary cultures and toxin assays were frequently negative. A rapid “mega”-multiplex PCR (FilmArray gastrointestinal panel; BioFire Diagnostics) was used retrospectively, and results correlated with LD-PCR findings in 25 (89%) of the 28 sorbitol-MacConkey agar culture-negative STEC cases. These findings demonstrate that PCR is more sensitive than EIA and/or culture and distinguishes between O157 and non-O157 STEC in clinical samples and that E. coli O157:H7 remains the predominant cause of HUS in our institution. PCR is highly recommended for rapid diagnosis of pediatric STEC infections. PMID:25926491

  10. Basic Reproduction Number and Transmission Dynamics of Common Serogroups of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Michael W.; Lee, Chihoon; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G.; Lanzas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the transmission dynamics of pathogens is essential to determine the epidemiology, ecology, and ways of controlling enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in animals and their environments. Our objective was to estimate the epidemiological fitness of common EHEC strains in cattle populations. For that purpose, we developed a Markov chain model to characterize the dynamics of 7 serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) in cattle production environments based on a set of cross-sectional data on infection prevalence in 2 years in two U.S. states. The basic reproduction number (R0) was estimated using a Bayesian framework for each serogroup based on two criteria (using serogroup alone [the O-group data] and using O serogroup, Shiga toxin gene[s], and intimin [eae] gene together [the EHEC data]). In addition, correlations between external covariates (e.g., location, ambient temperature, dietary, and probiotic usage) and prevalence/R0 were quantified. R0 estimates varied substantially among different EHEC serogroups, with EHEC O157 having an R0 of >1 (∼1.5) and all six other EHEC serogroups having an R0 of less than 1. Using the O-group data substantially increased R0 estimates for the O26, O45, and O103 serogroups (R0 > 1) but not for the others. Different covariates had distinct influences on different serogroups: the coefficients for each covariate were different among serogroups. Our modeling and analysis of this system can be readily expanded to other pathogen systems in order to estimate the pathogen and external factors that influence spread of infectious agents. IMPORTANCE In this paper we describe a Bayesian modeling framework to estimate basic reproduction numbers of multiple serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli according to a cross-sectional study. We then coupled a compartmental model to reconstruct the infection dynamics of these serotypes and quantify their risk

  11. Sample processing for DNA chip array-based analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC).

    PubMed

    Basselet, Pascal; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Enfors, Sven-Olof; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena

    2008-10-13

    Exploitation of DNA-based analyses of microbial pathogens, and especially simultaneous typing of several virulence-related genes in bacteria is becoming an important objective of public health these days. A procedure for sample processing for a confirmative analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) on a single colony with DNA chip array was developed and is reported here. The protocol includes application of fragmented genomic DNA from ultrasonicated colonies. The sample processing comprises first 2.5 min of ultrasonic treatment, DNA extraction (2x), and afterwards additional 5 min ultrasonication. Thus, the total sample preparation time for a confirmative analysis of EHEC is nearly 10 min. Additionally, bioinformatic revisions were performed in order to design PCR primers and array probes specific to most conservative regions of the EHEC-associated genes. Six strains with distinct pathogenic properties were selected for this study. At last, the EHEC chip array for a parallel and simultaneous detection of genes etpC-stx1-stx2-eae was designed and examined. This should permit to sense all currently accessible variants of the selected sequences in EHEC types and subtypes. In order to implement the DNA chip array-based analysis for direct EHEC detection the sample processing was established in course of this work. However, this sample preparation mode may also be applied to other types of EHEC DNA-based sensing systems.

  12. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli pathogenesis: role of Long polar fimbriae in Peyer’s patches interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Charlotte; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Thévenot, Jonathan; Rougeron, Amandine; Rénier, Sandra; Chassaing, Benoit; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Barnich, Nicolas; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Livrelli, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens whose survival and virulence in the human digestive tract remain unclear owing to paucity of relevant models. EHEC interact with the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer’s patches of the distal ileum and translocate across the intestinal epithelium via M-cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of Long polar fimbriae (Lpf) in EHEC pathogenesis. Of the 236 strains tested, a significant association was observed between the presence of lpf operons and pathogenicity. In sophisticated in vitro models of the human gastro-intestinal tract, lpf expression was induced during transit through the simulated stomach and small intestine, but not in the colonic compartment. To investigate the involvement of Lpf in EHEC pathogenesis, lpf isogenic mutants and their relative trans-complemented strains were generated. Translocation across M-cells, interactions with murine ileal biopsies containing Peyer’s patches and the number of hemorrhagic lesions were significantly reduced with the lpf mutants compared to the wild-type strain. Complementation of lpf mutants fully restored the wild-type phenotypes. Our results indicate that (i) EHEC might colonize the terminal ileum at the early stages of infection, (ii) Lpf are an important player in the interactions with Peyer’s patches and M-cells, and could contribute to intestinal colonization. PMID:28317910

  13. Identification of Intermediate in Evolutionary Model of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Jenke, Christian; Leopold, Shana R.; Weniger, Thomas; Rothgänger, Jörg; Harmsen, Dag; Karch, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 cause a spectrum of clinical signs that include diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The current evolutionary model of EHEC O157:H7/H– consists of a stepwise evolution scenario proceeding from O55:H7 to a node (hypothetical intermediate) that then branches into sorbitol-fermenting (SF) O157:H– and non-SF (NSF) O157:H7. To identify this hypothetical intermediate, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by sequencing of 92 randomly distributed backbone genomic regions of 40 O157:H7/H– isolates. Overall, 111 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 75/92 partial open reading frames after sequencing 51,041 nt/strain. The EHEC O157:H7 strain LSU-61 from deer occupied an intermediate position between O55:H7 and both O157 branches (SF and NSF O157), complementing the stepwise evolutionary model of EHEC O157:H7/H–. The animal origin of this intermediate emphasizes the value of nonhuman reservoirs in the clarification of the evolution of human pathogens. PMID:22469031

  14. Efficacy of Plant-Derived Antimicrobials in Controlling Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Nair, Meera Surendran; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that can cause serious human illness characterized by hemorrhagic diarrhea and kidney failure. The pathology of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) infection is primarily mediated by verotoxins, which bind to the globotriaosylceramide receptor on host cells. Antibiotics are contraindicated for treating EHEC infection because they lead to increased verotoxin release, thereby increasing the risk of renal failure and death in patients. Thus, alternative strategies are needed for controlling EHEC infections in humans. This study investigated the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of five plant-derived antimicrobial agents (PDAs) that are generally considered as safe, i.e., trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, and β-resorcylic acid, on EHEC motility, adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells, verotoxin production, and virulence gene expression. All tested PDAs reduced EHEC motility and attachment to human intestinal epithelial cells (P < 0.05) and decreased verotoxin synthesis by EHEC. The reverse transcription real-time PCR data revealed that PDAs decreased the expression of critical virulence genes in EHEC (P < 0.05). The results collectively suggest that these PDAs could be used to reduce EHEC virulence, but follow-up studies in animal models are necessary to validate these findings.

  15. Human intestinal epithelial cell-derived molecule(s) increase enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Tarun; Kim, Dae N; Slininger, Tim; Wood, Thomas K; Jayaraman, Arul

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the role of host cell-derived molecules on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection, we studied EHEC virulence gene expression when exposed to cell-free spent (conditioned) medium (CM) from HCT-8 intestinal epithelial cells. Exposure to HCT-8 CM for 1 h and 3 h increased the expression of 32 of 41 EHEC locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) virulence genes compared with fresh medium (FM). Expression of the Shiga toxin 1 (stx1B) gene was up-regulated at 1 h of exposure. Seventeen genes encoded by prophage 933W, including those for Stx2, were also up-regulated at both time-points. The increase in 933W prophage expression was mirrored by a 2.7-fold increase in phage titers. Consistent with the increase in virulence gene expression, we observed a fivefold increase in EHEC attachment to epithelial cells when exposed to CM. The increase in EHEC attachment was abolished when CM was heated to 95 °C or treated with proteinase K to degrade the proteins. The host cell-derived molecule(s) were larger than 3 kDa, which suggests that the molecule(s) that increase EHEC virulence and attachment are protein-based. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli OmpT regulates outer membrane vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Premjani, Veena; Tilley, Derek; Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé; Samis, John A

    2014-06-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection from food or water often results in severe diarrheal disease and is a leading cause of death globally. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) secreted from E. coli induce lethality in mice. The omptin outer membrane protease OmpT from E. coli inactivates antimicrobial peptides and may enhance colonization of the uroepithelium, but its precise function remains unclear. Given OmpT is an outer membrane protease, we hypothesized it may have a role in OMV biogenesis. To further characterize the effect of OmpT on OMV production, a genetic approach using wild type, an ompT deletion mutant and an ompT overexpressing construct in EHEC were employed. ompT gene deletion markedly decreased OMV production and stainable lipid but increased vesicle diameter. Conversely, ompT overexpression profoundly increased OMV biogenesis but decreased stainable lipid, protein content, and vesicle diameter. Alterations in EHEC ompT gene expression have an impact on the biogenesis, composition, and size of OMVs. Changes in ompT gene expression may dynamically alter OMV formation, composition, and diameter in response to different host environments and contribute to cell-free intercellular communication to enhance bacterial growth and survival. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H− Genes Required for Intestinal Colonization in Calves

    PubMed Central

    van Diemen, Pauline M.; Dziva, Francis; Stevens, Mark P.; Wallis, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections in humans are an important public health problem and are commonly acquired via contact with ruminant feces. The serogroups that are predominantly associated with human infection in the United States and Europe are O157 and O26. Serotypes O157:H7 and O26:H− differ in their virulence and tissue tropism in calves and therefore may colonize calves by distinct mechanisms. The mechanisms underlying EHEC intestinal colonization and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Signature-tagged mutagenesis was used to identify 59 genes of EHEC O26:H− that are required for the intestinal colonization of calves. Our results indicate important roles for locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type III secreted proteins in intestinal colonization. In addition, colonization is facilitated by cytotoxins, putative type III secreted proteins unlinked to the LEE, a putative fimbrial operon, and numerous genes involved in central metabolism and transport and genes of unknown function. Our data also imply that the elaboration of type I fimbriae by EHEC O26:H− is disadvantageous for persistence within the bovine intestines. These observations have important implications for the design of vaccines to control these important zoonotic pathogens. PMID:15731074

  18. Transmission electron microscopy study of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple tissue.

    PubMed

    Janes, Marlene E; Kim, K S; Johnson, M G

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the ability of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 to spread in wounded apple tissue by transmission electron microscopy. Red Delicious apples were wounded with an artist knife (7 mm depth) and either inoculated with 10 microl per wound of decimally diluted E. coli O157:H7 or submerged into E. coli O157:H7 suspended in sterile distilled water and then stored at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed E. coli O157:H7 formed bacterial aggregates near the apple cell walls, and single cells were in close proximity to the apple cell wall surfaces and to plasma membranes. E. coli O157:H7 presence caused degradation of plasma membranes and release of the cytoplasm contents of the apple cortical cells into the central vacuole. Apple tissue turgor pressure tests showed that the apple cells infected with E. coli O157:H7 isolates were more likely to rupture than the control noninoculated apple cells. E. coli O157:H7 cells grown in apple tissue showed the formation of granules and vesicles within the bacterial cytoplasma and separation of the plasma membranes. Our study shows that E. coli O157:H7 can grow and survive in the apple tissue environment by causing degradation of the apple cellular components.

  19. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Hybrid Pathotype O80:H2 as a New Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, Nurcan; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Smail, Yasmine; Liguori, Sandrine; Gouali, Malika; Loukiadis, Estelle; Fach, Patrick; Bruyand, Mathias; Blanco, Jorge; Bidet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections caused by the singular hybrid pathotype O80:H2, and we examine the influence of antibiotics on Shiga toxin production. In France, during 2005–2014, a total of 54 patients were infected with EHEC O80:H2; 91% had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Two patients had invasive infections, and 2 died. All strains carried stx2 (variants stx2a, 2c, or 2d); the rare intimin gene (eae-ξ); and at least 4 genes characteristic of pS88, a plasmid associated with extraintestinal virulence. Similar strains were found in Spain. All isolates belonged to the same clonal group. At subinhibitory concentrations, azithromycin decreased Shiga toxin production significantly, ciprofloxacin increased it substantially, and ceftriaxone had no major effect. Antibiotic combinations that included azithromycin also were tested. EHEC O80:H2, which can induce hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated by bacteremia, is emerging in France. However, azithromycin might effectively combat these infections. PMID:27533474

  20. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Hybrid Pathotype O80:H2 as a New Therapeutic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Soysal, Nurcan; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Smail, Yasmine; Liguori, Sandrine; Gouali, Malika; Loukiadis, Estelle; Fach, Patrick; Bruyand, Mathias; Blanco, Jorge; Bidet, Philippe; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    We describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections caused by the singular hybrid pathotype O80:H2, and we examine the influence of antibiotics on Shiga toxin production. In France, during 2005-2014, a total of 54 patients were infected with EHEC O80:H2; 91% had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Two patients had invasive infections, and 2 died. All strains carried stx2 (variants stx2a, 2c, or 2d); the rare intimin gene (eae-ξ); and at least 4 genes characteristic of pS88, a plasmid associated with extraintestinal virulence. Similar strains were found in Spain. All isolates belonged to the same clonal group. At subinhibitory concentrations, azithromycin decreased Shiga toxin production significantly, ciprofloxacin increased it substantially, and ceftriaxone had no major effect. Antibiotic combinations that included azithromycin also were tested. EHEC O80:H2, which can induce hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated by bacteremia, is emerging in France. However, azithromycin might effectively combat these infections.

  1. Isothiocyanates as effective agents against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: insight to the mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Dariusz; Rodzik, Olga; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Production of Shiga toxins by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) which is responsible for the pathogenicity of these strains, is strictly correlated with induction of lambdoid bacteriophages present in the host’s genome, replication of phage DNA and expression of stx genes. Antibiotic treatment of EHEC infection may lead to induction of prophage into a lytic development, thus increasing the risk of severe complications. This, together with the spread of multi-drug resistance, increases the need for novel antimicrobial agents. We report here that isothiocyanates (ITC), plant secondary metabolites, such as sulforaphane (SFN), allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), benzyl isothiocynanate (BITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) and isopropyl isothiocyanate (IPRITC), inhibit bacterial growth and lytic development of stx-harboring prophages. The mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effect of ITCs involves the induction of global bacterial stress regulatory system, the stringent response. Its alarmone, guanosine penta/tetraphosphate ((p)ppGpp) affects major cellular processes, including nucleic acids synthesis, which leads to the efficient inhibition of both, prophage induction and toxin synthesis, abolishing in this way EHEC virulence for human and simian cells. Thus, ITCs could be considered as potential therapeutic agents in EHEC infections. PMID:26922906

  2. Multi-drug-resistant enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from children with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Zeighami, Habib; Haghi, Fakhri; Hajiahmadi, Fahimeh; Kashefiyeh, Mehdi; Memariani, Mojtaba

    2015-06-01

    Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) has rapidly spread worldwide and represents the most serious threat to the management of diarrhea in developing countries. During the period from March 2011 to January 2012, a total of 450 stool samples of diarrheal children aged 0-60 months were studied. In order to detect enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) simultaneously, a mixture of four primer pairs specific for eltB, estA, vt1, and vt2 genes was used in a multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A total of 140 (31·1%) DEC were isolated from 450 stool samples. Diarrheagenic E. coli exhibited high-level resistance to aztreonam (80·7%), amoxicillin (74·4%), and tetracycline (69·3%). Also, 86·4% of E. coli isolates were resistant to at least three different classes of antimicrobial agents and considered as MDR. The frequency of ETEC and EHEC pathotypes was 46·4 and 12·1%, respectively and all of these isolates were MDR. In conclusion, MDR ETEC continues to be an important agent associated with diarrhea in children from Tabriz, Iran.

  3. Cytokine profiles of patients with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111-induced hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaki; Kuroda, Mondo; Sakashita, Natsumi; Konishi, Michio; Kaneda, Hisashi; Igarashi, Noboru; Yamahana, Junya; Taneichi, Hiromichi; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Ito, Mika; Saito, Shigeru; Ohta, Kazuhide; Taniguchi, Takumi; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masaru; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Yachie, Akihiro

    2012-12-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are related to the pathogenesis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We assessed the kinetics of the release of cytokines such as neopterin, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the soluble forms of type I and II TNF receptors during EHEC O111-induced HUS (EHEC O111/HUS). Fourteen patients with EHEC O111/HUS were enrolled in this study. Serum concentrations of all cytokines other than TNF-α were significantly elevated in patients with severe HUS compared with those in patients with mild HUS. Although serum concentrations of TNF-α were not significantly higher in patients with severe HUS, most patients with acute encephalopathy showed elevated TNF-α levels. Serum concentrations of these cytokines rapidly and markedly increased, and massive hypercytokinaemia developed 1 day before the diagnosis of HUS in patients with severe HUS. Changes in the number of white blood cells and concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase were significantly larger between the onset of hemorrhagic colitis and the time of the diagnosis of HUS in patients with severe HUS compared with those in patients with mild HUS. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of EHEC infection and development of severe complications, including HUS and encephalopathy. Monitoring the cytokine profile may be useful for assessing disease activity of EHEC O111 infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli evolved different strategies to resist antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Brannon, John R.; Kaiser, Julienne; Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) are enteric human pathogens that colonize the large and small intestines, respectively. To establish infection EHEC and EPEC must overcome innate host defenses, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the intestinal epithelium. Gram-negative pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to resist AMPs, including outer-membrane proteases that degrade AMPs. We showed that the protease OmpT degrades the human AMP LL-37 more rapidly in EHEC than in EPEC. Promoter-swap experiments showed that this is due to differences in the promoters of the two genes, leading to greater ompT expression and subsequently greater levels of OmpT in EHEC. Here, we propose that the different ompT expression in EHEC and EPEC reflects the varying levels of LL-37 throughout the human intestinal tract. These data suggest that EHEC and EPEC adapted to their specific niches by developing distinct AMP-specific resistance mechanisms. PMID:22895086

  5. Renal injury is a consistent finding in Dutch Belted rabbits experimentally infected with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alexis; Bosques, Carlos J; Wishnok, John S; Feng, Yan; Karalius, Brad J; Butterton, Joan R; Schauer, David B; Rogers, Arlin B; Fox, James G

    2006-04-15

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produces Shiga toxin (Stx) and causes renal disease in humans. Dutch Belted (DB) rabbits naturally infected with EHEC O153 develop hemolytic-uremic syndrome-like disease. The aims of this study were to experimentally reproduce O153-induced renal disease in DB rabbits and investigate bacterial and host factors involved in pathogenesis. The pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7 was also investigated in rabbits. The stx1AB region of O153 was sequenced. By use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified homologs of the Stx receptor, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in rabbit kidney extracts. Infected rabbits developed clinical signs and intestinal and kidney lesions. Renal pathological changes consisted of intimal swelling, perivascular edema, erythrocyte fragmentation, capillary thickening, luminal constriction, leukocytic infiltration, mesangial deposits, and changes in Bowman's capsule and space. Sequence analysis of a approximately 7-kb region of the O153 chromosome indicated homology to the Stx1-producing bacteriophage H19B. Our findings indicate that DB rabbits are suitable for the study of the renal manifestations of EHEC infection in humans.

  6. Advances in the development of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli vaccines using murine models of infection.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Angulo, Victor A; Kalita, Anjana; Torres, Alfredo G

    2013-07-11

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are food borne pathogens with importance in public health. EHEC colonizes the large intestine and causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and in some cases, life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) due to the production of Shiga toxins (Stx). The lack of effective clinical treatment, sequelae after infection and mortality rate in humans supports the urgent need of prophylactic approaches, such as development of vaccines. Shedding from cattle, the main EHEC reservoir and considered the principal food contamination source, has prompted the development of licensed vaccines that reduce EHEC colonization in ruminants. Although murine models do not fully recapitulate human infection, they are commonly used to evaluate EHEC vaccines and the immune/protective responses elicited in the host. Mice susceptibility differs depending of the EHEC inoculums; displaying different mortality rates and Stx-mediated renal damage. Therefore, several experimental protocols have being pursued in this model to develop EHEC-specific vaccines. Recent candidate vaccines evaluated include those composed of virulence factors alone or as fused-subunits, DNA-based, attenuated bacteria and bacterial ghosts. In this review, we summarize progress in the design and testing of EHEC vaccines and the use of different strategies for the evaluation of novel EHEC vaccines in the murine model.

  7. Intestinal adherence associated with type IV pili of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Ledesma, Maria A.; Jordan, Dianna M.; Francetic, Olivera; Kaper, James B.; Puente, José Luis; Girón, Jorge A.

    2007-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) by colonizing the gut mucosa and producing Shiga toxins (Stx). The only factor clearly demonstrated to play a role in EHEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells is intimin, which binds host cell integrins and nucleolin, as well as a receptor (Tir) that it injects into the host cell. Here we report that EHEC O157:H7 produces adhesive type IV pili, which we term hemorrhagic coli pilus (HCP), composed of a 19-kDa pilin subunit (HcpA) that is encoded by the hcpA chromosomal gene. HCP were observed as bundles of fibers greater than 10 μm in length that formed physical bridges between bacteria adhering to human and bovine host cells. Sera of HUS patients, but not healthy individuals, recognized HcpA, suggesting that the pili are produced in vivo during EHEC infections. Inactivation of the hcpA gene in EHEC EDL933 resulted in significantly reduced adherence to cultured human intestinal and bovine renal epithelial cells and to porcine and bovine gut explants. An escN mutant, which is unable to translocate Tir, adhered less than the hcpA mutant, suggesting that adherence mediated by intimin-Tir interactions is a prelude to HCP-mediated adherence. An hcpA and stx1,2 triple mutant and an hcpA mutant had similar levels of adherence to bovine and human epithelial cells while a stx1,2 double mutant had only a minor defect in adherence, indicating that HCP-mediated adherence and cytotoxicity are independent events. Our data establish that EHEC O157:H7 HCP are intestinal colonization factors that are likely to contribute to the pathogenic potential of this food-borne pathogen. PMID:17948128

  8. Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple cider with and without preservatives.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, T; Doyle, M P; Besser, R E

    1993-01-01

    A strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 isolated from a patient in an apple cider-related outbreak was used to study the fate of E. coli O157:H7 in six different lots of unpasteurized apple cider. In addition, the efficacy of two preservatives, 0.1% sodium benzoate and 0.1% potassium sorbate, used separately and in combination was evaluated for antimicrobial effects on the bacterium. Studies were done at 8 or 25 degrees C with ciders having pH values of 3.6 to 4.0. The results revealed that E. coli O157:H7 populations increased slightly (ca. 1 log10 CFU/ml) and then remained stable for approximately 12 days in lots inoculated with an initial population of 10(5) E. coli O157:H7 organisms per ml and held at 8 degrees C. The bacterium survived from 10 to 31 days or 2 to 3 days at 8 or 25 degrees C, respectively, depending on the lot. Potassium sorbate had minimal effect on E. coli O157:H7 populations, with survivors detected for 15 to 20 days or 1 to 3 days at 8 or 25 degrees C, respectively. In contrast, survivors in cider containing sodium benzoate were detected for only 2 to 10 days or less than 1 to 2 days at 8 or 25 degrees C, respectively. The highest rates of inactivation occurred in the presence of a combination of 0.1% sodium benzoate and 0.1% potassium sorbate. The use of 0.1% sodium benzoate, an approved preservative used by some cider processors, will substantially increase the safety of apple cider in terms of E. coli O157:H7, in addition to suppressing the growth of yeasts and molds. PMID:8368839

  9. Retinoid Levels Influence Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection and Shiga Toxin 2 Susceptibility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Gabriel; Fernández-Brando, Romina J.; Abrey-Recalde, María Jimena; Baschkier, Ariela; Pinto, Alipio; Goldstein, Jorge; Zotta, Elsa; Meiss, Roberto; Rivas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that produces Shiga toxin (Stx) and causes hemorrhagic colitis. Under some circumstances, Stx produced within the intestinal tract enters the bloodstream, leading to systemic complications that may cause the potentially fatal hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although retinoids like vitamin A (VA) and retinoic acid (RA) are beneficial to gut integrity and the immune system, the effect of VA supplementation on gastrointestinal infections of different etiologies has been controversial. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the influence of different VA status on the outcome of an EHEC intestinal infection in mice. We report that VA deficiency worsened the intestinal damage during EHEC infection but simultaneously improved survival. Since death is associated mainly with Stx toxicity, Stx was intravenously inoculated to analyze whether retinoid levels affect Stx susceptibility. Interestingly, while VA-deficient (VA-D) mice were resistant to a lethal dose of Stx2, RA-supplemented mice were more susceptible to it. Given that peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are known to potentiate Stx2 toxicity, we studied the influence of retinoid levels on the absolute number and function of PMNs. We found that VA-D mice had decreased PMN numbers and a diminished capacity to produce reactive oxygen species, while RA supplementation had the opposite effect. These results are in line with the well-known function of retinoids in maintaining the homeostasis of the gut but support the idea that they have a proinflammatory effect by acting, in part, on the PMN population. PMID:25001607

  10. Crystal structure of the pilotin from the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli type II secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Korotkov, Konstantin V.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria contain several sophisticated macromolecular machineries responsible for translocating proteins across the cell envelope. One prominent example is the type II secretion system (T2SS), which contains a large outer membrane channel, called the secretin. These gated channels require specialized proteins, so-called pilotins, to reach and assemble in the outer membrane. Here we report the crystal structure of the pilotin GspS from the T2SS of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), an important pathogen that can cause severe disease in cases of food poisoning. In this four-helix protein, the straight helix α2, the curved helix α3 and the bent helix α4 surround the central N-terminal helix α1. The helices of GspS create a prominent groove, mainly formed by side chains of helices α1, α2 and α3. In the EHEC GspS structure this groove is occupied by extra electron density which is reminiscent of an α-helix and corresponds well with a binding site observed in a homologous pilotin. The residues forming the groove are well conserved among homologs, pointing to a key role of this groove in this class of T2SS pilotins. At the same time, T2SS pilotins in different species can be entirely different in structure, and the pilotins for secretins in non-T2SS machineries have yet again unrelated folds, despite a common function. It is striking that a common complex function, such as targeting and assembling an outer membrane multimeric channel, can be performed by proteins with entirely different folds. PMID:23458689

  11. Crystal structure of the pilotin from the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli type II secretion system.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin V; Hol, Wim G J

    2013-05-01

    Bacteria contain several sophisticated macromolecular machineries responsible for translocating proteins across the cell envelope. One prominent example is the type II secretion system (T2SS), which contains a large outer membrane channel, called the secretin. These gated channels require specialized proteins, so-called pilotins, to reach and assemble in the outer membrane. Here we report the crystal structure of the pilotin GspS from the T2SS of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), an important pathogen that can cause severe disease in cases of food poisoning. In this four-helix protein, the straight helix α2, the curved helix α3 and the bent helix α4 surround the central N-terminal helix α1. The helices of GspS create a prominent groove, mainly formed by side chains of helices α1, α2 and α3. In the EHEC GspS structure this groove is occupied by extra electron density which is reminiscent of an α-helix and corresponds well with a binding site observed in a homologous pilotin. The residues forming the groove are well conserved among homologs, pointing to a key role of this groove in this class of T2SS pilotins. At the same time, T2SS pilotins in different species can be entirely different in structure, and the pilotins for secretins in non-T2SS machineries have yet again unrelated folds, despite a common function. It is striking that a common complex function, such as targeting and assembling an outer membrane multimeric channel, can be performed by proteins with entirely different folds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 stress tolerance via pre-heating.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masanori; Itoh, Youko; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Kogenta; Sumitomo, Makoto; Nitta, Masakazu

    2012-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection causes several hundred cases of food poisoning every year in Japan. In severe cases, this type of food poisoning can be fatal. In the present study, we examined the induction of HSP70 in E. coli O157:H7 cells at various temperatures and the thermotolerance of E. coli O157:H7 cells alone and in contaminated food following pre-heating. We evaluated the possibility that thermotolerance by E. coli O157:H7 increases the likelihood of food poisoning. E. coli O157:H7 cells were heated at 43-51 °C, and the survival rate was examined. The temperature of highest induction of HSP70 was used as the pre-heating temperature. We measured the thermotolerance of E. coli O157:H7 cells following pre-heating as the survival after heating at 53 °C (lethal temperature). Additionally, we evaluated the thermotolerance of E. coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef following pre-heating. Heating at 47 °C for 30 min caused the highest induction of HSP70 and this temperature was selected as the pre-heating temperature. The survival rate was significantly higher for 0-90 min compared to that in cultures incubated at 53 °C without pre-heating indicating thermotolerance. Additionally, in ground beef, thermotolerance in E. coli O157:H7 cells was induced by pre-heating. We showed that E. coli O157:H7 cells acquired thermotolerance after pre-heating, which significantly increased survival after a lethal temperature, and increased the likelihood of food poisoning.

  13. Evaluation of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab Sampling for Molecular Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Hinkley, Susanne; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw ground beef. Sampling a large number of animals for EHEC surveillance or evaluations of EHEC-focused preharvest interventions requires a convenient and robust sampling method. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) for the detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups. Paired fecal grab (FG) and RAMS samples were collected from 176 beef cattle and tested using the NeoSEEK Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) confirmation method. The prevalence of virulence-associated genes (stx1, stx2, stx2c, eae, and nleB) was higher in RAMS than in FG samples. The results of the two methods had poor agreement, as indicated by kappa statistics, for the detection of the seven serogroups. When FG and RAMS results were combined for comparison, RAMS was more sensitive than FG for the detection of serogroups O103 (82% versus 39%), O157 (75% versus 67%), and O45 (79% versus 73%) with similar sensitivity for the detection of serogroup O145 (67%). Serogroups O111 and O121 were detected from one and two samples, respectively, by FG and were not detected by RAMS. Serogroup O26 was not detected with either method. RAMS appears to be equivalent or superior to FG sampling for detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups in the feces of beef cattle with the NeoSEEK STEC confirmation test.

  14. Virulence Meets Metabolism: Cra and KdpE Gene Regulation in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Jacqueline W.; Nguyen, Y.; Curtis, Meredith M.; Moreira, Cristiano G.; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria sense diverse environmental signals as cues for differential gene regulation and niche adaptation. Pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), which causes bloody diarrhea, use these signals for the temporal and energy-efficient regulation of their virulence factors. One of the main virulence strategies employed by EHEC is the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on enterocytes. Most of the genes necessary for the formation of these lesions are grouped within a pathogenicity island, the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), whose expression requires the LEE-encoded regulator Ler. Here we show that growth of EHEC in glycolytic environments inhibits the expression of ler and consequently all other LEE genes. Conversely, growth within a gluconeogenic environment activates expression of these genes. This sugar-dependent regulation is achieved through two transcription factors: KdpE and Cra. Both Cra and KdpE directly bind to the ler promoter, and Cra’s affinity to this promoter is catabolite dependent. Moreover, we show that the Cra and KdpE proteins interact in vitro and that KdpE’s ability to bind DNA is enhanced by the presence of Cra. Cra is important for AE lesion formation, and KdpE contributes to this Cra-dependent regulation. The deletion of cra and kdpE resulted in the ablation of AE lesions. One of the many challenges that bacteria face within the GI tract is to successfully compete for carbon sources. Linking carbon metabolism to the precise coordination of virulence expression is a key step in the adaptation of pathogens to the GI environment. PMID:23073764

  15. Differential Attachment of Salmonella enterica and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli to Alfalfa, Fenugreek, Lettuce, and Tomato Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yue; Walcott, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vegetable seeds have the potential to disseminate and transmit foodborne bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to assess the abilities of selected Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains to attach to fungicide-treated versus untreated, and intact versus mechanically damaged, seeds of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato. Surface-sanitized seeds (2 g) were exposed to four individual strains of Salmonella or EHEC at 20°C for 5 h. Contaminated seeds were rinsed twice, each with 10 ml of sterilized water, before being soaked overnight in 5 ml of phosphate-buffered saline at 4°C. The seeds were then vortexed vigorously for 1 min, and pathogen populations in seed rinse water and soaking buffer were determined using a standard plate count assay. In general, the Salmonella cells had higher attachment ratios than the EHEC cells. Lettuce seeds by unit weight had the highest numbers of attached Salmonella or EHEC cells, followed by tomato, alfalfa, and fenugreek seeds. In contrast, individual fenugreek seeds had more attached pathogen cells, followed by lettuce, alfalfa, and tomato seeds. Significantly more Salmonella and EHEC cells attached to mechanically damaged seeds than to intact seeds (P < 0.05). Although, on average, significantly more Salmonella and EHEC cells were recovered from untreated than fungicide-treated seeds (P < 0.05), fungicide treatment did not significantly affect the attachment of individual bacterial strains to vegetable seeds (P > 0.05), with a few exceptions. This study fills gaps in the current body of literature and helps explain bacterial interactions with vegetable seeds with differing surface characteristics. IMPORTANCE Vegetable seeds, specifically sprout seeds, have the potential to disseminate and transmit foodborne bacterial pathogens. This study investigated the interaction between two important bacterial pathogens, i.e., Salmonella and EHEC, and vegetable seeds with differing surface

  16. Lysogeny with Shiga Toxin 2-Encoding Bacteriophages Represses Type III Secretion in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuefang; McAteer, Sean P.; Tree, Jai J.; Shaw, Darren J.; Wolfson, Eliza B. K.; Beatson, Scott A.; Roe, Andrew J.; Allison, Lesley J.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Mahajan, Arvind; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Morabito, Stefano; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90%) of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%). PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler). The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins. PMID:22615557

  17. Construction of a novel bioluminescent reporter system for investigating Shiga toxin expression of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Ohta, Yuko; Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Noda, Masatoshi

    2011-06-01

    A novel chromosome-plasmid hybrid bioluminescent reporter system (C-P reporter system) utilizing Photorhabdus luminescens luxCDABE genes has been constructed to monitor the expression of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in real time. The luxCDABE genes of P. luminescens have been cloned and divided into a luxCDAB cassette and a luxE gene. A promoter-less luxE gene introduced downstream from stx1 and from stx2 on EHEC chromosomes in single copies, and other luxCDAB genes were expressed on a multicopy number expression plasmid into the same cells. These Stx1- and Stx2-bioluminescent reporter strains expressed bioluminescence into bacteria cells when the expression of the promoter-less luxE gene was expressed in response to the promoter activity of stx1 and stx2, respectively. The expression levels of bioluminescence were identical to the production levels of Stx1 and Stx2 in the Stx1- and Stx2-bioluminescent reporter strains, and these strains produced both Stxs at the same respective levels as those of the parent EHEC strains. Using these reporter strains, we examined the profiles of Stx1 and Stx2 expression in EHEC. We found that production of both Stx1 and Stx2 in EHEC was enhanced upon contact with intestinal epithelial cells and within macrophages. However, the expression profiles between Stx1 and Stx2 in EHEC were different from each other under these conditions. Thus, these results suggested that this C-P reporter system is useful for determining the gene expression profile of bacteria.

  18. Vivione Bioscience RAPID-B(®) E. coli O157 test kit and non-O157 STEC test kit evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melinda; Ramsaroop, Shawn; Lopez, Chris; Brahmanda, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    RAPID-B(®) is a high performance, integrated microbiology/infectious disease diagnostic system. The system uses hardware and software that are specifically designed for optimal detection using custom, immuno-based reagents designed to react to cell surface antigens of the target bacteria. The Vivione Bioscience RAPID-B Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) kits were validated alongside the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 5.07 (for E. coli O157) and FSIS MLG 5B.04 (for non-O157 STEC) reference methods for the detection of E. coli O157 and STEC. The matrixes, ground beef and beef trim, were inoculated with appropriate CFU/test portion of E. coli O157 and STEC so as to generate fractional positives results, 5 to 15 positives out of 20 inoculated samples. Samples were enriched in prewarmed Brain Heart Infusion broth at 42 ± 1°C for 6.5-7.5 h or 8.5-9.5 h depending on the sample size. All samples were confirmed using the MLG reference method, regardless of initial screen result. The RAPID-B test methods were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the detection of E. coli O157 and STEC in all tested samples. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing of the RAPID-B methods showed 100% specificity for both kits. Finally, the RAPID-B test methods were shown to be robust when variations were applied to enrichment time, broth temperature, and vortexing time.

  19. Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator QseA is essential for the expression of multiple virulence regulons of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction and Objectives: QseA is one of several transcriptional regulators that regulates the virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 through quorum sensing. QseA has been shown to regulate the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), non-LEE...

  20. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires quorum sensing transcriptional regulators QseA and SdiA for colonization and persistence in the bovine intestinal tract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    QseA and SdiA are two of several transcriptional regulators that regulate virulence gene expression of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 via quorum sensing (QS). QseA regulates the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). LEE encodes for a type III secretion (T3S) sys...

  1. Assessing the relative contributions of EspA and CsgA in cellular adherence and biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type III secretion system with an extracellular filamentous structure consisting of the polymerized translocator protein EspA. The EspA filaments provide transient interactions between bacterial ...

  2. Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator QseA is essential for the expression of multiple virulence regulons of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction and Objectives: QseA is one of several transcriptional regulators that regulates the virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 through quorum sensing. QseA has been shown to regulate the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), non-LEE...

  3. Host cell interactions of outer membrane vesicle-associated virulence factors of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: intracellular delivery, trafficking and mechanisms of cell injury

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, confocal laser...

  4. Survival of pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and control with calcium oxide in frozen meat products.

    PubMed

    Ro, Eun Young; Ko, Young Mi; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated both the level of microbial contamination and the presence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in frozen meat products, followed by the evaluation of its survival over 180 days under frozen temperature. We also examined the effect of calcium oxide on the populations of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC under both 10 °C and -18 °C storage conditions. Afterward, the morphological changes occurring in EHEC cells in response to freezer storage temperature and calcium oxide (CaO) treatments were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Among the frozen meat products tested, the highest contamination levels of total aerobic counts, coliforms and E. coli were observed in pork cutlets. Examination showed that 20% of the frozen meat products contained virulence genes, including verotoxin (VT) 1 and 2. Over 180 days of frozen storage and after 3 freeze-thaw cycles, the population of EHEC did not change regardless of the type of products or initial inoculated concentration, indicating the strong survival ability of EHEC. Subsequent testing revealed that the growth of three pathogenic E. coli strains was completely inhibited in meat patties prepared with 1% CaO, stored at 10 °C. However, the addition of 2% CaO was necessary to control the survival of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC in meat patties stored at -18 °C. CaO reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 more effectively than the other EHEC and EPEC strains at both 10 °C and -18 °C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that exposed EHEC cells were resistant to the freezer storage temperature, although some cells incurred injury and death after several freeze-thaw cycles. Most of the cells exposed to CaO were found to have died or lost their cellular integrity and membranes, indicating that CaO has the potential to be used as a powerful antimicrobial agent for manufacturing frozen meat products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of methods for the enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from veal hides and carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Luedtke, Brandon E.; Bosilevac, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The increased association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) with veal calves has led the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to report results of veal meat contaminated with the Top 7 serogroups separately from beef cattle. However, detection methods that can also provide concentration for determining the prevalence and abundance of EHEC associated with veal are lacking. Here we compared the ability of qPCR and a molecular based most probable number assay (MPN) to detect and enumerate EHEC from veal hides at the abattoir and the resulting pre-intervention carcasses. In addition, digital PCR (dPCR) was used to analyze select samples. The qPCR assay was able to enumerate total EHEC in 32% of the hide samples with a range of approximately 34 to 91,412 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 4-113,460 CFUs/100 cm2). Using the MPN assay, total EHEC was enumerable in 48% of the hide samples and ranged from approximately 1 to greater than 17,022 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 0.4–72,000 CFUs/100 cm2). The carcass samples had lower amounts of EHEC with a range of approximately 4–275 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 3–953 CFUs/100 cm2) from 17% of samples with an enumerable amount of EHEC by qPCR. For the MPN assay, the carcass samples ranged from 0.1 to 1 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 0.02–4 CFUs/100 cm2) from 29% of the samples. The correlation coefficient between the qPCR and MPN enumeration methods indicated a moderate relation (R2 = 0.39) for the hide samples while the carcass samples had no relation (R2 = 0.002), which was likely due to most samples having an amount of total EHEC below the reliable limit of quantification for qPCR. Interestingly, after enrichment, 81% of the hide samples and 94% of the carcass samples had a detectable amount of total EHEC by qPCR. From our analysis, the MPN assay provided a higher percentage of enumerable hide and carcass samples, however determining an appropriate dilution range and the limited throughput offer additional

  6. Developing and optimizing bacteriophage treatment to control enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Abigail B; Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2016-11-07

    Bacteriophages are potentially useful in controlling foodborne pathogens on minimally processed products since phage application is a non-destructive treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly isolated environmental bacteriophage against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce, and optimize the treatment with consideration for potential application. Seven anti E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 bacteriophages were isolated from various sources; the most promising was isolated from municipal wastewater. This isolate (designated as E. coli phage OSY-SP) was propagated with the host, in a growth medium, to a titer of 10(8) PFU/ml. Before inoculation into fresh produce, E. coli phage OSY-SP was incubated with the host bacterium, spent medium was filter-sterilized, and the resulting crude lysate was used as a source of phage inocula for preliminary experiments. For optimized testing, phage in the crude lysate was purified by ultra-centrifugation and resuspension in phosphate-buffered saline. Efficacy of phage treatments was determined as a function of fresh produce type (cut green pepper or spinach leaves), treatment time (2 or 5min rinsing), and temperature of holding treated produce (4°C, 25°, or a combination of both temperatures). Cut green pepper was treated with UV light, to eliminate background microbiota, then spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 on cut edges, and the inoculum was allowed to dry. Because of its susceptibility to damage, baby spinach leaves were not subjected to a decontamination treatment. These leaves were inoculated with the green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 B6-914 to facilitate inoculum enumeration in the presence of background microbiota. Phage suspension was applied to the inoculated fresh produce that was subsequently held for three days under variable storage conditions. The optimized phage treatment decreased the populations of pathogenic E. coli by 2.4-3.0logCFU/g on cut green

  7. Environmental regulation of the long polar fimbriae 2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Medrano-López, Abraham; Nuñez-Reza, Karen J; Puente, José Luis; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G

    2014-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling expression of the long polar fimbriae 2 (Lpf2) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were evaluated. Primer extension was used to locate the lpfA2 transcriptional start site in EHEC strain EDL933 at 171 bp upstream of the lpfA2 start codon. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the highest lpfA2 expression occurs between an OD600 of 1.0 and 1.2 in DMEM at pH 6.5 and 37 °C. The level of lpfA2 transcription at OD600 1.2 and pH 6.5 was four times greater than that at pH 7.2. Although lpfA2 expression was decreased under iron-depleted conditions, its expression was increased in a ferric-uptake-regulator (Fur) mutant strain. The lpfA2 transcript was 0.7 and 2 times more abundant in wt EHEC grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth at 25 °C, respectively, than in DMEM at pH 6.5. The lpf2 expression in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and bile salts was 2.7 times more abundant than baseline conditions. Further, transcription in the EDL933∆fur was 0.6 and 0.8 times higher as compared with the wt strain grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that purified Fur interacts with the lpf2 regulatory region, indicating that Fur repression is exerted by direct binding to the promoter region. In summary, we demonstrated that the EHEC lpf2 operon is regulated in response to temperature, pH, bile salts and iron, during the exponential phase of growth, and is controlled by Fur.

