Science.gov

Sample records for non-volatile residue nvr

  1. Non-Volatile Residue (NVR) Contamination from Dry Handling and Solvent Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovinski, Marjorie F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing for Non-Volatile Residue contamination transferred to surfaces from handling and solvent cleaning. Included in the presentation is a list of the items tested, formal work instructions dealing with NVR. There is an explanation of the Gravimetric determination method used to test the NVR in a variety of items, i.e., Gloves, Swabs, Garments, Bagging material, film and Wipes. Another method to test for contamination from NVR is the contact transfer method. The use of this method for testing gloves, garments, bagging material and film is explained. Certain equations use in NVR analysis and the use of a database for testing of NVR in consumables are reviewed.

  2. Characterization of Monomethyihydrazine (MMH) Non-Volatile Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Chuck; Howard, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program has a unique propellant purity requirement for determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) in monomethylhydrazine (MMH). TIis requirement differs from the Military Specification procurement specification by requiring a NVR analysis with a limit of less than or equal to 10 milligrams per liter. In June 2008, a routine MMH replenishment delivery was transferred into a NASA KSC owned tanker for future delivery to the Space Shuffle pad MMH storage tank. Per Shuffle standard operating procedure, the receiving tanker was sampled and analyzed for purity and surprisingly it failed the Shuttle use NVR specification limit. Detailed examination of the NVR revealed that it was fundamentally different than the typical MMH NVR. This paper will examine various aspects of NVR determination in MMH and the analytical characterization processes used to identify the NVR.

  3. Contamination of Critical Surfaces from NVR Glove Residues Via Dry Handling and Solvent Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovinski, Marjorie F.

    2004-01-01

    Gloves are often used to prevent the contamination of critical surfaces during handling. The type of glove chosen for use should be the glove that produces the least amount of non-volatile residue (NVR). This paper covers the analysis of polyethylene, nitrile, latex, vinyl, and polyurethane gloves using the contact transfer and gravimetric determination methods covered in the NASA GSFC work instruction Gravimetric Determination and Contact Transfer of Non-volatile Residue (NVR) in Cleanroom Glove Samples, 541-WI-5330.1.21 and in the ASTM Standard E-1731M-95, Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Non-Volatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves. The tests performed focus on contamination of critical surfaces at the molecular level. The study found that for the most part, all of the gloves performed equally well in the contact transfer testing. However, the polyethylene gloves performed the best in the gravimetric determination testing, and therefore should be used whenever solvent contact is a possibility. The nitrile gloves may be used as a substitute for latex gloves when latex sensitivity is an issue. The use of vinyl gloves should be avoided, especially if solvent contact is a possibility. A glove database will be established by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Code 541 to compile the results from future testing of new gloves and different glove lots.

  4. A high sensitivity real-time NVR monitor. [Nonvolatile Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, William D.; Chuan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    The use of a temperature-controlled 200-MHz SAW resonator piezoelectric mass microbalance to monitor the mass of nonvolatile residue (NVR) deposited on its surface in real time is reported. The fundamental frequency of this device is mainly dependent on the configuration of the transducers and not on the thickness of the substrate. Therefore, higher operating frequencies can be achieved without reducing the thickness of the crystal. The real-time instrument was integrated onto a conventional stainless steel NVR plate and operated flawlessly over a 14-d period at Kennedy Space Center and successfully measured less than 1 ng/sq cm d NVR contamination. Contamination episodes detected by the instrument were correlated with scheduled activities on the test stand. Under the assumption of a baseline noise level of +/- 2 Hz, the absolute mass lower limit of detection would be 0.065 ng/sq cm. This would enable the detection of a daily NVR deposition rate of less than 0.1 ng/sq cm d.

  5. Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) from Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Organic contamination on critical spacecraft surfaces can cause electronic problems, serious attenuation of various optical signals, thermal control changes, and adhesion problems. Such contaminants can be detected early by the controlled use of witness mirrors, witness plates, wipe sampling, or direct solvent extraction. Each method requires careful control of variables of technique and materials to attain the ultimate sensitivities inherent to that procedure. Subsequent chemical analysis of the contaminant sample by infrared and mass spectrometry identifies the components, gives semiquantitative estimates of contaminant thickness, indicates possible sources of the nonvolatile residue (NVR), and provides guidance for effective cleanup procedures.

  6. Method for the Collection, Gravimetric and Chemical Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) on Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith; Rutherford, Gugu; Aranda, Denisse

    2017-01-01

    Nonvolatile residue (NVR), sometimes referred to as molecular contamination is the term used for the total composition of the inorganic and high boiling point organic components in particulates and molecular films deposited on critical surfaces surrounding space structures, with the particulate and NVR contamination originating primarily from pre-launch operations. The "nonvolatile" suggestion from the terminology NVR implies that the collected residue will not experience much loss under ambient conditions. NVR has been shown to have a dramatic impact on the ability to perform optical measurements from platforms based in space. Such contaminants can be detected early by the controlled application of various detection techniques and contamination analyses. Contamination analyses are the techniques used to determine if materials, components, and subsystems can be expected to meet the performance requirements of a system. Of particular concern is the quantity of NVR contaminants that might be deposited on critical payload surfaces from these sources. Subsequent chemical analysis of the contaminant samples by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry identifies the components, gives semi-quantitative estimates of contaminant thickness, indicates possible sources of the NVR, and provides guidance for effective cleanup procedures. In this report, a method for the collection and determination of the mass of NVR was generated by the authors at NASA Langley Research Center. This report describes the method developed and implemented for collecting NVR contaminants, and procedures for gravimetric and chemical analysis of the residue obtained. The result of this NVR analysis collaboration will help pave the way for Langley's ability to certify flight hardware outgassing requirements in support of flight projects such as Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Materials International

  7. High sensitivity real-time NVR monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, William D. (Inventor); Chuan, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A real time non-volatile residue (NVR) monitor, which utilizes surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators to detect molecular contamination in a given environment. The SAW resonators operate at a resonant frequency of approximately 200 MHz-2,000 MHz which enables the NVR monitor to detect molecular contamination on the order of 10.sup.-11 g-cm.sup.-2 to 10.sup.-13 g-cm.sup.2. The NVR monitor utilizes active temperature control of (SAW) resonators to achieve a stable resonant frequency. The temperature control system of the NVR monitor is able to directly heat and cool the SAW resonators utilizing a thermoelectric element to maintain the resonators at a present temperature independent of the environmental conditions. In order to enable the direct heating and cooling of the SAW resonators, the SAW resonators are operatively mounted to a heat sink. In one embodiment, the heat sink is located in between the SAW resonators and an electronic circuit board which contains at least a portion of the SAW control electronics. The electrical leads of the SAW resonators are connected through the heat sink to the circuit board via an electronic path which prevents inaccurate frequency measurement.

  8. NVR Home Page

    Science.gov Websites

    Internet Explorer. Please use the latest version of Internet Explorer for full functionality. CVN 69 NVR Online The NVR is a product of the NAVSEA Shipbuilding Support Office (NAVSHIPSO) In cooperation with Group (NAVSEA 05C) Images Courtesy of US Navy Photos and the US Navy Fact File Naval Sea Systems Command

  9. Replacement of ozone depleting and toxic chemicals in gravimetric analysis of non-volatile residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. S.; Uht, J. C.; Sinsheimer, F. B.

    1995-01-01

    The standard tests for determining nonvolatile residue accretion on spacecraft surfaces and in clean processing facilities rely on the use of halogenated solvents that are targeted for elimination because of their toxic or ozone-depleting natures. This paper presents a literature-based screening survey for candidate replacement solvents. Potential replacements were evaluated for their vapor pressure, toxicity, and solvent properties. Three likely candidates were identified: ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, and acetone. Laboratory tests are presented that evaluate the suitability of these candidate replacement solvents.

  10. Simulation of Titan's atmospheric photochemistry. Formation of non-volatile residue from polar nitrile ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Piétri, Nathalie; Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2015-06-01

    We studied the photochemistry of frozen ice of a polar Titan's atmospheric molecule cyanodiacetylene (HC5N) to determine the possible contribution of this compound to the lower altitude photochemistry of haze layers found on Titan. We used infrared analysis to examine the residue produced by irradiation of solid HC5N at λ > 300 nm. The resulting polymer is orange-brown in color. Based on theoretical analysis and the general tendency of HC5N and C4N2 to undergo similar ice photochemistry at longer wavelengths accessible in Titan's lower atmosphere, we conclude that Titan's lower atmosphere is photochemically active in the regions of cloud, ice, and aerosol formation. C4N2is a symmetric molecule with no net dipole moment whereas, HC5N has a large dipole moment of ~4 D. Consequently, though both these molecules have very similar molecular weight and size, their sublimation temperatures are different, HC5N subliming around 170 K compared to 160 K for C4N2. Based on our studies we conclude that in Titan's atmosphere the cyanoacetylene class of molecules (HCN, HC3N, HC5N, etc.) would condense first followed by the dicyanoacetylenes (C2N2, C4N2, C6N2, etc.), leading to fractionation of different class of molecules. From the fluxes used in the laboratory and depletion of the original HC5N signals, we estimate Titan's haze ice photochemistry involving polar nitriles to be significant and very similar to their non-polar counterparts.

  11. Comprehensive profiling and marker identification in non-volatile citrus oil residues by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Mehl, Florence; Debrus, Benjamin; Marcourt, Laurence; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Sommer, Horst; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    The detailed characterization of cold-pressed lemon oils (CPLOs) is of great importance for the flavor and fragrance (F&F) industry. Since a control of authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed. The present study describes a combined metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-TOF-MS profiling and (1)H NMR fingerprinting to highlight metabolite differences on a set of representative samples used in the F&F industry. A new protocol was set up and adapted to the use of CPLO residues. Multivariate analysis based on both fingerprinting methods showed significant chemical variations between Argentinian and Italian samples. Discriminating markers identified in mixtures belong to furocoumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Quantitative NMR revealed low citropten and high bergamottin content in Italian samples. The developed metabolomic approach applied to CPLO residues gives some new perspectives for authenticity assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NVR-BIP: Nuclear Vector Replacement using Binary Integer Programming for NMR Structure-Based Assignments.

    PubMed

    Apaydin, Mehmet Serkan; Çatay, Bülent; Patrick, Nicholas; Donald, Bruce R

    2011-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an important experimental technique that allows one to study protein structure and dynamics in solution. An important bottleneck in NMR protein structure determination is the assignment of NMR peaks to the corresponding nuclei. Structure-based assignment (SBA) aims to solve this problem with the help of a template protein which is homologous to the target and has applications in the study of structure-activity relationship, protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. We formulate SBA as a linear assignment problem with additional nuclear overhauser effect constraints, which can be solved within nuclear vector replacement's (NVR) framework (Langmead, C., Yan, A., Lilien, R., Wang, L. and Donald, B. (2003) A Polynomial-Time Nuclear Vector Replacement Algorithm for Automated NMR Resonance Assignments. Proc. the 7th Annual Int. Conf. Research in Computational Molecular Biology (RECOMB) , Berlin, Germany, April 10-13, pp. 176-187. ACM Press, New York, NY. J. Comp. Bio. , (2004), 11, pp. 277-298; Langmead, C. and Donald, B. (2004) An expectation/maximization nuclear vector replacement algorithm for automated NMR resonance assignments. J. Biomol. NMR , 29, 111-138). Our approach uses NVR's scoring function and data types and also gives the option of using CH and NH residual dipolar coupling (RDCs), instead of NH RDCs which NVR requires. We test our technique on NVR's data set as well as on four new proteins. Our results are comparable to NVR's assignment accuracy on NVR's test set, but higher on novel proteins. Our approach allows partial assignments. It is also complete and can return the optimum as well as near-optimum assignments. Furthermore, it allows us to analyze the information content of each data type and is easily extendable to accept new forms of input data, such as additional RDCs.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of non-volatile residue formed by photochemistry of solid C4N2: A model of condensed aerosol formation on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Jacovi, Ronen; Piétri, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Following our recent communication (Gudipati, M.S. et al. [2013]. Nat. Commun. 4, 1648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2649) on the discovery of condensed-phase non-volatile polymeric material with similar spectral features as tholins, we present here a comprehensive spectroscopic study of photochemical formation of polymeric material from condensed dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) ice films. C4N2 is chosen as starting material for the laboratory simulations because of the detection of this and similar molecules (nitriles and cyanoacetylenes) in Titan’s atmosphere. UV-Vis and infrared spectra obtained during long-wavelength (>300 nm) photon irradiation and subsequent warming of the ice films are used to analyze changes in C4N2 ice, evolution of tholins, and derive photopolymerization mechanisms. Our data analysis revealed that many processes occur during the photolysis of condensed Titan’s aerosol analogs, including isomerization and polymerization leading to the formation of long-chain as well as aromatic cyclic polymer molecules. In the light of tremendous new data from the Cassini mission on the seasonal variations in Titan’s atmosphere, our laboratory study and its results provide fresh insight into the formation and evolution of aerosols and haze in Titan’s atmosphere.

  14. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    SciTech Connect

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  15. Failure Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Analyzer Model SP-1000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) subcontractor Wiltech contacted the NASA Electrical Lab (NE-L) and requested a failure analysis of a Solvent Purity Meter; model SP-IOOO produced by the VerTis Instrument Company. The meter, used to measure the contaminate in a solvent to determine the relative contamination on spacecraft flight hardware and ground servicing equipment, had been inoperable and in storage for an unknown amount of time. NE-L was asked to troubleshoot the unit and make a determination on what may be required to make the unit operational. Through the use of general troubleshooting processes and the review of a unit in service at the time of analysis, the unit was found to be repairable but would need the replacement of multiple components.

  16. Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage

    SciTech Connect

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, themore » non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.« less

  17. Carbon nanomaterials for non-volatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Ethan C.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Pop, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Carbon can create various low-dimensional nanostructures with remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. These features make carbon nanomaterials especially interesting for next-generation memory and storage devices, such as resistive random access memory, phase-change memory, spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory and ferroelectric random access memory. Non-volatile memories greatly benefit from the use of carbon nanomaterials in terms of bit density and energy efficiency. In this Review, we discuss sp2-hybridized carbon-based low-dimensional nanostructures, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, in the context of non-volatile memory devices and architectures. Applications of carbon nanomaterials as memory electrodes, interfacial engineering layers, resistive-switching media, and scalable, high-performance memory selectors are investigated. Finally, we compare the different memory technologies in terms of writing energy and time, and highlight major challenges in the manufacturing, integration and understanding of the physical mechanisms and material properties.

  18. Non-volatile magnetic random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Improvements are made in a non-volatile magnetic random access memory. Such a memory is comprised of an array of unit cells, each having a Hall-effect sensor and a thin-film magnetic element made of material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and in-plane, bipolar remanent magnetization states. The Hall-effect sensor is made more sensitive by using a 1 m thick molecular beam epitaxy grown InAs layer on a silicon substrate by employing a GaAs/AlGaAs/InAlAs superlattice buffering layer. One improvement avoids current shunting problems of matrix architecture. Another improvement reduces the required magnetizing current for the micromagnets. Another improvement relates to the use of GaAs technology wherein high electron-mobility GaAs MESFETs provide faster switching times. Still another improvement relates to a method for configuring the invention as a three-dimensional random access memory.

  19. EDITORIAL: Non-volatile memory based on nanostructures Non-volatile memory based on nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Sergei; Yang, J. Joshua; Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Non-volatile memory refers to the crucial ability of computers to store information once the power source has been removed. Traditionally this has been achieved through flash, magnetic computer storage and optical discs, and in the case of very early computers paper tape and punched cards. While computers have advanced considerably from paper and punched card memory devices, there are still limits to current non-volatile memory devices that restrict them to use as secondary storage from which data must be loaded and carefully saved when power is shut off. Denser, faster, low-energy non-volatile memory is highly desired and nanostructures are the critical enabler. This special issue on non-volatile memory based on nanostructures describes some of the new physics and technology that may revolutionise future computers. Phase change random access memory, which exploits the reversible phase change between crystalline and amorphous states, also holds potential for future memory devices. The chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is a promising material in this field because it combines a high activation energy for crystallization and a relatively low crystallization temperature, as well as a low melting temperature and low conductivity, which accommodates localized heating. Doping is often used to lower the current required to activate the phase change or 'reset' GST but this often aggravates other problems. Now researchers in Korea report in-depth studies of SiO2-doped GST and identify ways of optimising the material's properties for phase-change random access memory [1]. Resistance switching is an area that has attracted a particularly high level of interest for non-volatile memory technology, and a great deal of research has focused on the potential of TiO2 as a model system in this respect. Researchers at HP labs in the US have made notable progress in this field, and among the work reported in this special issue they describe means to control the switch resistance and show

  20. Method for refreshing a non-volatile memory

    DOEpatents

    Riekels, James E.; Schlesinger, Samuel

    2008-11-04

    A non-volatile memory and a method of refreshing a memory are described. The method includes allowing an external system to control refreshing operations within the memory. The memory may generate a refresh request signal and transmit the refresh request signal to the external system. When the external system finds an available time to process the refresh request, the external system acknowledges the refresh request and transmits a refresh acknowledge signal to the memory. The memory may also comprise a page register for reading and rewriting a data state back to the memory. The page register may comprise latches in lieu of supplemental non-volatile storage elements, thereby conserving real estate within the memory.

  1. Characterization of an Autonomous Non-Volatile Ferroelectric Memory Latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, Caroline S.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Evans, Joe; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    We present the electrical characterization of an autonomous non-volatile ferroelectric memory latch using the principle that when an electric field is applied to a ferroelectriccapacitor,the positive and negative remnant polarization charge states of the capacitor are denoted as either data 0 or data 1. The properties of the ferroelectric material to store an electric polarization in the absence of an electric field make the device non-volatile. Further the memory latch is autonomous as it operates with the ground, power and output node connections, without any externally clocked control line. The unique quality of this latch circuit is that it can be written when powered off. The advantages of this latch over flash memories are: a) It offers unlimited reads/writes b) works on symmetrical read/write cycles. c) The latch is asynchronous. The circuit was initially developed by Radiant Technologies Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  2. Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Shiuh Lim, Zhi; Zou, Xi; Chen, Lang; Ramesh, R.; Wang, Junling

    2013-01-01

    The quest for a solid state universal memory with high-storage density, high read/write speed, random access and non-volatility has triggered intense research into new materials and novel device architectures. Though the non-volatile memory market is dominated by flash memory now, it has very low operation speed with ~10 μs programming and ~10 ms erasing time. Furthermore, it can only withstand ~105 rewriting cycles, which prevents it from becoming the universal memory. Here we demonstrate that the significant photovoltaic effect of a ferroelectric material, such as BiFeO3 with a band gap in the visible range, can be used to sense the polarization direction non-destructively in a ferroelectric memory. A prototype 16-cell memory based on the cross-bar architecture has been prepared and tested, demonstrating the feasibility of this technique. PMID:23756366

  3. Active non-volatile memory post-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, Sudarsun; Milojicic, Dejan S.; Talwar, Vanish

    A computing node includes an active Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) component which includes memory and a sub-processor component. The memory is to store data chunks received from a processor core, the data chunks comprising metadata indicating a type of post-processing to be performed on data within the data chunks. The sub-processor component is to perform post-processing of said data chunks based on said metadata.

  4. Overview of Non-Volatile Testing and Screening Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh

    2001-01-01

    Testing methods for memories and non-volatile memories have become increasingly sophisticated as they become denser and more complex. High frequency and faster rewrite times as well as smaller feature sizes have led to many testing challenges. This paper outlines several testing issues posed by novel memories and approaches to testing for radiation and reliability effects. We discuss methods for measurements of Total Ionizing Dose (TID).

  5. Reconfigurable Electronics and Non-Volatile Memory Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-10

    Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSE/Arthur Edwards 1 cy... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2015-0151 TR-2015-0151 RECONFIGURABLE ELECTRONICS AND NON- VOLATILE MEMORY RESEARCH Kristy A. Campbell Boise State... KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for

  6. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  7. Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2000: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings for the Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2000 that was held on November 15-16, 2000 in Arlington, Virginia. The proceedings contains a wide range of papers that cover the presentations of myriad advances in the nonvolatile memory technology during the recent past including memory cell design, simulations, radiation environment, and emerging memory technologies. The papers presented in the proceedings address the design challenges and applications and deals with newer, emerging memory technologies as well as related issues of radiation environment and die packaging.

  8. Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2001: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Daud, Taher; Strauss, Karl

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings for the Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium 2001 that was held on November 7-8, 2001 in San Diego, CA. The proceedings contains a a wide range of papers that cover current and new memory technologies including Flash memories, Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM and GMRAM), Ferro-electric RAM (FeRAM), and Chalcogenide RAM (CRAM). The papers presented in the proceedings address the use of these technologies for space applications as well as radiation effects and packaging issues.

  9. Makalu: fast recoverable allocation of non-volatile memory

    DOE PAGES

    Bhandari, Kumud; Chakrabarti, Dhruva R.; Boehm, Hans-J.

    2016-10-19

    Byte addressable non-volatile memory (NVRAM) is likely to supplement, and perhaps eventually replace, DRAM. Applications can then persist data structures directly in memory instead of serializing them and storing them onto a durable block device. However, failures during execution can leave data structures in NVRAM unreachable or corrupt. In this paper, we present Makalu, a system that addresses non-volatile memory management. Makalu offers an integrated allocator and recovery-time garbage collector that maintains internal consistency, avoids NVRAM memory leaks, and is efficient, all in the face of failures. We show that a careful allocator design can support a less restrictive andmore » a much more familiar programming model than existing persistent memory allocators. Our allocator significantly reduces the per allocation persistence overhead by lazily persisting non-essential metadata and by employing a post-failure recovery-time garbage collector. Experimental results show that the resulting online speed and scalability of our allocator are comparable to well-known transient allocators, and significantly better than state-of-the-art persistent allocators.« less

  10. Vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop

    SciTech Connect

    Inci, Levent; Bowles, Richard K., E-mail: richard.bowles@usask.ca

    2013-12-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of miscible and partially miscible binary Lennard–Jones mixtures are used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of vapor condensation onto a non-volatile liquid drop in the canonical ensemble. When the system volume is large, the driving force for condensation is low and only a submonolayer of the solvent is adsorbed onto the liquid drop. A small degree of mixing of the solvent phase into the core of the particles occurs for the miscible system. At smaller volumes, complete film formation is observed and the dynamics of film growth are dominated by cluster-cluster coalescence. Mixing into the coremore » of the droplet is also observed for partially miscible systems below an onset volume suggesting the presence of a solubility transition. We also develop a non-volatile liquid drop model, based on the capillarity approximations, that exhibits a solubility transition between small and large drops for partially miscible mixtures and has a hysteresis loop similar to the one observed in the deliquescence of small soluble salt particles. The properties of the model are compared to our simulation results and the model is used to study the formulation of classical nucleation theory for systems with low free energy barriers.« less

  11. Makalu: fast recoverable allocation of non-volatile memory

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Kumud; Chakrabarti, Dhruva R.; Boehm, Hans-J.

    Byte addressable non-volatile memory (NVRAM) is likely to supplement, and perhaps eventually replace, DRAM. Applications can then persist data structures directly in memory instead of serializing them and storing them onto a durable block device. However, failures during execution can leave data structures in NVRAM unreachable or corrupt. In this paper, we present Makalu, a system that addresses non-volatile memory management. Makalu offers an integrated allocator and recovery-time garbage collector that maintains internal consistency, avoids NVRAM memory leaks, and is efficient, all in the face of failures. We show that a careful allocator design can support a less restrictive andmore » a much more familiar programming model than existing persistent memory allocators. Our allocator significantly reduces the per allocation persistence overhead by lazily persisting non-essential metadata and by employing a post-failure recovery-time garbage collector. Experimental results show that the resulting online speed and scalability of our allocator are comparable to well-known transient allocators, and significantly better than state-of-the-art persistent allocators.« less

  12. Reconfigurable and non-volatile vertical magnetic logic gates

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J., E-mail: jbutl001@ucr.edu; Lee, B.; Shachar, M.

    2014-04-28

    In this paper, we discuss the concept and prototype fabrication of reconfigurable and non-volatile vertical magnetic logic gates. These gates consist of two input layers and a RESET layer. The RESET layer allows the structure to be used as either an AND or an OR gate, depending on its magnetization state. To prove this concept, the gates were fabricated using a multi-layered patterned magnetic media, in which three magnetic layers are stacked and exchange-decoupled via non-magnetic interlayers. We demonstrate the functionality of these logic gates by conducting atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) analysis of the multi-layered patternedmore » magnetic media. The logic gates operation mechanism and fabrication feasibility are both validated by the MFM imaging results.« less

  13. Overcoming thermal noise in non-volatile spin wave logic.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sourav; Nikonov, Dmitri E; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A; Naeemi, Azad

    2017-05-15

    Spin waves are propagating disturbances in magnetically ordered materials, analogous to lattice waves in solid systems and are often described from a quasiparticle point of view as magnons. The attractive advantages of Joule-heat-free transmission of information, utilization of the phase of the wave as an additional degree of freedom and lower footprint area compared to conventional charge-based devices have made spin waves or magnon spintronics a promising candidate for beyond-CMOS wave-based computation. However, any practical realization of an all-magnon based computing system must undergo the essential steps of a careful selection of materials and demonstrate robustness with respect to thermal noise or variability. Here, we aim at identifying suitable materials and theoretically demonstrate the possibility of achieving error-free clocked non-volatile spin wave logic device, even in the presence of thermal noise and clock jitter or clock skew.

  14. Solvent residue content measured by light scattering technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salkowski, M. J.; Werle, D. K.

    1966-01-01

    Photometric analyzer measures NVR /nonvolatile residue/ in trichloroethylene and other organic solvents. The analyzer converts the liquid solvent to aerosol and passes it between an optically focused light beam and a photodetector that is connected to standard amplifying and readout equipment.

  15. Role of Non-Volatile Memories in Automotive and IoT Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Role of Non-Volatile Memories in Automotive and IoT Markets Vipin Tiwari Director, Business Development and Product Marketing SST – A Wholly Own...automotive and Internet of Things (IoT) markets . Keywords: Embedded flash; Microcontrollers, Automotive; Internet of Things, IoT; Non-volatile memories...variou s types of non-volatile memories available in the market , bu t the floating-poly based embedded flash memories have been around the longest and

  16. Highly Stretchable Non-volatile Nylon Thread Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ting-Kuo

    2016-04-01

    Integration of electronic elements into textiles, to afford e-textiles, can provide an ideal platform for the development of lightweight, thin, flexible, and stretchable e-textiles. This approach will enable us to meet the demands of the rapidly growing market of wearable-electronics on arbitrary non-conventional substrates. However the actual integration of the e-textiles that undergo mechanical deformations during both assembly and daily wear or satisfy the requirements of the low-end applications, remains a challenge. Resistive memory elements can also be fabricated onto a nylon thread (NT) for e-textile applications. In this study, a simple dip-and-dry process using graphene-PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) ink is proposed for the fabrication of a highly stretchable non-volatile NT memory. The NT memory appears to have typical write-once-read-many-times characteristics. The results show that an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 103 is maintained for a retention time of 106 s. Furthermore, a highly stretchable strain and a long-term digital-storage capability of the ON-OFF-ON states are demonstrated in the NT memory. The actual integration of the knitted NT memories into textiles will enable new design possibilities for low-cost and large-area e-textile memory applications.

  17. Architectural Techniques For Managing Non-volatile Caches

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    As chip power dissipation becomes a critical challenge in scaling processor performance, computer architects are forced to fundamentally rethink the design of modern processors and hence, the chip-design industry is now at a major inflection point in its hardware roadmap. The high leakage power and low density of SRAM poses serious obstacles in its use for designing large on-chip caches and for this reason, researchers are exploring non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, such as spin torque transfer RAM, phase change RAM and resistive RAM. However, since NVMs are not strictly superior to SRAM, effective architectural techniques are required for making themmore » a universal memory solution. This book discusses techniques for designing processor caches using NVM devices. It presents algorithms and architectures for improving their energy efficiency, performance and lifetime. It also provides both qualitative and quantitative evaluation to help the reader gain insights and motivate them to explore further. This book will be highly useful for beginners as well as veterans in computer architecture, chip designers, product managers and technical marketing professionals.« less

  18. A graphene-based non-volatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, Loïc.; Maurice, Ange; Lebental, Bérengère; Vezzoli, Stefano; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin; Tay, Beng Kang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of a simple two-terminal non-volatile graphene switch. After an initial electroforming step during which Joule heating leads to the formation of a nano-gap impeding the current flow, the devices can be switched reversibly between two well-separated resistance states. To do so, either voltage sweeps or pulses can be used, with the condition that VSET < VRESET , where SET is the process decreasing the resistance and RESET the process increasing the resistance. We achieve reversible switching on more than 100 cycles with resistance ratio values of 104. This approach of graphene memory is competitive as compared to other graphene approaches such as redox of graphene oxide, or electro-mechanical switches with suspended graphene. We suggest a switching model based on a planar electro-mechanical switch, whereby electrostatic, elastic and friction forces are competing to switch devices ON and OFF, and the stability in the ON state is achieved by the formation of covalent bonds between the two stretched sides of the graphene, hence bridging the nano-gap. Developing a planar electro-mechanical switch enables to obtain the advantages of electro-mechanical switches while avoiding most of their drawbacks.

  19. Non-volatile, solid state bistable electrical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A bistable switching element is made of a material whose electrical resistance reversibly decreases in response to intercalation by positive ions. Flow of positive ions between the bistable switching element and a positive ion source is controlled by means of an electrical potential applied across a thermal switching element. The material of the thermal switching element generates heat in response to electrical current flow therethrough, which in turn causes the material to undergo a thermal phase transition from a high electrical resistance state to a low electrical resistance state as the temperature increases above a predetermined value. Application of the electrical potential in one direction renders the thermal switching element conductive to pass electron current out of the ion source. This causes positive ions to flow from the source into the bistable switching element and intercalate the same to produce a non-volatile, low resistance logic state. Application of the electrical potential in the opposite direction causes reverse current flow which de-intercalates the bistable logic switching element and produces a high resistance logic state.

  20. Workshop Report: Considerations for Developing Leaching Test Methods for Semi- and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents a September 2015 workshop on how to evaluate the potential for leaching of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where in place treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used.

  1. WORKSHOP REPORT - CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LEACHING TEST METHODS FOR SEMI- AND NON-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a summary of the information exchange at a workshop on the potential for release of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where sub-surface treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used. The...

  2. A novel architecture of non-volatile magnetic arithmetic logic unit using magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Prenat, Guillaume; Dieny, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology is facing increasingly difficult obstacles such as power consumption and interconnection delay. Novel hybrid technologies and architectures are being investigated with the aim to circumvent some of these limits. In particular, hybrid CMOS/magnetic technology based on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is considered as a very promising approach thanks to the full compatibility of MTJs with CMOS technology. By tightly merging the conventional electronics with magnetism, both logic and memory functions can be implemented in the same device. As a result, non-volatility is directly brought into logic circuits, yielding significant improvement of device performances and new functionalities as well. We have conceived an innovative methodology to construct non-volatile magnetic arithmetic logic units (MALUs) combining spin-transfer torque MTJs with MOS transistors. The present 4-bit MALU utilizes 4 MTJ pairs to store its operation code (opcode). Its operations and performances have been confirmed and evaluated through electrical simulations.

  3. A bi-stable nanoelectromechanical non-volatile memory based on van der Waals force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Bo Woon; Jiaqiang Ng, Eldwin; Qian, You; Singh, Navab; Julius Tsai, Minglin; Lee, Chengkuo

    2013-07-01

    By using complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor processes, a silicon based bi-stable nanoelectromechanical non-volatile memory is fabricated and characterized. The main feature of this device is an 80 nm wide and 3 μm high silicon nanofin (SiNF) of a high aspect ratio (1:35). The switching mechanism is realized by electrostatic actuation between two lateral electrodes, i.e., terminals. Bi-stable hysteresis behavior is demonstrated when the SiNF maintains its contact to one of the two terminals by leveraging on van der Waals force even after voltage bias is turned off. The compelling results indicate that this design is promising for realization of high density non-volatile memory application due to its nano-scale footprint and zero on-hold power consumption.

  4. Investigation of multilayer WS2 flakes as charge trapping stack layers in non-volatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Ren, Deliang; Lu, Chao; Yan, Xiaobing

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the non-volatile flash memory devices utilize tungsten sulfide flakes as the charge trapping stack layers were fabricated. The sandwiched structure of Pd/ZHO/WS2/ZHO/WS2/SiO2/Si manifests a memory window of 2.26 V and a high density of trapped charges 4.88 × 1012/cm2 under a ±5 V gate sweeping voltage. Moreover, the data retention results of as-fabricated non-volatile memories demonstrate that the high and low capacitance states are enhanced by 3.81% and 3.11%, respectively, after a measurement duration of 1.20 × 104 s. These remarkable achievements are probably attributed to the defects and band gap of WS2 flakes. Besides, the proposed memory fabrication is not only compatible with CMOS manufacturing processes but also gets rid of the high-temperature annealing process. Overall, this proposed non-volatile memory is highly attractive for low voltage, long data retention applications.

  5. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  6. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non -volatile Particulate Matter (PM...Engine Volatile and Non -Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  7. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-30

    FINAL REPORT Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM...Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M...report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT This project consists of demonstrating the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine

  8. Chemical composition of South American Burseraceae non-volatile oleoresins and preliminary solubility assessment of their commercial blend.

    PubMed

    Siani, A C; Nakamura, M J; Tappin, M R R; Monteiro, S S; Guimarães, A C; Ramos, M F S

    2012-01-01

    Non-volatile oleoresins from neotropical Burseraceae are traditionally used for craft, technological and medicinal purposes. The crude resin is usually sold in popular markets of the forest communities. Adding value to this rainforest raw material requires establishing its composition. To analyse the resin composition from different Burseraceae species and establish a minimally reproducible profile by gas chromatography, in order to parameterise its quality control. Crude oleoresin samples of 10 Protium and Trattinnickia species and a commercial blend were subjected to hydrodistillation to remove volatile compounds. The chloroform-soluble residues were methylated, analysed by GC-FID (flame ionisation detection), and individual components were identified by analysing their mass fragmentation pattern in GC-MS and comparison with data from the literature. The blend solubility was assayed in 30 non-chlorinated solvents at three different proportions. The resins consisted exclusively of triterpenes, showing a common predominance of four major compounds in all the samples, corresponding to α-amyrin, β-amyrin, α-amyrenone and β-amyrenone. This profile was complemented with minor amounts of the tetracyclic β-elemolic and α-elemolic acids, maniladiol, brein and other oxidised trace compounds. The better solvents for the resin were those chemically bearing more than four carbon atoms, as n-butyl acetate, 2-ethoxyethanol and isopropanol. The crude resin blend sold contained around 10% of insoluble material that was constituted by up to 70% inorganic residues mixed with humic acid derivatives, as attested by ash analysis and IR spectroscopy, respectively. The experimental results, complemented by a general inspection of the literature, demonstrated a systematically reproducible triterpene profile in Protium and Trattinnickia species. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Multilevel non-volatile data storage utilizing common current hysteresis of networked single walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ihn; Wang, Wei; Hwang, Sun Kak; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Kang Lib; Jeong, Beomjin; Huh, June; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-05-01

    The characteristic source-drain current hysteresis frequently observed in field-effect transistors with networked single walled carbon-nanotube (NSWNT) channels is problematic for the reliable switching and sensing performance of devices. But the two distinct current states of the hysteresis curve at a zero gate voltage can be useful for memory applications. In this work, we demonstrate a novel non-volatile transistor memory with solution-processed NSWNTs which are suitable for multilevel data programming and reading. A polymer passivation layer with a small amount of water employed on the top of the NSWNT channel serves as an efficient gate voltage dependent charge trapping and de-trapping site. A systematic investigation evidences that the water mixed in a polymer passivation solution is critical for reliable non-volatile memory operation. The optimized device is air-stable and temperature-resistive up to 80 °C and exhibits excellent non-volatile memory performance with an on/off current ratio greater than 104, a switching time less than 100 ms, data retention longer than 4000 s, and write/read endurance over 100 cycles. Furthermore, the gate voltage dependent charge injection mediated by water in the passivation layer allowed for multilevel operation of our memory in which 4 distinct current states were programmed repetitively and preserved over a long time period.The characteristic source-drain current hysteresis frequently observed in field-effect transistors with networked single walled carbon-nanotube (NSWNT) channels is problematic for the reliable switching and sensing performance of devices. But the two distinct current states of the hysteresis curve at a zero gate voltage can be useful for memory applications. In this work, we demonstrate a novel non-volatile transistor memory with solution-processed NSWNTs which are suitable for multilevel data programming and reading. A polymer passivation layer with a small amount of water employed on the top of the

  10. Determination of non-volatile radiolytic compounds in ethylene co-vinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothapalli, A.; Sadler, G.