  8. Prevalence and comparison of detection methods of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in culled dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157 (EHEC-7) account for the majority of EHEC cases in the U.S. and are adulterants in non-intact, raw beef according to the USDA-FSIS. Purpose: The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine the pre...

  9. Translocation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli effector Tir to the plasma membrane via host Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chan; Gu, Jiang; Wang, Hai-Guang; Fang, Yao; Yang, Ping; Tang, Bin; Li, Na; Wang, Ting-Ting; Zou, Quan-Ming; Li, Qian

    2017-08-01

    The translocated intimin receptor (Tir) is a canonical type III secretion system effector, secreted by the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This receptor alters the regular cellular processing of host cells, to promote intracellular bacterial replication and evasion of the host immune system. Tir is translocated and integrated into the host cell plasma membrane, a process required for its pathogenic activity in these cells, however, the underlying mechanisms of how this occurs remain to be elucidated. The present study used immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that the Tir of enterohemorrhagic E. coli was localized to the plasma membrane and colocalized with the 58K Golgi protein of the host cells. Treatment with brefeldin A destroyed the Golgi structure, inhibited the formation of actin pedestal and blocked the localization of Tir on the host cell plasma membrane. The results of the present study suggested that Tir is translocated to the host plasma membrane in a Golgi‑dependent manner. It may mimic the activities of eukaryotic secretory proteins in order to make use of the Golgi apparatus for transportation and integration into the plasma membrane. These findings reveal a novel trafficking pathway for the translocation of bacterial secretory effectors to their specific subcellular compartments.

  10. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... program for the six non-O157 STEC, as it already does for E. coli O157:H7. The Agency intended to begin... Food Safety and Inspection Service Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products... manufacturing trimmings for six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45...

  11. Serum ferritin as an indicator of the development of encephalopathy in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaki; Inoue, Natsumi; Kuroda, Mondo; Irabu, Hitoshi; Takakura, Maiko; Kaneda, Hisashi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Ohta, Kazuhide; Yachie, Akihiro

    2017-03-10

    To investigate the diagnostic value of serum ferritin levels as a marker of disease activity and the development of encephalopathy in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) induced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Twenty patients with HUS were studied. Serum ferritin levels were compared with clinical features and serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) I and sTNFRII levels. Serum sTNFRI and sTNFRII levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum ferritin levels were significantly elevated at the time of the diagnosis of HUS. Serum ferritin levels were significantly elevated in patients with encephalopathy compared to patients without encephalopathy. HUS patients with serum ferritin levels of >687.5 ng/ml were at high risk of encephalopathy. Serum ferritin levels were significantly positively correlated with serum sTNFRI and sTNFRII levels. Serum ferritin levels are a promising indicator of the development of encephalopathy in HUS.

  12. Effect of relevant environmental stresses on survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in dry-fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Anette; Måge, Ingrid; Heir, Even; Axelsson, Lars; Holck, Askild L

    2016-07-16

    Dry-fermented sausages (DFSs) have been linked to several serious foodborne outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). The ability of pathogens to utilize adaptive responses to different stressful conditions intended to control their growth in foods, food preparation and production processes may enhance their survival. In certain cases, induced tolerance to one type of stress may lead to enhanced resistance to the applied stress as well as to other stresses. We exposed two EHEC strains, MF3582 of serotype O157:H- and MF5554 of serogroup O145, to different stresses commonly encountered during a production process. The two EHEC strains, previously shown to have different abilities to survive DFS production process conditions, were subjected to low temperatures (4°C and 12°C), 5% NaCl or 1% lactic acid for 6days prior to being added to sausage batters. Survival of EHEC was recorded in salami of two recipes, fermented at two temperatures (20°C and 30°C). The results showed that recipe type had the largest impact on EHEC reductions where Moderate recipe (MR) salami batters containing increased levels of NaCl, glucose and NaNO2 provided enhanced EHEC reductions in salami (2.6 log10) compared to Standard recipe (SR) salami (1.7 log10). Effects of pre-exposure stresses were dependent both on strain and recipe. While acid adaptation of MF5554 provided enhanced log10 reductions from 2.0 to 3.0 in MR sausages, adaptation to a combination of acid and salt stress showed the opposite effect in SR sausages with reductions of only 1.1 log10 as compared to the average of 1.8 log10 for the other SR sausages. Otherwise, the salt and acid adaptation single stresses had relatively small effects on EHEC survival through the DFS production process and subsequent storage and freeze/thaw treatments. Growing cells and cells frozen in batter survived poorly in MR sausages with an average reduction of 3.4 and 3.2 log10, respectively. The reductions of EHEC after storage of

  13. [Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli as the cause of diarrhea in the Czech Republic, 1965-2013].

    PubMed

    Marejková, M; Petráš, P

    2014-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the cause of diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. The role of EHEC in the etiology of HUS in the Czech Republic has recently been described, but the prevalence, characteristics, and epidemiology of EHEC causing diarrhea have not been fully known. Therefore, this study analyzed the serotypes, stx genotypes, and virulence factors in EHEC strains isolated in 1965-2013 from patients with diarrhea or bloody diarrhea and their family contacts. In addition, we characterized diagnostically relevant phenotypes of EHEC strains, their antimicrobial susceptibility, seasonal trends, and distribution by administrative region. Serogrouped E. coli isolates from patients were referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for E. coli and Shigella for the detection of Stx. Specimens of both human and non-human origin were referred to the NRL for epidemiological investigation. Serotyping was performed by conventional and molecular methods, PCR was applied to stx genotyping and identification of non-stx virulence factors, and standard methods were used for phenotypic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The epidemiological link between the human and animal isolates was confirmed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of 50 EHEC strains, 24 were recovered from patients with diarrhea without blood, 19 from patients with bloody diarrhea, six from family contacts, and one from an epidemiologically linked animal. EHEC cases were reported during the whole year, with peaks in May through October, most often in the Central Bohemian and Hradec Králové Regions. EHEC outbreaks occurred in three families: in one of them sheep-to-human transmission of EHEC was detected. The EHEC strains were assigned to five serotypes, with more than half of them being non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) O157:H7/NM[fliCH7] and a third being strains O26:H11/NM[fliCH11]; serotypes O111:NM[fliCH8], O118:NM

  14. Angiotensin-(1-7) protects from brain damage induced by shiga toxin 2-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jorge; Carden, Tomás R; Perez, María J; Taira, Carlos A; Höcht, Christian; Gironacci, Mariela M

    2016-12-01

    Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing enterohemorrhagic induced brain damage. Since a cerebroprotective action was reported for angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), our aim was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) protects from brain damage induced by Stx2-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli The anterior hypothalamic area of adult male Wistar rats was injected with saline solution or Stx2 or Stx2 plus Ang-(1-7) or Stx2 plus Ang-(1-7) plus A779. Rats received a single injection of Stx2 at the beginning of the experiment, and Ang-(1-7), A779, or saline was administered daily in a single injection for 8 days. Cellular ultrastructural changes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Stx2 induced neurodegeneration, axonal demyelination, alterations in synapse, and oligodendrocyte and astrocyte damage, accompanied by edema. Ang-(1-7) prevented neuronal damage triggered by the toxin in 55.6 ± 9.5% of the neurons and the Stx2-induced synapse dysfunction was reversed. In addition, Ang-(1-7) blocked Stx2-induced demyelination in 92 ± 4% of the axons. Oligodendrocyte damage caused by Stx2 was prevented by Ang-(1-7) but astrocytes were only partially protected by the peptide (38 ± 5% of astrocytes were preserved). Ang-(1-7) treatment resulted in 50% reduction in the number of activated microglial cells induced by Stx2, suggesting an anti-inflammatory action. All these beneficial effects elicited by Ang-(1-7) were blocked by the Mas receptor antagonist and thus it was concluded that Ang-(1-7) protects mainly neurons and oligodendrocytes, and partially astrocytes, in the central nervous system through Mas receptor stimulation.

  15. Encephalopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome after infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111.

    PubMed

    Matano, Sadaya; Inamura, Katsuhisa; Konishi, Michio; Okumura, Toshiya; Kawai, Hiroshi; Okamura, Toshiyuki; Takata, Yoshiko; Yamada, Keiko; Obata, Misato; Nagata, Hajime; Muramoto, Yoshiko; Sugimoto, Tatsuho

    2012-08-01

    An outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) occurred in Toyama and other prefectures in Japan during 2011. Some patients, including adults, showed complications such as encephalopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and the disease course was extremely aggressive. This report describes the clinical features of four patients infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O111 who developed very severe to fatal complications. The initial symptoms in all patients included abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stools, and neurological abnormalities started to appear from 1 to 3 days after admission. Vomiting and pyrexia developed in three patients. Leukocyte counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products were elevated, and thrombocytopenia was evident. Extremely elevated LDH and severe thrombocytopenia were characteristic at the time encephalopathy became apparent. All patients received oral fosfomycin, intravenous antibiotics, and anticoagulant therapy, three received gamma globulin, plasma exchange, and blood transfusion, and two received steroids and dialysis. Three patients required mechanical ventilation, and two adult patients died. E. coli O111 positive for Shiga toxin 2 was detected in stool culture in two patients, and serological tests for E. coli O111 were positive in the other two patients. In conclusion, EHEC O111 can cause severe illness in children and adults, and the prognosis becomes poorer as the severity of complications increases. Close monitoring including platelet counts and LDH are useful. Once these clinical parameters change, intensive treatment should be provided to prevent the development of severe complications.

  16. Use of low dose e-beam irradiation to reduce E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 (VTEC) E. coli and Salmonella viability on meat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Devapriya; Gill, Alexander; Lui, Chenyuan; Goswami, Namita; Holley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the extent that irradiation of fresh beef surfaces with an absorbed dose of 1 kGy electron (e-) beam irradiation might reduce the viability of mixtures of O157 and non-O157 verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Salmonella. These were grouped together based on similar resistances to irradiation and inoculated on beef surfaces (outside flat and inside round, top and bottom muscle cuts), and then e-beam irradiated. Salmonella serovars were most resistant to 1 kGy treatment, showing a reduction of ≤1.9 log CFU/g. This treatment reduced the viability of two groups of non-O157 E. coli mixtures by ≤4.5 and ≤3.9 log CFU/g. Log reductions of ≤4.0 log CFU/g were observed for E. coli O157:H7 cocktails. Since under normal processing conditions the levels of these pathogens on beef carcasses would be lower than the lethality caused by the treatment used, irradiation at 1 kGy would be expected to eliminate the hazard represented by VTEC E. coli. © 2013.

  17. Type VI secretion system contributes to Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence by secreting catalase against host reactive oxygen species (ROS)

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jinjing; Wen, Donghua; Li, Jun; Xiao, Haihan; He, Ping; Ou, Hong-yu; Tao, Jing; Lu, Jie; Wu, Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one major type of contagious and foodborne pathogens. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been shown to be involved in the bacterial pathogenicity and bacteria-bacteria competition. Here, we show that EHEC could secrete a novel effector KatN, a Mn-containing catalase, in a T6SS-dependent manner. Expression of katN is promoted by RpoS and OxyR and repressed by H-NS, and katN contributes to bacterial growth under oxidative stress in vitro. KatN could be secreted into host cell cytosol after EHEC is phagocytized by macrophage, which leads to decreased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and facilitates the intramacrophage survival of EHEC. Finally, animal model results show that the deletion mutant of T6SS was attenuated in virulence compared with the wild type strain, while the deletion mutant of katN had comparable virulence to the wild type strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that EHEC could sense oxidative stress in phagosome and decrease the host cell ROS by secreting catalase KatN to facilitate its survival in the host cells. PMID:28288207

  18. The Type Three Secretion System 2-Encoded Regulator EtrB Modulates Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Luzader, Deborah H.; Willsey, Graham G.; Wargo, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome throughout the world. A defining feature of EHEC pathogenesis is the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on colonic epithelial cells. Most of the genes that code for AE lesion formation, including a type three secretion system (T3SS) and effectors, are carried within a chromosomal pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this study, we report that a putative regulator, which is encoded in the cryptic E. coli type three secretion system 2 (ETT2) locus and herein renamed EtrB, plays an important role in EHEC pathogenesis. The etrB gene is expressed as a monocistronic transcript, and EtrB autoregulates expression. We provide evidence that EtrB directly interacts with the ler regulatory region to activate LEE expression and promote AE lesion formation. Additionally, we mapped the EtrB regulatory circuit in EHEC to determine a global role for EtrB. EtrB is regulated by the transcription factor QseA, suggesting that these proteins comprise a regulatory circuit important for EHEC colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27324484

  19. Comparative study on the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections between Korea and Japan, 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Chang; Kwon, Young Hwan

    2016-05-01

    To compare the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) between Korea and Japan by analyzing the current state of EHEC infection outbreaks and related risk factors. We investigated the epidemiological aspects of EHEC infection cases between Korea and Japan from 2006 to 2010. The following factors were analyzed: national prevalence rate (PR), regional prevalence rate, epidemic aspects (i.e., Cases related to gender), male to female morbidity ratio, age, and seasonal distribution. In total, there were 254 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 0.11 per 100,000 populations in Korea from 2006 to 2010. During the same period in Japan, there were 20,883 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 3.26 per 100,000 populations. The PR in Japan was significantly higher than that in Korea (p < 0.01). In both countries, more females than males had EHEC infections, with the highest incidence of infections (> 50%) observed for individuals younger than 9 years. EHEC is an emerging zoonosis and may be caused by consumption of raw or undercooked meat products from ruminants. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the epidemiological aspects and risk factors of EHEC infections in Korea and Japan and will provide insight on effective future strategies to reduce these infections.

  20. Effect of heat-assisted pulsed electric fields and bacteriophage on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF), heat-assisted PEF (H-PEF), and virulent bacteriophage (VP) are non-thermal techniques for pathogen inactivation in liquids that were investigated individually, and in combination (PEF/VP, H-PEF/VP) to control enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and Ringer's solution (RS). Treated cells were subsequently incubated at refrigeration (4°C) and temperature-abuse conditions (12°C) for 5 days. When EHEC cells grown in LBB were subjected to non-thermal processing and subsequently stored at 12°C for 5 days, reductions in count of between 0.1 and 0.6 log cycles were observed and following storage at 4°C the decrease in counts varied between 0.2 and 1.1 log10 . For bacteria cells suspended in RS values ranged from 0.1 to ≥3.9 log cycles at both storage temperatures. The most effective treatments were H-PEF and H-PEF/VP, both producing a >3.4 log cycle reduction of cells suspended in non-nutrient RS. Analysis of EHEC recovery on selective and non-selective media indicated no occurrence of sub-lethal damage for VP, PEF/VP, and H-PEF/VP-treated cells. The findings indicate that combining PEF and lytic phage may represent a suitable alternative to conventional fluid decontamination following further process optimization.

  1. Yogurt containing bioactive molecules produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 exerts a protective effect against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Zeinhom, Mohamed; Tellez, Angela M; Delcenserie, Veronique; El-Kholy, A M; El-Shinawy, S H; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2012-10-01

    An active fraction extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 cell-free spent medium (LAla-5AF) was incorporated in a dairy matrix and tested to assess its antivirulent effect against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Mice in experimental groups were fed for 4 days with yogurt supplemented with LAla-5AF. On the fifth day, mice were challenged with a single dose (10(7) CFU per mouse) of E. coli O157:H7. The clinical manifestations of the infection were significantly less severe in mice fed the yogurt supplemented with LAla-5AF. EHEC attachment and colonization was attenuated by LAla-5AF. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production was down-regulated, which might indicate a protective effect in the kidney during EHEC infection. To investigate the mechanisms associated with the in vivo effects observed, LAla-5AF was tested by reverse transcription real-time PCR to confirm its effects on the expression of several virulence genes of EHEC O157. The results showed that these fractions were able to down-regulate several virulence genes of EHEC, including stxB2, qseA, luxS, tir, ler, eaeA, and hlyB.

  2. Comparative study on the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections between Korea and Japan, 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Chang; Kwon, Young Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: To compare the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) between Korea and Japan by analyzing the current state of EHEC infection outbreaks and related risk factors. Methods: We investigated the epidemiological aspects of EHEC infection cases between Korea and Japan from 2006 to 2010. The following factors were analyzed: national prevalence rate (PR), regional prevalence rate, epidemic aspects (i.e., Cases related to gender), male to female morbidity ratio, age, and seasonal distribution. Results: In total, there were 254 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 0.11 per 100,000 populations in Korea from 2006 to 2010. During the same period in Japan, there were 20,883 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 3.26 per 100,000 populations. The PR in Japan was significantly higher than that in Korea (p < 0.01). In both countries, more females than males had EHEC infections, with the highest incidence of infections (> 50%) observed for individuals younger than 9 years. EHEC is an emerging zoonosis and may be caused by consumption of raw or undercooked meat products from ruminants. Conclusions: This study provides a quantitative analysis of the epidemiological aspects and risk factors of EHEC infections in Korea and Japan and will provide insight on effective future strategies to reduce these infections. PMID:26886212

  3. Survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in the presence of Acanthamoeba castellanii and its dependence on Pho regulon

    PubMed Central

    Chekabab, Samuel Mohammed; Daigle, France; Charette, Steve J; Dozois, Charles M; Harel, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are involved in outbreaks of food-borne illness and transmitted to humans through bovine products or water contaminated by cattle feces. Microbial interaction is one of the strategies used by pathogenic bacteria to survive in the environment. Among protozoa, the free-living amoebae are known to host and protect several water-borne pathogens. In this study, the interaction between EHEC and the predacious protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii was investigated. Using monoculture and cocultures, growth of both organisms was estimated for 3 weeks by total and viable cell counts. The numbers of EHEC were significantly higher when cultured with amoebae than without, and less EHEC shifted into a viable but nonculturable state in the presence of amoebae. Using several mutants, we observed that the Pho regulon is required for EHEC growth when cocultured with amoebae. In contrast, the Shiga toxins (Stx) were not involved in this association phenotype. Cocultures monitored by electron microscopy revealed a loss of the regular rod shape of EHEC and the secretion of multilamellar vesicles by the amoebae, which did not contain bacteria. As the interaction between A. castellanii and EHEC appears beneficial for bacterial growth, this supports a potential role for protozoa in promoting the persistence of EHEC in the environment. PMID:23233434

  4. Global effect of CsrA on gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaomeng; Yang, Fan; Yang, Bin

    2017-10-01

    The post-transcriptional regulator CsrA regulates multiple unrelated processes such as central carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation and bacterial virulence in different bacteria. However, regulation by CsrA in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is still largely unknown. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of gene expression differences between the EHEC O157:H7 wild-type strain and a corresponding csrA::kan mutant using RNA-seq technology. Genes whose expression was affected by CsrA were identified and grouped into different clusters of orthologous group categories. Genes located in the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island were significantly upregulated, whereas expression of flagella-related genes was significantly reduced in the csrA::kan mutant. Subsequent bacterial adherence and motility assays showed that inactivation of CsrA in EHEC O157:H7 resulted in a significant increase in bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells, with a concomitant loss of swimming motility on semi-solid agar plates. Furthermore, we also found that CsrA regulates genes not previously identified in other bacterial species, including genes encoding cytochrome oxidases and those required for nitrogen metabolism. Our results provide essential insight into the regulatory function of CsrA. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. N-Chlorotaurine, a Long-Lived Oxidant Produced by Human Leukocytes, Inactivates Shiga Toxin of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Eitzinger, Christian; Ehrlenbach, Silvia; Lindner, Herbert; Kremser, Leopold; Gottardi, Waldemar; Debabov, Dmitri; Anderson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    N-chlorotaurine (NCT), the main representative of long-lived oxidants produced by granulocytes and monocytes, is known to exert broad-spectrum microbicidal activity. Here we show that NCT directly inactivates Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), used as a model toxin secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Bacterial growth and Stx2 production were both inhibited by 2 mM NCT. The cytotoxic effect of Stx2 on Vero cells was removed by ≥5.5 mM NCT. Confocal microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the binding of Stx2 to human kidney glomerular endothelial cells was inhibited, and no NCT-treated Stx2 entered the cytosol. Mass spectrometry displayed oxidation of thio groups and aromatic amino acids of Stx2 by NCT. Therefore, long-lived oxidants may act as powerful tools of innate immunity against soluble virulence factors of pathogens. Moreover, inactivation of virulence factors may contribute to therapeutic success of NCT and novel analogs, which are in development as topical antiinfectives. PMID:23139739

  6. Angiopoietin-1 and -2 as markers for disease severity in hemolytic uremic syndrome induced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaki; Inoue, Natsumi; Kuroda, Mondo; Mizuta, Mao; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Kaneda, Hisashi; Ohta, Kazuhide; Yachie, Akihiro

    2017-02-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and -2 play important roles in maintaining vascular homeostasis. This study aimed to assess the roles of angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and -2 and to investigate the clinical significance of their serum levels in patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) induced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Twenty patients with HUS and 15 healthy controls were studied. Serum Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were compared with the clinical features of HUS. During the HUS phase, serum Ang-1 levels were significantly decreased, whereas serum Ang-2 levels and the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio were significantly elevated. Compared with patients without encephalopathy, serum Ang-2 levels and Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio were significantly elevated in patients with encephalopathy. Patients with HUS and serum Ang-2 levels of >7061 pg/mL or Ang2/Ang1 ratios of >2.29 were at high risk of encephalopathy. Serum Ang-1 levels were significantly decreased in patients in the pre-HUS phase compared with those in healthy controls. Disruption of homeostasis of vascular endothelial function by Ang-1 and -2 may be closely associated with the development of HUS. Serum Ang-1 and -2 levels and the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio may be promising indicators of disease activity in HUS and the development of encephalopathy.

  7. Characterization of a Novel Microcin That Kills Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O26

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Lauren J.; Deringer, James R.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Sawant, Ashish A.; Besser, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    A novel phenotype was recently identified in which specific strains of Escherichia coli inhibit competing E. coli strains via a mechanism that was designated “proximity-dependent inhibition” (PDI). PDI-expressing (PDI+) E. coli is known to inhibit susceptible (PDI−) E. coli strains, including several enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enterotoxigenic (ETEC) E. coli strains. In this study, every strain from a genetically diverse panel of E. coli O157:H7 (n = 25) and additional strains of E. coli serovar O26 were susceptible to the PDI phenotype. LIVE/DEAD staining was consistent with inhibition by killing of susceptible cells. Comparative genome analysis identified the genetic component of PDI, which is composed of a plasmid-borne (Incl1) operon encoding a putative microcin and associated genes for transport, immunity, and microcin activation. Transfer of the plasmid to a PDI− strain resulted in transfer of the phenotype, and deletion of the genes within the operon resulted in loss of the inhibition phenotype. Deletion of chromosomally encoded tolC also resulted in loss of the inhibitory phenotype, and this confirmed that the putative microcin is most likely secreted via a type I secretion pathway. Deletion of an unrelated plasmid gene did not affect the PDI phenotype. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR demonstrated that microcin expression is correlated with logarithmic-phase growth. The ability to inhibit a diversity of E. coli strains indicates that this microcin may influence gut community composition and could be useful for control of important enteric pathogens. PMID:22773653

  8. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence Regulation by Two Bacterial Adrenergic Kinases, QseC and QseE

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has two histidine sensor kinases, QseC and QseE, which respond to the mammalian adrenergic hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine by increasing their autophosphorylation. Although QseC and QseE are present in nonpathogenic strains of E. coli, EHEC exploits these kinases for virulence regulation. To further investigate the full extent of epinephrine and its sensors' impact on EHEC virulence, we performed transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of single and double deletions of qseC and qseE genes in the absence or presence of epinephrine. We showed that in EHEC, epinephrine sensing seems to occur primarily through QseC and QseE. We also observed that QseC and QseE regulate expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes positively and negatively, respectively. LEE activation, which is required for the formation of the characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions by EHEC on epithelial cells, is epinephrine dependent. Regulation of the LEE and the non-LEE-contained virulence factor gene nleA by QseE is indirect, through transcription inhibition of the RcsB response regulator. Finally, we show that coincubation of HeLa cells with epinephrine increases EHEC infectivity in a QseC- and QseE-dependent manner. These results genetically and phenotypically map the contributions of the two adrenergic sensors QseC and QseE to EHEC pathogenesis. PMID:22144490

  9. Global transcriptional regulation by H-NS and its biological influence on the virulence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wan, Baoshan; Zhang, Qiufen; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Aiping; Yao, Yu-Feng; Ni, Jinjing

    2016-08-22

    As a global transcriptional regulator, H-NS, the histone-like nucleoid-associated DNA-binding and bridging protein, plays a wide range of biological roles in bacteria. In order to determine the role of H-NS in regulating gene transcription and further find out the biological significance of this protein in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), we conducted transcriptome analysis of hns mutant by RNA sequencing. A total of 983 genes were identified to be regulated by H-NS in EHEC. 213 and 770 genes were down-regulated and up-regulated in the deletion mutant of hns, respectively. Interestingly, 34 of 97 genes on virulence plasmid pO157 were down-regulated by H-NS. Although the deletion mutant of hns showed a decreased survival rate in macrophage compared with the wild type strain, it exhibited the higher ability to colonize mice gut and became more virulent to BALB/c mice. The BALB/c mice infected with the deletion mutant of hns showed a lower survival rate, and a higher bacterial burden in the gut, compared with those infected with wild type strain, especially when the gut microbiota was not disturbed by antibiotic administration. These findings suggest that H-NS plays an important role in virulence of EHEC by interacting with host gut microbiota.

  10. Thermal inactivation of non-0157:H7 Shigatoxin producing Escherichia coli(STEC) on catfish fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC) strains have emerged as foodborne pathogens caused numerous foodborne illness outbreaks worldwide. Seafood (fish) consumption has significantly increased in recent years and it could be more common for STEC outbreaks due to non-O15...

  11. Environmental regulation of the long polar fimbriae 2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Medrano-López, Abraham; Nuñez-Reza, Karen J.; Puente, José Luis; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling expression of the Long Polar Fimbriae 2 (Lpf2) of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were evaluated. Primer extension was used to locate the lpfA2 transcriptional start site in EHEC strain EDL933 at 171 bp upstream of the lpfA2 start codon. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the highest lpfA2 expression occurs between an OD600 of 1.0 and 1.2 in DMEM at pH 6.5 and 37°C. The level of lpfA2 transcription at OD600 1.2 and pH 6.5 was 4-times greater than that at pH 7.2. Although lpfA2 expression was decreased under iron-depleted conditions, its expression was increased in a Ferric-uptake-regulator (Fur) mutant strain. The lpfA2 transcript was 0.7 and 2-times more abundant in wt EHEC grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth at 25°C, respectively, than in DMEM at pH 6.5. The lpf2 expression in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and bile salts was 2.7-times more abundant and similar to MacConkey. Further, transcription in the EDL933Δfur was 0.6 and 0.8-times higher as compared to the wt strain grown in DMEM pH 6.5 plus iron and MacConkey broth, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that purified Fur interacts with the lpf2 regulatory region, indicating that Fur-repression is exerted by direct binding to the promoter region. In summary, we demonstrated that the EHEC lpf2 operon is regulated in response to temperature, pH, bile salts and iron, during exponential phase of growth, and controlled by Fur. PMID:24966050

  12. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Hemolysin Employs Outer Membrane Vesicles to Target Mitochondria and Cause Endothelial and Epithelial Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kunsmann, Lisa; Greune, Lilo; Bauwens, Andreas; Zhang, Wenlan; Kuczius, Thorsten; Kim, Kwang Sik; Mellmann, Alexander; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Karch, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains cause diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome resulting from toxin-mediated microvascular endothelial injury. EHEC hemolysin (EHEC-Hly), a member of the RTX (repeats-in-toxin) family, is an EHEC virulence factor of increasingly recognized importance. The toxin exists as free EHEC-Hly and as EHEC-Hly associated with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by EHEC during growth. Whereas the free toxin is lytic towards human endothelium, the biological effects of the OMV-associated EHEC-Hly on microvascular endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells, which are the major targets during EHEC infection, are unknown. Using microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometry and functional analyses of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and Caco-2 cells we demonstrate that OMV-associated EHEC-Hly does not lyse the target cells but triggers their apoptosis. The OMV-associated toxin is internalized by HBMEC and Caco-2 cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis of OMVs and trafficked with OMVs into endo-lysosomal compartments. Upon endosome acidification and subsequent pH drop, EHEC-Hly is separated from OMVs, escapes from the lysosomes, most probably via its pore-forming activity, and targets mitochondria. This results in decrease of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and translocation of cytochrome c to the cytosol, indicating EHEC-Hly-mediated permeabilization of the mitochondrial membranes. Subsequent activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 leads to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation in the intoxicated cells. The ability of OMV-associated EHEC-Hly to trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human microvascular endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells indicates a novel mechanism of EHEC-Hly involvement in the pathogenesis of EHEC diseases. The OMV-mediated intracellular delivery represents a newly recognized mechanism for a bacterial toxin to enter host cells in

  13. Effect of Direct-Fed Microbial Dosage on the Fecal Concentrations of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Harhay, Dayna M; Arthur, Terrance M

    2016-04-01

    Contamination of beef products by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a concern for food safety with a particular subset, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), being the most relevant to human disease. To mitigate food safety risks, preharvest intervention strategies have been implemented with the aim to reduce EHEC in cattle. One class of interventions that has been widely used in feedlots is direct-fed microbials (DFMs), which can contain various dosing rates of probiotic bacteria. Here we compare the use of two different doses of a commercially available DFM on total EHEC load in a commercial feedlot setting. The DFMs used were the standard 10(9) Propionibacterium freudenreichii and 10(6) Lactobacillus acidophilus colony forming units (CFUs)/head/day dose of Bovamine(®) (Nutrition Physiology Company, Guymon, OK) and the higher dose, Bovamine Defend™ (Nutrition Physiology Company), which is dosed at 10(9) P. freudenreichii and 10(9) Lactobacillus acidophilus CFUs/head/day. To analyze the total EHEC fecal concentration, 2200 head of cattle were assigned a DFM feed regimen lasting approximately 5 months. At harvest, 480 head of cattle were sampled using rectoanal mucosal swabs. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay targeting ecf1 was used to enumerate the total EHEC fecal concentration for 240 head fed the low-dose DFM and 240 head fed the high-dose DFM. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the fecal concentration of total EHEC was observed between the two doses. This suggests that using an increased dosage provides no additional reduction in the total EHEC fecal concentration of feedlot cattle compared to the standard dosage.

  14. [The role of the genetic test of verotoxin for bacterial carrier investigation of cooking staff: detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Nihonyanagi, Shin

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare revised the Manual for Hygiene Management at Large-scale Food Preparation Facilities (Shokuan; Issue No. 0618005) on June 18, 2008. This manual was issued for the purpose of food poisoning prevention in mass food service facilities based on the concept of hazard analysis and critical control point(HACCP). Especially this revision of the manual made verotoxin(VT examination indispensable in the practice of regular fecal examination for cooking staff (stool examination). Out of 150 fecal specimens that were examined on May 12, 2009, a specimen from a dietician revealed a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli EHEC O103: H2 producing type I verotoxin (VT1). We studied the following with regard to EHEC O103: H2 producing VT1(EHEC O103): colony forms of the bacteria on the selective media for EHEC as well as the differential media for VT in use for stool examination in the laboratory and the usefulness of the hospital PCR based detection of VT genes. CHROMagar O26/O157 agar plates were used to select and isolate EHEC. Enterohemolysin blood agar plates were used to confirm VT. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using primers set EVT-1, 2 as well as EVS-1, 2. CHROMagar O26/O157 agar plates and enterohemolysin blood agar plates can distinguish EHEC strains easily, rapidly, and effectively, although not always correctly. The PCR method employs PCR technology targeting VT genes, so that it can verify VT genes in all strains of E. coli. This examination is useful for defining EHEC especially in stool examinations of asymptomatic patients. The PCR-based detection of VT genes was considered as a rational method for fecal examination compatible with the revised Manual for Hygiene Management at Large-scale Food Preparation Facilities.

  15. Role of hha and ler in transcriptional regulation of the esp operon of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Zuerner, Richard L

    2004-11-01

    The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which includes five major operons (LEE1 through LEE4 and tir), enables enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 to produce attaching and effacing lesions on host cells. Expression of LEE2, LEE3, and tir is positively regulated by ler, a gene located in LEE1. Transcriptional regulation of the esp operon (LEE4), however, is not well defined. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify transcriptional regulators of the esp operon by screening for mutants with increased beta-galactosidase activity in an EHEC O157:H7 strain harboring an esp::lac transcriptional fusion. All mutants with significant increases in beta-galactosidase activity had transposon insertions in hha (hha::Tn). Specific complementation of the hha::Tn mutation with a plasmid-encoded copy of hha reduced beta-galactosidase activity to the level expressed in the parental esp::lac strain. Purified Hha, however, bound poorly to the esp promoter, suggesting that Hha might repress the transcription of a positive regulator of esp. Transposon mutagenesis of a Deltahha esp::lac strain expressing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase resulted in ler mutants with reduced beta-galactosidase activity. Purified Hha bound to the ler promoter with a higher affinity, and complementation of a Deltahha mutation in a Deltahha ler::lac strain repressed beta-galactosidase activity to the level expressed in a ler::lac strain. A positive regulatory role of ler in esp expression was demonstrated by specific binding of Ler to the esp promoter, reduced expression of beta-galactosidase in Deltaler esp::lac strains with and without hha, and severalfold-increased transcription of ler and espA in strains lacking hha. These results indicate that hha-mediated repression of ler causes reduced expression of the esp operon.

  16. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin employs outer membrane vesicles to target mitochondria and cause endothelial and epithelial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bielaszewska, Martina; Rüter, Christian; Kunsmann, Lisa; Greune, Lilo; Bauwens, Andreas; Zhang, Wenlan; Kuczius, Thorsten; Kim, Kwang Sik; Mellmann, Alexander; Schmidt, M Alexander; Karch, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains cause diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome resulting from toxin-mediated microvascular endothelial injury. EHEC hemolysin (EHEC-Hly), a member of the RTX (repeats-in-toxin) family, is an EHEC virulence factor of increasingly recognized importance. The toxin exists as free EHEC-Hly and as EHEC-Hly associated with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by EHEC during growth. Whereas the free toxin is lytic towards human endothelium, the biological effects of the OMV-associated EHEC-Hly on microvascular endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells, which are the major targets during EHEC infection, are unknown. Using microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometry and functional analyses of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and Caco-2 cells we demonstrate that OMV-associated EHEC-Hly does not lyse the target cells but triggers their apoptosis. The OMV-associated toxin is internalized by HBMEC and Caco-2 cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis of OMVs and trafficked with OMVs into endo-lysosomal compartments. Upon endosome acidification and subsequent pH drop, EHEC-Hly is separated from OMVs, escapes from the lysosomes, most probably via its pore-forming activity, and targets mitochondria. This results in decrease of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and translocation of cytochrome c to the cytosol, indicating EHEC-Hly-mediated permeabilization of the mitochondrial membranes. Subsequent activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 leads to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation in the intoxicated cells. The ability of OMV-associated EHEC-Hly to trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human microvascular endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells indicates a novel mechanism of EHEC-Hly involvement in the pathogenesis of EHEC diseases. The OMV-mediated intracellular delivery represents a newly recognized mechanism for a bacterial toxin to enter host cells in

  17. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 gal Mutants Are Sensitive to Bacteriophage P1 and Defective in Intestinal Colonization▿

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Theresa Deland; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2007-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), especially E. coli O157:H7, is an emerging cause of food-borne illness. Unfortunately, E. coli O157 cannot be genetically manipulated using the generalized transducing phage P1, presumably because its extensive O antigen obscures the P1 receptor, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core subunit. The GalE, GalT, GalK, and GalU proteins are necessary for modifying galactose before it can be assembled into the repeating subunit of the O antigen. Here, we constructed E. coli O157:H7 gal mutants which presumably have little or no O antigen. These strains were able to adsorb P1. P1 lysates grown on the gal mutant strains could be used to move chromosomal markers between EHEC strains, thereby facilitating genetic manipulation of E. coli O157:H7. The gal mutants could easily be reverted to a wild-type Gal+ strain using P1 transduction. We found that the O157:H7 galETKM::aad-7 deletion strain was 500-fold less able to colonize the infant rabbit intestine than the isogenic Gal+ parent, although it displayed no growth defect in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo a Gal+ revertant of this mutant outcompeted the galETKM deletion strain to an extent similar to that of the wild type. This suggests that the O157 O antigen is an important intestinal colonization factor. Compared to the wild type, EHEC gal mutants were 100-fold more sensitive to a peptide derived from bactericidal permeability-increasing protein, a bactericidal protein found on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells. Thus, one way in which the O157 O antigen may contribute to EHEC intestinal colonization is to promote resistance to host-derived antimicrobial polypeptides. PMID:17158899

  18. Cross-Reactive Protection against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection by Enteropathogenic E. coli in a Mouse Model ▿

    PubMed Central

    Calderon Toledo, Carla; Arvidsson, Ida; Karpman, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are related attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. The genes responsible for the A/E pathology are carried on a chromosomal pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Both pathogens share a high degree of homology in the LEE and additional O islands. EHEC prevalence is much lower in areas where EPEC is endemic. This may be due to the development of antibodies against common EPEC and EHEC antigens. This study investigated the hypothesis that EPEC infections may protect against EHEC infections. We used a mouse model to inoculate BALB/c mice intragastrically, first with EPEC and then with EHEC (E. coli O157:H7). Four control groups received either a nonpathogenic E. coli (NPEC) strain followed by EHEC (NPEC/EHEC), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) followed by EHEC (PBS/EHEC), EPEC/PBS, or PBS/PBS. Mice were monitored for weight loss and symptoms. EPEC colonized the intestine after challenge, and mice developed serum antibodies to intimin and E. coli secreted protein B (encoded in the LEE). Prechallenge with an EPEC strain had a protective effect after EHEC infection, as only a few mice developed mild symptoms, from which they recovered. These mice had an increase in body weight similar to that in control animals, and tissue morphology exhibited mild intestinal changes and normal renal histology. All mice that were not prechallenged with the EPEC strain developed mild to severe symptoms after EHEC infection, with weight loss as well as intestinal and renal histopathological changes. These data suggest that EPEC may protect against EHEC infection in this mouse model. PMID:21402761

  19. Evaluation of real time PCR assays for the detection and enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli directly from cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Bono, James L; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are a growing concern in the area of food safety, and the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified the serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 as adulterants in certain types of raw beef. The most relevant to human disease are the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains that possess intimin (eae), Shiga toxin 1 and/or 2 (stx1-2), and in most cases the conserved pO157 or pO157 like virulence plasmid. Contamination of raw beef with EHEC is likely to occur via the transfer of cattle feces on hides to the carcass. To detect EHEC directly from cattle feces, we evaluated the utility of a multiplex real time PCR assay that targets the EHEC associated gene target ecf1 in combination with eae and stx1-2. Our assay had an increased sensitivity and provided a reliable limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(3)colony-forming unitspermL (CFUs/mL) in an EHEC spiked fecal background. In addition, we evaluated the use of a duplex qPCR assay using ecf1 for the enumeration of total EHEC directly from cattle feces. The reliable limit of quantification (LOQ) was determined to be 1.25×10(3)CFUs/mL. Our assay requires minimal sample processing and provides LOD and LOQ of EHEC directly from cattle feces that are the lowest reported. The application of this assay towards the identification of cattle shedding EHEC at a level above 1.25×10(3)CFUs/mL could be a first line of defense in identifying cattle shedding these pathogens.

  20. Evolutionary Silence of the Acid Chaperone Protein HdeB in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Jacqueline W.; Fagerquist, Clifton K.; Sultan, Omar; Miller, William G.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The periplasmic chaperones HdeA and HdeB are known to be important for cell survival at low pH (pH < 3) in Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Here we investigated the roles of HdeA and HdeB in the survival of various enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) following exposure to pH 2.0. Similar to K-12 strains, the acid protections conferred by HdeA and HdeB in EHEC O145 were significant: loss of HdeA and HdeB led to over 100- to 1,000-fold reductions in acid survival, depending on the growth condition of prechallenge cells. However, this protection was much less in E. coli O157:H7 strains. Deletion of hdeB did not affect the acid survival of cells, and deletion of hdeA led to less than a 5-fold decrease in survival. Sequence analysis of the hdeAB operon revealed a point mutation at the putative start codon of the hdeB gene in all 26 E. coli O157:H7 strains analyzed, which shifted the ATG start codon to ATA. This mutation correlated with the lack of HdeB in E. coli O157:H7; however, the plasmid-borne O157-hdeB was able to restore partially the acid resistance in an E. coli O145ΔhdeAB mutant, suggesting the potential function of O157-HdeB as an acid chaperone. We conclude that E. coli O157:H7 strains have evolved acid survival strategies independent of the HdeA/B chaperones and are more acid resistant than nonpathogenic K-12 for cells grown under nonfavorable culturing conditions such as in Luria-Bertani no-salt broth at 28°C. These results suggest a divergent evolution of acid resistance mechanisms within E. coli. PMID:22179243

  1. Actin Pedestal Formation by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Enhances Bacterial Host Cell Attachment and Concomitant Type III Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Battle, Scott E.; Brady, Michael J.; Vanaja, Sivapriya Kailasan; Leong, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to intestinal epithelial cells is critical for colonization and is associated with localized actin assembly beneath bound bacteria. The formation of these actin “pedestals” is dependent on the translocation of effectors into mammalian cells via a type III secretion system (T3SS). Tir, an effector required for pedestal formation, localizes in the host cell plasma membrane and promotes attachment of bacteria to mammalian cells by binding to the EHEC outer surface protein Intimin. Actin pedestal formation has been shown to foster intestinal colonization by EHEC in some animal models, but the mechanisms responsible for this remain undefined. Investigation of the role of Tir-mediated actin assembly promoting host cell binding is complicated by other, potentially redundant EHEC-encoded binding pathways, so we utilized cell binding assays that specifically detect binding mediated by Tir-Intimin interaction. We also assessed the role of Tir-mediated actin assembly in two-step assays that temporally segregated initial translocation of Tir from subsequent Tir-Intimin interaction, thereby permitting the distinction of effects on translocation from effects on cell attachment. In these experimental systems, we compromised Tir-mediated actin assembly by chemically inhibiting actin assembly or by infecting mammalian cells with EHEC mutants that translocate Tir but are specifically defective in Tir-mediated pedestal formation. We found that an inability of Tir to promote actin assembly resulted in a significant and striking decrease in bacterial binding mediated by Tir and Intimin. Bacterial mutants defective for pedestal formation translocated type III effectors to mammalian cells with reduced efficiency, but the decrease in translocation could be entirely accounted for by the decrease in host cell attachment. PMID:24958711

  2. Serum tau protein as a marker of disease activity in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Mondo; Shimizu, Masaki; Inoue, Natsumi; Ikeno, Iku; Nakagawa, Hiroyasu; Yokoi, Ayano; Niida, Yo; Konishi, Michio; Kaneda, Hisashi; Igarashi, Noboru; Yamahana, Junya; Taneichi, Hiromichi; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Ito, Mika; Saito, Shigeru; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masaru; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Yachie, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Tau protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are elevated in patients with various central nervous system diseases. We investigated whether serum tau protein levels are useful for predicting and assessing disease activity of acute encephalopathy (AE) in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O111-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS; EHEC encephalopathy). Serum samples were obtained from 14 patients with EHEC O111/HUS, 20 patients with non-EHEC-related AE, and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. CSF samples were obtained from 2 patients with EHEC encephalopathy and 20 patients with non-EHEC-related AE. Tau protein levels and levels of several proinflammatory cytokines were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results were compared with the clinical features of EHEC encephalopathy, including magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings. Serum tau levels in patients with EHEC encephalopathy were significantly elevated compared with those in patients with EHEC O111/HUS without encephalopathy, patients with non-EHEC-related AE, and healthy controls. The ratio of CSF tau levels to serum tau levels was >1.0 in all patients with non-EHEC-related AE but <1.0 in 2 patients with EHEC encephalopathy. Serum tau protein levels increased rapidly and markedly in patients with severe EHEC 0111/HUS and encephalopathy when HUS occurred, but were not elevated in mild patients, even in the HUS phase. Furthermore, changes in serum tau protein levels in patients with EHEC encephalopathy were consistent with abnormalities on brain MRI and were positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokine levels. Our results indicate that serum tau protein might be useful to predict and assess disease activity of EHEC encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple Elements Controlling Adherence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 to HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Alfredo G.; Kaper, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to the intestinal epithelium is essential for initiation of infection. Intimin is the only factor demonstrated to play a role in intestinal colonization by EHEC O157:H7. Other attempts to identify additional adhesion factors in vitro have been unsuccessful, suggesting that expression of these factors is under tight regulation. We sought to identify genes involved in the control of adherence of EHEC O157:H7 to cultured epithelial cells. A total of 5,000 independent transposon insertion mutants were screened for their ability to adhere to HeLa cells, and 7 mutants were isolated with a markedly enhanced adherence. The mutants adhered at levels 113 to 170% that of the wild-type strain, and analysis of the protein profiles of these mutants revealed several proteins differentially expressed under in vitro culture conditions. We determined the sequence of the differentially expressed proteins and further investigated the function of OmpA, whose expression was increased in a mutant with an insertionally inactivated tcdA gene. An isogenic ompA mutant showed reduced adherence compared to the parent strain. Disruption of the ompA gene in the tdcA mutant strain abolished the hyperadherent phenotype, and anti-OmpA serum inhibited adhesion of wild-type and tdcA mutant strains to HeLa cells. Enhanced adhesion mediated by OmpA was also observed with Caco-2 cells, and anti-OmpA serum blocked adherence to HeLa cells of other EHEC O157:H7 strains. Our results indicate that multiple elements control adherence and OmpA acts as an adhesin in EHEC O157:H7. PMID:12933841

  4. Effect of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum probiotic feeding on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Mélanie; Kheadr, Ehab E; Dabour, Nassra; Richard, Denis; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2006-08-15

    The effectiveness of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum RBL 71 as a probiotic against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection was studied using a murine model. BALB/c mice were fed the probiotic for 7 days before or after single challenge with E. coli O157:H7. Fecal B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 and E. coli O157:H7 counts obtained by selective culturing methods were assessed for 1 week before and after infection while feed intake, body weight and composition were monitored during 1 week after infection. Histology of gut tissue (jejunum, ileum and colon) and production of fecal IgA antibodies and serum IgG+IgM antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 were analyzed until 1 and 2 weeks post-infection, respectively. The pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7, marked by body weight loss and intestinal histopathological changes in the infected group, was significantly reduced in the B. thermacidophilum-treated group. Feeding B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 for 7 days before infection resulted in greater post-challenge feed intake and weight gain and lower fecal levels of E. coli O157:H7. Post-infection levels of anti-E. coli O157:H7-specific IgA in feces and IgG+IgM in serum were higher in mice fed bifidobacteria. Intestinal injuries were also attenuated and reaction of the lymphoid component in the mucosa of the ileum was greater in the bifidobacteria-fed group. A lesser degree of protection against E. coli O157:H7 infection was observed when bifidobacteria were given during the 7 days after E. coli O157:H7 infection. These results demonstrate that feeding the probiotic B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 to mice can reduce the severity of E. coli O157:H7 infection, and suggest that this strain represents a good candidate for the prevention of enteric infections in human.

  5. Implications of down regulation of rcsA and rcsA-regulated colanic acid biosynthesis genes in increased acid sensitivity and enhanced curli and biofilm production in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 strain 86-24, originally linked to a disease outbreak in the western USA in 1982, exhibits acid resistance as indicated by its ability to survive exposure to acidic conditions (pH2.5) for several hours. The strain 86-24 is a poor biofilm producer ...

  6. Some structures and processes of human epithelial cells involved in uptake of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains.

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlaeger, T A; Barrett, T J; Kopecko, D J

    1994-01-01

    Several enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains of serotype O157:H7 isolated from patients with hemorrhagic colitis, ischemic colitis, or hemolytic uremic syndrome were all found to be able to invade certain human epithelial cell lines in vitro. Their ability to gain entry into epithelial cells was compared with those of known invasive Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi strains and the noninvasive E. coli strain HB101 in invasion assays utilizing gentamicin to kill extracellular bacteria. All EHEC strains under investigation were efficiently internalized into T24 bladder and HCT-8 ileocecal cells. In striking contrast to shigellae, the same EHEC strains were not taken up into human embryonic intestinal INT407 cells or HEp-2 cells any more than the noninvasive E. coli strain HB101. The mechanism(s) of EHEC internalization was characterized by comparing the invasion efficiencies in the absence and presence of a variety of inhibitors acting on structures and processes of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. Also, wild-type, plasmid-containing EHEC strains were compared with their plasmid-cured isogenic derivative strains to determine if plasmid genes affect invasion ability. Plasmid-cured EHEC invaded as well as wild-type EHEC, indicating that invasion ability is chromosomally encoded. Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by simultaneous addition of bacteria and chloramphenicol to the monolayer blocked EHEC uptake dramatically, suggesting the presence of an invasion protein(s) with a short half-life. Studies utilizing inhibitors which act on eukaryotic cells demonstrated a strong dependence on microfilaments in the process of uptake of all EHEC strains into both T24 and HCT-8 cells. In general, depolymerization of microtubules as well as inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis reduced the efficiency of EHEC invasion of T24 cells, whereas interference with endosome acidification reduced EHEC entry into only HCT-8 cells. Taxol-induced stabilization of

  7. Metabolism of HeLa cells revealed through autofluorescence lifetime upon infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryakina, Tatyana Yu.; Su, Pin-Tzu; Syu, Wan-Jr; Allen Chang, C.; Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a sensitive technique in monitoring functional and conformational states of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD),main compounds participating in oxidative phosphorylation in cells. In this study, we have applied FLIM to characterize the metabolic changes in HeLa cells upon bacterial infection and made comparison with the results from the cells treated with staurosporine (STS), a well-known apoptosis inducer. The evolving of NADH's average autofluorescence lifetime during the 3 h after infection with enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) or STS treatment has been observed. The ratio of the short and the long lifetime components' relative contributions of NADH increases with time, a fact indicating cellular metabolic activity, such as a decrease of oxidative phosphorylation over the course of infection, while opposite dynamics is observed in FAD. Being associated with mitochondria, FAD lifetimes and redox ratio could indicate heterogeneous mitochondrial function, microenvironment with bacterial infection, and further pathway to cell death. The redox ratios for both EHEC-infected and STS-treated HeLa cells have been observed and these observations also indicate possible apoptosis induced by bacterial infection.

  8. Design and activity of novel lactoferrampin analogues against O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jenniffer; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Fanny; Cárdenas, Constanza; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Torres, Rodrigo

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrampin 265-284 (LFampin 265-284) is a peptide consisting of residues 265-284 of N1-domain of bovine Lactoferrin (LF). This peptide has several cationic groups in the C-terminal lobe, exhibiting an antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. However, LFampin 265-284 exhibits low antimicrobial activity against the O157:H7 enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7) when compared with Lactoferrin chimera and Lactoferricin. Here, we have designed three analogues of LFampin 265-284 based on the distribution of cationic groups, hydrophobicity, size, and sequence. Analogues were synthesized by solid phase chemistry using Fmoc methodology obtaining peptides with 95% purity. All peptides maintain the ability to adopt helical conformations (checked by circular dichroism spectra and molecular simulations). Some of these analogues exhibited a significant increase in antimicrobial activity by counting colony forming units against EHEC O157:H7 compared to native LFampin 265-284, with MIC of 10 and 40 µM for 264G-D265K and 264G-D265K/S272R, respectively. The incorporation of a GKLI sequence in the N-terminal lobe increased dramatically its antibacterial activity, an effect which has been attributed to the addition of cationic groups in the N-terminal side that may stabilize the helical conformation of the new designed peptides.

  9. Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P

    1996-01-01

    Dairy cattle have been identified as a principal reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The fate of this pathogen in bovine feces at 5, 22, and 37 degrees C was determined. Two levels of inocula (10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g) of a mixture of five nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strains were used. E. coli O157:H7 survived at 37 degrees C for 42 and 49 days with low and high inocula, respectively, and at 22 degrees C for 49 and 56 days with low and high inocula, respectively. Fecal samples at both temperatures had low moisture contents (about 10%) and water activities ( < 0.5) near the end of the study. E. coli O157:H7 at 5 degrees C survived for 63 to 70 days, with the moisture content (74%) of feces remaining high through the study. Chromosomal DNA fingerprinting of E. coli O157:H7 isolates surviving near the completion of the study revealed that the human isolate strain 932 was the only surviving strain at 22 or 37 degrees C. All five strains were isolated near the end of incubation from feces held at 5 degrees C. Isolates at each temperature were still capable of producing both verotoxin 1 and verotoxin 2. Results indicate that E. coli O157:H7 can survive in feces for a long period of time and retain its ability to produce verotoxins. Hence, bovine feces are a potential vehicle for transmitting E. coli O157:H7 to cattle, food, and the environment. Appropriate handling of bovine feces is important to control the spread of this pathogen. PMID:8779595

  10. Prevalence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a survey of dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, T; Doyle, M P; Shere, J; Garber, L

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy herds is poorly understood, even though young dairy animals have been reported to be a host. From February to May 1993, 662 fecal samples from 50 control herds in 14 states, and from June to August 1993, 303 fecal samples from 14 case herds in 11 states were collected for isolation of E. coli O157:H7. Case herds were those in which E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from preweaned calves in a previous U.S. Department of Agriculture study, whereas control herds from which E. coli O157:H7 had not been isolated previously were randomly selected from the same states as case herds. Among the control herds, E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 6 of 399 calves (1.5%) that were between 24 h old and the age of weaning and from 13 of 263 calves (4.9%) that were between the ages of weaning and 4 months. Eleven of 50 control herds (22%) were positive. Among the case herds, E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 5 of 171 calves (2.9%) that were between 24 h old and the age of weaning and from 7 of 132 calves (5.3%) that were between the ages of weaning and 4 months. Seven of 14 case herds (50%) were positive. Sixteen of 31 isolates were obtained by direct plating, with populations ranging from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU/g. Fifteen of 31 isolates were isolated by enrichment only. Nineteen of the isolates produced both verocytotoxin 1 (VT-1) and VT-2, whereas 12 produced VT-2 only. PMID:7747951

  11. Survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in retail mustard.

    PubMed

    Mayerhauser, C M

    2001-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in acid foods such as unpasteurized apple cider and fermented sausage is well documented. Researchers have determined that E. coli O157:H7 can survive in refrigerated acid foods for weeks. The potential of acid foods to serve as a vector of E. coli O157:H7 foodborne illness prompted this study to determine the fate of this organism in retail mustard containing acetic acid when stored at room and refrigerated temperatures. Various retail brands of dijon, yellow, and deli style mustard, pH ranging from 3.17 to 3.63, were inoculated individually with three test strains of E. coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated with approximately 1.0 x 10(6) CFU/g, incubated at room (25+/-2.5 degrees C) and refrigerated (5+/-3 degrees C) temperatures, and assayed for surviving test strains at predetermined time intervals. An aliquot was appropriately diluted and plated using sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC). When the test strain was not recoverable by direct plating, the sample was assayed by enrichment in modified tryptic soy broth and recovered using SMAC. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 test strains was inhibited in all retail mustard styles. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in dijon style mustard beyond 3 h at room and 2 days at refrigerated temperatures. Survival in yellow and deli style mustard was not detected beyond 1 h. Overall, test strain survival was greater at refrigerated than room temperature. Retail mustard demonstrated the ability to eliminate effectively any chance contamination by this organism within hours to days, suggesting that these products are not a likely factor in E. coli O157:H7 foodborne illness.

  12. Hyperspectral imaging of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 on Rainbow Agar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service has determined that six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are adulterants in raw beef. Isolate and phenotypic discrimination of non-O157 STEC is problematic due ...

  13. Comparison of chemical treatments to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Beuchat, L R

    1999-04-01

    The focus of this study was to determine the efficacy of various chemicals in eliminating 2.04 to 3.23 log10 CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from alfalfa seeds and to determine the survivability of the pathogen on seeds stored for prolonged periods at three temperatures. Significant (P < or = 0.05) reductions in populations of E. coli O157:H7 on inoculated seeds were observed after treatments with 500 and 1,000 ppm of active chlorine (as Ca[OCl]2) for 3 but not 10 min and with > or =2,000 ppm of Ca(OCl)2 regardless of pretreatment with a surfactant. Treatment with 20,000 ppm of active chlorine failed to kill 2.68 log10 CFU/g of seeds. Acidified NaClO2 (500 ppm) was effective in reducing populations of the pathogen by >2 logs per g. Acidified ClO2 significantly reduced populations of E. coli O157:H7 on seeds at concentrations > or =100 ppm, and 500 ppm of ClO2 reduced the pathogen from 2.7 log10 CFU/g to <0.5 CFU/g. Chlorine (as NaOCl) was not effective at concentrations < or =1,000 ppm; significant reduction was achieved only after treatment with 2,000 ppm for 3 or 10 min. Notable reduction in populations was observed after treatment with 30 or 70% C2H3OH, but there was a dramatic decrease in germination percentage. Treatment with 0.2% H2O2 significantly reduced populations, and the organism was not detected by direct plating after treatment with > or =1% H2O2. Significant reduction in population of E. coli O157:H7 occurred after treatment with 1% trisodium phosphate, 40 ppm of Tsunami and Vortexx, and 1% Vegi-Clean. A significant decrease in the number of E. coli O157:H7 on dry seeds was observed within 1 week of storage at 25 and 37 degrees C, but not at 5 degrees C. Between 1 and 38 weeks, populations on seeds stored at 5 degrees C remained relatively constant. The pathogen was recovered from alfalfa seeds initially containing 3.04 log 10 CFU/g after storage at 25 or 37 degrees C for 38 weeks but not 54 weeks.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm forming capability in non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biofilm life style helps bacteria resist oxidative stress, desiccation, antibiotic treatment, and starvation. Biofilm formation involves a complex regulatory gene network controlled by various environmental signals. It was previously shown that prophage insertions in mlrA and heterogeneous mutat...

  15. Inactivation of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in frozen ground beef patties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cluster of illnesses linked to contamination of ground beef with an E. coli serotype O26 strain, and the subsequent recall, reinforces the need for additional research on control of STEC in beef. Ground beef (percent lean:fat = 70:30 and 93:7) was inoculated with about 7.0 log CFU/g of a serotype...

  16. Inactivation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in rumen content- or feces-contaminated drinking water for cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; West, Joe W; Bernard, John K; Cross, Heath G; Doyle, Michael P

    2006-05-01

    Cattle drinking water is a source of on-farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission. The antimicrobial activities of disinfectants to control E. coli O157:H7 in on-farm drinking water are frequently neutralized by the presence of rumen content and manure that generally contaminate the drinking water. Different chemical treatments, including lactic acid, acidic calcium sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, caprylic acid, ozone, butyric acid, sodium benzoate, and competing E. coli, were tested individually or in combination for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in the presence of rumen content. Chlorine (5 ppm), ozone (22 to 24 ppm at 5 degrees C), and competing E. coli treatment of water had minimal effects (<1 log CFU/ml reduction) on killing E. coli O157:H7 in the presence of rumen content at water-to-rumen content ratios of 50:1 (vol/wt) and lower. Four chemical-treatment combinations, including (i) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.05% caprylic acid (treatment A); (ii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.1% sodium benzoate (treatment B); (iii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.5% butyric acid (treatment C); and (iv) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 100 ppm chlorine dioxide (treatment D); were highly effective (>3 log CFU/ml reduction) at 21 degrees C in killing E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM in water heavily contaminated with rumen content (10:1 water/rumen content ratio [vol/wt]) or feces (20:1 water/feces ratio [vol/wt]). Among them, treatments A, B, and C killed >5 log CFU E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM/ml within 30 min in water containing rumen content or feces, whereas treatment D inactivated approximately 3 to 4 log CFU/ml under the same conditions. Cattle given water containing treatment A or C or untreated water (control) ad libitum for two 7-day periods drank 15.2, 13.8, and 30.3 liters/day, respectively, and cattle given water containing 0.1% lactic

  17. Variable number of tandem repeats and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis cluster analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serovar O157 strains.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Uchimura, Masako

    2007-11-01

    Ninety-five enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serovar O157 strains, including 30 strains isolated from 13 intrafamily outbreaks and 14 strains isolated from 3 mass outbreaks, were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and the resulting data were subjected to cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the VNTR typing data revealed that 57 (60.0%) of 95 strains, including all epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with at least 95% similarity. Cluster analysis of the PFGE patterns revealed that 67 (70.5%) of 95 strains, including all but 1 of the epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with 90% similarity. The number of epidemiologically unlinked strains forming clusters was significantly less by VNTR cluster analysis than by PFGE cluster analysis. The congruence value between PFGE and VNTR cluster analysis was low and did not show an obvious correlation. With two-step cluster analysis, the number of clustered epidemiologically unlinked strains by PFGE cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent VNTR cluster analysis was significantly higher than the number by VNTR cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent PFGE cluster analysis. These results indicate that VNTR cluster analysis is more efficient than PFGE cluster analysis as an epidemiological tool to trace the transmission of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157.

  18. Characterization of the C-terminal domains of intimin-like proteins of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Hafnia alvei.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, G; Candy, D C; Everest, P; Dougan, G

    1994-01-01

    Surface proteins called intimins (Int), which are homologous to the invasin protein (Inv) of Yersinia spp., play a role in inducing brush border damage, termed attachment and effacement, which follows infection by enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii biotype 4280, and Hafnia alvei. Maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusions containing the C-terminal 280 amino acids of Int-like proteins of strains of enteropathogenic E. coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, H. alvei, and C. freundii biotype 4280 and of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Inv were constructed and purified. The 3' end of the gene for the H. alvei Int-like protein was sequenced and showed homology to corresponding regions of other Int-encoding genes. Binding of MBP-Int-like and MBP-Inv fusion proteins to HEp-2 cells was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. MBP-Inv induced attachment and spreading of HEp-2 cells to plastic-coated wells, but MBP-Int-like fusion proteins did not. Preincubation of HEp-2 cells with MBP-Inv, but not with MBP-Int-like fusion proteins, inhibited MBP-Inv-induced cell attachment. Fixed staphylococci and fluorescent polymer microspheres coated with both MBP-Int-like and MBP-Inv fusion proteins showed enhanced adhesion to HEp-2 cells. These fusion proteins will facilitate studies of the role of intimin in the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with members of the family Enterobacteriaeceae that induce attachment and effacement. Images PMID:8168946

  19. Evolutionary silence of the acid chaperone protein HdeB in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Periplasmic chaperones HdeA and HdeB are known to be important for cell survival at low pH (pH<3) in E. coli and Shigella spp. Here we investigated the roles of these two acid chaperones in survival of various enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) following exposure to pH 2.0. Similar to K-12 strains, th...

  20. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome with acute encephalopathy in a pregnant woman infected with epidemic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: characteristic brain images and cytokine profiles.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Shiozaki, A; Shimizu, M; Saito, S

    2015-05-01

    A food-poisoning outbreak due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) occurred in Toyama, Japan. The case of a 26-year-old pregnant woman with hemolytic-uremic syndrome who developed acute encephalopathy due to EHEC infection after eating raw meat is presented herein. On day 2 following admission, a cesarean section was performed because of a non-reassuring fetal status. Fecal bacterial culture confirmed an O111/O157 superinfection. Intensive care therapies including continuous hemodiafiltration and plasma exchange were performed. After the operation, the patient developed encephalopathy for which steroid pulse therapy was added. Her condition improved gradually and she was discharged 55 days after delivery. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. [Predictive indicators for progression to severe complications(hemolytic-uremic syndrome and encephalopathy) and their prevention in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection].

    PubMed

    Joh, K

    1997-03-01

    The treatment of infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli(EHEC) aims for early prediction and prevention of severe complications such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome, encephalopathy and/or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Factors related to the complications are divided into three categories; risk factors or predisposition, predictors, and indicators of severity and outcome. Risk factors for complications include two extreme ages, infection with verotoxin 2 producing E. coli, positive stool culture for EHEC, use of antimotility drug, use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Predictors for complications include severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea development of high fever, change of consciousness, urinal protein and/or occult blood, abrupt increase of white blood cell count, urinal NAG, alpha 1 microglobulin, beta 2 microglobulin, low osmolar urine, high thrombomodulin level, marked thickening of intestinal wall, increased brightness of kidney in ultrasound sonography. No preventive treatment for these complications is proven except SYNSORB-pk which is expected to effectively aborb verotoxin in the intestine.

  2. Studies on the survival of enterohemorrhagic and environmental Escherichia coli strains in wastewater and in activated sludges from dairy sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska, Danuta; Boszczyk-Maleszak, Hanka; Sikorska, I Rena; Sochaj, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain isolated from milk in Poland and an environmental E. coli strain in wastewater from Garwolin and Łowicz dairies and in activated sludges from dairy sewage treatment plants as well as in dairy wastewater with activated sludges was examined. Environmental materials were contaminated with about 10(8) of target bacteria/ml of sample. The experiments were performed under temperature conditions typical of autumn-winter (6 degrees) and spring-summer (24 degrees C) seasons. It was found that the non-pathogenic E. coli strain survived longer in all media than the enterohemorrhagic serotype. E. coli O157:H7 bacteria were not detected (in direct plating method) in activated sludges after 21-28 days; in dairy wastewater as well as in wastewater with activated sludges after 21-25 days. These periods for environmental E. coli strain were 35-42 days (activated sludges), 25-28 days (wastewater with activated sludges). At higher temperature environmental E. coli were not detected in wastewater from Łowicz dairy sewage treatment plant after 25 days, but the bacteria were still present in wastewater from Garwolin dairy sewage tratment plant after 34 days. The obtained results show that the lack of environmental E. coli bacteria (as a indicator bacteria of fecal contamination) in dairy wastewater and in dairy wastewater with activated sludges could indicate the absence of pathogenic E. coli bacteria. Prolonged existence of the enterohemorrhagic serotype in activated sludges shows the need to treat activated sludges prior to the utilization of these materials as fertilizer.

  3. Global Regulator of Virulence A (GrvA) Coordinates Expression of Discrete Pathogenic Mechanisms in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli through Interactions with GadW-GadE

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jason K.; Harro, Carly M.; Vendura, Khoury W.; Shaw, Lindsey N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Global regulator of virulence A (GrvA) is a ToxR-family transcriptional regulator that activates locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-dependent adherence in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). LEE activation by GrvA requires the Rcs phosphorelay response regulator RcsB and is sensitive to physiologically relevant concentrations of bicarbonate, a known stimulant of virulence systems in intestinal pathogens. This study determines the genomic scale of GrvA-dependent regulation and uncovers details of the molecular mechanism underlying GrvA-dependent regulation of pathogenic mechanisms in EHEC. In a grvA-null background of EHEC strain TW14359, RNA sequencing analysis revealed the altered expression of over 700 genes, including the downregulation of LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors and the upregulation of genes for glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR). Upregulation of GDAR genes corresponded with a marked increase in acid resistance. GrvA-dependent regulation of GDAR and the LEE required gadE, the central activator of GDAR genes and a direct repressor of the LEE. Control of gadE by GrvA was further determined to occur through downregulation of the gadE activator GadW. This interaction of GrvA with GadW-GadE represses the acid resistance phenotype, while it concomitantly activates the LEE-dependent adherence and secretion of immune subversion effectors. The results of this study significantly broaden the scope of GrvA-dependent regulation and its role in EHEC pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an intestinal human pathogen causing acute hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. For successful transmission and gut colonization, EHEC relies on the glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system and a type III secretion apparatus, encoded on the LEE pathogenicity island. This study investigates the mechanism whereby the DNA-binding regulator GrvA coordinates activation of the LEE with

  4. The Tip of the Iceberg: On the Roles of Regulatory Small RNAs in the Virulence of Enterohemorrhagic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Shantanu; Egan, Marisa; Jenkins, Valerie; Muche, Sarah; El-Fenej, Jihad

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that disrupt the intestinal microvilli to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected cells and cause diarrhea. This pathomorphological trait is encoded within the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The LEE houses a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), which upon assembly bridges the bacterial cytosol to that of the host and enables the bacterium to traffic dozens of effectors into the host where they hijack regulatory and signal transduction pathways and contribute to bacterial colonization and disease. Owing to the importance of the LEE to EHEC and EPEC pathogenesis, much of the research on these pathogens has centered on its regulation. To date, over 40 proteinaceous factors have been identified that control the LEE at various hierarchical levels of gene expression. In contrast, RNA-based regulatory mechanisms that converge on the LEE have only just begun to be unraveled. In this minireview, we highlight major breakthroughs in small RNAs (sRNAs)-dependent regulation of the LEE, with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and/or LEE-encoded targets. PMID:27709103

  5. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection using mouse and intestinal cell models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Lee, T Y; Hong, W S; Hsieh, H H; Chen, M J

    2013-01-01

    A potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, was previously isolated from kefir grains, which are used to manufacture the traditional fermented drink kefir. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection, using mice and intestinal cell models. BALB/c mice were daily administrated with either phosphate buffered saline or Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 at 2×10(8) cfu/mouse per day intragastrically for 7 d. Intragastric challenges with EHEC (2×10(9) cfu/mouse) were conducted on d 0, 4, and 7 after treatment. Administration of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was able to prevent EHEC infection-induced symptoms, intestinal damage, renal damage, bacterial translocation, and Shiga toxin penetration. Furthermore, the mucosal EHEC-specific IgA responses were increased after Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 administration in the EHEC-infected mouse system. Additionally, in vitro, Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was shown to have a protective effect on Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayers; the bacteria limited EHEC-induced cell death and reduced the loss of epithelial integrity. These findings support the potential of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 treatment as an approach to preventing EHEC infection and its effects. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Surface Sensor NlpE of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Contributes to Regulation of the Type III Secretion System and Flagella by the Cpx Response to Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Ichimura, Kimitoshi; Noda, Masatoshi

    2015-12-07

    Although the adhesion of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is central to the EHEC-host interaction during infection, it remains unclear how such adhesion regulates virulence factors. Adhesion to abiotic surfaces by E. coli has been reported to be an outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE-dependent activation cue of the Cpx pathway. Therefore, we investigated the role of NlpE in EHEC on the adhesion-mediated expression of virulence genes. NlpE in EHEC contributed to upregulation of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes encoded type III secretion system and to downregulated expression of the flagellin gene by activation of the Cpx pathway during adherence to hydrophobic glass beads and undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, LysR homologue A (LrhA) in EHEC was involved in regulating the expression of the LEE genes and flagellin gene in response to adhesion. Gel mobility shift analysis revealed that response regulator CpxR bound to the lrhA promoter region and thereby regulated expressions of the LEE genes and flagellin gene via the transcriptional regulator LrhA in EHEC. Therefore, these results suggest that the sensing of adhesion signals via NlpE is important for regulation of the expression of the type III secretion system and flagella in EHEC during infection.

  7. Mutation of the Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Core LPS Biosynthesis Enzyme RfaD Confers Hypersusceptibility to Host Intestinal Innate Immunity In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Teng, Ching-Hao; Hsu, Tai-I; Lu, Pei-Jung; Syu, Wan-Jr; Wang, Sin-Tian; Chou, Ting-Chen; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen causing severe diseases in humans worldwide. Currently, there is no specific treatment available for EHEC infection and the use of conventional antibiotics is contraindicated. Therefore, identification of potential therapeutic targets and development of effective measures to control and treat EHEC infection are needed. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are surface glycolipids found on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, including EHEC, and LPS biosynthesis has long been considered as potential anti-bacterial target. Here, we demonstrated that the EHEC rfaD gene that functions in the biosynthesis of the LPS inner core is required for the intestinal colonization and pathogenesis of EHEC in vivo. Disruption of the EHEC rfaD confers attenuated toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and less bacterial colonization in the intestine of C. elegans and mouse. Moreover, rfaD is also involved in the control of susceptibility of EHEC to antimicrobial peptides and host intestinal immunity. It is worth noting that rfaD mutation did not interfere with the growth kinetics when compared to the wild-type EHEC cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that mutations of the EHEC rfaD confer hypersusceptibility to host intestinal innate immunity in vivo, and suggested that targeting the RfaD or the core LPS synthesis pathway may provide alternative therapeutic regimens for EHEC infection. PMID:27570746

  8. Concert of regulators to switch on LEE expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: interplay between Ler, GrlA, HNS and RpoS.

    PubMed

    Laaberki, Maria-Halima; Janabi, Nazila; Oswald, Eric; Repoila, Francis

    2006-08-01

    Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli strains carry a pathogenicity island termed locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) responsible for attaching and effacing lesions on epithelial cells. The expression of LEE varies among isolates and is dependent on environmental cues. In the EHEC O157:H7 Sakaï isolate (RIMD-0509952 strain), we found that the non-coding RNA, DsrA, activates the expression of the LEE. This activation requires RpoS, the stress sigma factor. The DsrA/RpoS regulatory pathway mediates its positive effect by stimulating the transcription of ler, a positive regulatory gene encoded by the LEE. A second regulatory pathway, repressed by HNS, is also able to activate the transcription of ler and requires GrlA, another LEE-encoded regulator. Both regulatory pathways, DsrA/RpoS and HNS/GrlA, affect the activity of the ler distal promoter and require the Ler protein to be functional. Our data demonstrate that the LEE expression can be turned on by at least two separate pathways acting on the transcription of ler.

  9. Complete nucleotide sequences of 93-kb and 3.3-kb plasmids of an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 derived from Sakai outbreak.

    PubMed

    Makino, K; Ishii, K; Yasunaga, T; Hattori, M; Yokoyama, K; Yutsudo, C H; Kubota, Y; Yamaichi, Y; Iida, T; Yamamoto, K; Honda, T; Han, C G; Ohtsubo, E; Kasamatsu, M; Hayashi, T; Kuhara, S; Shinagawa, H

    1998-02-28

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, derived from an outbreak in Sakai city, Japan in 1996, possesses two kinds of plasmids: a 93-kb plasmid termed pO157, found in clinical EHEC isolates world-wide and a 3.3-kb plasmid termed pOSAK1, prevalent in EHEC strains isolated in Japan. Complete nucleotide sequences of both plasmids have been determined, and the putative functions of the encoded proteins and the cis-acting DNA sequences have been analyzed. pO157 shares strikingly similar genes and DNA sequences with F-factor and the transmissible drug-resistant plasmid R100 for DNA replication, copy number control, plasmid segregation, conjugative functions and stable maintenance in the host, although it is defective in DNA transfer by conjugation due to the truncation and deletion of the required genes and DNA sequences. In addition, it encodes several proteins implicated in EHEC pathogenicity such as an EHEC hemolysin (HlyA), a catalase-peroxidase (KatP), a serine protease (EspP) and type II secretion system. pOSAK1 possesses a ColE1-like replication system, and the DNA sequence is extremely similar to that of a drug-resistant plasmid, NTP16, derived from Salmonella typhimurium except that it lacks drug resistance transposons.

  10. Transforming Growth Factor-β Regulation of Epithelial Tight Junction Proteins Enhances Barrier Function and Blocks Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-Induced Increased Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kathryn L.; Reardon, Colin; Wang, Arthur; Nazli, Aisha; McKay, Derek M.

    2005-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is an enteric pathogen that causes potentially fatal symptoms after intimate adhesion, modulation of intestinal epithelial signal transduction, and alteration of epithelial function (eg, barrier disruption). Although the epithelial barrier is critical to gut homeostasis, only a few agents, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, can enhance or protect epithelial barrier function. Our aims were to delineate the mechanism(s) behind TGF-β-induced barrier enhancement and to determine whether TGF-β could prevent EHEC-induced barrier disruption. Using monolayers of the human T84 colonic epithelial cell line, we found that TGF-β induced a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (a measure of paracellular permeability) through activation of ERK MAPK and SMAD signaling pathways and up-regulation of the tight junction protein claudin-1. Additionally, TGF-β pretreatment of epithelia blocked the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in transepithelial passage of [3H]-mannitol caused by EHEC infection. EHEC infection was associated with reduced expression of zonula occludens-1, occludin, and claudin-2 (but not claudin-1 or claudin-4); TGF-β pretreatment prevented these changes. These studies provide insight into EHEC pathogenesis by illustrating the mechanisms underlying TGF-β-induced epithelial barrier enhancement and identifying TGF-β as an agent capable of blocking EHEC-induced increases in epithelial permeability via maintenance of claudin-2, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 levels. PMID:16314472

  11. Vitamin B12 Uptake by the Gut Commensal Bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Limits the Production of Shiga Toxin by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, Charlotte; Le Bihan, Guillaume; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Garrivier, Annie; Harel, Josée; Jubelin, Grégory

    2016-01-05

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are foodborne pathogens responsible for the development of bloody diarrhea and renal failure in humans. Many environmental factors have been shown to regulate the production of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), the main virulence factor of EHEC. Among them, soluble factors produced by human gut microbiota and in particular, by the predominant species Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. thetaiotaomicron), inhibit Stx2 gene expression. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the B. thetaiotaomicron-dependent inhibition of Stx2 production by EHEC. We determined that Stx2-regulating molecules are resistant to heat treatment but do not correspond to propionate and acetate, two short-chain fatty acids produced by B. thetaiotaomicron. Moreover, screening of a B. thetaiotaomicron mutant library identified seven mutants that do not inhibit Stx2 synthesis by EHEC. One mutant has impaired production of BtuB, an outer membrane receptor for vitamin B12. Together with restoration of Stx2 level after vitamin B12 supplementation, these data highlight vitamin B12 as a molecule produced by gut microbiota that modulates production of a key virulence factor of EHEC and consequently may affect the outcome of an infection.

  12. Effect of RNase E deficiency on translocon protein synthesis in an RNase E-inducible strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Patricia B; Thuraisamy, Thujitha; Richards, Jamie; Belasco, Joel G

    2017-07-06

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that assembles a type III secretion system (T3SS) on its surface. The last portion of the T3SS, called the 'translocon', is composed of a filament and a pore complex that is inserted into the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. The genes encoding the translocon (espADB) are part of the LEE4 operon. Their expression is regulated by a complex post-transcriptional mechanism that involves the processing of LEE4 mRNA by the essential endoribonuclease RNase E. Here, we report the construction of an EHEC strain (TEA028-rne) in which RNase E can be induced by adding IPTG to the culture medium. EHEC cells deficient in RNase E displayed an abnormal morphology and slower growth, in agreement with published observations in E. coli K-12. Under those conditions, EspA and EspB were produced at higher concentrations, and protein secretion still occurred. These results indicate that RNase E negatively regulates translocon protein synthesis and demonstrate the utility of E. coli strain TEA028-rne as a tool for investigating the influence of this ribonuclease on EHEC gene expression in vitro. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Intranasal immunization with novel EspA-Tir-M fusion protein induces protective immunity against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruqin; Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Yiduo; Bai, Yang; Zhi, Fachao; Long, Beiguo; Li, Yawen; Wu, Yuhua; Wu, Xianbo; Fan, Hongying

    2017-04-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Due to the risks associated with antibiotic treatment against EHEC O157:H7 infection, vaccines represent a promising method for prevention of EHEC O157:H7 infection. Therefore, we constructed the novel bivalent antigen EspA-Tir-M as a candidate EHEC O157:H7 subunit vaccine. We then evaluated the immunogenicity of this novel EHEC O157:H7 subunit vaccine. Immune responses to the fusion protein administered by intranasal and subcutaneous routes were compared in mice. Results showed higher levels of specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses induced by intranasal as compared to subcutaneous immunization. Intranasal immunization enhanced the concentration of interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and interferon-γ, while subcutaneous immunization enhanced only the latter two. In addition, intranasal immunization protected against EHEC O157:H7 colonization and infection in mice at a rate of 90%.Histopathological analysis revealed that vaccination reduced colon damage, especially when administered intranasally. In contrast, subcutaneous immunization elicited a weak immune response and exhibited a low protection rate. These findings demonstrate that intranasal immunization with the fusion protein induces both humoral and cellular immune (Th1/Th2) responses in mice. The novel EspA-Tir-M novel fusion protein therefore represents a promising subunit vaccine against EHEC O157:H7 infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin B12 Uptake by the Gut Commensal Bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Limits the Production of Shiga Toxin by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Charlotte; Le Bihan, Guillaume; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Garrivier, Annie; Harel, Josée; Jubelin, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are foodborne pathogens responsible for the development of bloody diarrhea and renal failure in humans. Many environmental factors have been shown to regulate the production of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), the main virulence factor of EHEC. Among them, soluble factors produced by human gut microbiota and in particular, by the predominant species Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. thetaiotaomicron), inhibit Stx2 gene expression. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the B. thetaiotaomicron-dependent inhibition of Stx2 production by EHEC. We determined that Stx2-regulating molecules are resistant to heat treatment but do not correspond to propionate and acetate, two short-chain fatty acids produced by B. thetaiotaomicron. Moreover, screening of a B. thetaiotaomicron mutant library identified seven mutants that do not inhibit Stx2 synthesis by EHEC. One mutant has impaired production of BtuB, an outer membrane receptor for vitamin B12. Together with restoration of Stx2 level after vitamin B12 supplementation, these data highlight vitamin B12 as a molecule produced by gut microbiota that modulates production of a key virulence factor of EHEC and consequently may affect the outcome of an infection. PMID:26742075

  15. Distinct Renal Pathology and a Chemotactic Phenotype after Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Shiga Toxins in Non-Human Primate Models of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Oh, Sun-Young; Cherla, Rama P.; Lee, Moo-Seung; Tesh, Vernon L.; Papin, James; Henderson, Joel; Kurosawa, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli cause approximately 1.5 million infections globally with 176,000 cases occurring in the United States annually from ingesting contaminated food, most frequently E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef or fresh produce. In severe cases, the painful prodromal hemorrhagic colitis is complicated by potentially lethal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), particularly in children. Bacterial Shiga-like toxins (Stx1, Stx2) are primarily responsible for HUS and the kidney and neurologic damage that ensue. Small animal models are hampered by the inability to reproduce HUS with thrombotic microangiopathy, hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney injury. Earlier, we showed that nonhuman primates (Papio) recapitulated clinical HUS after Stx challenge and that novel therapeutic intervention rescued the animals. Here, we present detailed light and electron microscopic pathology examination of the kidneys from these Stx studies. Stx1 challenge resulted in more severe glomerular endothelial injury, whereas the glomerular injury after Stx2 also included prominent mesangiolysis and an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltration. Both toxins induced glomerular platelet-rich thrombi, interstitial hemorrhage, and tubular injury. Analysis of kidney and other organs for inflammation biomarkers showed a striking chemotactic profile, with extremely high mRNA levels for IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and elevated urine chemokines at 48 hours after challenge. These observations give unique insight into the pathologic consequences of each toxin in a near human setting and present potential pathways for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23402998

  16. Natural plant products inhibits growth and alters the swarming motility, biofilm formation, and expression of virulence genes in enteroaggregative and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-Heredia, Alam; García, Santos; Merino-Mascorro, José Ángel; Feng, Peter; Heredia, Norma

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plant products on the growth, swarming motility, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 and a strain of O104:H4 serotype. Extracts of Lippia graveolens and Haematoxylon brassiletto, and carvacrol, brazilin were tested by an antimicrobial microdilution method using citral and rifaximin as controls. All products showed bactericidal activity with minimal bactericidal concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 8.1 mg/ml. Swarming motility was determined in soft LB agar. Most compounds reduced swarming motility by 7%-100%; except carvacrol which promoted motility in two strains. Biofilm formation studies were done in microtiter plates. Rifaximin inhibited growth and reduced biofilm formation, but various concentrations of other compounds actually induced biofilm formation. Real time PCR showed that most compounds decreased stx2 expression. The expression of pic and rpoS in E. coli 042 were suppressed but in E. coli O104:H4 they varied depending on compounds. In conclusion, these extracts affect E. coli growth, swarming motility and virulence gene expression. Although these compounds were bactericidal for pathogenic E. coli, sublethal concentrations had varied effects on phenotypic and genotypic traits, and some increased virulence gene expression.

  17. Inactivation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in lean ground beef by gamma irradiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-O157 serovars of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are now responsible for over 60% of STEC induced illnesses. The majority of illnesses caused by non-O157:H7 STEC have been due to serogroups O26, O121, O103, O45, O111, and O145, “the big/top six”, which are now considered adulterant...