    2003-08-01

    The use of ionizing radiation on food contact polymers is increasing due to the critical role of the package in holding or containing the irradiated foods [Food Add. Contam. 18(6) (2001) 475]. Irradiation benefits the food if properly applied and the food is pre-packaged prior to irradiation to protect it from subsequent recontamination. The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has approved the use of ionizing radiation within the dosage range of 0-60 kGy on limited films since the 1960s [USFDA 21CFR 179.45]. The obstacle in the way of approval of additional polymers is that FDA fears that these materials may undergo changes during irradiation producing toxic radiolytic fragments. Ethylene co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH), which is often used in food applications, is not approved by the FDA for pre-packaged irradiated foods. The present work examines the non-volatile radiolytic compounds, which may be formed due to exposure to gamma irradiation at the dosage levels of 3 and 10 kGy versus a non-radiated control. Irradiated EVOH is subjected to extraction with 95:5 ethanol and water (by volume) as the food simulating solvent (FSS) for a period of 10 days at 40 °C, which models the amount of radiolytic compound a food would extract in 1 year [USFDA Chemistry Requirement for Food Contact Notification]. The FSS is then analyzed for the presence of non-volatile compounds using advanced liquid chromatographic techniques. The chromatograms obtained from different dosages show that non-volatile radiolytic compounds are not formed in EVOH and it would, therefore be in compliance with safety demands of USFDA [Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/opa-guid.html#ref and http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/cfr-table-search.html#page1].

  11. Characteristics of a non-volatile liquid propellant in liquid-fed ablative pulsed plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Schönherr, Tony; Koizumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    In the past several decades, the use of electric propulsion in spacecraft has experienced tremendous growth. With the increasing adoption of small satellites in the kilogram range, suitable propulsion systems will be necessary in the near future. Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) were the first form of electric propulsion to be deployed in orbit, and are highly suitable for small satellites due to their inherent simplicity. However, their lifetime is limited by disadvantages such as carbon deposition leading to thruster failure, and complicated feeding systems required due to the conventional use of solid propellants (usually polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). A promising alternative to solid propellants has recently emerged in the form of non-volatile liquids that are stable in vacuum. This study presents a broad comparison of the non-volatile liquid perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and solid PTFE as propellants on a PPT with a common design base. We show that liquid PFPE can be successfully used as a propellant, and exhibits similar plasma discharge properties to conventional solid PTFE, but with a mass bit that is an order of magnitude higher for an identical ablation area. We also demonstrate that the liquid PFPE propellant has exceptional resistance to carbon deposition, completely negating one of the major causes of thruster failure, while solid PTFE exhibited considerable carbon build-up. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to examine the elemental compositions of the surface deposition on the electrodes and the ablation area of the propellant (or PFPE encapsulator). The results show that based on its physical characteristics and behavior, non-volatile liquid PFPE is an extremely promising propellant for use in PPTs, with an extensive scope available for future research and development.

  12. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

  13. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E; Lavery, Leah L; Whiting, Gregory L; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  14. Two-dimensional non-volatile programmable p-n junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhengzong; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-09-01

    Semiconductor p-n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p-n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p-n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe2/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration. The junction exhibits a good rectifying behaviour with a rectification ratio of 104 and photovoltaic properties with a power conversion efficiency up to 4.1% under a 6.8 nW light. Based on the non-volatile programmable properties controlled by gate voltages, the 2D p-n junctions have been exploited for various electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as memories, photovoltaics, logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic circuits.

  15. A review of emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, An

    2016-11-01

    This paper will review emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies, with the focus on phase change memory (PCM), spin-transfer-torque random-access-memory (STTRAM), resistive random-access-memory (RRAM), and ferroelectric field-effect-transistor (FeFET) memory. These promising NVM devices are evaluated in terms of their advantages, challenges, and applications. Their performance is compared based on reported parameters of major industrial test chips. Memory selector devices and cell structures are discussed. Changing market trends toward low power (e.g., mobile, IoT) and data-centric applications create opportunities for emerging NVMs. High-performance and low-cost emerging NVMs may simplify memory hierarchy, introduce non-volatility in logic gates and circuits, reduce system power, and enable novel architectures. Storage-class memory (SCM) based on high-density NVMs could fill the performance and density gap between memory and storage. Some unique characteristics of emerging NVMs can be utilized for novel applications beyond the memory space, e.g., neuromorphic computing, hardware security, etc. In the beyond-CMOS era, emerging NVMs have the potential to fulfill more important functions and enable more efficient, intelligent, and secure computing systems.

  16. Two-dimensional non-volatile programmable p-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhengzong; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-09-01

    Semiconductor p-n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p-n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p-n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe 2 /hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration. The junction exhibits a good rectifying behaviour with a rectification ratio of 10 4 and photovoltaic properties with a power conversion efficiency up to 4.1% under a 6.8 nW light. Based on the non-volatile programmable properties controlled by gate voltages, the 2D p-n junctions have been exploited for various electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as memories, photovoltaics, logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic circuits.

  17. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M; Rodriguez-Lafuente, A; Alfaro, P; Nerin, C

    2012-10-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool in the analysis of non-volatile compounds, and the use of a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass analyzer allows a high sensitivity and accuracy when acquiring full fragment mode, providing a high assurance of correct identification of unknown compounds. In this work, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology has been applied to the analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials. The materials tested were based on polypropylene (PP), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The active packaging materials studied were one PP film containing a natural antioxidant, and two PP/EVOH films, two PET/EVOH films and one coextruded PP/EVOH/PP film containing natural antimicrobials. The chemical structure of several compounds was unequivocally identified. The analysis revealed the migration of some of the active substances used in the manufacture of active packaging, such as caffeine (0.07 ± 0.01 μg/g), carvacrol (0.31 ± 0.03 μg/g) and citral (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/g). Unintentionally added substances were also found, such as citral reaction compounds, or citral impurities present in the raw materials.

  18. Non-volatile Clocked Spin Wave Interconnect for Beyond-CMOS Nanomagnet Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sourav; Chang, Sou-Chi; Kani, Nickvash; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.; Naeemi, Azad

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using spin waves for information transmission and processing has been an area of active research due to the unique ability to manipulate the amplitude and phase of the spin waves for building complex logic circuits with less physical resources and low power consumption. Previous proposals on spin wave logic circuits have suggested the idea of utilizing the magneto-electric effect for spin wave amplification and amplitude- or phase-dependent switching of magneto-electric cells. Here, we propose a comprehensive scheme for building a clocked non-volatile spin wave device by introducing a charge-to-spin converter that translates information from electrical domain to spin domain, magneto-electric spin wave repeaters that operate in three different regimes - spin wave transmitter, non-volatile memory and spin wave detector, and a novel clocking scheme that ensures sequential transmission of information and non-reciprocity. The proposed device satisfies the five essential requirements for logic application: nonlinearity, amplification, concatenability, feedback prevention, and complete set of Boolean operations. PMID:25955353

  19. Metal-organic molecular device for non-volatile memory storage

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, B., E-mail: radha.boya@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: kulkarni@jncasr.ac.in; Sagade, Abhay A.; Kulkarni, G. U., E-mail: radha.boya@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: kulkarni@jncasr.ac.in

    Non-volatile memory devices have been of immense research interest for their use in active memory storage in powered off-state of electronic chips. In literature, various molecules and metal compounds have been investigated in this regard. Molecular memory devices are particularly attractive as they offer the ease of storing multiple memory states in a unique way and also represent ubiquitous choice for miniaturized devices. However, molecules are fragile and thus the device breakdown at nominal voltages during repeated cycles hinders their practical applicability. Here, in this report, a synergetic combination of an organic molecule and an inorganic metal, i.e., a metal-organicmore » complex, namely, palladium hexadecylthiolate is investigated for memory device characteristics. Palladium hexadecylthiolate following partial thermolysis is converted to a molecular nanocomposite of Pd(II), Pd(0), and long chain hydrocarbons, which is shown to exhibit non-volatile memory characteristics with exceptional stability and retention. The devices are all solution-processed and the memory action stems from filament formation across the pre-formed cracks in the nanocomposite film.« less

  20. A room-temperature non-volatile CNT-based molecular memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Senbin; Jing, Qingshen; Han, Ray P. S.

    2013-04-01

    Recent experiments with a carbon nanotube (CNT) system confirmed that the innertube can oscillate back-and-forth even under a room-temperature excitation. This demonstration of relative motion suggests that it is now feasible to build a CNT-based molecular memory cell (MC), and the key to bring the concept to reality is the precision control of the moving tube for sustained and reliable read/write (RW) operations. Here, we show that by using a 2-section outertube design, we are able to suitably recalibrate the system energetics and obtain the designed performance characteristics of a MC. Further, the resulting energy modification enables the MC to operate as a non-volatile memory element at room temperatures. Our paper explores a fundamental understanding of a MC and its response at the molecular level to roadmap a novel approach in memory technologies that can be harnessed to overcome the miniaturization limit and memory volatility in memory technologies.

  1. Models for Total-Dose Radiation Effects in Non-Volatile Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    The objective of this work is to develop models to predict radiation effects in non- volatile memory: flash memory and ferroelectric RAM. In flash memory experiments have found that the internal high-voltage generators (charge pumps) are the most sensitive to radiation damage. Models are presented for radiation effects in charge pumps that demonstrate the experimental results. Floating gate models are developed for the memory cell in two types of flash memory devices by Intel and Samsung. These models utilize Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and hot electron injection to charge and erase the floating gate. Erase times are calculated from the models andmore » compared with experimental results for different radiation doses. FRAM is less sensitive to radiation than flash memory, but measurements show that above 100 Krad FRAM suffers from a large increase in leakage current. A model for this effect is developed which compares closely with the measurements.« less

  2. A fast and low-power microelectromechanical system-based non-volatile memory device

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Wook; Park, Seung Joo; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.; Park, Yung Woo

    2011-01-01

    Several new generation memory devices have been developed to overcome the low performance of conventional silicon-based flash memory. In this study, we demonstrate a novel non-volatile memory design based on the electromechanical motion of a cantilever to provide fast charging and discharging of a floating-gate electrode. The operation is demonstrated by using an electromechanical metal cantilever to charge a floating gate that controls the charge transport through a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. The set and reset currents are unchanged after more than 11 h constant operation. Over 500 repeated programming and erasing cycles were demonstrated under atmospheric conditions at room temperature without degradation. Multinary bit programming can be achieved by varying the voltage on the cantilever. The operation speed of the device is faster than a conventional flash memory and the power consumption is lower than other memory devices. PMID:21364559

  3. Controlled data storage for non-volatile memory cells embedded in nano magnetic logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riente, Fabrizio; Ziemys, Grazvydas; Mattersdorfer, Clemens; Boche, Silke; Turvani, Giovanna; Raberg, Wolfgang; Luber, Sebastian; Breitkreutz-v. Gamm, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Among the beyond-CMOS technologies, perpendicular Nano Magnetic Logic (pNML) is a promising candidate due to its low power consumption, its non-volatility and its monolithic 3D integrability, which makes it possible to integrate memory and logic into the same device by exploiting the interaction of bi-stable nanomagnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Logic computation and signal synchronization are achieved by focus ion beam irradiation and by pinning domain walls in magnetic notches. However, in realistic circuits, the information storage and their read-out are crucial issues, often ignored in the exploration of beyond-CMOS devices. In this paper we address these issues by experimentally demonstrating a pNML memory element, whose read and write operations can be controlled by two independent pulsed currents. Our results prove the correct behavior of the proposed structure that enables high density memory embedded in the logic plane of 3D-integrated pNML circuits.

  4. Investigation of the non-volatile resistance change in noncentrosymmetric compounds

    PubMed Central

    Herng, T. S.; Kumar, A.; Ong, C. S.; Feng, Y. P.; Lu, Y. H.; Zeng, K. Y.; Ding, J.

    2012-01-01

    Coexistence of polarization and resistance-switching characteristics in single compounds has been long inspired scientific and technological interests. Here, we report the non-volatile resistance change in noncentrosymmetric compounds investigated by using defect nanotechnology and contact engineering. Using a noncentrosymmetric material of ZnO as example, we first transformed ZnO into high resistance state. Then ZnO electrical polarization was probed and its domains polarized 180° along the [001]-axis with long-lasting memory effect (>25 hours). Based on our experimental observations, we have developed a vacancy-mediated pseudoferroelectricity model. Our first-principle calculations propose that vacancy defects initiate a spontaneous inverted domains nucleation at grain boundaries, and then they grow in the presence of an electrical field. The propagation of inverted domains follows the scanning tip motion under applied electrical field, leading to the growth of polarized domains over large areas. PMID:22905318

  5. The floating-gate non-volatile semiconductor memory--from invention to the digital age.

    PubMed

    Sze, S M

    2012-10-01

    In the past 45 years (from 1967 to 2012), the non-volatile semiconductor memory (NVSM) has emerged from a floating-gate concept to the prime technology driver of the largest industry in the world-the electronics industry. In this paper, we briefly review the historical development of NVSM and project its future trends to the year 2020. In addition, we consider NVSM's wide-range of applications from the digital cellular phone to tablet computer to digital television. As the device dimension is scaled down to the deca-nanometer regime, we expect that many innovations will be made to meet the scaling challenges, and NVSM-inspired technology will continue to enrich and improve our lives for decades to come.

  6. Metabolomic profiling of beer reveals effect of temperature on non-volatile small molecules during short-term storage.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Lewis, Matthew R; Salazar, Lauren; Bouckaert, Peter; Prenni, Jessica E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of temperature on non-volatile compounds in beer has not been well characterised during storage. Here, a metabolomics approach was applied to characterise the effect of storage temperature on non-volatile metabolite variation after 16weeks of storage, using fresh beer as a control. The metabolite profile of room temperature stored (RT) and cold temperature stored (CT) beer differed significantly from fresh, with the most substantial variation observed between RT and fresh beer. Metabolites that changed during storage included prenylated flavonoids, purines, and peptides, and all showed reduced quantitative variation under the CT storage conditions. Corresponding sensory panel observations indicated significant beer oxidation after 12 and 16weeks of storage, with higher values reported for RT samples. These data support that temperature affected beer oxidation during short-term storage, and reveal 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA) as a candidate non-volatile metabolite marker for beer oxidation and staling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  8. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0131 DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR MEASUREMENT OF TURBINE ENGINE VOLATILE AND NON-VOLATILE PARTICULATE...MATTER (PM) EMISSIONS Edwin Corporan Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Matthew DeWitt and Chris Klingshirn University of...Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine Engine Division Aerospace Systems Directorate //Signature// CHARLES W. STEVENS Lead Engineer

  9. Fabrication de memoire monoelectronique non volatile par une approche de nanogrille flottante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmain, Marc

    Les transistors monoelectroniques (SET) sont des dispositifs de tailles nanometriques qui permettent la commande d'un electron a la fois et donc, qui consomment peu d'energie. Une des applications complementaires des SET qui attire l'attention est son utilisation dans des circuits de memoire. Une memoire monoelectronique (SEM) non volatile a le potentiel d'operer a des frequences de l'ordre des gigahertz ce qui lui permettrait de remplacer en meme temps les memoires mortes de type FLASH et les memoires vives de type DRAM. Une puce SEM permettrait donc ultimement la reunification des deux grands types de memoire au sein des ordinateurs. Cette these porte sur la fabrication de memoires monoelectroniques non volatiles. Le procede de fabrication propose repose sur le procede nanodamascene developpe par C. Dubuc et al. a 1'Universite de Sherbrooke. L'un des avantages de ce procede est sa compatibilite avec le back-end-of-line (BEOL) des circuits CMOS. Ce procede a le potentiel de fabriquer plusieurs couches de circuits memoirestres denses au-dessus de tranches CMOS. Ce document presente, entre autres, la realisation d'un simulateur de memoires monoelectroniques ainsi que les resultats de simulations de differentes structures. L'optimisation du procede de fabrication de dispositifs monoelectroniques et la realisation de differentes architectures de SEM simples sont traitees. Les optimisations ont ete faites a plusieurs niveaux : l'electrolithographie, la gravure de l'oxyde, le soulevement du titane, la metallisation et la planarisation CMP. La caracterisation electrique a permis d'etudier en profondeur les dispositifs formes de jonction de Ti/TiO2 et elle a demontre que ces materiaux ne sont pas appropries. Par contre, un SET forme de jonction de TiN/Al2O3 a ete fabrique et caracterise avec succes a basse temperature. Cette demonstration demontre le potentiel du procede de fabrication et de la deposition de couche atomique (ALD) pour la fabrication de memoires

  10. Analysis of the build-up of semi and non volatile organic compounds on urban roads.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2011-04-01

    Vehicular traffic in urban areas may adversely affect urban water quality through the build-up of traffic generated semi and non volatile organic compounds (SVOCs and NVOCs) on road surfaces. The characterisation of the build-up processes is the key to developing mitigation measures for the removal of such pollutants from urban stormwater. An in-depth analysis of the build-up of SVOCs and NVOCs was undertaken in the Gold Coast region in Australia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multicriteria Decision tools such as PROMETHEE and GAIA were employed to understand the SVOC and NVOC build-up under combined traffic scenarios of low, moderate, and high traffic in different land uses. It was found that congestion in the commercial areas and use of lubricants and motor oils in the industrial areas were the main sources of SVOCs and NVOCs on urban roads, respectively. The contribution from residential areas to the build-up of such pollutants was hardly noticeable. It was also revealed through this investigation that the target SVOCs and NVOCs were mainly attached to particulate fractions of 75-300 μm whilst the redistribution of coarse fractions due to vehicle activity mainly occurred in the >300 μm size range. Lastly, under combined traffic scenario, moderate traffic with average daily traffic ranging from 2300 to 5900 and average congestion of 0.47 were found to dominate SVOC and NVOC build-up on roads. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-volatile main memory management methods based on a file system.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    There are upcoming non-volatile (NV) memory technologies that provide byte addressability and high performance. PCM, MRAM, and STT-RAM are such examples. Such NV memory can be used as storage because of its data persistency without power supply while it can be used as main memory because of its high performance that matches up with DRAM. There are a number of researches that investigated its uses for main memory and storage. They were, however, conducted independently. This paper presents the methods that enables the integration of the main memory and file system management for NV memory. Such integration makes NV memory simultaneously utilized as both main memory and storage. The presented methods use a file system as their basis for the NV memory management. We implemented the proposed methods in the Linux kernel, and performed the evaluation on the QEMU system emulator. The evaluation results show that 1) the proposed methods can perform comparably to the existing DRAM memory allocator and significantly better than the page swapping, 2) their performance is affected by the internal data structures of a file system, and 3) the data structures appropriate for traditional hard disk drives do not always work effectively for byte addressable NV memory. We also performed the evaluation of the effects caused by the longer access latency of NV memory by cycle-accurate full-system simulation. The results show that the effect on page allocation cost is limited if the increase of latency is moderate.

  12. Inkjet-printing of non-volatile organic resistive devices and crossbar array structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sax, Stefan; Nau, Sebastian; Popovic, Karl; Bluemel, Alexander; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing demand for storage capacity in various electronic gadgets like mobile phones or tablets, new types of non-volatile memory devices have gained a lot of attention over the last few years. Especially multilevel conductance switching elements based on organic semiconductors are of great interest due to their relatively simple device architecture and their small feature size. Since organic semiconductors combine the electronic properties of inorganic materials with the mechanical characteristics of polymers, this class of materials is suitable for solution based large area device preparation techniques. Consequently, inkjet based deposition techniques are highly capable of facing preparation related challenges. By gradually replacing the evaporated electrodes with inkjet printed silver, the preparation related influence onto device performance parameters such as the ON/OFF ratio was investigated with IV measurements and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Due to the electrode surface roughness the solvent load during the printing of the top electrode as well as organic layer inhomogeneity's the utilization in array applications is hampered. As a prototypical example a 1diode-1resistor element and a 2×2 subarray from 5×5 array matrix were fully characterized demonstrating the versatility of inkjet printing for device preparation.

  13. Four-state non-volatile memory in a multiferroic spin filter tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jieji; Li, Chen; Yuan, Zhoushen; Wang, Peng; Li, Aidong; Wu, Di

    2016-12-01

    We report a spin filter type multiferroic tunnel junction with a ferromagnetic/ferroelectric bilayer barrier. Memory functions of a spin filter magnetic tunnel junction and a ferroelectric tunnel junction are combined in this single device, producing four non-volatile resistive states that can be read out in a non-destructive manner. This concept is demonstrated in a LaNiO3/Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 all-oxide tunnel junction. The ferromagnetic insulator Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3 serves as the spin filter and the ferromagnetic metal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 is the spin analyzer. The ferroelectric polarization reversal in the BaTiO3 barrier switches the tunneling barrier height to produce a tunneling electroresistance. The ferroelectric switching also modulates the spin polarization and the spin filtering efficiency in Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3.

  14. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Origami-based tunable truss structures for non-volatile mechanical memory operation.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiromi; Tachi, Tomohiro; Lee, Mia; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-10-17

    Origami has recently received significant interest from the scientific community as a method for designing building blocks to construct metamaterials. However, the primary focus has been placed on their kinematic applications by leveraging the compactness and auxeticity of planar origami platforms. Here, we present volumetric origami cells-specifically triangulated cylindrical origami (TCO)-with tunable stability and stiffness, and demonstrate their feasibility as non-volatile mechanical memory storage devices. We show that a pair of TCO cells can develop a double-well potential to store bit information. What makes this origami-based approach more appealing is the realization of two-bit mechanical memory, in which two pairs of TCO cells are interconnected and one pair acts as a control for the other pair. By assembling TCO-based truss structures, we experimentally verify the tunable nature of the TCO units and demonstrate the operation of purely mechanical one- and two-bit memory storage prototypes.Origami is a popular method to design building blocks for mechanical metamaterials. Here, the authors assemble a volumetric origami-based structure, predict its axial and rotational movements during folding, and demonstrate the operation of mechanical one- and two-bit memory storage.

  16. Studying the fate of non-volatile organic compounds in a commercial plasma air purifier.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Stefan; Seiler, Cornelia; Gerecke, Andreas C; Hächler, Herbert; Hilbi, Hubert; Frey, Joachim; Weidmann, Simon; Meier, Lukas; Berchtold, Christian; Zenobi, Renato

    2013-07-15

    Degradation of non-volatile organic compounds-environmental toxins (methyltriclosane and phenanthrene), bovine serum albumin, as well as bioparticles (Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis)-in a commercially available plasma air purifier based on a cold plasma was studied in detail, focusing on its efficiency and on the resulting degradation products. This system is capable of handling air flow velocities of up to 3.0m s(-1) (3200Lmin(-1)), much higher than other plasma-based reactors described in the literature, which generally are limited to air flow rates below 10Lmin(-1). Mass balance studies consistently indicated a reduction in concentration of the compounds/particles after passage through the plasma air purifier, 31% for phenanthrene, 17% for methyltriclosane, and 80% for bovine serum albumin. L. pneumophila did not survive passage through the plasma air purifier, and cell counts of aerosolized spores of B. subtilis and B. anthracis were reduced by 26- and 15-fold, depending on whether it was run at 10Hz or 50Hz, respectively. However rather than chemical degradation, deposition on the inner surfaces of the plasma air purifier occured. Our interpretation is that putative "degradation" efficiencies were largely due to electrostatic precipitation rather than to decomposition into smaller molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-volatile, high density, high speed, Micromagnet-Hall effect Random Access Memory (MHRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin C.; Katti, Romney R.; Stadler, Henry L.

    1991-01-01

    The micromagnetic Hall effect random access memory (MHRAM) has the potential of replacing ROMs, EPROMs, EEPROMs, and SRAMs because of its ability to achieve non-volatility, radiation hardness, high density, and fast access times, simultaneously. Information is stored magnetically in small magnetic elements (micromagnets), allowing unlimited data retention time, unlimited numbers of rewrite cycles, and inherent radiation hardness and SEU immunity, making the MHRAM suitable for ground based as well as spaceflight applications. The MHRAM device design is not affected by areal property fluctuations in the micromagnet, so high operating margins and high yield can be achieved in large scale integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. The MHRAM has short access times (less than 100 nsec). Write access time is short because on-chip transistors are used to gate current quickly, and magnetization reversal in the micromagnet can occur in a matter of a few nanoseconds. Read access time is short because the high electron mobility sensor (InAs or InSb) produces a large signal voltage in response to the fringing magnetic field from the micromagnet. High storage density is achieved since a unit cell consists only of two transistors and one micromagnet Hall effect element. By comparison, a DRAM unit cell has one transistor and one capacitor, and a SRAM unit cell has six transistors.

  18. Investigation of High-k Dielectrics and Metal Gate Electrodes for Non-volatile Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanti, Srikant

    Due to the increasing demand of non-volatile flash memories in the portable electronics, the device structures need to be scaled down drastically. However, the scalability of traditional floating gate structures beyond 20 nm NAND flash technology node is uncertain. In this regard, the use of metal gates and high-k dielectrics as the gate and interpoly dielectrics respectively, seem to be promising substitutes in order to continue the flash scaling beyond 20nm. Furthermore, research of novel memory structures to overcome the scaling challenges need to be explored. Through this work, the use of high-k dielectrics as IPDs in a memory structure has been studied. For this purpose, IPD process optimization and barrier engineering were explored to determine and improve the memory performance. Specifically, the concept of high-k / low-k barrier engineering was studied in corroboration with simulations. In addition, a novel memory structure comprising a continuous metal floating gate was investigated in combination with high-k blocking oxides. Integration of thin metal FGs and high-k dielectrics into a dual floating gate memory structure to result in both volatile and non-volatile modes of operation has been demonstrated, for plausible application in future unified memory architectures. The electrical characterization was performed on simple MIS/MIM and memory capacitors, fabricated through CMOS compatible processes. Various analytical characterization techniques were done to gain more insight into the material behavior of the layers in the device structure. In the first part of this study, interfacial engineering was investigated by exploring La2O3 as SiO2 scavenging layer. Through the silicate formation, the consumption of low-k SiO2 was controlled and resulted in a significant improvement in dielectric leakage. The performance improvement was also gauged through memory capacitors. In the second part of the study, a novel memory structure consisting of continuous metal FG

  19. A Compute Capable SSD Architecture for Next-Generation Non-volatile Memories

    SciTech Connect

    De, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Existing storage technologies (e.g., disks and ash) are failing to cope with the processor and main memory speed and are limiting the overall perfor- mance of many large scale I/O or data-intensive applications. Emerging fast byte-addressable non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies, such as phase-change memory (PCM), spin-transfer torque memory (STTM) and memristor are very promising and are approaching DRAM-like performance with lower power con- sumption and higher density as process technology scales. These new memories are narrowing down the performance gap between the storage and the main mem- ory and are putting forward challenging problems on existing SSD architecture, I/O interfacemore » (e.g, SATA, PCIe) and software. This dissertation addresses those challenges and presents a novel SSD architecture called XSSD. XSSD o oads com- putation in storage to exploit fast NVMs and reduce the redundant data tra c across the I/O bus. XSSD o ers a exible RPC-based programming framework that developers can use for application development on SSD without dealing with the complication of the underlying architecture and communication management. We have built a prototype of XSSD on the BEE3 FPGA prototyping system. We implement various data-intensive applications and achieve speedup and energy ef- ciency of 1.5-8.9 and 1.7-10.27 respectively. This dissertation also compares XSSD with previous work on intelligent storage and intelligent memory. The existing ecosystem and these new enabling technologies make this system more viable than earlier ones.« less

  20. Monitoring of volatile and non-volatile urban air genotoxins using bacteria, human cells and plants.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, E; Zani, C; Zerbini, I; Viola, G; Moretti, M; Villarini, M; Dominici, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D

    2015-02-01

    Urban air contains many mutagenic pollutants. This research aimed to investigate the presence of mutagens in the air by short-term mutagenicity tests using bacteria, human cells and plants. Inflorescences of Tradescantia were exposed to air in situ for 6h, once a month from January to May, to monitor volatile compounds and micronuclei frequency was computed. On the same days PM10 was collected continuously for 24h. Half of each filter was extracted with organic solvents and studied by means of the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, and the comet assay on human leukocytes. A quarter of each filter was extracted with distilled water in which Tradescantia was exposed. PM10 concentration was particularly high in the winter season (> 50 μg/m(3)). In situ exposure of inflorescences to urban air induced a significant increase in micronuclei frequency at all the sites considered, but only in January (p < 0.01). Aqueous extracts collected in January and February induced genotoxic effects in Tradescantia exposed in the laboratory (p < 0.01). Ames test showed that organic extracts of winter urban air were able to induce genetic mutations in S. typhimurium TA98 strain (± S9), but not in TA100 strain, with a revertants/plate number nine times higher than the negative control. Comet assay showed that winter extracts were more toxic and genotoxic than spring extracts. All the mutagenicity tests performed confirmed that urban air in North Italy in winter contains both volatile and non-volatile genotoxic substances able to induce genetic damage in bacteria, human cells and plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blackcomb: Hardware-Software Co-design for Non-Volatile Memory in Exascale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, Robert

    .6X-440X under different process variations without performance overhead in the system's early life. We have investigated the applicability of NVM for persistent memory design [Zhao 2013]. New byte addressable NVM enables fast persistent memory that allows in-memory persistent data objects to be updated with much higher throughput. Despite the significant improvement, the performance of these designs is only 50% of the native system with no persistence support, due to the logging or copy-on-write mechanisms used to update the persistent memory. A challenge in this approach is therefore how to efficiently enable atomic, consistent, and durable updates to ensure data persistence that survives application and/or system failures. We have designed a persistent memory system, called Klin, that can provide performance as close as that of the native system. The Klin design adopts a non-volatile cache and a non-volatile main memory for constructing a multi-versioned durable memory system, enabling atomic updates without logging or copy-on-write. Our evaluation shows that the proposed Kiln mechanism can achieve up to 2X of performance improvement to NVRAM-based persistent memory employing write-ahead logging. In addition, our design has numerous practical advantages: a simple and intuitive abstract interface, microarchitecture-level optimizations, fast recovery from failures, and no redundant writes to slow non-volatile storage media. The work was published in MICRO 2013 and received Best Paper Honorable Mentioned Award.« less

  2. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  3. Feasibility and limitations of anti-fuses based on bistable non-volatile switches for power electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlbacher, T.; Huerner, A.; Bauer, A. J.; Frey, L.

    2012-09-01

    Anti-fuse devices based on non-volatile memory cells and suitable for power electronic applications are demonstrated for the first time using silicon technology. These devices may be applied as stand alone devices or integrated using standard junction-isolation into application-specific and smart-power integrated circuits. The on-resistance of such devices can be permanently switched by nine orders of magnitude by triggering the anti-fuse with a positive voltage pulse. Extrapolation of measurement data and 2D TCAD process and device simulations indicate that 20 A anti-fuses with 10 mΩ can be reliably fabricated in 0.35 μm technology with a footprint of 2.5 mm2. Moreover, this concept offers distinguished added-values compared to existing mechanical relays, e.g. pre-test, temporary and permanent reset functions, gradual turn-on mode, non-volatility, and extendibility to high voltage capability.

  4. Non-Volatile Ferroelectric Switching of Ferromagnetic Resonance in NiFe/PLZT Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0140 NON-VOLATILE FERROELECTRIC SWITCHING OF FERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE IN NIFE/PLZT MULTIFERROIC THIN FILM ...OF FERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE IN NIFE/PLZT MULTIFERROIC THIN FILM HETEROSTRUCTURES (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-C-5706 5b. GRANT... films , where the magnetic anisotropy of NiFe can be electrically modified by low voltages. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirm that the

  5. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-volatile resistive switching in the Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, M.; Tranchant, J.; Corraze, B.; Cordier, S.; Bouquet, V.; Députier, S.; Guilloux-Viry, M.; Besland, M.-P.; Janod, E.; Cario, L.

    2018-05-01

    The discovery of non-volatile resistive switching in Mott insulators related to an electric-field-induced insulator to metal transition (IMT) has paved the way for their use in a new type of non-volatile memories, the Mott memories. While most of the previous studies were dedicated to uncover the resistive switching mechanism and explore the memory potential of chalcogenide Mott insulators, we present here a comprehensive study of resistive switching in the canonical oxide Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3. Our work demonstrates that this compound undergoes a non-volatile resistive switching under electric field. This resistive switching is induced by a Mott transition at the local scale which creates metallic domains closely related to existing phases of the temperature-pressure phase diagram of (V1-xCrx)2O3. Our work demonstrates also reversible resistive switching in (V1-xCrx)2O3 crystals and thin film devices. Preliminary performances obtained on 880 nm thick layers with 500 nm electrodes show the strong potential of Mott memories based on the Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3.

  7. A semi-floating gate memory based on van der Waals heterostructures for quasi-non-volatile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunsen; Yan, Xiao; Song, Xiongfei; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhou, Peng

    2018-05-01

    As conventional circuits based on field-effect transistors are approaching their physical limits due to quantum phenomena, semi-floating gate transistors have emerged as an alternative ultrafast and silicon-compatible technology. Here, we show a quasi-non-volatile memory featuring a semi-floating gate architecture with band-engineered van der Waals heterostructures. This two-dimensional semi-floating gate memory demonstrates 156 times longer refresh time with respect to that of dynamic random access memory and ultrahigh-speed writing operations on nanosecond timescales. The semi-floating gate architecture greatly enhances the writing operation performance and is approximately 106 times faster than other memories based on two-dimensional materials. The demonstrated characteristics suggest that the quasi-non-volatile memory has the potential to bridge the gap between volatile and non-volatile memory technologies and decrease the power consumption required for frequent refresh operations, enabling a high-speed and low-power random access memory.