  18. Simultaneous Presence of Insertion Sequence Excision Enhancer and Insertion Sequence IS629 Correlates with Increased Diversity and Virulence in Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Toro, M.; Rump, L. V.; Cao, G.; Meng, J.; Brown, E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Although new serotypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) emerge constantly, the mechanisms by which these new pathogens arise and the reasons emerging serotypes tend to carry more virulence genes than other E. coli are not understood. An insertion sequence (IS) excision enhancer (IEE) was discovered in EHEC O157:H7 that promoted the excision of IS3 family members and generating various genomic deletions. One IS3 family member, IS629, actively transposes and proliferates in EHEC O157:H7 and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) O139 and O149. The simultaneous presence of the IEE and IS629 (and other IS3 family members) may be part of a system promoting not only adaptation and genome diversification in E. coli O157:H7 but also contributing to the development of pathogenicity among predominant serotypes. Prevalence comparisons of these elements in 461 strains, representing 72 different serotypes and 5 preassigned seropathotypes (SPT) A to E, showed that the presence of these two elements simultaneously was serotype specific and associated with highly pathogenic serotypes (O157 and top non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [STEC]) implicated in outbreaks and sporadic cases of human illness (SPT A and B). Serotypes lacking one or both elements were less likely to have been isolated from clinical cases. Our comparisons of IEE sequences showed sequence variations that could be divided into at least three clusters. Interestingly, the IEE sequences from O157 and the top 10 non-O157 STEC serotypes fell into clusters I and II, while less commonly isolated serotypes O5 and O174 fell into cluster III. These results suggest that IS629 and IEE elements may be acting synergistically to promote genome plasticity and genetic diversity among STEC strains, enhancing their abilities to adapt to hostile environments and rapidly take up virulence factors. PMID:26292302

  19. H-NST Induces LEE Expression and the Formation of Attaching and Effacing Lesions in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Jonathan A.; Hansen, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Jane M.; Hazen, Tracy H.; Rasko, David A.; Kaper, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These enteric pathogens contain a type III secretion system (T3SS) responsible for the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion phenotype. The T3SS is encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. The H-NS-mediated repression of LEE expression is counteracted by Ler, the major activator of virulence gene expression in A/E pathogens. A regulator present in EPEC, H-NST, positively affects expression of H-NS regulon members in E. coli K-12, although the effect of H-NST on LEE expression and virulence of A/E pathogens has yet-to-be determined. Results We examine the effect of H-NST on LEE expression and A/E lesion formation on intestinal epithelial cells. We find that H-NST positively affects the levels of LEE-encoded proteins independently of ler and induces A/E lesion formation. We demonstrate H-NST binding to regulatory regions of LEE1 and LEE3, the first report of DNA-binding by H-NST. We characterize H-NST mutants substituted at conserved residues including Ala16 and residues Arg60 and Arg63, which are part of a potential DNA-binding domain. The single mutants A16V, A16L, R60Q and the double mutant R60Q/R63Q exhibit a decreased effect on LEE expression and A/E lesion formation. DNA mobility shift assays reveal that these residues are important for H-NST to bind regulatory LEE DNA targets. H-NST positively affects Ler binding to LEE DNA in the presence of H-NS, and thereby potentially helps Ler displace H-NS bound to DNA. Conclusions H-NST induces LEE expression and A/E lesion formation likely by counteracting H-NS-mediated repression. We demonstrate that H-NST binds to DNA and identify arginine residues that are functionally important for DNA-binding. Our study suggests that H-NST provides an additional means for A/E pathogens to alleviate repression of virulence gene expression by H-NS to promote virulence

  20. The gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron influences the virulence potential of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O103:H25.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Hildegunn; Lindbäck, Toril; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M; Roos, Norbert; Aspholm, Marina; Stenfors Arnesen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is associated with severe gastrointestinal disease. Upon entering the gastrointestinal tract, EHEC is exposed to a fluctuating environment and a myriad of other bacterial species. To establish an infection, EHEC strains have to modulate their gene expression according to the GI tract environment. In order to explore the interspecies interactions between EHEC and an human intestinal commensal, the global gene expression profile was determined of EHEC O103:H25 (EHEC NIPH-11060424) co-cultured with B. thetaiotaomicron (CCUG 10774) or grown in the presence of spent medium from B. thetaiotaomicron. Microarray analysis revealed that approximately 1% of the EHEC NIPH-11060424 genes were significantly up-regulated both in co-culture (30 genes) and in the presence of spent medium (44 genes), and that the affected genes differed between the two conditions. In co-culture, genes encoding structural components of the type three secretion system were among the most affected genes with an almost 4-fold up-regulation, while the most affected genes in spent medium were involved in chemotaxis and were more than 3-fold up-regulated. The operons for type three secretion system (TTSS) are located on the Locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, and qPCR showed that genes of all five operons (LEE1-LEE5) were up-regulated. Moreover, an increased adherence to HeLa cells was observed in EHEC NIPH-11060424 exposed to B. thetaiotaomicron. Expression of stx2 genes, encoding the main virulence factor of EHEC, was down-regulated in both conditions (co-culture/spent medium). These results show that expression of EHEC genes involved in colonization and virulence is modulated in response to direct interspecies contact between cells, or to diffusible factors released from B. thetaiotaomicron. Such interspecies interactions could allow the pathogen to recognize its predilection site and modulate its behaviour accordingly, thus increasing the

  1. Quantitative Detection of Shiga Toxins Directly from Stool Specimens of Patients Associated with an Outbreak of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Japan—Quantitative Shiga toxin detection from stool during EHEC outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Eiki; Watahiki, Masanori; Isobe, Junko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Nair, G. Balakrish; Kurazono, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Detection of Shiga toxins (Stx) is important for accurate diagnosis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed Stx protein in nine patients’ stool during an outbreak that occurred in Japan. Highly sensitive immunoassay (bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bead-ELISA)) revealed that the concentrations of toxins in stool of patients ranged from 0.71 to 10.44 ng/mL for Stx1 and 2.75 to 51.61 ng/mL for Stx2. To our knowledge, this is the first report that reveals the range of Stx protein concentrations in human stools. PMID:26516915

  2. Evaluation of real time PCR assays for the detection and enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli directly from cattle feces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli are a growing concern in the area of food safety, and the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified the serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 as adulterants in certain types of raw beef. The most re...

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolated from an Outbreak in Japan in 1996

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Isami; Ida, Hirohisa; Yoshikawa, Eiji; Hiyoshi, Suehiro; Yamaji, Emiko; Nakayama, Issei; Nonomiya, Tomoko; Shigenobu, Fritz; Shimizu, Masaki; O’Hara, Koji; Sawai, Tetsuo; Mizuoka, Keiji

    1998-01-01

    The antibiotic susceptibilities of 43 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 identified in the summer of 1996 in Japan were investigated. Growth of 90% of O157 strains was inhibited at a concentration of ≤0.5 μg/ml by several agents including fosfomycin with glucose-6-phosphate. PMID:9527800

  4. The Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthase YenI from Yersinia enterocolitica Modulates Virulence Gene Expression in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Y N.; Sheng, Haiqing; Dakarapu, Rambabu; Falck, John R.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 colonizes the rectoanal junction (RAJ) in cattle, its natural reservoir. Colonization at the RAJ poses a serious risk for fecal shedding and contamination of the environment. We previously demonstrated that EHEC senses acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by the microbiota in the rumen to activate the gad acid resistance genes necessary for survival through the acidic stomachs in cattle and to repress the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes important for colonization of the RAJ, but unnecessary in the rumen. Devoid of AHLs, the RAJ is the prominent site of colonization of EHEC in cattle. To determine if the presence of AHLs in the RAJ could repress colonization at this site, we engineered EHEC to express the Yersinia enterocolitica AHL synthase gene yenI, which constitutively produces AHLs, to mimic a constant exposure of AHLs in the environment. The yenI+ EHEC produces oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (oxo-C6-HSL) and had a significant reduction in LEE expression, effector protein secretion, and attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion formation in vitro compared to the wild type (WT). The yenI+ EHEC also activated expression of the gad genes. To assess whether AHL production, which decreases LEE expression, would decrease RAJ colonization by EHEC, cattle were challenged at the RAJ with WT or yenI+ EHEC. Although the yenI+ EHEC colonized the RAJ with efficiency equal to that of the WT, there was a trend for the cattle to shed the WT strain longer than the yenI+ EHEC. PMID:23980115

  5. Differential Virulence of Clinical and Bovine-Biased Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes in Piglet and Dutch Belted Rabbit Models

    PubMed Central

    Shringi, Smriti; García, Alexis; Lahmers, Kevin K.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Swennes, Alton G.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Call, Douglas R.; Fox, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is an important cause of food and waterborne illness in the developed countries. Cattle are a reservoir host of EHEC O157 and a major source of human exposure through contaminated meat products. Shiga toxins (Stxs) are an important pathogenicity trait of EHEC O157. The insertion sites of the Stx-encoding bacteriophages differentiate EHEC O157 isolates into genogroups commonly isolated from cattle but rarely from sick humans (bovine-biased genotypes [BBG]) and those commonly isolated from both cattle and human patients (clinical genotypes [CG]). Since BBG and CG share the cardinal virulence factors of EHEC O157 and are carried by cattle at similar prevalences, the infrequent occurrence of BBG among human disease isolates suggests that they may be less virulent than CG. We compared the virulence potentials of human and bovine isolates of CG and BBG in newborn conventional pig and weaned Dutch Belted rabbit models. CG-challenged piglets experienced severe disease accompanied by early and high mortality compared to BBG-challenged piglets. Similarly, CG-challenged rabbits were likely to develop lesions in kidney and intestine compared with the BBG-challenged rabbits. The CG strains used in this study carried stx2 and produced significantly higher amounts of Stx, whereas the BBG strains carried the stx2c gene variant only. These results suggest that BBG are less virulent than CG and that this difference in virulence potential is associated with the Stx2 subtype(s) carried and/or the amount of Stx produced. PMID:22025512

  6. Control of Acid Resistance Pathways of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Strain EDL933 by PsrB, a Prophage-Encoded AraC-Like Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji; Russell, Thomas W.; Hocking, Dianna M.; Bender, Jennifer K.; Srikhanta, Yogitha N.; Tauschek, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and is the most prevalent E. coli serotype associated with food-borne illness worldwide. This pathogen is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and has a low infectious dose that has been estimated to be between 10 and 100 cells. We and others have previously identified three prophage-encoded AraC-like transcriptional regulators, PatE, PsrA, and PsrB in the EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 strain. Our analysis showed that PatE plays an important role in facilitating survival of EHEC under a number of acidic conditions, but the contribution of PsrA and PsrB to acid resistance (AR) was unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of PsrA and PsrB in the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in acid. Our results showed that PsrB, but not PsrA, enhanced the survival of strain EDL933 under various acidic conditions. Transcriptional analysis using promoter-lacZ reporters and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PsrB activates transcription of the hdeA operon, which encodes a major acid stress chaperone, by interacting with its promoter region. Furthermore, using a mouse model, we showed that expression of PsrB significantly enhanced the ability of strain EDL933 to overcome the acidic barrier of the mouse stomach. Taken together, our results indicate that EDL933 acquired enhanced acid tolerance via horizontally acquired regulatory genes encoding transcriptional regulators that activate its AR machinery. PMID:25368119

  7. Control of acid resistance pathways of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strain EDL933 by PsrB, a prophage-encoded AraC-like regulator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji; Russell, Thomas W; Hocking, Dianna M; Bender, Jennifer K; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Tauschek, Marija; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and is the most prevalent E. coli serotype associated with food-borne illness worldwide. This pathogen is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and has a low infectious dose that has been estimated to be between 10 and 100 cells. We and others have previously identified three prophage-encoded AraC-like transcriptional regulators, PatE, PsrA, and PsrB in the EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 strain. Our analysis showed that PatE plays an important role in facilitating survival of EHEC under a number of acidic conditions, but the contribution of PsrA and PsrB to acid resistance (AR) was unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of PsrA and PsrB in the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in acid. Our results showed that PsrB, but not PsrA, enhanced the survival of strain EDL933 under various acidic conditions. Transcriptional analysis using promoter-lacZ reporters and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PsrB activates transcription of the hdeA operon, which encodes a major acid stress chaperone, by interacting with its promoter region. Furthermore, using a mouse model, we showed that expression of PsrB significantly enhanced the ability of strain EDL933 to overcome the acidic barrier of the mouse stomach. Taken together, our results indicate that EDL933 acquired enhanced acid tolerance via horizontally acquired regulatory genes encoding transcriptional regulators that activate its AR machinery. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing espA-Tir-M Confers Protection against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruqin; Zhang, Yiduo; Long, Beiguo; Li, Yawen; Wu, Yuhua; Duan, Siqin; Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xianbo; Fan, Hongying

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157:H7) causes hemorrhagic colitis and the formation of characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in humans. Given the severe sequelae of EHEC O157:H7 infection, it is critical to develop effective vaccines for human use. However, for achieving this goal many hurdles need to be addressed, such as the type or subset of antigens, adjuvant, and the delivery route. We developed a candidate vaccine by inserting the bivalent antigen espA-Tir-M composed of espA and the Tir central domain into Lactobacillus acidophilus. The recombinant L. acidophilus (LA-ET) was safe in a cell model and excluded EHEC O157:H7 from LoVo cells at rates of nearly 94 and 60% in exclusion and competition assays, respectively. LA-ET inhibited the induction of A/E lesions by EHEC O157:H7 cells in vitro. Oral immunization with LA-ET induced higher levels of specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice. Moreover, LA-ET enhanced interferon-γ and interleukin-4 and -10 production, which was associated with mixed helper T (Th1/Th2) cell responses, and protected against EHEC O157:H7 colonization and infection in mice at a rate of 80%. Histopathological analyses revealed that orally administered LA-ET reduced or inhibited A/E lesions and toxin-induced systemic injury. These findings demonstrate that LA-ET induces both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice and is therefore a promising vaccine against EHEC O157:H7 infection. PMID:28360900

  9. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in milk and dairy products from Libya: Isolation and molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Garbaj, Aboubaker M; Awad, Enas M; Azwai, Salah M; Abolghait, Said K; Naas, Hesham T; Moawad, Ashraf A; Gammoudi, Fatim T; Barbieri, Ilaria; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate and molecularly identify enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 in milk and dairy products in Libya, in addition; to clear the accuracy of cultural and biochemical identification as compared with molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA for the existing isolates. A total of 108 samples of raw milk (cow, she-camel, and goat) and locally made dairy products (fermented cow's milk, Maasora, Ricotta and ice cream) were collected from some regions (Janzour, Tripoli, Kremiya, Tajoura and Tobruk) in Libya. Samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for isolation of E. coli that was detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using polymerase chain reaction and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of 108 samples, only 27 isolates were found to be EHEC O157 based on their cultural characteristics (Tellurite-Cefixime-Sorbitol MacConkey) that include 3 isolates from cow's milk (11%), 3 isolates from she-camel's milk (11%), two isolates from goat's milk (7.4%) and 7 isolates from fermented raw milk samples (26%), isolates from fresh locally made soft cheeses (Maasora and Ricotta) were 9 (33%) and 3 (11%), respectively, while none of the ice cream samples revealed any growth. However, out of these 27 isolates, only 11 were confirmed to be E. coli by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and E. coli O157 Latex agglutination test. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority of local E. coli isolates were related to E. coli O157:H7 FRIK944 strain. These results can be used for further studies on EHEC O157 as an emerging foodborne pathogen and its role in human infection in Libya.

  10. Modeling Stochastic Variability in the Numbers of Surviving Salmonella enterica, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes Cells at the Single-Cell Level in a Desiccated Environment.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2017-02-15

    Despite effective inactivation procedures, small numbers of bacterial cells may still remain in food samples. The risk that bacteria will survive these procedures has not been estimated precisely because deterministic models cannot be used to describe the uncertain behavior of bacterial populations. We used the Poisson distribution as a representative probability distribution to estimate the variability in bacterial numbers during the inactivation process. Strains of four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated for survival. We prepared bacterial cell numbers following a Poisson distribution (indicated by the parameter λ, which was equal to 2) and plated the cells in 96-well microplates, which were stored in a desiccated environment at 10% to 20% relative humidity and at 5, 15, and 25°C. The survival or death of the bacterial cells in each well was confirmed by adding tryptic soy broth as an enrichment culture. Changes in the Poisson distribution parameter during the inactivation process, which represent the variability in the numbers of surviving bacteria, were described by nonlinear regression with an exponential function based on a Weibull distribution. We also examined random changes in the number of surviving bacteria using a random number generator and computer simulations to determine whether the number of surviving bacteria followed a Poisson distribution during the bacterial death process by use of the Poisson process. For small initial cell numbers, more than 80% of the simulated distributions (λ = 2 or 10) followed a Poisson distribution. The results demonstrate that variability in the number of surviving bacteria can be described as a Poisson distribution by use of the model developed by use of the Poisson process.

  11. Distribution, Functional Expression, and Genetic Organization of Cif, a Phage-Encoded Type III-Secreted Effector from Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Loukiadis, Estelle; Nobe, Rika; Herold, Sylvia; Tramuta, Clara; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ooka, Tadasuke; Morabito, Stefano; Kérourédan, Monique; Brugère, Hubert; Schmidt, Herbert; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Oswald, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) inject effector proteins into host cells via a type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). One of these effectors is Cif, encoded outside the LEE by a lambdoid prophage. In this study, we demonstrated that the Cif-encoding prophage of EPEC strain E22 is inducible and produces infectious phage particles. We investigated the distribution and functional expression of Cif in 5,049 E. coli strains of human, animal, and environmental origins. A total of 115 E. coli isolates from diverse origins and geographic locations carried cif. The presence of cif was tightly associated with the LEE, since all the cif-positive isolates were positive for the LEE. These results suggested that the Cif-encoding prophages have been widely disseminated within the natural population of E. coli but positively selected within the population of LEE-positive strains. Nonetheless, 66% of cif-positive E. coli strains did not induce a typical Cif-related phenotype in eukaryotic cells due to frameshift mutations or insertion of an IS element in the cif gene. The passenger region of the prophages carrying cif was highly variable and showed various combinations of IS elements and genes coding for other effectors such as nleB, nleC, nleH, nleG, espJ, and nleA/espI (some of which were also truncated). This diversity and the presence of nonfunctional effectors should be taken into account to assess EPEC and EHEC pathogenicity and tropism. PMID:17873042

  12. Distribution, functional expression, and genetic organization of Cif, a phage-encoded type III-secreted effector from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Loukiadis, Estelle; Nobe, Rika; Herold, Sylvia; Tramuta, Clara; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ooka, Tadasuke; Morabito, Stefano; Kérourédan, Monique; Brugère, Hubert; Schmidt, Herbert; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Oswald, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) inject effector proteins into host cells via a type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). One of these effectors is Cif, encoded outside the LEE by a lambdoid prophage. In this study, we demonstrated that the Cif-encoding prophage of EPEC strain E22 is inducible and produces infectious phage particles. We investigated the distribution and functional expression of Cif in 5,049 E. coli strains of human, animal, and environmental origins. A total of 115 E. coli isolates from diverse origins and geographic locations carried cif. The presence of cif was tightly associated with the LEE, since all the cif-positive isolates were positive for the LEE. These results suggested that the Cif-encoding prophages have been widely disseminated within the natural population of E. coli but positively selected within the population of LEE-positive strains. Nonetheless, 66% of cif-positive E. coli strains did not induce a typical Cif-related phenotype in eukaryotic cells due to frameshift mutations or insertion of an IS element in the cif gene. The passenger region of the prophages carrying cif was highly variable and showed various combinations of IS elements and genes coding for other effectors such as nleB, nleC, nleH, nleG, espJ, and nleA/espI (some of which were also truncated). This diversity and the presence of nonfunctional effectors should be taken into account to assess EPEC and EHEC pathogenicity and tropism.

  13. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of adherence of Escherichia coli O103 enteropathogenic and/or enterohemorrhagic strain GV in enteric infection in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Licois, D; Reynaud, A; Federighi, M; Gaillard-Martinie, B; Guillot, J F; Joly, B

    1991-01-01

    The GV strain (serotype O103:H2:K-), originally isolated from a diarrheic rabbit, is an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain that produces diarrhea without synthesizing the classical enterotoxins and that is not invasive. This strain is characterized by a 117-kb plasmid (pREC-1). Histological study of the gut by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed on the GV strain, on a derivative strain cured of pREC-1, and on transconjugants obtained by transfer of pREC-1 to nonpathogenic strains E. coli K-12 and 6100, not belonging to the O103 serogroup. The GV strain adhered to the epithelial cells of the ileum and large intestine, whereas the cured GV strain did not. Transfer of plasmid pREC-1 to E. coli K-12 or 6100 allowed the bacteria to attach to the intestinal mucosa in the same manner as that of the wild-type GV strain. Thus, pREC-1 seems to play an important role in attachment to and colonization of the intestinal tract of rabbits by E. coli serogroup O103. Scanning electron microscopy showed numerous bacteria attached together and closely associated with intestinal villi. Transmission electron microscopy revealed effacing lesions characteristic of enteropathogenic E. coli strains: effacing of microvilli and cuplike projections (pedestal formations) associated with an acute inflammatory and hemorrhagic response. In contrast with the results reported for rabbit pathogenic O15 strains, it appeared that the Peyer's patches were not involved in the early stages of infection with the O103 GV strain. This strain may represent a model for the study of the virulence and pathogenic effects of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Images PMID:1894377

  14. Role of secreted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the infection mechanism of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: interaction of the extracellular enzyme with human plasminogen and fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Egea, L; Aguilera, L; Giménez, R; Sorolla, M A; Aguilar, J; Badía, J; Baldoma, L

    2007-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (EC 1.2.1.12) is an anchorless, multifunctional protein displayed on the surface of several fungi and Gram-positive pathogens, which contributes to their adhesion and virulence. To date a role for extracellular GAPDH in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacteria has not been described. The aim of this study was to analyze the extracellular localization of GAPDH in enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli strains and to examine its interaction with host components that could be related to the infection mechanism. Recombinant E. coli GAPDH was purified and polyclonal antibodies were obtained. Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy showed that GAPDH is located on the bacterial surface and released to the culture medium of EHEC and EPEC strains. GAPDH export in these Gram-negative pathogens depends on the external medium, is not mediated by vesicles and leads to an extracellular active enzyme. Non-pathogenic E. coli strains do not secrete GAPDH. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis showed that in E. coli GAPDH is present at least in two major forms with different isoelectric points. Of these forms, the more basic is secreted. Purified GAPDH was found to bind human plasminogen and fibrinogen in Far-Western blot and ELISA-based assays. In addition, GAPDH remained associated with colonic Caco-2 epithelial cells after adhesion of EHEC or EPEC. These observations indicate that exported GAPDH may act as a virulence factor which could contribute to EHEC and EPEC pathogenesis. This is the first description of an extracellular localization for this enzyme, with a function other than its glycolytic role in Gram-negative pathogens.

  15. Detection of virulence-associated genes characteristic of intestinal Escherichia coli pathotypes, including the enterohemorrhagic/enteroaggregative O104:H4, in bovines from Germany and Spain.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Adriana; Geue, Lutz; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Barth, Stefanie; Bárcena, Carmen; Hamm, Katharina; Porrero, M Concepción; Valverde, Aránzazu; Cantón, Rafael; Menge, Christian; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2015-08-01

    Cattle are reservoirs of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; however, their role in the epidemiology of other pathogenic E. coli remains undefined. A new set of quantitative real-time PCR assays for the direct detection and quantification of nine virulence-associated genes (VAGs) characteristic of the most important human E. coli pathotypes and four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 , fliCH4 , rbfO157 , fliCH7 ) that can be used as a surveillance tool for detection of pathogenic strains was developed. A total of 970 cattle fecal samples were collected in slaughterhouses in Germany and Spain, pooled into 134 samples and analyzed with this tool. stx1, eae and invA were more prevalent in Spanish samples whereas bfpA, stx2, ehxA, elt, est and the rbfO157 /fliCH7 combination were observed in similar proportions in both countries. Genes characteristic of the hybrid O104:H4 strain of the 2011 German outbreak (stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 ) were simultaneously detected in six fecal pools from one German abattoir located near the outbreak epicenter. Although no isolate harboring the full stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 combination was cultured, sequencing of the aggR positive PCR products revealed 100% homology to the aggR from the outbreak strain. Concomitant detection by this direct approach of VAGs from a novel human pathogenic E. coli strain in cattle samples implies that the E. coli gene pool in these animals can be implicated in de novo formation of such highly-virulent strains. The application of this set of qPCRs in surveillance studies could be an efficient early-warning tool for the emergence of zoonotic E. coli in livestock.

  16. Molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin gene (EHEC-hlyA)-harboring isolates from cattle reveals a diverse origin and hybrid diarrheagenic strains.

    PubMed

    Askari Badouei, Mahdi; Morabito, Stefano; Najafifar, Arash; Mazandarani, Emad

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli strains harboring the gene encoding enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin (EHEC-HlyA) in cattle and the association of this gene with various diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes. First, the bovine E. coli isolates were screened for EHEC-hlyA gene by PCR, and then they were characterized for the phylogenetic groups and the presence of the major virulence genes of different DEC pathotypes. In total, 25 virulence gene profiles were observed in 54 EHEC-hlyA+ isolates that reflect a considerable heterogeneity. The EHEC-hlyA+ strains were mostly associated with EHEC (72%), while only 7.4% were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We also showed the presence of estA gene of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 6 isolates (11.1%). Interestingly, two of the estA+ strains showed hybrid pathotypes with one carrying eae/estA (EPEC/ETEC), and the other one stx2/astA/estA (EHEC/ETEC). None of the isolates were related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). The EHEC-plasmid encoded genes occurred in seven different combinations with EHEC-hlyA/saa/subA/espP being the most prevalent (46.3%). All stx-/eae+ strains carried O island 57 (OI-57) molecular marker(s) that may indicate these to be the progenitors of EHEC or strains losing stx. The most prevalent phylogroup was B1 (61.1%), but the most heterogeneous strains including the hybrid strains belonged to A phylogroup. Overall, our results indicate that cattle EHEC-hlyA encoding E. coli isolates consist of diverse diarrheagenic strains with the possible existence of hybrid pathotypes. Future studies are required to clarify the evolutionary aspects and clinical significance of these strains in humans and domestic animals.

  17. Coordinate Control of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement and Enterohemolysin Genes by Multiple Common Virulence Regulators in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ▿

    PubMed Central

    Iyoda, Sunao; Honda, Naoko; Saitoh, Takehito; Shimuta, Ken; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island is required for the intimate adhesion of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to the intestinal epithelial cells. GrlR and GrlA are LEE-encoded negative and positive regulators, respectively. The interaction of these two regulators is important for controlling the transcription of LEE genes through Ler, a LEE-encoded central activator for the LEE. The GrlR-GrlA regulatory system controls not only LEE but also the expression of the flagellar and enterohemolysin (Ehx) genes in EHEC. Since Ehx levels were markedly induced in a grlR mutant but not in a grlR grlA double mutant and significantly increased by overexpression of GrlA in a ler mutant, GrlA is responsible for this regulation (T. Saitoh et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:4822-4830, 2008). In this study, additional investigations of the regulation of ehx gene expression determined that Ler also acts as an activator for Ehx expression without requiring GrlA function. We recently reported that the LysR-type regulator LrhA positively controls LEE expression (N. Honda et al., Mol. Microbiol. 74:1393-1411, 2009). The hemolytic activity of the lrhA mutant strain of EHEC was lower than that of the wild-type strain, and LrhA markedly induced ehx transcription in an E. coli K-12 strain, suggesting that LrhA also activates the transcription of ehx without GrlA and Ler. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that Ler and LrhA directly bind to the regulatory region of ehxC. Together, these results indicate that transcription of ehx is positively regulated by Ler, GrlA, and LrhA, which all act as positive regulators for LEE expression. PMID:21844237

  18. Death of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in real mayonnaise and reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing as influenced by initial population and storage temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Hathcox, A K; Beuchat, L R; Doyle, M P

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the survivability of low-density populations (10(0) and 10(2) CFU/g) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into real mayonnaise and reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing and stored at 20 and 30 degrees C, temperatures within the range used for normal commercial mayonnaise distribution and storage. Inactivation patterns at 5 degrees C and inactivation of high-inoculum populations (10(6) CFU/g) were also determined. The pathogen did not grow in either mayonnaise formulation, regardless of the inoculum level or storage temperature. Increases in storage temperature from 5 to 20 degrees C and from 20 to 30 degrees C resulted in dramatic increases in the rate of inactivation. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 in the reduced-calorie and real formulations inoculated with a population of 0.23 to 0.29 log10 CFU/g and held at 30 degrees C were reduced to undetectable levels within 1 and 2 days, respectively; viable cells were not detected after 1 day at 20 degrees C. In mayonnaise containing an initial population of 2.23 log10 CFU/g, viable cells were not detected after 4 days at 30 degrees C or 7 days at 20 degrees C; tolerance was greater in real mayonnaise than in reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing stored at 5 degrees C. The tolerance of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated at the highest population density (6.23 log 10 CFU/g) was less in reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing than in real mayonnaise at all storage temperatures. In reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing and real mayonnaise initially containing 2.23 log10 CFU/g, levels were undetectable after 28 and 58 days at 5 degrees C, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8534084

  19. Death of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in real mayonnaise and reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing as influenced by initial population and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Hathcox, A K; Beuchat, L R; Doyle, M P

    1995-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the survivability of low-density populations (10(0) and 10(2) CFU/g) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into real mayonnaise and reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing and stored at 20 and 30 degrees C, temperatures within the range used for normal commercial mayonnaise distribution and storage. Inactivation patterns at 5 degrees C and inactivation of high-inoculum populations (10(6) CFU/g) were also determined. The pathogen did not grow in either mayonnaise formulation, regardless of the inoculum level or storage temperature. Increases in storage temperature from 5 to 20 degrees C and from 20 to 30 degrees C resulted in dramatic increases in the rate of inactivation. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 in the reduced-calorie and real formulations inoculated with a population of 0.23 to 0.29 log10 CFU/g and held at 30 degrees C were reduced to undetectable levels within 1 and 2 days, respectively; viable cells were not detected after 1 day at 20 degrees C. In mayonnaise containing an initial population of 2.23 log10 CFU/g, viable cells were not detected after 4 days at 30 degrees C or 7 days at 20 degrees C; tolerance was greater in real mayonnaise than in reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing stored at 5 degrees C. The tolerance of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated at the highest population density (6.23 log 10 CFU/g) was less in reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing than in real mayonnaise at all storage temperatures. In reduced-calorie mayonnaise dressing and real mayonnaise initially containing 2.23 log10 CFU/g, levels were undetectable after 28 and 58 days at 5 degrees C, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in milk and dairy products from Libya: Isolation and molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Garbaj, Aboubaker M.; Awad, Enas M.; Azwai, Salah M.; Abolghait, Said K.; Naas, Hesham T.; Moawad, Ashraf A.; Gammoudi, Fatim T.; Barbieri, Ilaria; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work was to isolate and molecularly identify enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 in milk and dairy products in Libya, in addition; to clear the accuracy of cultural and biochemical identification as compared with molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA for the existing isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 samples of raw milk (cow, she-camel, and goat) and locally made dairy products (fermented cow’s milk, Maasora, Ricotta and ice cream) were collected from some regions (Janzour, Tripoli, Kremiya, Tajoura and Tobruk) in Libya. Samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for isolation of E. coli that was detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using polymerase chain reaction and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Results: Out of 108 samples, only 27 isolates were found to be EHEC O157 based on their cultural characteristics (Tellurite-Cefixime-Sorbitol MacConkey) that include 3 isolates from cow’s milk (11%), 3 isolates from she-camel’s milk (11%), two isolates from goat’s milk (7.4%) and 7 isolates from fermented raw milk samples (26%), isolates from fresh locally made soft cheeses (Maasora and Ricotta) were 9 (33%) and 3 (11%), respectively, while none of the ice cream samples revealed any growth. However, out of these 27 isolates, only 11 were confirmed to be E. coli by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and E. coli O157 Latex agglutination test. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority of local E. coli isolates were related to E. coli O157:H7 FRIK944 strain. Conclusion: These results can be used for further studies on EHEC O157 as an emerging foodborne pathogen and its role in human infection in Libya. PMID:27956766

  1. Characterization of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from foods.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Aida Juliana; Bossio, Carolina Paba; Durango, Adriana Coral; Vanegas, Maria Consuelo

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) by PCR using strains isolated from ham, beef, and cattle in Colombia. A total of 189 E. coli strains were tested for the presence of the uidA, stx1, and stx2 genes, and identification was confirmed by the automated PCR BAX system for E. coli O157:H7. Genes encoding Shiga-like toxins (stx) were found in eight (6.06%) of 132 strains previously isolated from minced beef; four (50%) of these strains yielded amplification products for both toxin genes (stx1 and stx2), and four (50%) yielded products only for the stx2 toxin. None of the strains analyzed were positive by PCR for the presence of the single base-pair mutation in the uidA gene from E. coli O157:H7; these results were confirmed by the BAX system analysis. A multiplex PCR assay was standardized for the three genes. Results from this study confirmed previous data about the low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Shiga-like toxins in Colombia and is the first known report of the prevalence of non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli in this country.

  2. Host cell interactions of outer membrane vesicle-associated virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: Intracellular delivery, trafficking and mechanisms of cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Greune, Lilo; Jarosch, Kevin-André; Steil, Daniel; Zhang, Wenlan; He, Xiaohua; Lloubes, Roland; Fruth, Angelika; Kim, Kwang Sik; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Mellmann, Alexander; Karch, Helge

    2017-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, and bioassays, we investigated OMVs secreted by EHEC O157 clinical isolates for virulence factors cargoes, interactions with pathogenetically relevant human cells, and mechanisms of cell injury. We demonstrate that O157 OMVs carry a cocktail of key virulence factors of EHEC O157 including Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a), cytolethal distending toxin V (CdtV), EHEC hemolysin, and flagellin. The toxins are internalized by cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis of OMVs and differentially separate from vesicles during intracellular trafficking. Stx2a and CdtV-B, the DNase-like CdtV subunit, separate from OMVs in early endosomes. Stx2a is trafficked, in association with its receptor globotriaosylceramide within detergent-resistant membranes, to the Golgi complex and the endoplasmic reticulum from where the catalytic Stx2a A1 fragment is translocated to the cytosol. CdtV-B is, after its retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, translocated to the nucleus to reach DNA. CdtV-A and CdtV-C subunits remain OMV-associated and are sorted with OMVs to lysosomes. EHEC hemolysin separates from OMVs in lysosomes and targets mitochondria. The OMV-delivered CdtV-B causes cellular DNA damage, which activates DNA damage responses leading to G2 cell cycle arrest. The arrested cells ultimately die of apoptosis induced by Stx2a and CdtV via caspase-9 activation. By demonstrating that naturally secreted EHEC O157 OMVs carry and deliver into cells a cocktail of biologically active virulence factors, thereby causing cell death, and by performing first comprehensive analysis of intracellular trafficking of OMVs and OMV-delivered virulence factors

  3. Modeling Stochastic Variability in the Numbers of Surviving Salmonella enterica, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes Cells at the Single-Cell Level in a Desiccated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite effective inactivation procedures, small numbers of bacterial cells may still remain in food samples. The risk that bacteria will survive these procedures has not been estimated precisely because deterministic models cannot be used to describe the uncertain behavior of bacterial populations. We used the Poisson distribution as a representative probability distribution to estimate the variability in bacterial numbers during the inactivation process. Strains of four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated for survival. We prepared bacterial cell numbers following a Poisson distribution (indicated by the parameter λ, which was equal to 2) and plated the cells in 96-well microplates, which were stored in a desiccated environment at 10% to 20% relative humidity and at 5, 15, and 25°C. The survival or death of the bacterial cells in each well was confirmed by adding tryptic soy broth as an enrichment culture. Changes in the Poisson distribution parameter during the inactivation process, which represent the variability in the numbers of surviving bacteria, were described by nonlinear regression with an exponential function based on a Weibull distribution. We also examined random changes in the number of surviving bacteria using a random number generator and computer simulations to determine whether the number of surviving bacteria followed a Poisson distribution during the bacterial death process by use of the Poisson process. For small initial cell numbers, more than 80% of the simulated distributions (λ = 2 or 10) followed a Poisson distribution. The results demonstrate that variability in the number of surviving bacteria can be described as a Poisson distribution by use of the model developed by use of the Poisson process. IMPORTANCE We developed a model to enable the quantitative assessment of bacterial survivors of inactivation procedures

  4. The Two-Component System CpxRA Negatively Regulates the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Involving σ(32) and Lon protease.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Miguel A; Morgan, Jason K; Ares, Miguel A; Yáñez-Santos, Jorge A; Riordan, James T; Girón, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system (TCS) consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR). In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system-associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32), which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC's ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators.

  5. The Two-Component System CpxRA Negatively Regulates the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Involving σ32 and Lon protease

    PubMed Central

    De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Morgan, Jason K.; Ares, Miguel A.; Yáñez-Santos, Jorge A.; Riordan, James T.; Girón, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system (TCS) consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR). In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system–associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32), which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC's ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators. PMID:26904510

  6. Host cell interactions of outer membrane vesicle-associated virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: Intracellular delivery, trafficking and mechanisms of cell injury.

    PubMed

    Bielaszewska, Martina; Rüter, Christian; Bauwens, Andreas; Greune, Lilo; Jarosch, Kevin-André; Steil, Daniel; Zhang, Wenlan; He, Xiaohua; Lloubes, Roland; Fruth, Angelika; Kim, Kwang Sik; Schmidt, M Alexander; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Mellmann, Alexander; Karch, Helge

    2017-02-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, and bioassays, we investigated OMVs secreted by EHEC O157 clinical isolates for virulence factors cargoes, interactions with pathogenetically relevant human cells, and mechanisms of cell injury. We demonstrate that O157 OMVs carry a cocktail of key virulence factors of EHEC O157 including Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a), cytolethal distending toxin V (CdtV), EHEC hemolysin, and flagellin. The toxins are internalized by cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis of OMVs and differentially separate from vesicles during intracellular trafficking. Stx2a and CdtV-B, the DNase-like CdtV subunit, separate from OMVs in early endosomes. Stx2a is trafficked, in association with its receptor globotriaosylceramide within detergent-resistant membranes, to the Golgi complex and the endoplasmic reticulum from where the catalytic Stx2a A1 fragment is translocated to the cytosol. CdtV-B is, after its retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, translocated to the nucleus to reach DNA. CdtV-A and CdtV-C subunits remain OMV-associated and are sorted with OMVs to lysosomes. EHEC hemolysin separates from OMVs in lysosomes and targets mitochondria. The OMV-delivered CdtV-B causes cellular DNA damage, which activates DNA damage responses leading to G2 cell cycle arrest. The arrested cells ultimately die of apoptosis induced by Stx2a and CdtV via caspase-9 activation. By demonstrating that naturally secreted EHEC O157 OMVs carry and deliver into cells a cocktail of biologically active virulence factors, thereby causing cell death, and by performing first comprehensive analysis of intracellular trafficking of OMVs and OMV-delivered virulence factors

  7. Strand-specific transcriptomes of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in response to interactions with ground beef microbiota: interactions between microorganisms in raw meat.

    PubMed

    Galia, Wessam; Leriche, Francoise; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Garnier, Cindy; Navratil, Vincent; Dubost, Audrey; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2017-08-03

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are zoonotic agents associated with outbreaks worldwide. Growth of EHEC strains in ground beef could be inhibited by background microbiota that is present initially at levels greater than that of the pathogen E. coli. However, how the microbiota outcompetes the pathogenic bacteria is unknown. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways of EHEC that were altered by natural microbiota in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the growth and survival of EHECs in ground beef. Based on 16S metagenomics analysis, we identified the microbial community structure in our beef samples which was an essential preliminary for subtractively analyzing the gene expression of the EHEC strains. Then, we applied strand-specific RNA-seq to investigate the effects of this microbiota on the global gene expression of EHEC O2621765 and O157EDL933 strains by comparison with their behavior in beef meat without microbiota. In strain O2621765, the expression of genes connected with nitrate metabolism and nitrite detoxification, DNA repair, iron and nickel acquisition and carbohydrate metabolism, and numerous genes involved in amino acid metabolism were down-regulated. Further, the observed repression of ftsL and murF, involved respectively in building the cytokinetic ring apparatus and in synthesizing the cytoplasmic precursor of cell wall peptidoglycan, might help to explain the microbiota's inhibitory effect on EHECs. For strain O157EDL933, the induced expression of the genes implicated in detoxification and the general stress response and the repressed expression of the peR gene, a gene negatively associated with the virulence phenotype, might be linked to the survival and virulence of O157:H7 in ground beef with microbiota. In the present study, we show how RNA-Seq coupled with a 16S metagenomics analysis can be used to identify the effects of a complex microbial community on relevant functions of an individual

  8. Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, Douglas J.; Galli, Lucía; Sankarapani, Vinoth; Soler, Michael; Rivas, Marta; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic E. coli strains are enteric pathogens associated with food safety threats and which remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the current study, we investigated whether enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains can be rapidly and specifically differentiated with multiplex PCR (mPCR) utilizing selected biomarkers associated with each strain’s respective virulence genotype. Primers were designed to amplify multiple intimin (eae) and long polar fimbriae (lpfA) variants, the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA, and the Shiga toxin-encoding genes stx1 and stx2. We demonstrated consistent amplification of genes specific to the prototype EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 (lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, stx1, stx2, and eae-γ) and EPEC O127:H6 E2348/69 (eae-α, lpfA1-1, and bfpA) strains using the optimized mPCR protocol with purified genomic DNA (gDNA). A screen of gDNA from isolates in a diarrheagenic E. coli collection revealed that the mPCR assay was successful in predicting the correct pathotype of EPEC and EHEC clones grouped in the distinctive phylogenetic disease clusters EPEC1 and EHEC1, and was able to differentiate EHEC1 from EHEC2 clusters. The assay detection threshold was 2 × 104 CFU per PCR reaction for EHEC and EPEC. mPCR was also used to screen Argentinean clinical samples from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrheal patients, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity when compared to established molecular diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, our mPCR methodology permitted differentiation of EPEC, STEC and EHEC strains from other pathogenic E. coli; therefore, the assay becomes an additional tool for rapid diagnosis of these organisms. PMID:22919600

  9. Comparison of strand-specific transcriptomes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 (EHEC) under eleven different environmental conditions including radish sprouts and cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Landstorfer, Richard; Simon, Svenja; Schober, Steffen; Keim, Daniel; Scherer, Siegfried; Neuhaus, Klaus

    2014-05-09

    Multiple infection sources for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) are known, including animal products, fruit and vegetables. The ecology of this pathogen outside its human host is largely unknown and one third of its annotated genes are still hypothetical. To identify genetic determinants expressed under a variety of environmental factors, we applied strand-specific RNA-sequencing, comparing the SOLiD and Illumina systems. Transcriptomes of EHEC were sequenced under 11 different biotic and abiotic conditions: LB medium at pH4, pH7, pH9, or at 15°C; LB with nitrite or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; LB-agar surface, M9 minimal medium, spinach leaf juice, surface of living radish sprouts, and cattle feces. Of 5379 annotated genes in strain EDL933 (genome and plasmid), a surprising minority of only 144 had null sequencing reads under all conditions. We therefore developed a statistical method to distinguish weakly transcribed genes from background transcription. We find that 96% of all genes and 91.5% of the hypothetical genes exhibit a significant transcriptional signal under at least one condition. Comparing SOLiD and Illumina systems, we find a high correlation between both approaches for fold-changes of the induced or repressed genes. The pathogenicity island LEE showed highest transcriptional activity in LB medium, minimal medium, and after treatment with antibiotics. Unique sets of genes, including many hypothetical genes, are highly up-regulated on radish sprouts, cattle feces, or in the presence of antibiotics. Furthermore, we observed induction of the shiga-toxin carrying phages by antibiotics and confirmed active biofilm related genes on radish sprouts, in cattle feces, and on agar plates. Since only a minority of genes (2.7%) were not active under any condition tested (null reads), we suggest that the assumption of significant genome over-annotations is wrong. Environmental transcriptomics uncovered hitherto unknown gene functions and unique

  10. Discrimination of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) from Non-EHEC Strains Based on Detection of Various Combinations of Type III Effector Genes

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains comprise a subgroup of Shiga-toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) and are characterized by a few serotypes. Among these, seven priority STEC serotypes (O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121:H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7) are most frequently implicated in severe clinical illness worldwide. Currently, standard methods using stx, eae, and O-serogroup-specific gene sequences for detecting the top 7 EHEC serotypes bear the disadvantage that these genes can be found in non-EHEC strains as well. Here, we explored the suitability of ureD, espV, espK, espN, Z2098, and espM1 genes and combinations thereof as candidates for a more targeted EHEC screening assay. For a very large panel of E. coli strains (n = 1,100), which comprised EHEC (n = 340), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n = 392), STEC (n = 193), and apathogenic strains (n = 175), we showed that these genetic markers were more prevalent in EHEC (67.1% to 92.4%) than in EPEC (13.3% to 45.2%), STEC (0.5% to 3.6%), and apathogenic E. coli strains (0 to 2.9%). It is noteworthy that 38.5% of the EPEC strains that tested positive for at least one of these genetic markers belonged to the top 7 EHEC serotypes, suggesting that such isolates might be Stx-negative derivatives of EHEC. The associations of espK with either espV, ureD, or Z2098 were the best combinations for more specific and sensitive detection of the top 7 EHEC strains, allowing detection of 99.3% to 100% of these strains. In addition, detection of 93.7% of the EHEC strains belonging to other serotypes than the top 7 offers a possibility for identifying new emerging EHEC strains. PMID:23884997

  11. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga Toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cytoarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Alipio; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Brener, Gabriela J.; Goldstein, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic–uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood–brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test), and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope). Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group), sub-lethal dose of 0.5 and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n = 6). Blood–brain barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1 ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance. PMID:26904009

  12. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga Toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Luciana; Pinto, Alipio; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia A; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Brener, Gabriela J; Goldstein, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic-uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood-brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test), and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope). Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group), sub-lethal dose of 0.5 and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n = 6). Blood-brain barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1 ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance.