  8. Electrically erasable non-volatile memory via electrochemical deposition of multifractal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, William Clark

    An electrically erasable non-volatile memory system based on the electrochemical deposition of Ag or Cu from a solid electrolyte is presented. This memory system, referred to as Metal Dendrite Memory, is characterized by its simplicity of design and operation, low power consumption, and potentially high cell density. By applying a small DC voltage (2.5-5V) across a Cu or Ag doped As-S amorphous chalcogenide film sandwiched between two metal electrodes, a metal filament can be electrodeposited, shorting the large impedance solid electrolyte ("on" state). Application of smaller amplitude voltage pulses (1-1.5V) across the metal filament ruptures the short, returning the cell to the high impedance state ("off" state). The state of the cell is read by applying very small amplitude voltage pulses (0.25V). These "read" voltage pulses do not disturb the state of the cell even after 10sp7 pulses. Due to difficulties in characterizing this solid electrolyte system via conventional techniques, the MDM cells have been examined using low excitation characterization methods such as Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) and polarization measurements. These studies have yielded a self-consistent equivalent circuit model as well as parameters such as ionic diffusivity and conductivity, double layer and geometric capacitances. In addition to materials characterization, the speed at which the MDM cells operate has been systematically studied using a series of statistically designed experiments, demonstrating the importance of photodoping time and applied voltage on device speed. These results were further examined using IS and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The morphology of the growing electrodeposit was studied in several different electrode arrangements and excitation conditions. Under migrationally limited conditions, the electrodeposit grew in multifractal patterns, as measured using lacunarity analysis. If a conducting film was deposited parallel to the growth direction

  9. Retooling Predictive Relations for non-volatile PM by Comparison to Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wal, R. L.; Abrahamson, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions from jet aircraft at cruise altitude are of particular interest for climate and atmospheric processes but are difficult to measure and are normally approximated. To provide such inventory estimates the present approach is to use measured, ground-based values with scaling to cruise (engine operating) conditions. Several points are raised by this approach. First is what ground based values to use. Empirical and semi-empirical approaches, such as the revised first order approximation (FOA3) and formation-oxidation (FOX) methods, each with embedded assumptions are available to calculate a ground-based black carbon concentration, CBC. Second is the scaling relation that can depend upon the ratios of fuel-air equivalence, pressure, and combustor flame temperature. We are using measured ground-based values to evaluate the accuracy of present methods towards developing alternative methods for CBCby smoke number or via a semi-empirical kinetic method for the specific engine, CFM56-2C, representative of a rich-dome style combustor, and as one of the most prevalent engine families in commercial use. Applying scaling relations to measured ground based values and comparison to measurements at cruise evaluates the accuracy of current scaling formalism. In partnership with GE Aviation, performing engine cycle deck calculations enables critical comparison between estimated or predicted thermodynamic parameters and true (engine) operational values for the CFM56-2C engine. Such specific comparisons allow tracing differences between predictive estimates for, and measurements of nvPM to their origin - as either divergence of input parameters or in the functional form of the predictive relations. Such insights will lead to development of new predictive tools for jet aircraft nvPM emissions. Such validated relations can then be extended to alternative fuels with confidence in operational thermodynamic values and functional form

  10. Development and characterization of a ferroelectric non-volatile memory for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Duo

    Flexible electronics have received significant attention recently because of the potential applications in displays, sensors, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and other integrated circuits. Electrically addressable non-volatile memory is a key component for these applications. The major challenges are to fabricate the memory at a low temperature compatible with plastic substrates while maintaining good device reliability, by being compatible with process as needed to integrate with other electronic components for system-on-chip applications. In this work, ferroelectric capacitors fabricated at low temperature were developed. Based on that, a ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) for flexible electronics was developed and characterized. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer was used as a ferroelectric material and a photolithographic process was developed to fabricate ferroelectric capacitors. Different characterization methods including atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy were used to study the material properties of the P(VDF-TrFE) film. The material properties were correlated with the electrical characteristics of the ferroelectric capacitors. To understand the polarization switching behavior of the P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric capacitors, a Nucleation-Limited-Switching (NLS) model was used to study the switching kinetics. The switching kinetics were characterized over the temperature range from -60 °C to 100 °C. Fatigue characteristics were studied at different electrical stress voltages and frequencies to evaluate the reliability of the ferroelectric capacitor. The degradation mechanism is attributed to the increase of the activation field and the suppression of the switchable polarization. To develop a FRAM circuit for flexible electronics, an n-channel thin film transistor (TFT) based on CdS as the semiconductor was integrated with a P

  11. Taste detection of the non-volatile isothiocyanate moringin results in deterrence to glucosinolate-adapted insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Müller, Caroline; van Loon, Joop; Ruschioni, Sara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Iori, Renato; Agerbirk, Niels

    2015-10-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs), released from Brassicales plants after hydrolysis of glucosinolates, are known for their negative effects on herbivores but mechanisms have been elusive. The ITCs are initially present in dissolved form at the site of herbivore feeding, but volatile ITCs may subsequently enter the gas phase and all ITCs may react with matrix components. Deterrence to herbivores resulting from topically applied volatile ITCs in artificial feeding assays may hence lead to ambiguous conclusions. In the present study, the non-volatile ITC moringin (4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl ITC) and its glucosinolate precursor glucomoringin were examined for effects on behaviour and taste physiology of specialist insect herbivores of Brassicales. In feeding bioassays, glucomoringin was not deterrent to larvae of Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are adapted to glucosinolates. Glucomoringin stimulated feeding of larvae of the related Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and also elicited electrophysiological activity from a glucosinolate-sensitive gustatory neuron in the lateral maxillary taste sensilla. In contrast, the ITC moringin was deterrent to P. napi and P. brassicae at high levels and to A. rosae at both high and low levels when topically applied to cabbage leaf discs (either 12, 120 or 1200 nmol moringin per leaf disc of 1cm diameter). Survival of A. rosae was also significantly reduced when larvae were kept on leaves treated with moringin for several days. Furthermore, moringin elicited electrophysiological activity in a deterrent-sensitive neuron in the medial maxillary taste sensillum of P. brassicae, providing a sensory mechanism for the deterrence and the first known ITC taste response of an insect. In simulated feeding assays, recovery of moringin was high, in accordance with its non-volatile nature. Our results demonstrate taste-mediated deterrence of a non-volatile, natural ITC to glucosinolate

  12. A non-volatile flip-flop based on diode-selected PCM for ultra-low power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yong; Du, Yuan; Gao, Dan; Kang, Yong; Song, Zhitang; Chen, Bomy

    2016-10-01

    As the process technology is continuously shrinking, low power consumption is a major issue in VLSI Systems-on-Chip (SoCs), especially for standby-power-critical applications. Recently, the emerging CMOS-compatible non-volatile memories (NVMs), such as Phase Change Memory (PCM), have been used as on-chip storage elements, which can obtain non-volatile processing, nearly-zero standby power and instant-on capability. PCM has been considered as the best candidate for the next generation of NVMs for its low cost, high density and high resistance transformation ratio. In this paper, for the first time, we present a diode-selected PCM based non-volatile flip-flop (NVFF) which is optimized for better power consumption and process variation tolerance. With dual trench isolation process, the diode-selected PCM realizes ultra small area, which is very suitable for multi-context configuration and large scale flip-flops matrix. Since the MOS-selected PCM is hard to shrink further due to large amount of PCM write current, the proposed NVFF achieves higher power efficiency without loss of current driving capability. Using the 40nm manufacturing process, the area of the cell (1D1R) is as small as 0.016 μm2. Simulation results show that the energy consumption during the recall operation is 62 fJ with 1.1 standard supply voltage, which is reduced by 54.9% compared to the previous 2T2R based NVFF. When the supply voltage reduces to 0.7 V, the recall energy is as low as 17 fJ. With the great advantages in cell size and energy, the proposed diode-selected NVFF is very applicable and cost-effective for ULP systems.

  13. Peroxide induced volatile and non-volatile switching behavior in ZnO-based electrochemical metallization memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangasa Simanjuntak, Firman; Chandrasekaran, Sridhar; Pattanayak, Bhaskar; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2017-09-01

    We explore the use of cubic-zinc peroxide (ZnO2) as a switching material for electrochemical metallization memory (ECM) cell. The ZnO2 was synthesized with a simple peroxide surface treatment. Devices made without surface treatment exhibits a high leakage current due to the self-doped nature of the hexagonal-ZnO material. Thus, its switching behavior can only be observed when a very high current compliance is employed. The synthetic ZnO2 layer provides a sufficient resistivity to the Cu/ZnO2/ZnO/ITO devices. The high resistivity of ZnO2 encourages the formation of a conducting bridge to activate the switching behavior at a lower operation current. Volatile and non-volatile switching behaviors with sufficient endurance and an adequate memory window are observed in the surface-treated devices. The room temperature retention of more than 104 s confirms the non-volatility behavior of the devices. In addition, our proposed device structure is able to work at a lower operation current among other reported ZnO-based ECM cells.

  14. Non-Volatile Ferroelectric Switching of Ferromagnetic Resonance in NiFe/PLZT Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongqiang; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Ma, Beihai; Chen, Xiaoqin; Jones, John G; Howe, Brandon M; Brown, Gail J; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Wang, Zhiguang; Guo, Rongdi; Chen, Shuiyuan; Shi, Xiaoling; Shi, Wei; Sun, Hongzhi; Budil, David; Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X

    2016-09-01

    Magnetoelectric effect, arising from the interfacial coupling between magnetic and electrical order parameters, has recently emerged as a robust means to electrically manipulate the magnetic properties in multiferroic heterostructures. Challenge remains as finding an energy efficient way to modify the distinct magnetic states in a reliable, reversible, and non-volatile manner. Here we report ferroelectric switching of ferromagnetic resonance in multiferroic bilayers consisting of ultrathin ferromagnetic NiFe and ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films, where the magnetic anisotropy of NiFe can be electrically modified by low voltages. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirm that the interfacial charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect is dominant in NiFe/PLZT heterostructures. Non-volatile modification of ferromagnetic resonance field is demonstrated by applying voltage pulses. The ferroelectric switching of magnetic anisotropy exhibits extensive applications in energy-efficient electronic devices such as magnetoelectric random access memories, magnetic field sensors, and tunable radio frequency (RF)/microwave devices.

  15. Non-Volatile Ferroelectric Switching of Ferromagnetic Resonance in NiFe/PLZT Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhongqiang; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Ma, Beihai; Chen, Xiaoqin; Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Wang, Zhiguang; Guo, Rongdi; Chen, Shuiyuan; Shi, Xiaoling; Shi, Wei; Sun, Hongzhi; Budil, David; Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoelectric effect, arising from the interfacial coupling between magnetic and electrical order parameters, has recently emerged as a robust means to electrically manipulate the magnetic properties in multiferroic heterostructures. Challenge remains as finding an energy efficient way to modify the distinct magnetic states in a reliable, reversible, and non-volatile manner. Here we report ferroelectric switching of ferromagnetic resonance in multiferroic bilayers consisting of ultrathin ferromagnetic NiFe and ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films, where the magnetic anisotropy of NiFe can be electrically modified by low voltages. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirm that the interfacial charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect is dominant in NiFe/PLZT heterostructures. Non-volatile modification of ferromagnetic resonance field is demonstrated by applying voltage pulses. The ferroelectric switching of magnetic anisotropy exhibits extensive applications in energy-efficient electronic devices such as magnetoelectric random access memories, magnetic field sensors, and tunable radio frequency (RF)/microwave devices. PMID:27581071

  16. Non-Volatile Ferroelectric Switching of Ferromagnetic Resonance in NiFe/PLZT Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhongqiang; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Ma, Beihai; Chen, Xiaoqin; Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Wang, Zhiguang; Guo, Rongdi; Chen, Shuiyuan; Shi, Xiaoling; Shi, Wei; Sun, Hongzhi; Budil, David; Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetoelectric effect, arising from the interfacial coupling between magnetic and electrical order parameters, has recently emerged as a robust means to electrically manipulate the magnetic properties in multiferroic heterostructures. Challenge remains as finding an energy efficient way to modify the distinct magnetic states in a reliable, reversible, and non-volatile manner. Here we report ferroelectric switching of ferromagnetic resonance in multiferroic bilayers consisting of ultrathin ferromagnetic NiFe and ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films, where the magnetic anisotropy of NiFe can be electrically modified by low voltages. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirm that the interfacial charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect is dominant in NiFe/PLZT heterostructures. Non-volatile modification of ferromagnetic resonance field is demonstrated by applying voltage pulses. The ferroelectric switching of magnetic anisotropy exhibits extensive applications in energy-efficient electronic devices such as magnetoelectric random access memories, magnetic field sensors, and tunable radio frequency (RF)/microwave devices.

  17. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor three-context memory bit cell for non-volatile circuit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, B.; Brum, R. M.; Torres, L.

    2014-04-01

    After decades of continued scaling to the beat of Moore's law, it now appears that conventional silicon based devices are approaching their physical limits. In today's deep-submicron nodes, a number of short-channel and quantum effects are emerging that affect the manufacturing process, as well as, the functionality of the microelectronic systems-on-chip. Spintronics devices that exploit both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, are promising solutions to circumvent these scaling threats. Being compatible with the CMOS technology, such devices offer a promising synergy of radiation immunity, infinite endurance, non-volatility, increased density, etc. In this paper, we present a hybrid (magnetic/CMOS) cell that is able to store and process data both electrically and magnetically. The cell is based on perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs) and is suitable for use in magnetic random access memories and reprogrammable computing (non-volatile registers, processor cache memories, magnetic field-programmable gate arrays, etc). To demonstrate the potential our hybrid cell, we physically implemented a small hybrid memory block using 45 nm × 45 nm round MTJs for the magnetic part and 28 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) technology for the CMOS part. We also report the cells measured performances in terms of area, robustness, read/write speed and energy consumption.

  18. Dynamics of Metabolite Induction in Fungal Co-cultures by Metabolomics at Both Volatile and Non-volatile Levels

    PubMed Central

    Azzollini, Antonio; Boggia, Lorenzo; Boccard, Julien; Sgorbini, Barbara; Lecoultre, Nicole; Allard, Pierre-Marie; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Rudaz, Serge; Gindro, Katia; Bicchi, Carlo; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-01

    Fungal co-cultivation has emerged as a promising way for activating cryptic biosynthetic pathways and discovering novel antimicrobial metabolites. For the success of such studies, a key element remains the development of standardized co-cultivation methods compatible with high-throughput analytical procedures. To efficiently highlight induction processes, it is crucial to acquire a holistic view of intermicrobial communication at the molecular level. To tackle this issue, a strategy was developed based on the miniaturization of fungal cultures that allows for a concomitant survey of induction phenomena in volatile and non-volatile metabolomes. Fungi were directly grown in vials, and each sample was profiled by head space solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), while the corresponding solid culture medium was analyzed by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) after solvent extraction. This strategy was implemented for the screening of volatile and non-volatile metabolite inductions in an ecologically relevant fungal co-culture of Eutypa lata (Pers.) Tul. & C. Tul. (Diatrypaceae) and Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schwein.) Shoemaker (Botryosphaeriaceae), two wood-decaying fungi interacting in the context of esca disease of grapevine. For a comprehensive evaluation of the results, a multivariate data analysis combining Analysis of Variance and Partial Least Squares approaches, namely AMOPLS, was used to explore the complex LC-HRMS and GC-MS datasets and highlight dynamically induced compounds. A time-series study was carried out over 9 days, showing characteristic metabolite induction patterns in both volatile and non-volatile dimensions. Relevant links between the dynamics of expression of specific metabolite production were observed. In addition, the antifungal activity of 2-nonanone, a metabolite incrementally produced over time in the volatile fraction, was assessed against Eutypa lata and

  19. An FPGA-Based Test-Bed for Reliability and Endurance Characterization of Non-Volatile Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Vikram; Patel, Jagdish; Patel, Janak; Namkung, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Memory technologies are divided into two categories. The first category, nonvolatile memories, are traditionally used in read-only or read-mostly applications because of limited write endurance and slow write speed. These memories are derivatives of read only memory (ROM) technology, which includes erasable programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically-erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), Flash, and more recent ferroelectric non-volatile memory technology. Nonvolatile memories are able to retain data in the absence of power. The second category, volatile memories, are random access memory (RAM) devices including SRAM and DRAM. Writing to these memories is fast and write endurance is unlimited, so they are most often used to store data that change frequently, but they cannot store data in the absence of power. Nonvolatile memory technologies with better future potential are FRAM, Chalcogenide, GMRAM, Tunneling MRAM, and Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (SONOS) EEPROM.

  20. Resistive switching characteristics of polymer non-volatile memory devices in a scalable via-hole structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hyejung; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jo, Minseok; Wang, Gunuk; Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Takhee

    2009-01-14

    The resistive switching characteristics of polyfluorene-derivative polymer material in a sub-micron scale via-hole device structure were investigated. The scalable via-hole sub-microstructure was fabricated using an e-beam lithographic technique. The polymer non-volatile memory devices varied in size from 40 x 40 microm(2) to 200 x 200 nm(2). From the scaling of junction size, the memory mechanism can be attributed to the space-charge-limited current with filamentary conduction. Sub-micron scale polymer memory devices showed excellent resistive switching behaviours such as a large ON/OFF ratio (I(ON)/I(OFF) approximately 10(4)), excellent device-to-device switching uniformity, good sweep endurance, and good retention times (more than 10,000 s). The successful operation of sub-micron scale memory devices of our polyfluorene-derivative polymer shows promise to fabricate high-density polymer memory devices.

  1. Electrical and ferroelectric properties of RF sputtered PZT/SBN on silicon for non-volatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Rajat Kumar; Singh, B. R.

    2018-02-01

    We report the integration of multilayer ferroelectric film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and explore the electrical characteristics for its application as the gate of ferroelectric field effect transistor for non-volatile memories. PZT (Pb[Zr0.35Ti0.65]O3) and SBN (SrBi2Nb2O9) ferroelectric materials were selected for the stack fabrication due to their large polarization and fatigue free properties respectively. Electrical characterization has been carried out to obtain memory window, leakage current density, PUND and endurance characteristics. Fabricated multilayer ferroelectric film capacitor structure shows large memory window of 17.73 V and leakage current density of the order 10-6 A cm-2 for the voltage sweep of -30 to +30 V. This multilayer gate stack of PZT/SBN shows promising endurance property with no degradation in the remnant polarization for the read/write iteration cycles upto 108.

  2. The effect of a non-volatile dust mantle on the energy balance of cometary surface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koemle, Norbert I.; Steiner, Gerhard

    1992-01-01

    It is likely that large parts of a cometary surface layer consist of porous ices, which are covered by a thin layer of non-volatile debris, whose structure is also fluffy and porous. In this paper the results of model calculations are presented. The calculations show the effect of ice and dust pore sizes and of the dust mantle thickness upon the thermal behavior of such a dust-ice system, when it is irradiated by the sun. In particular, it is found that the average pore size of the ice and the dust material has a large influence both on the dust surface temperature and on the temperature at the dust-ice interface.

  3. Multi-floor cascading ferroelectric nanostructures: multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory devices.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seung; Kwon, Owoong; Lee, Bom-Yi; Seol, Daehee; Park, Beomjin; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2016-01-21

    Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process.

  4. Highly conducting leakage-free electrolyte for SrCoOx-based non-volatile memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2017-10-01

    The electrochemical switching of SrCoOx-based non-volatile memory with a thin-film-transistor structure was examined by using liquid-leakage-free electrolytes with different conductivities (σ) as the gate insulator. We first examined leakage-free water, which is incorporated in the amorphous (a-) 12CaO.7Al2O3 film with a nanoporous structure (Calcium Aluminate with Nanopore), but the electrochemical oxidation/reduction of the SrCoOx layer required the application of a high gate voltage (Vg) up to 20 V for a very long current-flowing-time (t) ˜40 min, primarily due to the low σ [2.0 × 10-8 S cm-1 at room temperature (RT)] of leakage-free water. We then controlled the σ of the leakage-free electrolyte, infiltrated in the a-NaxTaO3 film with a nanopillar array structure, from 8.0 × 10-8 S cm-1 to 2.5 × 10-6 S cm-1 at RT by changing the x = 0.01-1.0. As the result, the t, required for the metallization of the SrCoOx layer under small Vg = -3 V, becomes two orders of magnitude shorter with increase of the σ of the a-NaxTaO3 leakage-free electrolyte. These results indicate that the ion migration in the leakage-free electrolyte is the rate-determining step for the electrochemical switching, compared to the other electrochemical process, and the high σ of the leakage-free electrolyte is the key factor for the development of the non-volatile SrCoOx-based electro-magnetic phase switching device.

  5. Multi-floor cascading ferroelectric nanostructures: multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seung; Kwon, Owoong; Lee, Bom-Yi; Seol, Daehee; Park, Beomjin; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2016-01-01

    Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process.Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07377d

  6. Sensitive ionization of non-volatile analytes using protein solutions as spray liquid in desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Yafei; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Bo; Gu, Haiwei; Chen, Huanwen

    2012-12-15

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is the most popular ambient ionization technique for direct analysis of complex samples without sample pretreatment. However, for many applications, especially for trace analysis, it is of interest to improve the sensitivity of DESI-mass spectrometry (MS). In traditional DESI-MS, a mixture of methanol/water/acetic acid is usually used to generate the primary ions. In this article, dilute protein solutions were electrosprayed in the DESI method to create multiply charged primary ions for the desorption ionization of trace analytes on various surfaces (e.g., filter paper, glass, Al-foil) without any sample pretreatment. The analyte ions were then detected and structurally characterized using a LTQ XL mass spectrometer. Compared with the methanol/water/acetic acid (49:49:2, v/v/v) solution, protein solutions significantly increased the signal levels of non-volatile compounds such as benzoic acid, TNT, o-toluidine, peptide and insulin in either positive or negative ion detection mode. For all the analytes tested, the limits of detection (LODs) were reduced to about half of the original values which were obtained using traditional DESI. The results showed that the signal enhancement is highly correlated with the molecular weight of the proteins and the selected solid surfaces. The proposed DESI method is a universal strategy for rapid and sensitive detection of trace amounts of strongly bound and/or non-volatile analytes, including explosives, peptides, and proteins. The results indicate that the sensitivity of DESI can be further improved by selecting larger proteins and appropriate solid surfaces. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Phase-change materials for non-volatile memory devices: from technological challenges to materials science issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noé, Pierre; Vallée, Christophe; Hippert, Françoise; Fillot, Frédéric; Raty, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, have shown outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and, recently, in non-volatile resistive memories. The latter, known as PCM memories or phase-change random access memories (PCRAMs), are the most promising candidates among emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies to replace the current FLASH memories at CMOS technology nodes under 28 nm. Chalcogenide PCMs exhibit fast and reversible phase transformations between crystalline and amorphous states with very different transport and optical properties leading to a unique set of features for PCRAMs, such as fast programming, good cyclability, high scalability, multi-level storage capability, and good data retention. Nevertheless, PCM memory technology has to overcome several challenges to definitively invade the NVM market. In this review paper, we examine the main technological challenges that PCM memory technology must face and we illustrate how new memory architecture, innovative deposition methods, and PCM composition optimization can contribute to further improvements of this technology. In particular, we examine how to lower the programming currents and increase data retention. Scaling down PCM memories for large-scale integration means the incorporation of the PCM into more and more confined structures and raises materials science issues in order to understand interface and size effects on crystallization. Other materials science issues are related to the stability and ageing of the amorphous state of PCMs. The stability of the amorphous phase, which determines data retention in memory devices, can be increased by doping the PCM. Ageing of the amorphous phase leads to a large increase of the resistivity with time (resistance drift), which has up to now hindered the development of ultra-high multi-level storage devices. A review of the current understanding of all these

  8. Technology breakthroughs in high performance metal-oxide-semiconductor devices for ultra-high density, low power non-volatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Augustin Jinwoo

    Non-volatile memory devices have attracted much attention because data can be retained without power consumption more than a decade. Therefore, non-volatile memory devices are essential to mobile electronic applications. Among state of the art non-volatile memory devices, NAND flash memory has earned the highest attention because of its ultra-high scalability and therefore its ultra-high storage capacity. However, human desire as well as market competition requires not only larger storage capacity but also lower power consumption for longer battery life time. One way to meet this human desire and extend the benefits of NAND flash memory is finding out new materials for storage layer inside the flash memory, which is called floating gate in the state of the art flash memory device. In this dissertation, we study new materials for the floating gate that can lower down the power consumption and increase the storage capacity at the same time. To this end, we employ various materials such as metal nanodot, metal thin film and graphene incorporating complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. Experimental results show excellent memory effects at relatively low operating voltages. Detailed physics and analysis on experimental results are discussed. These new materials for data storage can be promising candidates for future non-volatile memory application beyond the state of the art flash technologies.

  9. Biologically active nanocomposite of DNA-PbS nanoparticles: A new material for non-volatile memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgunde, B. K.; Rabinal, M. K.; Kalasad, M. N.

    2018-01-01

    Composite films of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles are prepared to fabricate biological memory devices. A simple solution based electrografting is developed to deposit large (few cm2) uniform films of DNA:PbS on conducting substrates. The films are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission SEM, FTIR and optical spectroscopy to understand their properties. Charge transport measurements are carried out on ITO-DNA:PbS-metal junctions by cyclic voltage scans, electrical bi-stability is observed with ON/OFF ratio more than ∼104 times with good stability and endurance, such performance being rarely reported. The observed results are interpreted in the light of strong electrostatic binding of nanoparticles and DNA stands, which leads doping of Pb atoms into DNA. As a result, these devices exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) effect due to oxidation of doped metal atoms. These composites can be the potential materials in the development of new generation non-volatile memory devices.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Size Control of Colloidal Nickel Nanocrystals for Colloidal Nanocrystals-Based Non-volatile Memory Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Manoj; Velampati, Ravi Shankar R.; Mandal, D.; Sharma, Rohit

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal synthesis and size control of nickel (Ni) nanocrystals (NCs) below 10 nm are reported using a microwave synthesis method. The synthesised colloidal NCs have been characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). XRD analysis highlights the face centred cubic crystal structure of synthesised NCs. The size of NCs observed using TEM and DLS have a distribution between 2.6 nm and 10 nm. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy analysis of spin-coated NCs over a silicon dioxide surface has been carried out to identify an optimum spin condition that can be used for the fabrication of a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) non-volatile memory (NVM) capacitor. Subsequently, the fabrication of a MOS NVM capacitor is reported to demonstrate the potential application of colloidal synthesized Ni NCs in NVM devices. We also report the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and capacitance-time (C-t) response of the fabricated MOS NVM capacitor. The C-V and C-t characteristics depict a large flat band voltage shift (V FB) and high retention time, respectively, which indicate that colloidal Ni NCs are excellent candidates for applications in next-generation NVM devices.

  11. A non-volatile organic electrochemical device as a low-voltage artificial synapse for neuromorphic computing.

    PubMed

    van de Burgt, Yoeri; Lubberman, Ewout; Fuller, Elliot J; Keene, Scott T; Faria, Grégorio C; Agarwal, Sapan; Marinella, Matthew J; Alec Talin, A; Salleo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ∼1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach. Here we describe an electrochemical neuromorphic organic device (ENODe) operating with a fundamentally different mechanism from existing memristors. ENODe switches at low voltage and energy (<10 pJ for 10 3  μm 2 devices), displays >500 distinct, non-volatile conductance states within a ∼1 V range, and achieves high classification accuracy when implemented in neural network simulations. Plastic ENODes are also fabricated on flexible substrates enabling the integration of neuromorphic functionality in stretchable electronic systems. Mechanical flexibility makes ENODes compatible with three-dimensional architectures, opening a path towards extreme interconnectivity comparable to the human brain.

  12. Effect of electrode material on characteristics of non-volatile resistive memory consisting of Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jaewon, E-mail: j1jang@knu.ac.kr

    2016-07-15

    In this study, Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles are synthesized and used as the active material for two-terminal resistance switching memory devices. Sintered Ag{sub 2}S films are successfully crystallized on plastic substrates with synthesized Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles, after a relatively low-temperature sintering process (200 °C). After the sintering process, the crystallite size is increased from 6.8 nm to 80.3 nm. The high ratio of surface atoms to inner atoms of nanoparticles reduces the melting point temperature, deciding the sintering process temperature. In order to investigate the resistance switching characteristics, metal/Ag{sub 2}S/metal structures are fabricated and tested. The effect of the electrode materialmore » on the non-volatile resistive memory characteristics is studied. The bottom electrochemically inert materials, such as Au and Pt, were critical for maintaining stable memory characteristics. By using Au and Pt inert bottom electrodes, we are able to significantly improve the memory endurance and retention to more than 10{sup 3} cycles and 10{sup 4} sec, respectively.« less

  13. Untargeted metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-volatile profiling of wines.

    PubMed

    Arbulu, M; Sampedro, M C; Gómez-Caballero, A; Goicolea, M A; Barrio, R J

    2015-02-09

    The current study presents a method for comprehensive untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting of the non-volatile profile of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF). Pre-treatment of samples, chromatographic columns, mobile phases, elution gradients and ionization sources, were evaluated for the extraction of the maximum number of metabolites in red wine. Putative compounds were extracted from the raw data using the extraction algorithm, molecular feature extractor (MFE). For the metabolite identification the WinMet database was designed based on electronic databases and literature research and includes only the putative metabolites reported to be present in oenological matrices. The results from WinMet were compared with those in the METLIN database to evaluate how much the databases overlap for performing identifications. The reproducibility of the analysis was assessed using manual processing following replicate injections of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano wine spiked with external standards. In the present work, 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified, including primary wine metabolites such as sugars (4%), amino acids (23%), biogenic amines (4%), fatty acids (2%), and organic acids (32%) and secondary metabolites such as phenols (27%) and esters (8%). Significant differences between varieties Tempranillo and Graciano were related to the presence of fifteen specific compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hafnia-based resistive switching devices for non-volatile memory applications and effects of gamma irradiation on device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, N.; Kumar, K. Vinod; Pathak, A. P.; Avasthi, D. K.; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.

    2018-04-01

    Non-volatile memory (NVM) devices were fabricated as a Metal- Insulator-Metal (MIM) structures by sandwiching Hafnium dioxide (HfO2) thin film in between two metal electrodes. The top and bottom metal electrodes were deposited by using the thermal evaporation, and the oxide layer was deposited by using the RF magnetron sputtering technique. The Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) device structures such as Ag/HfO2/Au/Si were fabricated and I-V characteristics for the pristine and gamma-irradiated devices with a dose 24 kGy were measured. Further we have studied the thermal annealing effects, in the range of 100°-400°C in a tubular furnace for the HfO2/Au/Si samples. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis measurements were performed to determine the thickness, crystallinity and stoichiometry of these films. The electrical characteristics such as resistive switching, endurance, retention time and switching speed were measured by a semiconductor device analyser. The effects of gamma irradiation on the switching properties of these RRAM devices have been studied.

  15. A non-volatile organic electrochemical device as a low-voltage artificial synapse for neuromorphic computing

    DOE PAGES

    van de Burgt, Yoeri; Lubberman, Ewout; Fuller, Elliot J.; ...

    2017-02-20

    The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ~1- 100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach. Here we describe an electrochemical neuromorphic organic device (ENODe) operating with a fundamentally different mechanism from existing memristors. ENODe switches at low energymore » (<10 pJ for 10 3 μm 2 devices) and voltage, displays >500 distinct, non-volatile conductance states within a ~1 V range, and achieves high classification accuracy when implemented in neural network simulations. Plastic ENODEs are also fabricated on flexible substrates enabling the integration of neuromorphic functionality in stretchable electronic systems. Mechanical flexibility makes ENODes compatible with 3D architectures, opening a path towards extreme interconnectivity comparable to the human brain.« less

  16. EqualChance: Addressing Intra-set Write Variation to Increase Lifetime of Non-volatile Caches

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    To address the limitations of SRAM such as high-leakage and low-density, researchers have explored use of non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, such as ReRAM (resistive RAM) and STT-RAM (spin transfer torque RAM) for designing on-chip caches. A crucial limitation of NVMs, however, is that their write endurance is low and the large intra-set write variation introduced by existing cache management policies may further exacerbate this problem, thereby reducing the cache lifetime significantly. We present EqualChance, a technique to increase cache lifetime by reducing intra-set write variation. EqualChance works by periodically changing the physical cache-block location of a write-intensive data item withinmore » a set to achieve wear-leveling. Simulations using workloads from SPEC CPU2006 suite and HPC (high-performance computing) field show that EqualChance improves the cache lifetime by 4.29X. Also, its implementation overhead is small, and it incurs very small performance and energy loss.« less

  17. EqualWrites: Reducing Intra-set Write Variations for Enhancing Lifetime of Non-volatile Caches

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    Driven by the trends of increasing core-count and bandwidth-wall problem, the size of last level caches (LLCs) has greatly increased and hence, the researchers have explored non-volatile memories (NVMs) which provide high density and consume low-leakage power. Since NVMs have low write-endurance and the existing cache management policies are write variation-unaware, effective wear-leveling techniques are required for achieving reasonable cache lifetimes using NVMs. We present EqualWrites, a technique for mitigating intra-set write variation. In this paper, our technique works by recording the number of writes on a block and changing the cache-block location of a hot data-item to redirect themore » future writes to a cold block to achieve wear-leveling. Simulation experiments have been performed using an x86-64 simulator and benchmarks from SPEC06 and HPC (high-performance computing) field. The results show that for single, dual and quad-core system configurations, EqualWrites improves cache lifetime by 6.31X, 8.74X and 10.54X, respectively. In addition, its implementation overhead is very small and it provides larger improvement in lifetime than three other intra-set wear-leveling techniques and a cache replacement policy.« less

  18. Non-volatile logic gates based on planar Hall effect in magnetic films with two in-plane easy axes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyeop; Bac, Seul-Ki; Choi, Seonghoon; Lee, Hakjoon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, Xinyu; Dobrowolska, M; Furdyna, Jacek K

    2017-04-25

    We discuss the use of planar Hall effect (PHE) in a ferromagnetic GaMnAs film with two in-plane easy axes as a means for achieving novel logic functionalities. We show that the switching of magnetization between the easy axes in a GaMnAs film depends strongly on the magnitude of the current flowing through the film due to thermal effects that modify its magnetic anisotropy. Planar Hall resistance in a GaMnAs film with two in-plane easy axes shows well-defined maxima and minima that can serve as two binary logic states. By choosing appropriate magnitudes of the input current for the GaMnAs Hall device, magnetic logic functions can then be achieved. Specifically, non-volatile logic functionalities such as AND, OR, NAND, and NOR gates can be obtained in such a device by selecting appropriate initial conditions. These results, involving a simple PHE device, hold promise for realizing programmable logic elements in magnetic electronics.

  19. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pendina, G., E-mail: gregory.dipendina@cea.fr, E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr, E-mail: edith.beigne@cea.fr; Zianbetov, E., E-mail: gregory.dipendina@cea.fr, E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr, E-mail: edith.beigne@cea.fr; CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble

    2015-05-07

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remainingmore » in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28 nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160 mV up to 920 mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154 pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes.« less

  20. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pendina, G.; Zianbetov, E.; Beigne, E.

    2015-05-01

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28 nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160 mV up to 920 mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154 pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes.

  1. A non-volatile organic electrochemical device as a low-voltage artificial synapse for neuromorphic computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Burgt, Yoeri; Lubberman, Ewout; Fuller, Elliot J.; Keene, Scott T.; Faria, Grégorio C.; Agarwal, Sapan; Marinella, Matthew J.; Alec Talin, A.; Salleo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ~1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach. Here we describe an electrochemical neuromorphic organic device (ENODe) operating with a fundamentally different mechanism from existing memristors. ENODe switches at low voltage and energy (<10 pJ for 103 μm2 devices), displays >500 distinct, non-volatile conductance states within a ~1 V range, and achieves high classification accuracy when implemented in neural network simulations. Plastic ENODes are also fabricated on flexible substrates enabling the integration of neuromorphic functionality in stretchable electronic systems. Mechanical flexibility makes ENODes compatible with three-dimensional architectures, opening a path towards extreme interconnectivity comparable to the human brain.

  2. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into production of volatile and non-volatile flavor components in mandarin hybrid fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qibin; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Huang, Ming; Yu, Yuan; Dhaliwal, Harvinder S; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2015-03-06

    Although many of the volatile constituents of flavor and aroma in citrus have been identified, the knowledge of molecular mechanisms and regulation of volatile production are very limited. Our aim was to understand mechanisms of flavor volatile production and regulation in mandarin fruit. Fruits of two mandarin hybrids, Temple and Murcott with contrasting volatile and non- volatile profiles, were collected at three developmental stages. A combination of methods, including the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, gas chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography, was used to identify proteins, measure gene expression levels, volatiles, sugars, organic acids and carotenoids. Two thirds of differentially expressed proteins were identified in the pathways of glycolysis, citric acid cycle, amino acid, sugar and starch metabolism. An enzyme encoding valencene synthase gene (Cstps1) was more abundant in Temple than in Murcott. Valencene accounted for 9.4% of total volatile content in Temple, whereas no valencene was detected in Murcott fruit. Murcott expression of Cstps1 is severely reduced. We showed that the diversion of valencene and other sesquiterpenes into the terpenoid pathway together with high production of apocarotenoid volatiles might have resulted in the lower concentration of carotenoids in Temple fruit.

  3. Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of "Valencia" Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; McCollum, Greg; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A; Widmer, Wilbur W; Luzio, Gary; Cameron, Randall

    2016-01-04

    Florida "Valencia" oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.

  4. Three-dimensional micro/nano-scale structure fabricated by combination of non-volatile polymerizable RTIL and FIB irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabata, Susumu; Minamimoto, Hiro; Inoue, Kosuke; Imanishi, Akihito; Hosoya, Ken; Uyama, Hiroshi; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Seki, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been widely investigated as a nonvolatile solvent as well as a unique liquid material because of its interesting features, e.g., negligible vapor pressure and high thermal stability. Here we report that a non-volatile polymerizable RTIL is a useful starting material for the fabrication of micro/nano-scale polymer structures with a focused-ion-beam (FIB) system operated under high-vacuum condition. Gallium-ion beam irradiation to the polymerizable 1-allyl-3-ethylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethane)sulfonyl)amide RTIL layer spread on a Si wafer induced a polymerization reaction without difficulty. What is interesting to note is that we have succeeded in provoking the polymerization reaction anywhere on the Si wafer substrate by using FIB irradiation with a raster scanning mode. By this finding, two- and three-dimensional micro/nano-scale polymer structure fabrications were possible at the resolution of 500,000 dpi. Even intricate three-dimensional micro/nano-figures with overhang and hollow moieties could be constructed at the resolution of approximately 100 nm. PMID:24430465

  5. Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of “Valencia” Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; McCollum, Greg; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Luzio, Gary; Cameron, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy. PMID:28231099

  6. EqualWrites: Reducing Intra-set Write Variations for Enhancing Lifetime of Non-volatile Caches

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-29

    Driven by the trends of increasing core-count and bandwidth-wall problem, the size of last level caches (LLCs) has greatly increased and hence, the researchers have explored non-volatile memories (NVMs) which provide high density and consume low-leakage power. Since NVMs have low write-endurance and the existing cache management policies are write variation-unaware, effective wear-leveling techniques are required for achieving reasonable cache lifetimes using NVMs. We present EqualWrites, a technique for mitigating intra-set write variation. In this paper, our technique works by recording the number of writes on a block and changing the cache-block location of a hot data-item to redirect themore » future writes to a cold block to achieve wear-leveling. Simulation experiments have been performed using an x86-64 simulator and benchmarks from SPEC06 and HPC (high-performance computing) field. The results show that for single, dual and quad-core system configurations, EqualWrites improves cache lifetime by 6.31X, 8.74X and 10.54X, respectively. In addition, its implementation overhead is very small and it provides larger improvement in lifetime than three other intra-set wear-leveling techniques and a cache replacement policy.« less

  7. Layer-by-layer charging in non-volatile memory devices using embedded sub-2 nm platinum nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramalingam, Balavinayagam; Zheng, Haisheng; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra, E-mail: gangopadhyays@missouri.edu

    In this work, we demonstrate multi-level operation of a non-volatile memory metal oxide semiconductor capacitor by controlled layer-by-layer charging of platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) floating gate devices with defined gate voltage bias ranges. The device consists of two layers of ultra-fine, sub-2 nm PtNPs integrated between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunneling and separation layers. PtNP size and interparticle distance were varied to control the particle self-capacitance and associated Coulomb charging energy. Likewise, the tunneling layer thicknesses were also varied to control electron tunneling to the first and second PtNP layers. The final device configuration with optimal charging behavior and multi-level programming was attainedmore » with a 3 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} initial tunneling layer, initial PtNP layer with particle size 0.54 ± 0.12 nm and interparticle distance 4.65 ± 2.09 nm, 3 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer to separate the PtNP layers, and second particle layer with 1.11 ± 0.28 nm PtNP size and interparticle distance 2.75 ± 1.05 nm. In this device, the memory window of the first PtNP layer saturated over a programming bias range of 7 V to 14 V, after which the second PtNP layer starts charging, exhibiting a multi-step memory window with layer-by-layer charging.« less

  8. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    PubMed

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-cost fabrication of ternary CuInSe{sub 2} nanocrystals by colloidal route using a novel combination of volatile and non-volatile capping agents

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, Parul; Narain Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh@nplindia.org; Singh, Son

    2014-11-15

    Wet-route synthesis of CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) nanocrystals has been envisaged with the utilization of the unique combination of coordinating ligand and non coordinating solvent. Our work demonstrates the formation of a single-phase, nearly stoichiometric and monodispersive, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals (band gap (E{sub g})∼1.16 eV) using a novel combination of ligands; viz. volatile arylamine aniline and non-volatile solvent 1-octadecene. The synthesis and growth conditions have been manoeuvred using the colligative properties of the mixture and thus higher growth temperature (∼250 °C) could be attained that promoted larger grain growth. The beneficial influence of the capping agents (anilinemore » and 1-octadecene) on the properties of chalcopyrite nanocrystals has enabled us to pictorally model the structural, morphological and optoelectronic aspects of CISe nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Without resorting to any post-selenization process and using the colligative properties of the mixture comprising of volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene to manoeuvre the growth conditions to promote Ostwald ripening, a single phase, monodispersive and nearly stoichiometric ternary CISe nanocrystals are formed by wet-synthesis route. - Highlights: • Wet-route synthesis of CISe nanocrystals reported without post-selenization process. • Single-phase, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals formed. • Novel combination of capping agents: volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene. • Higher growth temperature attained using the colligative properties of the mixture. • Metallic salts presence explains exp. and theoretical boiling point difference.« less

  10. Contribution of non-volatile and aroma fractions to in-mouth sensory properties of red wines: wine reconstitution strategies and sensory sorting task.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Avizcuri, José Miguel; Valentin, Dominique; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2012-06-30

    This work explores to what extent the aroma or the non-volatile fractions of red wines are responsible for the overall flavor differences perceived in-mouth. For this purpose, 14 samples (4 commercial and 10 reconstituted wines), were sorted by a panel of 30 trained assessors according to their sensory in-mouth similarities. Reconstituted wines were prepared by adding the same volatile fraction (coming from a red wine) to the non-volatile fraction of 10 different red wines showing large differences in perceived astringency. Sorting was performed under three different conditions: (a) no aroma perception: nose-close condition (NA), (b) retronasal aroma perception only (RA), and (c) allowing retro- and involuntary orthonasal aroma perception (ROA). Similarity estimates were derived from the sorting and submitted to multidimensional scaling (MDS) followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Results have clearly shown that, globally, aroma perception is not the major driver of the in-mouth sensory perception of red wine, which is undoubtedly primarily driven by the perception of astringency and by the chemical compounds causing it, particularly protein precipitable proanthocyanidins (PAs). However, aroma perception plays a significant role on the perception of sweetness and bitterness. The impact of aroma seems to be more important whenever astringency, total polyphenols and protein precipitable PAs levels are smaller. Results also indicate that when a red-black fruit odor nuance is clearly perceived in conditions in which orthonasal odor perception is allowed, a strong reduction in astringency takes place. Such red-black fruit odor nuance seems to be the result of a specific aroma release pattern as a consequence of the interaction between aroma compounds and the non-volatile matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-exponential resistive switching in Ag2S memristors: a key to nanometer-scale non-volatile memory devices.

    PubMed

    Gubicza, Agnes; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András; Mihály, György

    2015-03-14

    The dynamics of resistive switchings in nanometer-scale metallic junctions formed between an inert metallic tip and an Ag film covered by a thin Ag2S layer are investigated. Our thorough experimental analysis and numerical simulations revealed that the resistance change upon a switching bias voltage pulse exhibits a strongly non-exponential behaviour yielding markedly different response times at different bias levels. Our results demonstrate the merits of Ag2S nanojunctions as nanometer-scale non-volatile memory cells with stable switching ratios, high endurance as well as fast response to write/erase, and an outstanding stability against read operations at technologically optimal bias and current levels.

  12. Non-volatile analysis in fruits by laser resonant ionization spectrometry: application to resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) in grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, C.; Orea, J. M.; Soledad Muñoz, M.; Lobo, R. F. M.; González Ureña, A.

    A laser desorption (LD) coupled with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) technique for non-volatile trace analysis compounds is presented. Essential features are: (a) an enhanced desorption yield due to the mixing of metal powder with the analyte in the sample preparation, (b) a high resolution, great sensitivity and low detection limit due to laser resonant ionisation and mass spectrometry detection. Application to resveratrol content in grapes demonstrated the capability of the analytical method with a sensitivity of 0.2 pg per single laser shot and a detection limit of 5 ppb.

  13. Cleanroom Contaminant Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Femtometrics, Inc. developed the Real-Time Non-Volatile Residue (NVR) monitor. Criteria established by KSC called for a technology that could regulate the accumulation of nonvolatile residues in cleanroom environments. The company accommodated the Center's need with an advanced, highly sensitive surface acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor capable of detecting sub-monolayer deposition in cleanrooms where aerospace systems are assembled. Years earlier, Femtometrics responded to and received SBIR contracts from Langley Research Center for highly sensitive aerosol detectors for environmental researchers. Stimulated by the SBIR wins, the company set about to develop the SAW resonator technology. A new type of sensor has evolved from the research, one that has the ability to measure a range of chemical vapors by applying chemical-specific coating on the sensing surface. Commercial applications of the Real-Time NVR include Class 1 cleanrooms at semiconductor and hard-disk manufacturing plants.

  14. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  15. Voltage Control of Metal-insulator Transition and Non-volatile Ferroelastic Switching of Resistance in VOx/PMN-PT Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or ‘Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices. PMID:25088796

  16. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Voltage control of metal-insulator transition and non-volatile ferroelastic switching of resistance in VOx/PMN-PT heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X

    2014-08-04

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or 'Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.

  18. Simultaneous Microwave Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds of Boldo Leaves. From Lab to Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno, Sandrine; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Microwave extraction and separation has been used to increase the concentration of the extract compared to the conventional method with the same solid/liquid ratio, reducing extraction time and separate at the same time Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from non-Volatile Organic Compounds (NVOC) of boldo leaves. As preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material and the separation of VOC from the plant in laboratory scale. The results from the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: microwave power 200 W, extraction time 56 min and solid liquid ratio of 7.5% of plants in water. Lab scale optimized microwave method is compared to conventional distillation, and requires a power/mass ratio of 0.4 W/g of water engaged. This power/mass ratio is kept in order to upscale from lab to pilot plant. PMID:24776762

  19. High performance non-volatile ferroelectric copolymer memory based on a ZnO nanowire transistor fabricated on a transparent substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedic, Stanko; Tea Chun, Young; Hong, Woong-Ki; Chu, Daping; Welland, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A high performance ferroelectric non-volatile memory device based on a top-gate ZnO nanowire (NW) transistor fabricated on a glass substrate is demonstrated. The ZnO NW channel was spin-coated with a poly (vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) layer acting as a top-gate dielectric without buffer layer. Electrical conductance modulation and memory hysteresis are achieved by a gate electric field induced reversible electrical polarization switching of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin film. Furthermore, the fabricated device exhibits a memory window of ˜16.5 V, a high drain current on/off ratio of ˜105, a gate leakage current below ˜300 pA, and excellent retention characteristics for over 104 s.

  20. Ultralow-power non-volatile memory cells based on P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric-gate CMOS silicon nanowire channel field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Whang, Dongmok; Kang, Dae Joon

    2015-07-21

    Nanowire-based ferroelectric-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (NW FeCMOS) nonvolatile memory devices were successfully fabricated by utilizing single n- and p-type Si nanowire ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors (NW FeFETs) as individual memory cells. In addition to having the advantages of single channel n- and p-type Si NW FeFET memory, Si NW FeCMOS memory devices exhibit a direct readout voltage and ultralow power consumption. The reading state power consumption of this device is less than 0.1 pW, which is more than 10(5) times lower than the ON-state power consumption of single-channel ferroelectric memory. This result implies that Si NW FeCMOS memory devices are well suited for use in non-volatile memory chips in modern portable electronic devices, especially where low power consumption is critical for energy conservation and long-term use.

  1. Electrical reliability, multilevel data storage and mechanical stability of MoS2-PMMA nanocomposite-based non-volatile memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Snigdha; Sarkar, Pranab Kumar; Prajapat, Manoj; Roy, Asim

    2017-07-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is of great interest for its applicability in various optoelectronic devices. Here we report the resistive switching properties of polymethylmethacrylate embedding MoS2 nano-crystals. The devices are developed on an ITO-coated PET substrate with copper as the top electrode. Systematic evaluation of resistive switching parameters, on the basis of MoS2 content, suggests non-volatile memory characteristics. A decent ON/OFF ratio, high retention time and long endurance of 3  ×  103, 105 s and 105 cycles are respectively recorded in a device with 1 weight percent (wt%) of MoS2. The bending cyclic measurements confirm the flexibility of the memory devices with good electrical reliability as well as mechanical stability. In addition, multilevel storage has been demonstrated by controlling the current compliance and span of voltage sweeping in the memory device.

  2. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple time-of-flight with MS(E) technology used for qualitative analysis of non-volatile oxidation markers in sliced packed mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus).

    PubMed

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-02-05

    61 different non-volatile compounds were determined in Agaricus Bisporus sliced mushrooms using UHPLC/Q-TOF with MS(E) technology. Both positive and negative electrospray ionization were applied. Chemical profile of three parts of mushroom was created: cap, gills and stipe. The analysed mushrooms were oxidized to identify the non-volatile markers in their parts. MarkerLynx(®) was proposed as a powerful tool to distinguish mushrooms purchased in different countries (Spain and Portugal) by determining their non-volatile markers. Some metabolites were identified. Surprisingly a mix of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) was detected in cap and gills of mushrooms. Whole mushrooms were considered as vegetable resistant to migration from packaging compounds. Additionally migration tests were performed to determine the source of migrating compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis and implementation of PM sampling methodology protocols to aid in the development of an ARP (aerospace recommended practice) for aircraft non-volatile PM measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catron, Brian Lowell

    Due to the growing concerns that particulate matter (PM) have on health and the environment, there is a need to include mass and number non-volatile PM measurements to current jet engine certification. This thesis looks at the necessary work required to help produce recommendations and perform background research to aid in the creation of an improved Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) (by the SAE E-31 Committee). This work addressed the following issues. The investigation began in the Missouri S&T Center of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research (COE) laboratory with an examination of the jet engine surrogate used, the miniCAST, as well as integrating it into the COE's PM measurement system. A clean PM sample line was aged by running a PM source through it until a steady state signal was measured by the instruments in order to make a recommended procedure for line conditioning as well as reconditioning. Several eductors were studied for their performance characteristics and compared against desired characteristics, which suggested a need to include a pressure relief valve to cap the sample pressure at the eductor entrance. A volatile particle remover (VPR) was studied for penetration and ability to remove volatile material. A prototype E-31 system was setup at the second alternative aviation fuel experiment (AAFEX II), which provided a direct comparison of probe tip dilution and downstream dilution and found comparable results when line loss was taken into account. Also performed at AAFEX II was a study that compared measured sample line penetration with theoretical calculations finding that theoretical calculations were an accurate alternative of measuring line loss. Two PM sampling systems were setup at an ARP demonstration and both system had similar results for both number and mass measurement. An instrument comparison was also performed that included an examination of condensation particle counter (CPC) cutoff size. It was also

  4. Piezostrain tuning non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation in Co2FeAl Heusler alloy film grown on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cai; Wang, Fenglong; Dunzhu, Gesang; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun

    2016-11-01

    Non-volatile electric field-based control of magnetic anisotropy in Co2FeAl/ Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (CFA/PMN-PT) heterostructures is investigated at room temperature. The remnant magnetization response under different electric fields shows a asymmetric butterfly-like behavior; specifically, this behavior is consistent with the asymmetric butterfly-like piezostrain versus applied electric field curve. Thus electric field-induced non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation can be attributed to the piezostrain effect. Further, the result measured by rotating-angle ferromagnetic resonance demonstrates piezostrain-mediated non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation at the initial state and the two remnant polarization states after application of the poling fields of 10 and  -10 kV cm-1 turned off. The angular dependence of magnetic damping also indicates a 90° phase shift at the above mentioned three different states. Additionally, the piezostrain-mediated non-volatile stable magnetization reversal in the two directions of easy and hard magnetization axes are observed under positive and negative pulsed electric fields, which can be used to improve the performance of low-loss multiple-state memory devices.

  5. Precision cleaning verification of fluid components by air/water impingement and total carbon analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 sq m. Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging/diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg/sq ft of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVRs impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 sq m.

  6. Characterization of Au/PbTi0.5Fe0.5O3/Si structure for possible multiferroic based non-volatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, S.; Roy, S.; Tulapurkar, A. A.; Palkar, V. R.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric multiferroic PbTi0.5Fe0.5O3 films are deposited on a ⟨100⟩ conducting p-Si substrate without any buffer layer by using pulsed laser deposition and characterized for possible non-volatile memory applications. Their crystalline structure and surface morphology were characterized by using x-ray diffraction and AFM techniques. HRTEM was employed to determine the film-substrate interface. The electronic structure of the film was investigated by XPS, and no signature of metal was found for all the elements. The chemical shift of the Ti 2p XPS peak is attributed to the replacement of Ti with Fe in the PbTiO3 matrix. Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) results indicate the 180° phase shift of ferroelectric polarization. The upward self-polarization phenomenon is also observed in the PFM study. Magnetic and magneto-electric coupling measurements were carried out to confirm the magnetic nature and electro-magnetic coupling characteristics. C-V measurements exhibit clock-wise hysteresis loops with a maximum memory window of 1.2 V and a sweep voltage of ±7 V. This study could influence the fabrication of silicon compatible multiple memory device structures.

  7. Ferroelectric behavior and reproducible Bi-stable resistance switching property in K-doped ZnO thin films as candidate for application in non-volatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. W.; Subramaniam, N. G.; Kang, T. W.; Shon, Yoon; Kim, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    Potassium-doped ZnO thin films electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates exhibited ferroelectric behavior with a remnant polarization of 0.2 μC/cm2. Especially, wave forms showing the applied input voltage Vi and output voltage Vo were obtained for Al/ZnO:K/ITO structure. It exhibits a superposition of Vi (input) and Vo (output) signal from Al/ZnO:K/ITO structure with a clear phase shift between the two wave forms which again confirms that the observed ferroelectric hysteresis curve is not related to leaky dielectric materials. The current-voltage characteristics of Al/ZnO:K/ITO structures measured for several cycles revealed bi-stable switching characteristics. The reproducible bi-stable switching characteristics for the mentioned structures had good retention in one particular resistance state. Around one order of switching was realized between low and high resistance states. The switching property thought to be polarization induced originating out from the ferroelectric properties of the potassium doped ZnO thin film. The switching between ZnO:K/ITO interface is assumed to be critical for stability in switching for several cycles. Possible application of this structure in non-volatile memories is explored.

  8. Radiation-hardened MRAM-based LUT for non-volatile FPGA soft error mitigation with multi-node upset tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zand, Ramtin; DeMara, Ronald F.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we have developed a radiation-hardened non-volatile lookup table (LUT) circuit utilizing spin Hall effect (SHE)-magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. The design is motivated by modeling the effect of radiation particles striking hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor/spin based circuits, and the resistive behavior of SHE-MRAM devices via established and precise physics equations. The models developed are leveraged in the SPICE circuit simulator to verify the functionality of the proposed design. The proposed hardening technique is based on using feedback transistors, as well as increasing the radiation capacity of the sensitive nodes. Simulation results show that our proposed LUT circuit can achieve multiple node upset (MNU) tolerance with more than 38% and 60% power-delay product improvement as well as 26% and 50% reduction in device count compared to the previous energy-efficient radiation-hardened LUT designs. Finally, we have performed a process variation analysis showing that the MNU immunity of our proposed circuit is realized at the cost of increased susceptibility to transistor and MRAM variations compared to an unprotected LUT design.

  9. Integration of lead-free ferroelectric on HfO2/Si (100) for high performance non-volatile memory applications

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Souvik; Maurya, Deepam; Clavel, Michael; Zhou, Yuan; Halder, Nripendra N.; Hudait, Mantu K.; Banerji, Pallab; Priya, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel lead-free ferroelectric thin film (1-x)BaTiO3-xBa(Cu1/3Nb2/3)O3 (x = 0.025) (BT-BCN) integrated on to HfO2 buffered Si for non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), x-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were employed to establish the ferroelectricity in BT-BCN thin films. PFM study reveals that the domains reversal occurs with 180° phase change by applying external voltage, demonstrating its effectiveness for NVM device applications. X-ray photoelectron microscopy was used to investigate the band alignments between atomic layer deposited HfO2 and pulsed laser deposited BT-BCN films. Programming and erasing operations were explained on the basis of band-alignments. The structure offers large memory window, low leakage current, and high and low capacitance values that were easily distinguishable even after ~106 s, indicating strong charge storage potential. This study explains a new approach towards the realization of ferroelectric based memory devices integrated on Si platform and also opens up a new possibility to embed the system within current complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing technology. PMID:25683062

  10. Investing the effectiveness of retention performance in a non-volatile floating gate memory device with a core-shell structure of CdSe nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Min; Lim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Bang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate the retention performance of organic non-volatile floating gate memory devices with CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) as charge trapping elements. Core-structured CdSe NPs or core-shell-structured ZnS/CdSe NPs were mixed in PMMA and their performance in pentacene based device was compared. The NPs and self-organized thin tunneling PMMA inside the devices exhibited hysteresis by trapping hole during capacitance-voltage characterization. Despite of core-structured NPs showing a larger memory window, the retention time was too short to be adopted by an industry. By contrast core-shell structured NPs showed an improved retention time of >10000 seconds than core-structure NCs. Based on these results and the energy band structure, we propose the retention mechanism of each NPs. This investigation of retention performance provides a comparative and systematic study of the charging/discharging behaviors of NPs based memory devices. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. An overview of Experimental Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina by 2014, and Oxides for Non Volatile Memory Devices: The MeMOSat Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    In the first part of my talk, I will describe the status of the experimental research in Condensed Matter Physics in Argentina, biased towards developments related to micro and nanotechnology. In the second part, I will describe the MeMOSat Project, a consortium aimed at producing non-volatile memory devices to work in aggressive environments, like those found in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Our devices rely on the Resistive Switching mechanism, which produces a permanent but reversible change in the electrical resistance across a metal-insulator-metal structure by means of a pulsed protocol of electrical stimuli. Our project is devoted to the study of Memory Mechanisms in Oxides (MeMO) in order to establish a technological platform that tests the Resistive RAM (ReRAM) technology for aerospace applications. A review of MeMOSat's activities is presented, covering the initial Proof of Concept in ceramic millimeter sized samples; the study of different oxide-metal couples including (LaPr)2/3Ca1/3MnO, La2/3Ca1/3MnO3, YBa2Cu3O7, TiO2, HfO2, MgO and CuO; and recent miniaturized arrays of micrometer sized devices controlled by in-house designed electronics, which were launched with the BugSat01 satellite in June2014 by the argentinian company Satellogic.

  12. Titanium-tungsten nanocrystals embedded in a SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) gate dielectric stack for low-voltage operation in non-volatile memory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiqian; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Manhong; Long, Shibing; Liu, Jing; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-18

    Titanium-tungsten nanocrystals (NCs) were fabricated by a self-assembly rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process. Well isolated Ti(0.46)W(0.54) NCs were embedded in the gate dielectric stack of SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3). A metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor was fabricated to investigate its application in a non-volatile memory (NVM) device. It demonstrated a large memory window of 6.2 V in terms of flat-band voltage (V(FB)) shift under a dual-directional sweeping gate voltage of - 10 to 10 V. A 1.1 V V(FB) shift under a low dual-directional sweeping gate voltage of - 4 to 4 V was also observed. The retention characteristic of this MOS capacitor was demonstrated by a 0.5 V memory window after 10(4) s of elapsed time at room temperature. The endurance characteristic was demonstrated by a program/erase cycling test.

  13. Serpentinization and Synthesis: Can abiotic and biotic non-volatile organic molecules be identified in the subsurface of the Atlantis Massif?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickok, K.; Nguyen, T.; Orcutt, B.; Fruh-Green, G. L.; Wanamaker, E.; Lang, S. Q.

    2016-12-01

    The high concentrations of hydrogen created during serpentinization can promote the formation of abiotic organic carbon molecules such as methane, formate, short chain hydrocarbons and, in laboratory experiments, larger molecules containing up to 32 carbon atoms. Subsurface archaeal and bacterial communities can use these reduced compounds for metabolic energy. International Ocean Discovery Project Expedition 357 drilled into the Atlantis Massif with the goals of investigating carbon cycling and the presence of life in a zone of active serpentinization. The expedition recovered multiple rock lithologies including gabbros, basalts, carbonate sands, and serpentinites. A subset of these samples are being analyzed to determine if non-volatile organic molecules are produced abiotically in serpentinizing environments and to identify `hot spots' of microbial life in the subsurface. Rock samples of contrasting representative lithologies are being analyzed for the presence of n-alkanes and fatty acids. Preliminary results have so far indicated the presence of alkanes in some samples. The isotopic (13C, 2H) characteristics of these compounds are being compared to a suite of oils, greases, and drilling fluids used during sample collection to distinguish in situ abiotic and biotic signatures from contaminant compounds. Other initial results have shown the efficacy of various sample-handling procedures designed to reduce surface contamination. This study will contribute to the overall understanding of the role serpentinization plays in the global carbon cycle and its implications for pre-biotic chemistry.

  14. GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Sk Masiul, E-mail: masiulelt@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Sisir; Sarkar, Krishnendu

    2015-06-24

    Ultra-thin InP passivated GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices were fabricated using InAs quantum dots (QDs) as charge storing elements by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to study the efficacy of the QDs as charge storage elements. The grown QDs were embedded between two high-k dielectric such as HfO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, which were used for tunneling and control oxide layers, respectively. The size and density of the QDs were found to be 5 nm and 1.8×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The device with a structure Metal/ZrO{sub 2}/InAs QDs/HfO{sub 2}/GaAs/Metal shows maximum memory window equivalent to 6.87 V. Themore » device also exhibits low leakage current density of the order of 10{sup −6} A/cm{sup 2} and reasonably good charge retention characteristics. The low value of leakage current in the fabricated memory device is attributed to the Coulomb blockade effect influenced by quantum confinement as well as reduction of interface trap states by ultra-thin InP passivation on GaAs prior to HfO{sub 2} deposition.« less

  15. Sources and transport of silicone NVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1992-01-01

    The retrieved LDEF had varying amounts of visible contamination films (brown stains) at many locations. FTIR spectra of heavy film deposits at vents and of optical windows from tray E5 indicated methyl silicone and silica in the contaminant films. Two possible sources of the methyl silicone are DC-710 phenyl methyl silicone in the shuttle-bay-liner beta cloth, and the shuttle tile waterproofing silane. It is concluded that much of the silicon and silica contamination came from ground operations and the orbiter.

  16. Comparison of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in rice wine fermented by Koji inoculated with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Son, Eun Yeong; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Minjoo; Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Young-Suk

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated volatile and nonvolatile metabolite profiles of makgeolli (a traditional rice wine in Korea) fermented by koji inoculated with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and/or Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme activities in koji were also examined to determine their effects on the formation of metabolites. The contents of all 18 amino acids detected were the highest in makgeolli fermented by S. fibuligera CN2601-09, and increased after combining with A. oryzae CN1102-08, unlike the contents of most fatty acids. On the other hand, major volatile metabolites were fusel alcohols, acetate esters, and ethyl esters. The contents of most fusel alcohols and acetate esters were the highest in makgeolli fermented by S. fibuligera CN2601-09, for which the protease activity was the highest, leading to the largest amounts of amino acods. The makgeolli samples fermented only by koji inoculated with S. fibuligera could be discriminated on PCA plots from the makgeolli samples fermented in combination with A. oryzae. In the case of nonvolatile metabolites, all amino acids and some metabolites such as xylose, 2-methylbenzoic acid, and oxalic acid contributed mainly to the characteristics of makgeolli fermented by koji inoculated with S. fibuligera and A. oryzae. These results showed that the formations of volatile and nonvolatile metabolites in makgeolli can be significantly affected by microbial strains with different enzyme activities in koji. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the effects of S. fibuligera strains on the formation of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in rice wine, facilitating their use in brewing rice wine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Solid Phase Micro-extraction (SPME) with In Situ Transesterification: An Easy Method for the Detection of Non-volatile Fatty Acid Derivatives on the Insect Cuticle.

    PubMed

    Kühbandner, Stephan; Ruther, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Triacylglycerides (TAGs) and other non-volatile fatty acid derivatives (NFADs) occur in large amounts in the internal tissues of insects, but their presence on the insect cuticle is controversially discussed. Most studies investigating cuticular lipids of insects involve solvent extraction, which implies the risk of extracting lipids from internal tissues. Here, we present a new method that overcomes this problem. The method employs solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) to sample NFADs by rubbing the SPME fiber over the insect cuticle. Subsequently, the sampled NFADs are transesterified in situ with trimethyl sulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) into more volatile fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), which can be analyzed by standard GC/MS. We performed two types of control experiments to enable significant conclusions: (1) to rule out contamination of the GC/MS system with NFADs, and (2) to exclude the presence of free fatty acids on the insect cuticle, which would also furnish FAMEs after TMSH treatment, and thus might simulate the presence of NFADs. In combination with these two essential control experiments, the described SPME technique can be used to detect TAGs and/or other NFADs on the insect cuticle. We analyzed six insect species from four insect orders with our method and compared the results with conventional solvent extraction followed by ex situ transesterification. Several fatty acids typically found as constituents of TAGs were detected by the SPME method on the cuticle of all species analyzed. A comparison of the two methods revealed differences in the fatty acid compositions of the samples. Saturated fatty acids showed by trend higher relative abundances when sampled with the SPME method, while several minor FAMEs were detected only in the solvent extracts. Our study suggests that TAGs and maybe other NFADs are far more common on the insect cuticle than usually thought.

  18. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E.

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  19. Detection of an organic-non volatile compound in variable-contaminated volcanic soil samples via Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    comegna, alessandro; coppola, antonio; dragonetti, giovanna; chaali, nesrine; sommella, angelo

    2014-05-01

    Hydrocarbons may be present in soils as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), which means that these organic compounds, exist as a separate and immiscible phase with respect to water and air commonly present in the soil. NAPLs, which can be accidentally introduced in the environment (for example by waste disposal sites, industrial spills, gasoline stations, etc), constitutes a serious geo-environmental problem, given the toxicity level and the high mobility. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has became, over several decades, an important technique for water estimation in soils. In order to expand the potentiality of the TDR technique, the main objective of this study is to explore the capacity of dielectric response to detect the presence of NAPLs in volcanic soils. In laboratory, soil samples were oven dried at 105° C and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Known quantities of soil, water and NAPL (corn oil, a non-volatile and non-toxic organic compound) were mixed and repacked into plastic cylinders (16 cm high and 9.5 cm in diameter); in order to obtain forty different volumetric combinations of water and oil (i.e. θfg = θwater + θNAPL), with θNAPL varying from 0.05 to 0.40 by 0.05 cm3/cm3 increments. Data collected were employed to implement a multiphase mixing model which permitted conversion from a dielectric permittivity domain into a θf domain and vice versa. The results of this study show that, the TDR device is NAPL-sensitive, especially for θf values greater than 0.20. Further works will be built on this initial study, concentrating on improving the dielectric response-database, in order to: i) enhancing the model efficiency in terms of NAPL capability detention, and ii) validating the developed TDR interpretation tool with field results.

  20. Impact of process parameters on the structural and electrical properties of metal/PZT/Al2O3/silicon gate stack for non-volatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Rajat Kumar; Singh, B. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present the structural and electrical properties of the Al2O3 buffer layer on non-volatile memory behavior using Metal/PZT/Al2O3/Silicon structures. Metal/PZT/Silicon and Metal/Al2O3/Silicon structures were also fabricated and characterized to obtain capacitance and leakage current parameters. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT::35:65) and Al2O3 films were deposited by sputtering on the silicon substrate. Memory window, PUND, endurance, breakdown voltage, effective charges, flat-band voltage and leakage current density parameters were measured and the effects of process parameters on the structural and electrical characteristics were investigated. X-ray data show dominant (110) tetragonal phase of the PZT film, which crystallizes at 500 °C. The sputtered Al2O3 film annealed at different temperatures show dominant (312) orientation and amorphous nature at 425 °C. Multiple angle laser ellipsometric analysis reveals the temperature dependence of PZT film refractive index and extinction coefficient. Electrical characterization shows the maximum memory window of 3.9 V and breakdown voltage of 25 V for the Metal/Ferroelectric/Silicon (MFeS) structures annealed at 500 °C. With 10 nm Al2O3 layer in the Metal/Ferroelectric/Insulator/Silicon (MFeIS) structure, the memory window and breakdown voltage was improved to 7.21 and 35 V, respectively. Such structures show high endurance with no significant reduction polarization charge for upto 2.2 × 109 iteration cycles.

  1. Piezoelectric control of magnetoelectric coupling driven non-volatile memory switching and self cooling effects in FE/FSMA multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder

    2017-02-01

    The manipulation of magnetic states and materials' spin degree-of-freedom via a control of an electric (E-) field has been recently pursued to develop magnetoelectric (ME) coupling-driven electronic data storage devices with high read/write endurance, fast dynamic response, and low energy dissipation. One major hurdle for this approach is to develop reliable materials which should be compatible with prevailing silicon (Si)-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, simultaneously allowing small voltage for the tuning of magnetization switching. In this regard, multiferroic heterostructures where ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) layers are alternatively grown on conventional Si substrates are promising as the piezoelectric control of magnetization switching is anticipated to be possible by an E-field. In this work, we study the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys based PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Ni50Mn35In15 (PZT/Ni-Mn-In) multiferroic heterostructures, and investigate their potential for CMOS compatible non-volatile magnetic data storage applications. We demonstrate the voltage-impulse controlled nonvolatile, reversible, and bistable magnetization switching at room temperature in Si-integrated PZT/Ni-Mn-In thin film multiferroic heterostructures. We also thoroughly unveil the various intriguing features in these materials, such as E-field tuned ME coupling and magnetocaloric effect, shape memory induced ferroelectric modulation, improved fatigue endurance as well as Refrigeration Capacity (RC). This comprehensive study suggests that these novel materials have a great potential for the development of unconventional nanoscale memory and refrigeration devices with self-cooling effect and enhanced refrigeration efficiency, thus providing a new venue for their applications.

  2. Prediction of the wash-off of traffic related semi- and non-volatile organic compounds from urban roads under climate change influenced rainfall characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2012-04-30

    Traffic generated semi- and non-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs and NVOCs) pose a serious threat to human and ecosystem health when washed off into receiving water bodies by stormwater. Climate change influenced rainfall characteristics makes the estimation of these pollutants in stormwater quite complex. The research study discussed in the paper developed a prediction framework for such pollutants under the dynamic influence of climate change on rainfall characteristics. It was established through principal component analysis (PCA) that the intensity and durations of low to moderate rain events induced by climate change mainly affect the wash-off of SVOCs and NVOCs from urban roads. The study outcomes were able to overcome the limitations of stringent laboratory preparation of calibration matrices by extracting uncorrelated underlying factors in the data matrices through systematic application of PCA and factor analysis (FA). Based on the initial findings from PCA and FA, the framework incorporated orthogonal rotatable central composite experimental design to set up calibration matrices and partial least square regression to identify significant variables in predicting the target SVOCs and NVOCs in four particulate fractions ranging from >300 to 1 μm and one dissolved fraction of <1 μm. For the particulate fractions in >300-1 μm range, similar distributions of predicted and observed concentrations of the target compounds from minimum to 75th percentile were achieved. The inter-event coefficient of variations for particulate fractions of >300-1 μm was 5-25%. The limited solubility of the target compounds in stormwater restricted the predictive capacity of the proposed method for the dissolved fraction of <1 μm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    PubMed

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  4. Extraction of the gate capacitance coupling coefficient in floating gate non-volatile memories: Statistical study of the effect of mismatching between floating gate memory and reference transistor in dummy cell extraction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafhay, Quentin; Beug, M. Florian; Duane, Russell

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental comparison of dummy cell extraction methods of the gate capacitance coupling coefficient for floating gate non-volatile memory structures from different geometries and technologies. These results show the significant influence of mismatching floating gate devices and reference transistors on the extraction of the gate capacitance coupling coefficient. In addition, it demonstrates the accuracy of the new bulk bias dummy cell extraction method and the importance of the β function, introduced recently in [Duane R, Beug F, Mathewson A. Novel capacitance coupling coefficient measurement methodology for floating gate non-volatile memory devices. IEEE Electr Dev Lett 2005;26(7):507-9], to determine matching pairs of floating gate memory and reference transistor.