  13. Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minimally processed artichokes.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Susana; Giménez, Mercedes; Olarte, Carmen

    2003-12-01

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated by immersion (at 4.6 and 5.5 log CFU/ g, respectively) to survive on artichokes during various stages of preparation was determined. Peeling, cutting, and disinfecting operations (immersion in 50 ppm of a free chlorine solution at 4 degrees C for 5 min) reduced populations of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 by only 1.6 and 0.8 log units, respectively. An organic acid rinse (0.02% citric acid and 0.2% ascorbic acid) was more effective than a tap water rinse in removing these pathogens. Given the possibility of both pathogens being present on artichokes at the packaging stage, their behavior during the storage of minimally processed artichokes was investigated. For this purpose, batches of artichokes inoculated with L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 (at 5.5 and 5.2 log CFU/g, respectively) were packaged in P-Plus film bags and stored at 4 degrees C for 16 days. During this period, the equilibrium atmosphere composition and natural background microflora (mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobes, and fecal coliforms) were also analyzed. For the two studied pathogens, the inoculum did not have any effect on the final atmospheric composition (10% O2, 13% CO2) or on the survival of the natural background microflora of the artichokes. L. monocytogenes was able to survive during the entire storage period in the inoculated batches, while the E. coli O157:H7 level increased by 1.5 log units in the inoculated batch during the storage period. The modified atmosphere was unable to control the behavior of either pathogen.

  14. Human microbiota-secreted factors inhibit shiga toxin synthesis by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    de Sablet, Thibaut; Chassard, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vareille, Marjolaine; Gobert, Alain P; Martin, Christine

    2009-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, especially in children. The main virulence factor responsible for the more serious disease is the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), which is released in the gut after oral ingestion of the organism. Although it is accepted that the amount of Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 in the gut is critical for the development of disease, the eukaryotic or prokaryotic gut factors that modulate Stx2 synthesis are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of prokaryotic molecules released by a complex human microbiota on Stx2 synthesis by E. coli O157:H7. Stx2 synthesis was assessed after growth of E. coli O157:H7 in cecal contents of gnotobiotic rats colonized with human microbiota or in conditioned medium having supported the growth of complex human microbiota. Extracellular prokaryotic molecules produced by the commensal microbiota repress stx(2) mRNA expression and Stx2 production by inhibiting the spontaneous and induced lytic cycle mediated by RecA. These molecules, with a molecular mass of below 3 kDa, are produced in part by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a predominant species of the normal human intestinal microbiota. The microbiota-induced stx(2) repression is independent of the known quorum-sensing pathways described in E. coli O157:H7 involving SdiA, QseA, QseC, or autoinducer 3. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the regulatory activity of a soluble factor produced by the complex human digestive microbiota on a bacterial virulence factor in a physiologically relevant context.

  15. Detection, Virulence Gene Assessment and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of O157 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ostadgavahi, Ali Toloue; Ghotaslou, Reza; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Sorayaei Sowmesarayi, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a food-borne pathogen and infection with this organism causes illnesses such as bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Objectives: Considering the lack of any information about the prevalence rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern of O157:H7 serotype in Tabriz, finding answers to the above mentioned subjects was among the goals of this study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred E. coli strains from diarrheal or non-diarrheal stools of outpatients and hospitalized cases in Tabriz Imam Reza hospital were isolated between September and December 2014 using MacConkey agar and standard biochemical tests and then cultured on sorbitol MacConkey agar. The sorbitol-negative isolates were confirmed as the O157 serotype using O157 antisera. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the detection of stx-1, stx-2, eae, and mdh genes and the antibiotic resistance pattern of these isolates was determined using Kirby-Bauer method and clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) standards. Results: Of the isolates 11 (5.5%) were sorbitol-negative, which were later analyzed by multiplex PCR and the results revealed that 2 (18.18%) isolates contained the stx-1 gene, 10 (90.91%) contained the stx-2 gene, and 5 (45.45%) contained the eae gene. The stx-2 and eae genes were the most commonly encountered virulence factors. All or most of the isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime (100%), gentamicin (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), nalidixic acid (90.9%), trimetoprim sulfamethoxazole (90.9%), chloramphenicol (90.9%), ampicillin (81.8%), and cephalothin (72.7%). On the contrary, moderate susceptibility of the isolates to doxycycline (54.5%) was observed. Conclusions: Due to the low frequency of STEC O157 and the high susceptibility rates of the isolates to the tested antibiotics in this study, STEC O157 has not become a major problem in Tabriz yet, but comprehensive

  16. Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana with Salmonella enterica and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Competition by Enterobacter asburiae

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Michael B.; Miller, William G.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7, have been shown to contaminate fresh produce. Under appropriate conditions, these bacteria will grow on and invade the plant tissue. We have developed Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) as a model system with the intention of studying plant responses to human pathogens. Under sterile conditions and at 100% humidity, S. enterica serovar Newport and E. coli O157:H7 grew to 109 CFU g−1 on A. thaliana roots and to 2 × 107 CFU g−1 on shoots. Furthermore, root inoculation led to contamination of the entire plant, indicating that the pathogens are capable of moving on or within the plant in the absence of competition. Inoculation with green fluorescent protein-labeled S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 showed invasion of the roots at lateral root junctions. Movement was eliminated and invasion decreased when nonmotile mutants of S. enterica were used. Survival of S. enterica serovar Newport and E. coli O157:H7 on soil-grown plants declined as the plants matured, but both pathogens were detectable for at least 21 days. Survival of the pathogen was reduced in unautoclaved soil and amended soil, suggesting competition from indigenous epiphytes from the soil. Enterobacter asburiae was isolated from soil-grown A. thaliana and shown to be effective at suppressing epiphytic growth of both pathogens under gnotobiotic conditions. Seed and chaff harvested from contaminated plants were occasionally contaminated. The rate of recovery of S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 from seed varied from undetectable to 19% of the seed pools tested, depending on the method of inoculation. Seed contamination by these pathogens was undetectable in the presence of the competitor, Enterobacter asburiae. Sampling of 74 pools of chaff indicated a strong correlation between contamination of the chaff and seed (P = 0.025). This suggested that contamination of the seed occurred directly from contaminated chaff or by invasion of

  17. Reduction of Carriage of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Cattle by Inoculation with Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P.; Harmon, Barry G.; Brown, Cathy A.; Mueller, P. O. Eric; Parks, Andrew H.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria inhibitory to Escherichia coli O157:H7 were isolated from cattle and evaluated for their potential for reducing carriage of E. coli O157:H7 in calves. Eighteen of 1,200 bacterial isolates from cattle feces and intestinal tissue samples were screened and determined to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in vitro. Seventeen of the isolates were E. coli and one was Proteus mirabilis. None produced Shiga toxin. Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 13 distinguishable profiles among the 18 isolates. Two calves inoculated perorally with a mixture of all 18 isolates (1010 CFU) appeared to be normal and did not develop signs of clinical disease throughout a 25- to 27-day observation period. These bacteria colonized segments of the gastrointestinal tract and were in feces at the termination of the experiment (25 and 27 days postinoculation) at levels of 50 to 200 CFU/g. Fifteen cannulated calves were studied to determine the efficiency of the probiotic bacteria in reducing or eliminating the carriage of E. coli O157:H7. Nine calves served as controls, with each animal receiving perorally 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was detected intermittently in the rumen samples from all control animals throughout 3 weeks postinoculation, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was shed at various levels in feces continuously throughout the experiment (mean, 28 days). E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from the rumens and colons of eight of nine and nine of nine calves, respectively, at the termination of the study. Six calves each received perorally 1010 CFU of probiotic bacteria and then 2 days later received 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the rumen for only 9 days postinoculation in two animals, for 16 days in one animal, for 17 days in two animals, and for 29 days in one animal. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in feces for only 11 days postinoculation in one animal, for 15 days in one animal, for 17 days in one animal

  18. Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Tracy; Allison, Lesley J.; Courcier, Emily; Evans, Judith; McKendrick, Iain J.; Pearce, Michael C.; Handel, Ian; Caprioli, Alfredo; Karch, Helge; Hanson, Mary F.; Pollock, Kevin G.J.; Locking, Mary E.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.; Matthews, Louise; Low, J. Chris; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O26 and O157 have similar overall prevalences in cattle in Scotland, but in humans, Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O26 infections are fewer and clinically less severe than E. coli O157 infections. To investigate this discrepancy, we genotyped E. coli O26 isolates from cattle and humans in Scotland and continental Europe. The genetic background of some strains from Scotland was closely related to that of strains causing severe infections in Europe. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling found an association between hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and multilocus sequence type 21 strains and confirmed the role of stx2 in severe human disease. Although the prevalences of E. coli O26 and O157 on cattle farms in Scotland are equivalent, prevalence of more virulent strains is low, reducing human infection risk. However, new data on E. coli O26–associated HUS in humans highlight the need for surveillance of non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli and for understanding stx2 phage acquisition. PMID:22377426

  19. Optimizing the Protection of Cattle against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Colonization through Immunization with Different Combinations of H7 Flagellin, Tir, Intimin-531 or EspA.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, Tom N; Mitchell, Mairi C; Corbishley, Alexander; Nath, Mintu; Simmonds, Hannah; McAteer, Sean P; Mahajan, Arvind; Low, J Christopher; Smith, David G E; Huntley, John F; Gally, David L

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are important human pathogens, causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uraemic syndrome in humans. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common serotype associated with EHEC infections worldwide, although other non-O157 serotypes cause life-threatening infections. Cattle are a main reservoir of EHEC and intervention strategies aimed at limiting EHEC excretion from cattle are predicted to lower the risk of human infection. We have previously shown that immunization of calves with recombinant versions of the type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated proteins EspA, intimin and Tir from EHEC O157:H7 significantly reduced shedding of EHEC O157 from experimentally-colonized calves, and that protection could be augmented by the addition of H7 flagellin to the vaccine formulation. The main aim of the present study was to optimize our current EHEC O157 subunit vaccine formulations by identifying the key combinations of these antigens required for protection. A secondary aim was to determine if vaccine-induced antibody responses exhibited cross-reactive potential with antigens from other EHEC serotypes. Immunization with EspA, intimin and Tir resulted in a reduction in mean EHEC O157 shedding following challenge, but not the mean proportion of calves colonized. Removal of Tir resulted in more prolonged shedding compared with all other groups, whereas replacement of Tir with H7 flagellin resulted in the highest levels of protection, both in terms of reducing both mean EHEC O157 shedding and the proportion of colonized calves. Immunization of calves with recombinant EHEC O157 EspA, intimin and Tir resulted in the generation of antibodies capable of cross-reacting with antigens from non-O157 EHEC serotypes, suggesting that immunization with these antigens may provide a degree of cross-protection against other EHEC serotypes. Further studies are now required to test the efficacy of these vaccines in the field, and to formally test the cross

  20. Is Shiga Toxin-Negative Escherichia coli O157:H7 Enteropathogenic or Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli? Comprehensive Molecular Analysis Using Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; Morabito, Stefano; Croughs, Peter D.; de Boer, Richard F.; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (nonmotile) isolates from patients with gastrointestinal complaints. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and their virulence properties and phylogenetic relationship were determined. Because of the presence of the eae gene but lack of the bfpA gene, the stx-negative isolates were considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). However, they had phenotypic characteristics similar to those of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates and belonged to the same sequence type, ST11. Furthermore, EPEC and STEC isolates shared similar virulence genes, the locus of enterocyte effacement region, and plasmids. Core genome phylogenetic analysis using a gene-by-gene typing approach showed that the sorbitol-fermenting (SF) stx-negative isolates clustered together with an SF STEC isolate and that one non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) stx-negative isolate clustered together with NSF STEC isolates. Therefore, these stx-negative isolates were thought either to have lost the Stx phage or to be a progenitor of STEC O157:H7/NM. As detection of STEC infections is often based solely on the identification of the presence of stx genes, these may be misdiagnosed in routine laboratories. Therefore, an improved diagnostic approach is required to manage identification, strategies for treatment, and prevention of transmission of these potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26311863

  1. Is Shiga Toxin-Negative Escherichia coli O157:H7 Enteropathogenic or Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli? Comprehensive Molecular Analysis Using Whole-Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; Mellmann, Alexander; Morabito, Stefano; Croughs, Peter D; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Rossen, John W A; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2015-11-01

    The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (nonmotile) isolates from patients with gastrointestinal complaints. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and their virulence properties and phylogenetic relationship were determined. Because of the presence of the eae gene but lack of the bfpA gene, the stx-negative isolates were considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). However, they had phenotypic characteristics similar to those of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates and belonged to the same sequence type, ST11. Furthermore, EPEC and STEC isolates shared similar virulence genes, the locus of enterocyte effacement region, and plasmids. Core genome phylogenetic analysis using a gene-by-gene typing approach showed that the sorbitol-fermenting (SF) stx-negative isolates clustered together with an SF STEC isolate and that one non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) stx-negative isolate clustered together with NSF STEC isolates. Therefore, these stx-negative isolates were thought either to have lost the Stx phage or to be a progenitor of STEC O157:H7/NM. As detection of STEC infections is often based solely on the identification of the presence of stx genes, these may be misdiagnosed in routine laboratories. Therefore, an improved diagnostic approach is required to manage identification, strategies for treatment, and prevention of transmission of these potentially pathogenic strains.

  2. Cytoskeleton-modulating effectors of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: role of EspL2 in adherence and an alternative pathway for modulating cytoskeleton through Annexin A2 function.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Toru

    2010-06-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are attaching/effacing pathogens that possess a type III secretion system and deliver a variety of effectors into host cells for successful infection. EHEC produces at least 20 effector families with various functions. Reorganization of the cellular cytoskeleton at the adherent site is a hallmark of these pathogens. EspL2 of EHEC is a novel effector class that can modulate the cellular cytoskeleton. By interacting with and activating Annexin A2, EspL2 contributes to the formation of a condensed microcolony and may adhere to host cells in a translocated intimin receptor-independent manner. The interaction of EspL2 with Annexin A2 increases F-actin bundling activity and strengthens the membrane-cytoskeleton linkage, resulting in the condensation of actin fibers and the induction of a pseudopod-like structure. Membrane microdomains, namely the lipid raft, which is rich in Annexin A2, may be a platform by which EHEC/EPEC infection modulates cellular signaling and the cytoskeleton.

  3. Suitability of selective plating media for recovering heat- or freeze-stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 from tryptic soy broth and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Rocelle, M; Clavero, S; Beuchat, L R

    1995-09-01

    The efficacy of tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified sorbitol MacConkey agar (MSMA), modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar, and modified SD-39 (MSD) agar in recovering a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and five non-O157 strains of E. coli heated in tryptic soy broth at 52, 54, or 56 degrees C for 10, 20, and 30 min was determined. Nonselective TSA supported the highest recovery of heated cells. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower recovery of heat-stressed cells was observed on MSMA than on TSA, MEMB agar, or MSD agar. The suitability of MEMB agar or MSD agar for recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated or frozen (-20 degrees C) low- or high-fat ground beef was determined. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated ground beef was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher on TSA than on MEMB agar, which in turn supported higher recovery than MSD agar did; MSMA was inferior. Recovery from frozen ground beef was also higher on MEMB and MSD agars than on MSMA. Higher populations were generally recovered from high-fat beef than from low-fat beef, but the relative performance of the recovery media was the same. The inability of MSMA to recover stressed cells of E. coli O157:H7 underscores the need to develop a better selective medium for enumerating E. coli O157:H7.

  4. Suitability of selective plating media for recovering heat- or freeze-stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 from tryptic soy broth and ground beef.

    PubMed Central

    Rocelle, M; Clavero, S; Beuchat, L R

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified sorbitol MacConkey agar (MSMA), modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar, and modified SD-39 (MSD) agar in recovering a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and five non-O157 strains of E. coli heated in tryptic soy broth at 52, 54, or 56 degrees C for 10, 20, and 30 min was determined. Nonselective TSA supported the highest recovery of heated cells. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower recovery of heat-stressed cells was observed on MSMA than on TSA, MEMB agar, or MSD agar. The suitability of MEMB agar or MSD agar for recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated or frozen (-20 degrees C) low- or high-fat ground beef was determined. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated ground beef was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher on TSA than on MEMB agar, which in turn supported higher recovery than MSD agar did; MSMA was inferior. Recovery from frozen ground beef was also higher on MEMB and MSD agars than on MSMA. Higher populations were generally recovered from high-fat beef than from low-fat beef, but the relative performance of the recovery media was the same. The inability of MSMA to recover stressed cells of E. coli O157:H7 underscores the need to develop a better selective medium for enumerating E. coli O157:H7. PMID:7574637

  5. Vaccination with DNA Encoding Truncated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Factor for Adherence-1 Gene (efa-1′) Confers Protective Immunity to Mice Infected with E. coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Rivera, Alejandra; Sáez, Darwin; Fernández, Pablo; Osorio, Gonzalo; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan C.; Vidal, Roberto M.; Oñate, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1′) in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1′ gene (pVAXefa-1′) into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1′, EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10, and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1′ have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle. PMID:26835434

  6. Role of in vivo passage on the environmental adaptation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: cross-induction of the viable but nonculturable state by osmotic and oxidative stresses.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Makino, Sou-Ichi

    2005-12-15

    In an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 outbreak caused by salted salmon roe that occurred in Japan, 1998, a food isolate (F2) was NaCl-resistant and a patient isolate (P5) was sensitive to NaCl. We show here that hydrogen peroxide, like NaCl, induced a significant loss of culturability in P5. The BacLight assay suggested that the EHEC O157:H7 entered a viable but nonculturable (VNC) state. We used the passage through mice in an attempt to model this transition in phenotype. Mouse-passaged isogenic variants of F2 became NaCl- and oxidation-sensitive, entered the nonculturable state in response to either of these stresses, and could be resuscitated by sodium pyruvate. Since the expression of RpoS in response to these stresses correlated with the isolates' culturabilities, we concluded that in vivo passage negatively modulated RpoS expression, and the subsequent stress exposure induced the VNC state in the EHEC O157:H7 isolates.

  7. The c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase VmpA absent in Escherichia coli K12 strains affects motility and biofilm formation in the enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 serotype.

    PubMed

    Branchu, Priscilla; Hindré, Thomas; Fang, Xin; Thomas, Robynn; Gomelsky, Mark; Claret, Laurent; Harel, Josée; Gobert, Alain P; Martin, Christine

    2013-03-15

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that resists the acidic gastric environment, colonizes the gut epithelium, and causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, especially in children. The genomic island OI-47 of E. coli O157:H7 contains a gene, z1528, encoding an EAL-domain protein potentially involved in c-di-GMP hydrolysis that is absent in non-pathogenic E. coli. This gene, designated vmpA, is co-transcribed with ycdT, which is present in non pathogenic E. coli and encodes a diguanylate cyclase involved in c-di-GMP synthesis. To test for vmpA function, we constructed a vmpA knockout mutant. We also overexpressed vmpA, purified the VmpA protein and assayed for its activity in vitro. We found that VmpA possesses c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity and that the vmpA mutation results in increased biofilm formation, and reduced swimming motility, which is consistent with the function determined in vitro. Unexpectedly, suppressor mutations arise frequently in the vmpA background suggesting that VmpA plays an important regulatory role in E. coli O157:H7. These findings represent an example of remarkable flexibility in the organization of c-di-GMP signaling pathways in closely related species.

  8. Towards a Molecular Definition of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC): Detection of Genes Located on O Island 57 as Markers To Distinguish EHEC from Closely Related Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Among strains of Shiga-toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are associated with severe clinical illness in humans. These strains are also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the development of methods for their reliable detection from food has been challenging thus far. PCR detection of major EHEC virulence genes stx1, stx2, eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes is useful but does not identify EHEC strains specifically. Searching for the presence of additional genes issued from E. coli O157:H7 genomic islands OI-122 and OI-71 increases the specificity but does not clearly discriminate EHEC from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Here, we identified two putative genes, called Z2098 and Z2099, from the genomic island OI-57 that were closely associated with EHEC and their stx-negative derivative strains (87% for Z2098 and 91% for Z2099). Z2098 and Z2099 were rarely found in EPEC (10% for Z2098 and 12% for Z2099), STEC (2 and 15%), and apathogenic E. coli (1% each) strains. Our findings indicate that Z2098 and Z2099 are useful genetic markers for a more targeted diagnosis of typical EHEC and new emerging EHEC strains. PMID:23325824

  9. Vaccination with DNA Encoding Truncated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Factor for Adherence-1 Gene (efa-1') Confers Protective Immunity to Mice Infected with E. coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Rivera, Alejandra; Sáez, Darwin; Fernández, Pablo; Osorio, Gonzalo; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan C; Vidal, Roberto M; Oñate, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1') in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1' gene (pVAXefa-1') into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1', EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10, and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1' have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle.

  10. The Shiga toxin 2 production level in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is correlated with the subtypes of toxin-encoding phage

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Islam, Md Rakibul; Mako, Toshihiro; Arisawa, Kokichi; Katsura, Keisuke; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Murase, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Their major virulence factor is Shiga toxin (Stx), which is encoded by bacteriophages. Of the two types of Stx, the production of Stx2, particularly that of Stx2a (a subtype of Stx2), is a major risk factor for severe EHEC infections, but the Stx2 production level is highly variable between strains. Here, we define four major and two minor subtypes of Stx2a-encoding phages according to their replication proteins. The subtypes are correlated with Stx2a titers produced by the host O157 strains, suggesting a critical role of the phage subtype in determining the Stx2a production level. We further show that one of the two subclades in the clade 8, a proposed hyper-virulent lineage of O157, carries the Stx2 phage subtype that confers the highest Stx2 production to the host strain. The presence of this subclade may explain the proposed high virulence potential of clade 8. These results provide novel insights into the variation in virulence among O157 strains and highlight the role of phage variation in determining the production level of the virulence factors that phages encode. PMID:26567959

  11. The Shiga toxin 2 production level in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is correlated with the subtypes of toxin-encoding phage.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Islam, Md Rakibul; Mako, Toshihiro; Arisawa, Kokichi; Katsura, Keisuke; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Murase, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-11-16

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Their major virulence factor is Shiga toxin (Stx), which is encoded by bacteriophages. Of the two types of Stx, the production of Stx2, particularly that of Stx2a (a subtype of Stx2), is a major risk factor for severe EHEC infections, but the Stx2 production level is highly variable between strains. Here, we define four major and two minor subtypes of Stx2a-encoding phages according to their replication proteins. The subtypes are correlated with Stx2a titers produced by the host O157 strains, suggesting a critical role of the phage subtype in determining the Stx2a production level. We further show that one of the two subclades in the clade 8, a proposed hyper-virulent lineage of O157, carries the Stx2 phage subtype that confers the highest Stx2 production to the host strain. The presence of this subclade may explain the proposed high virulence potential of clade 8. These results provide novel insights into the variation in virulence among O157 strains and highlight the role of phage variation in determining the production level of the virulence factors that phages encode.

  12. Assessing the performance of novel software Strain Solution on automated discrimination of Escherichia coli serotypes and their mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Iijima, Yoshio; Tamura, Hiroto

    2015-12-01

    O157, O26, and O111 are the most important O serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli worldwide. Recently we reported a strategy for discriminating these serotypes from the others using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) method. To realize the fully automated identification of microorganisms at species- or serotype-level with the concept of S10-GERMS method, novel software named Strain Solution for MALDI-TOF MS was developed. In this study, the Strain Solution was evaluated with a total of 45 E. coli isolates including O26, O91, O103, O111, O115, O121, O128, O145, O157, O159, and untyped serotypes. The Strain Solution could accurately discriminate 92% (11/12) of O157 strains, 100% (13/13) of O26 and O111 strains from the others with three biomarkers in an automated manner. In addition, this software could identify 2 different E. coli strains (K-12 as a non-O157 representative and O157) in mixed samples. The results suggest that Strain Solution will be useful for species- or serotype-level classification of microorganisms in the fields of food safety and diagnostics.

  13. Resistance of various shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to electrolyzed oxidizing water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The resistance of thirty two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and six major serotypes of non-O157 Shiga toxin- producing E. coli (STEC) plus E. coli O104 was tested against Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water using two different methods; modified AOAC 955.16 sequential inoculation method and minim...

  14. Gamma radiation inactivation of non-0157:H7 shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli in foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-O157:H7 serovars of shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli are emerging foodborne pathogens that have been associated with illness outbreaks and food product recalls on a global basis. Ionizing (gamma) radiation is a nonthermal food safety intervention technology that has been approved for use i...

  15. Classification of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes with hyperspectral microscope imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. Since a conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and time-consuming process, optica...

  16. Surveillance for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Michigan, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Manning, Shannon D; Madera, Robbie T; Schneider, William; Dietrich, Stephen E; Khalife, Walid; Brown, William; Whittam, Thomas S; Somsel, Patricia; Rudrik, James T

    2007-02-01

    A surveillance system used different detection methods to estimate prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli during 2003-2005 and 2001-2002. More non-O157 serotypes were detected by enzyme immunoassay than by evaluation of non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli isolates. We therefore recommend use of enzyme immunoassay and culture-based methods.

  17. Surveillance for Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Michigan, 2001–2005

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Shannon D.; Madera, Robbie T.; Schneider, William; Dietrich, Stephen E.; Khalife, Walid; Brown, William; Whittam, Thomas S.; Somsel, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    A surveillance system used different detection methods to estimate prevalence of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli during 2003–2005 and 2001–2002. More non-O157 serotypes were detected by enzyme immunoassay than by evaluation of non-sorbitol–fermenting E. coli isolates. We therefore recommend use of enzyme immunoassay and culture-based methods. PMID:17479902

  18. Development of an automated multiplexed immunomagnetic separation system for isolating Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli(STEC) have become an emerging problem. Efforts have been devoted to facilitating and speeding their detection, however, their isolation from high background microbiota foods remains problematic. To solve this problem, immunomagnetic se...

  19. Translocation of Shiga-toxin producting cells of Escherichia coli in chemically-injected beef subprimals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Relatively little information is available regarding the translocation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) into beef subprimals following chemical tenderization. Purpose: Quantify translocation of ECOH or STEC from the surface into the i...

  20. Changing Diagnostic Methods and Increased Detection of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas; Quinn, Noreen; Lucey, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    The recent paradigm shift in infectious disease diagnosis from culture-based to molecular-based approaches is exemplified in the findings of a national study assessing the detection of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in Ireland. The methodologic changes have been accompanied by a dramatic increase in detections of non-O157 verotoxigenic E. coli serotypes. PMID:27322897

  1. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Victoria; Aliverti, Virginia; Aliverti, Florencia; Ortega, Emanuel E; de la Torre, Julian H; Linares, Luciano H; Sanz, Marcelo E; Etcheverría, Analía I; Padola, Nora L; Galli, Lucía; Peral García, Pilar; Copes, Julio; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfb(O157)] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx(2)/eae/ehxA/fliC(H7) (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx(1)/stx(2)/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx(2) (29.7%); and stx(2)/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.

  2. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Brusa, Victoria; Aliverti, Virginia; Aliverti, Florencia; Ortega, Emanuel E.; de la Torre, Julian H.; Linares, Luciano H.; Sanz, Marcelo E.; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.; Galli, Lucía; Peral García, Pilar; Copes, Julio; Leotta, Gerardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfbO157] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliCH7 (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx2 (29.7%); and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected. PMID:23346554

  3. High genotypic and phenotypic similarity among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111 environmental and outbreak strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    E. coli serogroup O111 is among the six most commonly reported non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which are emerging foodborne pathogens that have caused numerous outbreaks and sporadic cases of enteric illness in industrialized countries. We have assembled a collection of en...

  4. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and rectoanal junction persistence in ruminants: a study of bacterial-epithelial interactions.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) was the first Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotype to be associated with bloody diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. It has since been implicated in several outbreaks in the U.S. and globally. Non-O157 STEC have not bee...

  5. The polymorphic aggregative phenotype of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111 depends on rpoS and curli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O111 is an emerging non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). We previously reported that outbreak and environmental, but not sporadic case, strains of STEC O111 share a distinct aggregation phenotype (M. E. Diodati, A. H. Bates, M. B. Cooley, S. Walker, R. E. Mandrell, and ...

  6. Rapid O serogroup identification of the six clinically relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by antibody microarray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibody array was developed for the detection of the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O serogroups. Sensitivity of the array was 10**5 CFU, and the limit of detection of serogroups in ground beef was 1-10 CFU following 12 h of enrichment. The array utilized a minimal amount...

  7. Contributions of EspA filaments and curli fimbriae in cellular adherence and biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed incr...

  8. Identification of the Secretion and Translocation Domain of the Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Effector Cif, Using TEM-1 β-Lactamase as a New Fluorescence-Based Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Xavier; Oswald, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) strains are human and animal pathogens that inject effector proteins into host cells via a type III secretion system (TTSS). Cif is an effector protein which induces host cell cycle arrest and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Cif is encoded by a lambdoid prophage present in most of the EPEC and EHEC strains. In this study, we analyzed the domain that targets Cif to the TTSS by using a new reporter system based on a translational fusion of the effector proteins with mature TEM-1 β-lactamase. Translocation was detected directly in living host cells by using the fluorescent β-lactamase substrate CCF2/AM. We show that the first 16 amino acids (aa) of Cif were necessary and sufficient to mediate translocation into the host cells. Similarly, the first 20 aa of the effector proteins Map, EspF, and Tir, which are encoded in the same region as the TTSS, mediated secretion and translocation in a type III-dependent but chaperone-independent manner. A truncated form of Cif lacking its first 20 aa was no longer secreted and translocated, but fusion with the first 20 aa of Tir, Map, or EspF restored both secretion and translocation. In addition, the chimeric proteins were fully able to trigger host cell cycle arrest and stress fiber formation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Cif is composed of a C-terminal effector domain and an exchangeable N-terminal translocation signal and that the TEM-1 reporter system is a convenient tool for the study of the translocation of toxins or effector proteins into host cells. PMID:15292151

  9. Identification of the secretion and translocation domain of the enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli effector Cif, using TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a new fluorescence-based reporter.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Xavier; Oswald, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) strains are human and animal pathogens that inject effector proteins into host cells via a type III secretion system (TTSS). Cif is an effector protein which induces host cell cycle arrest and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Cif is encoded by a lambdoid prophage present in most of the EPEC and EHEC strains. In this study, we analyzed the domain that targets Cif to the TTSS by using a new reporter system based on a translational fusion of the effector proteins with mature TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Translocation was detected directly in living host cells by using the fluorescent beta-lactamase substrate CCF2/AM. We show that the first 16 amino acids (aa) of Cif were necessary and sufficient to mediate translocation into the host cells. Similarly, the first 20 aa of the effector proteins Map, EspF, and Tir, which are encoded in the same region as the TTSS, mediated secretion and translocation in a type III-dependent but chaperone-independent manner. A truncated form of Cif lacking its first 20 aa was no longer secreted and translocated, but fusion with the first 20 aa of Tir, Map, or EspF restored both secretion and translocation. In addition, the chimeric proteins were fully able to trigger host cell cycle arrest and stress fiber formation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Cif is composed of a C-terminal effector domain and an exchangeable N-terminal translocation signal and that the TEM-1 reporter system is a convenient tool for the study of the translocation of toxins or effector proteins into host cells.

  10. Fitness of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)/Enteroaggregative E. coli O104:H4 in Comparison to That of EHEC O157: Survival Studies in Food and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Böhnlein, Christina; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Franz, Charles M A P; Pichner, Rohtraud

    2016-11-01

    In 2011, one of the world's largest outbreaks of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred, caused by a rare Escherichia coli serotype, O104:H4, that shared the virulence profiles of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). The persistence and fitness factors of the highly virulent EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain, grown either in food or in vitro, were compared with those of E. coli O157 outbreak-associated strains. The log reduction rates of the different EHEC strains during the maturation of fermented sausages were not significantly different. Both the O157:NM and O104:H4 serotypes could be shown by qualitative enrichment to be present after 60 days of sausage storage. Moreover, the EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain appeared to be more viable than E. coli O157:H7 under conditions of decreased pH and in the presence of sodium nitrite. Analysis of specific EHEC strains in experiments with an EHEC inoculation cocktail showed a dominance of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4, which could be isolated from fermented sausages for 60 days. Inhibitory activities of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 toward several E. coli strains, including serotype O157 strains, could be determined. Our study suggests that EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 is well adapted to the multiple adverse conditions occurring in fermented raw sausages. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that STEC strain cocktails composed of several serotypes, instead of E. coli O157:H7 alone, be used in food risk assessments. The enhanced persistence of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 as a result of its robustness, as well as the production of bacteriocins, may account for its extraordinary virulence potential.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Further development of sample preparation and detection methods for O157 and the top 6 non-O157 STEC serogroups in cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Thomas, James; Reuter, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are food-borne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of human infections worldwide. Ruminant livestock harbor STEC in their intestinal tract, and through fecal contamination possess the potential to compromise the safety of food and water. As a human health safety risk, STEC detection methods on beef carcasses and trim are needed as mandated by the USDA-FSIS. In order to monitor STEC prior to harvest and human consumption, our goal was to evaluate and/or improve detection of seven STEC serogroups in cattle feces. In comparison to traditional approaches, sample processing methods in bovine feces were evaluated using a multi-factorial Latin square design which involved freezing or freeze drying feces. Autoclaved versus non-autoclaved feces were spiked with O26:H11 or O157:H7 serotypes in various dilutions and enriched for up to 6h. Each hour, enriched aliquots were compared using traditional culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Furthermore, a 7-serogroup multiplex PCR (mPCR) was developed to detect O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157 serogroups simultaneously. The diagnostic sensitivity of our mPCR assay following 6h enrichment was superior (10CFU/g across all serogroups) compared to a previously established PCR assay (10CFU/g for O26, and O103; ≥10(4)CFU/g for all other serogroups). Obtaining viable isolates appeared to be limited by the efficiency of current immunomagnetic separation (IMS) methods, which ranged from 20 to 100% effectiveness at retrieving colonies depending on serogroup. After IMS, 70 putative STEC isolates were screened for Shiga toxin and attachment genes by mPCR. Sixty-five isolates contained one or both Shiga toxin genes.

  13. Refining the pathovar paradigm via phylogenomics of the attaching and effacing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Tracy H.; Sahl, Jason W.; Fraser, Claire M.; Donnenberg, Michael S.; Scheutz, Flemming; Rasko, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) are characterized by the presence of a type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are often identified as isolates that are LEE+ and carry the Shiga toxin (stx)-encoding phage, which are labeled Shiga toxin-producing E. coli; whereas enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are LEE+ and often carry the EPEC adherence factor plasmid-encoded bundle-forming pilus (bfp) genes. All other LEE+/bfp−/stx− isolates have been historically designated atypical EPEC. These groups have been defined based on the presence or absence of a limited number of virulence factors, many of which are encoded on mobile elements. This study describes the comparative analysis of the genomes of 114 LEE+ E. coli isolates. Based on a whole-genome phylogeny and analysis of type III secretion system effectors, the AEEC are divided into five distinct genomic lineages. The LEE+/stx+/bfp− genomes were primarily divided into two genomic lineages, the O157/O55 EHEC1 and non-O157 EHEC2. The LEE+/bfp+/stx− AEEC isolates sequenced in this study separated into the EPEC1, EPEC2, and EPEC4 genomic lineages. A multiplex PCR assay for identification of each of these AEEC genomic lineages was developed. Of the 114 AEEC genomes analyzed, 31 LEE+ isolates were not in any of the known AEEC lineages and thus represent unclassified AEEC that in most cases are more similar to other E. coli pathovars than to text modification AEEC. Our findings demonstrate evolutionary relationships among diverse AEEC pathogens and the utility of phylogenomics for lineage-specific identification of AEEC clinical isolates. PMID:23858472

  14. Clinical Studies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Conjugate Vaccines in Adults and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Szu, Shousun Chen; Ahmed, Amina

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric immunization has been the most effective measure to prevent and reduce the burden of infectious diseases in children. The recent inclusion of pneumococcal and meningococcal polysaccharide conjugates in infant immunization further reinforces their importance. Currently there is no human vaccine against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. This review focuses on the human EHEC vaccine that has been studied clinically, in particular, the polysaccharide conjugate against E. coli O157. The surface polysaccharide antigen, O-specific polysaccharide, was linked to rEPA, recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In adults and children 2 to 5 years old, O157-rEPA conjugates, shown to be safe, induced high levels of antilipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G with bactericidal activities against E. coli O157, a functional bioassay that mimics the killing of inoculum in vivo. A similar construct using the B subunit of Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 as the carrier protein elicited both bactericidal and toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice. So far there is no clinical study of Stx-based human vaccine. Passive immunization of Stx-specific antibodies with humanized, chimeric, or human monoclonal antibodies, produced in transgenic mice, showed promising data in animal models and offered high prospects. Demonstrations of their safety and effectiveness in treating hemolytic-uremic syndrome or patients with EHEC infections are under way, and results are much anticipated. For future development, other virulence factors such as the nontoxic Stx B subunit or intimin should be included, either as carrier protein in conjugates or as independent components. The additional antigens from O157 may provide broader coverage to non-O157 Stx-producing E. coli and facilitate both preventive and therapeutic treatment.

  15. Detection and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104 and other STEC serogroups of public health concern

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens that cause outbreaks and serious cases of food-borne illness. Methods for detection and isolation of STEC, particularly the non-O157 STEC, are needed to prevent their transmission through contaminated fo...

  16. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...

  17. An environmental shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O145 clonal population exhibits high-level phenotypic variation that includes virulence traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O145 is one of the major non-O157 serotypes associated with severe human disease. Here we examined the genetic diversity, population structure, virulence potential, and antibiotic resistance profile of environmental O145 strains isolated from a ...

  18. Effect of high pressure impact on the survival of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli ('Big Six' and 0157) in ground beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a safe and effective technology for improving food safety while maintaining food quality attributes. Non-O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls, and the USDA Food Safety Ins...

  19. Thermal inactivation of Shiga-toxin producing cells of Escherichia coli in chemically-injected beef steaks cooked on a commericial open-flame gas grill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Previous studies have shown that chemical or mechanical tenderization transfers Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) throughout the interior of beef subprimals. Purpose: Evaluate the viability of ECOH or STEC in brine-injected beef subprimal...

  20. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (ECOH) and non-0157 Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC)in mechanically tenderized veal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We quantified thermal destruction of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and Shiga toxin-producing non-O157 E. coli (STEC) cells within mechanically tenderized veal cutlets following cooking on an electric skillet. For each of five trials, flattened veal cutlets (ca. 71.6 g; ca. 1/...

  1. Interactive effects of temperature, pH, and water activity on the growth kinetics of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O104:H4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The risk of non-O157 Escherichia coli strains has become a growing public health concern. Several studies characterized the behavior of E. coli O157:H7; however, no reports are available on the influence of multiple factors on E. coli O104:H4. This study examined the effects and interactions of tem...

  2. Antipathogenic properties of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate at concentrations below the MIC against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Kim, Wan-Seok; Lim, Jeesun; Nam, Sunyoung; Youn, Min; Nam, Seong-Won; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae-Hun; Park, Woojun; Park, Sungsu

    2009-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on virulence phenotypes and gene expression regulated by quorum sensing (QS) in Escherichia coli O157:H7 were demonstrated at concentrations of 1 to 100 microg/ml, which are lower than the MIC (539 +/- 22 microg/ml). At 25 microg/ml, the growth rate was not affected, but autoinducer 2 concentration, biofilm formation, and swarm motility decreased to 13.2, 11.8, and 50%, respectively. Survival at 5 days of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) that were fed the pathogen without and with EGCG were 47.1 and 76%, respectively. Real-time PCR data indicated decreased transcriptional level in many quorum sensing-regulated virulence genes at 25 microg/ml. Our results suggest that EGCG at concentrations below itsMIC has significant antipathogenic effects against E. coli O157:H7.

  3. A simple filtration technique to detect enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its toxins in beef by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, K; Kamijoh, Y; Ohashi, E; Nakanishi, H

    1997-01-01

    Primers, specific for a unique base substitution in uidA of Escherichia coli O157:H7, were coupled with oligonucleotides for the shiga-like toxin I (SLT-I) and SLT-II genes in a multiplex PCR assay. A minimum of 10(2) CFU per PCR (10 microliters) was necessary to amplify E. coli O157:H7-specific bands by multiplex PCR. Food particles as well as various unknown metabolic by-products of bacteria inhibited the PCR, but a simple two-step filtration procedure eliminated this inhibition. To reliably generate PCR products, an E. coli inoculum of 10(3) CFU g of food slurry-1 in a nonspecific medium was required with 6 h of enrichment at 37 degrees C. However, when the food homogenate was incubated overnight, E. coli O157:H7 at an initial inoculum of even 1 CFU g-1 was detected. PMID:9327582

  4. Chromogenic agar medium for detection and isolation of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 from fresh beef and cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Kalchayanand, Norasak; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wells, James E; Wheeler, Tommy L

    2013-02-01

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are clinically important foodborne pathogens. Unlike E. coli O157:H7, these foodborne pathogens have no unique biochemical characteristics to readily distinguish them from other E. coli strains growing on plating media. In this study, a chromogenic agar medium was developed in order to differentiate among non-O157 STEC strains of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 on a single agar medium. The ability of this chromogenic agar medium to select and distinguish among these pathogens is based on a combination of utilization of carbohydrates, b -galactosidase activity, and resistance to selective agents. The agar medium in combination with immunomagnetic separation was evaluated and successfully allowed for the detection and isolation of these six serogroups from artificially contaminated fresh beef. The agar medium in combination with immunomagnetic separation also allowed successful detection and isolation of naturally occurring non-O157 STEC strains present in cattle feces. Thirty-five strains of the top six non-O157 STEC serogroups were isolated from 1,897 fecal samples collected from 271 feedlot cattle. This chromogenic agar medium could help significantly in routine screening for the top six non-O157 STEC serogroups from beef cattle and other food.

  5. Genetic Diversity of the fliC Genes Encoding the Flagellar Antigen H19 of Escherichia coli and Application to the Specific Identification of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O121:H19

    PubMed Central

    Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O121:H19 belong to a specific clonal type distinct from other classical EHEC and major enteropathogenic E. coli groups and is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. Sequencing of the fliC genes associated with the flagellar antigen H19 (fliCH19) revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH19 gene sequences in E. coli. A cluster analysis of 12 fliCH19 sequences, 4 from O121 and 8 from non-O121 E. coli strains, revealed five different genotypes. All O121:H19 strains fell into one cluster, whereas a second cluster was formed by five non-O121:H19 strains. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 strains differ by 27 single nucleotide exchanges in their fliCH19 genes (98.5% homology). Based on allele discrimination of the fliCH19 genes, a real-time PCR test was designed for specific identification of EHEC O121:H19. The O121 fliCH19 PCR tested negative in 73 E. coli H19 strains that belonged to serogroups other than O121, including 28 different O groups, O-nontypeable H19, and O-rough:H19 strains. The O121 fliCH19 PCR reacted with all 16 tested O121:H19 strains and 1 O-rough:H19 strain which was positive for the O121 wzx gene. A cross-reaction was observed only with E. coli H32 strains which share sequence similarities in the target region of the O121 fliCH19 PCR. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O121 wzx) and the detection of O121 fliCH19 allele type contributes to improving the identification and molecular serotyping of EHEC O121:H19 motile and nonmotile strains and variants of these strains lacking stx genes. PMID:25862232

  6. Genetic Diversity of the fliC Genes Encoding the Flagellar Antigen H19 of Escherichia coli and Application to the Specific Identification of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O121:H19.