  5. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    PubMed

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  6. Interfacial charge-mediated non-volatile magnetoelectric coupling in Co 0.3Fe 0.7/Ba 0.6Sr 0.4TiO 3/Nb:SrTiO 3 multiferroic heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Ziyao; Howe, Brandon M.; Liu, Ming; ...

    2015-01-13

    The central challenge in realizing non-volatile, E-field manipulation of magnetism lies in finding an energy efficient means to switch between the distinct magnetic states in a stable and reversible manner. In this work, we demonstrate using electrical polarization-induced charge screening to change the ground state of magnetic ordering in order to non-volatilely tune magnetic properties in ultra-thin Co 0.3Fe 0.7/Ba 0.6Sr 0.4TiO 3/Nb:SrTiO 3 (001) multiferroic heterostructures. A robust, voltage-induced, non-volatile manipulation of out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy up to 40 Oe is demonstrated and confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance measurements. This discovery provides a framework for realizing charge-sensitive order parameter tuning inmore » ultra-thin multiferroic heterostructures, demonstrating great potential for delivering compact, lightweight, reconfigurable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.« less

  7. Different importance of the volatile and non-volatile fractions of an olfactory signature for individual social recognition in rats versus mice and short-term versus long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Noack, Julia; Richter, Karin; Laube, Gregor; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Veh, Rüdiger W; Engelmann, Mario

    2010-11-01

    When tested in the olfactory cued social recognition/discrimination test, rats and mice differ in their retention of a recognition memory for a previously encountered conspecific juvenile: Rats are able to recognize a given juvenile for approximately 45 min only whereas mice show not only short-term, but also long-term recognition memory (≥ 24 h). Here we modified the social recognition/social discrimination procedure to investigate the neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying the species differences. We presented a conspecific juvenile repeatedly to the experimental subjects and monitored the investigation duration as a measure for recognition. Presentation of only the volatile fraction of the juvenile olfactory signature was sufficient for both short- and long-term recognition in mice but not rats. Applying additional volatile, mono-molecular odours to the "to be recognized" juveniles failed to affect short-term memory in both species, but interfered with long-term recognition in mice. Finally immunocytochemical analysis of c-Fos as a marker for cellular activation, revealed that juvenile exposure stimulated areas involved in the processing of olfactory signals in both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb in mice. In rats, we measured an increased c-Fos synthesis almost exclusively in cells of the accessory olfactory bulb. Our data suggest that the species difference in the retention of social recognition memory is based on differences in the processing of the volatile versus non-volatile fraction of the individuals' olfactory signature. The non-volatile fraction is sufficient for retaining a short-term social memory only. Long-term social memory - as observed in mice - requires a processing of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of the olfactory signature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Coexistence of non-volatile bi-polar resistive switching and tunneling magnetoresistance in spatially confined La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, J.; Jung, J.; Chow, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    We report the coexistence of non-volatile bi-polar resistive switching (RS) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in spatially confined La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates. At certain temperatures, the arrangement of electronic phase domains in these narrow systems mimics those found in heterostructured metal-insulator-metal devices. The relative spin orientations between adjacent ferromagnetic metallic phase domains enable the TMR effect, while the creation/annihilation of conduction filaments between the metallic phase domains produces the RS effect.

  9. Residual Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-10

    This MOC image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions

  10. Identification of non-volatile compounds and their migration from hot melt adhesives used in food packaging materials characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vera, Paula; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The identification of unknown non-volatile migrant compounds from adhesives used in food contact materials is a very challenging task because of the number of possible compounds involved, given that adhesives are complex mixtures of chemicals. The use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/QTOF) is shown to be a successful tool for identifying non-targeted migrant compounds from two hot melt adhesives used in food packaging laminates. Out of the seven migrants identified and quantified, five were amides and one was a compound classified in Class II of the Cramer toxicity. None of the migration values exceeded the recommended Cramer exposure values.

  11. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  12. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K.; Biegert, L.; Olsen, B.; Weber, B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10 % R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50 % R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on the chemical composition of TCA (1,1,1 trichloroethane) replacement solvents. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene-containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

  14. Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10% R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50% R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) cleaners chemical composition. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

  15. Lead-free epitaxial ferroelectric material integration on semiconducting (100) Nb-doped SrTiO3 for low-power non-volatile memory and efficient ultraviolet ray detection

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Souvik; Clavel, Michael; Biswas, Pranab; Chen, Bo; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Kumar, Prashant; Halder, Nripendra N.; Hudait, Mantu K.; Banerji, Pallab; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Priya, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    We report lead-free ferroelectric based resistive switching non-volatile memory (NVM) devices with epitaxial (1-x)BaTiO3-xBiFeO3 (x = 0.725) (BT-BFO) film integrated on semiconducting (100) Nb (0.7%) doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrates. The piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) measurement at room temperature demonstrated ferroelectricity in the BT-BFO thin film. PFM results also reveal the repeatable polarization inversion by poling, manifesting its potential for read-write operation in NVM devices. The electroforming-free and ferroelectric polarization coupled electrical behaviour demonstrated excellent resistive switching with high retention time, cyclic endurance, and low set/reset voltages. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to determine the band alignment at the BT-BFO and Nb:STO heterojunction, and it exhibited staggered band alignment. This heterojunction is found to behave as an efficient ultraviolet photo-detector with low rise and fall time. The architecture also demonstrates half-wave rectification under low and high input signal frequencies, where the output distortion is minimal. The results provide avenue for an electrical switch that can regulate the pixels in low or high frequency images. Combined this work paves the pathway towards designing future generation low-power ferroelectric based microelectronic devices by merging both electrical and photovoltaic properties of BT-BFO materials. PMID:26202946

  16. Lead-free epitaxial ferroelectric material integration on semiconducting (100) Nb-doped SrTiO3 for low-power non-volatile memory and efficient ultraviolet ray detection.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Souvik; Clavel, Michael; Biswas, Pranab; Chen, Bo; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Kumar, Prashant; Halder, Nripendra N; Hudait, Mantu K; Banerji, Pallab; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Priya, Shashank

    2015-07-23

    We report lead-free ferroelectric based resistive switching non-volatile memory (NVM) devices with epitaxial (1-x)BaTiO3-xBiFeO3 (x = 0.725) (BT-BFO) film integrated on semiconducting (100) Nb (0.7%) doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrates. The piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) measurement at room temperature demonstrated ferroelectricity in the BT-BFO thin film. PFM results also reveal the repeatable polarization inversion by poling, manifesting its potential for read-write operation in NVM devices. The electroforming-free and ferroelectric polarization coupled electrical behaviour demonstrated excellent resistive switching with high retention time, cyclic endurance, and low set/reset voltages. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to determine the band alignment at the BT-BFO and Nb:STO heterojunction, and it exhibited staggered band alignment. This heterojunction is found to behave as an efficient ultraviolet photo-detector with low rise and fall time. The architecture also demonstrates half-wave rectification under low and high input signal frequencies, where the output distortion is minimal. The results provide avenue for an electrical switch that can regulate the pixels in low or high frequency images. Combined this work paves the pathway towards designing future generation low-power ferroelectric based microelectronic devices by merging both electrical and photovoltaic properties of BT-BFO materials.

  17. Effect of AlN layer on the bipolar resistive switching behavior in TiN thin film based ReRAM device for non-volatile memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaur, Davinder

    2018-05-01

    The effect of an additional AlN layer in the Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt stack configuration deposited using sputtering has been investigated. The Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt device shows a tristate resistive switching. Multilevel switching is facilitated by ionic and metallic filament formation, and the nature of the filaments formed is confirmed by performing a resistance vs. temperature measurement. Ohmic behaviour and trap controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanisms are confirmed as dominant conduction mechanism at low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS). High resistance ratio (102) corresponding to HRS and LRS, good write/erase endurance (105) and non-volatile long retention (105s) are also observed. Higher thermal conductivity of the AlN layer is the main reasons for the enhancement of resistive switching performance in Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt cell. The above result suggests the feasibility of Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt devices for multilevel nonvolatile ReRAM application.

  18. Development of non-volatile semiconductor memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    A 256 word by 8-bit random access memory chip was developed utilizing p channel, metal gate metal-nitride-oxide-silicon (MNOS) technology; with operational characteristics of a 2.5 microsecond read cycle, a 6.0 microsecond write cycle, 800 milliwatts of power dissipation; and retention characteristics of 10 to the 8th power read cycles before data refresh and 5000 hours of no power retention. Design changes were implemented to reduce switching currents that caused parasitic bipolar transistors inherent in the MNOS structure to turn on. Final wafer runs exhibited acceptable yields for a die 250 mils on a side. Evaluation testing was performed on the device in order to determine the maturity of the device. A fixed gate breakdown mechanism was found when operated continuously at high temperature.

  19. Non Volatile Flash Memory Radiation Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.; Allen, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Commercial flash memory industry has experienced a fast growth in the recent years, because of their wide spread usage in cell phones, mp3 players and digital cameras. On the other hand, there has been increased interest in the use of high density commercial nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever increasing data requirements and strict power requirements. Because of flash memories complex structure; they cannot be treated as just simple memories in regards to testing and analysis. It becomes quite challenging to determine how they will respond in radiation environments.

  20. Exploring Surface Analysis Techniques for the Detection of Molecular Contaminants on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, Gugu N.; Seasly, Elaine; Thornblom, Mark; Baughman, James

    2016-01-01

    Molecular contamination is a known area of concern for spacecraft. To mitigate this risk, projects involving space flight hardware set requirements in a contamination control plan that establishes an allocation budget for the exposure of non-volatile residues (NVR) onto critical surfaces. The purpose of this work will focus on non-contact surface analysis and in situ monitoring to mitigate molecular contamination on space flight hardware. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) with Raman Spectroscopy, an unlikely contaminant was identified on space flight hardware. Using traditional and surface analysis methods provided the broader view of the contamination sources allowing for best fit solutions to prevent any future exposure.

  1. Aging Effects of Environmentally-Friendly Cleaners on Adhesive Bond Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment many chlorinated solvents are being phased out of use in manufacturing industries. Replacement of the ODC (ozone- depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past nine years at Thiokol Propulsion, Cordant Technologies. Many of the non-ODC cleaners contain compounds that can potentially degrade over time under conditions of high temperature, humidity and exposure to light. The chemical composition of environmentally conditioned cleaners and the subsequent effect on aluminum/amine-cured epoxy bond integrity as measured by Tapered Double Cantilever Beam were evaluated. From this study it is observed that moisture content increases for those cleaners containing polar compounds. Non-volatile residue content increases as stabilizers are depleted and the chemical compound limonene is oxidized. A change in aluminum/ amine-cured epoxy bond fracture toughness is observed as some of these cleaners age with increases in moisture and NVR content.

  2. [Study of amount of evaporation residue in extracts from plastic kitchen utensils into four food-simulating solvents].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Kawamura, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    The amount of evaporation residue was investigated as an index of total amount of non-volatile substances that migrated from plastic kitchen utensils into four food-simulating solvents (water, 4% acetic acid, 20% ethanol and heptane). The samples were 71 products made of 12 types of plastics for food contact use. The amount was determined in accordance with the Japanese testing method. The quantitation limit was 5 µg/mL. In the cases of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile styrene resin, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, polymethylpentene, polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene terephthalate samples, the amount was highest for heptane and very low for the other solvents. On the other hand, in the cases of melamine resin and polyamide samples, the amount was highest for 4% acetic acid or 20% ethanol and lowest for heptane. These results enabled the selection of the most suitable solvent, and the rapid and efficient determination of evaporation residue.

  3. Fumigants and related chemicals in foods: review of residue findings, contamination sources, and analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Daft, J L

    1991-03-01

    Public concern over chemical residues in foods increased in the United States during the early 1980s. Potentially hazardous levels of ethylene dibromide (EDB), a relatively non-volatile fumigant, were detected in several finished grain-based products by governmental food-monitoring laboratories. As a result, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency banned the use of EDB as a fumigant in 1983. Commercial fumigators then began using more of the highly volatile chemicals such as methyl bromide and phosphine. These chemicals are less likely to leave residues on stored crops than the previously used fumigants such as EDB, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. However, trace residues of many pest-control fumigants and related industrial chemicals are currently found in assorted foods. This contamination may come from the original fumigation of stored crops, or from the industrial chemicals occurring in the environment and in food processing chains. No potential health problem is indicated at this time. Yet scientists continue to uncover the sources of this chemical contamination, and to develop better methods to monitor foods for it. They also seek better ways to protect foodstuffs from pests prior to human consumption.

  4. Utilization of oak residues

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Allison

    1971-01-01

    Residues should be thought of as a raw material for specific uses rather than as a waste. Fines and solid wood residues are usually kept separated in waste-collection system, but species are rarely kept separated. The properties of each species dictate what uses can be made of them. Quantity, location, cost, moisture content, physical size, and presence of foreign...

  5. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  6. Comparative thermodynamic and experimental study of some heavy metal behaviors during automotive shredder residues incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Trouve, G.; Kauffmann, A.; Delfosse, L.

    1998-12-31

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the behavior of some heavy metals were undertaken during Automotive Shredder Residues (ASR) incineration. A thermodynamic study at equilibrium was performed using a software minimizing the free Gibbs energy. The metals studied were barium, copper, lead and zinc. The studies were performed mostly at two temperatures: 1123 and 1373 K. The thermodynamic study showed that the chlorine content is the most important parameter influencing the volatility of the studied metals. It also showed that in default of chlorine in a system containing several metals, barium chloride in its condensed form is the most easily formed.more » Other metals remained in their metallic form or in the form of oxides. The presence of hydrogen in the system has a general limiting influence on the metal volatility because, especially at high temperatures, hydrogen chloride is more likely to be formed. In the experimental field, the behaviors of metals were studied using commercial polymers as waste models: a PVC mastic, a polyurethane mastic and a rubber powder. Copper and barium presented a non volatile behavior during the incineration of waste matrixes as ASR, being present also in residual ash. On the other hand, lead was completely formed in the gas phase and zinc showed an equal partitioning between the two principal phases of the treatment.« less

  7. Forest Residues Bundling Project

    Treesearch

    U.S. Forest Service

    2007-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, the U.S. Forest Service conducted an evaluation of biomass bundling for forest residue extraction. This CD provides a report of the project results, a video documentary project record, and a collection of images from the project. Additional information is available at:

  8. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  9. Disposal of bridge paint residue.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-12-01

    Paint residue generated by bridge maintenance painting commonly contains lead requiring the residue to be disposed of as a hazardous waste. Several alternatives are being investigated in this study, chemical stabilization and recycling as options for...

  10. Wood Residue Distribution Simulator (WORDS)

    Treesearch

    Douglas A. Eza; James W. McMinn; Peter E. Dress

    1984-01-01

    Successful development of woody biomass for energy will depend on the distribution of local supply and demand within subregions, rather than on the total inventory of residues. The Wood Residue Distribution Simulator (WORDS) attempts to find a least-cost allocation of residues from local sources of supply to local sources of demand, given the cost of the materials,...

  11. Ivermectin residues in squab.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D C; Cheng, K M

    2012-11-01

    No drugs have been approved for the treatment of parasitic nematodes in pigeons, but ivermectin, a broad-spectrum endectocide, has been used extra-label by prescription. Producers currently allow for a 2-wk withdrawal time before marketing squabs. However, because its use is extra-label there is no legal maximum residue limit for ivermectin in squab meat. The purpose of this study was to examine the depletion of ivermectin (passed by the parents to the squabs) from the tissues of squab. Adult pigeons brooding squab were treated with ivermectin in their drinking water (3.3 µg/mL) for 3 d. After dosing the parents, the ivermectin concentration of the breast meat and liver of squabs was found to be greater than the maximum residual limits established for livestock, indicating that ivermectin was transferred from the parents to the squabs. However, ivermectin was not detected in either the breast meat or the livers of squabs 1 wk after dosing. These results indicate that there is a rapid decline in tissue levels of ivermectin in squab.

  12. Material Utilization of Organic Residues.

    PubMed

    Peinemann, Jan Christoph; Pleissner, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Each year, 1.3 billion tons of food waste is generated globally. This waste traces back to industrial and agricultural producers, bakeries, restaurants, and households. Furthermore, lignocellulosic materials, including grass clippings, leaves, bushes, shrubs, and woods, appear in large amounts. Depending on the region, organic waste is either composted, burned directly, or converted into biogas. All of the options set aside the fact that organic residues are valuable resources containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and phosphorus. Firstly, it is clear that avoidance of organic residues is imperative. However, the residues that accumulate nonetheless should be utilized by material means before energy production is targeted. This review presents different processes for the microbial utilization of organic residues towards compounds that are of great importance for the bioeconomy. The focus thereby is on the challenges coming along with downstream processing when the utilization of organic residues is carried out decentralized. Furthermore, a future process for producing lactic acid from organic residues is sketched.

  13. Residual stress at fluid interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.E.

    We extend the Navier-Stokes equations to allow for residual stress in Newtonian fluids. A fluid, which undergoes a constrained volume change, will have residual stress. Corresponding to every constrained volume change is an eigenstrain. We present a method to include in the equations of fluid motion the eigenstrain that is a result of the presence in a fluid of a soluble chemical species. This method is used to calculate the residual stress associated with a chemical transformation. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Overcoming thermal noise in non-volatile spin wave logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sourav; Nikonov, Dmitri; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian; Naeemi, Azad

    Spin waves are propagating disturbances in magnetically ordered materials. To compete as a promising candidate for beyond-CMOS application, the all-magnon based computing system must undergo the essential steps of careful selection of materials and demonstrate robustness with respect to thermal noise/variability. Here, we identify suitable materials and investigate two viable options for translating the theoretical idea of phase-dependent switching of the spin wave detector to a practical realization of a thermally reliable magnonic device by - (a) using the built-in strain in the ME cell, arising from the lattice mismatch and/or thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the film and the substrate, for compensation of the demagnetization, and (b) using an exchange-spring structure that exhibits a strong exchange-coupling between the ME cell and PMA SWB and provides a modification of the energy landscape of the ME cell magnet. A high switching success and error-free logic functionality can be ensured if the amplitude of the detected spin wave (< θ >) remains higher than a threshold value of around 6°C and the detected phase falls within the window from 280°C through 0 to 20°C or from 100°C to 200°C with a maximum allowable ϕ range of around 100°C.

  15. Non-volatile copolymer compositions for fabricating gel element microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Golova, Julia B.; Chernov, Boris K.; Perov, Alexander N.; Reynolds, Jennifer; Linger, Yvonne L.; Kukhtin, Alexander; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2011-01-01

    By modifying polymer compositions and cross-linking reagents, we have developed a simple yet effective manufacturing strategy for copolymerized three-dimensional gel element arrays. A new gel-forming monomer (2-(hydroxyethyl) methacrylamide; HEMAA) was used that possesses low volatility and improves the stability of copolymerized gel element arrays to on-chip thermal cycling procedures relative to previously used monomers. Probe immobilization efficiency within the new polymer was 55%, equivalent to that obtained with acrylamide (AA) and methacrylamide (MA) monomers. Non-specific binding of single stranded targets was equivalent for all monomers. Increasing cross-linker chain length improved hybridization kinetics and end-point signal intensities relative to N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis). The new copolymer formulation was successfully applied to a model orthopox array. Because HEMAA greatly simplifies gel element array manufacture, we expect it (in combination with new cross-linkers described herein) to find widespread application in microarray science. PMID:22033291

  16. Non-Volatile High Speed & Low Power Charge Trapping Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon Kyung; Tiwari, Sandip

    2007-06-01

    We report the operational characteristics of ultra-small-scaled SONOS (below 50 nm gate width and length) and SiO2/SiO2 structural devices with 0.5 um gate width and length where trapping occurs in a very narrow region. The experimental work summarizes the memory characteristics of retention time, endurance cycles, and speed in SONOS and SiO2/SiO2 structures. Silicon nitride has many defects to hold electrons as charge storage media in SONOS memory. Defects are also incorporated during growth and deposition in device processing. Our experiments show that the interface between two oxides, one grown and one deposited, provides a remarkable media for electron storage with a smaller gate stack and thus lower operating voltage. The exponential dependence of the time on the voltage is reflected in the characteristic energy. It is ˜0.44 eV for the write process and ˜0.47 eV for the erase process in SiO2/SiO2 structural device which is somewhat more efficient than those of SONOS structure memory.

  17. Flexible non-volatile memory devices based on organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosseddu, Piero; Casula, Giulia; Lai, Stefano; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of developing fully organic electronic circuits is critically dependent on the ability to realize a full set of electronic functionalities based on organic devices. In order to complete the scene, a fundamental element is still missing, i.e. reliable data storage. Over the past few years, a considerable effort has been spent on the development and optimization of organic polymer based memory elements. Among several possible solutions, transistor-based memories and resistive switching-based memories are attracting a great interest in the scientific community. In this paper, a route for the fabrication of organic semiconductor-based memory devices with performances beyond the state of the art is reported. Both the families of organic memories will be considered. A flexible resistive memory based on a novel combination of materials is presented. In particular, high retention time in ambient conditions are reported. Complementary, a low voltage transistor-based memory is presented. Low voltage operation is allowed by an hybrid, nano-sized dielectric, which is also responsible for the memory effect in the device. Thanks to the possibility of reproducibly fabricating such device on ultra-thin substrates, high mechanical stability is reported.

  18. Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

    2014-01-15

    Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconfigurable Electronics and Non-Volatile Memory Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-14

    Sources of metal dopants were elemental metals and as well as, metal-Se compounds, and there was no evident difference in the measured Raman and Electron...similar in nature. Intensity of the most of the sample reduces with dopant concentration. This is due to the reduction in Ge-Ge and Ge-Se bonds as...the metal is incorporated into the glass. The metal dopant atoms will bond with the Se atoms [5] reducing the number of Se atoms that are available

  20. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  1. The Development of Methodologies and Solvent Systems to Replace CFC-113 in the Validation of Large-Scale Spacecraft Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, Christian A., III

    1996-01-01

    Liquid oxygen is used as the oxidizer for the liquid fueled main engines during the launch of the space shuttle. Any hardware that comes into contact with pure oxygen either during servicing of the shuttle or in the operation of the shuttle must be validated as being free of nonvolatile residue (NVR). This is a safety requirement to prevent spontaneous combustion of carbonaceous NVR if it was to come into contact with pure oxygen. Previous NVR validation testing of space hardware used Freon (CFC-113) as the test solvent. Because CFC-113 no longer can be used, a program was conducted to develop a NVR test procedure that uses a safe environmentally friendly solvent. The solvent that has been used in the new NVR test procedure is water. Work that has been conducted over the past three years has served to demonstrate that when small parts are subjected to ultrasound in a water bath and NVR is present a sufficient quantity is dispersed into the water to analyze for its concentration by the TOC method. The work that is described in this report extends the water wash NVR validation test to large-scale parts; that is, parts too large to be subjected to ultrasound. The method consists of concentrating the NVR in the water wash onto a bed of silica gel. The total adsorbent bed is then analyzed for TOC content by using a solid sample probe. Work that has been completed thus far has demonstrated that hydrocarbon based NVR's can be detected at levels of less than 0.1 mg per square foot of part's surface area by using a simple water wash.

  2. On tide-induced Lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 1. Lagrangian residual current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    Residual currents in tidal estuaries and coastal embayments have been recognized as fundamental factors which affect the long-term transport processes. It has been pointed out by previous studies that it is more relevant to use a Lagrangian mean velocity than an Eulerian mean velocity to determine the movements of water masses. Under weakly nonlinear approximation, the parameter k, which is the ratio of the net displacement of a labeled water mass in one tidal cycle to the tidal excursion, is assumed to be small. Solutions for tides, tidal current, and residual current have been considered for two-dimensional, barotropic estuaries and coastal seas. Particular attention has been paid to the distinction between the Lagrangian and Eulerian residual currents. When k is small, the first-order Lagrangian residual is shown to be the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes drift. The Lagrangian residual drift velocity or the second-order Lagrangian residual current has been shown to be dependent on the phase of tidal current. The Lagrangian drift velocity is induced by nonlinear interactions between tides, tidal currents, and the first-order residual currents, and it takes the form of an ellipse on a hodograph plane. Several examples are given to further demonstrate the unique properties of the Lagrangian residual current.

  3. Logging residue in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Theodore S. Setzer

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on logging residues in southeast Alaska is provided as input to economic and technical assessments of its use for products or site amenities. Two types of information are presented. Ratios are presented that can be used to generate an estimate, based on volume or acres harvested, of the cubic-foot volume of residue for any particular area of...

  4. Taking inventory of woody residuals

    Treesearch

    David McKeever

    2003-01-01

    USDA Forest Service analysis finds 104 million tons of woody residuals available for recovery in the U.S., with wood in MSW and C&D debris streams comprising 28 million tons. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service conducts a variety of analyses to estimate the quantity of woody residuals in the United States. Its Forest Products Laboratory in Madison,...

  5. Changes in the Optical Properties of Simulated Shuttle Waste Water Deposits: Urine Darkening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Alred, John

    2003-01-01

    Manned spacecraft have historically dumped the crew generated waste water overboard, into the environment in which the spacecraft operates, sometimes depositing the waste water on the external spacecraft surfaces. The change in optical properties of wastewater deposited on spacecraft external surfaces, from exposure to space environmental effects, is not well understood. This study used nonvolatile residue (NVR) from Human Urine to simulate wastewater deposits and documents the changes in the optical properties of the NVR deposits after exposure to ultra violet(UV)radiation. Twenty four NVR samples of, 0-angstromes/sq cm to 1000-angstromes/sq cm, and one sample contaminated with 1 to 2-mg/sq cm were exposed to UV radiation over the course of approximately 6151 equivalent sun hours (ESH). Random changes in sample mass, NVR, solar absorbance, and infrared emission were observed during the study. Significant changes in the UV transmittance were observed for one sample contaminated at the mg/sq cm level.

  6. Changes in the Optical Properties of Simulated Shuttle Waste Water Deposits- Urine Darkening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Alred, John

    2004-01-01

    Manned spacecraft have historically dumped the crew generated waste waster overboard, into the environment in which the spacecraft operates, sometimes depositing the waste water on the external spacecraft surfaces. The change in optical properties of wastewater deposited on spacecraft external surfaces, from exposure to space environmental effects, is not well understood. This study used nonvolatile residue (NVR) from Human Urine to simulate wastewater deposits and documents the changes in the optical properties of the NVR deposits after exposure to ultra violet (UV) radiation. Twenty NVR samples of, 0-angstromes/sq cm to 1000-angstromes/sq cm, and one sample contaminated with 1 to 2-mg/sq cm were exposed to UV radiation over the course of approximately 6151 equivalent sun hours (ESH). Random changes in sample mass, NVR, solar absorbance, and infrared emission were observed during the study. Significant changes in the UV transmittance were observed for one sample contaminated at the mg/sq cm level.

  7. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  8. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: MAGNETIC TAPE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  9. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  10. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  11. Optical computation using residue arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Huang, A; Tsunoda, Y; Goodman, J W; Ishihara, S

    1979-01-15

    Using residue arithmetic it is possible to perform additions, subtractions, multiplications, and polynomial evaluation without the necessity for carry operations. Calculations can, therefore, be performed in a fully parallel manner. Several different optical methods for performing residue arithmetic operations are described. A possible combination of such methods to form a matrix vector multiplier is considered. The potential advantages of optics in performing these kinds of operations are discussed.

  12. Operations of cleanrooms during a forest fire including protocols and monitoring results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Bruce A.; Egges, Joanne; Pirkey, Michael S.; Lobmeyer, Lynette D.

    2012-10-01

    Contamination-sensitive space flight hardware is typically built in cleanroom facilities in order to protect the hardware from particle contamination. Forest wildfires near the facilities greatly increase the number of particles and amount of vapors in the ambient outside air. Reasonable questions arise as to whether typical cleanroom facilities can adequately protect the hardware from these adverse environmental conditions. On Monday September 6, 2010 (Labor Day Holiday), a large wildfire ignited near the Boulder, Colorado Campus of Ball Aerospace. The fire was approximately 6 miles from the Boulder City limits. Smoke levels from the fire stayed very high in Boulder for the majority of the week after the fire began. Cleanroom operations were halted temporarily on contamination sensitive hardware, until particulate and non-volatile residue (NVR) sampling could be performed. Immediate monitoring showed little, if any effect on the cleanroom facilities, so programs were allowed to resume work while monitoring continued for several days and beyond in some cases. Little, if any, effect was ever noticed in the monitoring performed.

  13. Evaluation of Contamination Inspection and Analysis Methods through Modeling System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasly, Elaine; Dever, Jason; Stuban, Steven M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination is usually identified as a risk on the risk register for sensitive space systems hardware. Despite detailed, time-consuming, and costly contamination control efforts during assembly, integration, and test of space systems, contaminants are still found during visual inspections of hardware. Improved methods are needed to gather information during systems integration to catch potential contamination issues earlier and manage contamination risks better. This research explores evaluation of contamination inspection and analysis methods to determine optical system sensitivity to minimum detectable molecular contamination levels based on IEST-STD-CC1246E non-volatile residue (NVR) cleanliness levels. Potential future degradation of the system is modeled given chosen modules representative of optical elements in an optical system, minimum detectable molecular contamination levels for a chosen inspection and analysis method, and determining the effect of contamination on the system. By modeling system performance based on when molecular contamination is detected during systems integration and at what cleanliness level, the decision maker can perform trades amongst different inspection and analysis methods and determine if a planned method is adequate to meet system requirements and manage contamination risk.

  14. Removal of Perfluorinated Grease Components from NTO Oxidizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Ben; Johnson, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Perfluorinated greases are typically used as a thread lubricant in the assembly of non-welded nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) oxidizer systems. These greases, typically a perfluoroalkylether, with suspended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-powder, have attractive lubricating properties toward threaded components and are relatively chemically inert toward NTO oxidizers. A major drawback, however, is that perfluoroalkylether greases are soluble or dispersible in NTO oxidizers and can contaminate the propellant. The result is propellant that fails the non-volatile residue (NVR) specification analyses and that may have negative effects on test hardware performance and lifetime. Consequently, removal of the grease contaminants from NTO may be highly desirable. Methods for the removal of perfluorinated grease components from NTO oxidizers including distillation, adsorption, filtration, and adjustment of temperature are investigated and reported in this work. Solubility or dispersibility data for the perfluoroalkylether oil (Krytox(tm)143 AC) component of a perfluorinated grease (Krytox 240 AC) and for Krytox 240 AC in NTO were determined and are reported.

  15. Oxygen Compatibility and Challenge Testing of the PLSS Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR) for the Advanced EMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Falconi, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), a stepper actuated two-stage mechanical regulator, is being developed for the purpose of serving as the Primary Oxygen Regulator (POR) and Secondary Oxygen Regulator (SOR) within the Advanced EMU PLSS, now referred to as the xEMU and xPLSS. Three prototype designs have been fabricated and tested as part of this development. Building upon the lessons learned from the 35 years of Shuttle/ISS EMU Program operation including the fleet-wide EMU Secondary Oxygen Pack (SOP) contamination failure that occurred in 2000, the VOR is being analyzed, designed, and tested for oxygen compatibility with controlled Non-Volatile Residue (NVR) and a representative worst-case hydro-carbon system contamination event (>100mg/sq ft dodecane). This paper discusses the steps taken in testing of VOR 2.0 with for oxygen compatibility and then discusses follow-on design changes implemented in the VOR 3.0 (3rd prototype) as a result.

  16. Residual stresses in welded plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple model which could be used to study residual stress. The mechanism that results in residual stresses in the welding process starts with the deposition of molten weld metal which heats the immediately adjacent material. After solidification of weld material, normal thermal shrinkage is resisted by the adjacent, cooler material. When the thermal strain exceeds the elastic strain corresponding to the yield point stress, the stress level is limited by this value, which decreases with increasing temperature. Cooling then causes elastic unloading which is restrained by the adjoining material. Permanent plastic strain occurs, and tension is caused in the region immediately adjacent to the weld material. Compression arises in the metal farther from the weld in order to maintain overall static equilibrium. Subsequent repair welds may add to the level of residual stresses. The level of residual stress is related to the onset of fracture during welding. Thus, it is of great importance to be able to predict the level of residual stresses remaining after a weld procedure, and to determine the factors, such as weld speed, temperature, direction, and number of passes, which may affect the magnitude of remaining residual stress. It was hoped to use traditional analytical modeling techniques so that it would be easier to comprehend the effect of these variables on the resulting stress. This approach was chosen in place of finite element methods so as to facilitate the understanding of the physical processes. The accuracy of the results was checked with some existing experimental studies giving residual stress levels found from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  17. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  18. [Drug residues in untreated swine].

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, M; Markus, W; Chavez, J; Bollwahn, W

    1995-11-01

    The concentration of sulfadimidine was measured in the urine of pigs which were housed (over five days) in boxes where other pigs have been treated orally with sulfadimidine before. Sulfadimidine was measured in the urine of the unmedicated pigs in a concentration of up to 4 micrograms/ml. Considering these urine concentrations, violative sulfadimidine tissue residues would be expectable in the carcass after slaughter. The practice of fixing withdrawal times must be considered again to ensure that drug residues in tissues are below the MRL before slaughter also in unmedicated animals.

  19. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  20. Potential hazards of fumigant residues.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, L

    1976-01-01

    A spectrum of fumigants (primarily ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, ethylene oxide, symdibromotetetrachloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorovos, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide) as well as their degradation products in foodstuffs and soil have been examined mainly in regard to the potential mutagenicity of their residues. PMID:789068

  1. Residual Stresses in Ground Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-13

    stress near the surface can be lower. The level of residual stress is also strongly affected by carbon,’3 which influences the microplastic behaviour of...1966, Vol. 14, 99-104. 14. C. 3. )4cMahon: “ Microplastic Behaviour in Iron” in Mv. in Mater . S d . Res., Vol. 2, 121-140, Interscience, New York

  2. Choosing forest residues management alternatives.

    Treesearch

    John M. Pierovich; Richard C. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Forest residues management involves disposal, modification, or utilization of wood products. The costs and benefits of the several alternatives available to forest managers must be evaluated in relation to land management goals and constraints in four areas: (1) unused wood fiber, (2) conflagrations, (3) impairment of forest resources, and (4) opposition to treatment...

  3. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, E.; Rayner, S.

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutionsmore » for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.« less

  4. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  5. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  6. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers. ...

  7. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers. ...

  8. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  9. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers. ...

  10. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers. ...

  11. PESTICIDE RESIDUE RECOVERIES FROM SURFACE WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors with a primary source resulting from residue deposition on household surfaces. Accurate measurements of surface residues is essential for estimating exposure from different routes. Various procedures have been developed ...

  12. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  13. Frequency behavior of the residual current devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Lung, C.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Muresan, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation into the operating characteristic of residual current devices when in presence of a residual current at a frequency of 60Hz. In order to protect persons and equipment effectively the residual current devices are made to be very sensitive to the ground fault current or the touch current. Because of their high sensitivity the residual current circuit breakers are prone to tripping under no-fault conditions.

  14. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L. 85-804...

  15. Residual stresses of thin, short rectangular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andonian, A. T.; Danyluk, S.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the residual stresses in thin, short rectangular plates is presented. The analysis is used in conjunction with a shadow moire interferometry technique by which residual stresses are obtained over a large spatial area from a strain measurement. The technique and analysis are applied to a residual stress measurement of polycrystalline silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film growth technique.

  16. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L. 85-804...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2290 - Residue chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residue chemistry. 158.2290 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2290 Residue chemistry. (a) General... determine the residue chemistry data requirements for antimicrobial pesticide products. Notes that apply to...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2290 - Residue chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residue chemistry. 158.2290 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2290 Residue chemistry. (a) General... determine the residue chemistry data requirements for antimicrobial pesticide products. Notes that apply to...

  19. Hydrostatic weighing at residual volume and functional residual capacity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T R; Etheridge, G L

    1980-07-01

    Hydrostatic weighing (HW) was performed at both residual volume (RV) and functional residual capacity (FRC) to determine if underwater weighing at different lung volumes affected the measurement of body density. Subjects were 43 males, 18-25 yr. Subjects were submerged in the prone position, and the lung volume was measured by helium dilution at the time of the underwater weighing. Underwater weight was first assessed at FRC followed by assessment at RV. Changes in lung volume were accurately reflected in the underwater weight. Body density (D) was not different with the use of the FRC (mean D = 1.0778) or RV (mean D = 1.0781) data. Percent fat values for the FRC and RV data were 9.3 +/- 5.4 and 9.2 +/- 5.1%, respectively, and were not statistically different. The results indicate that the difference between percent fat determinations by HW in the prone position at FRC and RV is negligible. Because measurement of underwater weight at FRC is more comfortable for the subject, this may be the method of choice when the lung volume can be measured during the underwater weighing.

  20. Testing the Normality of Residuals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    work, Ramsey (1969) and Ransey and Gilbert (1972) investigate tests for detection of regression specification errors such as omitted variables, incorrect...estimator of scale. Biometrika, 68, 331-333. Nelson, L.S. (1981). A simple test for normality. J. of Quality Technology, 13 , 76-77. Ramsey , J.B. (1969...AD-A120 997 TESTING THE NORMALT O F RESIDU ALS(U WISCONSIN UNV MAO ISON MATRENAT C S RESEARCH CENT ER NRDAPER FT AL SEP 92 NRC- SR- 2 42 6 DAAG29-90

  1. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  2. Managing residual limb hyperhidrosis in wounded warriors.

    PubMed

    Pace, Sarah; Kentosh, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Residual limb dermatologic problems are a common concern among young active traumatic amputee patients who strive to maintain an active lifestyle. Hyperhidrosis of residual limbs is a recognized inciting factor that often contributes to residual limb dermatoses and is driven by the design of the prosthetic liner covering the residual limb. Treatment of hyperhidrosis in this population presents a unique challenge. Several accepted treatments of hyperhidrosis can offer some relief but have been limited by lack of results or side-effect profiles. Microwave thermal ablation has presented an enticing potential for residual limb hyperhidrosis.

  3. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with the...

  5. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  6. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  7. Pesticide management and their residues in sediments and surface and drinking water in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toan, Pham Van; Sebesvari, Zita; Bläsing, Melanie; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2013-05-01

    Public concern in Vietnam is increasing with respect to pesticide pollution of the environment and of drinking water resources. While established monitoring programs in the Mekong Delta (MD) focus on the analysis of organochlorines and some organophosphates, the environmental concentrations of more recently used pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroides, and triazoles are not monitored. In the present study, household level pesticide use and management was therefore surveyed and combined with a one year environmental monitoring program of thirteen relevant pesticides (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazole) in surface water, soil, and sediment samples. The surveys showed that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta. As a consequence, a wide range of pesticide residues were present in water, soil, and sediments throughout the monitoring period. Maximum concentrations recorded were up to 11.24 μg l(-1) in water for isoprothiolane and up to 521 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment for buprofezin. Annual average concentrations ranged up to 3.34 μg l(-1) in water and up to 135 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment, both for isoprothiolane. Occurrence of pesticides in the environment throughout the year and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides. This has a high relevance in the delta as water for drinking is often extracted from canals and rivers by rural households (GSO, 2005, and own surveys). The treatment used by the households for preparing surface water prior to consumption (flocculation followed by boiling) is insufficient for the removal of the studied pesticides and boiling can actually increase the concentration of non-volatile pollutants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Pope, H G; Gruber, A J; Yurgelun-Todd, D

    2001-12-01

    Acute intoxication with cannabis clearly produces cognitive impairment, but it is less clear how long cognitive deficits persist after an individual stops regular cannabis use. Numerous methodologic difficulties confront investigators in the field attempting to assess the residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis among heavy users, and these must be understood to properly evaluate available studies. At present, it appears safe to conclude that deficits in attention and memory persist for at least several days after discontinuing regular heavy cannabis use. Some of these deficits may be caused or exacerbated by withdrawal effects from the abrupt discontinuation of cannabis; these effects typically peak after 3 to 7 days of abstinence. It is less clear, however, whether heavy cannabis use can cause neurotoxicity that persists long after discontinuation of use. It seems likely that such long-term effects, if they exist, are subtle and not clinically disabling--at least in the majority of cases.

  9. Precision Cleaning of Oxygen Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Currently, NASA uses Dichloropentafluoropropane (HCFC-225), a Class II ozone depleting substance (ODs), to clean contaminated oxygen systems. Starting in 20 15, the Montreal Protocols and Clean Air Act prohibit the production and importation of all hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), except for limited use in refrigeration applications. Thus, a new non-ozone depleting solvent needs to be developed for use in cleaning. Optimally, such a solvent should also be environmentally benign or green to avoid needing to replace the new solvent with yet another solvent in the future due to other environmental concerns. Work for the first year consisted of two parts. The first part was developing a method of testing the cleaning efficiency of potential solvents. Stainless steel coupons were contaminated with a known weight of various contaminants and contaminant combinations and then immersed in solvent for ten minutes. The coupons were then removed and dried in an oven until all solvent had evaporated. Once dry, the coupons were weighed and the mass of the non-volatile residue (NVR) left on the coupon was determined. The cleaning efficiency of the solvents is reported as percent cleaning, with 100% cleaning being zero NVR left on the test coupon. The second half of the first goal was to use the develop method to perform baseline testing on current solvents. The second part of the work was to begin exploring alternative cleaning solvents. A variety of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were tested. Preliminary testing was also performed with ionic liquids and aqueous surfactant solutions. Once potential solvents were identified, an analysis of the performance and environmental characteristics of each was to be conducted. Four contaminants were specified for use in testing. These are Mil-Spec-H-5606 (5606), a hydraulic fluid, Mil-H-83282B (83282), another hydraulic fluid, diethylhexyl sebacate (Sebacate), and WD-40. The structures of these contaminants are all similar, with long aliphatic

  10. Optical systolic array processor using residue arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J.; Casasent, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of residue arithmetic to increase the accuracy and reduce the dynamic range requirements of optical matrix-vector processors is evaluated. It is determined that matrix-vector operations and iterative algorithms can be performed totally in residue notation. A new parallel residue quantizer circuit is developed which significantly improves the performance of the systolic array feedback processor. Results are presented of a computer simulation of this system used to solve a set of three simultaneous equations.

  11. Identification of kinetically hot residues in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, M. C.; Atilgan, A. R.; Jernigan, R. L.; Erman, B.; Bahar, I.

    1998-01-01

    A number of recent studies called attention to the presence of kinetically important residues underlying the formation and stabilization of folding nuclei in proteins, and to the possible existence of a correlation between conserved residues and those participating in the folding nuclei. Here, we use the Gaussian network model (GNM), which recently proved useful in describing the dynamic characteristics of proteins for identifying the kinetically hot residues in folded structures. These are the residues involved in the highest frequency fluctuations near the native state coordinates. Their high frequency is a manifestation of the steepness of the energy landscape near their native state positions. The theory is applied to a series of proteins whose kinetically important residues have been extensively explored: chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, cytochrome c, and related C2 proteins. Most of the residues previously pointed out to underlie the folding process of these proteins, and to be critically important for the stabilization of the tertiary fold, are correctly identified, indicating a correlation between the kinetic hot spots and the early forming structural elements in proteins. Additionally, a strong correlation between kinetically hot residues and loci of conserved residues is observed. Finally, residues that may be important for the stability of the tertiary structure of CheY are proposed. PMID:9865946

  12. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L [Rigby, ID; Kenney, Kevin L [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Christopher T [Idaho Falls, ID; Hess, J Richard [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  13. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  14. Partitioning Residue-derived and Residue-induced Emissions of N2O Using 15N-labelled Crop Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. E.; Carverhill, J.; Lemke, R.; Knight, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of N2O emissions in Canada indicate that 17% of all agriculture-based emissions are associated with the decomposition of crop residues. However, research specific to the western Canadian prairies (including Saskatchewan) has shown that the N2O emission factor for N sources in this region typically ranges between 0.2 and 0.6%, which is well below the current IPCC default emission factor of 1.0%. Thus, it stands to reason that emissions from crop residues should also be lower than those calculated using the current IPCC emission factor. Current data indicates that residue decomposition, N mineralization and N2O production are affected by a number of factors such as C:N ratio and chemical composition of the residue, soil type, and soil water content; thus, a bench-scale incubation study was conducted to examine the effects of soil type and water content on N2O emissions associated with the decomposition of different crop residues. The study was carried out using soils from the Black, Dark Brown, Brown, and Gray soil zones and was conducted at both 50% and 70% water-filled pore space (WFPS); the soils were amended with 15N-labeled residues of wheat, pea, canola, and flax, or with an equivalent amount of 15N-labeled urea; 15N2O production was monitored using a Picarro G5101-i isotopic N2O analyzer. Crop residue additions to the soils resulted in both direct and indirect emissions of N2O, with residue derived emissions (RDE; measured as 15N2O) generally exceeding residue-induced emissions (RIE) at 50% WFPS—with RDEs ranging from 42% to 88% (mean = 58%) of the total N2O. Conversely, at 70% WFPS, RDEs were generally lower than RIEs—ranging from 21% to 83% (mean = 48%). Whereas both water content and soil type had an impact on N2O production, there was a clear and consistent trend in the emission factors for the residues; i.e., emissions were always greatest for the canola residue and lowest for the wheat residue and urea fertilizer; and intermediate for pea

  15. Multiple Myeloma Minimal Residual Disease.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Bruno; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F

    Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) is becoming standard diagnostic care for potentially curable neoplasms such as some acute leukemias as well as chronic myeloid and lymphocytic leukemia. Although multiple myeloma (MM) remains as an incurable disease, around half of the patients achieve complete remission (CR), and recent data suggests increasing rates of curability with "total-therapy-like" programs. This landscape is likely to be improved with the advent of new antibodies and small molecules. Therefore, conventional serological and morphological techniques have become suboptimal for sensitive evaluation of highly effective treatment strategies. Although, existing data suggests that MRD could be used as a biomarker to evaluate treatment efficacy, help on therapeutic decisions, and act as surrogate for overall survival, the role of MRD in MM is still a matter of extensive debate. Here, we review the different levels of remission used to define depth of response in MM and their clinical significance, as well as the prognostic value and unique characteristics of MRD detection using immunophenotypic, molecular, and imaging techniques. Key facts The higher efficacy of new treatment strategies for MM demand the incorporation of highly sensitive techniques to monitor treatment efficacy MRD could be used as a more potent surrogate biomarker for survival than standard CR We need to understand the pros and cons of the different MRD techniques The time has come to incorporate highly sensitive, cost-effective, readily available, and standardized MRD techniques into clinical trials to assess its role in therapeutic decisions.

  16. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers. ...

  17. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  18. Residue decomposition of submodel of WEPS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Residue Decomposition submodel of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) simulates the decrease in crop residue biomass due to microbial activity. The decomposition process is modeled as a first-order reaction with temperature and moisture as driving variables. Decomposition is a function of ...

  19. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM RESIDUES

    DOEpatents

    Schaap, W.B.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for the recovery of uranium from insoluble oxide residues resistant to repeated leaching with mineral acids. The residue is treated with gaseous hydrogen fluoride, then with hydrogen and again with hydrogen fluoride, preferably at 500 to 700 deg C, prior to the mineral acid leaching.

  20. THE IMMIGRANT POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEGALMAN, RALPH

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE LIVES OF THE POOR IN AMERICA WILL SHOW DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE IMMIGRANT (AND REFUGEE) POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR (NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, LATIN AMERICANS, INDIANS, AND OTHERS). THE IMMIGRANT POOR WERE ACCULTURATED AND ABSORBED INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF AMERICAN LIFE WITHIN THREE GENERATIONS, WHEREAS THE RESIDUAL POOR HAVE BEEN…

  1. Developing with Residual Practice in EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivanç Çaganaga, Çagda; Kaymakamoglu, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of residual practice as a means of understanding the importance of daily experience on classroom management. The suggested theory can adequately illuminate the nature and process of learning while teaching in classrooms. This article aims to provide residual practice as a comprehensive framework for evaluating the…

  2. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue. ...

  3. BOOSTER CHLORINATION FOR MANAGING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster chlorination is an approach to residual maintenance in which chlorine is applied at strategic locations within the distribution system. Situations in which booster chlorination may be most effective for maintaining a residual are explained informally in the context of a ...

  4. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers. ...

  5. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  6. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  7. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  8. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  9. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    PubMed

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  10. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  11. Recycling of auto shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Nourreddine, Menad

    2007-01-31

    Currently, about 75% of end-of-life vehicle's (ELV) total weight is recycled in EU countries. The remaining 25%, which is called auto shredder residues (ASR) or auto fluff, is disposed of as landfill because of its complexity. It is a major challenge to reduce this percentage of obsolete cars. The European draft directive states that by the year 2006, only 15% of the vehicle's weight can be disposed of at landfill sites and by 2015, this will be reduced to 5%. The draft directive states that a further 10% can be incinerated. The quantities of shredder fluff are likely to increase in the coming years. This is because of the growing number of cars being scrapped, coupled with the increase in the amount of plastics used in cars. In Sweden, some current projects are focusing on recycling of ASR material. In this paper some different alternatives for using this material are reported. The hypothetical injection of ASR into a blast furnace concentrating on ASR's effect to some blast furnace (BF) parameters has been completed using a blast furnace mass balance model. As a result, in principle, ASR can be used as reducing agent in the BF process if certain conditions are met. The particle size of ASR material must be controlled to ensure optimal gasification of the material in the raceway. Regarding the chemical composition of ASR, the non-ferrous content can affect the pig iron quality, which is difficult to rectify at a later point. The most attractive recycling alternative is to use the products obtained from pyrolysis of ASR in appropriate metallurgical processes.

  12. Residues of azoxystrobin from grapes to raisins.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, Chaido; Avramides, Elizabeth J; Kokkinaki, Kalliopi

    2006-01-11

    Azoxystrobin, a fungicide of the strobilurin group, has an European Union maximum residue level (MRL) of 2 mg/kg for grapes. This work aimed to assess residues on fresh and washed grapes and on raisins following processing with (i) alkali treatment and sun drying and (ii) sun drying only. QUADRIS 25% SC was applied according to good agricultural practice for two consecutive years on a typical cv. Thomson seedless and a seed-producing clone. Samples were collected 0, 15, and 21 days postapplication and analyzed using gas chromatography/electron capture detection; recoveries were 86 +/- 12% for grapes and 99 +/- 15% for raisins. Residues on grapes were 0.49-1.84 mg/kg, and washing removed 75% of the residue. Residues in raisins produced from seedless grapes were 0.51-1.49 (treatment 1) and 1.42-2.08 mg/kg (treatment 2), with residue transfer factors sometimes >1, even following alkali treatment, which reduced residues considerably. To avoid trade problems, a higher MRL for raisins is necessary.

  13. Dissipation and residue of myclobutanil in lychee.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Sun, Haibin; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Siwei

    2012-06-01

    The dissipation and residue of myclobutanil in lychee under field conditions were studied. To determine myclobutanil residue in samples, an analytical method with a florisil column clean-up and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed. Recoveries were found in the range of 83.24 %-89.00 % with relative standard deviations of 2.67 %-9.88 %. This method was successfully applied to analyze the dissipation and residue of myclobutanil in lychee in Guangdong and Guangxi Province, China. The half lives in lychee were from 2.2 to 3.4 days. The residues of myclobutanil in lychee flesh were all below the limit of quantification (LOQ) value (0.01 mg/kg), and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The terminal residues of myclobutanil were all bellow the maximum residue limit (MRL) value set by European Union (EU) (0.02 mg/kg). Hence it was safe for the use of this pesticide and the results also could give a reference for MRL setting of myclobutanil in lychee in China.

  14. Agricultural residue availability in the United States.

    PubMed

    Haq, Zia; Easterly, James L

    2006-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to forecast US energy production, consumption, and price trends for a 25-yr-time horizon. Biomass is one of the technologies within NEMS, which plays a key role in several scenarios. An endogenously determined biomass supply schedule is used to derive the price-quantity relationship of biomass. There are four components to the NEMS biomass supply schedule including: agricultural residues, energy crops, forestry residues, and urban wood waste/mill residues. The EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 includes updated estimates of the agricultural residue portion of the biomass supply schedule. The changes from previous agricultural residue supply estimates include: revised assumptions concerning corn stover and wheat straw residue availabilities, inclusion of non-corn and non-wheat agricultural residues (such as barley, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse), and the implementation of assumptions concerning increases in no-till farming. This article will discuss the impact of these changes on the supply schedule.

  15. Tweaked residual convolutional network for face alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wenchao; Li, Ke; Zhao, Qijun; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Hu

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel Tweaked Residual Convolutional Network approach for face alignment with two-level convolutional networks architecture. Specifically, the first-level Tweaked Convolutional Network (TCN) module predicts the landmark quickly but accurately enough as a preliminary, by taking low-resolution version of the detected face holistically as the input. The following Residual Convolutional Networks (RCN) module progressively refines the landmark by taking as input the local patch extracted around the predicted landmark, particularly, which allows the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to extract local shape-indexed features to fine tune landmark position. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed Tweaked Residual Convolutional Network approach outperforms existing methods.

  16. On the residual properties of damaged FRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbino, R.; Torrijos, M. C.; Giaccio, G.

    2017-09-01

    A discussion on the residual behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is performed based on two selected cases of concrete degradation: the exposure at High Temperatures and the development of Alkali Silica Reactions. In addition, and taking in mind that the failure mechanism in FRC is strongly related with the fibre pull-out strength, the bond strength in damaged matrices was shown concluding that the residual bond strength is less affected than the matrix strength. As the damage increases, the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity decrease, being the modulus of elasticity the most affected. There were no significant changes produced by the incorporation of fibres on the residual behaviour when compared with previous experience on plain damage concrete. Regarding the tensile behaviour although the first peak decreases as the damage increases, even for a severely damage FRC the residual stresses remain almost unaffected.

  17. Determination of Residual Stresses in Rails

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-05-01

    A destructive sectioning technique for measuring the complete three-dimensional residual stresses in a rail cross section was developed. The technique was applied to four tangent rail specimens: two 136-pound specimens were taken from FAST (Facility ...

  18. Management of stormwater facility maintenance residuals

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-06-01

    Current research on stormwater maintenance residuals has revealed that the source and nature of these materials is extremely variable, that regulation can be ambiguous, and handling can be costly and difficult. From a regulatory perspective, data ind...

  19. PREDICTING CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN AQUATIC FOOD CHAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need to accurately predict chemical accumulation in aquatic organisms is critical for a variety of environmental applications including the assessment of contaminated sediments. Approaches for predicting chemical residues can be divided into two general classes, empirical an...

  20. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later.

  1. Residual stresses in passenger car wheels

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-11-05

    The purpose of this paper is to present the extension of previous studies aimed at understanding the residual stress distribution in as-manufactured railroad wheels. In order to address loading conditions which are not axially symmetric, a manufactur...

  2. Residues of lambda-cyhalothrin in tea.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, Narayanan Nair

    2009-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted at two places in Tamil Nadu (India) during dry season of 2006 to determine the residues of lambda-cyhalothrin in fresh green tea leaves and black tea. Residues were quantified at different harvest intervals of '0' (3h), 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and 14th day after insecticide application. Persistence, dissipation pattern, half-life value and safe harvest interval of the insecticide in tea were calculated. Residues of lambda-cyhalothrin dissipated exponentially after application at both the locations and reached below the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) of 1mg/kg on the 5th day. Lambda-cyhalothrin showed that like other insecticides it followed the first order dissipation kinetics. Half-life values varied from 2.8 to 3.5 days for lambda-cyhalothrin and a safety harvest interval of 5 days is suggested for tea at the recommended dosage.

  3. RESIDUALS, QUANTITIES, CHARACTERISTICS AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will describe the characteristics and quantitites of residuals generated by the various arsenic removal technologies including adsorptive media, coagulation filtration and iron removal. Information is also presented on the disposal options for the various types of re...

  4. Quantile based Tsallis entropy in residual lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khammar, A. H.; Jahanshahi, S. M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Tsallis entropy is a generalization of type α of the Shannon entropy, that is a nonadditive entropy unlike the Shannon entropy. Shannon entropy may be negative for some distributions, but Tsallis entropy can always be made nonnegative by choosing appropriate value of α. In this paper, we derive the quantile form of this nonadditive's entropy function in the residual lifetime, namely the residual quantile Tsallis entropy (RQTE) and get the bounds for it, depending on the Renyi's residual quantile entropy. Also, we obtain relationship between RQTE and concept of proportional hazards model in the quantile setup. Based on the new measure, we propose a stochastic order and aging classes, and study its properties. Finally, we prove characterizations theorems for some well known lifetime distributions. It is shown that RQTE uniquely determines the parent distribution unlike the residual Tsallis entropy.

  5. Study of Selected Petroleum Refining Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The document describes EPA's approach to conducting the industry study required by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)/EPA consent decree and characterizes the study residuals and how they are managed.

  6. Protein structure based prediction of catalytic residues.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, J Eduardo; Fiser, Andras

    2013-02-22

    Worldwide structural genomics projects continue to release new protein structures at an unprecedented pace, so far nearly 6000, but only about 60% of these proteins have any sort of functional annotation. We explored a range of features that can be used for the prediction of functional residues given a known three-dimensional structure. These features include various centrality measures of nodes in graphs of interacting residues: closeness, betweenness and page-rank centrality. We also analyzed the distance of functional amino acids to the general center of mass (GCM) of the structure, relative solvent accessibility (RSA), and the use of relative entropy as a measure of sequence conservation. From the selected features, neural networks were trained to identify catalytic residues. We found that using distance to the GCM together with amino acid type provide a good discriminant function, when combined independently with sequence conservation. Using an independent test set of 29 annotated protein structures, the method returned 411 of the initial 9262 residues as the most likely to be involved in function. The output 411 residues contain 70 of the annotated 111 catalytic residues. This represents an approximately 14-fold enrichment of catalytic residues on the entire input set (corresponding to a sensitivity of 63% and a precision of 17%), a performance competitive with that of other state-of-the-art methods. We found that several of the graph based measures utilize the same underlying feature of protein structures, which can be simply and more effectively captured with the distance to GCM definition. This also has the added the advantage of simplicity and easy implementation. Meanwhile sequence conservation remains by far the most influential feature in identifying functional residues. We also found that due the rapid changes in size and composition of sequence databases, conservation calculations must be recalibrated for specific reference databases.

  7. Protein structure based prediction of catalytic residues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide structural genomics projects continue to release new protein structures at an unprecedented pace, so far nearly 6000, but only about 60% of these proteins have any sort of functional annotation. Results We explored a range of features that can be used for the prediction of functional residues given a known three-dimensional structure. These features include various centrality measures of nodes in graphs of interacting residues: closeness, betweenness and page-rank centrality. We also analyzed the distance of functional amino acids to the general center of mass (GCM) of the structure, relative solvent accessibility (RSA), and the use of relative entropy as a measure of sequence conservation. From the selected features, neural networks were trained to identify catalytic residues. We found that using distance to the GCM together with amino acid type provide a good discriminant function, when combined independently with sequence conservation. Using an independent test set of 29 annotated protein structures, the method returned 411 of the initial 9262 residues as the most likely to be involved in function. The output 411 residues contain 70 of the annotated 111 catalytic residues. This represents an approximately 14-fold enrichment of catalytic residues on the entire input set (corresponding to a sensitivity of 63% and a precision of 17%), a performance competitive with that of other state-of-the-art methods. Conclusions We found that several of the graph based measures utilize the same underlying feature of protein structures, which can be simply and more effectively captured with the distance to GCM definition. This also has the added the advantage of simplicity and easy implementation. Meanwhile sequence conservation remains by far the most influential feature in identifying functional residues. We also found that due the rapid changes in size and composition of sequence databases, conservation calculations must be recalibrated for specific

  8. Environmental dredging residual generation and management.

    PubMed

    Patmont, Clay; LaRosa, Paul; Narayanan, Raghav; Forrest, Casey

    2018-05-01

    The presence and magnitude of sediment contamination remaining in a completed dredge area can often dictate the success of an environmental dredging project. The need to better understand and manage this remaining contamination, referred to as "postdredging residuals," has increasingly been recognized by practitioners and investigators. Based on recent dredging projects with robust characterization programs, it is now understood that the residual contamination layer in the postdredging sediment comprises a mixture of contaminated sediments that originate from throughout the dredge cut. This mixture of contaminated sediments initially exhibits fluid mud properties that can contribute to sediment transport and contamination risk outside of the dredge area. This article reviews robust dredging residual evaluations recently performed in the United States and Canada, including the Hudson River, Lower Fox River, Ashtabula River, and Esquimalt Harbour, along with other projects. These data better inform the understanding of residuals generation, leading to improved models of dredging residual formation to inform remedy evaluation, selection, design, and implementation. Data from these projects confirm that the magnitude of dredging residuals is largely determined by site conditions, primarily in situ sediment fluidity or liquidity as measured by dry bulk density. While the generation of dredging residuals cannot be avoided, residuals can be successfully and efficiently managed through careful development and implementation of site-specific management plans. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:335-343. © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  9. GLC determination of quinaldine residue in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Sills, J.B.

    1970-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of quinaldine residue in various fish tissues is described. Homogenized tissues are extracted wi th hexane-ethyl ether, the extracts are concentrated by partitioning through O.IN sulfuric acid, and the residues are measured by alkali Harne ionization gas chromatography. Muscle tissues containing from 0.01 to 10.0 ppm quinaldine were successfully analyzed with recoveries from 75 to 100%.

  10. Air classification: Potential treatment method for optimized recycling or utilization of fine-grained air pollution control residues obtained from dry off-gas cleaning high-temperature processing systems.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2015-11-01

    In the dust collected from the off-gas of high-temperature processes, usually components that are volatile at the process temperature are enriched. In the recycling of the dust, the concentration of these volatile components is frequently limited to avoid operation problems. Also, for external utilization the concentration of such volatile components, especially heavy metals, is often restricted. The concentration of the volatile components is usually higher in the fine fractions of the collected dust. Therefore, air classification is a potential treatment method to deplete the coarse material from these volatile components by splitting off a fines fraction with an increased concentration of those volatile components. In this work, the procedure of a sequential classification using a laboratory air classifier and the calculations required for the evaluation of air classification for a certain application were demonstrated by taking the example of a fly ash sample from a biomass combustion plant. In the investigated example, the Pb content in the coarse fraction could be reduced to 60% by separation of 20% fines. For the non-volatile Mg the content was almost constant. It can be concluded that air classification is an appropriate method for the treatment of off-gas cleaning residues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  12. Residual Energy Spectrum of Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A.

    2013-06-01

    It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of σr = -0.19 and mean Alfvén ratio of r A = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

  13. Bayesian nonparametric regression with varying residual density

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Debdeep; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of robust Bayesian inference on the mean regression function allowing the residual density to change flexibly with predictors. The proposed class of models is based on a Gaussian process prior for the mean regression function and mixtures of Gaussians for the collection of residual densities indexed by predictors. Initially considering the homoscedastic case, we propose priors for the residual density based on probit stick-breaking (PSB) scale mixtures and symmetrized PSB (sPSB) location-scale mixtures. Both priors restrict the residual density to be symmetric about zero, with the sPSB prior more flexible in allowing multimodal densities. We provide sufficient conditions to ensure strong posterior consistency in estimating the regression function under the sPSB prior, generalizing existing theory focused on parametric residual distributions. The PSB and sPSB priors are generalized to allow residual densities to change nonparametrically with predictors through incorporating Gaussian processes in the stick-breaking components. This leads to a robust Bayesian regression procedure that automatically down-weights outliers and influential observations in a locally-adaptive manner. Posterior computation relies on an efficient data augmentation exact block Gibbs sampler. The methods are illustrated using simulated and real data applications. PMID:24465053

  14. Axial residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius was determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diameter fibers were similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile within the boron. At approximately 25 percent of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 mn/sq.m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data were presented for 203 micron diameter B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102 micron diameter B/W and boron on carbon (b/C) shows that the residual stresses were similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core were observed. The effects of these residual stresses on the fracture of boron fibers were discussed.

  15. 40 CFR 180.496 - Thiazopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.496 Thiazopyr; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  16. 40 CFR 180.496 - Thiazopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.496 Thiazopyr; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  17. 40 CFR 180.274 - Propanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.274 Propanil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  18. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... defined in § 180.1(l), are established for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites...

  19. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... defined in § 180.1(l), are established for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites...

  20. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy) acetic...

  1. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy) acetic...

  2. 40 CFR 180.339 - MCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4... for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid) resulting from the direct...

  3. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... defined in § 180.1(l), are established for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites...

  4. 40 CFR 180.339 - MCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4... for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid) resulting from the direct...

  5. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy) acetic...

  6. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy) acetic...

  7. 40 CFR 180.339 - MCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4... for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid) resulting from the direct...

  8. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... defined in § 180.1(l), are established for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites...

  9. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide lactofen, 1... defined in 180.1(n) are established for residues of the herbicide, lactofen, 1-(carboethoxy)ethyl 5-[2...

  10. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy) acetic...

  11. 40 CFR 180.278 - Phenmedipham; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of the herbicide phenmedipham (3-methoxycarbonylaminophenyl-3′-methylcarbanilate) in or...

  12. 40 CFR 180.144 - Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.144 Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined...

  13. 40 CFR 180.537 - Isoxaflutole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of isoxaflutole 5-cyclopropyl-4-(2-methylsulfonyl-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl) isoxazole and...

  14. 40 CFR 180.537 - Isoxaflutole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of isoxaflutole 5-cyclopropyl-4-(2-methylsulfonyl-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl) isoxazole and...

  15. 40 CFR 180.144 - Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.144 Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined...

  16. 40 CFR 180.278 - Phenmedipham; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of the herbicide phenmedipham (3-methoxycarbonylaminophenyl-3′-methylcarbanilate) in or...

  17. 40 CFR 180.644 - Cyprosulfamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4-[(cyclopropylamino)carbonyl] phenyl]sulfonyl]-2... (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4...

  18. 40 CFR 180.644 - Cyprosulfamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4-[(cyclopropylamino)carbonyl] phenyl]sulfonyl]-2... (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4...

  19. 40 CFR 180.644 - Cyprosulfamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4-[(cyclopropylamino)carbonyl] phenyl]sulfonyl]-2... (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4...

  20. 40 CFR 180.644 - Cyprosulfamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4-[(cyclopropylamino)carbonyl] phenyl]sulfonyl]-2... (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4...

  1. 40 CFR 180.644 - Cyprosulfamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4-[(cyclopropylamino)carbonyl] phenyl]sulfonyl]-2... (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide safener cyprosulfamide, N-[[4...

  2. Flexibility of active-site gorge aromatic residues and non-gorge aromatic residues in acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    The presence of an unusually large number of aromatic residues in the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase has been a topic of great interest. Flexibility of these residues has been suspected to be a key player in controlling ligand traversal in the gorge. This raises the question of whether the over representation of aromatic residues in the gorge implies higher than normal flexibility of those residues. The current study suggests that it does not. Large changes in the hydrophobic cross sectional area due to dihedral oscillations are probably the reason behind their presence in the gorge.

  3. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  4. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    PubMed

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  5. Residue depletion of tilmicosin in chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Haiyang; Jin, Xingjun; Shen, Zhangqi; Shen, Jianzhong; Fu, Caixia; Guo, Junlin

    2004-05-05

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with detection at 290 nm was modified and validated for the determination of tilmicosin residues in broiler chicken tissues. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method were 0.01 microg/g for muscle and 0.025 microg/g for liver and kidney. Average recoveries ranged from 80.4 to 88.3%. Relative standard deviation values ranged from 5.2 to 12.1%. Residue depletion of tilmicosin in broiler chickens was examined after dosing over a 5-day period by incorporation of the drug into drinking water at 37.5 and 75.0 mg/L. Tilmicosin concentrations in liver and kidney were highest on day 3 of medication and on day 5 in muscle, in both low- and high-dose groups. The residue levels in both groups were significantly higher in liver than in kidney or muscle. A minimum withdrawal time of 9 days was indicated for residue levels in muscle, liver, and kidney tissues below the maximum residue level (MRL).

  6. Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Mussman, H C

    1975-02-01

    Given the large number of chemical substances that may find their way into the food supply, a system is needed to monitor their presence. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Inspection Program routinely tests for chemical residues in animals coming to slaughter. Pesticides, heavy metals, growth promotants (hormones and hormonelike agents), and antibiotics are included. Samples are taken statistically so that inferences as to national incidence of residues can be drawn. When a problem is identified, a more selective sampling is designed to help follow up on the initial regulatory action. In testing for pesticides, only DDT and dieldrin are found with any frequency and their levels are decreasing; violative residues of any chlorinated hydrocarbon are generally a result of an industrial accident rather than agricultural usage. Analyses for heavy metals have revealed detectable levels of mercury, lead, and others, but none at levels that are considered a health hazard. Of the hormone or hormonelike substances, only diethylstilbestrol has been a residue problem and its future is uncertain. The most extensive monitoring for veterinary drugs is on the antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, streptomycin, and the tetracycline group of antibiotics that constitute the bulk of the violations; their simultaneous use prophylactically and therapeutically has contributed to the problem in certain cases. A strong, well-designed user education program on proper application of pesticides, chemicals, and veterinary drugs appears to be one method of reducing the incidence of unwanted residues.

  7. [Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].

    PubMed

    Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves.

  8. Improved crop residue cover estimates by coupling spectral indices for residue and moisture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing assessment of soil residue cover (fR) and tillage intensity will improve our predictions of the impact of agricultural practices and promote sustainable management. Spectral indices for estimating fR are sensitive to soil and residue water content, therefore, the uncertainty of estima...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation...

  14. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  15. Residual Defect Density in Random Disks Deposits.

    PubMed

    Topic, Nikola; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A C

    2015-08-03

    We investigate the residual distribution of structural defects in very tall packings of disks deposited randomly in large channels. By performing simulations involving the sedimentation of up to 50 × 10(9) particles we find all deposits to consistently show a non-zero residual density of defects obeying a characteristic power-law as a function of the channel width. This remarkable finding corrects the widespread belief that the density of defects should vanish algebraically with growing height. A non-zero residual density of defects implies a type of long-range spatial order in the packing, as opposed to only local ordering. In addition, we find deposits of particles to involve considerably less randomness than generally presumed.

  16. System and method for measuring residual stress

    DOEpatents

    Prime, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method and system for determining the residual stress within an elastic object. In the method, an elastic object is cut along a path having a known configuration. The cut creates a portion of the object having a new free surface. The free surface then deforms to a contour which is different from the path. Next, the contour is measured to determine how much deformation has occurred across the new free surface. Points defining the contour are collected in an empirical data set. The portion of the object is then modeled in a computer simulator. The points in the empirical data set are entered into the computer simulator. The computer simulator then calculates the residual stress along the path which caused the points within the object to move to the positions measured in the empirical data set. The calculated residual stress is then presented in a useful format to an analyst.

  17. Longitudinal residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring the longitudinal residual stress distribution in boron fibers is presented. The residual stresses in commercial CVD boron on tungsten fibers of 102, 142, and 203 microns (4, 5.6, and 8 mil) diameters were determined. Results for the three sizes show a compressive stress at the surface 800 to -1400 MN/sq m 120 to -200 ksi), changing monotonically to a region of tensile stress within the boron. At approximately 25 percent of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile 600 to 1000 MN/sq m(90 to 150 ksi) and then decreases to compressive near the tungsten boride core. The core itself is under a compressive stress of approximately -1300 MN/sq m (-190 ksi). The effects of surface removal on core residual stress and core-initiated fracture are discussed.

  18. Plasma treatment of air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Amutha Rani, D; Gomez, E; Boccaccini, A R; Hao, L; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from waste incineration have been blended with silica and alumina and the mix melted using DC plasma arc technology. The chemical composition of the fully amorphous homogeneous glass formed has been determined. Waste acceptance criteria compliance leach testing demonstrates that the APC residue derived glass releases only trace levels of heavy metals (Pb (<0.007mg/kg) and Zn (0.02mg/kg)) and Cl(-) (0.2mg/kg). These are significantly below the limit values for disposal to inert landfill. It is concluded that plasma treatment of APC residues can produce an inert glass that may have potential to be used either in bulk civil engineering applications or in the production of higher value glass-ceramic products.