    PubMed

    Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick

    2015-06-15

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O121:H19 belong to a specific clonal type distinct from other classical EHEC and major enteropathogenic E. coli groups and is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. Sequencing of the fliC genes associated with the flagellar antigen H19 (fliCH19) revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH19 gene sequences in E. coli. A cluster analysis of 12 fliCH19 sequences, 4 from O121 and 8 from non-O121 E. coli strains, revealed five different genotypes. All O121:H19 strains fell into one cluster, whereas a second cluster was formed by five non-O121:H19 strains. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 strains differ by 27 single nucleotide exchanges in their fliCH19 genes (98.5% homology). Based on allele discrimination of the fliCH19 genes, a real-time PCR test was designed for specific identification of EHEC O121:H19. The O121 fliCH19 PCR tested negative in 73 E. coli H19 strains that belonged to serogroups other than O121, including 28 different O groups, O-nontypeable H19, and O-rough:H19 strains. The O121 fliCH19 PCR reacted with all 16 tested O121:H19 strains and 1 O-rough:H19 strain which was positive for the O121 wzx gene. A cross-reaction was observed only with E. coli H32 strains which share sequence similarities in the target region of the O121 fliCH19 PCR. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O121 wzx) and the detection of O121 fliCH19 allele type contributes to improving the identification and molecular serotyping of EHEC O121:H19 motile and nonmotile strains and variants of these strains lacking stx genes. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Growth media simulating ileal and colonic environments affect the intracellular proteome and carbon fluxes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933.

    PubMed

    Polzin, Sabrina; Huber, Claudia; Eylert, Eva; Elsenhans, Ines; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Herbert

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the intracellular proteome of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry after growth in simulated ileal environment media (SIEM) and simulated colonic environment media (SCEM) under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Differentially expressed intracellular proteins were identified and allocated to functional protein groups. Moreover, metabolic fluxes were analyzed by isotopologue profiling with [U-(13)C(6)]glucose as a tracer. The results of this study show that EDL933 responds with differential expression of a complex network of proteins and metabolic pathways, reflecting the high metabolic adaptability of the strain. Growth in SIEM and SCEM is obviously facilitated by the upregulation of nucleotide biosynthesis pathway proteins and could be impaired by exposition to 50 µM 6-mercaptopurine under aerobic conditions. Notably, various stress and virulence factors, including Shiga toxin, were expressed without having contact with a human host.

  8. Efficacy of plant-derived antimicrobials as antimicrobial wash treatments for reducing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Upadhyaya, Indu; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Roshni Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Schreiber, David; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 3 GRAS-status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and β-resorcylic acid (BR) applied as an antimicrobial wash for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples. "Red delicious" apples inoculated with a 5 strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to washing in sterile deionized water containing 0% PDA (control), 0.15% TC, 0.35% TC, 0.15% CR, 0.30% CR, 0.5% BR, or 1% BR for 1, 3, and 5 min at 23 °C in the presence and absence of 1% soil, and surviving pathogen populations on apples were enumerated at each specified time. All PDAs were more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 compared to the water wash treatment (P < 0.05) and reduced the pathogen by 4- to 5-log CFU/apple in 5 min. Chlorine (1%) was the most effective treatment reducing the pathogen on apples to undetectable levels in 1 min (P < 0.05). Moreover, the antimicrobial effect of CR and BR was not affected by the presence of soil, whereas the efficacy of TC and BR was decreased in the presence of soil. Further, no bacteria were detected in the wash solution containing CR and BR; however, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered in the control wash water and treatment solutions containing TC and chlorine, in the presence of 1% soil (P < 0.05). Results suggest that the aforementioned PDAs, especially CR and BR could be used effectively to kill E. coli O157:H7 on apples when used as a wash treatment. Studies on the sensory and quality characteristics of apples treated with PDAs are needed before recommending their usage. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Contributions of EspA Filaments and Curli Fimbriae in Cellular Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijay K.; Kudva, Indira T.; Bearson, Bradley L.; Stasko, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed increased adherence to HEp-2 cells and produced abundant biofilms. Transcriptional analysis revealed increased expression of espA as well as the csgA gene, which encodes curli fimbriae that are essential for biofilm formation. In the present study, we constructed hha espA, hha csgA, and hha csgA espA deletion mutants to determine the relative importance of EspA and CsgA in O157 adherence to HEp-2 cells and biofilm formation. In vitro adherence assays, conducted at 37°C in a tissue culture medium containing 0.1% glucose, showed that HEp-2 cell adherence required EspA because hha espA and hha csgA espA mutants adhered to HEp-2 cells at higher levels only when complemented with an espA-expressing plasmid. Biofilm assays performed at 28°C in a medium lacking glucose showed dependency of biofilm formation on CsgA; however EspA was not produced under these conditions. Despite production of detectable levels of EspA at 37°C in media supplemented with 0.1% glucose, the biofilm formation occurred independent of EspA. These results indicate dependency of O157 adherence to epithelial cells on EspA filaments, while CsgA promoted biofilm formation under conditions mimicking those found in the environment (low temperature with nutrient limitations) and in the digestive tract of an host animal (higher temperature and low levels of glucose). PMID:26900701

  10. Distinct Physiologic and Inflammatory Responses Elicited in Baboons after Challenge with Shiga Toxin Type 1 or 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Stearns-Kurosawa, D. J.; Collins, Valta; Freeman, Scott; Tesh, Vernon L.; Kurosawa, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a principal source of regional outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in the United States and worldwide. Primary bacterial virulence factors are Shiga toxin types 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2), and we performed parallel analyses of the pathophysiologies elicited by the toxins in nonhuman primate models to identify shared and unique consequences of the toxemias. After a single intravenous challenge with purified Stx1 or Stx2, baboons (Papio) developed thrombocytopenia, anemia, and acute renal failure with loss of glomerular function, in a dose-dependent manner. Differences in the timing and magnitude of physiologic responses were observed between the toxins. The animals were more sensitive to Stx2, with mortality at lower doses, but Stx2-induced renal injury and mortality were delayed 2 to 3 days compared to those after Stx1 challenge. Multiplex analyses of plasma inflammatory cytokines revealed similarities (macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and differences (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF]) elicited by the toxins with respect to the mediator induced and timing of the responses. Neither toxin induced detectable levels of plasma TNF-α. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the in vivo consequences of the toxins have been compared in a parallel and reproducible manner in nonhuman primates, and the data show similarities to patient observations. The availability of experimental nonhuman primate models for Stx toxemias provides a reproducible platform for testing antitoxin compounds and immunotherapeutics with outcome criteria that have clinical meaning. PMID:20308301

  11. Behavior of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts during the sprouting process as influenced by treatments with various chemicals.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Beuchat, L R

    1999-08-01

    The behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds subjected to conditions similar to those used commercially to grow and market sprouts as it is affected by applications of NaOCl, Ca(OCl)2, acidified NaClO2, acidified ClO2, Na3PO4, Vegi-Clean, Tsunami, Vortexx, or H2O2 at various stages of the sprouting process was determined. Application of 2,000 ppm of NaOCl, 200 and 2,000 ppm of Ca(OCl)2, 500 ppm of acidified ClO2, 10,000 ppm of Vegi-Clean, 80 ppm of Tsunami, or 40 and 80 ppm of Vortexx to germinated seeds significantly reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7. With the exception of acidified NaOCl2 at 1,200 ppm, spray applications of these chemicals did not significantly reduce populations or control the growth of E. coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts during the sprouting process. Populations of E. coli on alfalfa sprouts peaked at 6 to 7 log10 CFU/g 48 h after initiation of the sprouting process and remained stable despite further spraying with chemicals. The population of E. coli O157:H7 on sprouts as they entered cold storage at 9 +/- 2 degrees C remained essentially unchanged for up to 6 days. None of the chemical treatments evaluated was able to eliminate or satisfactorily reduce E. coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds and sprouts. Observations on the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to grow during production of alfalfa sprouts not subjected to chemical treatments are similar to those from a previous study in our laboratory on the behavior of Salmonella Stanley. Our results do not reveal a chemical treatment method to eliminate the pathogen from alfalfa sprouts. We have demonstrated that currently recommended procedures for sanitizing alfalfa seeds fail to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 and that the pathogen can grow to populations exceeding 7 1og10 CFU/g of sprouts produced using techniques not dissimilar to those used in the sprout industry.

  12. Characteristics of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from Swiss raw milk cheese within a 3-year monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, C; Giezendanner, N; Corti, S; Krause, G; Beutin, L; Danuser, J; Stephan, R

    2010-01-01

    Food is an important vehicle for transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). To assess the potential public health impact of STEC in Swiss raw milk cheese produced from cow's, goat's, and ewe's milk, 1,422 samples from semihard or hard cheese and 80 samples from soft cheese were examined for STEC, and isolated strains were further characterized. By PCR, STEC was detected after enrichment in 5.7% of the 1,502 raw milk cheese samples collected at the producer level. STEC-positive samples comprised 76 semihard, 8 soft, and 1 hard cheese. By colony hybridization, 29 STEC strains were isolated from 24 semihard and 5 soft cheeses. Thirteen of the 24 strains typeable with O antisera belonged to the serogroups O2, O22, and O91. More than half (58.6%) of the 29 strains belonged to O:H serotypes previously isolated from humans, and STEC O22:H8, O91:H10, O91:H21, and O174:H21 have also been identified as agents of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Typing of Shiga toxin genes showed that stx(1) was only found in 2 strains, whereas 27 strains carried genes encoding for the Stx(2) group, mainly stx(2) and stx(2vh-a/b). Production of Stx(2) and Stx(2vh-a/b) subtypes might be an indicator for a severe outcome in patients. Nine strains harbored hlyA (enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin), whereas none tested positive for eae (intimin). Consequently, semihard and hard raw milk cheese may be a potential source of STEC, and a notable proportion of the isolated non-O157 STEC strains belonged to serotypes or harbored Shiga toxin gene variants associated with human infections.

  13. Fate of shiga-toxin producing 0157:H7 and non-0157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within blade-tenderized beef steaks after cooking on a commerical open-flame gas grill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with about 3.5 or 5.5 log CFU/g of a five-strain mixture of rifampicin resistant (Rifr) Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and/or kanamycin resistant (Kanr) non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and then passed once throu...

  14. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 from ground beef using modified rainbow agar and post-immunomagnetic separation acid treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been estimated that at least 70% of human illnesses due to non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the United States are caused by the top six serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145). Detection and isolation procedures have been developed for analysis of food produ...

  15. Fitness of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)/Enteroaggregative E. coli O104:H4 in Comparison to That of EHEC O157: Survival Studies in Food and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Pichner, Rohtraud

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2011, one of the world's largest outbreaks of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred, caused by a rare Escherichia coli serotype, O104:H4, that shared the virulence profiles of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). The persistence and fitness factors of the highly virulent EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain, grown either in food or in vitro, were compared with those of E. coli O157 outbreak-associated strains. The log reduction rates of the different EHEC strains during the maturation of fermented sausages were not significantly different. Both the O157:NM and O104:H4 serotypes could be shown by qualitative enrichment to be present after 60 days of sausage storage. Moreover, the EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain appeared to be more viable than E. coli O157:H7 under conditions of decreased pH and in the presence of sodium nitrite. Analysis of specific EHEC strains in experiments with an EHEC inoculation cocktail showed a dominance of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4, which could be isolated from fermented sausages for 60 days. Inhibitory activities of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 toward several E. coli strains, including serotype O157 strains, could be determined. Our study suggests that EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 is well adapted to the multiple adverse conditions occurring in fermented raw sausages. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that STEC strain cocktails composed of several serotypes, instead of E. coli O157:H7 alone, be used in food risk assessments. The enhanced persistence of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 as a result of its robustness, as well as the production of bacteriocins, may account for its extraordinary virulence potential. IMPORTANCE In 2011, a severe outbreak caused by an EHEC/EAEC serovar O104:H4 strain led to many HUS sequelae. In this study, the persistence of the O104:H4 strain was compared with those of other outbreak-relevant STEC strains under conditions of fermented raw sausage production. Both O157:NM and O104:H4

  16. Inhibition of Antigen-Specific and Nonspecific Stimulation of Bovine T and B Cells by Lymphostatin from Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Bell, Charlotte R.; Elshina, Elizaveta; Hope, Jayne C.; Stevens, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally encoded 365-kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonization of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111, and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill defined. Using purified recombinant protein, we demonstrated that lymphostatin inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of bovine T cells and, to a lesser extent, proliferation of cytokine-stimulated B cells, but not NK cells. It broadly affected the T cell compartment, inhibiting all cell subsets (CD4, CD8, WC-1, and γδ T cell receptor [γδ-TCR]) and cytokines examined (interleukin 2 [IL-2], IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A, and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and rendered T cells refractory to mitogen for a least 18 h after transient exposure. Lymphostatin was also able to inhibit proliferation of T cells stimulated by IL-2 and by antigen presentation using a Theileria-transformed cell line and autologous T cells from Theileria-infected cattle. We conclude that lymphostatin is likely to act early in T cell activation, as stimulation of T cells with concanavalin A, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate combined with ionomycin, was inhibited. Finally, a homologue of lymphostatin from E. coli O157:H7 (ToxB; L7095) was also found to possess comparable inhibitory activity against T cells, indicating a potentially conserved strategy for interference in adaptive responses by attaching and effacing E. coli. PMID:27920212

  17. An Environmental Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O145 Clonal Population Exhibits High-Level Phenotypic Variation That Includes Virulence Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quinones, Beatriz; He, Xiaohua; Zhong, Wayne; Louie, Jacqueline W.; Lee, Bertram G.; Yambao, Jaszemyn C.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Cooley, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O145 is one of the major non-O157 serotypes associated with severe human disease. Here we examined the genetic diversity, population structure, virulence potential, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of environmental O145 strains recovered from a major produce production region in California. Multilocus sequence typing analyses revealed that sequence type 78 (ST-78), a common ST in clinical strains, was the predominant genotype among the environmental strains. Similarly, all California environmental strains belonged to H28, a common H serotype in clinical strains. Although most environmental strains carried an intact fliC gene, only one strain retained swimming motility. Diverse stx subtypes were identified, including stx1a, stx2a, stx2c, and stx2e. Although no correlation was detected between the stx genotype and Stx1 production, high Stx2 production was detected mainly in strains carrying stx2a only and was correlated positively with the cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin. All environmental strains were capable of producing enterohemolysin, whereas only 10 strains were positive for anaerobic hemolytic activity. Multidrug resistance appeared to be common, as nearly half of the tested O145 strains displayed resistance to at least two different classes of antibiotics. The core virulence determinants of enterohemorrhagic E. coli were conserved in the environmental STEC O145 strains; however, there was large variation in the expression of virulence traits among the strains that were highly related genotypically, implying a trend of clonal divergence. Several cattle isolates exhibited key virulence traits comparable to those of the STEC O145 outbreak strains, emphasizing the emergence of hypervirulent strains in agricultural environments. PMID:26637597

  18. Inhibition of Antigen-Specific and Nonspecific Stimulation of Bovine T and B Cells by Lymphostatin from Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cassady-Cain, Robin L; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Bell, Charlotte R; Elshina, Elizaveta; Hope, Jayne C; Stevens, Mark P

    2017-02-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally encoded 365-kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonization of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111, and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill defined. Using purified recombinant protein, we demonstrated that lymphostatin inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of bovine T cells and, to a lesser extent, proliferation of cytokine-stimulated B cells, but not NK cells. It broadly affected the T cell compartment, inhibiting all cell subsets (CD4, CD8, WC-1, and γδ T cell receptor [γδ-TCR]) and cytokines examined (interleukin 2 [IL-2], IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A, and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and rendered T cells refractory to mitogen for a least 18 h after transient exposure. Lymphostatin was also able to inhibit proliferation of T cells stimulated by IL-2 and by antigen presentation using a Theileria-transformed cell line and autologous T cells from Theileria-infected cattle. We conclude that lymphostatin is likely to act early in T cell activation, as stimulation of T cells with concanavalin A, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate combined with ionomycin, was inhibited. Finally, a homologue of lymphostatin from E. coli O157:H7 (ToxB; L7095) was also found to possess comparable inhibitory activity against T cells, indicating a potentially conserved strategy for interference in adaptive responses by attaching and effacing E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Cassady-Cain et al.

  19. Genetic Relatedness Among Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated Along the Animal Food Supply Chain and in Gastroenteritis Cases in Qatar Using Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Srikanth; Chang, YuChen; Scaria, Joy; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Peters, Kenlyn E; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Sultan, Ali; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli has been listed among the most important bacteria associated with foodborne illnesses around the world. We investigated the genetic relatedness among Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolated along the animal food supply chain and from humans diagnosed with gastroenteritis in Qatar. Samples were collected from different sources along the food supply chain and from patients admitted to the hospital with complaints of gastroenteritis. All samples were screened for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC using a combination of bacterial enrichment and molecular detection techniques. A proportional sampling approach was used to select positive samples from each source for further multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Seven housekeeping genes described for STEC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed by MLST. Isolates were characterized by allele composition, sequence type (ST) and assessed for epidemiologic relationship within and among different sources. Nei's genetic distance was calculated at the allele level between sample pools in each site downstream. E. coli O157:H7 occurred at a higher rate in slaughterhouse and retail samples than at the farm or in humans in our sampling. The ST171, an ST common to enterotoxigenic E. coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, was the most common ST (15%) in the food supply chain. None of the genetic distances among the different sources was statistically significant. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli pathogenic strains are present along the supply chain at different levels and with varying relatedness. Clinical isolates were the most diverse, as expected, considering the polyclonal diversity in the human microbiota. The high occurrence of these food adulterants among the farm products suggests that implementation of sanitary measures at that level might reduce the risk of human exposure.

  20. Mucosally-directed adrenergic nerves and sympathomimetic drugs enhance non-intimate adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to porcine cecum and colon

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunsheng; Lyte, Mark; Stevens, Mark P.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Brown, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine has been found to increase mucosal adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in explants of murine cecum and porcine distal colon. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that norepinephrine augments the initial, loose adherence of this important pathogen to the intestinal mucosa. In mucosal sheets of porcine cecum or proximal, spiral and distal colon mounted in Ussing chambers, norepinephrine (10 µM, contraluminal addition) increased mucosal adherence of wild-type E. coli O157:H7 strain 85–170; in the cecal mucosa, this effect occurred within 15 – 90 min after bacterial inoculation. In addition, norepinephrine transiently increased short-circuit current in cecal and colonic mucosal sheets, a measure of active anion transport. Norepinephrine was effective in promoting cecal adherence of a non-O157 E. coli strain as well as E. coli O157:H7 eae or espA mutant strains that are incapable of intimate mucosal attachment. Nerve fibers immunoreactive for the norepinephrine synthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase appeared in close proximity to the cecal epithelium, and the norepinephrine reuptake blocker cocaine, like norepinephrine and the selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist UK-14,304, increased E. coli O157:H7 adherence. These results suggest that norepinephrine, acting upon the large bowel mucosa, modulates early, non-intimate adherence of E. coli O157:H7 and probably other mucosa-associated bacteria. Sympathetic nerves innervating the cecocolonic mucosa may link acute stress exposure or psychostimulant abuse with an increased microbial colonization of the intestinal surface. This in turn may alter host susceptibility to enteric infections. PMID:16687138

  1. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, New Mexico, USA, 2004–2007

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Karen; Bareta, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sporadic infection with Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in New Mexico increased from 0.9 cases per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5–1.36) in 2004 to 1.7 (95% CI 1.14–2.26) in 2007. Non-O157 STEC was more common in nonwhite residents, children <5 years of age, and urban residents. PMID:19751594

  2. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome, Italy, 1988-2000.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Caprioli, Alfredo; Minelli, Fabio; Gianviti, Alessandra; De Petris, Laura; Edefonti, Alberto; Montini, Giovanni; Ferretti, Alfonso; De Palo, Tommaso; Gaido, Maurizio; Rizzoni, Gianfranco

    2003-01-01

    The mean annual incidence of hemolytic uremic syndrome in persons Escherichia coli (STEC) infection occurred in 73.1% of patients. STEC O157 was the most common serotype, but a considerable number of cases were from infections by non-O157 STEC.

  3. Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections Associated with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Italy, 1988–2000

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Alfredo; Minelli, Fabio; Gianviti, Alessandra; De Petris, Laura; Edefonti, Alberto; Montini, Giovanni; Ferretti, Alfonso; De Palo, Tommaso; Gaido, Maurizio; Rizzoni, Gianfranco

    2003-01-01

    The mean annual incidence of hemolytic uremic syndrome in persons <15 years of age in Italy from 1988 to 2000 was 0.28 per 100,000 population. Laboratory investigations showed that Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection occurred in 73.1% of patients. STEC O157 was the most common serotype, but a considerable number of cases were from infections by non-O157 STEC. PMID:12533290

  4. Inhibition of Water Absorption and Selective Damage to Human Colonic Mucosa Are Induced by Subtilase Cytotoxin Produced by Escherichia coli O113:H21

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Elizabeth; Masso, Mariana; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Zotta, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) is by far the most prevalent serotype associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) although many non-O157 STEC strains have been also isolated from patients with HUS. The main virulence factor of STEC is the Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) present in O157 and non-O157 strains. Recently, another toxin, named subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), has been isolated from several non-O157 strains and may contribute to the pathogenesis of HUS. Here, we have demonstrated that an O113:H21 STEC strain expressing SubAB and Stx2 inhibits normal water absorption across human colon and causes damage to the surface epithelium, necrosis, mononuclear inflammatory infiltration, edema, and marked mucin depletion. This damage was less marked, but nevertheless significant, when purified SubAB or E. coli O113:H21 expressing only SubAB was assayed. This is the first study showing that SubAB may directly participate in the mechanisms of diarrhea in children infected with non-O157 STEC strains. PMID:23732168

  5. Effects of stresses on the growth and Cytotoxicity of Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli in ground beef and spinach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of stresses on the growth and cytotoxicity of pathogenic Escherichia coli in beef and spinach. A mixture of three strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 or four strains of non-O157 STEC O26:H11, O103:H1, O104:H4, and O145:NM wa...

  6. Applicability of a multiplex PCR to detect O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 serogroups of Escherichia coli in cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Zachary; Shi, Xiaorong; Bai, Jianfa; Nagaraja, T G

    2012-05-04

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), particularly O157, are major food borne pathogens. Non-O157 STEC, particularly O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, have also been recognized as a major public health concern. Unlike O157, detection procedures for non-O157 have not been fully developed. Our objective was to develop a multiplex PCR to distinguish O157 and the 'top six' non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) and evaluate the applicability of the multiplex PCR to detect the seven serogroups of E. coli in cattle feces. Published sequences of O-specific antigen coding genes, rfbE (O157) and wzx and wbqE-F (non-O157), were analyzed to design serogroup-specific primers. The specificity of amplifications was confirmed with 138 known STEC strains and the reaction yielded the expected amplicons for each serogroup. In feces spiked with pooled 7 STEC strains, the sensitivity of the detection was 4.1 × 10(5)CFU/g before enrichment and 2.3 × 10(2) after 6h enrichment in E. coli broth. Additionally, 216 fecal samples from cattle were collected and tested by multiplex PCR and cultural methods. The multiplex PCR revealed a high prevalence of all seven serogroups (178 [O26], 108 [O45], 149 [O103], 30 [O111], 103 [O121], 5 [O145], and 160 [O157]) of 216 samples in fecal samples. Cultural procedures identified 33.1% (53/160) and 35.5% (11/31) of PCR-positive samples for E. coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups, respectively. Samples that were culture-positive were all positive by the multiplex PCR. The multiplex PCR can be used to identify serogroups of putative STEC isolates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diversity of CRISPR loci and virulence genes in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from various sources.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Yin, Shuang; Dudley, Edward G; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-07-02

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, including those of O157:H7 and the "big six" serogroups (i.e., O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are food-borne pathogens that pose a serious health threat to humans. Ruminants, especially cattle, are a major reservoir for O157 and non-O157 STEC. In the present study, 115 E. coli strains isolated from small and very small beef processing plants were screened for virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae) using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thirteen (11.3%) of the 115 isolates tested positive for stx1, stx2, or eae genes, but only 4 (3.5%) tested positive for either stx1 or stx2. A multiplex PCR reaction targeting eight O-serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, O157) identified 12 isolates as O26, O103, O111, or O145, with E. coli O26 being the most predominant serogroup (61.5%). The thirteen isolates were further analyzed using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) subtyping. Consistent with previous studies, CRISPR alleles from strains of the same serogroup were similar in their spacer content and order, regardless of the isolation source. A completely different CRISPR allele was observed in one isolate ("7-J") which exhibited a different O-serogroup (O78). Our results confirmed previous findings that CRISPR loci are conserved among phylogenetically-related strains. In addition, 8 E. coli O26 isolates and a collection of 42 E. coli O26 isolates were screened for 12 enterohemorrhagic E. coli-specific genes. Seven genes (ECs848-Hypothetical Protein, ECs2226-Hypothetical Protein, ECs3857-nleB, ECs3858-Hypothetical Protein, ECs4552-escF, ECs4553-Hypothetical Protein, and ECs4557-sepL) were found in all 50 isolates. An additional 5 genes (ECs1322-ureA urease subunit γ, ECs1323-ureB urease subunit β, ECs1326-ureF, ECs1561-Hypothetical Protein, and ECs1568-Hypothetical Protein) were found to be highly prevalent in isolates from human sources, while lower in

  8. Evaluation of the premier EHEC assay for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kehl, K S; Havens, P; Behnke, C E; Acheson, D W

    1997-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Shiga toxins (Premier EHEC assay; Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.) was compared to conventional sorbitol-MacConkey culture for the recovery of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. A total of 74 enteric pathogens, including 8 E. coli O157:H7 isolates, were recovered from 974 stool specimens. Two of these specimens were not tested by Premier assaying due to insufficient sample and are not considered in the data analysis. The Premier EHEC assay detected the 6 evaluable specimens which were culture positive for E. coli O157:H7 and identified an additional 10 specimens as containing Shiga toxin. Seven isolates were recovered from these 10 specimens by an immunoblot assay and were confirmed as toxin producers by a cytotoxin assay. Of these seven, four isolates were serotype O157:H7, one was O26:NM, one was O6:H-, and one was O untypeable:H untypeable. Three specimens contained Shiga toxin by both EHEC immunoassaying and cytotoxin testing; however, no cytotoxin-producing E. coli could be recovered. The sorbitol-MacConkey method had a sensitivity and a specificity of 60 and 100%, respectively, while the Premier EHEC assay had a sensitivity and a specificity of 100 and 99.7%, respectively, for E. coli O157:H7 only. The Premier EHEC assay also detected an additional 20% Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that were non-O157:H7. Thus, the Premier EHEC assay is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of all STEC isolates. Routine use would improve the detection of E. coli O157:H7 and allow for determination of the true incidence of STEC other than O157:H7. The presence of blood in the stool and/or the ages of the patients were poor predictors of the presence of STEC. Criteria need to be determined which would allow for the cost-effective incorporation of this assay into the routine screen for enteric pathogens in high-risk individuals, especially children. PMID:9230380

  9. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat marketed in Casablanca (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Badri, S; Fassouane, A; Filliol, I; Hassar, M; Cohen, N

    2011-03-01

    The contamination of meat and meat products with Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC), obtained from markets in Casablanca, Morocco, was investigated. A total of 460 meat and meat products were sampled between March 2004 and July 2006 analysed and 176 strains of E. coli were isolated from these samples. The presence of the stx1, stx2, eae and ehxA genes, recognized as major virulence factors of STEC, was tested in E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STEC was detected in 4 (0.9%) samples. The result of serotyping by molecular method showed that two of these STEC isolates corresponded to the serotype O157:H7. The others Shiga toxin-producing E. coli non-O157 corresponded to O6:H21 and O76:H19. The presence of O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC in meat and meat products marketed in Casablanca, Morocco, emphasizes the importance of implementing the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as well as the need for implementing, evaluating, and validating antimicrobial interventions to reduce the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms.

  10. Characterization and Molecular Subtyping of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains in Butcher Shops.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Victoria; Costa, Magdalena; Londero, Alejandra; Leotta, Gerardo A; Galli, Lucía

    2017-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important emerging foodborne human pathogens. Ruminants are the main animal reservoir of STEC currently known, and meat can become contaminated at different stages of the production chain. The aim of this work was to subtype and establish the epidemiological relatedness of non-O157 STEC strains isolated from ground beef and the environment in butcher shops before (evaluation stage, 2010-2011 period) and after (verification stage, 2013) implementing improvement actions. Sixty-eight non-O157 STEC strains were tested for eae, saa, ehxA, iha, efa1, toxB, subAB, cdt-V, astA, aggR, and aaiC genes, and stx1 and stx2 variants were determined. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was carried out with XbaI and XmaJI. From the 68 strains, 92.6%, 75.0%, 58.8%, 53.5%, 10.3%, 7.3%, and 4.4% were positive for iha, ehxA, subAB, saa, cdt-V, astA, and eae, respectively. All strains were aggR/aaiC-negative. PFGE showed that 19 strains grouped in 9 clusters and 41 showed unique XbaI patterns. During the evaluation stage (2010-2011), we identified clonal strains in different samples, circulating clones in different butcher shops, and more than one different strain in the same butcher shop. The bovine origin of meat and its manufacturing process could not ensure the total absence of all non-O157 STEC serotypes in this foodstuff. Most strains isolated during the evaluation (2010-2011) and verification (2013) stages did not exhibit a genotypic profile associated with human disease. It is necessary to conduct periodic reviews of the new epidemiological information and verify that the analyses of non-O157 STEC in food are appropriate to identify strains affecting the population.

  11. Shiga-toxin producing 0157:H7 and non-0157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within refrigerated, frozen, or frozen then thawed ground beef patties cooked on commercial open-flame gas or clam-shell electric grills

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the possible effect of both fat and grill type on the fate of serotype O157:H7 strains of Escherichia coli (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing strains of E. coli (STEC) in cooked ground beef patties. Both high fat and low fat ground beef (percent lean:fat = ca. 70:30 and 93:7, ...

  12. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliCH25 and fliCH28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O145:H25 and O145:H28.

    PubMed

    Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH25 and fliCH28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliCH25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliCH25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliCH28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC) O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1-10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy) and detection of the respective fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates.

  13. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliCH25 and fliCH28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O145:H25 and O145:H28

    PubMed Central

    Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH25 and fliCH28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliCH25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliCH25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliCH28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC) O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1–10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy) and detection of the respective fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates. PMID:26000885

  14. Use of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat Sequence Polymorphisms for Specific Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Strains of Serotypes O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121:H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7 by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2012-01-01

    We explored the genetic diversity of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to design simplex real-time PCR assays for each of the seven most important EHEC serotypes worldwide. A panel of 958 E. coli strains investigated for their CRISPR loci by high-throughput real-time PCR showed that CRISPR polymorphisms in E. coli strongly correlated with both O:H serotypes and the presence of EHEC virulence factors (stx and eae genes). The CRISPR sequences chosen for simplex real-time PCR amplification of EHEC strains belonging to the top 7 EHEC serogroups differentiated clearly between EHEC and non-EHEC strains. Specificity estimates for the CRISPR PCR assays varied from 97.5% to 100%. Sensitivity estimates for the assays ranged from 95.7% to 100%. The assays targeting EHEC O145:H28, O103:H2, and O45:H2 displayed 100% sensitivity. The combined usage of two simplex PCR assays targeting different sequences of the O26 CRISPR locus allowed detection of EHEC O26:H11 with 100% sensitivity. By combining two simplex PCR assays targeting different sequences of the EHEC O157 CRISPR locus, EHEC O157:H7 was detected with 99.56% sensitivity. EHEC O111:H8 and EHEC O121:H19 were detected with 95.9% and 95.7% sensitivity, respectively. This study demonstrates that the identification of EHEC serotype-specific CRISPR sequences is more specific than the mere identification of O-antigen gene sequences, as is used in current PCR protocols for detection of EHEC strains. PMID:23035199

  15. Characterization of Shiga toxin – producing Escherichia coli infections in beef feeder calves and the effectiveness of a prebiotic in alleviating Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the less-sensitive mouse model, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) challenges result in shedding that reflect the amount of infection and the expression of virulence factors such as Shiga toxins (Stx). The purpose of this study was to characterize the contribution of STEC diversity and Stx expression to shedding in beef feeder calves and to evaluate the effectiveness of a prebiotic, Celmanax®, to alleviate STEC shedding. Fecal samples were collected from calves at entry and after 35 days in the feedlot in spring and summer. STECs were evaluated using selective media, biochemical profile, serotyping and Stx detection. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and logistic regression. Results At entry, non-O157 STEC were dominant in shedding calves. In spring, 21%, 14% and 14% of calves acquired O157, non-O157 and mixed STEC infections, respectively. In contrast, 45%, 48% and 46% of calves in summer acquired O157, non-O157 and mixed STEC infections, respectively. Treatment with a prebiotic, Celmanax®, in spring significantly reduced 50% of the O157 STEC infections, 50% of the non-O157 STEC infections and 36% of the STEC co-infections (P = 0.037). In summer, there was no significant effect of the prebiotic on STEC infections. The amount of shedding at entry was significantly related to the number and type of STECs present and Stx expression (r2 = 0.82). The same relationship was found for shedding at day 35 (r2 = 0.85), but it was also related to the number and type of STECs present at entry. Stx - producing STEC infections resulted in 100 to 1000 × higher shedding in calves compared with Stx-negative STECs. Conclusions STEC infections in beef feeder calves reflect the number and type of STECs involved in the infection and STEC expression of Stx. Application of Celmanax® reduced O157 and non-O157 STEC shedding by calves but further research is required to determine appropriate dosages to manage STEC

  16. Fresh-cut Lettuce in Modified Atmosphere Packages Stored at Improper Temperatures Support Enterohemorrhagic E. coli Isolates to Survive Gastric Acid Challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Incidences of food-borne outbreaks involving enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains with mutations in a key regulatory gene, rpoS, have been reported. Incentives, if any, for losing this regulatory function are not clear since the RpoS regulator is required for the expression of several environ...

  17. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; Johnson, Roger P; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6-54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated.

  18. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Roger P.; Alexander, Trevor W.; McAllister, Tim A.; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6–54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated. PMID:27482711

  19. Development of a robust method for isolation of shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC) from fecal, plant, soil and water samples from a leafy greens production region in California.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Michael B; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G; Mandrell, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%), feral swine (4.7%), sediment (4.4%), and water (3.3%) samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%), feral swine (21.4%), birds (2.4%), small mammals (3.5%), deer or elk (8.3%), water (14.0%), sediment (12.3%), produce (0.3%) and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%). stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the "Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment.

  20. Development of a Robust Method for Isolation of Shiga Toxin-Positive Escherichia coli (STEC) from Fecal, Plant, Soil and Water Samples from a Leafy Greens Production Region in California

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Michael B.; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R.; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%), feral swine (4.7%), sediment (4.4%), and water (3.3%) samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%), feral swine (21.4%), birds (2.4%), small mammals (3.5%), deer or elk (8.3%), water (14.0%), sediment (12.3%), produce (0.3%) and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%). stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the “Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment. PMID:23762414

  1. Effect of high pressure processing on the survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (Big Six vs. O157:H7) in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Hsu, HsinYun; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Sites, Joseph; Cassidy, Jennifer; Scullen, Butch; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a safe and effective technology for improving food safety. Non-O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls, and the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has designated them as adulterants in meat (e.g. ground beef). In this study we compared the inactivation of multi-isolate cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 versus the non-O157:H7 STEC "Big Six" (i.e. O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef (83% lean) using HPP at refrigeration temperature (4-7 °C). A >5-log CFU/g inactivation of both the Big Six and O157:H7 cocktails were observed at 450 MPa for 15 min. In general, the Big Six cocktail was found more sensitive to pressure stress (p < 0.05). In contrast, HPP treatment at 250 MPa (30 min) inactivated only 2.3 log of the Big Six versus 1.0 log of O157:H7. HPP treatment at 350 MPa (30 min) inactivated 4.7 log of the Big Six vs. 3.2 log of O157:H7. Multiple-cycle HPP cycles (250 or 350 MPa, three 5 min treatments) did not result in a 5 log reduction of the non-O157:H7 or O157:H7 STEC. Our results indicate that HPP inactivation parameters which are effective for O157:H7 STEC can be used for the non-O157:H7 Big Six isolates in ground beef.

  2. Lactic acid resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and multidrug-resistant and susceptible Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport in meat homogenate.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Yang, Hua; Sofos, John N

    2013-12-01

    This study compared lactic acid resistance of individual strains of wild-type and rifampicin-resistant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and of susceptible and multidrug-resistant (MDR) and/or MDR with acquired ampC gene (MDR-AmpC) Salmonella against E. coli O157:H7. After inoculation of sterile 10% beef homogenate, lactic acid was added to a target concentration of 5%. Before acid addition (control), after acid addition (within 2 s, i.e. time-0), and 2, 4, 6 and 8 min after addition of acid, aliquots were removed, neutralized, and analyzed for survivors. Of wild-type and of rifampicin-resistant non-O157 STEC strains, irrespective of serogroup, 85.7% (30 out of 35 strains) and 82.9% (29 out of 35 strains), respectively, reached the detection limit within 0-6 min. Of Salmonella strains, 87.9% (29 out of 33 isolates) reached the detection limit within 0-4 min, irrespective of antibiotic resistance phenotype. Analysis of non-log-linear microbial survivor curves indicated that non-O157 STEC serogroups and MDR and susceptible Salmonella strains required less time for 4D-reduction compared to E. coli O157:H7. Overall, for nearly all strains and time intervals, individual strains of wild-type and rifampicin-resistant non-O157 STEC and Salmonella were less (P < 0.05) acid tolerant than E. coli O157:H7. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attaching-effacing lesions associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria in experimentally infected conventional neonatal goats.

    PubMed

    Wales, A D; Pearson, G R; Roe, J M; Hayes, C M; La Ragione, R M; Woodward, M J

    2005-01-01

    Four conventionally reared goats aged 6 days were inoculated orally with approximately 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of a non-verotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. All remained clinically normal. Tissues were sampled under terminal anaesthesia at 24 (two animals), 48 and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). E. coli O157:H7 was cultured from the ileum, caecum, colon and rectum of all animals, but the number of bacteria recovered at these sites varied between animals. Attaching-effacing (AE) lesions associated with O157 organisms, as confirmed by immunolabelling, were observed in the ileum of one of the two animals examined at 24 hpi, and in the ileum, caecum and proximal colon of an animal examined at 72 hpi. E. coli O157 organisms were detected at > or =10(5) cfu/g of tissue at these sites. In addition, AE lesions associated with unidentified bacteria were observed at various sites in the large bowel of the same animals. Lesions containing both E. coli O157 and unidentified bacteria (non-O157) were not observed. Non-O157 AE lesions were also observed in the large bowel of one of two uninoculated control animals. This indicated that three (one control and two inoculated) animals were colonized with an unidentified AE organism before the commencement of the experiment. The O157-associated AE lesions were observed only in animals colonized by non-O157 AE organisms and this raises questions about individual host susceptibility to AE lesions and whether non-O157 AE organisms influence colonization by E. coli O157.

  4. Escherichia coli O157:H7 restriction pattern recognition by artificial neural network.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, C A; Keller, J M; McAdoo, K K; Wang, D; Higgins, B; Bailey, C W; Thorne, J G; Payne, B J; Skala, M; Hahn, A W

    1995-01-01

    An artificial neural network model for the recognition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 restriction patterns was designed. In the training phase, images of two classes of E. coli isolates (O157:H7 and non-O157:H7) were digitized and transmitted to the neural network. The system was then tested for recognition of images not included in the training set. Promising results were achieved with the designed network configuration, providing a basis for further study. This application of a new generation of computation technology serves as an example of its usefulness in microbiology. PMID:8576341

  5. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and of multidrug-resistant E. coli from foods of animal origin illegally imported to the EU by flight passengers.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Szmolka, A; Smole Možina, S; Kovač, J; Strauss, A; Schlager, S; Beutlich, J; Appel, B; Lušicky, M; Aprikian, P; Pászti, J; Tóth, I; Kugler, R; Wagner, M

    2015-09-16

    The aim of this study was to reveal phenotype/genotype characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and multidrug resistant E. coli in food products of animal origin confiscated as illegal import at Austrian, German and Slovenian airports. VTEC isolates were obtained by using ISO guidelines 16654:2001 for O157 VTEC or ISO/ TS13136:2012 for non-O157 VTEC, with additional use of the RIDASCREEN® Verotoxin immunoassay. The testing of 1526 samples resulted in 15 VTEC isolates (1.0%) primarily isolated from hard cheese from Turkey and Balkan countries. Genotyping for virulence by using a miniaturized microarray identified a wide range of virulence determinants. One VTEC isolate (O26:H46) possessing intimin (eae) and all other essential genes of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) was designated as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). None of the other VTEC strains belonged to serogroups O157, O145, O111, O104 or O103. VTEC strains harbored either stx(1) (variants stx1(a) or stx(1c)) or st(x2) (variants stx(2a), stx(2b), stx(2a/d) or stx(2c/d)) genes. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated high genetic diversity and identified three new sequence types (STs): 4505, 4506 and 4507. Food samples collected from the Vienna airport were also tested for E. coli quantities using the ISO 16649:2001, and for detection of multidrug resistant phenotypes and genotypes. The resulting 113 commensal E. coli isolates were first tested in a pre-screening against 6 selected antimicrobials to demonstrate multidrug resistance. The resulting 14 multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates, representing 0.9% of the samples, were subjected to further resistance phenotyping and to microarray analyses targeting genetic markers of antimicrobial resistance and virulence. Genotyping revealed various combinations of resistance determinants as well as the presence of class 1, class 2 integrons. The isolates harbored 6 to 11 antibiotic

  6. Survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in broth as influenced by pH, water activity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, S; Ahmed, R; Gao, A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of and interactions between pH, aw and temperature on the survival of the top six non-O157 STECs and Escherichia coli O157:H7. All variables significantly affected the survival of all STEC serotypes. However, aw bore the most significant effect, followed by temperature and then pH. Examination of the effect of the interaction between these variables revealed that the interaction between aw and temperature was the most significant followed by the interaction between pH and temperature and then aw and pH. Decrease in aw resulted in population reduction of all serotypes studied. This reduction in population was significantly increased with the increase in temperature and was further significantly enhanced with decreasing pH. Examination of the differences in the survival among the individual serotypes revealed that the response of each serotype to aw or temperature changes was significantly different, while their response to pH changes was similar. Analysis of the relative survival of individual non-O157 STECs to O157:H7 revealed that the survival of O121 and O45 was not significantly different to O157:H7 while O103, O111, O145 and O26 showed less tolerance to the combined treatments, and their survival was significantly different from O157:H7. Results of this study estimate the interaction between pH, aw and temperature on the survival of the top six non-O157 STECs relative to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and provide important growth and no-growth condition which will offer risk assessors a means of estimating the likelihood of these pathogens, if present, would grow in response to the interaction between the three variables assessed. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Reproduced with the permission of the Office of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

  7. [Control of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in cattle].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Elsa C

    2006-01-01

    Cattle are recognized as the major reservoir of STEC and the source of infection for human beings. Until recently, intervention strategies to decrease the contamination of meat products have been focused on the slaughter plant with the application of practices to reduce the contamination and proliferation of STEC. This has now changed following the development of intervention strategies in the farm. This could be one of the most important points of intervention to lower the incidence of human infection. Vaccines, probiotics, bacteriophages, and changes in production practices may be useful as strategies to control EHEC in the cattle. The application of such intervention measures could be difficult due to the fact that this zoonotic agent rarely causes disease in bovines. The HUS is endemic in Argentina, and the factors leading to this epidemiological situation remain unknown. However, intervention strategies undoubtedly will contribute to reduce the incidence of this zoonosis.

  8. Detection, Characterization, and Typing of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Brendon D; Zelyas, Nathan; Berenger, Byron M; Chui, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases reported in numerous outbreaks around the world. Given the public health importance of STEC, effective detection, characterization and typing is critical to any medical laboratory system. While non-O157 serotypes account for the majority of STEC infections, frontline microbiology laboratories may only screen for STEC using O157-specific agar-based methods. As a result, non-O157 STEC infections are significantly under-reported. This review discusses recent advances on the detection, characterization and typing of STEC with emphasis on work performed at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab). Candidates for the detection of all STEC serotypes include chromogenic agars, enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Culture methods allow further characterization of isolates, whereas qPCR provides the greatest sensitivity and specificity, followed by EIA. The virulence gene profiles using PCR arrays and stx gene subtypes can subsequently be determined. Different non-O157 serotypes exhibit markedly different virulence gene profiles and a greater prevalence of stx1 than stx2 subtypes compared to O157:H7 isolates. Finally, recent innovations in whole genome sequencing (WGS) have allowed it to emerge as a candidate for the characterization and typing of STEC in diagnostic surveillance isolates. Methods of whole genome analysis such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and k-mer analysis are concordant with epidemiological data and standard typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis while offering additional strain differentiation. Together these findings highlight improved strategies for STEC detection using currently available systems and the development of novel approaches for future surveillance.

  9. Detection, Characterization, and Typing of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Brendon D.; Zelyas, Nathan; Berenger, Byron M.; Chui, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases reported in numerous outbreaks around the world. Given the public health importance of STEC, effective detection, characterization and typing is critical to any medical laboratory system. While non-O157 serotypes account for the majority of STEC infections, frontline microbiology laboratories may only screen for STEC using O157-specific agar-based methods. As a result, non-O157 STEC infections are significantly under-reported. This review discusses recent advances on the detection, characterization and typing of STEC with emphasis on work performed at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab). Candidates for the detection of all STEC serotypes include chromogenic agars, enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Culture methods allow further characterization of isolates, whereas qPCR provides the greatest sensitivity and specificity, followed by EIA. The virulence gene profiles using PCR arrays and stx gene subtypes can subsequently be determined. Different non-O157 serotypes exhibit markedly different virulence gene profiles and a greater prevalence of stx1 than stx2 subtypes compared to O157:H7 isolates. Finally, recent innovations in whole genome sequencing (WGS) have allowed it to emerge as a candidate for the characterization and typing of STEC in diagnostic surveillance isolates. Methods of whole genome analysis such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and k-mer analysis are concordant with epidemiological data and standard typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis while offering additional strain differentiation. Together these findings highlight improved strategies for STEC detection using currently available systems and the development of novel approaches for future surveillance. PMID:27148176

  10. Modulation of the enterohemorrhagic E. coli virulence program through the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Barnett Foster, Debora

    2013-01-01

    Enteric pathogens must not only survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract but must also coordinate expression of virulence determinants in response to localized microenvironments with the host. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a serious food and waterborne human pathogen, is well equipped with an arsenal of molecular factors that allows it to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and successfully colonize the large intestine. This review will explore how EHEC responds to various environmental cues associated with particular microenvironments within the host and how it employs these cues to modulate virulence factor expression, with a view to developing a conceptual framework for understanding modulation of EHEC’s virulence program in response to the host. In vitro studies offer significant insights into the role of individual environmental cues but in vivo studies using animal models as well as data from natural infections will ultimately provide a more comprehensive picture of the highly regulated virulence program of this pathogen. PMID:23552827

  11. Peri- and Postharvest Factors in the Control of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Beef.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Rodney A; Acuff, Gary R

    2014-12-01

    Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important causes of food-borne disease, with hemorrhagic colitis and, in some cases, hemolytic-uremic syndrome as the clinical manifestations of illness. Six serogroups and one serotype of STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157:H7) are responsible for the vast majority of cases in the United States. Based on recent data for all food commodities combined, 55.3% and 50.0% of the outbreaks of STEC O157 and non-O157 in the United States, respectively, are attributable to beef as a food source. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service declared these organisms as adulterants in raw, nonintact beef. In North America, cattle are a major reservoir of STEC strains, with organisms shed in the feces and contaminated hides of the animals being the main vehicle for spread to carcasses at slaughter. A number of peri- and postharvest interventions targeting STEC have been developed, and significant progress has been made in improving the microbiological quality of beef in the past 20 years as a result. However, continued improvements are needed, and accurate assessment of these interventions, especially for non-O157 STEC, would greatly benefit from improvements in detection methods for these organisms.

  12. Whole Genome Sequencing for Public Health Surveillance of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Other than Serogroup O157

    PubMed Central

    Chattaway, Marie A.; Dallman, Timothy J.; Gentle, Amy; Wright, Michael J.; Long, Sophie E.; Ashton, Philip M.; Perry, Neil T.; Jenkins, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are considered to be a significant threat to public health due to the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with human infection. In England STEC O157 is the most commonly detected STEC serogroup, however, the implementation of PCR at local hospital laboratories has resulted in an increase in the detection of non-O157 STEC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for routine public health surveillance of non-O157 STEC by comparing this approach to phenotypic serotyping and PCR for subtyping the stx-encoding genes. Of the 102 isolates where phenotypic and genotypic serotyping could be compared, 98 gave fully concordant results. The most common non-O157 STEC serogroups detected were O146 (22) and O26 (18). All but one of the 38 isolates that could not be phenotypically serotyped (designated O unidentifiable or O rough) were serotyped using the WGS data. Of the 73 isolates where a flagella type was available by traditional phenotypic typing, all results matched the H-type derived from the WGS data. Of the 140 sequenced non-O157 isolates, 52 (37.1%) harboured stx1 only, 42 (30.0%) had stx2 only, 46 (32.9%) carried stx1 and stx2. Of these, stx subtyping PCR results were available for 131 isolates and 121 of these had concordant results with the stx subtype derived from the WGS data. Of the 10 discordant results, non-specific primer binding during PCR amplification, due to the similarity of the stx2 subtype gene sequences was the most likely cause. The results of this study showed WGS provided a reliable and robust one-step process for characterization of STEC. Deriving the full serotype from WGS data in real time has enabled us to report a higher level of strain discrimination while stx subtyping provides data on the pathogenic potential of each isolate, enabling us to predict clinical outcome of each case and to monitor the emergence of hyper-virulent strains. PMID:26973632

  13. Virulence profiling of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli recovered from domestic farm animals in Northwestern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Lee, Bertram G.; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen that causes human gastrointestinal illnesses. The present study characterized the virulence profiles of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered from domestic animals in small rural farms within the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Mexico. Virulence genes coding for adhesins, cytotoxins, proteases, subtypes of Shiga toxin (Stx), and other effectors were identified in the STEC strains by PCR. The genotyping analysis revealed the presence of the effectors nleA, nleB, nleE, and nleH1-2, espK, and espN in the O157:H7 and O111:H8 STEC strains. Furthermore, the genes encoding the autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa) and subtilase (SubA) were exclusively identified in the O8:H19 eae-negative strains. The adhesin (iha) and the silent hemolysin (sheA) genes were detected in 79% of the O157 and non-O157 strains. To examine the relative toxicities of the STEC strains, a fluorescent Vero cell line, Vero-d2EGFPs, was employed to measure the inhibition of protein synthesis by Stx. Analysis of culture supernatants from serotype O8:H19 strains with the stx gene profile stx1a, stx2a, and stx2c and serotypes O75:H8 and O146:H8 strains with the stx gene profile stx1a, stx1c, and stx2b, resulted in a significant reduction in the Vero-d2EGFP fluorescent signal. These observations suggest that these non-O157 strains may have an enhanced ability to inhibit protein synthesis in Vero cells. Interestingly, analysis of the stx2c-positive O157:H7 strains resulted in a high fluorescent signal, indicating a reduced toxicity in the Vero-d2EGFP cells. These findings indicate that the O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered in the Culiacan Valley, display distinct virulence profiles and relative toxicities in mammalian cells and have provided information for evaluating risks associated with zoonotic STEC in this agricultural region in Mexico. PMID:24551599

  14. Virulence profiling of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli recovered from domestic farm animals in Northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A; Quiñones, Beatriz; Lee, Bertram G; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen that causes human gastrointestinal illnesses. The present study characterized the virulence profiles of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered from domestic animals in small rural farms within the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Mexico. Virulence genes coding for adhesins, cytotoxins, proteases, subtypes of Shiga toxin (Stx), and other effectors were identified in the STEC strains by PCR. The genotyping analysis revealed the presence of the effectors nleA, nleB, nleE, and nleH1-2, espK, and espN in the O157:H7 and O111:H8 STEC strains. Furthermore, the genes encoding the autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa) and subtilase (SubA) were exclusively identified in the O8:H19 eae-negative strains. The adhesin (iha) and the silent hemolysin (sheA) genes were detected in 79% of the O157 and non-O157 strains. To examine the relative toxicities of the STEC strains, a fluorescent Vero cell line, Vero-d2EGFPs, was employed to measure the inhibition of protein synthesis by Stx. Analysis of culture supernatants from serotype O8:H19 strains with the stx gene profile stx 1a, stx 2a, and stx 2c and serotypes O75:H8 and O146:H8 strains with the stx gene profile stx 1a, stx 1c, and stx 2b, resulted in a significant reduction in the Vero-d2EGFP fluorescent signal. These observations suggest that these non-O157 strains may have an enhanced ability to inhibit protein synthesis in Vero cells. Interestingly, analysis of the stx 2c-positive O157:H7 strains resulted in a high fluorescent signal, indicating a reduced toxicity in the Vero-d2EGFP cells. These findings indicate that the O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered in the Culiacan Valley, display distinct virulence profiles and relative toxicities in mammalian cells and have provided information for evaluating risks associated with zoonotic STEC in this agricultural region in Mexico.

  15. Pooling of Immunomagnetic Separation Beads Does Not Affect Detection Sensitivity of Six Major Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Noll, Lance W; Baumgartner, William C; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Cull, Charley A; Dewsbury, Diana M; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of the serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, often called non-O157 STEC, are foodborne pathogens. Cattle are asymptomatic reservoirs for STEC; the organisms reside in the hindgut and are shed in the feces, which serve as the source of food product contaminations. Culture-based detection of non-O157 STEC involves an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) step to capture the specific serogroups in complex matrices, such as feces. The IMS procedure is time consuming and labor intensive because of the need to subject each fecal sample to six individual beads. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate whether pooling of IMS beads affects sensitivity of non-O157 STEC detection compared with using individual IMS beads. The evaluation was done by comparing detection of serogroups in feces spiked with pure cultures (experiments 1 and 2) and from feces (n = 384) of naturally shedding cattle (experiment 3). In spiked fecal samples, detection with pools of three, four, six, or seven beads was similar to, or at times higher than, detection with individual IMS beads. In experiment 3, the proportions of fecal samples that tested positive for the six serogroups as detected by individual or pooled beads were similar. Based on noninferiority tests, detection with pooled beads was not substantially inferior to detection with individual beads (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the pooling of IMS beads is a better option for detection of STEC serogroups in fecal samples compared with individual beads because the procedure saves time and labor and has the prospect of a higher throughput.

  16. Heterogeneity of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome Patients, Cattle, and Food Samples in Central France

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, Nathalie; Boukhors, Karima; Bertin, Yolande; Forestier, Christiane; Martin, Christine; Livrelli, Valérie

    2001-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the molecular epidemiology of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was performed by using isolates from sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), animal reservoirs, and food products. The isolates belonged to the O91 and OX3 serogroups and were collected in the same geographical area over a short period of time. Five typing methods were used; some of these were used to explore potentially mobile elements like the stx genes or the plasmids (stx2-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP], stx2 gene variant, and plasmid analyses), and others were used to study the whole genome (ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]). The techniques revealed that there was great diversity among the O91 and OX3 STEC strains isolated in central France. A close relationship between strains of the same serotype having the same virulence factor pattern was first suggested by ribotyping. However, stx2-RFLP and stx2 variant analyses differentiated all but 5 of 21 isolates, and plasmid analysis revealed further heterogeneity; a unique combination of characteristics was obtained for all strains except two O91:H21 isolates from beef. The latter strains were shown by PFGE to be the most closely related isolates, with >96% homology, and hence may be subtypes of the same strain. Overall, our results indicate that the combination of stx2-RFLP, stx2 variant, and plasmid profile analyses is as powerful as PFGE for molecular investigation of STEC diversity. Finally, the non-O157:H7 STEC strains isolated from HUS patients were related to but not identical to those isolated from cattle and food samples in the same geographical area. The possibility that there are distinct lineages of non-O157:H7 STEC, some of which are more virulent for humans, should be investigated further. PMID:11375151

  17. Behavior of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on whole and sliced jalapeño and serrano peppers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC) on whole and slices of jalapeño and serrano peppers as well as in blended sauce at 25 ± 2 °C and 3 ± 2 °C was investigated. Chili peppers were collected from markets of Pachuca city, Hidalgo, Mexico. On whole serrano and jalapeño stored at 25 ± 2 °C or 3 ± 2 °C, no growth was observed for EPEC, ETEC, EIEC and non-O157-STEC rifampicin resistant strains. After twelve days at 25 ± 2 °C, on serrano peppers all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEP) strains had decreased by a total of approximately 3.7 log, whereas on jalapeño peppers the strains had decreased by approximately 2.8 log, and at 3 ± 2 °C they decreased to approximately 2.5 and 2.2 log respectively, on serrano and jalapeño. All E. coli pathotypes grew onto sliced chili peppers and in blended sauce: after 24 h at 25 ± 2 °C, all pathotypes had grown to approximately 3 and 4 log CFU on pepper slices and sauce, respectively. At 3 ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expansion of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli by Use of Bovine Antibiotic Growth Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Chui, Linda; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used in food-producing animals to promote growth and prevent infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of bovine antibiotic growth promoters (bAGPs) on the propagation and spread of Shiga toxin (Stx)–encoding phages in Escherichia coli. Co-culture of E. coli O157:H7 and other E. coli isolated from cattle in the presence of sublethal concentrations of bAGPs significantly increased the emergence of non-O157, Stx-producing E. coli by triggering the SOS response system in E. coli O157:H7. The most substantial mediation of Stx phage transmission was induced by oxytetracyline and chlortetracycline, which are commonly used in agriculture. bAGPs may therefore contribute to the expansion of pathogenic Stx-producing E. coli. PMID:27088186

  19. Expansion of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Use of Bovine Antibiotic Growth Promoters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Chui, Linda; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used in food-producing animals to promote growth and prevent infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of bovine antibiotic growth promoters (bAGPs) on the propagation and spread of Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding phages in Escherichia coli. Co-culture of E. coli O157:H7 and other E. coli isolated from cattle in the presence of sublethal concentrations of bAGPs significantly increased the emergence of non-O157, Stx-producing E. coli by triggering the SOS response system in E. coli O157:H7. The most substantial mediation of Stx phage transmission was induced by oxytetracyline and chlortetracycline, which are commonly used in agriculture. bAGPs may therefore contribute to the expansion of pathogenic Stx-producing E. coli.

  20. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111:H8 infections among attendees of a high school cheerleading camp.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John T; Bergmire-Sweat, David; Kennedy, Malinda; Hendricks, Kate; Garcia, Marianne; Marengo, Lisa; Wells, Joy; Ying, Michelle; Bibb, William; Griffin, Patricia M; Hoekstra, Robert M; Friedman, Cindy R

    2004-01-15

    Few US clinical laboratories screen stool specimens for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) other than E. coli O157. An outbreak of STEC O111:H8 infections indistinguishable from E. coli O157:H7 at a youth camp highlights the need to improve non-O157 STEC surveillance. Interviews of 521 (80%) of 650 attendees revealed 55 (11%) were ill; 2 developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Illness was associated with consuming salad during the camp's first lunch meal (hazard ratio [HR], 4.68; P<.01), consuming ice provided in barrels on the camp's final day (HR, 3.41; P<.01), eating cob corn (HR, 3.22; P<.01), and eating a dinner roll (HR, 2.82; P<.01). Cultures of 2 of 11 stools yielded E. coli O111:H8. Results of serologic testing and additional stool cultures demonstrated no evidence of infection with other bacterial pathogens, including E. coli O157, and supported infection with E. coli O111. Clinical laboratories should routinely screen suspect specimens for non-O157 STEC and should serotype and report Shiga-positive isolates.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from organic dairy farms, conventional dairy farms, and county fairs in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J; Hedberg, Craig W; Kaneene, John B; Ruegg, Pamela L; Warnick, Lorin D; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from organic dairy farms, conventional dairy farms, and Minnesota county fairs. A total of 83 STEC isolates (43 O157 and 40 non-O157 STEC) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility as determined by the automated broth microdilution method. Resistance to tetracycline was identified in 19 (23%) isolates and to sulphadimethoxine in 40 (48%) isolates. Half of the STEC isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was observed in 18 (62%) isolates from conventional farms and in 11 (48%) isolates from organic farms. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was more frequent in isolates from calves (77%) than from cows (39%). Multidrug resistant patterns were more common in non-O157 STEC than O157 STEC. This study provides data to document the degree of STEC antimicrobial resistance from dairy cattle sources in Minnesota. The use of antimicrobial agents on farms, and other environmental influences, may affect resistance patterns in isolates from cattle sources. Systematic surveillance of STEC from cattle could potentially detect emergence of antimicrobial resistance that may be spread to humans through the food chain.

  2. Emergence of Escherichia coli encoding Shiga toxin 2f in human Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections in the Netherlands, January 2008 to December 2011.

    PubMed

    Friesema, I; van der Zwaluw, K; Schuurman, T; Kooistra-Smid, M; Franz, E; van Duynhoven, Y; van Pelt, W

    2014-05-01

    The Shiga toxins of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can be divided into Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) with several sub-variants. Variant Stx2f is one of the latest described, but has been rarely associated with symptomatic human infections. In the enhanced STEC surveillance in the Netherlands, 198 STEC O157 cases and 351 STEC non-O157 cases, including 87 stx2f STEC isolates, were reported between 2008 and 2011. Most stx2f strains belonged to the serogroups O63:H6 (n=47, 54%), O113:H6 (n=12, 14%) and O125:H6 (n=12, 14%). Of the 87 stx2f isolates, 84 (97%) harboured the E. coli attaching and effacing (eae) gene, but not the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli haemolysin (hly) gene. stx2f STEC infections show milder symptoms and a less severe clinical course than STEC O157 infections. Almost all infections with stx2f (n=83, 95%) occurred between June and December, compared to 170/198 (86%) of STEC O157 and 173/264 (66%) of other STEC non-O157. stx2f STEC infections in the Netherlands are more common than anticipated, and form a distinct group within STEC with regard to virulence genes and the relatively mild disease.

  3. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverría, Analía Inés; Padola, Nora Lía

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. Outbreaks are linked to bovine food sources. STEC O157:H7 has been responsible for the most severe outbreaks worldwide. However, non-O157 serotypes have emerged as important enteric pathogens in several countries. The main virulence factor of STEC is the production of Shiga toxins 1 and 2. Additional virulence markers are a plasmid-encoded enterohemolysin (ehxA), an autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa), a catalase-peroxidase (katP), an extracellular serine protease (espP), a zinc metalloprotease (stcE), a subtilase cytotoxin (subAB), among others. Other virulence factors are intimin and adhesins that had a roll in the adherence of STEC to bovine colon. This review focuses on the virulence traits of STEC and especially on those related to the adhesion to bovine colon. The known of the interaction between STEC and the bovine host is crucial to develop strategies to control cattle colonization. PMID:23624795

  4. tir- and stx- positive Escherichia coli in stream waters in a metropolitan area

    Treesearch

    James A. Higgins; Kenneth T. Belt; Jeffrey S. Karns; Jonathan Russell-Anelli; Daniel R. Shelton

    2005-01-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, which may include the enteropathogenic E. coli and the enterohemorrhagic E. coli, are a significant cause of diarrheal disease among infants and children in both developing and developed areas. Disease outbreaks related to freshwater exposure have been documented, but the presence...

  5. THE WIDESPREAD OCCURRENCE OF THE ENTEROHEMOLYSIN GENE EHLYA AMONG ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The putative virulence factor enterohemolysin, encoded for by the ehlyA gene, has been closely associated with the pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) group. E. coli isolates from effluents from seven geographically dispersed municipal ...

  6. THE WIDESPREAD OCCURRENCE OF THE ENTEROHEMOLYSIN GENE EHLYA AMONG ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The putative virulence factor enterohemolysin, encoded for by the ehlyA gene, has been closely associated with the pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) group. E. coli isolates from effluents from seven geographically dispersed municipal ...

  7. Multiplex PCR for Diagnosis of Enteric Infections Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Roberto; Vidal, Maricel; Lagos, Rossana; Levine, Myron; Prado, Valeria

    2004-01-01

    A multiplex PCR for detection of three categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. With this method, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli were identified in fecal samples from patients with hemorrhagic colitis, watery diarrhea, or hemolytic-uremic syndrome and from food-borne outbreaks. PMID:15071051

  8. Validation of a method for simultaneous isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, and O145 from minced beef by an international ring-trial.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Karen; De Zutter, Lieven; Robyn, Joris; Daube, Georges; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; De Reu, Koen

    2012-05-01

    An isolation method described by Possé et al. (FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008;282:124-131) was satisfactorily validated in an international ring-trial using artificially contaminated minced beef samples. Until now, no validated method existed for the simultaneous isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 in food. Twelve laboratories from five European countries participated and received 16 inoculated beef samples contaminated with cold-stressed cells of the four serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 in two levels (approximately 30 and 300 CFU 25 g⁻¹) in duplicate. In addition, they received four non-inoculated samples. The isolation protocol comprised a selective enrichment step, a selective isolation step on a non-O157 agar plate differentiating the serogroups by color, followed by confirmation by plating on confirmation agar media and agglutination. All laboratories were able to isolate the inoculated serogroups from the samples, both for the high and the low inoculation level. Results did not differ whether in-house-prepared or ready-to-use non-O157 agar plates were used, demonstrating that by following the instructions laboratories managed to perform the complete protocol with success.

  9. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  10. Hha Represses Biofilm Formation in Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Affecting the Expression of Flagella and Curli Fimbriae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that produces a broad-spectrum of diarrheal illnesses in infected humans. Although the genetic and molecular mechanisms enabling EHEC O157:H7 to produce characteristic adherence on epithelial cells are well characterized, the g...

  11. Role of major surface structures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in initial attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection by human pathogens through fresh, minimally processed produce and solid plant-derived foods is a major concern of U.S. and global food industry and public health services. The enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a frequent and potent food borne pathogen that causes severe disease...

  12. Antimicrobial effects of weak acids on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under anaerobic conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Outbreaks of disease due to vegetative bacterial pathogens associated with acid foods (such as apple cider) have raised concerns about acidified vegetables and related products that have a similar pH (3.2 to 4.0). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related strains of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) have ...

  13. Assessment of physician knowledge and practices concerning Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection and enteric illness, 2009, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet).

    PubMed

    Clogher, Paula; Hurd, Sharon; Hoefer, Dina; Hadler, James L; Pasutti, Lauren; Cosgrove, Shaun; Segler, Suzanne; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Nicholson, Cindy; Booth, Hillary; Garman, Katie; Mody, Rajal K; Gould, L Hannah

    2012-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections cause acute diarrheal illness and sometimes life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Escherichia coli O157 is the most common STEC, although the number of reported non-O157 STEC infections is growing with the increased availability and use of enzyme immunoassay testing, which detects the presence of Shiga toxin in stool specimens. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of STEC infection facilitates appropriate therapy and may improve patient outcomes. We mailed 2400 surveys to physicians in 8 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites to assess their knowledge and practices regarding STEC testing, treatment, and reporting, and their interpretation of Shiga toxin test results. Of 1102 completed surveys, 955 were included in this analysis. Most (83%) physicians reported often or always ordering a culture of bloody stool specimens; 49% believed that their laboratory routinely tested for STEC O157, and 30% believed that testing for non-O157 STEC was also included in a routine stool culture. Forty-two percent of physicians were aware that STEC, other than O157, can cause HUS, and 34% correctly interpreted a positive Shiga toxin test result. All STEC knowledge-related factors were strongly associated with correct interpretation of a positive Shiga toxin test result. Identification and management of STEC infection depends on laboratories testing for STEC and physicians ordering and correctly interpreting results of Shiga toxin tests. Although overall knowledge of STEC was low, physicians who had more knowledge were more likely to correctly interpret a Shiga toxin test result. Physician knowledge of STEC may be modifiable through educational interventions.

  14. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Kim, G-H; Fratamico, P; Breidt, F; Oh, D-H

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the ability of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups to survive with exposure to synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) at room and refrigerated temperatures compared to E. coli O157:H7 and to examine the relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA. Resistant and sensitive strains belonging to five different STEC serogroups (O26, O103, O104, O111 and O157; n = 10) were used in this study. All strains were adapted in PJ (pH 3·8) stored at 4 and 20°C for 24 h, and then the relative transcription levels of genes in all strains were quantified using a real-time quantitative-PCR assay. After adaptation in PJ, the STEC strains were exposed to SGF (pH 1·5 and 2·0) at 37°C for 2 h. Generally, the STEC adapted in PJ at 4°C displayed enhanced survival compared to acid adaptation in PJ at 20°C and nonadapted controls with exposure to SGF (P < 0·05). Moreover, resistant strains exhibited higher survival rates compared to sensitive strains (P < 0·05). Overall, adaptation at 4°C resulted in significantly (P < 0·05) enhanced gene expression levels in PJ, and transcript levels of gadA were higher than those of the rpoS and adiA genes. The up-regulation of AR genes due to adaptation in PJ at low temperature may increase STEC survival in acidic environments such as the gastrointestinal tract. Some non-O157 STEC strains, including serotypes O103:H2 and O111:H8, showed relatively high AR levels similar to those of STEC O157:H7. Induction of AR genes in acidic fruit juice, and potentially in other acidic foods may increase the risk of foodborne illness by non-O157 STEC serogroups. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Escherichia coli O157:H7 lacking qseBC encoded quorum sensing system outcompetes the parent strain in colonization of cattle intestine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The qseBC encoded quorum-sensing system (QS) regulates motility of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in response to bacterial autoinducer-3 (AI-3) and mammalian stress hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). The qseC gene encodes a sensory kinase that post-autophosphorylati...

  16. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 bares the characteristics of both enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga...

  17. Determining the relative contribution and hierarchy of qseBC and hha in the regulation of flagellar motility of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a recent study we demonstrated that in comparison to the wild-type enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, a motility-compromised hha deletion mutant with an up-regulated type III secretion system and increased secretion of adherence proteins showed reduced fecal shedding in cattle. In...

  18. International Comparison of Clinical, Bovine, and Environmental Escherichia coli O157 Isolates on the Basis of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophage Insertion Site Genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is a major cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide, although the annual reported incidence of EHEC O157 associated HUS in various countries ranges forty-fold (0.01 to 0.41 cases per 100,000 population). Cattle are ...

  19. Hha controls Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation by differential regulation of global transcriptional regulators FlhDC and CsgD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that produces a broad-spectrum of diarrheal illnesses in infected humans. Although molecular mechanisms enabling EHEC O157:H7 to produce characteristic adherence on epithelial cells are well characterized, regulatory mechanisms...

  20. Commensal effect of pectate lyases secreted from Dickeya dadantii on the proliferation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 from leafy greens are serious food-safety concerns at the present period. Several phytopathogens have been suggested to help persistence and proliferation of the human enteropathogens in phyllosphere. In this work, influence of virulence ...

  1. Genome Sequences of 30 Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates Recovered from a Single Dairy Farm and Its Associated Off-Site Heifer-Raising Facility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Woo; Karns, Jeffrey S; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S; Haley, Bradd J

    2017-08-31

    Cattle are the primary reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the most frequently isolated serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections among humans in North America. To evaluate the diversity of E. coli O157:H7 isolates within a single dairy herd, the genomes of 30 isolates collected over a 7-year period were sequenced.

  2. Genome sequences of thirty Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from a single dairy farm and its associated off-site heifer raising facility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are the primary reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the most frequently isolated serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections among humans in North America. To evaluate the diversity of E. coli O157:H7 isolates within a single dairy herd the genomes of 30 isolates collected over a 7-ye...

  3. Different cellular origins and functions of extracellular proteins from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 as determined by comparative proteomic analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli is a diverse species of bacteria, including several pathotypes that cause a variety of diseases in humans. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and recently emerged shigatoxingenic enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) produce Shigatoxins and are major foodborne pathogens that can cause hem...

  4. Comparison of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Category: methodology improvements Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses of commercial Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection systems and kits in a side by side fashion. Experimental Design: Three commercial Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection tests (BAX, GDS, and GeneDisc) and two t...

  5. Prevalence of diarrhea-associated virulence genes and genetic diversity in Escherichia coli isolates from fecal material of various animal hosts.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Abhirosh; Mazumder, Asit

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the health risk associated with a given source of fecal contamination using bacterial source tracking (BST), it is important to know the occurrence of potential pathogens as a function of host. Escherichia coli isolates (n=593) from the feces of diverse animals were screened for various virulence genes: stx1 and stx2 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), eae and EAF (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC]), STh, STp, and LT (enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]), and ipaH (enteroinvasive E. coli [EIEC]). Eleven hosts were positive for only the eae (10.11%) gene, representing atypical EPEC, while two hosts were positive for both eae and EAF (1.3%), representing typical EPEC. stx1, stx2, or both stx1 and stx2 were present in 1 (0.1%,) 10 (5.56%), and 2 (1.51%) hosts, respectively, and confirmed as non-O157 by using a E. coli O157 rfb (rfbO157) TaqMan assay. STh and STp were carried by 2 hosts (2.33%) and 1 host (0.33%), respectively, while none of the hosts were positive for LT and ipaH. The repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis identified 221 unique fingerprints with a Shannon diversity index of 2.67. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that majority of the isolates clustered according to the year of sampling. The higher prevalence of atypical EPEC and non-O157 STEC observed in different animal hosts indicates that they can be a reservoir of these pathogens with the potential to contaminate surface water and impact human health. Therefore, we suggest that E. coli from these sources must be included while constructing known source fingerprint libraries for tracking purposes. However, the observed genetic diversity and temporal variation need to be considered since these factors can influence the accuracy of BST results.

  6. Evaluation of CHROMagar STEC and STEC O104 Chromogenic Agar Media for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Ruckly, Corinne; Carle, Isabelle; Lejay-Collin, Monique

    2013-01-01

    The performance of CHROMagar STEC and CHROMagar STEC O104 (CHROMagar Microbiology, Paris, France) media for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was assessed with 329 stool specimens collected over 14 months from patients with suspected STEC infections (June 2011 to August 2012). The CHROMagar STEC medium, after an enrichment broth step, allowed the recovery of the STEC strain from 32 of the 39 (82.1%) Shiga toxin-positive stool specimens, whereas the standard procedure involving Drigalski agar allowed the recovery of only three additional STEC strains. The isolates that grew on CHROMagar STEC medium belonged to 15 serotypes, including the prevalent non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) O157:H7, O26:H11, and O104:H4 serotypes. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the CHROMagar STEC medium were between 89.1% and 91.4%, 83.7% and 86.7%, 40% and 51.3%, and 98% and 98.8%, respectively, depending on whether or not stx-negative eae-positive E. coli was considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) or STEC that had lost Shiga toxin genes during infection. In conclusion, the good performance of CHROMagar STEC agar medium, in particular, the high negative predictive value, and its capacity to identify NSF O157:H7 as well as common non-O157 STEC may be useful for clinical bacteriology, public health, and reference laboratories; it could be used in addition to a method targeting Shiga toxins (detection of stx genes by PCR, immunodetection of Shiga toxins in stool specimens, or Vero cell cytotoxicity assay) as an alternative to O157 culture medium. This combined approach should allow rapid visualization of both putative O157 and non-O157 STEC colonies for subsequent characterization, essential for real-time surveillance of STEC infections and investigations of outbreaks. PMID:23284030

  7. The prevalence and characterization of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle and pigs in an abattoir in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, P. H.; Yam, W. C.; Ng, W. W.; Peiris, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in cattle and pigs in a Hong Kong abattoir. Faecal and carcass samples collected from 986 cattle and 487 pigs from an abattoir were tested for verotoxin (VT) by PCR and cytotoxicity assays. VTEC was isolated from 415 and 1-8% of cattle faecal and carcass samples and from 2.1 and 0.2% of porcine faecal and carcass samples, respectively. Amongst 409 VTEC isolates from cattle, 9 were serotype O157:H7 and eaeA+. The most prevalent vt genotype among bovine VTEC was vtl+vt2 (73.8%) and in porcine VTEC was vt2e+ (30%). None of the porcine VTEC isolates and 9.3% of the bovine VTEC isolates was eaeA+. The non-O157 serogroup VTEC isolates carrying eaeA and EHEC-hlyA belonged to serogroups O172, O15, O84, O91, O110 and O121. The local dietary preference for pork or chicken (rather than beef), the low VTEC carriage in pigs, the rarity of additional virulence factors (caeA) in VTEC isolated from cattle may explain the apparently low incidence of human diarrhoeal disease associated with VTEC in Hong Kong hitherto. However, the presence of non-O157 VTEC strains carrying the eacA virulence marker in cattle highlights the fact that sole reliance on sorbitol-MacConkey agar for screening human VTEC isolates may underestimate the human disease burden. The changing dietary habits of the population in Hong Kong reinforce the need for continued vigilance. PMID:11349966

  8. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC): “stealth” agents adept at avoiding detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which are typically associated with water- or food-borne outbreaks, are not considered to be “select agents”, presumably because they have low morality rates and are already present in water and raw foods. However, as “stealth” bioterrorism agents, designed to dest...

  9. Summer and Winter Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 in Feces of Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, Diana M A; Renter, David G; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2015-08-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw, nonintact beef products. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of these seven serogroups and the associated virulence genes (Shiga toxin [stx1, stx2], and intimin [eae]) in cattle feces during summer (June-August 2013) and winter (January-March 2014) months. Twenty-four pen floor fecal samples were collected from each of 24 cattle pens, in both summer and winter months, at a commercial feedlot in the United States. Samples were subjected to culture-based detection methods that included enrichment, serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation and plating on selective media, followed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for serogroup confirmation and virulence gene detection. A sample was considered STEC positive if a recovered isolate harbored an O gene, stx1, and/or stx2, and eae genes. All O serogroups of interest were detected in summer months, and model-adjusted prevalence estimates are as follows: O26 (17.8%), O45 (14.6%), O103 (59.9%), O111 (0.2%), O121 (2.0%), O145 (2.7%), and O157 (41.6%); however, most non-O157 isolates did not harbor virulence genes. The cumulative model-adjusted sample-level prevalence estimates of STEC O26, O103, O145, and O157 during summer (n=576) were 1.0, 1.6, 0.8, and 41.4%, respectively; STEC O45, O111, and O121 were not detected during summer months. In winter, serogroups O26 (0.9%), O45 (1.5%), O103 (40.2%), and O121 (0.2%) were isolated; however, no virulence genes were detected in isolates from cattle feces collected during winter (n=576). Statistically significant seasonal differences in prevalence were identified for STEC O103 and O157 (p<0.05), but data on other STEC were sparse. The results of this study indicate that although non-O157 serogroups were present, non-O157 STEC were

  10. Short communication: Behavior of different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes (O26:H11, O103:H2, O145:H28, O157:H7) during the manufacture, ripening, and storage of a white mold cheese.

    PubMed

    Miszczycha, S D; Bel, N; Gay-Perret, P; Michel, V; Montel, M C; Sergentet-Thevenot, D

    2016-07-01

    Ruminants are healthy carriers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). If good hygienic and agricultural practices at the farm level, especially during the milking process, are not adequately followed, milk and dairy products made with raw milk could become contaminated. Sporadic cases and rare food outbreaks have been linked with dairy products. Consequently, understanding STEC behavior in cheeses would help to evaluate risks for human health. The behavior of 4 different STEC strains belonging to the serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O145:H28, and O157:H7 were monitored during the manufacture, ripening, and storage of a white mold soft cheese. These strains, originating from dairy products, were inoculated individually in raw milk from cow at 10(2) cfu/mL. During the first 24 to 36h of the manufacturing stage, the STEC level increased by 2 to 3 log10 cfu/g. Over the course of the ripening stage, the concentration of the non-O157 STEC remained relatively constant, whereas a decrease of the E. coli O157:H7 concentration was observed. During the storage stage, the level of the different non-O157 STEC strains decreased slowly in the core and in the rind of cheeses. The non-O157 STEC level reached between 3.1 and 4.1 log10 cfu/g at d 56. Interestingly, the concentration of the E. coli O157:H7 strain decreased dramatically: the strains remained detectable only after enrichment. During ripening and storage, STEC levels were generally higher in rinds than in cheese cores. In contrast to what was seen in cheese cores, the E. coli O157:H7 strain remained enumerable in rinds during these steps. These results highlight that STEC can grow during the manufacture and survive during the ripening and storage of a white mold soft cheese. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in a Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolate of Serotype O111:H8

    PubMed Central

    Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Auvray, Frédéric; Forest, Karine; Oswald, Eric; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serogroup O111:H8, a major serotype responsible for human enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. In line with the recent CTX-M-15/O104:H4 E. coli outbreak, these data may reflect an accelerating spread of resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins within the E. coli population, including STEC isolates. PMID:22156432

  12. Adherence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli to Human Epithelial Cells: The Role of Intimin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-28

    Typhlocolltlsd genotype· adherence" LAlFAS + NA LAlFAS NAIweak DAIweak FAS· 118 Intimate bacterial adherence and NE lesions, as described by Staley...Additionally, two independent TnphoA mutants of EHEC strain CL-8 (0157:H7) were isolated and found deficient in bacterial factors necessary for NE lesion...intestinal NE lesions in gnotobiotic piglets. In vitro attachment and in vivo lesion formation by 86-24eaeMO was fully restored by a clone of EHEC 86-24

  13. Secretome Biomarkers for the Identification and Differentiation of Enterohemorrhagic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    filter membranes were washed with 100 mM of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) then centrifuged for 20 min at 14,100×g. Proteins from the whole-cell and... membrane for 20 min it was shaken, followed by centrifugation at 14,100×g for 40 min. The filter units were then transferred to new receptor tubes, and...YP_001463426.1 Multidrug efflux system subunit MdtA EC O139:H28 Transport Transporter activity Plasma membrane YP_002292692.1 Conserved

  14. Treatment of in vitro enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection using phage and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Dini, C; Bolla, P A; de Urraza, P J

    2016-07-01

    To assay the combination of phage and probiotics against EHEC in vitro on infected Hep-2 cells. Phage and probiotics treatments on EHEC O157:H7-infected Hep-2 cells were assayed individually or combined. The effect of freeze-drying on phage and probiotic antimicrobial activity was also studied. While treatment with phage alone increased cell detachment caused by EHEC infection, the treatments with MM alone or in combination with phage proved to effectively diminish cell damage caused by EHEC infection. Combined treatment showed a decrease in apoptotic cell count of 57·3% and a reduction in EHEC adhesion to cell monolayer of 1·2 log CFU. The simultaneous use of phage and probiotics showed no antagonistic effect, and freeze-drying did not affect their antipathogenic activity. The combination of phage and probiotics has great potential for reducing the number of pathogens adhered to epithelial cells during EHEC O157:H7 infection and attenuating the cytotoxic effect derived from it. Further in vivo assays are needed for assessing the actual effectiveness of the treatment. This study presents a freeze-dried formulation of phage and probiotics capable of controlling EHEC infections and reducing epithelial cell damage in vitro. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Curli variants of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 display distinct survival fitness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curli are adhesive fimbriae of Enterobactericaeae and are involved in surface attachment, cell aggregation and biofilm formation. They also mediate host cell invasion and are potent inducers of the host inflammatory response. Here we report that curli variants are distributed widely in Enterohemorrh...

  16. A Structure-Function Analysis of Shiga-Like Toxin Type 2 of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-07

    the Shiga toxin of Shigella dysenteriae I and the Shiga-like toxins of EHEC and in the identification of the toxin receptors, the biophysical ...10 Immunoreactivity 13C4 m m N^ N^ 16E6 m NA m NA with 1 19G8 NA NA NA NA VlAb :̂ BC5 + + + - + + + + Shiga toxin Shiga

  17. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ecuador: animal reservoirs, yet no human disease.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Gabriel; Garcés, Verónica; V, Verónica Barragan; Colman, Rebecca E; Seymour, Meagan; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is frequently isolated from cases of diarrhea in many industrialized countries; however, it is seldom found in developing countries. The present manuscript reports the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in Ecuadorian livestock, a country where enterohemorrhagic E. coli disease in humans has never been reported. The Ecuadorian isolates were genetically related to some strains linked to clinical cases in the United States as assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis.

  18. Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires intimin for enteropathogenicity in calves.

    PubMed

    Dean-Nystrom, E A; Bosworth, B T; Moon, H W; O'Brien, A D

    1998-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains require intimin to induce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in newborn piglets. Infection of newborn calves with intimin-positive or intimin-negative EHEC O157:H7 demonstrated that intimin is needed for colonization, A/E lesions, and disease in cattle. These results suggest that experiments to determine if intimin-based vaccines reduce O157:H7 levels in cattle are warranted.

  19. A tandem duplication of a 5-bp sequence in the rcsB gene confers biofilm-producing phenotype in Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 86-24

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofilm formation, which is an important bacterial survival and virulence attribute, is controlled by intricate regulatory networks. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen because infections with this agent could lead to hemorrhagic colitis, kidney dysfunction,...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF A 3.3-KB PLASMID OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 AND EVALUATION OF STABILITY OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED DERIVATIVES OF THIS PLASMID EXPRESSING GREEN FLUORESCENCE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 (strain 86-24) harbors a 3.3 kb, cryptic plasmid (pSP70) that does not encode a selectable phenotype. A transposon (Tn) encoding kanamycin resistance (Kan**r) was inserted by in vitro transposon mutagenesis at a random location on pSP70 to construct...

  1. Fatal case of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in an adult due to a rare serogroup O91 Entero hemorrhagic Escherichia coli associated with a Clostridium difficile infection. More than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Thomas; Limelette, Anne; Le Magrex-Debar, Elisabeth; Wynckel, Alain; Gouali, Malika; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Guyot-Colosio, Charlotte; de Champs, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, belonging to serogroup O91 has rarely been described. We report here a case of post-diarrheal HUS due to EHEC O91 in an elderly patient for whom diagnosis was delayed given a previously diagnosed C. difficile infection. This case highlights the usefulness of Shiga-toxin detection.

  2. Detection and Characterization of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Automated 5′ Nuclease PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Andersen, Marianne Thorup

    2003-01-01

    In recent years increased attention has been focused on infections caused by isolates of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) serotypes other than O157. These non-O157 VTEC isolates are commonly present in food and food production animals. Easy detection, isolation, and characterization of non-O157 VTEC isolates are essential for improving our knowledge of these organisms. In the present study, we detected VTEC isolates in bovine fecal samples by a duplex 5′ nuclease PCR assay (real-time PCR) that targets vtx1 and vtx2. VTEC isolates were obtained by colony replication by use of hydrophobic-grid membrane filters and DNA probe hybridization. Furthermore, we have developed 5′ nuclease PCR assays for the detection of virulence factors typically present in VTEC isolates, including subtypes of three genes of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. The 22 assays included assays for the detection of verocytotoxin genes (vtx1, vtx2), pO157-associated genes (ehxA, katP, espP, and etpD), a recently identified adhesin (saa), intimin (eae, all variants), seven subtypes of eae, four subtypes of tir, and three subtypes of espD. A number of reference strains (VTEC and enteropathogenic E. coli strains) and VTEC strains isolated from calves were tested to validate the PCR assays. The expected virulence profiles were detected for all reference strains. In addition, new information on the subtypes of LEE genes was obtained. For reference strains as well as bovine isolates, a consistent relationship between subtypes of the LEE genes was found, so that a total of seven different combinations of these were recognized (corresponding to the seven subtypes of eae). Isolates with 15 different serogroup-virulence profiles were isolated from 16 calves. Among these, 53% harbored LEE and 73% harbored factors carried by the large virulence plasmid. One LEE-negative isolate had the gene for the adhesin Saa. The most common virulence profile among the bovine

  3. Subtyping Escherichia coli Virulence Genes Isolated from Feces of Beef Cattle and Clinical Cases in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Renata; Goji, Noriko; Amoako, Kingsley; Chui, Linda; Kastelic, John; DeVinney, Rebekah; Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli infection are largely determined by virulence gene subtypes. This study used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-pyrosequencing assay to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms for subtyping three major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae) of pathogenic E. coli (O157, O26, O111, and O103) isolated from cattle over a 2-year interval (n = 465) and human clinical cases (n = 42) in western Canada. Most bovine isolates were PCR positive for at least one target virulence gene (367/465), whereas 100% of human isolates harbored eae in combination with at least one stx gene. Four Shiga toxin (1a, 2a, 2c, and 2e) and four eae (λ/γ1-eae, ɛ-eae, θ/γ2-eae, and β-eae) subtypes were identified in over 25 distinct virulence genotypes. Among cattle isolates, every serogroup, but O103, presented a dominant genotype (O157: stx1a+stx2a+λ/γ1-eae, O26: β-eae alone, and O111: stx1a+θ/γ2-eae). Similar patterns were found in human isolates, although it was not possible to establish a clear genotypic association between the two sources. Many O157 and non-O157 cattle isolates lacked stx genes; the absence was greater in non-O157 (75/258) and O157:non-H7 (19/40) than in O157:H7 strains (1/164). In addition, there was a greater diversity of virulence genotypes of E. coli isolated from cattle than those of human diseases, which could be due to sample characteristics (e.g., source and clinical condition). However, the majority of cattle strains had virulence profiles identical to those of clinical cases. Consequently, determining the presence of certain stx (stx1a and stx2a) and eae (λ/γ1-eae) subtypes known to cause human disease would be a valuable tool for risk assessment and prediction of disease outcome along the farm-to-fork continuum.

  4. Synchronous Disease Kinetics in a Murine Model for Enterohemorrhagic E. coli Infection Using Food-Borne Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Laurice J.; Bou Ghanem, Elsa N.; Leong, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Upon colonization of the intestinal epithelium, the attaching and effacing (AE) pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) effaces microvilli and forms pedestal-like structures beneath the adherent bacterium. The production of one of its virulence factors, the phage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) results in systemic disease, including the development of renal failure. Although EHEC does not productively infect conventional mice, EHEC infection can be modeled in mice utilizing a derivative of the natural murine AE pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Gavage of mice with CR(ΦStx2dact), a C. rodentium lysogenized by a phage encoding an Stx variant with high potency in mice, features AE lesion formation on intestinal epithelium and Stx-mediated systemic disease, including renal damage. This model is somewhat limited by mouse-to-mouse variation in the course of disease, with the time to severe morbidity (and required euthanasia) varying by as many as 5 days, a feature that limits pathological analysis at defined stages of disease. In the current study, we altered and optimized the preparation, dose, and mode of delivery of CR(ΦStx2dact), using food-borne route of infection to generate highly synchronous disease model. We found that food-borne inoculation of as few as 3 × 104 CR(ΦStx2dact) resulted in productive colonization and severe systemic disease. Upon inoculation of 1 × 108 bacteria, the majority of infected animals suffered weight loss beginning 5 days post-infection and all required euthanasia on day 6 or 7. This enhanced murine model for EHEC infection should facilitate characterization of the pathology associated with specific phases of Stx-mediated disease. PMID:27857935

  5. Occurrence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in dairy and meat processing environments.

    PubMed

    McKee, Rosemary; Madden, Robert H; Gilmour, Arthur

    2003-09-01

    From June 1999 to June 2000, 480 environmental swabs were collected from two abattoirs in Northern Ireland. In addition, from July 1999 to July 2000, 420 samples originating from raw cow's milk were collected from two Northern Ireland dairies. All samples were examined for the presence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). O157 with the use of selective enrichment in tryptone soya broth (TSB) and double-strength MacConkey broth purple (MBP) followed by immunomagnetic separation and selective plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime tellurite. Non-O157 VTEC was detected by selective enrichment in TSB-MBP and plating on MacConkey agar. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was also used to detect the presence of the VT1, VT2, and eae genes. Two (0.42%) of the 480 abattoir samples tested positive for VTEC; one isolate carried the VT2 gene only, and the other carried both the VT2 and the eae genes. Nine (2.14%) of the 420 dairy samples tested positive for VTEC; four carried the VT2 gene only, four carried both the VT2 and the eae genes, and one carried both the VT1 and the eae genes. These results indicate that the incidence of VTEC was low in the dairy and meat processing environment samples tested, and this finding may help to explain the low incidence of VTEC reported for the local human population.

  6. Virulence characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from raw meats and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Hoang Minh, Son; Kimura, Etsuko; Hoang Minh, Duc; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2015-03-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are dangerous foodborne pathogens. Foods are considered as important sources for STEC infection in human. In this study, STEC contamination of raw meats was investigated and the virulence factors of 120 clinical STEC strains characterized. STEC was detected in 4.4% of tested samples. Among 25 STEC strains from meats, five strains (20%) were positive for the eae gene, which encodes intimin, an important binding protein of pathogenic STEC. The remaining strains (80%) were eae-negative. However, 28% of them possessed the saa gene, which encodes STEC agglutinating adhesin. The ehxA gene encoding for enterohemolysin was found in 75% of the meat strains and the subAB gene, the product is of which subtilase cytotoxin, was found in 32% of these strains. The stx2a gene, a subtype of Shiga toxin gene (stx), was the most prevalent subtype among the identified meat STEC bacteria. None of the meat STEC was O157:H7 serotype. Nevertheless, 92% of them produced Shiga toxin (Stx). Among 120 clinical STEC strains, 30% and 70% strains harbored single and multiple stx subtypes, respectively. Most clinical STEC bacteria possessed eae (90.8%) and ehxA (96.7%) genes and 92.5% of them showed Stx productivity. Our study shows that some raw meat samples contain non-O157 STEC bacteria and some strains have virulence factors similar to those of clinical strains. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Development of a method for the detection of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in food.

    PubMed

    Gill, Alexander; Martinez-Perez, Amalia; McIlwham, Sarah; Blais, Burton

    2012-05-01

    The growing recognition of the role of non-O157 verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in foodborne illness underscores the importance of developing methods to detect it in the food supply. We describe here the development of a protocol for the detection, isolation, and characterization of VTEC from foods, designed for the serotype-independent enrichment, detection, and isolation of VTEC, in combination with rapid characterization of VTEC O157, O26, O103, O111, and O145. This study examined the inhibitory concentration of six antimicrobial agents used either singly or in combination for the optimal enrichment of a panel of 18 different O serogroups of VTEC in modified tryptic soy broth. Considerable variability in resistance to the different antimicrobials tested was noted among different VTEC strains. The combination enabling growth of strains of all 18 different O serogroups was vancomycin (10 μg/ml) and cefsulodin (3 μg/ml). A similar combination of antimicrobials formulated in agar plates was found beneficial in the recovery of VTEC strains from enrichment broth cultures. The efficacy of these media in the recovery of selected VTEC (O26, O103, O111, O145, and O157) from ground beef and O157 VTEC from lettuce, spinach, and apple cider was demonstrated. The selective enrichment media described herein would appear suitable for incorporation in methods for the recovery and detection of a wide range of VTEC serogroups.

  8. Classification of Shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes with hyperspectral microscope imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.; Ladely, Scott R.; Gurram, Prudhvi; Kwon, Heesung; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C.

    2012-05-01

    Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. A conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and needs long time for the results. Since optical detection method is promising for realtime, in-situ foodborne pathogen detection, acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTF)-based hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) method has been developed for identifying pathogenic bacteria because of its capability to differentiate both spatial and spectral characteristics of each bacterial cell from microcolony samples. Using the AOTF-based HMI method, 89 contiguous spectral images could be acquired within approximately 30 seconds with 250 ms exposure time. From this study, we have successfully developed the protocol for live-cell immobilization on glass slides to acquire quality spectral images from STEC bacterial cells using the modified dry method. Among the contiguous spectral imagery between 450 and 800 nm, the intensity of spectral images at 458, 498, 522, 546, 570, 586, 670 and 690 nm were distinctive for STEC bacteria. With two different classification algorithms, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Sparse Kernel-based Ensemble Learning (SKEL), a STEC serotype O45 could be classified with 92% detection accuracy.

  9. Acute encephalopathy associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by Escherichia coli O157: H7 and rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Imataka, G; Wake, K; Suzuki, M; Yamanouchi, H; Arisaka, O

    2015-05-01

    We reported a case of a 22-months child with hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with encephalopathy. As the cause of this case, the involvements of verotoxin 1 and 2 caused by O157: the H7 strain of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and rotavirus were presumed. We administered brain hypothermic therapy and steroid pulse therapy in the intensive care unit, but we were not able to save his life and the child died on the 6th day from the onset.

  10. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Lactic Acid and Citric Acid Blend against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Carcass Surface Tissue.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Adler, Jeremy M; Belk, Keith E

    2015-12-01

    Studies were conducted to (i) determine whether inoculants of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli biotype I effectively served as surrogates for E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Salmonella when prerigor beef carcass tissue was treated with a commercially available blend of lactic acid and citric acid (LCA) at a range of industry conditions of concentration, temperature, and pressure; (ii) determine the antimicrobial efficacy of LCA; and (iii) investigate the use of surrogates to validate a hot water and LCA sequential treatment as a carcass spray intervention in a commercial beef harvest plant. In an initial laboratory study, beef brisket tissue samples were left uninoculated or were inoculated (∼6 log CFU/cm(2)) on the adipose side with E. coli O157:H7 (5-strain mixture), non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (12-strain mixture), Salmonella (6-strain mixture), or nonpathogenic E. coli (5-strain mixture). Samples were left untreated (control) or were treated with LCA, in a spray cabinet, at one of eight combinations of solution concentration (1.9 and 2.5%), solution temperature (43 and 60°C), and application pressure (15 and 30 lb/in(2)). In a second study, the E. coli surrogates were inoculated (∼6 log CFU/cm(2)) on beef carcasses in a commercial facility to validate the use of a hot water treatment (92.2 to 92.8°C, 13 to 15 lb/in(2)) followed by an LCA treatment (1.9%, 50 to 51.7°C, 13 to 15 lb/in(2), 10 s). In the in vitro study, surrogate and pathogen bacteria did not differ in their response to the tested LCA treatments. Treatment with LCA reduced (P < 0.05) inoculated populations by 0.9 to 1.5 log CFU/cm(2), irrespective of inoculum type. The hot water and LCA sequential treatments evaluated in the commercial facility reduced (P < 0.05) the inoculated nonpathogenic E. coli surrogates on carcasses by 3.7 log CFU/cm(2). This study therefore provides the meat industry with data for this sequential multiple hurdle system for the

  11. Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotypes isolated from sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, I T; Hatfield, P G; Hovde, C J

    1997-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains from sheep are described. One flock was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive sheep was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of chromosomal DNA and toxin gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Ten PFGE patterns and five RFLP patterns, identified among the isolates, showed that multiple E. coli O157:H7 strains were isolated from one flock, that a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli O157:H7 strains, and that the strains shed by individuals changed over time. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture off 10 g of ovine feces. In contrast, strains of eight STEC serotypes other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of sheep from a separate flock without enrichment. The predominant non-O157 STEC serotype found was O91:NM (NM indicates nonmotile), and others included O128:NM, O88:NM, O6:H49, and O5:NM. Irrespective of serotype, 98% of the ovine STEC isolates possessed various combinations of the virulence-associated genes for Shiga toxin(s) and the attaching-and-effacing lesion (stx1, stx2, and eae), suggesting their potential for human pathogenicity. The most common toxin-eae genotype was positive for stx1, stx2, and eae. A Vero cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that 90% of the representative STEC isolates tested expressed the toxin gene. The report demonstrates that sheep transiently shed a variety of STEC strains, including E. coli O157:H7, that have potential as human pathogens. PMID:9157149

  12. Comparison of Agar Media for Detection and Quantification of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle Feces.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Zachary R; Lewis, Gentry L; Moxley, Rodney A

    2016-06-01

    The isolation and quantification of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle feces are challenging. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of selected agar media in an attempt to identify an optimal medium for the detection and quantification of non-O157 STEC in cattle feces. Comparison studies were performed using CHROMagar STEC, Possé differential agar (Possé), Possé modified by the reduction or addition of antimicrobials, STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin C (SHIBAM), and SHIBAM modified by the addition of antimicrobials. Fourteen STEC strains, two each belonging to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157, were used to test detection in inoculated fecal suspensions at concentrations of 10(2) or 10(3) CFU/g. One STEC strain from each of these seven serogroups was used to estimate the concentration of recovered STEC in feces inoculated at 10(3), 10(4), or 10(5) CFU/g. Significantly more suspensions (P < 0.05) were positive for STEC when plated on Possé containing reduced concentrations of novobiocin and potassium tellurite compared with SHIBAM, but not SHIBAM modified by containing these same antimicrobials at the same concentrations. Numerically, more suspensions were positive for STEC by using this same form of modified Possé compared with Possé, but this difference was not statistically significant. More suspensions were positive for STEC cultured on CHROMagar STEC compared with those on Possé (P < 0.05) and on modified Possé (P = 0.05). Most inoculated fecal suspensions below 10(4) CFU/g of feces were underestimated or not quantifiable for the concentration of STEC by using CHROMagar STEC or modified Possé. These results suggest that CHROMagar STEC performs better than Possé or SHIBAM for detection of STEC in bovine feces, but adjustments in the concentrations of novobiocin and potassium tellurite in the latter two media result in significant improvements in their

  13. Immersion in antimicrobial solutions reduces Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on beef cheek meat.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, John W; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Wang, Rong; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of immersing beef cheek meat in antimicrobial solutions on the reduction of O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), non-O157:H7 STEC, and Salmonella enterica. Beef cheek meat was inoculated with O157:H7 STEC, non-O157:H7 STEC, and S. enterica on both the adipose and muscle surfaces. The inoculated cheek meat was then immersed in one of seven antimicrobial solutions for 1, 2.5, or 5 min: (i) 1% Aftec 3000 (AFTEC), (ii) 2.5% Beefxide (BX), (iii) 300 ppm of hypobromous acid (HOBR), (iv) 2.5% lactic acid (LA2.5), (v) 5% lactic acid (LA5), (vi) 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate (LEV-SDS), or (vii) 220 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (POA). Inoculated cheek meat was also immersed in 80 °C tap water (HW) for 10 s. In general, increasing immersion duration in antimicrobial solutions did not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) increase effectiveness. Immersion in HW for 10 s was the most effective intervention, reducing STEC and S. enterica by 2.2 to 2.3 log CFU/cm2 on the adipose surface and by 1.7 to 1.8 log CFU/cm2 on the muscle surface. Immersion for 1 min in AFTEC, BX, LA2.5, LA5, or POA was also effective as an intervention, reducing STEC and S. enterica by 0.8 to 2.0 log CFU/cm2 on the adipose surface and by 0.6 to 1.4 log CFU/cm2 on the muscle surface. Immersion for 1 min in HOBR or LEV-SDS was not an effective intervention because STEC and S. enterica reductions ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 log CFU/cm2, which were not significantly different (P ≥ 0.05) from the reductions obtained when cheek meat was immersed in room temperature tap water. We conclude that immersion of cheek meat in HW for 10 s and immersion for 1 min in AFTEC, BX, LA2.5, LA5, or POA effectively reduced levels of STEC and S. enterica.

  14. Factors associated with regulatory action involving investigation of illnesses associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in products regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    PubMed

    Green, Alice L; Seys, Scott; Douris, Aphrodite; Levine, Jeoff; Robertson, Kis

    2014-07-01

    We described characteristics of the Escherichia coli O157 and Escherichia coli non-O157 illness investigations conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) during the 5-year period from 2006 through 2010. We created a multivariable logistic regression model to determine characteristics of these investigations that were associated with FSIS regulatory action, which was defined as having occurred if a product recall occurred or if FSIS personnel performed an environmental health assessment (Food Safety Assessment) at the implicated establishment. During this period, FSIS took regulatory action in 38 of 88 (43%) investigations. Illness investigations in which FoodNet states were involved were more likely to result in regulatory action. Illness investigations in which state and local traceback, or FSIS traceback occurred were more likely to result in regulatory action. Reasons for lack of action included evidence of cross-contamination after the product left a regulated establishment, delayed notification, lack of epidemiological information, and insufficient product information.

  15. [Hygienic-sanitary quality in abattoirs from Tucuman province, Argentina. Detection, isolation and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Pérez Terrazzino, Gabriela B; Condorí, Marina S; López Campo, Alejandro; Vega, Silvia; Carbonari, Carolina; Chinen, Isabel; Rivas, Marta; de Castillo, Marta C; Jure, María A

    Cattle are the main reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and the strategies to prevent the transmission of these microorganisms are concentrated in the slaughtering plant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality and the frequency of detection of STEC in beef carcasses in abattoirs from Tucuman province. Two hundred and seventy four beef carcass sponges were processed; the count of generic E. coli was marginal in 9 (3,3%) of them. Escherichia coli O157 was isolated in 4 (1,4%) samples; 2 of which were characterized as stx2c(vh-a)/eae/ehxA whereas the other 2 were non-toxigenic strains. Non-O157 E. coli ONT:H49, stx2a/ehxA/saa was isolated from 1 sample (0,4%). In this work the quality of the analyzed product indicates that the good practices of manufacture are fulfilled in slaughtering facilities in Tucumán province. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracellular motility and cell-to-cell transmission of enterohemorrhagic E. coli is driven by EspFU-mediated actin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Velle, Katrina B.

    2017-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are closely-related pathogens that attach tightly to intestinal epithelial cells, efface microvilli, and promote cytoskeletal rearrangements into protrusions called actin pedestals. To trigger pedestal formation, EPEC employs the tyrosine phosphorylated transmembrane receptor Tir, while EHEC relies on the multivalent scaffolding protein EspFU. The ability to generate these structures correlates with bacterial colonization in several animal models, but the precise function of pedestals in infection remains unclear. To address this uncertainty, we characterized the colonization properties of EPEC and EHEC during infection of polarized epithelial cells. We found that EPEC and EHEC both formed distinct bacterial communities, or “macrocolonies,” that encompassed multiple host cells. Tir and EspFU, as well as the host Arp2/3 complex, were all critical for the expansion of macrocolonies over time. Unexpectedly, EspFU accelerated the formation of larger macrocolonies compared to EPEC Tir, as EspFU-mediated actin assembly drove faster bacterial motility to cell junctions, where bacteria formed a secondary pedestal on a neighboring cell and divided, allowing one of the daughters to disengage and infect the second cell. Collectively, these data reveal that EspFU enhances epithelial colonization by increasing actin-based motility and promoting an efficient method of cell-to-cell transmission. PMID:28771584

  17. An In Vitro Combined Antibiotic-Antibody Treatment Eliminates Toxicity from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Craig; Zhang, Guodong; Patfield, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Treating Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) gastrointestinal infections is difficult. The utility of antibiotics for STEC treatment is controversial, since antibiotic resistance among STEC isolates is widespread and certain antibiotics dramatically increase the expression of Shiga toxins (Stxs), which are some of the most important virulence factors in STEC. Stxs contribute to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which develops in considerable proportions of patients with STEC infections. Understanding the antibiotic resistance profiles of STEC isolates and the Stx induction potential of promising antibiotics is essential for evaluating any antibiotic treatment of STEC. In this study, 42 O157:H7 or non-O157 STEC isolates (including the “big six” serotypes) were evaluated for their resistance against 22 antibiotics by using an antibiotic array. Tigecycline inhibited the growth of all of the tested STEC isolates and also inhibited the production of Stxs (Stx2 in particular). In combination with neutralizing antibodies to Stx1 and Stx2, the tigecycline-antibody treatment fully protected Vero cells from Stx toxicity, even when the STEC bacteria and the Vero cells were cultured together. The combination of an antibiotic such as tigecycline with neutralizing antibodies presents a promising strategy for future STEC treatments. PMID:26100707

  18. An in vitro combined antibiotic-antibody treatment eliminates toxicity from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Craig; Zhang, Guodong; Patfield, Stephanie; He, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Treating Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) gastrointestinal infections is difficult. The utility of antibiotics for STEC treatment is controversial, since antibiotic resistance among STEC isolates is widespread and certain antibiotics dramatically increase the expression of Shiga toxins (Stxs), which are some of the most important virulence factors in STEC. Stxs contribute to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which develops in considerable proportions of patients with STEC infections. Understanding the antibiotic resistance profiles of STEC isolates and the Stx induction potential of promising antibiotics is essential for evaluating any antibiotic treatment of STEC. In this study, 42 O157:H7 or non-O157 STEC isolates (including the "big six" serotypes) were evaluated for their resistance against 22 antibiotics by using an antibiotic array. Tigecycline inhibited the growth of all of the tested STEC isolates and also inhibited the production of Stxs (Stx2 in particular). In combination with neutralizing antibodies to Stx1 and Stx2, the tigecycline-antibody treatment fully protected Vero cells from Stx toxicity, even when the STEC bacteria and the Vero cells were cultured together. The combination of an antibiotic such as tigecycline with neutralizing antibodies presents a promising strategy for future STEC treatments. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Detection of Escherichia coli via VOC Profiling using Secondary Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (SESI-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiangjiang; Hill, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC O157:H7), as well as its recently emerging non-O157 relatives, are a notorious group of pathogenic bacteria associated with foodborne outbreaks. In this study, we demonstrated that secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) could be a rapid and accurate detection technology for foodborne pathogens. With SESI-MS volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling, we were able to detect and separate a group of eleven E. coli strains from two major foodborne bacteria, S. aureus and S. Typhimurium in three food modeling media. In addition, heat map analysis of relative peak intensity show that there are six core peaks (m/z of 65, 91, 92, 117, 118 and 119) present and at a similar intensity in all eleven E. coli strains at the experimental conditions we tested. These peaks can be considered conserved VOC biomarkers for E. coli species (robustly produced after just four hours of growth). Bacterial strain-level differentiation was also attempted via VOC profiling, and we found that EC O157:H7 and EC O145 were differentiable from all other EC strains under the conditions investigated. PMID:23541210

  20. Variable tellurite resistance profiles of clinically-relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) influence their recovery from foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Kerangart, Stéphane; Douëllou, Thomas; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar; Sergentet-Thévenot, Delphine; Cournoyer, Benoit; Loukiadis, Estelle

    2016-10-01

    Tellurite (Tel)-amended selective media and resistance (Tel-R) are widely used for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from foodstuffs. Tel-R of 81 O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from animal, food and human was thus investigated. Variations of STEC tellurite minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been observed and suggest a multifactorial and variable tellurite resistome between strains. Some clinically-relevant STEC were found highly susceptible and could not be recovered using a tellurite-based detection scheme. The ter operon was highly prevalent among highly Tel-R STEC but was not always detected among intermediately-resistant strains. Many STEC serogroup strains were found to harbor sublines showing a gradient of MIC values. These Tel-R sublines showed statistically significant log negative correlations with increasing tellurite concentration. Whatever the tellurite concentration, the highest number of resistant sublines was observed for STEC belonging to the O26 serogroup. Variations in the number of these Tel-R sublines could explain the poor recovery of some STEC serogroups on tellurite-amended media especially from food products with low levels of contamination. Comparison of tellurite MIC values and distribution of virulence-related genes showed Tel-R and virulence to be related.

  1. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli alters murine intestinal epithelial tight junction protein expression and barrier function in Shiga toxin independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Roxas, Jennifer Lising; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Bellmeyer, Amy; Tesfay, Samuel; Royan, Sandhya; Falzari, Kanakeshwari; Harris, Antoneicka; Cheng, Hao; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Hecht, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is implicated in the development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, but early symptoms of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection such as non-bloody diarrhea may be Stx-independent. In this study, we defined the effects of EHEC, in the absence of Stx, on the intestinal epithelium using a murine model. EHEC colonization of intestines from two groups of antibiotic-free and streptomycin-treated C57Bl/6J mice were characterized and compared. EHEC colonized the cecum and colon more efficiently than the ileum in both groups; however, greater amounts of tissue-associated EHEC were detected in streptomycin-pretreated mice. Imaging of intestinal tissues of mice infected with bioluminescent EHEC further confirmed tight association of the bacteria to the cecum and colon. Greater numbers of EHEC were also cultured from stool of streptomycin-pretreated mice, as compared to those that received no antibiotic. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that EHEC infection leads to microvillous effacement of mouse colonocytes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of colonic tissues of infected mice revealed a slight increase in the number of lamina propria polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Transmucosal electrical resistance, a measure of epithelial barrier function, was reduced in colonic tissues of infected animals. Increased mucosal permeability to 4KDa FITC-Dextran was also observed in colonic tissues of infected mice. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that EHEC infection resulted in redistribution of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-3 and increased expression of claudin-2 while ZO-1 localization remained unaltered. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that EHEC altered mRNA transcription of Ocln, Cldn2 and Cldn3. Most notably, claudin-2 expression was significantly increased and correlated with increased intestinal permeability. Our data indicate that C57Bl/6J mice serve as an in vivo model to study the physiological

  2. Prevalence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Enterobacteriaceae on Hands of Workers in Halal Cattle Abattoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shamsul, Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Adamu, Muhammad Tukur; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Khairani-Bejo, Siti

    2016-09-01

    Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for characterisation and serotyping. The results have shown that no Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated on the hands of abattoir workers before and after work. However, a total prevalence of 9.7% was recorded for all samples during work. For non-O157:H7, total prevalence of 33.3% during work and 13% after work were obtained. High prevalence was recorded in sample taken during work from Tampin, Jasin and Kemaman (100% each) while low prevalence where observed in Shah Alam, Banting and Ipoh (20% each). Based on the findings the hygienic practices of hand washing among the workers in few locations was found to be low especially after work.

  3. Efa1 Influences Colonization of the Bovine Intestine by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Serotypes O5 and O111

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Mark P.; van Diemen, Pauline M.; Frankel, Gad; Phillips, Alan D.; Wallis, Timothy S.

    2002-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) comprises a broad group of bacteria, some of which cause attaching and effacing (AE) lesions and enteritis in animals and humans. Non-O157 STEC serotypes contain a gene (efa1) that mediates attachment to cultured epithelial cells. An almost-identical gene in enteropathogenic E. coli (lifA) encodes lymphostatin, which inhibits the proliferation of mitogen-activated lymphocytes and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. We have investigated the role of the efa1 gene in colonization of 4- and 11-day-old conventional calves by STEC serotypes O5 and O111. Our findings show that Efa1 is required for efficient colonization of the bovine intestinal tract by STEC, since efa1 deletion and insertion mutants were shed in the feces in significantly lower numbers. In addition, efa1 mutations dramatically reduced the number of bacteria associated with the intestinal epithelium. Expression and secretion of locus for enterocyte effacement-encoded type III secreted proteins that are required for adhesion and AE-lesion formation were impaired by mutation of efa1 in STEC but not by mutation of lifA in enteropathogenic E. coli. However, STEC efa1 mutants retain the ability to nucleate filamentous actin under sites of bacterial attachment to cultured eukaryotic cells. Efa1 is only the second STEC factor shown to influence carriage of the bacteria in the bovine intestine. Our data may have implications for strategies to reduce the prevalence of STEC in cattle. PMID:12183566

  4. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 infections associated with sprout consumption - Europe and North America, May-July 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-12-20

    In May 2011, public health authorities in Europe began investigating an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 infections that ultimately involved more than 4,000 persons in 16 countries. Early in the outbreak, it became evident that international surveillance would be necessary to determine the scope of the outbreak, characterize the disease, and identify the source. This report describes surveillance conducted in the United States, which involved active case-finding, use of laboratory testing protocols specific to non-O157 STEC, interviews to identify potential exposures of interest, and documentation of clinical courses. Six cases in the United States were associated with the outbreak. Although European epidemiologic studies, including analyses of restaurant cohorts and traceback investigations, ultimately implicated raw fenugreek sprouts as the food vehicle, none of the patients in the United States definitively recalled sprout consumption. These events highlight challenges in investigating outbreaks, particularly those caused by rare pathogens or associated with food vehicles that are consumed in small quantities as part of other dishes. Clinical laboratories should adhere to STEC testing recommendations because they are critical for identification of rare or novel STEC pathogens. Robust public health infrastructure is necessary to effectively manage and resolve foodborne outbreaks.

  5. Epidemiological analysis of a large enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111 outbreak in Japan associated with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and acute encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Y; Misaki, T; Ishida, Y; Nagira, M; Watahiki, M; Isobe, J; Terajima, J; Iyoda, S; Mitobe, J; Ohnishi, M; Sata, T; Taniguchi, K; Tada, Y; Okabe, N

    2015-10-01

    A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O111 and O157 occurred in Japan in April 2011. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and trace-back investigation to determine the source of EHEC O111 infection and risk factors for severe complications. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to help define cases. A total of 86 individuals met the case definition. Of these, 40% experienced haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), 24% acute encephalopathy, and 6% died. Illness was significantly associated with eating the raw beef dish yukhoe (odds ratio 19·64, 95% confidence interval 7·03-54·83), the likely food vehicle. EHEC O111 and its closely related stx-negative variants were found in the beef. HUS occurred most frequently in individuals aged 5-9 years, and this age group was significantly associated with acute encephalopathy. The prevalence of HUS and acute encephalopathy was higher than in previous non-O157-related outbreaks, indicating a high risk of severe complications.

  6. Prevalence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Enterobacteriaceae on Hands of Workers in Halal Cattle Abattoirs in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsul, Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Adamu, Muhammad Tukur; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Khairani-Bejo, Siti

    2016-01-01

    Background Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for characterisation and serotyping. Results The results have shown that no Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated on the hands of abattoir workers before and after work. However, a total prevalence of 9.7% was recorded for all samples during work. For non-O157:H7, total prevalence of 33.3% during work and 13% after work were obtained. High prevalence was recorded in sample taken during work from Tampin, Jasin and Kemaman (100% each) while low prevalence where observed in Shah Alam, Banting and Ipoh (20% each). Conclusions Based on the findings the hygienic practices of hand washing among the workers in few locations was found to be low especially after work. PMID:27904427

  7. Escherichia coli Pathotypes Occupy Distinct Niches in the Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Jessica P.; Caldwell, Matthew E.; Cohen, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Since the first step of the infection process is colonization of the host, it is important to understand how Escherichia coli pathogens successfully colonize the intestine. We previously showed that enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain E. coli EDL933 colonizes a niche in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine that is distinct from that of human commensal strains, which explains how E. coli EDL933 overcomes colonization resistance imparted by some, but not all, commensal E. coli strains. Here we sought to determine if other E. coli pathogens use a similar strategy. We found that uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 and enteropathogenic E. coli E2348/69 occupy intestinal niches that are distinct from that of E. coli EDL933. In contrast, two enterohemorrhagic strains, E. coli EDL933 and E. coli Sakai, occupy the same niche, suggesting that strategies to prevent colonization by a given pathotype should be effective against other strains of the same pathotype. However, we found that a combination of commensal E. coli strains that can prevent colonization by E. coli EDL933 did not prevent colonization by E. coli CFT073 or E. coli E2348/69. Our results indicate that development of probiotics to target multiple E. coli pathotypes will be problematic, as the factors that govern niche occupation and hence stable colonization vary significantly among strains. PMID:24566621

  8. Structural and Functional Characterization of Cleavage and Inactivation of Human Serine Protease Inhibitors by the Bacterial SPATE Protease EspPα from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, André; Joerss, Hanna; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    EspPα and EspI are serine protease autotransporters found in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. They both belong to the SPATE autotransporter family and are believed to contribute to pathogenicity via proteolytic cleavage and inactivation of different key host proteins during infection. Here, we describe the specific cleavage and functional inactivation of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) by EspPα and compare this activity with the related SPATE EspI. Serpins are structurally related proteins that regulate vital protease cascades, such as blood coagulation and inflammatory host response. For the rapid determination of serpin cleavage sites, we applied direct MALDI-TOF-MS or ESI-FTMS analysis of coincubations of serpins and SPATE proteases and confirmed observed cleavage positions using in-gel-digest of SDS-PAGE-separated degradation products. Activities of both serpin and SPATE protease were assessed in a newly developed photometrical assay using chromogenic peptide substrates. EspPα cleaved the serpins α1-protease inhibitor (α1-PI), α1-antichymotrypsin, angiotensinogen, and α2-antiplasmin. Serpin cleavage led to loss of inhibitory function as demonstrated for α1-PI while EspPα activity was not affected. Notably, EspPα showed pronounced specificity and cleaved procoagulatory serpins such as α2-antiplasmin while the anticoagulatory antithrombin III was not affected. Together with recently published research, this underlines the interference of EspPα with hemostasis or inflammatory responses during infection, while the observed interaction of EspI with serpins is likely to be not physiologically relevant. EspPα-mediated serpin cleavage occurred always in flexible loops, indicating that this structural motif might be required for substrate recognition. PMID:25347319

  9. Characterization of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 isolated from human in Poland between 1996 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A; Wołkowicz, T; Chróst, A; Szych, J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 infections can be comparable with STEC O157 infections in severity of the acute haemolytic-uremic syndrome HUS and long-term sequelae. Among O26 STEC isolates, highly virulent clone O26:H11/H- Sequence Type 29 (ST 29) emerged in Germany in mid-1990s and spread to European countries. However, up to date, no STEC O26:H11/H- belonging to ST29 has been documented in Poland. In this study, we determined the relationship and clonal structure, stx genotypes, plasmid gene profiles and antimicrobial resistance of nine human STEC O26:H11/H- strains from human patients in Poland between 1996 and 2014. Of the 9 human STEC O26:H11/H- strains, two belonged to ST29 and were isolated from two children with HUS and renal failure with sepsis respectively. These strains showed the molecular characteristics of the emerging human-pathogenic ST29 clone (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+, ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). The remaining STEC O26:H11/H- strains examined in this study, belonged to ST21, with plasmid genes profiles frequently reported in ST21 strains in Europe. STEC O26 infections with serious human health consequences highlight the need of continuous surveillance of non-O157 STEC and implementation of the diagnostic approaches focused on their detection. Significance and impact of the study: These study provides the first data on the occurrence of emerging Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 ST 29 clone in human patients in Poland. Those strains show the molecular characteristics of highly virulent new ST29 pathotype (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+ ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). These results demonstrated prompt efforts to implement diagnostic approaches detection of those pathogen in the European countries. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Characterization and survival of environmental Escherichia coli O26 isolates in ground beef and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christine E; Bratcher, Christy L; Singh, Manpreet; Wang, Luxin

    2015-04-01

    In addition to Escherichia coli O157:H7, shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O26 was added to the zero-tolerance adulterant list together with other 5 non-O157 STEC serogroups in 2012. Four farm O26 isolates were used in this study; they were obtained from a on-farm survey study conducted in Alabama. The presence of 3 major pathogenic genes (stx1, stx2, and eaeA) was determined through multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two major pathogenic gene profiles were observed: 3 of the farm isolates contain only the eaeA gene whereas 1 farm isolate has both the eaeA and the stx1 genes. No significant difference was seen among the 4 farm isolates in the antibiotic resistance tests. To test their survival in ground beef and environmental samples, 2 inoculums were prepared and inoculated at various concentrations into samples of ground beef, bovine feces, bedding materials, and trough water. One inoculum was made of 3 farm isolates containing only the eaeA gene and another inoculum contained the isolate with both the eaeA and stx1 genes. Inoculated beef samples were stored at 4 °C for 10 d and the inoculated environmental samples were stored at ambient temperature for 30 d. Results showed that virulence gene profiles do not have an impact on O26's ability to survive in ground beef and in environment (P > 0.05). The inoculation levels, sample types as well as the storage times are the major factors that impact O26 survival (P < 0.05).

  11. Evaluation of eight agar media for the isolation of shiga toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George; Gauthier, Martine; Blais, Burton

    2014-01-01

    The growth characteristics of 96 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains representing 36 different O-types (including priority O types O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157) on commercial and in-house agar media were studied. The ability of the strains to grow on agar media with varying selective supplement formulations was evaluated using MacConkey Agar (MAC); Rainbow® Agar O157 (RBA); Rainbow® Agar O157 with manufacturer-recommended selective supplements (RBA-NT); Rainbow® Agar O157 with USDA-recommended selective supplements (RBA-USDA); CHROMagar STEC™ (CH STEC); Tryptone Bile agar containing cefixime and tellurite (TBA-CT); Tryptone Bile agar containing cefixime, tellurite, eosin and methylene blue (TBA-EM); and VTEC agar. All of the strains were able to grow on MAC, RBA and VTEC agar, whereas a number of strains (including some non-O157 priority O types) were unable to grow on the highly selective media CH STEC, RBA-NT, RBA-USDA, TBA-EM and TBA-CT. Only RBA-NT and CH STEC exhibited significant inhibition of background flora from ground beef enrichment. Significant inhibition of background flora from beef trim enrichment was observed with RBA-NT, RBA-USDA, CH STEC, TBA-EM and VTEC agar. With exception of E. coli O157, several different colony morphologies were observed on the differential plating media among strains of the same O type, indicating that this colony morphology is not a reliable means of identifying target STEC. These results suggest that an approach to maximize the recovery of target STEC from beef enrichment cultures is dual plating on lesser (RBA, MAC, VTEC agar) and more highly (RBA-NT, CH STEC) selective agars. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: a single-center, 11-year pediatric experience.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Emily I; Sellenriek, Patricia; Storch, Gregory A; Tarr, Phillip I; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the best practices for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in children with diarrheal illness treated at a tertiary care center, i.e., sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for Shiga toxin, or the simultaneous use of both methods. STEC was detected in 100 of 14,997 stool specimens submitted for enteric culture (0.7%), with 65 cases of E. coli O157. Among E. coli O157 isolates, 57 (88%) were identified by both SMAC agar culture and EIA, 6 (9%) by SMAC agar culture alone, and 2 (3%) by EIA alone. Of the 62 individuals with diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) seen at our institution during the study period, 16 (26%) had STEC isolated from cultures at our institution and 15 (24%) had STEC isolated at other institutions. No STEC was recovered in 31 cases (50%). Of the HUS cases in which STEC was isolated, 28 (90%) were attributable to E. coli O157 and 3 (10%) were attributable to non-O157 STEC. Consistent with previous studies, we have determined that a subset of E. coli O157 infections will not be detected if an agar-based method is excluded from the enteric culture workup; this has both clinical and public health implications. The best practice would be concomitant use of an agar-based method and a Shiga toxin EIA, but a Shiga toxin EIA should not be considered to be an adequate stand-alone test for detection of E. coli O157 in clinical samples. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Isolation, genotyping and antimicrobial resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A; Soto-Beltrán, Marcela; Lee, Bertram G; Yambao, Jaszemyn C; Quiñones, Beatriz

    2017-07-18

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an enteric pathogen linked to outbreaks of human gastroenteritis with diverse clinical spectra. In this review, we have examined the currently methodologies and molecular characterization techniques for assessing the phenotypic, genotypic and functional characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157. In particular, traditional culture and isolation methods, including selective enrichment and differential plating, have enabled the effective recovery of STEC. Following recovery, immunological serotyping of somatic surface antigens (O-antigens) and flagellum (H-antigens) are employed for the classification of the STEC isolates. Molecular genotyping methods, including multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, arrays, and whole genome sequencing, can discriminate the isolate virulence profile beyond the serotype level. Virulence profiling is focused on the identification of chromosomal and plasmid genes coding for adhesins, cytotoxins, effectors, and hemolysins to better assess the pathogenic potential of the recovered STEC isolates. Important animal reservoirs are cattle and other small domestic ruminants. STEC can also be recovered from other carriers, such as mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, shellfish and insects. Finally, antimicrobial resistance in STEC is a matter of growing concern, supporting the need to monitor the use of these agents by private, public and agricultural sectors. Certain antimicrobials can induce Shiga toxin production and thus promote the onset of severe disease symptoms in humans. Together, this information will provide a better understanding of risks associated with STEC and will aid in the development of efficient and targeted intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Characteristics of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 in Slaughtered Reindeer from Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Claudio; Fierz, Lisa; Cernela, Nicole; Laaksonen, Sauli; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Stephan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Fecal samples collected from 470 slaughtered reindeer 6 to 7 months of age were screened by real-time PCR (after enrichment) for Shiga toxin genes (stx) and then for Escherichia coli serogroup O157. Shiga toxin genes were found frequently (>30% of samples), and serogroup O157 was detected in 20% of the stx-positive samples. From these samples, a total of 25 E. coli O157:H(-) isolates (nonmotile but PCR positive for fliCH7) were obtained. Twenty-four of these E. coli O157:H(-) isolates did not ferment sorbitol and originated from one geographic area. These 24 isolates belonged to the multilocus sequence type 11, typical for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 and O157:H(-), and harbored genes stx1a, stx2c, eae, and hlyA; the stx2c subtype has been associated with high virulence. In contrast, one E. coli O157:H(-) isolate (multilocus sequence type 11) did ferment sorbitol, lacked Shiga toxin genes, but was positive for eae, hlyA, and sfpA. This isolate closely resembled an STEC that has lost its Shiga toxin genes. Additional examination revealed that reindeer can be colonized by various other STEC isolates; 21 non-O157 STEC isolates belonged to four multilocus sequence types, harbored stx1a (8 isolates) or stx2b (13 isolates), and in the stx2b-positive isolates the recently described new allelic variants (subAB2-2 and subAB2-3) for subtilase cytotoxin were identified. Hence, slaughtered semidomesticated Finnish reindeer might constitute a little known reservoir for STEC O157:H7/H(-) and other serogroups, and the risk of direct or indirect transmission of these pathogens from reindeer to humans and domestic livestock must not be overlooked.

  15. Human serum amyloid P component protects against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin 2 in vivo: therapeutic implications for hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Glen D; Mulvey, George L; Marcato, Paola; Griener, Thomas P; Kahan, Melvyn C; Tennent, Glenys A; Sabin, Caroline A; Chart, Henrik; Pepys, Mark B

    2006-04-15

    Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 causes hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), an intractable and often fatal complication of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Here, we show that se