  19. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

  20. Genomic Prediction Accounting for Residual Heteroskedasticity.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhining; Tempelman, Robert J; Steibel, Juan P; Ernst, Catherine W; Bates, Ronald O; Bello, Nora M

    2015-11-12

    Whole-genome prediction (WGP) models that use single-nucleotide polymorphism marker information to predict genetic merit of animals and plants typically assume homogeneous residual variance. However, variability is often heterogeneous across agricultural production systems and may subsequently bias WGP-based inferences. This study extends classical WGP models based on normality, heavy-tailed specifications and variable selection to explicitly account for environmentally-driven residual heteroskedasticity under a hierarchical Bayesian mixed-models framework. WGP models assuming homogeneous or heterogeneous residual variances were fitted to training data generated under simulation scenarios reflecting a gradient of increasing heteroskedasticity. Model fit was based on pseudo-Bayes factors and also on prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values computed on a validation data subset one generation removed from the simulated training dataset. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous residual variance WGP models were also fitted to two quantitative traits, namely 45-min postmortem carcass temperature and loin muscle pH, recorded in a swine resource population dataset prescreened for high and mild residual heteroskedasticity, respectively. Fit of competing WGP models was compared using pseudo-Bayes factors. Predictive ability, defined as the correlation between predicted and observed phenotypes in validation sets of a five-fold cross-validation was also computed. Heteroskedastic error WGP models showed improved model fit and enhanced prediction accuracy compared to homoskedastic error WGP models although the magnitude of the improvement was small (less than two percentage points net gain in prediction accuracy). Nevertheless, accounting for residual heteroskedasticity did improve accuracy of selection, especially on individuals of extreme genetic merit. Copyright © 2016 Ou et al.

  1. Genomic Prediction Accounting for Residual Heteroskedasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Zhining; Tempelman, Robert J.; Steibel, Juan P.; Ernst, Catherine W.; Bates, Ronald O.; Bello, Nora M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome prediction (WGP) models that use single-nucleotide polymorphism marker information to predict genetic merit of animals and plants typically assume homogeneous residual variance. However, variability is often heterogeneous across agricultural production systems and may subsequently bias WGP-based inferences. This study extends classical WGP models based on normality, heavy-tailed specifications and variable selection to explicitly account for environmentally-driven residual heteroskedasticity under a hierarchical Bayesian mixed-models framework. WGP models assuming homogeneous or heterogeneous residual variances were fitted to training data generated under simulation scenarios reflecting a gradient of increasing heteroskedasticity. Model fit was based on pseudo-Bayes factors and also on prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values computed on a validation data subset one generation removed from the simulated training dataset. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous residual variance WGP models were also fitted to two quantitative traits, namely 45-min postmortem carcass temperature and loin muscle pH, recorded in a swine resource population dataset prescreened for high and mild residual heteroskedasticity, respectively. Fit of competing WGP models was compared using pseudo-Bayes factors. Predictive ability, defined as the correlation between predicted and observed phenotypes in validation sets of a five-fold cross-validation was also computed. Heteroskedastic error WGP models showed improved model fit and enhanced prediction accuracy compared to homoskedastic error WGP models although the magnitude of the improvement was small (less than two percentage points net gain in prediction accuracy). Nevertheless, accounting for residual heteroskedasticity did improve accuracy of selection, especially on individuals of extreme genetic merit. PMID:26564950

  2. Imaging residue transfer into egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, D J; Myers, K

    2000-12-01

    Prediction models for residue transfer into eggs are being developed. Recent results indicate that the developing egg yolk serves as an important storage depot for chemical residues. The current study was conducted to visualize incorporation and potential compartmentalization of drug residues in developing egg yolks. To this end, the drug magnevist was injected into hens to evaluate drug transfer into either early- or late-developing yolks. High-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of drug residues in eggs were acquired using a 1.5 T Siemens Magnetom clinical scanner. A 10-cm circular surface coil was used for receiving the magnetic resonance signal. The eggs were positioned inside the coil cavity for an improved signal to noise ratio (SNR). Gradient-echo images were used to locate the centers of the eggs and to prescribe the position of the high-resolution image slab. The images were recorded using an inversion time (T1) weighted magnetization-prepared, rapid acquisition, gradient-recalled-echo (MPRAGE) pulse sequence. The sequence parameters used were as follows: repetition time (TR) equals 12 ms, echo time (TE) equals 5 ms, field of view (FOV) equals 200, TI = 10 ms, 1.25-mm slice thickness, and a matrix of 200 x 256. Following dosing, images of drug residues in eggs indicate that drugs can be incorporated and compartmentalized into ring structures within individual developing egg yolks. These results have significant human food safety implications because even after only a single dose, sequestered drug residues may be stored and later released to contaminate eggs for days to weeks after dosing.

  3. Residual and Destroyed Accessible Information after Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Rui; Leuchs, Gerd; Grassl, Markus

    2018-04-01

    When quantum states are used to send classical information, the receiver performs a measurement on the signal states. The amount of information extracted is often not optimal due to the receiver's measurement scheme and experimental apparatus. For quantum nondemolition measurements, there is potentially some residual information in the postmeasurement state, while part of the information has been extracted and the rest is destroyed. Here, we propose a framework to characterize a quantum measurement by how much information it extracts and destroys, and how much information it leaves in the residual postmeasurement state. The concept is illustrated for several receivers discriminating coherent states.

  4. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    PubMed

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  6. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  7. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2) in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier’s principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery. PMID:27115535

  8. Rethinking Residue: Determining the Perceptual Continuum of Residue on FEES to Enable Better Measurement.

    PubMed

    Pisegna, Jessica M; Kaneoka, Asako; Leonard, Rebecca; Langmore, Susan E

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this work was to better understand perceptual judgments of pharyngeal residue on flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the influence of a visual analog scale (VAS) versus an ordinal scale on clinician ratings. The intent was to determine if perceptual judgments of residue were more accurately described by equal or unequal intervals. Thirty-three speech language pathologists rated pharyngeal residue from 75 FEES videos representing a wide range of residue severities for thin liquid, applesauce, and cracker boluses. Clinicians rated their impression of the overall residue amount in each video on a VAS and, in a different session, on a five-point ordinal scale. Residue ratings were made in two separate sessions separated by several weeks. Statistical correlations of the two rating methods were carried out and best-fit models were determined for each bolus type. A total of 2475 VAS ratings and 2473 ordinal ratings were collected. Residue ratings from both methods (VAS and ordinal) were strongly correlated for all bolus types. The best fit for the data was a quadratic model representing unequal intervals, which significantly improved the r 2 values for each bolus type (cracker r 2  = 0.98, applesauce r 2  = 0.99, thin liquid r 2  = 0.98, all p < 0.0001). Perceptual ratings of pharyngeal residue demonstrated a statistical relationship consistent with unequal intervals. The present findings support the use of a VAS to rate residue on FEES, allowing for greater precision as compared to traditional ordinal rating scales. Perceptual judgments of pharyngeal residue reflected unequal intervals, an important concept that should be considered in future rating scales.

  9. Predicting logging residue volumes in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Stan Zarnoch; Micah G. Scudder

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest forest managers seek estimates of post-timber-harvest woody residue volumes and biomass that can be related to readily available site- and tree-level attributes. To better predict residue production, researchers investigated variability in residue ratios, growing-stock residue volume per mill-delivered volume, across Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and...

  10. Utilizing hardwood logging residue: a case study in the Appalachians

    Treesearch

    E. Paul Craft

    1976-01-01

    An Appalachian hardwood timber stand that contained 6,700 board feet per acre of sawtimber was harvested by clearcutting. After the merchantable sawlogs were removed, this stand contained 69.3 tons per acre of green wood residue. Thirty-three and one-third tons of residue were from tops of merchantable sawtimber; 36 tons were from residual trees. Treetop residue...

  11. 40 CFR 180.413 - Imazalil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.413 Imazalil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of..., hay 0.5 Wheat, straw 0.5 (2) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the fungicide...

  12. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methamidophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.315 Methamidophos; tolerances for residues. (a) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  13. 40 CFR 180.425 - Clomazone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clomazone; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.425 Clomazone; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  14. 40 CFR 180.261 - Phosmet; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosmet; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.261 Phosmet; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide...

  15. 40 CFR 180.503 - Cymoxanil, tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cymoxanil, tolerance for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.503 Cymoxanil, tolerance for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the fungicide...

  16. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.637 Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues...

  17. 40 CFR 180.601 - Cyazofamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cyazofamid; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.601 Cyazofamid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  18. 40 CFR 180.478 - Rimsulfuron; tolerances for residues

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rimsulfuron; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.478 Rimsulfuron; tolerances for residues (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  19. 40 CFR 180.433 - Fomesafen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fomesafen; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.433 Fomesafen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  20. 40 CFR 180.627 - Fluopicolide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluopicolide; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.627 Fluopicolide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  1. 40 CFR 180.603 - Dinotefuran; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dinotefuran; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.603 Dinotefuran; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues...

  2. 40 CFR 180.567 - Zoxamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zoxamide; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.567 Zoxamide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of zoxamide (3...

  3. 40 CFR 180.517 - Fipronil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fipronil; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.517 Fipronil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Therefore, tolerances are established for combined residues...

  4. 40 CFR 180.567 - Zoxamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zoxamide; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.567 Zoxamide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of zoxamide (3...

  5. 40 CFR 158.1410 - Residue chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residue chemistry data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Residue Chemistry § 158.1410 Residue chemistry data... the residue chemistry data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an...

  6. Retrieving residue after overstory removal in true fir, northeastern California

    Treesearch

    Gary O. Fiddler; C. Phillip Weatherspoon

    1986-01-01

    Overstory removal cutting, the most common means of converting old-growth stands to young growth stands in California, can produce excessive residues that pose management problems. Utilization is an attractive option for managing residues. However, the cost of residue retrieval and utilization is often prohibitive. Residue retrieval by a private contractor was studied...

  7. Managing logging residue under the timber sale contract.

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Adams

    1980-01-01

    Management of logging residue is becoming an important part of timber sale planning. This involves controlling the amount of residue remaining on the ground and its distribution by diameter size class. Some residue is beneficial.An interdisciplinary team specified a desired residue level for one clearcutting unit of this trial. For comparison another cutting...

  8. 40 CFR 158.1410 - Residue chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residue chemistry data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Residue Chemistry § 158.1410 Residue chemistry data... the residue chemistry data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an...

  9. 40 CFR 158.1410 - Residue chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residue chemistry data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Residue Chemistry § 158.1410 Residue chemistry data... the residue chemistry data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an...

  10. 40 CFR 158.1410 - Residue chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residue chemistry data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Residue Chemistry § 158.1410 Residue chemistry data... the residue chemistry data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an...

  11. 40 CFR 158.1410 - Residue chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residue chemistry data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Residue Chemistry § 158.1410 Residue chemistry data... the residue chemistry data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an...

  12. Endosulfan in China 2-emissions and residues.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongliang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Yi-Fan; Tian, Chongguo; Wang, Degao; Yang, Meng; Ding, Yongshen; Ma, Jianmin

    2009-05-01

    Endosulfan is one of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and also a candidate to be included in a group of new persistent organic pollutants (UNEP 2007). The first national endosulfan usage inventories in China with 1/4 degrees longitude by 1/6 degrees latitude resolution has been reported in an accompanying paper. In the second part of the paper, we compiled the gridded historical emissions and soil residues of endosulfan in China from the usage inventories. Based on the residue/emission data, gridded concentrations of endosulfan in Chinese soil and air have been calculated. These inventories will provide valuable data for the further study of endosulfan. Emission and residue of endosulfan were calculated from endosulfan usage by using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model-SGPERM, which is an integrated modeling system combining mathematical model, database management system, and geographic information system. By using the emission and residue inventories, annual air and soil concentrations of endosulfan in each cell were determined. Historical gridded emission and residue inventories of alpha- and beta-endosulfan in agricultural soil in China with 1/4 degrees longitude by 1/6 degrees latitude resolution have been created. Total emissions were around 10,800 t, with alpha-endosulfan at 7,400 t and beta-endosulfan at 3,400 t from 1994 to 2004. The highest residues were 140 t for alpha-endosulfan and 390 t for beta-endosulfan, and the lowest residues were 0.7 t for alpha-endosulfan and 170 t for beta-endosulfan in 2004 in Chinese agricultural soil where endosulfan was applied. Based on the emission and residue inventories, concentrations of alpha- and beta-endosulfan in Chinese air and agricultural surface soil were also calculated for each grid cell. We have estimated annual averaged air concentrations and the annual minimum and maximum soil concentrations across China. The real concentrations will be different from season to season. Although

  13. Lamination residual stresses in fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the magnitude of lamination residual stresses in angle-ply composites and to evaluate their effects on composite structural integrity. The materials investigated were boron/epoxy, boron/polyimide, graphite/low modulus epoxy, graphite/high modulus epoxy, graphite/polyimide and s-glass/epoxy. These materials were fully characterized. Static properties of laminates were also determined. Experimental techniques using embedded strain gages were developed and used to measure residual strains during curing. The extent of relaxation of lamination residual stresses was investigated. It was concluded that the degree of such relaxation is low. The behavior of angle-ply laminates subjected to thermal cycling, tensile load cycling, and combined thermal cycling with tensile load was investigated. In most cases these cycling programs did not have any measurable influence on residual strength and stiffness of the laminates. In the tensile load cycling tests, the graphite/polyimide shows the highest endurance with 10 million cycle runouts at loads up to 90 percent of the static strength.

  14. Harvesting small trees and forest residues

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes

    1992-01-01

    Eight countries collaborated and shared technical information on the harvesting of small trees and forest residues in a three year program. Proceedings and reports from workshops and reviews are summarized in a review of activities and harvesting systems of the participating countries. Four databases were developed for harvesting and transportation of these materials...

  15. Fuel ethanol production from agricultural residues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. In 2012, about 13.3 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was produced from corn in the USA which makes up 10% of gasoline supply. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw and barley straw can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic fee...

  16. NICKEL SPECIATION OF RESIDUAL OIL ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827649C002
    Title: Nickel Speciation Of Residual Oil Ash
    Investigators: Kevin C. Galbreath, John Won, Frank E. Huggins, Gerald P. Huffman, Christopher J. Zygarlicke, Donald L. Toman
    Institution: University of North Dakota<...

  17. A critique of Rasch residual fit statistics.

    PubMed

    Karabatsos, G

    2000-01-01

    In test analysis involving the Rasch model, a large degree of importance is placed on the "objective" measurement of individual abilities and item difficulties. The degree to which the objectivity properties are attained, of course, depends on the degree to which the data fit the Rasch model. It is therefore important to utilize fit statistics that accurately and reliably detect the person-item response inconsistencies that threaten the measurement objectivity of persons and items. Given this argument, it is somewhat surprising that there is far more emphasis placed in the objective measurement of person and items than there is in the measurement quality of Rasch fit statistics. This paper provides a critical analysis of the residual fit statistics of the Rasch model, arguably the most often used fit statistics, in an effort to illustrate that the task of Rasch fit analysis is not as simple and straightforward as it appears to be. The faulty statistical properties of the residual fit statistics do not allow either a convenient or a straightforward approach to Rasch fit analysis. For instance, given a residual fit statistic, the use of a single minimum critical value for misfit diagnosis across different testing situations, where the situations vary in sample and test properties, leads to both the overdetection and underdetection of misfit. To improve this situation, it is argued that psychometricians need to implement residual-free Rasch fit statistics that are based on the number of Guttman response errors, or use indices that are statistically optimal in detecting measurement disturbances.

  18. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Beena; Kathpal, T S

    2009-04-01

    Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet.

  19. Residual Stress Analysis in Welded Component.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, Shahab; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Miura, Fumiya; Sasaki, Tomohiro

    Due to local heating, thermal stresses occur during welding; and residual stress and distortion result remain welding. Welding distortion has negative effects on the accuracy of assembly, exterior appearance, and various strengths of the welded structures. Up to date, a lot of experiments and numerical analysis have been developed to assess residual stress. However, quantitative estimation of residual stress based on experiment may involve massive uncertainties and complexity of the measurement process. To comprehensively understand this phenomena, it is necessary to do further researches by means of both experiment and numerical simulation. In this research, we conduct Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for a simple butt-welded metal plate specimen. Thermal input and resultant expansion are modeled with a thermal expansion FEA module and the resultant constitutive response of the material is modeled with a continuous mechanic FEA module. The residual stress is modeled based on permanent deformation occurring during the heating phase of the material. Experiments have also been carried out to compare with the FEA results. Numerical and experimental results show qualitative agreement. The present work was supported by the Louisiana Board of Regents (LEQSF(2016-17)-RD-C-13).

  20. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  1. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section 311.39 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.39...

  2. Yield table for hardwood bark residue

    Treesearch

    Jeffery L. Wartluft

    1974-01-01

    Bark residue weights are tabulated for eight species of hardwood sawlogs according to log volume by the Doyle, International 1/4-inch, and Scribner decimal C log rules. Factors are provided for converting from weight in pounds to volume in cubic yards.

  3. DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

  4. Wood and fish residuals composting in Alaska

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Thomas Richard; Jesse A. Micales

    2002-01-01

    The unique climates and industrial mix in southeast and south central Alaska are challenges being met by the region's organics recyclers. OMPOSTING wood residuals in Alaska has become increasingly important in recent years as wood processors and other industrial waste managers search for environmentally sound and profitable outlets. Traditionally, Alaska?s...

  5. Potential nitrogen credits from peanut residue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Availability of residue nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops is dependent on N mineralization rates during decomposition. Following peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, extension currently recommends 22-67 kg N ha-1 credit to subsequent crops, but these recommendations are not supported in the liter...

  6. Sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Edwards, Meghan K.; Sng, Eveleen; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5536), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured over 7 days via accelerometry. Results: When expressing sedentary behavior as a 60 min/day increase, the hazard ratio across the models ranged from 1.07-1.40 (P < 0.05). There was evidence of an interaction effect between sedentary behavior and total physical activity on residual-specific mortality (Hazard ratiointeraction [HR] = 0.9989; 95% CI: 0.9982-0.9997; P = 0.008). Conclusion: Sedentary behavior was independently associated with residual-specific mortality. However, there was evidence to suggest that residual-specific mortality risk was a function of sedentary behavior and total physical activity. These findings highlight the need for future work to not only examine the association between sedentary behavior and health independent of total physical activity, but evaluate whether there is a joint effect of these two parameters on health. PMID:27766237

  7. RRCRank: a fusion method using rank strategy for residue-residue contact prediction.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaoyang; Dong, Qiwen; Lu, Ruqian

    2017-09-02

    In structural biology area, protein residue-residue contacts play a crucial role in protein structure prediction. Some researchers have found that the predicted residue-residue contacts could effectively constrain the conformational search space, which is significant for de novo protein structure prediction. In the last few decades, related researchers have developed various methods to predict residue-residue contacts, especially, significant performance has been achieved by using fusion methods in recent years. In this work, a novel fusion method based on rank strategy has been proposed to predict contacts. Unlike the traditional regression or classification strategies, the contact prediction task is regarded as a ranking task. First, two kinds of features are extracted from correlated mutations methods and ensemble machine-learning classifiers, and then the proposed method uses the learning-to-rank algorithm to predict contact probability of each residue pair. First, we perform two benchmark tests for the proposed fusion method (RRCRank) on CASP11 dataset and CASP12 dataset respectively. The test results show that the RRCRank method outperforms other well-developed methods, especially for medium and short range contacts. Second, in order to verify the superiority of ranking strategy, we predict contacts by using the traditional regression and classification strategies based on the same features as ranking strategy. Compared with these two traditional strategies, the proposed ranking strategy shows better performance for three contact types, in particular for long range contacts. Third, the proposed RRCRank has been compared with several state-of-the-art methods in CASP11 and CASP12. The results show that the RRCRank could achieve comparable prediction precisions and is better than three methods in most assessment metrics. The learning-to-rank algorithm is introduced to develop a novel rank-based method for the residue-residue contact prediction of proteins, which

  8. Modeling the Residual Strength of a Fibrous Composite Using the Residual Daniels Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonov, Yu.; Cimanis, V.; Varickis, S.; Kleinhofs, M.

    2016-09-01

    The concept of a residual Daniels function (RDF) is introduced. Together with the concept of Daniels sequence, the RDF is used for estimating the residual (after some preliminary fatigue loading) static strength of a unidirectional fibrous composite (UFC) and its S-N curve on the bases of test data. Usually, the residual strength is analyzed on the basis of a known S-N curve. In our work, an inverse approach is used: the S-N curve is derived from an analysis of the residual strength. This approach gives a good qualitive description of the process of decreasing residual strength and explanes the existence of the fatigue limit. The estimates of parameters of the corresponding regression model can be interpreted as estimates of parameters of the local strength of components of the UFC. In order to approach the quantitative experimental estimates of the fatigue life, some ideas based on the mathematics of the semiMarkovian process are employed. Satisfactory results in processing experimental data on the fatigue life and residual strength of glass/epoxy laminates are obtained.

  9. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On locating steganographic payload using residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2011-02-01

    Locating steganographic payload usingWeighted Stego-image (WS) residuals has been proven successful provided a large number of stego images are available. In this paper, we revisit this topic with two goals. First, we argue that it is a promising approach to locate payload by showing that in the ideal scenario where the cover images are available, the expected number of stego images needed to perfectly locate all load-carrying pixels is the logarithm of the payload size. Second, we generalize cover estimation to a maximum likelihood decoding problem and demonstrate that a second-order statistical cover model can be used to compute residuals to locate payload embedded by both LSB replacement and LSB matching steganography.

  11. Insecticide residues on weathered passerine carcass feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Butterbrodt, J.J.; Mengelkoch, J.; MacDougall, K.; Williams, B.; Pendergrass, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nine brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were exposed to turf srayed with either EarthCare? (25% diazinon; 477 L a.i./ha) or Ortho-Klor? (12 .6% chlorpyrifos; 5.21 L a.i./ha.). Birds were euthanized and one foot from each bird was weathered outdoors for up to 28 days and the other foot was kept frozen until residue analysis. When compared to the unweathered feet, feet weathered for 28 days retained 43% and 37% of the diazinon and chlorpyrifors, respectively. Insecticide residues were below the level of detection (1.0 ppm) on control feet. Weathered feet may be used for determining organophosphorus insecticide exposure to birds.

  12. Analysis techniques for residual acceleration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    Various aspects of residual acceleration data are of interest to low-gravity experimenters. Maximum and mean values and various other statistics can be obtained from data as collected in the time domain. Additional information may be obtained through manipulation of the data. Fourier analysis is discussed as a means of obtaining information about dominant frequency components of a given data window. Transformation of data into different coordinate axes is useful in the analysis of experiments with different orientations and can be achieved by the use of a transformation matrix. Application of such analysis techniques to residual acceleration data provides additional information than what is provided in a time history and increases the effectiveness of post-flight analysis of low-gravity experiments.

  13. Residual tetrachloroethylene in dry-cleaned clothes

    SciTech Connect

    Kawauchi, T.; Nishiyama, K.

    1989-04-01

    A large amount of residual tetrachloroethylene (TCE), up to 13.6 mg/g, was found in dry-cleaned clothes. The amounts varied among dry-cleaning establishments as well as with the type of fiber. The causes of these variations are discussed. Air TCE concentrations in the closed environment of dry-cleaning outlets were elevated: the highest reading was 4.8 mg/m3. The expired air of outlet employees also showed an increased level of TCE (average, 36.9 micrograms/m3). Increased air contamination from TCE released from dry-cleaned clothes was also observed in the home of a consumer. To reduce environmental contamination from TCE released from any of thesemore » sources, the amount of residual TCE in dry-cleaned clothes should be minimized.« less

  14. Managing residual refractive error after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Sáles, Christopher S; Manche, Edward E

    2015-06-01

    We present a review of keratorefractive and intraocular approaches to managing residual astigmatic and spherical refractive error after cataract surgery, including laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), arcuate keratotomy, intraocular lens (IOL) exchange, piggyback IOLs, and light-adjustable IOLs. Currently available literature suggests that laser vision correction, whether LASIK or PRK, yields more effective and predictable outcomes than intraocular surgery. Piggyback IOLs with a rounded-edge profile implanted in the sulcus may be superior to IOL exchange, but both options present potential risks that likely outweigh the refractive benefits except in cases with large residual spherical errors. The light-adjustable IOL may provide an ideal treatment to pseudophakic ametropia by obviating the need for secondary invasive procedures after cataract surgery, but it is not widely available nor has it been sufficiently studied. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Residual effects of hypnotics: an update.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I

    1991-07-01

    The sedative/hypnotic benzodiazepines introduced worldwide in the early 1960s were acclaimed for their low chemical toxicity and safety in clinical use. A decade later, some researchers and clinicians found that while all the drugs had undoubted potency and efficacy as sleep inducers and maintainers, the trade-off in residual effects (e.g., excessive daytime tiredness, poor concentration, impaired psychomotor performance, lowered mental abilities) was cause for concern. These sequelae not only affected patients' safety and ability to perform daytime tasks, but were also counter-therapeutic; the daytime sleep that was produced interfered with the natural nocturnal sleep. In a recent study, the degree to which patient abilities were impaired was measured by a number of psychomotor tests. Benzodiazepines with a duration of clinical effect of less than 8 to 10 hours produced fewer, less frequent residual effects than those with a measurable activity in excess of the normal nocturnal sleep period.

  16. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  17. Residual Field Correction of Pulsed Bending Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Junpei; Igarashi, Susumu; Kamikubota, Norihiko; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Kenichi; Shirakata, Masashi; Yamada, Shuei

    The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) has an accelerator chain, Linac, Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), and Main Ring (MR). The RCS accelerates the proton beam up to 3 GeV every 40 msec. After the beam is extracted from the RCS, it is delivered to a beam transport line, which is 3NBT for the Material and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF). Some bunches of the proton beam are bended from the 3NBT to another beam transport line, which is 3-50BT for the MR, by using a pulsed bending magnet (PB) [1]. However, the beam orbit in the 3NBT is kicked by the residual magnetic field of the PB. In order to correct the residual magnetic field, additional coils had been wound on the PB poles. As a result of scanning the current pattern of the correction coils, the orbit distortion in the 3NBT has been reduced.

  18. Residual strength of thin panels with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madenci, Erdogan

    1994-01-01

    The previous design philosophies involving safe life, fail-safe and damage tolerance concepts become inadequate for assuring the safety of aging aircraft structures. For example, the failure mechanism for the Aloha Airline accident involved the coalescence of undetected small cracks at the rivet holes causing a section of the fuselage to peel open during flight. Therefore, the fuselage structure should be designed to have sufficient residual strength under worst case crack configurations and in-flight load conditions. Residual strength is interpreted as the maximum load carrying capacity prior to unstable crack growth. Internal pressure and bending moment constitute the two major components of the external loads on the fuselage section during flight. Although the stiffeners in the form of stringers, frames and tear straps sustain part of the external loads, the significant portion of the load is taken up by the skin. In the presence of a large crack in the skin, the crack lips bulge out with considerable yielding; thus, the geometric and material nonlinearities must be included in the analysis for predicting residual strength. Also, these nonlinearities do not permit the decoupling of in-plane and out-of-plane bending deformations. The failure criterion combining the concepts of absorbed specific energy and strain energy density addresses the aforementioned concerns. The critical absorbed specific energy (local toughness) for the material is determined from the global specimen response and deformation geometry based on the uniaxial tensile test data and detailed finite element modeling of the specimen response. The use of the local toughness and stress-strain response at the continuum level eliminates the size effect. With this critical parameter and stress-strain response, the finite element analysis of the component by using STAGS along with the application of this failure criterion provides the stable crack growth calculations for residual strength predictions.

  19. Weld residual stresses and plastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Rybicki, E.; Shiratori, M.

    1989-01-01

    Residual stresses due to welding can play a primary role in the performance of piping systems and pressure vessels. The stresses are high, in the range of the yield stress of the material, and can influence the fatigue and fracture behavior as well as component service life. Thus, it is important to have an understanding of weld residual stresses. The papers in this section address the important topic of residual stresses and failure analysis. The paper by Boyles reviews computer simulation in the prediction and analysis of fatigue, fracture, and creep of welded structures. The growing use of expert systemsmore » for these purposes is also covered. Karisson, et al, determine the deformations and stresses during the butt-welding of a pipe. The determination of residual deformations and stresses is also presented. Oddy, Goldak, and McDill propose a method to incorporate transformation plasticity in a finite element program. A three-dimensional analysis of a short longitudinal pipe weld in a typical pressure vessel steel is presented. Chaaban, Morin, Ma, and Bazergui study the influence of ligament thickness, strain hardening, expansion sequence, and level of applied expansion pressure on the interference fit in a model of a tube-to-tubesheet joint in a heat exchanger. This section contains papers dealing with models for plastic deformation. Imatani, Teraura, and Inoue formulate a viscoplastic constitutive model based on an anisotropic yield criterion. Comparisons with experimental results obtained using thin walled tubular specimens made from SUS 304 stainless steel show that the present yield criterion adequately accounts for prior deformation history. Niitsu, Horiguchi, and Ikegami investigate the plastic behavior of S25C mild steel tubular specimens subjected to combined axial and torsional loading at both constant and variable temperatures.« less

  20. SVD analysis of Aura TES spectral residuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard; Kulawik, Susan S.; Rodgers, Clive D.; Bowman, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis is both a powerful diagnostic tool and an effective method of noise filtering. We present the results of an SVD analysis of an ensemble of spectral residuals acquired in September 2004 from a 16-orbit Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Global Survey and compare them to alternative methods such as zonal averages. In particular, the technique highlights issues such as the orbital variation of instrument response and incompletely modeled effects of surface emissivity and atmospheric composition.

  1. Fate and Transport of Colloidal Energetic Residues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Vadose Zone J 3(1): 262-270. 8. Davis, A. P., M. Shokouhian, and S. Ni. 2001. Loading estimates of lead , copper, cadmium , and zinc in urban...received the mm-sized Comp B. This particulate transport increases the effective contact time between residues and infiltrating rainwater, leading ...that natural mineral colloids can enhance transport of RDX and TNT by up to 15% and 20%, respectively. RDX and TNT attachment to natural colloids

  2. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore » activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  3. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE PAGES

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore » activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  4. Residue depletion of ivermectin in broiler poultry.

    PubMed

    Mestorino, Nora; Buldain, Daniel; Buchamer, Andrea; Gortari, Lihuel; Daniele, Martín; Marchetti, María Laura

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg -1 feed for 21 days. Groups of six treated animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days after treatment. Liver, skin/fat, kidney and muscle samples were obtained. IVM were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after automatic solid-phase extraction with SPE C 18 cartridges. The highest concentrations were measured in the liver, which is logical given that IVM is a drug that undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. The optimal withdrawal time for edible tissues of these animals to stay within the permitted residual levels were: 12 days for liver, 8 days for skin/fat, 0 days for muscle and 10 days for kidney.

  5. Detection of Gunshot Residues Using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Blanes, Lucas; Cole, Nerida; Doble, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, forensic scientists have become increasingly interested in the detection and interpretation of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) due to the increasing use of lead- and heavy metal-free ammunition. This has also been prompted by the identification of gunshot residue- (GSR-) like particles in environmental and occupational samples. Various techniques have been investigated for their ability to detect OGSR. Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to a chromatographic system is a powerful tool due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. Further, modern MS instruments can detect and identify a number of explosives and additives which may require different ionization techniques. Finally, MS has been applied to the analysis of both OGSR and inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR), although the “gold standard” for analysis is scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microscopy (SEM-EDX). This review presents an overview of the technical attributes of currently available MS and ionization techniques and their reported applications to GSR analysis. PMID:24977168

  6. Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

  7. SWIR hyperspectral imaging detector for surface residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew P.; Mangold, Paul; Gomer, Nathaniel; Klueva, Oksana; Treado, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    ChemImage has developed a SWIR Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) sensor which uses hyperspectral imaging for wide area surveillance and standoff detection of surface residues. Existing detection technologies often require close proximity for sensing or detecting, endangering operators and costly equipment. Furthermore, most of the existing sensors do not support autonomous, real-time, mobile platform based detection of threats. The SWIR HSI sensor provides real-time standoff detection of surface residues. The SWIR HSI sensor provides wide area surveillance and HSI capability enabled by liquid crystal tunable filter technology. Easy-to-use detection software with a simple, intuitive user interface produces automated alarms and real-time display of threat and type. The system has potential to be used for the detection of variety of threats including chemicals and illicit drug substances and allows for easy updates in the field for detection of new hazardous materials. SWIR HSI technology could be used by law enforcement for standoff screening of suspicious locations and vehicles in pursuit of illegal labs or combat engineers to support route-clearance applications- ultimately to save the lives of soldiers and civilians. In this paper, results from a SWIR HSI sensor, which include detection of various materials in bulk form, as well as residue amounts on vehicles, people and other surfaces, will be discussed.

  8. Free Energy Landscape - Settlements of Key Residues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroutiounian, Svetlana

    2007-03-01

    FEL perspective in studies of protein folding transitions reflects notion that since there are ˜10^N conformations to scan in search of lowest free energy state, random search is beyond biological timescale. Protein folding must follow certain fel pathways and folding kinetics of evolutionary selected proteins dominates kinetic traps. Good model for functional robustness of natural proteins - coarse-grained model protein is not very accurate but affords bringing simulations closer to biological realm; Go-like potential secures the fel funnel shape; biochemical contacts signify the funnel bottleneck. Boltzmann-weighted ensemble of protein conformations and histogram method are used to obtain from MC sampling of protein conformational space the approximate probability distribution. The fel is F(rmsd) = -1/βLn[Hist(rmsd)], β=kBT and rmsd is root-mean-square-deviation from native conformation. The sperm whale myoglobin has rich dynamic behavior, is small and large - on computational scale, has a symmetry in architecture and unusual sextet of residue pairs. Main idea: there is a mathematical relation between protein fel and a key residues set providing stability to folding transition. Is the set evolutionary conserved also for functional reasons? Hypothesis: primary sequence determines the key residues positions conserved as stabilizers and the fel is the battlefield for the folding stability. Preliminary results: primary sequence - not the architecture, is the rule settler, indeed.

  9. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Kelly, Fredrick R [Modesto, CA; Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA; Andresen, Brian D [Livermore, CA

    2007-07-24

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  10. [Antibiotic Residue in Environmental Water in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

     The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has caused intractable infections worldwide. Nearly 50% of the healthy population of Southeast Asia carries extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. The overuse of antimicrobial agents in the agriculture, aquaculture, and medical care sectors causes environmental pollution, facilitating the spread of AMR. However, there is a lack of data pertaining to antimicrobial residues in environmental water in such regions. We investigated a total of 49 chemicals, including β-lactams, sulfonamides, quinolones, and tetracyclines. Water samples were collected from rivers in city centers, and ponds in livestock and aquaculture farms, in Ha Noi, Thai Binh, and Can Tho in Vietnam. We detected antimicrobial agents at 87 of 111 sampling sites (78.4%). Among the target analytes, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, cephalexin, and ofloxacin were detected frequently. The residual levels of each antimicrobial agent ranged from 0.1 to 10000 ng/L. Moreover, we detected multi-drug resistant E. coli in fishes sampled from these rivers, suggesting unwanted effects of antimicrobial residues in the environment.

  11. Aqueous Electrochemical Mechanisms in Actinide Residue Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, David E.; Burns, Carol J.; Smith, Wayne H.

    2000-12-31

    Plutonium and uranium residues (e.g., incinerator ash, combustibles, and sand/slag/crucibles) resulting from the purification and processing of nuclear materials constitute an enormous volume of ''lean'' processing waste and represent a significant fraction of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) legacy waste from fifty years of nuclear weapons production activities. Much of this material is presently in storage at sites throughout the DOE weapons production complex (most notably Rocky Flats, Savannah River and Hanford) awaiting further processing and/or final disposition. The chemical and physical stability of much of this material has been called into question recently by the Defense Nuclearmore » Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) and resulted in the issuance of a mandate by the DNFSB to undertake a program to stabilize these materials [1]. The ultimate disposition for much of these materials is anticipated to be geologic repositories such as the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. However, in light of the mandate to stabilize existing residues and the probable concomitant increase in the volume of material to be disposed as a result of stabilization (e.g., from repackaging at lower residue densities), the projected storage volume for these wastes within anticipated geologic repositories will likely be exceeded simply to handle existing wastes. Additional processing of some of these residue waste streams to reduce radionuclide activity levels, matrix volume, or both is a potentially important strategy to achieve both stabilization and volume reduction so that the anticipated geologic repositories will provide adequate storage volume. In general, the plutonium and uranium that remains in solid residue materials exists in a very stable chemical form (e.g., as binary oxides), and the options available to remove the actinides are limited. However, there have been some demonstrated successes in this vain using aqueous phase electrochemical methods such

  12. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  13. Residual Stresses and Other Properties of Teardrops

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, Mary Ann; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Berg, John M.

    The Department of Energy’s 3013 Standard for packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage up to fifty years specifies a minimum of two individually welded, nested containers herein referred to as the 3013 outer and the 3013 inner.1 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a potential failure mechanism for 3013 inner containers.2,3 The bagless transfer container (BTC), a 3013 inner container used by Hanford and Savanna River Site (SRS) made from 304L stainless steel (SS), poses the greatest concern for SCC.4,5 The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) use stressed metal samples known as teardrops as screening tools in SCC studies to evaluate factorsmore » that could result in cracks in the 3013 containers.6,7 This report provides background information on the teardrops used in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) SMP studies including method of construction, composition and variability. In addition, the report discusses measurements of residual stresses in teardrops and compares the results with residual stresses in BTCs reported previously.4 Factors affecting residual stresses, including teardrop dimensions and surface finish, are also discussed.« less

  14. Redefining Agricultural Residues as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo, Marlon; Barros, Jaime; Ordás, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant biomass is a sustainable alternative to the reduction of CO2 emissions. Agricultural residues are interesting bioenergy feedstocks because they do not compete with food and add extra value to the crop, which might help to manage these residues in many regions. Breeding crops for dual production of food and bioenergy has been reported previously, but the ideal plant features are different when lignocellulosic residues are burnt for heat or electricity, or fermented for biofuel production. Stover moisture is one of the most important traits in the management of agricultural waste for bioenergy production which can be modified by genetic improvement. A delayed leaf senescence or the stay-green characteristic contributes to higher grain and biomass yield in standard, low nutrient, and drought-prone environments. In addition, the stay-green trait could be favorable for the development of dual purpose varieties because this trait could be associated with a reduction in biomass losses and lodging. On the other hand, the stay-green trait could be detrimental for the management of agricultural waste if it is associated with higher stover moisture at harvest, although this hypothesis has been insufficiently tested. In this paper, a review of traits relevant to the development of dual purpose varieties is presented with particular emphasis on stover moisture and stay-green, because less attention has been paid to these important traits in the literature. The possibility of developing new varieties for combined production is discussed from a breeding perspective. PMID:28773750

  15. Use of a non-volatile agent to stabilize severely incinerated dental remains.

    PubMed

    Berketa, John; James, Helen; Langlois, Neil; Richards, Lindsay; Pigou, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify volatile-free products that would be suitable for stabilizing incinerated dental remains at the scene of an incident, and that would not compromise any postmortem examination. The anterior mandibles of sheep were incinerated, sprayed unilaterally with stabilizing agents, vibrated for 30 s, and assessed. The effect of the stabilizing solutions on radiographic examination was also recorded. Tests for volatility and the effect on human mandibles were also conducted. A flour/water mixture of one part flour to two parts water, and a paste mixture of one part Clag™ glue to one part water both produced significant stabilization results. The flour mixture left an opaque layer on the samples that it was applied to, which still allowed dental examination, but the glue paste mixture resulted in a clearer layer. Both solutions allowed radiographic examination and were free of volatiles. Diluted Clag™ paste, when sprayed on to incinerated remains, assists in their stabilization for transportation. When Clag™ paste is unavailable a mixture of two parts water to one part plain flour could be utilized for stabilization.

  16. Non-volatile fatty acids in the diagnosis of non-specific vaginitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ison, C A; Easmon, C S; Dawson, S G; Southerton, G; Harris, J W

    1983-01-01

    In the vaginal washings of 100 women with symptomatic non-specific vaginitis a succinate/lactate ratio of greater than or equal to 0.4 had a diagnostic sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 83% for this condition. The predictive value of a positive test was 94%, but that of a negative test was only 55%. A strong association between the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes, a vaginal pH of above 4.5, and amines was found not only in non-specific vaginitis, but also in trichomonal and gonococcal infection. A variety of primary changes may encourage the multiplication of both gardnerellae and anaerobes and their presence in non-specific vaginitis may be a secondary rather than a primary event. PMID:6606653

  17. Silicon photonic integrated circuits with electrically programmable non-volatile memory functions.

    PubMed

    Song, J-F; Lim, A E-J; Luo, X-S; Fang, Q; Li, C; Jia, L X; Tu, X-G; Huang, Y; Zhou, H-F; Liow, T-Y; Lo, G-Q

    2016-09-19

    Conventional silicon photonic integrated circuits do not normally possess memory functions, which require on-chip power in order to maintain circuit states in tuned or field-configured switching routes. In this context, we present an electrically programmable add/drop microring resonator with a wavelength shift of 426 pm between the ON/OFF states. Electrical pulses are used to control the choice of the state. Our experimental results show a wavelength shift of 2.8 pm/ms and a light intensity variation of ~0.12 dB/ms for a fixed wavelength in the OFF state. Theoretically, our device can accommodate up to 65 states of multi-level memory functions. Such memory functions can be integrated into wavelength division mutiplexing (WDM) filters and applied to optical routers and computing architectures fulfilling large data downloading demands.

  18. Organic non-volatile resistive photo-switches for flexible image detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Nau, Sebastian; Wolf, Christoph; Sax, Stefan; List-Kratochvil, Emil J W

    2015-02-01

    A unique implementation of an organic image detector using resistive photo-switchable pixels is presented. This resistive photo-switch comprises the vertical integration of an organic photodiode and an organic resistive switching memory element. The photodiodes act as a photosensitive element while the resistive switching elements simultaneously store the detected light information. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Non-volatile spin bistability based on ferromagnet-semiconductor quantum dot hybrid nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Yuriy; Enaya, Hani; Zavada, John; Kim, Ki Wook

    2008-03-01

    Electrical manipulation of a memory cell based on bistability effect in a nanostructure consisting of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) adjoining on opposite sides with a dielectric ferromagnetic layer (DFL) and a reservoir of itinerant holes is investigated theoretically. The operating principle is based on the interplay between the exchange field of the holes Bh acting on the magnetization vector of the DFL M perpendicular to structure plane and the anisotropy field Ba which aligns M along the plane. At low hole population of the QD (Bh<Ba), the subsequent M rotation will decrease the hole energy in the QD; hence the high hole population state is sustained (second stable state ``1'') under a fixed electro-chemical potential set by the reservoir even after bias is removed. The analysis of bit retention time of the proposed memory demonstrates the feasibility of the device with lateral QD size at least 30 nm under room temperature operation. Another advantage is the extremely small dissipative energy for Write/Erase operations.

  20. Synthesis gas and olefins from the catalytic autothermal reforming of volatile and non-volatile liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Bradon Justin

    2007-12-01

    The research presented in this thesis develops an understanding of a clean energy process technology, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO). CPO is a process in which a carbon containing fuel, such as a hydrocarbon, is passed over a noble metal catalyst (e.g. rhodium and platinum) to efficiently generate synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and olefins (e.g. ethylene and propylene) in millisecond contact times. Chapter 1 introduces CPO and compares this technology with conventional methods for synthesis gas and olefin production. CPO has several advantages over the traditional synthesis gas and olefin production methods. One advantage includes autothermal operation, requiring no external heat input from furnaces or heat exchangers. Autothermal operation allows these reactors to be built compactly. The short contact-times associated with CPO further enable for high throughput in relatively small reactor systems, and more compact reactors typically translate to faster response times if transient operation is required. Nobel metal based CPO catalysts are also resistant to deactivation, resulting in less catalyst replacement, regeneration, and maintenance, and an increase in operating efficiency. An overview of the many applications of the chemicals produced from CPO is also presented in Chapter 1. The chemicals produced are crucial in generating valuable chemical intermediates that are eventually incorporated in consumer products, medical devices, building structures, and fertilizers. Additionally, H2 can be used as a source of energy in mobile fuel applications. Fuel cells convert H2 and O2 into electricity and water at higher efficiencies than thermal engine generators. Due to the difficulties in H2 storage, these more efficient energy generators are dependent on hydrogen obtained from synthesis gas production in compact, portable fuel reformers, such as CPO reactors. Furthermore, H2 and CO can be used in reducing environmentally harmful emissions. Particularly, the implementation of NOx traps and hydrogen into diesel engines has shown potential in reducing NOx emissions into the environment. Both concepts are dependent on synthesis gas generated from portable, compact fuel reformers, such as CPO reactors. Chapter 1 also reviews previous research in CPO, along with several important experimental parameters, and outlines the remaining research directions in the remaining chapters. In Chapter 2, steam addition to the CPO of higher hydrocarbons was explored over rhodium-coated ceramic foam supports at millisecond contact times. Steam addition to the CPO of n-decane and n-hexadecane in air produced considerably higher H2 and CO2 and lower olefin and CO selectivities than traditional CPO. For steam to carbon feed ratios from 0.0 to 4.0, the reactor operated autothermally, and the H2 to CO product ratio increased from ˜1.0 to ˜4.0, which is essentially the equilibrium product composition near synthesis gas stoichiometry (C/O ˜1) at contact times of ˜7 milliseconds. In fuel-rich feeds exceeding the synthesis gas ratio (C/O > 1), steam addition suppressed olefins, promoted synthesis gas and water-gas shift products, and reduced catalyst surface carbon. Furthermore, steam addition to the CPO of the military fuel JP-8 was performed successfully, also increasing H2 and suppressing olefins. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Modeling of ultrasonic degradation of non-volatile organic compounds by Langmuir-type kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chiha, Mahdi; Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Baup, Stéphane; Gondrexon, Nicolas; Pétrier, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Sonochemical degradation of phenol (Ph), 4-isopropylphenol (4-IPP) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solutions was investigated for a large range of initial concentrations in order to analyze the reaction kinetics. The initial rates of substrate degradation and H(2)O(2) formation as a function of initial concentrations were determined. The obtained results show that the degradation rate increases with increasing initial substrate concentration up to a plateau and that the sonolytic destruction occurs mainly through reactions with hydroxyl radicals in the interfacial region of cavitation bubbles. The rate of H(2)O(2) formation decreases with increasing substrate concentration and reaches a minimum, followed by almost constant production rate for higher substrate concentrations. Sonolytic degradation data were analyzed by the models of Okitsu et al. [K. Okitsu, K. Iwasaki, Y. Yobiko, H. Bandow, R. Nishimura, Y. Maeda, Sonochemical degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solution: a new heterogeneous kinetics model taking into account the local concentration OH radicals and azo dyes, Ultrason. Sonochem. 12 (2005) 255-262.] and Seprone et al. [N. Serpone, R. Terzian, H. Hidaka, E. Pelizzetti, Ultrasonic induced dehalogenation and oxidation of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol in air-equilibrated aqueous media. Similarities with irradiated semiconductor particulates, J. Phys. Chem. 98 (1994) 2634-2640.] developed on the basis of a Langmuir-type mechanism. The five linearized forms of the Okitsu et al.'s equation as well as the non-linear curve fitting analysis method were discussed. Results show that it is not appropriate to use the coefficient of determination of the linear regression method for comparing the best-fitting. Among the five linear expressions of the Okitsu et al.'s kinetic model, form-2 expression very well represent the degradation data for Ph and 4-IPP. Non-linear curve fitting analysis method was found to be the more appropriate method to determine the model parameters. An excellent representation of the experimental results of sonolytic destruction of RhB was obtained using the Serpone et al.'s model. The Serpone et al.'s model gives a worse fit for the sonolytic degradation data of Ph and 4-IPP. These results indicate that Ph and 4-IPP undergo degradation predominantly at the bubble/solution interface, whereas RhB undergoes degradation at both bubble/solution interface and in the bulk solution. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Distribution of Non-Volatile Elements on Mars: Mars Odyssey GRS Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W.; Janes, D.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.; Reedy, R.; Evans, L.; Starr, R.; Drake, D.; Taylor, J.; Waenke, H.

    2004-01-01

    The major scientific objective of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission is to determine the distribution of elements in the near-surface of Mars. Mars Odyssey has been in its mapping orbit since February, 2002, and the GRS boom, which removes the instrument from the gamma-ray background of the spacecraft, was erected in June, 2002. In the 580 days since boom erection, we have accumulated 453 days of mapping data. The difference is due mostly to two times when Odyssey went into safe mode and the instrument warmed up forcing us to anneal out radiation damage that manifests itself after warming. Other data losses are due to simple transmitter data gaps and to intense solar particle events. The data from the GRS is statistical in nature. We have a very low count rate and a very low signal-to-noise ratio. With the exception of K, the most easily mapped elements have a signal/noise ratio on the order of 0.1 (0.5 for K) and the counting rates are on the order of 0.3 to 0.7 counts/min (4 cpm for K). In order to map the distribution of an element, we have to divide the total signal from Mars up into many cells that define the map s spatial resolution (unless the statistics are good enough that the intrinsic spatial resolution of the instrument, about 550 km diameter, dominates). The data for several elements have now achieved a statistical precision that permits us to make meaningful maps.

  3. Addressing Inter-set Write-Variation for Improving Lifetime of Non-Volatile Caches

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    We propose a technique which minimizes inter-set write variation in NVM caches for improving its lifetime. Our technique uses cache coloring scheme to add a software-controlled mapping layer between groups of physical pages (called memory regions) and cache sets. Periodically, the number of writes to different colors of the cache is computed and based on this result, the mapping of a few colors is changed to channel the write traffic to least utilized cache colors. This change helps to achieve wear-leveling.

  4. A relationship between dissolved CO2 and the non-volatile chemistry of rainwater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, Brian; Pfrang, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of a volatile acid component in UK rainwater in 2009 implicated CO2, and speculated `a concentrating mechanism (that) could mean that this weakly soluble molecule is recycled at a faster rate than inferred by its Henry's Law constant'. Last year's EGU Presentation 2015-3386 confirmed that the `saturated CO2 content (of UK rainwater) is insignificant, the bulk transport being the volatile component'. However the atmospheric capture mechanism remains enigmatic. For pure water, improved temperature control has discounted the predicted upturn in the Henry coefficient for 450Pa CO2 as the temperature approached freezing point (http://presentations.copernicus.org/EGU2015-3386_presentation.pptx), and the focus has therefore turned to rainwater chemistry. For a mid-range sample the Henry value was: • significantly higher than pure water at 20'C; • but decreasing with lower temperatures. The higher Henry constant might suggest that, as an acid anhydride, CO2 is subject to selective capture where cloud water is alkaline (terrestrial dust or marine aerosol). Analysis has however shown no simple relationship between [CO2]aq and either acidity or conductivity of the carrier water. Seeking therefore a coherent distribution, stripped CO2 was plotted against Δ[H+], from which this paper presents a tight wedge-shaped distribution of 263 UK rain/snow events. The inference is that [CO2]aq is not related directly to [H+], but possibly to Group 1 and 2 cations from marine aerosol that are buffering the cloud water acidity. By contrast, the unexpected decrease in CO2 yield with lower temperatures proved to be an artefact of a progressively slower rate of de-gassing, cooler samples still equilibrating after 100 minutes. An ultrasound stripper is therefore being developed to speed the Henry measurements, and for reproducibility it is proposed to dilute a proprietary `standard Atlantic sea water' to a representative range of conductivities, to be called `standard rainwater'. Any temptation to extrapolate from English results to address the global boundary layer is resisted pending ΔpH values from other stations, which are herewith invited in anticipation of IPCC AR6.

  5. Solution-processed Al-chelated gelatin for highly transparent non-volatile memory applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Wang, Yeong-Her, E-mail: yhw@ee.ncku.edu.tw

    2015-03-23

    Using the biomaterial of Al-chelated gelatin (ACG) prepared by sol-gel method in the ITO/ACG/ITO structure, a highly transparent resistive random access memory (RRAM) was obtained. The transmittance of the fabricated device is approximately 83% at 550 nm while that of Al/gelatin/ITO is opaque. As to the ITO/gelatin/ITO RRAM, no resistive switching behavior can be seen. The ITO/ACG/ITO RRAM shows high ON/OFF current ratio (>10{sup 5}), low operation voltage, good uniformity, and retention characteristics at room temperature and 85 °C. The mechanism of the ACG-based memory devices is presented. The enhancement of these electrical properties can be attributed to the chelate effect ofmore » Al ions with gelatin. Results show that transparent ACG-based memory devices possess the potential for next-generation resistive memories and bio-electronic applications.« less

  6. Reversible non-volatile switch based on a TCNQ charge transfer complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, Salvador (Inventor); Moacanin, Jovan (Inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A solid-state synaptic memory matrix (10) having switchable weakly conductive connections at each node (24) whose resistances can be selectably increased or decreased over several orders of magnitude by control signals of opposite polarity, and which will remain stable after the signals are removed, comprises an insulated substrate (16), a set of electrical conductors (14) upon which is deposited a layer (18) of an organic conducting polymer, which changes from an insulator to a conductor upon the transfer of electrons, such as polymerized pyrrole doped with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), covered by a second set of conductors (20) laid at right angles to the first.

  7. BLACKCOMB2: Hardware-software co-design for non-volatile memory in exascale systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, Trevor

    This work was part of a larger project, Blackcomb2, centered at Oak Ridge National Labs (Jeff Vetter PI) to investigate the opportunities for replacing or supplementing DRAM main memory with nonvolatile memory (NVmemory) in Exascale memory systems. The goal was to reduce the energy consumed by in future supercomputer memory systems and to improve their resiliency. Building on the accomplishments of the original Blackcomb Project, funded in 2010, the goal for Blackcomb2 was to identify, evaluate, and optimize the most promising emerging memory technologies, architecture hardware and software technologies, which are essential to provide the necessary memory capacity, performance, resilience,more » and energy efficiency in Exascale systems. Capacity and energy are the key drivers.« less

  8. Solid-state non-volatile electronically programmable reversible variable resistance device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni (Inventor); Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Aniklumar P. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A solid-state variable resistance device (10) whose resistance can be repeatedly altered by a control signal over a wide range, and which will remain stable after the signal is removed, is formed on an insulated layer (14), supported on a substrate (12) and comprises a set of electrodes (16a, 16b) connected by a layer (18) of material, which changes from an insulator to a conductor upon the injection of ions, covered by a layer (22) of material with insulating properties which permit the passage of ions, overlaid by an ion donor material (20). The ion donor material is overlaid by an insulating layer (24) upon which is deposited a control gate (26) located above the contacts. In a preferred embodiment, the variable resistance material comprises WO.sub.3, the ion donor layer comprises Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, and the layers sandwiching the ion donor layer comprise silicon monoxide. When a voltage is applied to the gate, the resistance between the electrode contacts changes, decreasing with positive voltage and increasing with negative voltage.

  9. Fully transparent, non-volatile bipolar resistive memory based on flexible copolyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hwan-Chul; Kim, Moon Young; Hong, Minki; Nam, Kiyong; Choi, Ju-Young; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Baeck, Kyoung Koo; Kim, Kyoung-Kook; Cho, Soohaeng; Chung, Chan-Moon

    2017-01-01

    Partially aliphatic homopolyimides and copolyimides were prepared from rel-(1'R,3S,5'S)-spiro[furan-3(2H),6'-[3]oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane]-2,2',4',5(4H)-tetrone (DAn), 2,6-diaminoanthracene (AnDA), and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) by varying the molar ratio of AnDA and ODA. We utilized these polyimide films as the resistive switching layer in transparent memory devices. While WORM memory behavior was obtained with the PI-A100-O0-based device (molar feed ratio of DAn : AnDA : ODA = 1 : 1 : 0), the PI-A70-O30-based device (molar feed ratio of DAn : AnDA : ODA = 1 : 0.7 : 0.3) exhibited bipolar resistive switching behavior with stable retention for 104 s. This result implies that the memory properties can be controlled by changing the polyimide composition. The two devices prepared from PI-A100-O0 and PI-A70-O30 showed over 90% transmittance in the visible wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. The behavior of the memory devices is considered to be governed by trap-controlled, space-charge limited conduction (SCLC) and local filament formation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Composition-dependent nanoelectronics of amido-phenazines: non-volatile RRAM and WORM memory devices.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Dilip K; Debnath, Sudipto; Nawaz, Sk Masum; Dey, Bapi; Dinda, Enakhi; Roy, Dipanwita; Ray, Sudipta; Mallik, Abhijit; Hussain, Syed A

    2017-10-17

    A metal-free three component cyclization reaction with amidation is devised for direct synthesis of DFT-designed amido-phenazine derivative bearing noncovalent gluing interactions to fabricate organic nanomaterials. Composition-dependent organic nanoelectronics for nonvolatile memory devices are discovered using mixed phenazine-stearic acid (SA) nanomaterials. We discovered simultaneous two different types of nonmagnetic and non-moisture sensitive switching resistance properties of fabricated devices utilizing mixed organic nanomaterials: (a) sample-1(8:SA = 1:3) is initially off, turning on at a threshold, but it does not turn off again with the application of any voltage, and (b) sample-2 (8:SA = 3:1) is initially off, turning on at a sharp threshold and off again by reversing the polarity. No negative differential resistance is observed in either type. These samples have different device implementations: sample-1 is attractive for write-once-read-many-times memory devices, such as novel non-editable database, archival memory, electronic voting, radio frequency identification, sample-2 is useful for resistive-switching random access memory application.

  11. Experimental Study of Residual Stresses in Rail by Moire Interferometry

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-09-01

    The residual stresses in rails produced by rolling cycles are studied experimentally by moire interferometry. The dissection technique is adopted for this investigation. The basic principle of the dissection technique is that the residual stress is r...

  12. 40 CFR 180.231 - Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.231 Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  13. 40 CFR 180.536 - Triazamate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... the combined residues of triazamate (RH-7988) ethyl(3-tert-butyl-1-dimethylcarbamoyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol...

  14. 40 CFR 180.180 - Orthoarsenic acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances..., 1995, for combined As 2O 3 is established for residues of the defoliant orthoarsenic acid in or on the...

  15. 40 CFR 180.180 - Orthoarsenic acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances..., 1995, for combined As 2O 3 is established for residues of the defoliant orthoarsenic acid in or on the...

  16. 40 CFR 180.648 - Meptyldinocap; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of the fungicide meptyldinocap, 2-(1-methylheptyl)-4,6-dinitrophenyl (2E)-2-butenoate and...

  17. 40 CFR 180.536 - Triazamate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... the combined residues of triazamate (RH-7988) ethyl(3-tert-butyl-1-dimethylcarbamoyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol...

  18. 40 CFR 180.602 - Spiroxamine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.602 Spiroxamine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  19. 40 CFR 180.648 - Meptyldinocap; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... combined residues of the fungicide meptyldinocap, 2-(1-methylheptyl)-4,6-dinitrophenyl (2E)-2-butenoate and...

  20. 40 CFR 180.407 - Thiodicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.407 Thiodicarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  1. 40 CFR 180.410 - Triadimefon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.410 Triadimefon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  2. 40 CFR 180.604 - Mepanipyrim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...) Import tolerances. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of mepanipyrim, 4-methyl-N-phenyl...

  3. 40 CFR 180.231 - Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.231 Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  4. 40 CFR 180.596 - Fosthiazate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.596 Fosthiazate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  5. 40 CFR 180.604 - Mepanipyrim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...) Import tolerances. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of mepanipyrim, 4-methyl-N-phenyl...

  6. 40 CFR 180.569 - Forchlorfenuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron; N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N′phenyl urea in or on the....06 Kiwifruit 0.04 (2) Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth...

  7. 40 CFR 180.569 - Forchlorfenuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron; N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N′phenyl urea in or on the....06 Kiwifruit 0.04 (2) Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth...

  8. 40 CFR 180.569 - Forchlorfenuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron; N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N′phenyl urea in or on the....06 Kiwifruit 0.04 (2) Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth...

  9. 40 CFR 180.569 - Forchlorfenuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron; N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N′phenyl urea in or on the....06 Kiwifruit 0.04 (2) Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth...

  10. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  11. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  12. 40 CFR 180.451 - Tribenuron methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide tribenuron methyl and its metabolites and degradates in or on the commodities in... defined in § 180.1(l) are established for residues of the herbicide tribenuron methyl (methyl-2-[[[[N-(4...

  13. 40 CFR 180.610 - Aminopyralid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4-amino-3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, including its... 4.0 Wheat, straw 0.25 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4...

  14. 40 CFR 180.181 - Chlorpropham; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham (isopropyl m-chlorocarbanilate (CIPC) in or on...) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham...

  15. 40 CFR 180.610 - Aminopyralid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4-amino-3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, including its... 4.0 Wheat, straw 0.25 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4...

  16. 40 CFR 180.181 - Chlorpropham; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham (isopropyl m-chlorocarbanilate (CIPC) in or on...) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham...

  17. 40 CFR 180.610 - Aminopyralid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4-amino-3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, including its... 4.0 Wheat, straw 0.25 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4...

  18. 40 CFR 180.610 - Aminopyralid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4-amino-3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, including its... 4.0 Wheat, straw 0.25 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4...

  19. 40 CFR 180.181 - Chlorpropham; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham (isopropyl m-chlorocarbanilate (CIPC) in or on...) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham...

  20. 40 CFR 180.451 - Tribenuron methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide tribenuron methyl and its metabolites and degradates in or on the commodities in... defined in § 180.1(l) are established for residues of the herbicide tribenuron methyl (methyl-2-[[[[N-(4...

  1. 40 CFR 180.181 - Chlorpropham; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham (isopropyl m-chlorocarbanilate (CIPC) in or on...) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham...

  2. 40 CFR 180.610 - Aminopyralid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4-amino-3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, including its... 4.0 Wheat, straw 0.25 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide aminopyralid, 4...

  3. 40 CFR 180.181 - Chlorpropham; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham (isopropyl m-chlorocarbanilate (CIPC) in or on...) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the plant regulator and herbicide chlorpropham...

  4. 40 CFR 180.659 - Pyroxasulfone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide pyroxasulfone, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities... established for residues of the herbicide pyroxasulfone, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  5. 40 CFR 180.451 - Tribenuron methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide tribenuron methyl and its metabolites and degradates in or on the commodities in... defined in § 180.1(l) are established for residues of the herbicide tribenuron methyl (methyl-2-[[[[N-(4...

  6. Paving the Way To Algebraic Thought Using Residue Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Iris DeLoach

    1998-01-01

    Presents a brief definition and examples of residue designs while sharing some of the algebraic thought that a student used to form generalizations about the patterns discovered during the investigations of residue designs. (ASK)

  7. On the structural context and identification of enzyme catalytic residues.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yu-Tung; Huang, Shao-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes play important roles in most of the biological processes. Although only a small fraction of residues are directly involved in catalytic reactions, these catalytic residues are the most crucial parts in enzymes. The study of the fundamental and unique features of catalytic residues benefits the understanding of enzyme functions and catalytic mechanisms. In this work, we analyze the structural context of catalytic residues based on theoretical and experimental structure flexibility. The results show that catalytic residues have distinct structural features and context. Their neighboring residues, whether sequence or structure neighbors within specific range, are usually structurally more rigid than those of noncatalytic residues. The structural context feature is combined with support vector machine to identify catalytic residues from enzyme structure. The prediction results are better or comparable to those of recent structure-based prediction methods.

  8. Utilization of corn residues for production of the polysaccharide schizophyllan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abundant corn residues include fiber from wet milling operations and distillers' dried grains from dry grind ethanol plants. Biorefineries of the future will utilize such residues for the production of valuable bioproducts, particularly those traditionally produced from fossil fuels. Schizophyllan...

  9. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particle impact residues from LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, R. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed structural and compositional analysis of several impactor residues was performed utilizing transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron diffraction. Residues from the interior of several craters in gold surfaces were removed with a tungsten needle, mounted in EMBED-812 epoxy, and ultramicrotomed. The presence in these residues of equilibrated ferromagnesian minerals, recrystallization textures, glass, and melted metal and sulfide bodies decorating grain boundaries is indicative of varying degrees of shock metamorphism in all impact residues we have characterized.

  10. Identification of residue pairing in interacting β-strands from a predicted residue contact map.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenzhi; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Wenxuan; Gong, Haipeng

    2018-04-19

    Despite the rapid progress of protein residue contact prediction, predicted residue contact maps frequently contain many errors. However, information of residue pairing in β strands could be extracted from a noisy contact map, due to the presence of characteristic contact patterns in β-β interactions. This information may benefit the tertiary structure prediction of mainly β proteins. In this work, we propose a novel ridge-detection-based β-β contact predictor to identify residue pairing in β strands from any predicted residue contact map. Our algorithm RDb 2 C adopts ridge detection, a well-developed technique in computer image processing, to capture consecutive residue contacts, and then utilizes a novel multi-stage random forest framework to integrate the ridge information and additional features for prediction. Starting from the predicted contact map of CCMpred, RDb 2 C remarkably outperforms all state-of-the-art methods on two conventional test sets of β proteins (BetaSheet916 and BetaSheet1452), and achieves F1-scores of ~ 62% and ~ 76% at the residue level and strand level, respectively. Taking the prediction of the more advanced RaptorX-Contact as input, RDb 2 C achieves impressively higher performance, with F1-scores reaching ~ 76% and ~ 86% at the residue level and strand level, respectively. In a test of structural modeling using the top 1 L predicted contacts as constraints, for 61 mainly β proteins, the average TM-score achieves 0.442 when using the raw RaptorX-Contact prediction, but increases to 0.506 when using the improved prediction by RDb 2 C. Our method can significantly improve the prediction of β-β contacts from any predicted residue contact maps. Prediction results of our algorithm could be directly applied to effectively facilitate the practical structure prediction of mainly β proteins. All source data and codes are available at http://166.111.152.91/Downloads.html or the GitHub address of https://github.com/wzmao/RDb2C .

  11. 40 CFR 180.505 - Emamectin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emamectin; tolerances for residues... § 180.505 Emamectin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for combined residues of emamectin (a mixture of a minimum of 90% 4′-epi-methylamino-4′-deoxyavermectin B1a and maximum...

  12. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed as...

  13. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed as...

  14. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed as...

  15. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed as...

  16. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed as...

  17. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  18. Logging residue in Washington, Oregon, California: volume and characteristics.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1973-01-01

    This report makes available data on the volume and characteristics of logging residue resulting from 1969 logging operations in Oregon, Washington, and California. The results indicate highest volumes of logging residue are found in the Douglas-fir region of western Oregon and western Washington. Average gross volume of residue in this region ranged...

  19. Focus on agricultural residues: Microstructure of almond hull (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural residues have historically been used as animal feed or burned for disposal. These residues, therefore, have little economic value and may end up becoming disposal problems because tighter air quality control measures may limit burning of the residues. Therefore, value-added products mad...

  20. Estimators and characteristics of logging residue in California.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Julianne K. Bulgrin

    1986-01-01

    Ratios are presented for estimating volume and characteristics of logging residue in California. The ratios relate cubic-foot volume of residue to thousand board feet of timber harvested and to acres harvested. Tables show gross and net volume of residue, with and without bark, by diameter and length classes, by number of pieces per acre, by softwoods and hardwoods, by...

  1. Estimators and characteristics of logging residue in Montana.

    Treesearch

    James. O Howard; Carl E. Fiedler

    1984-01-01

    Ratios are presented for estimating volume and characteristics of logging residue in Montana. They relate cubic-foot volume of residue to thousand board feet of timber harvested and to acres harvested. Tables show gross and net volume of residue, with and without bark, by diameter and length classes; by number of pieces per acre; by percent soundness; by product...

  2. 40 CFR 180.501 - Hydroprene; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydroprene; tolerances for residues. 180.501 Section 180.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.501 Hydroprene; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  3. Selecting forest residue treatment alternatives using goal programming.

    Treesearch

    Bruce B. Bare; Brian F. Anholt

    1976-01-01

    The use of goal programing for selecting forest residue treatment alternatives within a multiple goal framework is described. The basic features of goal programing are reviewed and illustrated with a hypothetical problem involving the selection of residue treatments for 10 cutting units. Twelve residue-regeneration treatment combinations are evaluated by using physical...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5650 - Pentanediol light residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pentanediol light residues. 721.5650... Substances § 721.5650 Pentanediol light residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as pentanediol light residues (PMN P-95-1750...

  5. Urban tree and woody yard residues : another wood resource

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever; Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    Urban tree and woody yard residues are an important component of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in the United States. In 2000, approximately 14.5 million tons of urban tree and woody yard residues was generated, nearly 7% of total MSW. Some woody residues are being recovered for recycling, composting, or other uses, but a large proportion is simply discarded....

  6. 40 CFR 180.573 - Tepraloxydim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combined residues of tepraloxydim, (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propen-1-yl]oxy]imino]propyl]-3-hydroxy-5... combined residues of tepraloxydim (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propen-1-yl]oxy]imino]propyl]-3-hydroxy-5... is to be determined by measuring only the combined residues of tepraloxydim (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2...

  7. 40 CFR 180.573 - Tepraloxydim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combined residues of tepraloxydim, (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propen-1-yl]oxy]imino]propyl]-3-hydroxy-5... combined residues of tepraloxydim (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propen-1-yl]oxy]imino]propyl]-3-hydroxy-5... is to be determined by measuring only the combined residues of tepraloxydim (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2...

  8. 40 CFR 180.573 - Tepraloxydim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combined residues of tepraloxydim, (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propen-1-yl]oxy]imino]propyl]-3-hydroxy-5... combined residues of tepraloxydim (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propen-1-yl]oxy]imino]propyl]-3-hydroxy-5... is to be determined by measuring only the combined residues of tepraloxydim (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2...

  9. 40 CFR 180.245 - Streptomycin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomycin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.245 Streptomycin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for...

  10. 40 CFR 180.245 - Streptomycin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Streptomycin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.245 Streptomycin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for...

  11. 40 CFR 180.499 - Propamocarb hydrochloride, tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for residues. 180.499 Section 180.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.499 Propamocarb hydrochloride, tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are...

  12. 40 CFR 180.499 - Propamocarb hydrochloride, tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for residues. 180.499 Section 180.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.499 Propamocarb hydrochloride, tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are...

  13. Nitrogen dynamics post-harvest: the role of woody residues

    Treesearch

    Kathryn Piatek

    2007-01-01

    The role of woody residues in N dynamics in harvested forests has not been fully elucidated. Woody residues have been found to be an N sink, N source, and N neutral in different studies. To understand the implications of each of these scenarios, post-harvest N dynamics in high- and no- woody residue treatments were modeled for a Douglas-fir ecosystem. Nitrogen...

  14. 40 CFR 180.507 - Azoxystrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Azoxystrobin; tolerances for residues... § 180.507 Azoxystrobin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the fungicide, azoxystrobin, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities...

  15. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  16. 21 CFR 500.86 - Marker residue and target tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marker residue and target tissue. 500.86 Section...-Producing Animals § 500.86 Marker residue and target tissue. (a) For each edible tissue, the sponsor shall...) From these data, FDA will select a target tissue and a marker residue and designate the concentration...

  17. 21 CFR 500.86 - Marker residue and target tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marker residue and target tissue. 500.86 Section...-Producing Animals § 500.86 Marker residue and target tissue. (a) For each edible tissue, the sponsor shall...) From these data, FDA will select a target tissue and a marker residue and designate the concentration...

  18. 20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that social security earnings are not used to compute the RLS PIA. ... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute...

  19. 40 CFR 180.574 - Fluazinam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluazinam; tolerances for residues... § 180.574 Fluazinam; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of fluazinam (3-chloro-N-[3-chloro-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2...

  20. 40 CFR 180.229 - Fluometuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combined residues of the herbicide fluometuron, N, N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]urea, and its... established for the combined residues of the herbicide fluometuron, N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl... established for the combined residues of the herbicide fluometuron, N, N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl...