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Sample records for nonablative fractional laser

  1. Fractional nonablative laser resurfacing: is there a skin tightening effect?

    PubMed

    Kauvar, Arielle N B

    2014-12-01

    Fractional photothermolysis, an approach to laser skin resurfacing that creates microscopic thermal wounds in skin separated by islands of spared tissue, was developed to overcome the high incidence of adverse events and prolonged healing times associated with full coverage ablative laser procedures. To examine whether fractional nonablative laser resurfacing induces skin tightening. A literature review was performed to evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of fractional nonablative laser resurfacing and full coverage ablative resurfacing procedures. Fractional nonablative lasers produce excellent outcomes with minimal risk and morbidity for a variety of clinical conditions, including photodamaged skin, atrophic scars, surgical and burn scars. Efforts to induce robust fibroplasia in histologic specimens and skin tightening in the clinical setting have yielded inconsistent results. A better understanding of the histology of fractional laser resurfacing will help to optimize clinical outcomes.

  2. The spectrum of laser skin resurfacing: nonablative, fractional, and ablative laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2008-05-01

    The drive to attain cosmetic facial enhancement with minimal risk and rapid recovery has inspired the field of nonsurgical skin rejuvenation. Laser resurfacing was introduced in the 1980s with continuous wave carbon dioxide (CO(2)) lasers; however, because of a high rate of side effects, including scarring, short-pulse, high-peak power, and rapidly scanned, focused-beam CO(2) lasers and normal-mode erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet lasers were developed, which remove skin in a precisely controlled manner. The prolonged 2-week recovery time and small but significant complication risk prompted the development of non-ablative and, more recently, fractional resurfacing in order to minimize risk and shorten recovery times. Nonablative resurfacing produces dermal thermal injury to improve rhytides and photodamage while preserving the epidermis. Fractional resurfacing thermally ablates microscopic columns of epidermal and dermal tissue in regularly spaced arrays over a fraction of the skin surface. This intermediate approach increases efficacy as compared to nonablative resurfacing, but with faster recovery as compared to ablative resurfacing. Neither nonablative nor fractional resurfacing produces results comparable to ablative laser skin resurfacing, but both have become much more popular than the latter because the risks of treatment are limited in the face of acceptable improvement. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the spectrum of lasers and light technologies available for skin resurfacing, published studies of safety and efficacy, indications, methodologies, side effects, complications, and management.

  3. Nonablative fractional laser resurfacing in Asian skin--a review.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-12-01

    Skin resurfacing has been a part of cosmetic dermatology for more than two decades now, and most of it has been ablative with traditional aggressive lasers including the CO(2) and erbium. The last few years have seen a revolutionary change with the invention of nonablative lasers for skin tightening. Fractional resurfacing is a new concept of cutaneous remodeling whereby laser-induced zones of microthermal injury are surrounded by normal untreated tissue that helps in quicker healing. The various wavelengths used are 1320, 1440, and 2940 nm with depth of penetration ranging from 25 μ to 1.2 mm. This article reviews the history of nonablative fractional laser resurfacing, its indications, contraindications, and a review of use in Asian skin with Fitzpatrick type III-VI. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ablative Fractional 10 600 nm Carbon Dioxide Laser Versus Non-ablative Fractional 1540 nm Erbium-Glass Laser in Egyptian Post-acne Scar patients.

    PubMed

    Elsaie, Mohamed L; Ibrahim, Shady M; Saudi, Wael

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Non-ablative fractional erbium-doped glass 1540 nm and fractional ablative 10600 nm carbon dioxide lasers are regarded as effective modalities for treating acne atrophic scars. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of fractional CO 2 laser and fractional nonablative 1540 nm erbium doped glass laser in treating post acne atrophic scars in Egyptian patients. Methods: Fifty-eight patients complaining of moderate and severe acne atrophic scars were randomly divided into 2 groups of 29 patients each. Both groups were subjected to 4 treatment sessions with 3 weeks interval and were followed up for 3 months. In group A, enrolled patient sreceived C2 laser, while in group B, patients were treated with 1540 nm erbium glass fractional laser. Results: Clinical assessment revealed that the mean grades of progress and improvement were higher with fractional 10600 nm CO2 laser but with non-significant difference between both treatments ( P = 0.1). The overall patients' satisfaction with both lasers were not significantly different ( P = 0.44). Conclusion: Both fractional ablative CO2 and fractional non-ablative erbium glass lasers are good modalities for treating acne scars with a high efficacy and safety profile and good patient satisfaction. The fractional ablative laser showed higher efficacy while non-ablative laser offered less pain and shorter downtime.

  5. Non-Ablative Fractional Laser to Facilitate Transdermal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Sindhu S; Banga, Ajay K

    2016-11-01

    The advances in laser technology have led to its rapidly expanding applications in dermatology. This study aims at the novel use of a non-ablative fractional laser to enhance transdermal permeation of diclofenac sodium and sumatriptan succinate. The effects of the laser on skin were characterized visually with dye binding, scanning electron microscopy, pore permeability index, and histology. In vitro transdermal permeation of drugs through laser treated and untreated human dermatomed skin was analyzed over 24 h and quantified by HPLC. Drug transport through untreated skin resulted in transdermal delivery of 72.61 μg/cm 2 ± 50.35 and 22.80 ± 0.64 μg/cm 2 of diclofenac sodium and sumatriptan succinate, respectively. Laser treatment of skin significantly increased (p < 0.005) delivery of diclofenac sodium to 575.66 ± 207.18 μg/cm 2 and sumatriptan succinate to 498.32 ± 97.54 μg/cm 2 . This is a first of its kind study that demonstrates the use of 1410 nm non-ablative fractional laser to enhance transdermal permeation of 2 small molecular weight drugs. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypertrichotic Becker's nevi treated with combination 1,550 nm non-ablative fractional photothermolysis and laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Balaraman, Brundha; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-04-01

    The removal of Becker's nevi poses a significant challenge due to limited available therapeutic options and increased risk of adverse effects, including scarring and dyspigmentation. Herein, we present the use of the non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with laser hair removal for the treatment of hypertrichotic Becker's nevi. Retrospective analysis of three patients with Becker's nevi revealed that two patients with hypertrichotic Becker's nevi had greater than 75% clearance with combination therapy, and one patient with atrichotic Becker's nevus had a similar result with monotherapy non-ablative fractional photothermolysis. This report demonstrates the utility and safety of combination non-ablative fractional resurfacing and laser hair removal for the treatment of hypertrichotic Becker's nevi, and monotherapy non-ablative fractional photothermolysis for atrichotic Becker's nevi. Further comparative studies are necessary to determine optimal laser parameters, treatment schedules, and response duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Clinical effects of non-ablative and ablative fractional lasers on various hair disorders: a case series of 17 patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Suhyun; Choi, Min Ju; Zheng, Zhenlong; Goo, Boncheol; Kim, Do-Young; Cho, Sung Bin

    2013-04-01

    Both ablative and non-ablative fractional lasers have been applied to various uncommon hair disorders. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical effects of fractional laser therapy on the course of primary follicular and perifollicular pathologies and subsequent hair regrowth. A retrospective review of 17 patients with uncommon hair disorders - including ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, various secondary cicatricial alopecias, pubic hypotrichosis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens - was conducted. All patients had been treated with non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser therapies. The mean clinical improvement score in these 17 patients was 2.2, while the mean patient satisfaction score was 2.5. Of the 17 subjects, 12 (70.6%) demonstrated a clinical response to non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser treatments, including individuals with ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, secondary cicatricial alopecia (scleroderma and pressure-induced alopecia), frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens. Conversely, patients with long-standing ophiasis, surgical scar-induced secondary cicatricial alopecia, and pubic hypotrichosis did not respond to fractional laser therapy. Our findings demonstrate that the use of non-ablative and/or ablative fractional lasers promoted hair growth in certain cases of uncommon hair disorders without any remarkable side effects.

  8. Nonablative Fractional Laser Resurfacing in Skin of Color: Evidence-based Review

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Andrew F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nonablative laser resurfacing represents one of the major advances in procedural dermatology over the past decade. However, its use in darker skin types is limited by safety concerns and a relative lack of available data. Aim: To provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of fractional lasers in darker skin types. Evidence review: A broad literature search of PubMed/Medline database was conducted in April 2016 using the term fractional lasers. A free text search of keywords including fractional resurfacing, nonablative lasers, skin type, skin of color, ethnic skin, Fitzpatrick skin type, Asian skin, African Americans, Afro-Caribbean, and Hispanics was also executed. An in-depth review of all the relevant articles fitting the authors’ inclusion/exclusion criteria was performed. Thereafter, each study was assigned levels of evidence per the Modified Criteria by Oxford Center of Evidence Based Medicine. A recommendation was made for a specific treatment based on the presence of at least one Level 1 study or more than three Level 2 or 3 studies that had concordant results. Findings: The available evidence strongly suggests that fractional lasers are a favorable treatment option for a variety of dermatological diseases in Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI. Level 1 evidence was found for the use of fractional lasers for treating acne, striae and skin rejuvenation. Level 2 evidence was found for their use in acne scars, melasma, and surgical/traumatic scars. Conclusion: Fractional resurfacing is a safe and efficacious treatment option for various dermatological disorders in darker skin types; however, there is a paucity of high-quality studies involving skin types V and VI. PMID:28979657

  9. Nonablative Fractional Laser Resurfacing in Skin of Color: Evidence-based Review.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Shivani B; Alexis, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Background: Nonablative laser resurfacing represents one of the major advances in procedural dermatology over the past decade. However, its use in darker skin types is limited by safety concerns and a relative lack of available data. Aim: To provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of fractional lasers in darker skin types. Evidence review: A broad literature search of PubMed/Medline database was conducted in April 2016 using the term fractional lasers. A free text search of keywords including fractional resurfacing, nonablative lasers, skin type, skin of color, ethnic skin, Fitzpatrick skin type, Asian skin, African Americans, Afro-Caribbean, and Hispanics was also executed. An in-depth review of all the relevant articles fitting the authors' inclusion/exclusion criteria was performed. Thereafter, each study was assigned levels of evidence per the Modified Criteria by Oxford Center of Evidence Based Medicine. A recommendation was made for a specific treatment based on the presence of at least one Level 1 study or more than three Level 2 or 3 studies that had concordant results. Findings: The available evidence strongly suggests that fractional lasers are a favorable treatment option for a variety of dermatological diseases in Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI. Level 1 evidence was found for the use of fractional lasers for treating acne, striae and skin rejuvenation. Level 2 evidence was found for their use in acne scars, melasma, and surgical/traumatic scars. Conclusion: Fractional resurfacing is a safe and efficacious treatment option for various dermatological disorders in darker skin types; however, there is a paucity of high-quality studies involving skin types V and VI.

  10. Mexametric and cutometric assessment of the signs of aging of the skin area around the eyes after the use of non-ablative fractional laser, non-ablative radiofrequency and intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejczak, Anna Maria; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2017-03-01

    The assessment of the signs of aging within eyes area in cutometric (skin elasticity) and mexametric (discoloration and severity of erythema) examination after the treatment with: non-ablative fractional laser, non-ablative radiofrequency (RF) and intense light source (IPL). This study included 71 patients, aged 33-63 years (the average age was 45.81) with Fitzpatrick skin type II and III. 24 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with a 1,410-nm non-ablative fractional laser in two-week intervals, 23 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with a non-ablative RF in one-week intervals and 24 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with an IPL in two-week intervals. The treatment was performed for the skin in the eye area. The Cutometer and Mexameter (Courage + Khazaka electronic) reference test was used as an objective method for the assessment of skin properties: elasticity, skin pigmentation and erythema. Measurements of skin elasticity were made in three or four sites within eye area. The results of cutometric measurements for R7 showed the improvement in skin elasticity in case of all treatment methods. The largest statistically significant improvement (p < .0001) was observed in case of laser and RF, during treatment sessions, at sites at upper and lower eyelid. The smallest change in skin elasticity for the laser, RF and IPL - p = .017, p = .003 and p = .001, respectively-was observed in a site within the outer corner of the eye. In all sites of measurements and for all methods, the greatest improvement in skin elasticity was demonstrated between the first and second measurement (after 3rd procedures). The majority of the results of mexametric measurements-MEX (melanin level) and ERYT (the severity of erythema) are statistically insignificant. Fractional, non-ablative laser, non-ablation RF and intense light source can be considered as methods significantly affecting elasticity and to a lesser extent erythema

  11. Non-ablative fractionated laser skin resurfacing for the treatment of aged neck skin.

    PubMed

    Bencini, Pier Luca; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Galimberti, Michela; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Aging of the neck skin includes poikiloderma of Civatte, skin laxity and wrinkles. While the vascular alterations of poikiloderma of Civatte can be effectively treated with lasers or intense pulsed light, a successful treatment of dyschromia, skin laxity and wrinkles is still difficult to achieve. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser for the treatment of aged neck skin, also by means of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). A prospective study for neck resurfacing in 18 women with aged neck skin. Six laser treatments were performed in 4-week intervals with a 1540-nm erbium-glass fiber laser. By using a 6-point grading scale, the mean score (±SD; range) at baseline was 3.6 (±1.5; 1-6) for skin dyschromia, 2.9 (±1.4; 1-6) for laxity and 3.3 (±1.3; 1-5) for wrinkles. Three months after the last laser session, we found a significant clinical improvement of dyschromia (p = 0.0002; Wilcoxon test), and wrinkles (p = 0.0004; Wilcoxon test), with a mean (±SD) reduction of 2.5 (±1.0) and 1.9 (±1.1) points in the 6-point grading scale, respectively. No change was observed in laxity. These results were also supported by structural changes documented by RCM. Non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser was both safe and effective for the treatment of dyschromia and wrinkles, but not effective for the laxity of the neck skin.

  12. Fractional non-ablative laser treatment at 1410 nm wavelength for periorbital wrinkles - reviscometrical and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Anna; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the research was to establish the influence of 1410-nm fractional non-ablative laser treatment on skin aging in the eye area. The reviscometer reference test is an objective method of estimating the flexibility of the skin. The photographic records were used as the auxiliary method of the therapy quality effectiveness. The study involved the group of 13 people (12 females and 1 male, aged 33-47 with prototype II and III according to the Fitzpatrick scale), who underwent two sessions of fractional non-ablative laser therapy (wavelength of 1410 nm) with a 2-week interval. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the quality of the treatment a reviscometer probe was used to measure the skin elasticity (Reviscometer RVM 600). The measurements were taken twice: directly before and two weeks after the treatment. Furthermore, to facilitate the clinical evaluation an anonymous photographical documentation was prepared. An improvement of the skin flexibility in the eye area was observed and the fact was confirmed by values obtained using the reviscometer probe (significant statistic differences: P < 0.0001) as well as clinical assessment based on photographical records. On the basis of the reviscometer measurements analysis and photographical records, 1410-nm fractional non-ablative laser treatment appears to be an efficient method contributing to the improvement of the skin flexibility of the eyes area as well as to the reduction of the number of wrinkles. The post-treatment observation proves that the method is well-tolerated in the sensitive eyes area and does not cause any significant side effects.

  13. Multicenter clinical trial of a home-use nonablative fractional laser device for wrinkle reduction.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James; Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H

    2012-11-01

    Until now, nonablative fractional treatments could only be delivered in an office setting by trained professionals. The goal of this work was to perform clinical testing of a nonablative fractional laser device designed for home-use. This multicenter trial consisted of two clinical studies with slightly varying treatment protocols in which subjects performed at-home treatments of periorbital wrinkles using a handheld nonablative fractional laser. Both studies included an active treatment phase (daily treatments) and a maintenance phase (twice-weekly treatments). In all, 36 subjects were followed up for as long as 5 months after completion of the maintenance phase and 90 subjects were followed up until the completion of the maintenance phase. Evaluations included in-person investigator assessment, independent blinded review of high-resolution images using the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Scale, and subject self-assessment. All 124 subjects who completed the study were able to use the device following written instructions for use. Treatments were well tolerated with good protocol compliance. Independent blinded evaluations by a panel of physicians showed Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Scale score improvement by one or more grades in 90% of subjects at the completion of the active phase and in 79% of subjects at the completion of the maintenance phase. The most prevalent side effect was transient posttreatment erythema. Lack of a control group and single-blinded study groups were limitations. Safety testing with self-applications by users demonstrated the utility of the device for home use. Independent blinded review of clinical images confirmed the device's proficiency for improving periorbital wrinkles. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  15. A Comparison Study of the Nonablative Fractional 1565-nm Er: glass and the Picosecond Fractional 1064/532-nm Nd: YAG Lasers in the Treatment of Striae Alba: A Split Body Double-Blinded Trial.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Larsen, Lisa A; Jones, Isabela T; Guiha, Isabella; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2018-05-09

    Few effective treatments exist for striae alba, which are the mature stage of stretch marks. To evaluate the efficacy of the nonablative fractional 1,565-nm Er:glass and the picosecond fractional 1,064/532-nm Nd:YAG lasers in the treatment of striae alba. Twenty subjects with striae alba on the bilateral abdomen were treated with either the nonablative fractional 1565-nm Er:glass or the picosecond fractional 1,064/532-nm Nd:YAG laser, with a total of 3 treatments 3 weeks apart. A 31% (1.25/4) texture improvement was noted for both the fractional 1,565-nm Er:glass laser and the picosecond fractional 1,064/532-nm Nd:YAG laser. The degree of atrophy was improved by 30% (1.19/4) with the 1,565-nm Er:glass laser and 35% (1.38/4) with the picosecond 1,064/532-nm Nd:YAG laser. A 48% (1.9/4) subject overall assessment of improvement was noted with the fractional 1565-nm Er:glass laser and 45% (1.8/4) improvement with the picosecond fractional 1,064/532-nm Nd:YAG laser. There was no significant change in striae density with either laser. The picosecond laser was rated as less painful during all 3 sessions (p = .002) and had a shorter healing time (p = .035). The nonablative fractional 1,565-nm Er:glass and the picosecond fractional 1,064/532-nm Nd:YAG lasers were equally efficacious in improving striae alba.

  16. Nonablative Fractional Laser Resurfacing for Acne Scarring in Patients With Fitzpatrick Skin Phototypes IV-VI.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Andrew F; Coley, Marcelyn K; Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Luke, Janiene D; Shah, Sejal K; Argobi, Yahya A; Nodzenski, Michael; Veledar, Emir; Alam, Murad

    2016-03-01

    There is a paucity of studies investigating laser resurfacing in Fitzpatrick skin phototypes (SPT) IV to VI. To assess the efficacy and safety of fractional nonablative laser resurfacing in the treatment of acne scarring in patients with SPT IV to VI. The authors conducted a randomized, investigator-blinded and rater-blinded, split-face comparative study of adults with SPT IV to VI and facial acne scars treated with 2 different density settings and the same fluence. Quantitative global scarring grading system (QGSGS) scores were significantly improved from baseline at 16 and 24 weeks (p = .0277). Improvements in QGSGS scores after higher and lower density treatments were statistically similar (p = .96). The live-blinded dermatologist, the blinded dermatologist photoraters, and the patients rated scars as being significantly more improved by visual analog scale at weeks 16 and 24 compared with baseline (p < .001) for both treatment densities. Five of 7 and 3 of 7 patients in the higher and lower density group, respectively, experienced mild or moderate hyperpigmentation as an investigator observed site reaction. The nonablative 1550-nm fractional laser is safe and efficacious in treating acne scaring in Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI. Self-limited postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was a common occurrence, especially with higher treatment densities.

  17. Nonablative 1550-nm fractional laser therapy versus triple topical therapy for the treatment of melasma: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Marije W; Wind, Bas S; Beek, Johan F; van der Veen, J P Wietze; Nieuweboer-Krobotová, Ludmila; Bos, Jan D; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2011-03-01

    Various treatments are currently available for melasma. However, results are often disappointing. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of nonablative 1550-nm fractional laser therapy and compare results with those obtained with triple topical therapy (the gold standard). Twenty female patients with moderate to severe melasma and Fitzpatrick skin types II to V were treated either with nonablative fractional laser therapy or triple topical therapy (hydroquinone 5%, tretinoin 0.05%, and triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% cream) once daily for 8 weeks in a randomized controlled observer-blinded study. Laser treatment was performed every 2 weeks for a total of 4 times. Physician Global Assessment was assessed at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after the last treatment. Physician Global Assessment improved (P < .001) in both groups at 3 weeks. There was no difference in Physician Global Assessment between the two groups. Mean treatment satisfaction and recommendation were significantly higher in the laser group at 3 weeks (P < .05). However, melasma recurred in 5 patients in both groups after 6 months. Side effects in the laser group were erythema, burning sensation, facial edema, and pain; in the triple group side effects were erythema, burning, and scaling. Limitations were: small number of patients; only one set of laser parameters; and a possible difference in motivation between groups. Nonablative fractional laser therapy is safe and comparable in efficacy and recurrence rate with triple topical therapy. It may be a useful alternative treatment option for melasma when topical bleaching is ineffective or not tolerated. Different laser settings and long-term maintenance treatment should be tested in future studies. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of a Low Energy, Low Density, Non-Ablative Fractional 1927 nm Wavelength Laser for Facial Skin Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Geronemus, Roy G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in the treatment of facial photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Prospective non-randomized trial. Single center, private practice with a dedicated research department. Subjects with clinically diagnosed facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Subjects received four to six treatments at 14-day intervals (+/- 3 days) with a low energy low density non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser (Solta Hayward, CA) with an energy level of 5 mJ, and density coverage of either 5%, 7.5%, or 10%, with a total of up to 8 passes. Blinded assessment of clinical photos for overall improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Investigator improvement scores, and subject pain and satisfaction scores for overall improvement were recorded as well. We enrolled 23 subjects, average age 45.0 years (range, 25-64 years), 22 with Fitzpatrick Skin Types I-IV and 1 with Type VI, with facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Approximately 55% of subjects reported marked to very significant improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Blinded assessment of photography of 20 subjects revealed an average of moderate improvement at one-month follow up and mild to moderate improvement at three months. Average subject pain score was 3.4/10 during treatment. Favorable outcomes were demonstrated using the low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in facial resurfacing for photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Results were maintained at the 3-month follow up, as demonstrated by investigator and subject assessments, as well as blinded evaluations by three independent dermatologists utilizing photographs obtained from a standardized facial imaging device.

  19. Novel use of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis for café-au-lait macules in darker skin types.

    PubMed

    Balaraman, Brundha; Ravanfar-Jordan, Parisa; Friedman, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    The removal of café-au-lait macules (CALMs) in patients with darker skin phototypes poses a significant challenge due to limited available therapeutic options and increased risk of adverse effects, including permanent scarring and further dyspigmentation. Herein, we demonstrate the novel use of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis for the safe removal of CALMs in individuals with Fitzpatrick skin type (FST) IV-V. Retrospective analysis of four patients (FST IV-V) with CALMs revealed that three of these patients had greater than 50% clearance after multiple treatment sessions with the non-ablative fractional 1,550-nm erbium-doped fiber laser. This report demonstrates the utility and safety of non-ablative fractional resurfacing in the treatment of CALMs in darker skin phototypes. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:84-87, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Complete resolution of minocycline pigmentation following a single treatment with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional resurfacing in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Vangipuram, Ramya K; DeLozier, Whitney L; Geddes, Elizabeth; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Pigmentation secondary to minocycline ingestion is an uncommon adverse event affecting 3.7-14.8% of treated individuals for which few effective therapies are available. Three patterns of minocycline pigmentation have a characteristic clinical and histological appearance. The pigment composition in each variety is different and occurs at varying skin depths. Accordingly, a tailored approach according to the type of minocycline pigmentation is crucial for treatment success. The purpose of this intervention was to evaluate the efficacy of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the Q-switched alexandrite laser for the treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation on the face. A patient with type I minocycline pigmentation was treated with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional photothermolysis followed immediately by 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser and then observed clinically to determine the outcome of this modality. The patient was seen in clinic 1 month later following her single treatment session and 100% clearance of all blue facial pigment was observed. Non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser should be considered for treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Non-ablative fractional resurfacing of surgical and post-traumatic scars.

    PubMed

    Vasily, David B; Cerino, Mary E; Ziselman, Ethel M; Zeina, S Tannous

    2009-11-01

    Non-ablative, fractional lasers generate microscopic columns of coagulated tissue through the epidermis and dermis to evoke a wound healing response. In this study, the authors examined the efficacy and safety of the non-ablative 1540 nm erbium:glass fractional laser in the treatment of surgical and post-traumatic scars. Clinical studies were conducted on a range of surgical and post-traumatic scars with a 1540 nm erbium:glass fractional laser varying energy, pulse widths, treatment passes, and number of treatments. A histological study was conducted on a postsurgical scar to follow the time course of healing post-treatment and the impact of the fractional treatment on normalization of scar tissue, as compared to baseline histology of the scar. Histologic findings demonstrated rapid re-epithelialization of the epidermis within 72 hours of treatment. Remodeling of scar tissue with renewal and reorganization of collagen fibers in the dermis was noted two weeks post-treatment. Clinical subjects, with Fitzpatrick skin types II-V, received three to seven treatments with microbeam energies up to 60 mJ/pb and five passes. Relative to baseline, 73% of treated scars improved 50% or more and 43% improved 75% or more. Side effects included mild swelling (95% of subjects), erythema (94%) and purpura (5%), which all resolved within two to three days. Downtime was minimal-to-none for all subjects. These data illustrate the safety and efficacy of the 1540 nm erbium:glass fractional laser in the treatment of surgical and post-traumatic scars. Practitioners can vary energy and microbeam density in order to tailor the treatment to reflect the individual scar characteristics.

  2. Nonablative 1927 nm fractional resurfacing for the treatment of facial photopigmentation.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; McDaniel, David H; Bloom, Bradley S; Reddy, Kavitha K; Bernstein, Leonard J; Geronemus, Roy G

    2014-11-01

    Long-term exposure to sunlight, including ultraviolet A and B, produces signs associated with photoaging and photodamage, including laxity and discoloration of the skin. Initial laser treatment for dyspigmentation included the use of ablative lasers, followed by Q-switched lasers and more recently fractional lasers. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a fractionated 1927nm non-ablative thulium laser for the treatment of photo-induced pigmentation. Prospective multi-center study of subjects with clinically identifiable photopigmentation. The study protocol was approved by BioMed Institutional Review Board (San Diego, CA). Subjects received two treatments with a non-ablative 1927nm fractionated thulium laser (Fraxel Dual 1550/1927 Laser System, Solta, Hayward CA), energy level of 10mJ, coverage of 40% and 4-6 passes. Subject pain, erythema and edema were recorded immediately after treatment. Two dimensional photography was obtained before each treatment and at one and three month follow up visits. Independent blinded physician assessment was performed evaluating overall improvement in appearance as well as pigment specific improvement. Forty men and women, ages 30 to 80 years, Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV, with photo-induced facial pigmentation were enrolled and treated, and 39 completed the three month follow up visit. Mean pain sensation for subjects during laser treatments was reported to be 4.3 on a 10-point scale. Mean scores for erythema, edema, and skin roughness throughout all treatments indicated moderate erythema, mild edema and mild skin roughness. Assessment of overall improvement was graded as moderate to very significant in 82% of subjects at one month and in 69% of subjects at three months after the second treatment. Assessment of lentigines and ephelides demonstrated moderate to very significant improvement in approximately 68% of subjects at the one month and in 51% of subjects at three months after the second treatment. Independent blinded

  3. Fractional non-ablative laser-assisted drug delivery leads to improvement in male and female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Ana Carina Junqueira; Vilarinho, Adriana; Junqueira, Ana Lúcia Ariano

    2018-02-16

    Androgenetic alopecia, also known as male and female pattern hair loss, is a very prevalent condition; however, approved therapeutic options are limited. Fractionated laser has been proposed to assist in penetration of topical medications to the cutaneous tissue. We present four cases of androgenetic alopecia that underwent treatment with a non-ablative erbium glass fractional laser followed by the application of topical finasteride 0,05% and growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and copper peptide 1%. During all laser treatment sessions, eight passes were performed, at 7 mJ, 3-9% of coverage and density of 120 mzt/cm 2 . A positive response was observed in all of the four patients. Photographs taken 2 weeks after the last session showed improvement in hair regrowth and density. No significant side effects were observed.

  4. Effects of non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser treatment on gene regulation in human three-dimensional skin models.

    PubMed

    Amann, Philipp M; Marquardt, Yvonne; Steiner, Timm; Hölzle, Frank; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Heise, Ruth; Baron, Jens M

    2016-04-01

    Clinical experiences with non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser therapy have demonstrated promising results for dermal remodelling and for the indications of striae, surgical scars and acne scars. So far, molecular effects on human skin following treatment with these laser systems have not been elucidated. Our aim was to investigate laser-induced effects on skin morphology and to analyse molecular effects on gene regulation. Therefore, human three-dimensional (3D) organotypic skin models were irradiated with non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser systems enabling qRT-PCR, microarray and histological studies at same and different time points. A decreased mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 3 and 9 was observed 3 days after treatment. MMP3 also remained downregulated on protein level, whereas the expression of other MMPs like MMP9 was recovered or even upregulated 5 days after irradiation. Inflammatory gene regulatory responses measured by the expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (CXCL1, 2, 5, 6) and interleukin expression (IL8) were predominantly reduced. Epidermal differentiation markers such as loricrin, filaggrin-1 and filaggrin-2 were upregulated by both tested laser optics, indicating a potential epidermal involvement. These effects were also shown on protein level in the immunofluorescence analysis. This novel standardised laser-treated human 3D skin model proves useful for monitoring time-dependent ex vivo effects of various laser systems on gene expression and human skin morphology. Our study reveals erbium glass laser-induced regulations of MMP and interleukin expression. We speculate that these alterations on gene expression level could play a role for dermal remodelling, anti-inflammatory effects and increased epidermal differentiation. Our finding may have implications for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of erbium glass laser-induced effects on human skin.

  5. Nonablative laser resurfacing: state of the art 2002.

    PubMed

    Pozner, Jason N; Goldberg, David J

    2002-09-01

    The reader is presumed to have a basic understanding of the use of lasers in plastic surgery and laser physics. After reading this article, the participant should be able to: Physicians may earn 1 hour of Category 1 CME credit by successfully completing the examination on the basis of material covered in this article. The examination begins on page 435. Nonablative resurfacing, also referred to as subsurface or dermal remodeling, is a recently introduced technology for restoring damaged collagen without injuring or removing the overlying epidermis. To date there have been no published comparisons or reviews of these laser systems. The authors review the mechanisms of action of currently available nonablative laser technologies and published data on their performance. Literature concerning nonablative laser technology published between 2000 and 2002 was reviewed by use of Medline searches. Data on technical specifications were obtained from the manufacturers. Significant improvement in skin elasticity and photodamage with few or no complications was noted after treatment with most of the systems reviewed. However, the results were generally more subtle than those achieved with ablative lasers. Nonablative technology is currently at the forefront of skin rejuvenation. Data on long-term results must await several more years of accumulated clinical treatment. Improvement in skin quality, tone, and texture can be expected, but patients and physicians who expect nonablative laser treatment results to be similar to those achieved by ablative techniques may be disappointed. (Aesthetic Surg J 2002;22:427-434.).

  6. Nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lask, Gary P.; Lee, Patrick K.; Seyfzadeh, Manouchehr; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Dave, Digant P.; Geronemus, Roy G.; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Mittelman, Harry; Ridener, Laurie A.; Coulson, Walter F.; Sand, Bruce; Baumgarder, Jon; Hennings, David R.; Menefee, Richard F.; Berry, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the New Star Model 130 neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system for nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides (e.g., periorbital wrinkles). Facial rhytides are treated with 1.32 micrometer wavelength laser light delivered through a fiberoptic handpiece into a 5 mm diameter spot using three 300 microsecond duration pulses at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and pulse radiant exposures extending up to 12 J/cm2. Dynamic cooling is used to cool the epidermis selectively prior to laser treatment; animal histology experiments confirm that dynamic cooling combined with nonablative laser heating protects the epidermis and selectively injures the dermis. In the human clinical study, immediately post-treatment, treated sites exhibit mild erythema and, in a few cases, edema or small blisters. There are no long-term complications such as marked dyspigmentation and persistent erythema that are commonly observed following ablative laser skin resurfacing. Preliminary results indicate that the severity of facial rhytides has been reduced, but long-term follow-up examinations are needed to quantify the reduction. The mechanism of action of this nonablative laser treatment modality may involve dermal wound healing that leads to long- term synthesis of new collagen and extracellular matrix material.

  7. Rejuvenation of the male scalp using 1,927 nm non-ablative fractional thulium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Boen, Monica; Wilson, Monique J Vanaman; Goldman, Mitchel P; Wu, Douglas C

    2017-07-01

    The male scalp undergoes extensive photodamage due to a high prevalence of androgenic alopecia and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This photodamage presents as solar lentigines, fine rhytides, and keratosis, and can prematurely age a patient. In this study, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the fractionated 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser using high density and high energy settings to achieve rejuvenation of the male scalp after a single treatment session. Four male patients with Fitzpatrick skin types II-III and extensive photodamage on the scalp underwent one treatment with the fractional non-ablative 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser. The patients had a 60-90% improvement in dyspigmentation, lentigines, and keratosis. No adverse events were observed and the patients tolerated the procedure well. This case series is the first report in the literature demonstrating the successful rejuvenation of the scalp using the 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:475-479, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Objective evaluation of the efficacy of a non-ablative fractional 1565 nm laser for the treatment of deliberate self-harm scars.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Anne; Reinholz, Markus; Poetschke, Julian; Steckmeier, Stephanie; Schwaiger, Hannah; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2018-02-01

    Scars resulting from deliberate self-harm (DSH) represent therapeutically challenging forms of scarring due to their highly variable patterns, with no official therapeutic guidelines available. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a non-ablative fractional Er:glass 1565 nm laser, as a potential new, minimal-invasive approach for the improvement of DSH scars. Sixteen Caucasians suffering from mature DSH scars were included in this clinical study. Patients received a total of three treatments using a non-ablative fractional 1565 nm Er:glass laser every 4 weeks, employing two passes (300 μbeams/cm 2 , 40 mJ, onto the scar; 150 μbeams/cm 2 , 50 mJ, overall area). Measurements included questionnaires (DLQI, POSAS), digital photography, and objective three-dimensional analysis using PRIMOS and VECTRA software at baseline, 1 and 6 months after treatment. PRIMOS objective measurements showed highly significant changes in scar surface with a reduction of atrophic lesions by 27.5% at 6 months follow-up (FU), a decrease in scar height by 42.7% at 6 months FU, resulting in an overall diminished skin irregularity dropping from 678.3 μm at baseline to 441.6 μm throughout the course of the study (p = <0.001 respectively). Improvements in objective measurements were supported by clinical evaluation of scar parameters and showed a strong correlation with enhanced life quality of treated patients. Procedures were well-tolerated, with no lasting negative side effects and little to no downtime. The use of a fractional non-ablative 1565 nm Er:glass laser represents a promising and safe approach for the therapy of DSH scars. Although these scars will never fully resolve, their appearance can be significantly improved to a cosmetically and socially more acceptable appearance.

  9. Nonablative lasers and nonlaser systems in dermatology: current status.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Mukta; Hameed, Sunaina; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Nonablative lasers and nonlaser systems are newer systems used for skin rejuvenation, tightening, body sculpting, and scar remodeling. Different technologies such as lasers, Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), and radiofrequency have been introduced. Most nonablative laser systems emit light within the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (1000-1500 nm). At these wavelengths, absorption by superficial water containing tissue is relatively weak, thereby effecting deeper tissue penetration. A detailed understanding of the device being used is recommended. Nonablative technology have been used for several indications such as skin tightening, periorbital tissue tightening, treatment of nasolabial lines and jowl, body sculpting/remodeling, cellulite reduction, scar revision and remodeling and for the treatment of photodamaged skin. Nonablative laser and light modalities can be carried out in a physician treatment room or hospital setting or a nursing home with a small operation theater. The dermatologic consultation should include detailed assessment of the patient's skin condition and skin type. An informed consent is mandatory to protect the rights of the patient as well as the practitioner. All patients must have carefully taken preoperative and postoperative pictures. Depends on the indication, the area to be treated, the acceptable downtime for the desired correction, and to an extent the skin color. These lasers are mostly pain-free and tolerated well by patients but may require topical anesthesia. In most cases, topical cooling and numbing using icepacks is sufficient, even in an apprehensive patient. The nonablative lasers, light sources and radiofrequency systems are safe, even in darker skin types, and postoperative care is minimal. Proper postoperative care is important in avoiding complications. Post-treatment edema and redness settle in a few hours to a few days. Postoperative sun avoidance and use of sunscreen is mandatory.

  10. A retrospective chart review to assess the safety of nonablative fractional laser resurfacing in Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte M; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Alexis, Andrew F

    2013-04-01

    Laser resurfacing in patients with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes (SPT) IV to VI is associated with a higher risk of pigmentary alteration. There is a paucity of studies evaluating optimum treatment parameters for fractional lasers in darkly pigmented skin types. This is a retrospective review of medical records for patients with SPT IV to VI who were treated with a 1,550 nm erbium-doped fractional nonablative laser (Fraxel Re:Store SR 1550; Solta Medical, Hayword, CA). Data were collected from patient charts and the clinic laser logbook from January 2008 to January 2012. The frequency of treatment-associated postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and treatment settings used were evaluated. A total of 115 total laser sessions (45 patients) were included in our analysis. Five of the sessions (4%) were accompanied by PIH, 2 of which occurred in a single patient. Only 1 episode of PIH lasted longer than 1 month (2 months). Two of the 5 cases had only transient PIH (≤7 days), one of which was reported by the patient and not clinically evident on examination. The 1,550 nm erbium-doped fractional laser is well tolerated in SPT IV to VI. Fractional laser resurfacing, with the settings used and pretreatment and posttreatment hydroquinone 4% cream, was associated with a low risk of PIH in darker skin types.

  11. Laser Resurfacing: Full Field and Fractional.

    PubMed

    Pozner, Jason N; DiBernardo, Barry E

    2016-07-01

    Laser resurfacing is a very popular procedure worldwide. Full field and fractional lasers are used in many aesthetic practices. There have been significant advances in laser resurfacing in the past few years, which make patient treatments more efficacious and with less downtime. Erbium and carbon dioxide and ablative, nonablative, and hybrid fractional lasers are all extremely effective and popular tools that have a place in plastic surgery and dermatology offices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of 1,540-nm Fractional Nonablative Erbium and 2,940-nm Fractional Ablative Erbium on p53 Epidermal Expression After 3 months: A Split-Face Interventional Study.

    PubMed

    Borges, Juliano; Araújo, Luciana; de Oliveira, Rodrigo P B; Manela-Azulay, Monica

    2018-04-16

    Expression of p53 by keratinocytes may be important in the pathogenesis of skin cancer induced by ultraviolet light. We used side-by-side nonablative and ablative erbium fractional laser resurfacing to assess the effects on expression of p53 by facial keratinocytes. Ten female patients (age range, 50-63 years) with Fitzpatrick skin Types I-IV and clinical signs of photoaging underwent erbium fractional laser resurfacing (nonablative, 1,540-nm; ablative, 2,940-nm) on opposite sides of the face. Skin biopsies were obtained before treatment and 3 months after treatment for comparison with control biopsies of face and inner arm, quantifying p53 in immunostained tissue sections. Only ablative (2,940-nm) treatments produced a statistically significant reduction in p53 scoring after 3 months. The histologic appearance of skin after ablative resurfacing more closely resembled inner arm skin (rather than facial skin) of control subjects. Epidermal repopulation with p53-negative keratinocytes through ablative erbium fractional laser resurfacing may diminish the risk of eventual malignancy in photoaged skin.

  13. Fractional CO2 lasers contribute to the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinping; Chen, Hongqiang; Yan, Ru; Cui, Shaoshan; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-12-01

    Stable non-segmental vitiligo is often resistant to conventional therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of fractional lasers in the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The vitiligo lesions of each patient were divided into four treatment parts, and all parts were treated with narrowband ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB). Three of the four parts were respectively treated with three types of fractional lasers (two ablative 10,600-nm CO 2 lasers and one non-ablative 1,565-nm laser), followed by topical betamethasone solution application. The treatment period lasted six months. Efficacy and satisfaction were respectively assessed by dermatologists and patients. The ablative CO 2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, achieved marked to excellent improvement on white patches assessed by dermatologists. Patients showed high satisfaction scores for the treatments. The non-ablative 1,565-nm fractional laser did not provide any further benefit in the treatment of vitiligo. No severe adverse events developed for any of the treatments. The treatment protocol with ablative CO 2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, was suitable for stable non-segmental vitiligo. For vitiligo, the ablative fractional CO 2 laser is more effective than the non-ablative fractional laser.

  14. Novel treatment of Hori's nevus: A combination of fractional nonablative 2,940-nm Er:YAG and low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Tian, Brian Wei Cheng Anthony

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate a combination laser therapy to treat Hori's nevus. A prospective study. A Singapore-based clinic. Five female patients, aged 30-46 years, with bilateral malar Hori's nevus. Photographs were taken before treatment and 1 month after laser treatment was completed. These were graded by three independent physicians. The patients were also asked to grade their treatment response subjectively. They were followed up for a total of 3 months after laser treatment to monitor recurrence. The fractional nonablative 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser with a fluence of 0.7 J/cm(2), spot size 12 mm, and frequency 15 Hz was used to perform a full-face single-pass treatment. Subsequently, a second pass and third pass over Hori's nevi were done bilaterally till the clinical endpoint of skin whitening. The 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG at a fluence of 2.0 J/cm(2), frequency 2 Hz, and 4-mm spot size was used to deliver multiple passes over Hori's nevus till erythema with mild petechiae appeared. We repeated the treatment once a week for 3 more consecutive weeks. All five patients had above 80% improvement in their pigmentation and two (skin type III) achieved complete 100% clearance. Based on the patients' subjective assessments, all five of them expressed satisfaction and felt that their pigmentation had improved. There were no complications noted. The fractional nonablative 2940 nm Er:YAG laser and Q-switched 1064nm laser Nd:YAG combination is an effective and safe treatment for Hori's nevus.

  15. Novel treatment of Hori's nevus: A combination of fractional nonablative 2,940-nm Er:YAG and low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Brian Wei Cheng Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a combination laser therapy to treat Hori's nevus. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five female patients, aged 30-46 years, with bilateral malar Hori's nevus. Measurements: Photographs were taken before treatment and 1 month after laser treatment was completed. These were graded by three independent physicians. The patients were also asked to grade their treatment response subjectively. They were followed up for a total of 3 months after laser treatment to monitor recurrence. Materials and Methods: The fractional nonablative 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser with a fluence of 0.7 J/cm2, spot size 12 mm, and frequency 15 Hz was used to perform a full-face single-pass treatment. Subsequently, a second pass and third pass over Hori's nevi were done bilaterally till the clinical endpoint of skin whitening. The 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG at a fluence of 2.0 J/cm2, frequency 2 Hz, and 4-mm spot size was used to deliver multiple passes over Hori's nevus till erythema with mild petechiae appeared. We repeated the treatment once a week for 3 more consecutive weeks. Results: All five patients had above 80% improvement in their pigmentation and two (skin type III) achieved complete 100% clearance. Based on the patients’ subjective assessments, all five of them expressed satisfaction and felt that their pigmentation had improved. There were no complications noted. Conclusion: The fractional nonablative 2940 nm Er:YAG laser and Q-switched 1064nm laser Nd:YAG combination is an effective and safe treatment for Hori's nevus. PMID:26865788

  16. Treatment of Facial Photodamage With Mass Market Topical Products vs Non-ablative Fractional Laser.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary; Wallander, Irmina; Schulte, Lacie; Goodier, Molly; Zelickson, Brian

    2016-11-01

    In this split-face, evaluator-blinded study, 18 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either the SSR or NFL treatments on each side of the face. For the SSR facial sides subjects followed two morning-evening regimens. On the NFL sides subjects were treated 3 times with the 1927-nm laser at 4-week intervals. Three physician evaluators were asked to rate hyperpigmentation, global photoaging, and ne lines and wrinkles for each side of the face at baseline and at 3 months using a 5-point scale. The SSR and NFL treatments provided comparable results for each skin attribute. Improvement from baseline was signi - cant in both treatment programs for each skin attribute. The greatest 3-month improvement for both programs was in hyperpigmen- tation. For global photoaging and ne lines and wrinkles, positive responses were slightly greater in the NFL than in the SSR facial sides. Subject preference for the SSR over the NFL was greatest for ne lines around the eyes, ne lines around the mouth, smooth texture, radiant complexion, and overall improvement while the NFL was preferred for skin rmness and evenness. When the study was completed5 of 18 split-face subjects decided to undergo NFR laser treatment on the non laser treated side along with using the SSR product and 13 of the 18 subjects continued to use the SSR products to their full face after the study. The mass market skin care system of the present study provides improvement in hyperpigmentation, global photoaging, and ne lines and wrinkles comparable to that of a series of treatments with a non-ablative fractional laser. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1366-1372..

  17. Non-ablative fractional laser in conjunction with microneedle arrays for improved cutaneous vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Li, Bo; Wu, Mei X.

    2015-03-01

    Skin is more potent than the muscle for vaccination, but it is not a common site for immunization to date owing, in part, to a relatively high rate of pains and skin irritation and difficulty of administration. Here, we show effective and lesion free cutaneous vaccination by a combination of a biodegradable microneedle array (MNs) and an FDA-approved nonablative fractional laser (NAFL). Delivering a vaccine into many micropores, instead of a single "big" pore in the skin, effectively segregated vaccine-induced inflammation into many microzones and resulted in quick resolution of the inflammation, provided that distances between any two micropores were far enough. When the inoculation site was treated by NAFL prior to insertion of the MNs comprised of PR8 model influenza vaccine, the mice displayed vigorous antigen-uptake, giving rise to strong, Th1-biased immunity. The mice were protected from a challenge of homologous influenza virus at a high dose as well as heterologous H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. The adjuvant effect of NAFL was ascribed primarily to activation of the dsDNA sensing pathway by dsDNA released from laser-damaged skin cells. Thus, mice deficient in the dsDNA sensing pathway, but not toll like receptor (TLR) or inflammasome pathways, showed poor response to NAFL. Importantly, both mice and swine exhibited strong, protective immunity, but no overt skin reactions with this approach, in sharp contrast to intradermal injections that caused severe, overt skin reactions. The effective lesion-free transcutaneous vaccination merits further clinical studies.

  18. Enhancing hair follicle regeneration by nonablative fractional laser: Assessment of irradiation parameters and tissue response.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yueh-Feng; Wang, Shiou-Han; Wu, Pei-Shan; Fan, Sabrina Mai-Yi; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Identification of methods to enhance anagen entry can be helpful for alopecia. Recently, nonablative laser has been proposed as a potential treatment for alopecia. However, how the laser parameters affect stem cell activity, hair cycles and the associated side effects have not been well characterized. Here we examine the effects of irradiation parameters of 1,550-nm fractional laser on hair cycles. The dorsal skin of eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice with hair follicles in synchronized telogen was shaved and irradiated with a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser (Fraxel RE:STORE (SR1500) Laser System, Solta Medical, U.S.A.) with varied beam energies (5-35 mJ) and beam densities (500-3500 microthermal zones/cm(2) ). The cutaneous changes were evaluated both grossly and histologically. Hair follicle stem cell activity was detected by BrdU incorporation and changes in gene expression were quantified by real-time PCR. Direct thermal injury to hair follicles could be observed early after irradiation, especially at higher beam energy. Anagen induction in the irradiated skin showed an all-or-non change. Anagen induction and ulcer formation were affected by the combination of beam energy and density. The lowest beam energy of 5 mJ failed to promote anagen entry at all beam densities tested. As beam energy increased from 10 mJ to 35 mJ, we found a decreasing trend of beam density that could induce anagen entry within 7-9 days with activation of hair follicle stem cells. Beam density above the pro-regeneration density could lead to ulcers and scarring followed by anagen entry in adjacent skin. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, revealed that transient moderate inflammation was associated with anagen induction and intense prolonged inflammation preceded ulcer formation. To avoid side effects of hair follicle injury and scarring, appropriate combination of beam energy and density is required. Parameters outside the therapeutic

  19. Investigation of irradiation by different nonablative lasers on primary cultured skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Weng, Y; Dang, Y; Ye, X; Liu, N; Zhang, Z; Ren, Q

    2011-08-01

    A variety of lasers with different wavelengths and biological effects are widely used for nonablative skin rejuvenation, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully investigated. To investigate the effects of irradiation by different nonablative lasers on collagen synthesis and the antioxidant status of cultured fibroblasts to identify a possible mechanism for laser photorejuvenation. Cultured skin fibroblasts were irradiated with three different lasers: 532 nm potassium-titanyl phosphate (KTP), 1064 nm Q-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:Yag) and 1064 nm long-pulse Nd:YAG, and production of collagen and changes in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were assayed. Irradiation by all three lasers led to a marked increase in collagen production. Two major antioxidant enzymes, SOD and GSH, were significantly increased, whereas MDA was markedly reduced after laser irradiation. No change in LDH activity was found between nonirradiated and irradiated fibroblasts. This study indicates that the increased collagen synthesis by fibroblasts after laser treatment may be partly due to improved antioxidant capacity, which reduces oxidative stress and thus stimulates new collagen production. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Nonablative skin rejuvenation devices and the role of heat shock protein 70: results of a human skin explant model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, Doris; Moebius, Anne; Simon, Jan C.; Paasch, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    Nonablative thermal laser therapy with a 1540-nm laser induces controlled, spatially determined thermal damage, allowing subsequent collagen remodeling while preserving the epidermis. A photorejuvenation effect using nonthermal nonablative stimulation of cells with low energy and narrow band light has been termed photomodulation. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are narrow band emitters that lead to photomodulation via stimulation of mitochondrial cell organelles. In a previous study, we demonstrated in a human skin explant model that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a pivotal role in the initiation of skin remodeling after ablative fractional photothermolysis. To test its importance in nonablative laser therapy and photomodulation, the spatio-temporal expression of HSP70 is investigated in response to a 1540-nm laser treatment and six different LED therapies. An Er:glass laser is used with a 1-Hz repetition rate, 30-J/cm2 fluence, and a hand piece with a 2-mm spot size. Nonthermal nonablative treatment is performed using two LED (LEDA SCR red light: 635 nm, 40 to 120 W/cm2, 40 to 120 J/cm2 LEDA SCR yellow light: 585 nm, 16 to 35 W/cm2, 20 to 100 J/cm2 spot size 16×10 cm). Immediate responses as well as responses 1, 3, or 7 days postprocedure are studied; untreated skin explants serve as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (HSP70) is performed in all native, nontreated, and Er:glass laser- or LED-treated samples (n=175). Nonablative laser therapy leads to a clear time-dependent induction of epidermally expressed HSP70, peaking between one to three days post-treatment. In contrast, none of the various LED treatments up-regulated the HSP70 expression in our skin explant model. HSP70 is up-regulated by nonablative but thermal laser devices, but does not seem to play a significant role in the induction of skin remodeling induced by photomodulation. The maximum of HSP70 expression is reached later after Er:glass laser intervention compared to ablative fractional

  1. Non-ablative fractional resurfacing in combination with topical tretinoin cream as a field treatment modality for multiple actinic keratosis: a pilot study and a review of other field treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Prens, Sebastiaan P; de Vries, Karin; Neumann, H A Martino; Prens, Errol P

    2013-06-01

    Actinic keratoses (AK) are premalignant lesions occurring mainly in sun-damaged skin. Current topical treatment options for AK and photo-damaged skin such as liquid nitrogen and electrosurgery are not suitable for field treatment. Otherwise, therapies suitable for field treatment bring along considerable patient discomfort. Non-ablative fractional resurfacing has emerged as a logical treatment option especially for field treatment of AK. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of fractional laser therapy for clearing AK and improving skin quality. To compare patient friendliness of the "fractional" therapy with those reported for other field treatment modalities. Ten patients with Fitzpatrick skin type I to III with multiple AK and extensive sun-damaged skin, received 5-10 sessions with a 4-week interval using a 1550 nm Erbium-Glass Fractionated laser (Sellas, Korea). Four weeks and 24 weeks after the last treatment the clinical results were evaluated by an independent physician. The mean degree of improvement, in terms of reduction in the number of AK and improvement of skin texture, was 54% on a 4 point PGA scale, and persisted for approximately 6 months. The biggest advantage of fractional laser treatment, besides the eradication of AK and a clear rejuvenation effect, is the absence of "downtime". Fractional non-ablative resurfacing induces significant reduction in the number of AK and improves the skin quality. Also all patients preferred fractional laser therapy above other AK treatment modalities.

  2. Fractionated laser skin resurfacing treatment complications: a review.

    PubMed

    Metelitsa, Andrei I; Alster, Tina S

    2010-03-01

    Fractional photothermolysis represents a new modality of laser skin resurfacing that was developed to provide a successful clinical response while minimizing postoperative recovery and limiting treatment complications. To review all of the reported complications that develop as a result of fractional ablative and nonablative laser skin resurfacing. A literature review was based on a MEDLINE search (1998-2009) for English-language articles related to laser treatment complications and fractional skin resurfacing. Articles presenting the highest level of evidence and the most recent reports were preferentially selected. Complications with fractional laser skin resurfacing represent a full spectrum of severity and can be longlasting. In general, a greater likelihood of developing post-treatment complications is seen in sensitive cutaneous areas and in patients with intrinsically darker skin phototypes or predisposing medical risk factors. Although the overall rate of complications associated with fractional laser skin resurfacing is much lower than with traditional ablative techniques, recent reports suggest that serious complications can develop. An appreciation of all of the complications associated with fractional laser skin resurfacing is important, especially given that many of them can be potentially prevented. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.

  3. Efficacy of fractional lasers in treating alopecia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perper, Marina; Aldahan, Adam S; Fayne, Rachel A; Emerson, Christopher P; Nouri, Keyvan

    2017-11-01

    Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. While less is known about the effectiveness of fractional lasers for combating hair loss, research suggests that by creating microscopic thermal injury zones, fractional lasers may cause an increase in hair growth from a wound healing process, making them potential therapeutic options for alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional lasers on hair regrowth. The specific fractional laser therapies include the 1550-nm nonablative fractional erbium-glass laser, the ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser, and the ablative fractional CO 2 fractional laser. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of the lasers, as well as to establish appropriate parameters and treatment intervals.

  4. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the heat shock response to nonablative fractional resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantash, Basil M.; Bedi, Vikramaditya P.; Struck, Steven K.; Chan, Kin F.

    2010-11-01

    Despite the emergence of nonablative fractional resurfacing (NFR) as a new therapeutic modality for skin photoaging, little is known about the molecular events that underlie the heat shock response to different treatment parameters. Human subjects are treated with a scanned 1550-nm fractional laser at pulse energies spanning 6 to 40 mJ and a 140-μm spot size. The heat shock response is assessed immunohistochemically immediately through 7 days posttreatment. At the immediately posttreatment time point, we observe subepidermal clefting in most sections. The basal epidermis and dermal zones of sparing are both found to express HSP47, but not HSP72. By day 1, expression of HSP72 is detected throughout the epidermis, while that of HSP47 remains restricted to the basal layer. Both proteins are detected surrounding the dermal portion of the microscopic treatment zone (MTZ). This pattern of expression persists through day 7 post-NFR, although neither protein is found within the MTZ. Immediately posttreatment, the mean collagen denaturation zone width is 50 μm at 6 mJ, increasing to 202 μm at 40 mJ. The zone of cell death exceeds the denaturation zone by 19 to 55% over this pulse energy range. The two zones converge by day 7 posttreatment.

  5. Evolution of laser skin resurfacing: from scanning to fractional technology.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Arif; Alster, Tina S

    2014-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing was popularized for photoaged and scarred skin 2 decades ago. Since then, several technologic advancements have led to a new generation of delivery systems that produce excellent clinical outcomes with reduced treatment risks and faster recovery times. To review the evolution of laser skin resurfacing from pulsed and scanned infrared laser technology to the latest techniques of nonablative and ablative fractional photothermolysis. All published literature regarding laser skin resurfacing was analyzed and collated. A comprehensive review of laser skin resurfacing was outlined and future developments in the field of fractionated laser skin treatment were introduced. Laser skin resurfacing has evolved such that excellent clinical outcomes in photodamaged and scarred skin are achieved with rapid wound healing. As newer devices are developed, the applications of this technology will have a dramatic effect on the delivery of medical and aesthetic dermatology.

  6. Randomized, Split-Face/Décolleté Comparative Trial of Procedure Enhancement System for Fractional non-Ablative Laser Resurfacing Treatment.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Deanne Mraz; Frulla, Ashton P

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: A topical proprietary procedural enhancement system (PES) containing a combination of active ingredients including a tripeptide and hexapeptide (TriHex Technology™, Alastin Procedure Enhancement Invasive System, ALASTIN Skincare™, Inc., Carlsbad, CA) has been used successfully to aid in healing and improve symptomatology following resurfacing procedures.

    METHODS: PES (Gentle Cleanser, Regenerating Skin Nectar with TriHex Technology™, Ultra Nourishing Moisturizer with TriHex Technology™, Soothe + Protect Recovery Balm, Broad Spectrum 30+ Sunscreen) was compared to a basic regimen (Aquaphor™, Cerave™ cleanser, Vanicream™, Alastin Broad Spectrum 30+ Sunscreen) in a split face/ décolleté trial following fractional non-ablative thulium-doped resurfacing treatment to the face or décolleté. The skin was pre-conditioned and treated during and after the procedure using the two regimens.

    RESULTS: A blinded investigator rated the PES statistically superior to the basic regimen on healing post-laser treatment on day 4 based on lentigines, texture, and Global Skin Quality. Subjects also reported 'better looking and feeling' skin on the PES side.

    CONCLUSION: PES appears to improve healing post-non ablative thulium-doped resurfacing treatment to the face/décolleté in comparison with standard of care.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):707-710.

    .

  7. Use of 1540nm fractionated erbium:glass laser for split skin graft resurfacing: a case study.

    PubMed

    Narinesingh, S; Lewis, S; Nayak, B S

    2013-09-01

    The field of laser skin resurfacing has evolved rapidly over the past two decades from ablative lasers, to nonablative systems using near-infrared, intense-pulsed light and radio-frequency systems, and most recently fractional laser resurfacing. Although fractional thermolysis is still in its infancy, its efficacy in in the treatment of skin disorders have been clearly demonstrated. Here we present a case report on the safety and efficacy of a 1540nm erbium:glass laser in the treatment of the waffle pattern of a meshed skin graft in a 38-year-old patient with type V skin in the Caribbean.

  8. Comparison of four different lasers for acne scars: Resurfacing and fractional lasers.

    PubMed

    You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Deok-Woo; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Park, Seung-Ha

    2016-04-01

    Acne scars are common and cause cosmetic problems. There is a multitude of treatment options for acne scars, including dermabrasion, chemical peeling, and fillers, but the advent of laser technology has greatly improved the treatment of acne scars. Although several laser systems are available, studies comparing their efficacy are limited. This study compares the results of treatments using resurfacing (carbon dioxide, CO2; erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Er:YAG) versus fractional (nonablative fractional laser, NAFL; ablative fractional laser, AFL) lasers. A retrospective photographic analysis of 58 patients who underwent laser treatment for facial atrophic acne scars was performed. Clinical improvement was assessed by six blinded investigators with a scale graded from 0 to 10. Adverse events were also noted. Mean improvement scores of the CO2, Er:YAG, NAFL, and AFL groups were 6.0, 5.8, 2.2, and 5.2, respectively. The NAFL group showed a significantly lower score than the other groups. The mean number of treatments was significantly greater in the fractional laser groups than in the resurfacing laser groups. The resurfacing laser groups had a prolonged recovery period and high risk of complications. The Er:YAG laser caused less erythema or pigmentation compared to the CO2 laser. Although the CO2 laser, Er:YAG laser, and AFL improved the acne scars, the CO2 laser had a greater downtime. Three consecutive AFL treatments are as effective as a single treatment with resurfacing lasers, with shorter social downtime periods and less adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-ablative 1,450-nm diode laser treatment of striae distensae.

    PubMed

    Tay, Yong-Kwang; Kwok, Colin; Tan, Eileen

    2006-03-01

    Striae distensae are dermal scars with flattening and atrophy of the epidermis. Successful treatment of these stretch marks has been disappointing. The non-ablative 1,450-nm diode laser has been shown to improve atrophic scars and may be expected to improve striae. As yet, no study has been published to document the effects of this laser on striae. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy of the 1,450-nm diode laser in the treatment of striae rubra and striae alba in Asian patients with skin types 4-6. Striae on one half of the body in 11 patients were treated with the 1,450-nm diode laser with cryogen cooling spray with the other half serving as a control. The following parameters were used: 6 mm spot size and dynamic cooling device (DCD) for 40 milliseconds to protect the epidermis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 4, 8, or 12 J/cm2. A total of three treatments were given at 6-week intervals. The following sites were treated: abdomen, arms, back, buttocks, and thighs. Two patients had striae rubra and nine striae alba. Clinical photographs were taken before and after each treatment and analysis was undertaken through photographic evaluation by non-treating physicians. At 2 months after the last treatment, no patients showed any noticeable improvement in the striae on the treated side compared to baseline and to the control areas. Side effects were limited to transient erythema and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), which occurred in seven (64%) patients. The non-ablative 1,450-nm diode laser is not useful in the treatment of striae in patients with skin types 4, 5, and 6. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Combination of microneedle radiofrequency (RF), fractional RF skin resurfacing and multi-source non-ablative skin tightening for minimal-downtime, full-face skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Haim; Kaplan, Lilach

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, there is a growth in demand for radiofrequency (RF)-based procedures to improve skin texture, laxity and contour. The new generation of systems allow non-invasive and fractional resurfacing treatments on one platform. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new treatment protocol using a multisource RF, combining 3 different modalities in each patient: [1] non-ablative RF skin tightening, [2] fractional skin resurfacing, and [3] microneedling RF for non-ablative coagulation and collagen remodelling. 14 subjects were enrolled in this study using EndyMed PRO ™ platform. Each patient had 8 non-ablative treatments and 4 fractional treatments (fractional skin resurfacing and Intensif). The global aesthetic score was used to evaluate improvement. All patients had improvement in skin appearance. About 43% had excellent or very good improvement above 50%, 18% had good improvement between 25 and 50%, and the rest 39% had a mild improvement of < 25%. Downtime was minimal and no adverse effect was reported. Our data show significant improvement of skin texture, skin laxity and wrinkle reduction achieved using RF treatment platform.

  11. Ablative fractional laser treatment for hypertrophic scars: comparison between Er:YAG and CO2 fractional lasers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Eun; Oh, Ga Na; Kim, Jong Yeob; Seo, Soo Hong; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kye, Young Chul

    2014-08-01

    Nonablative fractional photothermolysis has been reported to show early promise in the treatment of hypertrophic scars, but there are few reports on ablative fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of Er:YAG fractional laser (EYFL) and CO2 fractional laser (CO2FL) for treatment of hypertrophic scars. Thirteen patients with hypertrophic scars were treated with 2,940 nm EYFL, and ten were treated with 10,600 nm CO2FL. An independent physician evaluator assessed the treatment outcomes using Vancouver scar scale (VSS) and 5-point grading scale (grade 0, no improvement; grade 1, 1-25%; grade 2, 26-50%; grade 3, 51-75%; grade 4, 76-100% improvement). Patients are queried about their subjective satisfaction with the treatment outcomes. After the final treatment, average percentage changes of VSS were 28.2% for EYFL and 49.8% for CO2FL. Improvement was evident in terms of pliability, while insignificant in terms of vascularity and pigmentation. Based on physician's global assessment, mean grade of 1.8 for EYFL and 2.7 for CO2FL was achieved. Patient's subjective satisfaction scores paralleled the physician's objective evaluation. CO2FL is a potentially effective and safe modality for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, particularly in terms of pliability.

  12. The effect of nonablative laser energy on joint capsular properties. An in vitro histologic and biochemical study using a rabbit model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K.; Thabit, G. 3rd; Vailas, A. C.; Bogdanske, J. J.; Cooley, A. J.; Markel, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser energy at nonablative levels on joint capsular histologic and biochemical properties in an in vitro rabbit model. The medial and lateral portions of the femoropatellar joint capsule from both stifles of 12 mature New Zealand White rabbits were used. Specimens were divided into three treatment groups (5 watts, 10 watts, and 15 watt) and one control group using a randomized block design. Specimens were placed in a 37 degrees bath of lactated Ringer's solution and laser energy was applied using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser in four transverse passes across the tissue at a velocity of 2 mm/sec with the handpiece set 1.5 mm from the synovial surface. Histologic analysis revealed thermal alteration of collagen (fusion) and fibroblasts (pyknosis) at all energy densities, with higher laser energy causing significantly greater morphologic changes over a larger area (P < 0.05). Application of laser energy did not significantly alter the biochemical parameters evaluated, including type I collagen content and nonreducible crosslinks (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that nonablative laser energy caused significant thermal damage to the joint capsular tissue in an energy-dependent fashion, but type I collagen content and nonreducible crosslinks (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that nonablative laser energy caused significant thermal damage to the joint capsular tissue in an energy-dependent fashion, but type I Collagen content and nonreducible corsslinks were not significantly altered.

  13. The Safety and Efficacy of the 1540nm Non-Ablative Fractional XD Probe of Star Lux 500 Device in the Treatment of Striae Alba: Before-After Study.

    PubMed

    Malekzad, Farhad; Shakoei, Safoura; Ayatollahi, Azin; Hejazi, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Striae distensae (SD) are a frequent skin condition for which treatment remains a challenge. The 1540-nm non-ablative fractional laser (Star Lux 500) has been shown to improve atrophic scars by increasing the amount of dermal collagen. To assess the safety and efficacy of the Star Lux 500 laser in the treatment of mature hypopigmented striae in Persian people (Striae Alba). Ten women aged 26-50 years with SD and Fitzpatrick skin types III-V were enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were a history of keloids, photosensitivity and collagen, elastin disorders as well as history of other striae treatment within one year. The lesions were treated with non-ablative fractional laser 1540nm, and a total of four treatments were given at 4-week intervals. Clinical standard photographs were taken before each treatment. Also, patients were followed up at 3 months after the last treatment. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing baseline and post-treatment photographs by two independent blinded physicians using grading scale. Treatment efficacy analysis was performed via the comparison between the images taken before and after each treatment session. There was a clinically appreciable improvement in striae ranging from 1 to 24%. A significant improvement in striae between the 16-week treatment and the 4-week treatment was identified (P<0.0001). Three months after the final treatment, patients showed noticeable improvement in the striae, compared with baseline (P<0.048). Mild post inflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed in one patient after the 8-week treatment and mild to moderate acne occurred in another patient after 4 weeks of treatment. Therapy with Star lux 500 laser had clinically and statistically striae improvement with no adverse events. This may be a safe and an effective treatment modality for Striae Alba lesions.

  14. Treatment of burn scars in Fitzpatrick phototype III patients with a combination of pulsed dye laser and non-ablative fractional resurfacing 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium laser devices.

    PubMed

    Tao, Joy; Champlain, Amanda; Weddington, Charles; Moy, Lauren; Tung, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Burn scars cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychosocial distress. We present two Fitzpatrick phototype (FP) III patients with burn scars successfully treated with combination pulsed dye laser (PDL) and non-ablative fractional lasers (NAFL). A 30-year-old, FP III woman with a history of a second-degree burn injury to the bilateral arms and legs affecting 30% body surface area (BSA) presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received three treatments with 595 nm PDL (7 mm, 8 J, 6 ms), six with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and five with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). Treated burn scars improved significantly in thickness, texture and colour. A 33-year-old, FP III man with a history of a second-degree burn injury of the left neck and arm affecting 7% BSA presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received two treatments with 595 nm PDL (5 mm, 7.5 J, 6 ms), four with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and two with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). The burn scars became thinner, smoother and more normal in pigmentation and appearance. Our patients' burn scars were treated with a combination of PDL and NAFL (two wavelengths). The PDL targets scar hypervascularity, the 1550 nm erbium:glass stimulates collagen remodelling and the 1927 nm thulium targets epidermal processes, particularly hyperpigmentation. This combination addresses scar thickness, texture and colour with a low side effect profile and is particularly advantageous in patients at higher risk of post-procedure hyperpigmentation. Our cases suggest the combination of 595nm PDL plus NAFL 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium device is effective and well-tolerated for burn scar treatment in skin of colour.

  15. The Role of the CO2 Laser and Fractional CO2 Laser in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya; Numano, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tremendous advances have been made in the medical application of the laser in the past few decades. Many diseases in the dermatological field are now indications for laser treatment that qualify for reimbursement by many national health insurance systems. Among laser types, the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser remains an important system for the dermatologist. Rationale: The lasers used in photosurgery have wavelengths that differ according to their intended use and are of various types, but the CO2 laser is one of the most widely used lasers in the dermatology field. With its wavelength in the mid-infrared at 10,600 nm, CO2 laser energy is wellabsorbed in water. As skin contains a very high water percentage, this makes the CO2 laser ideal for precise, safe ablation with good hemostasis. In addition to its efficacy in ablating benign raised lesions, the CO2 laser has been reported to be effective in the field of esthetic dermatology in the revision of acne scars as well as in photorejuvenation. With the addition of fractionation of the beam of energy into myriad microbeams, the fractional CO2 laser has offered a bridge between the frankly full ablative indications and the nonablative skin rejuvenation systems of the 2000s in the rejuvenation of photoaged skin on and off the face. Conclusions: The CO2 laser remains an efficient, precise and safe system for the dermatologist. Technological advances in CO2 laser construction have meant smaller spot sizes and greater precision for laser surgery, and more flexibility in tip sizes and protocols for fractional CO2 laser treatment. The range of dermatological applications of the CO2 laser is expected to continue to increase in the future. PMID:24771971

  16. The Role of the CO2 Laser and Fractional CO2 Laser in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Omi, Tokuya; Numano, Kayoko

    2014-03-27

    Tremendous advances have been made in the medical application of the laser in the past few decades. Many diseases in the dermatological field are now indications for laser treatment that qualify for reimbursement by many national health insurance systems. Among laser types, the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser remains an important system for the dermatologist. The lasers used in photosurgery have wavelengths that differ according to their intended use and are of various types, but the CO2 laser is one of the most widely used lasers in the dermatology field. With its wavelength in the mid-infrared at 10,600 nm, CO2 laser energy is wellabsorbed in water. As skin contains a very high water percentage, this makes the CO2 laser ideal for precise, safe ablation with good hemostasis. In addition to its efficacy in ablating benign raised lesions, the CO2 laser has been reported to be effective in the field of esthetic dermatology in the revision of acne scars as well as in photorejuvenation. With the addition of fractionation of the beam of energy into myriad microbeams, the fractional CO2 laser has offered a bridge between the frankly full ablative indications and the nonablative skin rejuvenation systems of the 2000s in the rejuvenation of photoaged skin on and off the face. The CO2 laser remains an efficient, precise and safe system for the dermatologist. Technological advances in CO2 laser construction have meant smaller spot sizes and greater precision for laser surgery, and more flexibility in tip sizes and protocols for fractional CO2 laser treatment. The range of dermatological applications of the CO2 laser is expected to continue to increase in the future.

  17. Laser fractional photothermolysis of the skin: numerical simulation of microthermal zones.

    PubMed

    Marqa, Mohamad Feras; Mordon, Serge

    2014-04-01

    Laser Fractional Photothermolysis (FP) is one of the innovative techniques for skin remodeling and resurfacing. During treatment, the control of the Microscopic Thermal Zones' (MTZs) dimensions versus pulse energy requires detailed knowledge of the various parameters governing the heat transfer process. In this study, a mathematical model is devised to simulate the effect of pulse energy variations on the dimensions of MTZs. Two series of simulations for ablative (10.6 μm CO2) and non-ablative (1.550 μm Er:Glass) lasers systems were performed. In each series, simulations were carried for the following pulses energies: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 mJ. Results of simulations are validated by histological analysis images of MTZs sections reported in works by Hantash et al. and Bedi et al. MTZs dimensions were compared between histology and those achieved using our simulation model using fusion data technique for both ablative FP and non-ablative FP treatment methods. Depths and widths from simulations are usually deeper (21 ± 2%) and wider (12 ± 2%) when compared with histological analysis data. When accounting for the shrinkage effect of excision of cutaneous tissues, a good correlation can be established between the simulation and the histological analysis results.

  18. Current Laser Resurfacing Technologies: A Review that Delves Beneath the Surface

    PubMed Central

    Preissig, Jason; Hamilton, Kristy; Markus, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Numerous laser platforms exist that rejuvenate the skin by resurfacing its upper layers. In varying degrees, these lasers improve the appearance of lentigines and rhytides, eliminate photoaging, soften scarring due to acne and other causes, and treat dyspigmentation. Five major classes of dermatologic lasers are currently in common use: ablative and nonablative lasers in both fractionated and unfractionated forms as well as radiofrequency technologies. The gentler nonablative lasers allow for quicker healing, whereas harsher ablative lasers tend to be more effective. Fractionating either laser distributes the effect, increasing the number of treatments but minimizing downtime and complications. In this review article, the authors seek to inform surgeons about the current laser platforms available, clarify the differences between them, and thereby facilitate the identification of the most appropriate laser for their practice. PMID:23904818

  19. Dermal Remodeling of Burn Scar by Fractional CO2 Laser.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Suh, Dong-Hye; Lee, Ji Min; Song, Kye-Yong; Ryu, Hwa Jung

    2016-10-01

    Ablative CO2 fractional lasers have recently been introduced for burn scar treatment because of pronounced clinical outcomes with fewer treatment sessions than nonablative fractional laser. This study was conducted to observe clinical as well as histologic changes of burn scars after treatment with CO2 fractional laser. Eleven patients (one female and 10 males, aged 31-59 years) with skin phototypes III to V with burn scars received 10 sessions of fractional CO2 laser treatments (UltraPulse(®) Encore; Lumenis, Santa Clara, CA, USA) over an average 5-week interval. Two passes were performed using the following parameters: deep FX mode, 12.5-30 mJ, with a density setting of 5-10 %. Clinical evaluations by three blinded dermatologists were obtained at baseline and at 6 months after the final treatment via photographs using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Skin biopsies were done on four patients before and after treatment. All patients showed clinical improvement in their scars with significant decrease in VSS. Histologic findings showed the changes in the upper dermis with newly formed dermal papilla. This characteristic upper dermis change was presented as improvement in surface smoothness and skin tension clinically. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and itching sensation were the most common adverse effects. Burn scar treatment by fractional CO2 laser is effective by forming new collagen fibers mainly in the upper dermis. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. Combined fractional resurfacing (10600 nm/1540 nm): Tridimensional imaging evaluation of a new device for skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Mezzana, Paolo; Valeriani, Maurizio; Valeriani, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    In this study were described the results, by tridimensional imaging evaluation, of the new "Combined Fractional Resurfacing" technique with the first fractional laser that overtakes the limits of traditional ablative, nonablative fractional resurfacing by combining CO 2 ablative and GaAs nonablative lasers. These two wavelengths can work separately or in a mixed modality to give the best treatment choice to all the patients. In this study, it is demonstrated that the simultaneous combination of the CO 2 wavelength (10600 nm) and GaAs wavelength (1540 nm) reduced the downtime, reduced pain during the treatment, and produced better results on fine wrinkles reduction and almost the same results on pigmentation as seen with 3D analysis by Antera (Miravex).

  1. A 35-month profilometric and clinical evaluation of non-ablative remodeling using a 1540-nm Er:glass laser.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Nathalie; Lagarde, Jean Michel; Turlier, Virginie; Courrech, Laetitia; Mordon, Serge

    2004-11-01

    As remodeling is getting more popular with patients, long-term studies are becoming necessary. The aim of this 35-month clinical study was to evaluate the long-term benefits obtained using a 1540-nm Er:glass laser for non-ablative remodeling of perioral and periorbital rhytids. The role of maintenance treatments was also investigated. Eleven women with periorbital and perioral rhytids underwent a series of five treatments at 6-week intervals with an Er:glass laser. Five patients subsequently received two maintenance retreatments and six did not. The maintenance treatments were performed at 14 and 20 months. Silicone imprints were performed to measure anisotropy before treatment, at 6 months, at 14 months and at 35 months. Patient self-evaluation/questionnaire was also done to assess adverse effects and subjective clinical improvement. For all 11 patients, the percentage of anisotropy reduction was 41.21% at 6 months, 51.76% at 14 months and 29.87% at 35 months. No adverse effects were noted. Patient satisfaction was high at the end of the evaluation. Retreated patients were more satisfied than non-retreated ones. However, there was no difference in the anisotropy factor between the two groups. Treatment of facial rhytids with a non-ablative 1540-nm Er:glass laser system can produce benefits that persist over 2 years after the last treatment.

  2. Fractional lasers in dermatology--current status and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Goel, Apratim; Krupashankar, D S; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev; Nischal, K C; Omprakash, H M; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Fractional laser technology is a new emerging technology to improve scars, fine lines, dyspigmentation, striae and wrinkles. The technique is easy, safe to use and has been used effectively for several clinical and cosmetic indications in Indian skin. Different fractional laser machines, with different wavelengths, both ablative and non-ablative, are now available in India. A detailed understanding of the device being used is recommended. Common indications include resurfacing for acne, chickenpox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photoageing changes, facial dyschromias. The use of fractional lasers in stretch marks, melasma and other pigmentary conditions, dermatological conditions such as granuloma annulare has been reported. But further data are needed before adopting them for routine use in such conditions. Any qualified dermatologist may administer fractional laser treatment. He/ she should possess a Master's degree or diploma in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers, either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist or plastic surgeon with experience and training in using lasers. Since parameters may vary with different systems, specific training tailored towards the concerned device at either the manufacturer's facility or at another center using the machine is recommended. Fractional lasers can be used in the dermatologist's minor procedure room for the above indications. Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects and possible postoperative complications should be provided to the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and also adequate opportunity to seek information. A detailed consent form needs to be completed by the patient. Consent form should include information on the machine, possible postoperative course expected and postoperative complications. Preoperative photography should be

  3. Treatment of acne scarring using a dual-spot-size ablative fractionated carbon dioxide laser: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P

    2011-07-01

    Fractional photothermolysis has been reported in the literature to improve pigmentary and textural changes associated with acne scarring. To review the literature for the treatment of acne scarring using nonablative fractional laser (NAFL) and ablative fractional laser (AFL) resurfacing. Review of the Medline literature evaluating NAFL and AFL for acne scarring. NAFL and AFL are safe and effective treatments for acne scarring. It is likely that the controlled, limited dermal heating of fractional resurfacing initiates a cascade of events in which normalization of the collagenesis-collagenolysis cycle occurs. We present the results of a patient treated using a novel dual-spot-size AFL device. Three months after the final treatment, the patient reported 75% improvement in acne scarring and 63% overall improvement in photoaging. Fractionated resurfacing for the treatment of acne scarring is associated with lesser risks of side effects of prolonged erythema and risks of delayed-onset dyspigmentation and scarring which complicate traditional ablative laser resurfacing approaches. We present herein preliminary data suggesting that a dual-spot-size AFL device presents novel advantages of improving texture and pigmentation in acne scarring and photoaging. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  4. Fractional resurfacing in the Asian patient: Current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Chan, Henry Hin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Fractionated photothermolysis (FP) has revolutionized modern laser technology. By creating selective columns of microthermal damage, fractionated devices allows for greater treatment depths to be achieved without the prolonged downtime and risk of complications seen in traditional fully ablative laser resurfacing. Fractional resurfacing is a proven method to treat a variety of cutaneous conditions. In the Caucasian patient, a wide range of devices and treatment settings can be utilized safely and effectively. However, ethnic skin requires special consideration due to its unique pigmentary characteristics and clinical presentations. In this review article, we detail the current indications and strategies to optimize results and mitigate complications when utilizing fractional resurfacing for the Asian patient. A review of the MEDLINE English literature was conducted on fractionated laser devices studied in the Asian population. Articles included describe non-ablative devices including fractionated erbium glass, thulium fiber, diode, and radiofrequency devices; and ablative devices including fractionated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser, erbium yttrium aluminum garnet and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (YSGG) laser. These data were integrated with the expert opinion of the authors. Taking into account the unique characteristics and cosmetic concerns of the Asian population, fractional resurfacing can be considered a safe and effective option for the treatment of atrophic and hypertrophic scarring, and photorejuvenation in ethnic skin types. Select cases of melasma may be treated with fractionated non-ablative devices, but utilized with caution. The predominant complication associated with fractional resurfacing for these conditions is post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and rebound worsening of melasma. A greater number of treatments at lower density settings and wider treatment intervals typically produce the lowest risks of PIH without compromising treatment

  5. Current role of resurfacing lasers.

    PubMed

    Hantash, B M; Gladstone, H B

    2009-06-01

    Resurfacing lasers have been the treatment of choice for diminishing rhytids and tightening skin. The carbon dioxide and erbium lasers have been the gold and silver standards. Despite their effectiveness, these resurfacing lasers have a very high risk profile including scarring, hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Because of these side effects, various practitioners have tried alternative settings for these lasers as well as alternative wavelengths, particularly in the infrared spectrum. These devices have had less downtime, but their effectiveness has been limited to fine wrinkles. As with selective photothemolysis, a major advance in the field has been fractionated resurfacing which incorporates grids of microthermal zones that spares islands of skin. This concept permits less tissue damage and quicker tissue regeneration. Initially, fractionated resurfacing was limited to the nonablative mid-infrared spectrum. These resurfacing lasers is appropriate for those patients with acne scars, uneven skin tone, mild to moderate photodamage, and is somewhat effective for melasma. Importantly, because there is less overall tissue damage and stimulation of melanocytes, these lasers can be used in darker skin types. Downtime is 2-4 days of erythema and scaling. Yet, these nonablative fractionated devices required 5-6 treatments to achieve a moderate effect. Logically, the fractionated resurfacing has now been applied to the CO2 and the Erbium:Yag lasers. These devices can treat deeper wrinkles and tighten skin. Downtime appears to be 5-7 days. The long term effectiveness and the question of whether these fractionated devices will approach the efficacy of the standard resurfacing lasers is still in question. Ultimately either integrated devices which may use fractionated resurfacing, radiofrequency and a sensitizer, or combining different lasers in a single treatment may prove to be the most effective in reducing rhtyides, smoothing the skin topography and tightening the

  6. Recent Advances in Fractional Laser Resurfacing: New Paradigm in Optimal Parameters and Post-Treatment Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Francis C.; Bock, Gerald N.; Eisen, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Laser plays an increasingly prominent role in skin rejuvenation. The advent of fractional photothermolysis revolutionizes its application. Microcolumns of skin are focally injured, leaving intervening normal skin to facilitate rapid wound healing and orderly tissue remodeling. The Problem Even with the popularity of fractional laser devices, we still have limited knowledge about the ideal treatment parameters and postlaser wound care. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Many clinicians believe that higher microbream energy in fractional laser devices results in better clinical outcome. Two recent studies argue against this assumption. One article demonstrates that lower fluence can induce comparable molecular changes with fewer side effects. Another study corroborates this by showing that lower-density settings produce similar clinical outcome in scar remodeling as higher-density ones, but with fewer side effects. To shed light on the optimal post-treatment wound care regimen from fractional ablative resurfacing, another paper shows that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can reduce transepidermal water loss and skin color changes within 1 month after treatment. Clinical Care Relevance For fractional nonablative resurfacing, lower settings in fluence or density may produce similar dermal remodeling as higher settings and with a better side-effect profile. Moreover, autologous PRP appears to expedite wound healing after fractional ablative resurfacing. Conclusion Lower microbeam energy in fractional laser resurfacing produces similar molecular changes and clinical outcome with fewer side effects. The findings might portend a shift in the paradigm of treatment parameters. Autologous PRP can facilitate better wound healing, albeit modestly. Long-term follow-ups and larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:24527307

  7. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians.

    PubMed

    Chan, Nicola P Y; Ho, Stephanie G Y; Yeung, Chi K; Shek, Samantha Y N; Chan, Henry H

    2010-11-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) is a new modality for photorejuvenation and acne scars which combines carbon dioxide (CO₂) laser ablation with fractional photothermolysis. The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of a new fractional CO₂ ablative device (Fraxel Re:pair) for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. Nine patients underwent one full-face treatment. The energy levels ranged from 30-70 mJ with coverage between 30% and 45%. Improvement in skin texture, laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, overall pigmentation irregularity, and adverse effects were assessed up to 6 months post-treatment. Standardized photographs using the Canfield Visia CR system® were assessed by two independent observers. Subjective improvement was assessed by patient questionnaires. Nine Chinese patients (skin types III and IV, mean age 44.8) were included. Statistically significant improvements were seen for skin texture, skin laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, and acne scars. The post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation rate was 55.5% and 11.1% at 1 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively. Eighty-six percent of patients were overall satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment. Ablative fractional CO₂ laser resurfacing was overall safe and effective for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. However, in view of the high post-inflammatory rate and the statistically significant but only mild to moderate improvement after a single treatment as observed in this study, there is a need to review the current role of fractional ablative CO₂ laser treatment as compared to fractional non-ablative for skin rejuvenation and acne scar treatment in Asians. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Non-ablative Er:YAG laser therapy effect on stress urinary incontinence related to quality of life and sexual function: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Blaganje, Mija; Šćepanović, Darija; Žgur, Lidija; Verdenik, Ivan; Pajk, Franja; Lukanović, Adolf

    2018-05-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common complaint in women after childbirth. It affects their quality of life and sexual satisfaction and is one of the major reasons for gynaecological surgery. There is a need for effective non-invasive treatment alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of non-ablative Er:YAG laser therapy in the treatment of SUI and improvement of sexual gratification in parous women. 114 premenopausal parous women with SUI were randomized in two groups of 57 women; a laser intervention group and sham group. Both groups were treated according to the IncontiLase ® clinical treatment protocol for SUI with non-ablative thermal-only Er:YAG laser, except that there was no energy output when treating the sham group. Patients were blinded to the allocation. At baseline and 3 months after treatment patients were clinically examined, answered questionnaires for SUI severity and sexual function assessment and their pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function was assessed with perineometry. Validated International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) was used as the primary outcome measure. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire short form (PISQ-12) and The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) were used to assess the sexual function. Patients were monitored for discomfort and side-effects during treatment and follow-up period. 3 months after treatment the ICIQ-UI SF (p < 0.001), PISQ-12 (p = 0.014) and FSFI (p = 0.025) scores were significantly more improved in the laser group than in the sham control group. All perineometry variables improved in the laser group after treatment; duration and maximum pressure had statistically significantly better improvement than the sham group, whereas average pressure did not. 21% of laser treated patients were dry (ICIQ-UI SF = 0) at follow up compared to only 4% of the sham control patients

  9. Hypertrophic Scarring of the Neck Following Ablative Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Avram, Mathew M.; Tope, Whitney D.; Yu, Thomas; Szachowicz, Edward; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Background Ablative fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatments have gained popularity due to their efficacy, shortened downtime, and decreased potential for scarring in comparison to traditional ablative CO2 resurfacing. To date, scarring with fractional CO2 lasers has not been reported. Objective Five patients treated with the same fractional CO2 laser technology for photodamage of the neck were referred to our practices 1–3 months after treatment. Each patient developed scarring. Of the five cases, two are discussed in detail. The first was treated under general anesthesia on the face and anterior neck at a pulse energy of 30 mJ (859 μm depth) with 25% coverage. Eleven days after treatment, three non-healing areas along the horizontal skin folds of the anterior neck were noted. At 2 weeks after CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing, these areas had become thickened. These raised areas were treated with a non-ablative fractionated 1,550 nm laser to modify the wound healing milieu. One week later, distinct firm pale papules in linear arrays with mild hypopigmentation had developed along involved neck skin folds. Skin biopsy was performed. For the second patient, the neck was treated at a pulse energy of 20 mJ (630 μm depth) with 30% coverage of the exposed skin, with a total treatment energy of 5.0 kJ. Minimal crusting was noted on the neck throughout the initial healing phase of 2 weeks. She then experienced tightness on her neck. Approximately 3 weeks after treatment, she developed multiple vertical and horizontal hypertrophic scars (HS). Results Histopathology for the first case confirmed the presence of a hypertrophic scar. The papules in this case completely resolved with mild residual hypopigmentation after treatment with topical corticosteroids. HS failed to resolve in the second case to date after 1 month. Conclusion As with traditional ablative CO2 laser resurfacing, HS is a potential complication of ablative fractional CO2 laser resurfacing

  10. The Safety and Efficacy of Treatment With a 1,927-nm Diode Laser With and Without Topical Hydroquinone for Facial Hyperpigmentation and Melasma in Darker Skin Types.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen

    2018-04-13

    The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser is theoretically a safe and effective treatment for hyperpigmentation and melasma in darker skin and may potentiate topical cosmeceutical delivery. To evaluate the use of a nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser with and without topical 2% hydroquinone (HQ) cream for moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V. Forty adults underwent 4 laser treatments at 2-week intervals and were randomized to daily application of 2% HQ cream or moisturizer. Follow-ups were conducted 4 and 12 weeks after the final laser treatment. Hydroquinone and moisturizer groups demonstrated Mottled Pigmentation Area and Severity Index improvements of approximately 50% at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Blinded investigator-assessed hyperpigmentation and photodamage improved significantly for both the groups at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Subject satisfaction improved significantly in both the groups by post-treatment Week 4. Although investigator-rated Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores were significantly better in the HQ group at post-treatment Week 12, satisfaction was higher among those using moisturizer. No adverse events were noted. The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser produced significant improvement in hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V by 4 weeks, with maintenance of results at 12 weeks after treatment even without HQ.

  11. Techniques for Optimizing Surgical Scars, Part 3: Erythema, Hyperpigmentation, and Hypopigmentation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kathryn; Konda, Sailesh; Ren, Vicky Zhen; Wang, Apphia Lihan; Srinivasan, Aditya; Chilukuri, Suneel

    2018-01-01

    Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 3 focuses on scar revision for erythema, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation. Scar revision options for erythematous scars include moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), onion extract, silicone, methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT), pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and nonablative fractional lasers. Hyperpigmented scars may be treated with tyrosinase inhibitors, IPL, and nonablative fractional lasers. Hypopigmented scars may be treated with needle dermabrasion, medical tattoos, autologous cell transplantation, prostaglandin analogues, retinoids, calcineurin inhibitors, excimer laser, and nonablative fractional lasers.

  12. Assessment of the efficacy of nonablative long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatment of wrinkles compared at 2, 4, and 6 months.

    PubMed

    Trelles, M A; Alvarez, X; Martín-Vázquez, M J; Trelles, O; Velez, M; Levy, J L; Allones, I

    2005-05-01

    Rhytides represent an aesthetic problem for a large percentage of the population. Many methods, both noninvasive and invasive, have been used for the treatment of wrinkles. Recently, the long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser has been shown to enhance dermal collagen synthesis without damaging the epidermis. The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate the use of the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the nonablative treatment of periocular and perioral wrinkles. Ten patients with facial wrinkles were treated with the long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, at a spot size of 5 mm in diameter, energy density of 13 J/cm2, exposure time per pulse of 300 microseconds, and a repetition rate of 7 Hz. All patients had a total of three treatments, once every 2 weeks. Subjective (patient satisfaction index [SI]) and objective (both physician- and computer program-based clinical index [CI]) assessments were performed before the first and third treatment sessions, and at 2, 4, and 6 months after the last treatment. At 6 months after the final treatment session, the patients' subjective SI was maintained at 40%, and had peaked at 50% 2 months after the final session. Physician assessment showed a CI of 40% at the 6-month assessment point and the computer program showed a 50% CI. The greatest level of effect with long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser nonablative skin rejuvenation for facial wrinkles was seen 2 months after the final treatment. Effects were still visible at the 6-month period, but showed a tendency to decrease. Maintenance treatments are required to achieve good patient satisfaction.

  13. Laser-induced transepidermal elimination of dermal content by fractional photothermolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantash, Basil M.; Bedi, Vikramaditya P.; Sudireddy, Vasanthi; Struck, Steven K.; Herron, G. Scott; Chan, Kin Foong

    2006-07-01

    The wound healing process in skin is studied in human subjects treated with fractional photothermolysis. In-vivo histological evaluation of vacuoles formed over microthermal zones (MTZs) and their content is undertaken. A 30-W, 1550-nm single-mode fiber laser system delivers an array of 60 µm or 140 µm 1/e2 incidence microbeam spot size at variable pulse energy and density. Treatments span from 6 to 20 mJ with skin excisions performed 1-day post-treatment. Staining with hematoxylin and eosin demonstrates an intact stratum corneum with vacuolar formation within the epidermis. The re-epithelialization process with repopulation of melanocytes and keratinocytes at the basal layer is apparent by 1-day post-treatment. The dermal-epidermal (DE) junction is weakened and separated just above zones of dermal coagulation. Complete loss of dermal cell viability is noted within the confines of the MTZs 1-day post-treatment, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase. All cells falling outside the irradiation field remain viable. Content within the epidermal vacuoles stain positively with Gomori trichrome, suggesting a dermal origin. However, the positive staining could be due to loss of specificity after thermal alteration. Nevertheless, this dermal extrusion hypothesis is supported by very specific positive staining with an antihuman elastin antibody. Fractional photothermolysis creates microthermal lesions that allow transport and extrusion of dermal content through a compromised DE junction. Some dermal material is incorporated into the microepidermal necrotic debris and shuttled up the epidermis to eventually be exfoliated through the stratum corneum. This is the first report of a nonablative laser-induced transport mechanism by which dermal content can be predictably extruded biologically through the epidermis. Thus, treatment with the 1550-nm fiber laser may provide the first therapeutic option for clinical indications, including pigmentary disorders such as medically

  14. Combination of fractional erbium-glass laser and topical therapy in melasma resistant to triple-combination cream.

    PubMed

    Tourlaki, Athanasia; Galimberti, Michela Gianna; Pellacani, Giovanni; Bencini, Pier Luca

    2014-06-01

    Melasma is a common melanosis often difficult to treat. The aim of this paper was to report on the safety and efficacy of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis combined with the use of triple-combination cream (TCC) on a large population with melasma resistant (i.e., with no complete/near-complete clearing) to TCC alone. Seventy-six patients with resistant melasma underwent a combined treatment protocol. The protocol consisted of a TCC (hydroquinone 4%, retinoic acid 0.03%, hydrocortisone butyrate 0.1%) applied daily for 10 days followed by four laser treatments performed in 3-week intervals with a fractional 1540-nm erbium-glass laser. During these intervals, and for 3 months after the last laser session, TCC was also applied daily following a "pulse-therapy" scheme. Improvement was assessed by the melasma-area-and-severity-index (MASI) score. At 1 month, marked (>75%) and moderate (51-75%) clearing of melasma were observed in 46 of 76 (67.1%) and 12 of 76 (21%) cases, respectively. At 6 months, we noticed a marked improvement in 16 of 76 (21.1%) and no improvement in 33 of 76 (43.4%) patients. Our study proposes the combination of NFP/TCC as a useful therapy for patients with melasma resistant to TCC alone, but it shows that its long-term efficacy is limited.

  15. Histologic effects of resurfacing lasers.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Joshua R; Greene, Ryan M; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-02-01

    By utilizing resurfacing lasers, physicians can significantly improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin, scars, and more. The carbon dioxide and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers were the first ablative resurfacing lasers to offer impressive results although these earlier treatments were associated with significant downtime. Later, nonablative resurfacing lasers such as the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser proved effective, after a series of treatments with less downtime, but with more modest results. The theory of fractional photothermolysis has revolutionized resurfacing laser technology by increasing the safety profile of the devices while delivering clinical efficacy. A review of the histologic and molecular consequences of the resurfacing laser-tissue interaction allows for a better understanding of the devices and their clinical effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Improving the outcome of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing using a probiotic skin cream: Preliminary clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Giovanni; Cinque, Benedetta; La Torre, Cristina; Lombardi, Francesca; Palumbo, Paola; Romano, Lucia; Mattei, Antonella; Orsini, Gino; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Giuliani, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    As known, fractional CO 2 resurfacing treatments are more effective than non-ablative ones against aging signs, but post-operative redness and swelling prolong the overall downtime requiring up to steroid administration in order to reduce these local systems. In the last years, an increasing interest has been focused on the possible use of probiotics for treating inflammatory and allergic conditions suggesting that they can exert profound beneficial effects on skin homeostasis. In this work, the Authors report their experience on fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing and provide the results of a new post-operative topical treatment with an experimental cream containing probiotic-derived active principles potentially able to modulate the inflammatory reaction associated to laser-treatment. The cream containing DermaACB (CERABEST™) was administered post-operatively to 42 consecutive patients who were treated with fractional CO 2 laser. All patients adopted the cream twice a day for 2 weeks. Grades were given according to outcome scale. The efficacy of the cream containing DermaACB was evaluated comparing the rate of post-operative signs vanishing with a control group of 20 patients topically treated with an antibiotic cream and a hyaluronic acid based cream. Results registered with the experimental treatment were good in 22 patients, moderate in 17, and poor in 3 cases. Patients using the study cream took an average time of 14.3 days for erythema resolution and 9.3 days for swelling vanishing. The post-operative administration of the cream containing DermaACB induces a quicker reduction of post-operative erythema and swelling when compared to a standard treatment.

  17. In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin.

    PubMed

    Balu, Mihaela; Lentsch, Griffin; Korta, Dorota Z; König, Karsten; Kelly, Kristen M; Tromberg, Bruce J; Zachary, Christopher B

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in skin appearance resulting from treatment with fractionated picosecond-lasers have been noted, but optimizing the treatment efficacy depends on a thorough understanding of the specific skin response. The development of non-invasive laser imaging techniques in conjunction with laser therapy can potentially provide feedback for guidance and optimizing clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the capability of multiphoton microscopy (MPM), a high-resolution, label-free imaging technique, to characterize in vivo the skin response to a fractionated non-ablative picosecond-laser treatment. Two areas on the arm of a volunteer were treated with a fractionated picosecond laser at the Dermatology Clinic, UC Irvine. The skin response to treatment was imaged in vivo with a clinical MPM-based tomograph at 3 hours and 24 hours after treatment and seven additional time points over a 4-week period. MPM revealed micro-injuries present in the epidermis. Pigmented cells were particularly damaged in the process, suggesting that melanin is likely the main absorber for laser induced optical breakdown. Damaged individual cells were distinguished as early as 3 hours post pico-laser treatment with the 532 nm wavelength, and 24 hours post-treatment with both 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths. At later time points, clusters of cellular necrotic debris were imaged across the treated epidermis. After 24 hours of treatment, inflammatory cells were imaged in the proximity of epidermal micro-injuries. The epidermal injuries were exfoliated over a 4-week period. This observational and descriptive pilot study demonstrates that in vivo MPM imaging can be used non-invasively to provide label-free contrast for describing changes in human skin following a fractionated non-ablative laser treatment. The results presented in this study represent the groundwork for future longitudinal investigations on an expanded number of subjects to understand the response to treatment

  18. Is the Fractional Laser Still Effective in Assisting Cutaneous Macromolecule Delivery in Barrier-Deficient Skin? Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis as the Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Sung, Calvin T; Liu, Pei-Ying; Fang, Jia-You

    2018-04-26

    Most of the investigations into laser-assisted skin permeation have used the intact skin as the permeation barrier. Whether the laser is effective in improving cutaneous delivery via barrier-defective skin is still unclear. In this study, ablative (Er:YAG) and non-ablative (Er:glass) lasers were examined for the penetration of peptide and siRNA upon topical application on in vitro skin with a healthy or disrupted barrier. An enhanced peptide flux (6.9 fold) was detected after tape stripping of the pig stratum corneum (SC). A further increase of flux to 11.7 fold was obtained after Er:YAG laser irradiation of the SC-stripped skin. However, the application of Er:glass modality did not further raise the flux via the SC-stripped skin. A similar trend was observed in the case of psoriasiform skin. Conversely, the flux was enhanced 3.7 and 2.6 fold after treatment with the Er:YAG and the Er:glass laser on the atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin. The 3-D skin structure captured by confocal microscopy proved the distribution of peptide and siRNA through the microchannels and into the surrounding tissue. The fractional laser was valid for ameliorating macromolecule permeation into barrier-disrupted skin although the enhancement level was lower than that of normal skin.

  19. Current Status of Fractional Laser Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Carniol, Paul J; Hamilton, Mark M; Carniol, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    Fractional lasers were first developed based on observations of lasers designed for hair transplantation. In 2007, ablative fractional laser resurfacing was introduced. The fractionation allowed deeper tissue penetration, leading to greater tissue contraction, collagen production and tissue remodeling. Since then, fractional erbium:YAG resurfacing lasers have also been introduced. These lasers have yielded excellent results in treating photoaging, acne scarring, and dyschromia. With the adjustment of microspot density, pulse duration, number of passes, and fluence, the surgeon can adjust the treatment effects. These lasers have allowed surgeons to treat patients with higher Fitzpatrick skin types (types IV to VI) and greater individualize treatments to various facial subunits. Immunohistochemical analysis has demonstrated remodeling effects of the tissues for several months, producing longer lasting results. Adjuvant treatments are also under investigation, including concomitant face-lift, product deposition, and platelet-rich plasma. Finally, there is a short recovery time from treatment with these lasers, allowing patients to resume regular activities more quickly. Although there is a relatively high safety profile for ablative fractionated lasers, surgeons should be aware of the limitations of specific treatments and the associated risks and complications.

  20. A review of melasma treatment focusing on laser and light devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Janet Y; Geddes, Elizabeth Rc; Robinson, Deanne M; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-12-01

    Melasma is a pigmentary disorder of unclear etiology with numerous treatment options and high recurrence rates. Laser and light therapies may be utilized cautiously as second- or third-line options for recalcitrant melasma, but low-energy settings are preferred due to the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and melasma stimulation. Commonly used lasers include the low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, nonablative fractionated lasers, and intense pulsed light. Strict sun protection, concomitant use of bleaching agents, and maintenance treatments are necessary. A variety of other treatments that may also help to improve results are now being more widely adopted, including oral tranexamic acid, pulsed dye laser, antioxidants, and laser-assisted drug delivery. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  1. Evaluation of a combined laser-radio frequency device (Polaris WR) for the nonablative treatment of facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Kulick, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Nonablative wrinkle reduction or skin tightening is desired by individuals who, ideally, hope to have the skin improvement associated with chemical or laser ablative techniques but without the undesirable recovery process. Electro-optical synergy (ELOS) technology that combines radio frequency (RF) and diode laser energy (900 nm) was used to treat 15 patients in this IRB sanctioned study. Energy settings were based on the depth of wrinkles (the greater the depth and concentration of wrinkles, the higher the RF setting) and ranged from 50-100 J/cm2 RF and 15 J/cm2 for the optical, laser component. Patients received three full-face treatments, and results were evaluated by comparison of standardized photographs and patient questionnaire given prior to each treatment and one month after the third treatment. The primary investigator and three other "blinded" physicians evaluated these photographs using Fitzpatrick's wrinkle classification to assess the improvement, if any, between the initial and final visit. Eight patients completed the study. Explanation for the exclusion of the remaining six patients were: one decided to have surgery, two felt the treatment was too painful, and three moved out of the area. Following treatment, all patients had mild swelling (resolved <48 hours) and skin hyperemia (resolved <24 hours). Results observed one month after the last treatment in eight patients demonstrated an average of 25% reduction in skin wrinkles (range 14%-32%). There were no adverse side effects. The major concern of the patients was the discomfort associated with the treatment. As part of an FDA investigation to assess efficacy, long-term follow-up was not a part of this study protocol.

  2. Efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser versus fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of facial skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira

    2017-02-01

    Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides. Few studies have compared fractional CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers on cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. The aim of the present study was to compare these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face design with multiple sessions and larger sample size compared to previous studies done before. Forty patients with facial wrinkles were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three monthly treatments on each side of the face, one with a fractional CO 2 and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser. The evaluations included investigating clinical outcome determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of cheeks using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, possible side effects and patients' satisfaction have been recorded at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the last treatment session. Clinical assessment showed both modalities significantly reduce facial wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no appreciable difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious long-standing adverse effect after both laser treatments, but the discomfort was more pronounced by the participants after CO 2 laser treatment. According to the present study, both fractional CO 2 and fractional Er:YAG lasers show considerable clinical improvement of facial skin wrinkles with no serious adverse effects, but post-treatment discomfort seems to be lower with Er:YAG laser.

  3. ASDS Guidelines Task Force: Consensus Recommendations Regarding the Safety of Lasers, Dermabrasion, Chemical Peels, Energy Devices, and Skin Surgery During and After Isotretinoin Use.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Abigail; Bolotin, Diana; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S; Geronemus, Roy G; Chapas, Anne; Iyengar, Sanjana; Kilmer, Suzanne L; Krakowski, Andrew C; Lawrence, Naomi; Prather, Heidi B; Rohrer, Thomas E; Schlosser, Bethanee J; Kim, John Y S; Shumaker, Peter R; Spring, Leah K; Alam, Murad

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) package insert contains language advising the discontinuation of isotretinoin for 6 months before performing cosmetic procedures, including waxing, dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser procedures, or incisional and excisional cold-steel surgery. It is common practice to follow this standard because of concerns regarding reports of sporadic adverse events and increased risk of scarring. To develop expert consensus regarding the safety of skin procedures, including resurfacing, energy device treatments, and incisional and excisional procedures, in the setting of concurrent or recent isotretinoin use. The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery authorized a task force of content experts to review the evidence and provide guidance. First, data were extracted from the literature. This was followed by a clinical question review, a consensus Delphi process, and validation of the results by peer review. The task force concluded that there is insufficient evidence to justify delaying treatment with superficial chemical peels and nonablative lasers, including hair removal lasers and lights, vascular lasers, and nonablative fractional devices for patients currently or recently exposed to isotretinoin. Superficial and focal dermabrasion may also be safe when performed by a well-trained clinician.

  4. Treatment of melasma with low fluence, large spot size, 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for the treatment of melasma in Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alia S; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Melasma is a common condition affecting over six million American women. Treatment of dermal or combined melasma is difficult and does not respond well to conventional topical therapies. Various light sources have been used recently in the treatment of melasma including fractionated ablative and non-ablative lasers as well as intense pulse light. We report the use of low fluence, large spot size Q-switched, Nd:Yag laser for the treatment of melasma in skin types II-IV.

  5. Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractionated CO2 laser technology has allowed physicians to resurface patients with a lower rate of complications than nonfractionated ablative laser treatment. Unfortunately, adverse effects can still occur even with the best technology and physician care. Complication prevention, detection, and treatment are an important part of a physician's ability to provide the best result when treating a patient with fractionated CO2 resurfacing. PMID:23904822

  6. Fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing: a review.

    PubMed

    Tajirian, Ani L; Tarijian, Ani L; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Ablative laser technology has been in use for many years now. The large side effect profile however has limited its use. Fractional ablative technology is a newer development which combines a lesser side effect profile along with similar efficacy. In this paper we review fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing.

  7. Non-ablative hyperthermic mesenchymal regeneration: a proposed mechanism of action based on the Vivev model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Jeffrey A.; Livengood, Ryan H.; Jessop, Morris; Coad, James E.

    2011-03-01

    Novel non-ablative hyperthermic medical devices are currently being developed, in association with cryogen surface cooling, to rejuvenate tissues without collagen scarring. These devices have been designed to remodel skin, manage urinary stress incontinence, and more recently, treat vaginal laxity. In contrast to the thermal injury and reparative healing associated with higher energy ablation systems, these lower energy non-ablative systems are designed to subtly modify the collagen, stimulate the fibroblasts, and maintain a functional tissue architecture that subsequently promotes tissue rejuvenation and restoration. While these devices have primarily relied on clinical outcome questionnaires and satisfaction surveys to establish efficacy, a physiologic explanation for the induced tissue changes and tightening has not been well documented. Recent histology studies, using the Viveve ovine vaginal treatment model, have identified changes that propose both a mechanism of action and a tissue remodeling timeline for such non-ablative hyperthermic devices. The Viveve model results are consistent with subtle connective tissue changes leading to fibroblast stimulation and subsequent collagen replacement and augmentation. Unlike tissue ablation devices that cause thermal necrosis, these non-ablative devices renew the targeted tissue without dense collagenous scarring over a period of 3 or more months. The spectrum of histologic findings, as illustrated in the Viveve ovine vaginal model, further support the previously documented safety and efficacy profiles for low-dose non-ablative hyperthermic devices that rejuvenate and tighten submucosal tissues.

  8. Direct biological effects of fractional ultrapulsed CO2 laser irradiation on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human organotypic full-thickness 3D skin models.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, L; Huth, S; Amann, P M; Marquardt, Y; Heise, R; Fietkau, K; Huth, L; Steiner, T; Hölzle, F; Baron, J M

    2018-05-01

    Molecular effects of various ablative and non-ablative laser treatments on human skin cells-especially primary effects on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts-are not yet fully understood. We present the first study addressing molecular effects of fractional non-sequential ultrapulsed CO 2 laser treatment using a 3D skin model that allows standardized investigations of time-dependent molecular changes ex vivo. While histological examination was performed to assess morphological changes, we utilized gene expression profiling using microarray and qRT-PCR analyses to identify molecular effects of laser treatment. Irradiated models exhibited dose-dependent morphological changes resulting in an almost complete recovery of the epidermis 5 days after irradiation. On day 5 after laser injury with a laser fluence of 100 mJ/cm 2 , gene array analysis identified an upregulation of genes associated with tissue remodeling and wound healing (e.g., COL12A1 and FGF7), genes that are involved in the immune response (e.g., CXCL12 and CCL8) as well as members of the heat shock protein family (e.g., HSPB3). On the other hand, we detected a downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (e.g., MMP3), differentiation markers (e.g., LOR and S100A7), and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1α.Overall, our findings substantiate the understanding of time-dependent molecular changes after CO 2 laser treatment. The utilized 3D skin model system proved to be a reliable, accurate, and reproducible tool to explore the effects of various laser settings both on skin morphology and gene expression during wound healing.

  9. Nonablative facelift in Indian skin with superpulsed radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    Sharad, Jaishree

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of nonablative superpulsed radiofrequency used for skin tightening and improvement of skin folds in Indian patients. Settings and Design: One hundred patients in the age group of 35-65 years with laxity of skin over face and neck were taken up for study using superpulse radiofrequency. Methods and Materials: Superpulsed radiofrequency is a biterminal, monopolar device which delivers current at the frequency of 1.75 MHz. In this study, current was delivered to the tissue with a capacitive electrode with a diameter of 25 mm. Power of 100-120 W, frequency of 18 Hz and pulse width of 50 ms was used. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, nonparametric Friedman test. Results: Evaluation was done by two independent observers on the basis of comparative photographs taken before treatment and then monthly after treatment for up to 6 months. A quartile grading scale was used. Patient satisfaction scores matched the clinical improvements observed. Ninety four patients completed a 6 month follow up. The age groups taken were 31-40 years, 41-50 years, 51-60 years, and >60 years and various areas were studied. The difference in improvement in all areas except glabellar folds across all age groups was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: Nonablative face lift with a superpulsed radiofrequency machine is a safe, convenient and quick office procedure with excellent cosmetic results. It is noninvasive and there is no downtime. It can be used in all skin types and is safe on Indian skin. Longterm studies of effect of nonablative radiofrequency treatment on Indian skin is required. PMID:23130205

  10. SPF-RR sequential photothermal fractional resurfacing and remodeling with the variable pulse Er:YAG laser and scanner-assisted Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Marini, Leonardo

    2009-12-01

    Many different lasers, polychromatic high-intensity light sources (PCLs), and RF devices have claimed clinical efficacy in rejuvenating the skin. In this study, the sequential combination of two different laser wavelengths was evaluated to produce reliably significant clinical improvements optimizing treatment parameters. The left volar aspects of the forearms of four volunteers were treated with nine different parameter settings using a variable pulsewidth fractional Er:YAG 2940-nm laser with and without air cooling. The pain perception level was recorded on a 0-10 point scale (0=No pain; 10=Most severe pain). Three evaluations were made: during treatment, immediately after treatment, and 5 minutes after treatment. The same investigation was made on the right volar aspects of the same four volunteers using a short-pulse, random pattern, 3-mm spot, scanner-assisted Nd-YAG 1064-nm laser at 0.3 ms pulsewidth at seven different parameter settings. Clinical evaluations were made concerning erythema and edema 3 days after treatment, as well as pre-operative and 60 days postoperative skin texture plus color uniformity. Considering that the majority of cosmetic patients are willing to accept a relatively short and uneventful downtime (2-4 days according to a study we are presently conducting) and do prefer to limit their intra- and postoperative pain to a minimum, the best combination of clinical improvement matching these two important parameters were selected for our study. A treatment strategy combining two sequential passes of long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (Nd:YAG-LP) at 0.3 and 35 ms followed by two passes of long-pulse fractional Er:YAG laser (Er:YAG-FT) at 600 micros was designed to treat the facial regions of 10 volunteers affected by a combination of intrinsic (chrono-) and extrinsic (mostly photo-) aging. The pain perception level was recorded on a 0-10 scale (0=No pain; 10=Most severe pain). Three evaluations were made: during, immediately after, and 5 minutes after

  11. Transcutaneous drug delivery by liposomes using fractional laser technology.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Wang, Jian; Baba, Kazuki; Oki, Yuka; Hiruta, Yuki; Ito, Masayuki; Ito, Shinobu; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2017-07-01

    Transdermal delivery of hydrophilic peptides remains a challenge due to their poor cellular uptake and transdermal penetration. We hypothesize that combination of a CO 2 fractional laser to enhance percutaneous absorption and liposomes as transdermal carriers would improve skin penetration of hydrophilic drugs. NA. Liposomes were prepared using membrane fusion lipid dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, and used to deliver 5-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated ovalbumin (OVA-FITC) as model hydrophilic peptide drugs. Liposome size was estimated by dynamic light scattering. Liposome uptake into murine macrophage cells and penetration or permeation into Yucatan micropig skin after irradiation by CO 2 fractional laser at varying energy levels (laser power and exposure duration) were investigated using Franz cell and fluorescence microscopy. Oxidative damage to the irradiated mouse skin was assessed by electron spin resonance. Size of CF and OVA-FITC encapsulated liposomes was 324 ± 75 nm. Cellular uptake of OVA-FITC delivered by liposomes was 10-fold higher (1,370 relative fluorescence units, RFU) than delivered in solution form (130 RFU). Fractional laser irradiation increased skin permeation rate of CF liposomes (0-10%) and OVA-FITC liposomes (4-40%) in a dose-dependent manner. Although peeling off the stratum corneum facilitated CF liposome penetration at low energy levels (2.69-3.29 J/cm 2 ; 10-20 W for 500 μs), drug permeation was similar (7-8%) in peeled or untreated skin at higher laser energy levels (6.06 J/cm 2 ; 20 W for 1,500 μs). FITC penetrated deeper in the skin after laser irradiation. However, OH, O2-, and VC reactive oxygen species were generated upon irradiation of the skin with a fractional CO 2 laser. Increasing laser power and irradiation, time increased liposome uptake by cells and penetration of peptide drugs across the skin in a dose-dependent manner. High-energy CO 2 fractional laser overcomes the

  12. Parameters in fractional laser assisted delivery of topical anesthetics: Role of laser type and laser settings.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Nieboer, Marilin J; Kezic, Sanja; de Rie, Menno A; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2018-05-07

    Efficacy of topical anesthetics can be enhanced by pretreatment of the skin with ablative fractional lasers. However, little is known about the role of parameters such as laser modality and laser density settings in this technique. Aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with two different ablative fractional laser modalities, a CO 2 laser and an Er:YAG laser, and to assess the role of laser density in ablative fractional laser assisted topical anesthesia. In each of 15 healthy subjects, four 10 × 10 mm test regions on the back were randomized to pretreatment (70-75 μm ablation depth) with CO 2 laser at 5% density, CO 2 laser at 15% density, Er:YAG laser at 5% density or Er:YAG laser at 15% density. Articaine hydrochloride 40 mg/ml + epinephrine 10 μg/ml solution was applied under occlusion to all four test regions. After 15 minutes, a pass with the CO 2 laser (1,500 μm ablation depth) was administered as pain stimulus to each test region. A reference pain stimulus was given on unanesthetized skin. The main outcome parameter, pain, was scored on a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) after each pain stimulus. Median VAS scores were 1.50 [CO 2 5%], 0.50 [CO 2 15%], 1.50 [Er:YAG 5%], 0.43 [Er:YAG 15%], and 4.50 [unanesthetized reference]. VAS scores for all pretreated test regions were significantly lower compared to the untreated reference region (P < 0.01). We found no significant difference in VAS scores between the CO 2 and the Er:YAG laser pretreated regions. However, VAS scores were significantly lower at 15% density compared to 5% density for both for the CO 2 laser (P < 0.05) and the Er:YAG laser (P < 0.01). Pretreatment with the CO 2 laser was considered slightly more painful than pretreatment with Er:YAG laser by the subjects. Fractional laser assisted topical anesthesia is effective even with very low energy settings and an occlusion time of only 15 minutes. Both the CO 2 laser and the Er:YAG laser can

  13. Histologic comparison of microscopic treatment zones induced by fractional lasers and radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min-Kyung; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Ahn, Soo Beom; Lee, Mu Hyoung

    2014-12-01

    Fractional photothermolysis induces microscopic, localized thermal injury in the skin surrounded by undamaged viable tissue in order to promote wound healing. This study evaluated acute histologic changes following each single pass of various fractional lasers and radiofrequency (RF). Three male domestic swine were used. We used fractional Erbium:glass (Er:glass), Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG), CO2 lasers, and fractional ablative microplasma RF. We analyzed features and average values of the diameter, depth, and vertical sectional areas treated with each kind of laser and RF. The microscopic treatment zone (MTZ) of fractional Er:glass resulted in separation of dermoepidermal junction with no ablative zone. Fractional Er:YAG provided the most superficial and broad MTZ with little thermal collateral damage. Fractional CO2 resulted in a narrow and deep "cone"-like MTZ. Fractional RF resulted in a superficial and broad "crater"-like MTZ. This study provides the first comparison of MTZs induced by various fractional lasers and RF. These data provide basic information on proper laser and RF options. We think that these findings could be a good reference for information about fractional laser-assisted drug delivery.

  14. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for vaginal laxity: A preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Kim, Jong Hwan; Seok, Joon; Kim, Jae Min; Bak, Dong-Ho; Choi, Mi-Ji; Mun, Seok Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Ahn, Seungwon; Kim, Beom Joon

    2018-05-07

    Various studies have investigated treatment for vaginal laxity with microablative fractional carbon dioxide CO 2 laser in humans; however, this treatment has not yet been studied in an animal model. Herein, we evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractional CO 2 laser for tissue remodeling of vaginal mucosa using a porcine model, with the aim of improving vaginal laxity. The fractional CO 2 laser enables minimally invasive and non-incisional procedures. By precisely controlling the laser energy pulses, energy is sent to the vaginal canal and the introitus area to induce thermal denaturation and contraction of collagen. We examined the effects of fractional CO 2 laser on a porcine model via clinical observation and ultrasound measurement. Also, thermal lesions were histologically examined via hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and Elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemistry. The three treatment groups, which were determined according to the amount of laser-energy applied (60, 90, and 120 mJ), showed slight thermal denaturation in the vaginal mucosa, but no abnormal reactions, such as excessive hemorrhaging, vesicles, or erythema, were observed. Histologically, we also confirmed that the denatured lamina propria induced by fractional CO 2 laser was dose-dependently increased after laser treatment. The treatment groups also showed an increase in collagen and elastic fibers due to neocollagenesis and angiogenesis, and the vaginal walls became firmer and tighter because of increased capillary and vessel formation. Also, use of the fractional CO 2 laser increased HSP (heat shock protein) 70 and collagen type I synthesis. Our results show that microablative fractional CO 2 laser can produce remodeling of the vaginal connective tissue without causing damage to surrounding tissue, and the process of mucosa remodeling while under wound dressings enables collagen to increase and the vaginal wall to become thick and tightened. Lasers Surg. Med

  15. Noninvasive Transdermal Vaccination Using Hyaluronan Nanocarriers and Laser Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Su; Kim, Hyemin; Park, Yunji; Kong, Won Ho; Lee, Seung Woo; Kwok, Sheldon J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are commonly administered by injection using needles. Although transdermal microneedles are less-invasive promising alternatives, needle-free topical vaccination without involving physical damage to the natural skin barrier is still sought after as it can further reduce needle-induced anxiety and simply administration. However, this long-standing goal has been elusive since the intact skin is impermeable to most macromolecules. Here, we show an efficient, non-invasive transdermal vaccination in mice by employing two key innovations: first, the use of hyaluronan (HA) as vaccine carriers and, second, non-ablative laser adjuvants. Conjugates of a model vaccine ovalbumin (OVA) and HA—HA-OVA conjugates—induced more effective maturation of dendritic cells in vitro, compared to OVA or HA alone, through synergistic HA receptor-mediated effects. Following topical administration in the back skin, HA-OVA conjugates penetrated into the epidermis and dermis in murine and porcine skins up to 30% of the total applied quantity, as revealed by intravital microscopy and quantitative fluorescence assay. Topical administration of HA-OVA conjugates significantly elevated both anti-OVA IgG antibody levels in serum and IgA antibody levels in bronchioalveolar lavage, with peak levels at 4 weeks, while OVA alone had a negligible effect. An OVA challenge at week 8 elicited strong immune-recall humoral responses. With pre-treatment of the skin using non-ablative fractional laser beams (1410 nm wavelength, 10 ms pulse duration, 0.2 mJ/pulse) as laser adjuvant, strong immunization was achieved with much reduced doses of HA-OVA (1 mg/kg OVA). Our results demonstrate the potential of the non-invasive patch-type transdermal vaccination platform. PMID:27833475

  16. Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin.

    PubMed

    Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-06-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylactic therapy. Geriatric volunteers were treated with fractionated laser resurfacing therapy on either sun-protected (upper buttocks) or chronically sun-exposed (dorsal forearm) skin. Fractionated laser resurfacing therapy was shown to decrease the occurrence of senescent fibroblasts in geriatric dermis, increase the dermal expression of IGF-1, and correct the inappropriate UVB response observed in untreated geriatric skin. These responses to fractionated laser resurfacing were equal to the effects seen previously using the more aggressive wounding following dermabrasion. Furthermore, fractionated laser resurfacing was equally effective in both sun-protected and sun-exposed skin. The ability of fractionated laser resurfacing treatment to protect against the occurrence of UVB-damaged proliferating keratinocytes indicates the potential of fractionated laser resurfacing to reduce or prevent aging-associated non-melanoma skin cancer.

  17. Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin

    PubMed Central

    Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A.; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylactic therapy. Geriatric volunteers were treated with fractionated laser resurfacing therapy on either sun-protected (upper buttocks) or chronically sun-exposed (dorsal forearm) skin. Fractionated laser resurfacing therapy was demonstrated to decrease the occurrence of senescent fibroblasts in geriatric dermis, increase the dermal expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, and correct the inappropriate UVB response observed in untreated geriatric skin. These responses to fractionated laser resurfacing were equal to the effects seen previously using the more aggressive wounding following dermabrasion. Furthermore, fractionated laser resurfacing was equally effective in both sun-protected and sun-exposed skin. The ability of fractionated laser resurfacing treatment to protect against the occurrence of UVB-damaged proliferating keratinocytes indicates the potential of fractionated laser resurfacing to reduce or prevent aging-associated non-melanoma skin cancer. PMID:22377757

  18. Laser treatment of solar lentigines on dorsum of hands: QS Ruby laser versus ablative CO2 fractional laser - a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schoenewolf, Nicola L; Hafner, Jürg; Dummer, Reinhard; Bogdan Allemann, Inja

    2015-04-01

    Lentigines solares (LS) on the dorsum of hands are often esthetically disturbing. Q-switched ruby laser treatment is highly effective in the treatment of these lesions. Ablative fractional photothermolysis may be a suitable alternative. We compared the Q-switched ruby laser with ablative CO2 fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of solar lentigines. To evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of 694nm Q-switched ruby laser (Sinon) with the ablative 10,600nm CO2 fractional laser (Quantel Excel O2) in an intra-individual side-to-side comparison in the treatment of LS on the dorsum of hands. Eleven patients were included in the study. The hands of each patient were randomized for treatment with the two laser systems. Three treatment sessions were scheduled at weeks 0, 4 and 8. Evaluations by patients, treating physician and blinded experts were scheduled at weeks 0, 4, 8, 16 and 24. The Q-switched ruby laser was significantly more efficacious than the ablative CO2 fractional laser for removing LS on the dorsum of hands (p = 0.01). In this first study on this topic, the Q-switched ruby laser was superior to the ablative CO2 fractional laser in the treatment of lentigines solares on the dorsum of hands.

  19. Fractional CO₂ Laser Pretreatment Facilitates Transdermal Delivery of Two Vitamin C Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Hu, Sindy; Huang, Yau-Li; Huang, Chun-Hsun

    2016-11-16

    Topical vitamin C derivatives have been used to treat melasma and used as a skin whitener. The aim of this study was to compare skin histology and permeation of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium salt (MAP-1) and magnesium l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (MAP-2) after fractional CO₂ laser pretreatment. The effect of fractional laser treatment on porcine skin was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. The effect of fractional CO₂ laser treatment of different fluencies and pass numbers on transdermal flux of the two vitamin C derivatives through porcine skin was examined in vitro using a Franz diffusion chamber. Fluxes of MAP-1 and MAP-2 across fractional CO₂ laser-treated (5 W) skin were eight- to 13-fold, and 20- to 22-fold higher, respectively, than the fluxes of these compounds across intact skin. Fluxes of MAP-1 and MAP-2 across fractional CO₂ laser-treated (9 W) skin were 14- to 19-fold, and 30- to 42-fold higher, respectively, than their fluxes across intact skin. Fractional CO₂ laser treatment is an effective way of delivering vitamin C derivatives into the skin.

  20. Comparative study of fractional CO2 laser and fractional CO2 laser-assisted drug delivery of topical steroid and topical vitamin C in macular amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sobhi, Rehab Mohamed; Sharaoui, Iman; El Nabarawy, Eman Ahmad; El Nemr Esmail, Reham Shehab; Hegazy, Rehab Aly; Aref, Dina Hesham Fouad

    2018-05-01

    Macular amyloidosis (MA) represents a common variant of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis. It has a characteristic female predominance; none of the treatment modalities described is either curative or uniformly effective in patients with macular amyloidosis. To determine the effect of fractional CO 2 laser in macular amyloidosis in comparison to fractional CO 2 laser-assisted drug delivery of topical steroids and topical vitamin C, the study includes 10 female patients with cutaneous macular amyloidosis aged between 20 and 62 years. Patients were treated with four sessions of fractional CO 2 laser with 4 weeks interval. Laser treatments were performed using fractional CO 2 laser with the following parameters (power 18 W, spacing 800 μm, dwell time 600 μs, stacking 3). The lesion is divided into three areas: area 1, treated by fractional laser only; area 2, treated by fractional laser followed by topical corticosteroid application under occlusion for 24 h; and area 3, treated by fractional laser followed by topical vitamin C serum application under occlusion for 24 h. All lesions were examined clinically and histologically before the therapy and 1 month after the end of the therapy to evaluate the degree of improvement. All treated areas show significant decrease in pigmentation score after treatment, significant drop in rippling (P value < 0.016), and improvement of lichenification; as regards the histological improvement, there was a significant decrease of the amyloid amount after treatment. As regards the amyloid amount, results show significant decrease in the amount of amyloid in all of the three treated areas. Area 2 reported the highest decrease in the amyloid amount followed by areas 1 and 3. One patient (10%) was highly satisfied by the treatment, 6 (60%) reported moderate degree of satisfaction, while only 3 (30%) reported mild satisfaction. Minimal complication occurred in the form of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in 1 patient

  1. Significant skin-tightening by closure of fractional ablative laser holes.

    PubMed

    Russe, Elisabeth; Purschke, Martin; Limpiangkanan, Wikunda; Farinelli, William A; Wang, Ying; Doukas, Apostolos G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Wechselberger, Gottfried; Anderson, Richard Rox

    2018-01-01

    Ablative fractional laser treatment uses thousands of very small laser beam wounds to damage a fraction of the skin, which stimulates tissue remodeling. Each open micro-wound heals without scarring, but the amount of skin tightening achieved is limited. This animal study was performed to test the hypothesis that immediate temporary closure of fractional laser wounds could increase skin tightening after fractional ablative laser treatment. Four adult swine were used for the study; 98 square test sites (3 × 3 cm) were tattooed on the abdomen and flanks of each pig. An ablative fractional Erbium:YAG laser (Sciton Profile, Sciton Inc, Palo Alto, CA) was used to treat the test areas. A laser micro-spot fluence of 375 J/cm 2 was delivered in 150-250 microseconds pulses, resulting in an array of ablation channels extending 1.5 mm deep into the skin, with a spot size of 250 µm, with 10% treatment density. Immediately following laser exposure the resulting holes were closed using a stretched elastic adhesive dressing, which, when applied, recoiled and compressed the diameter of the ablation holes. The compressive dressings were removed after 7 days. This procedure was compared to removing the same amount of skin (10%) mechanically by specially designed 19 gauge coring needles, as well as to the same laser and coring methods without compression closure. Area and shape of test sites were measured by digital photography before and 28 days after treatment. Data analysis included compensation for animal growth, as measured by increase in the area of the untreated control sites. All treated and control sites healed within a week, without scarring evident at 28 days. Laser treatment combined with compressive wound closure caused significant shrinkage at 28 days compared with untreated control sites. The treated skin area was reduced by 11.5% (P = 0.0001). Needle coring with wound closure produced similar, significant shrinkage (8%, P < 0.0021), whereas laser

  2. Comparison of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser and fractional carbon dioxide laser for the treatment of solar lentigines in Asians.

    PubMed

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Panmanee, Wikanda; Techapichetvanich, Thanya; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart

    2016-04-01

    Solar lentigines are benign pigmented lesions that occur mostly on sun-exposed areas. Q-switched and ablative lasers are effective for removing these lesions but the high incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation raises concern in darker skin types. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and degree of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with the Q-switched Nd:YAG and fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser for treatment of solar lentigines in Asians. Twenty-five Thai patients (skin phototype III-IV) with at least two lesions of solar lentigines on upper extremities were enrolled in this study. Two lesions were randomly selected for the treatment with a single session of Q-switched Nd:YAG or fractional CO2 laser. Outcomes were evaluated using physician grading scale, colorimeter, and patient self-assessment at 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. Side effects were recorded. A total of 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser showed significant improvement of pigmentation over fractional CO2 laser at 6th and 12th week by both colorimeter assessment and physician grading scale (P < 0.05). No significant difference in postinflammatory hyperpigmentation from both lasers was observed. In terms of patient self-assessment, 80% of the patients treated with 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser had excellent results compared to 8% in fractional CO2 laser group. However, fractional CO2 laser treatment had faster healing time and less pain score compared to Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Q-switched Nd:YAG is superior to fractional CO2 laser for treatment of solar lentigines but requires longer healing time and produces more pain. The incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was not significantly different with both lasers. Further studies are needed to obtain the proper parameter and the treatment frequency of fractional CO2 laser in solar lentigines. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Techniques for Optimizing Surgical Scars, Part 2: Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kathryn; Konda, Sailesh; Ren, Vicky Zhen; Wang, Apphia Lihan; Srinivasan, Aditya; Chilukuri, Suneel

    2017-01-01

    Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 2 focuses on scar revision for hypertrophic and keloids scars. Scar revision options for hypertrophic and keloid scars include corticosteroids, bleomycin, fluorouracil, verapamil, avotermin, hydrogel scaffold, nonablative fractional lasers, ablative and fractional ablative lasers, pulsed dye laser (PDL), flurandrenolide tape, imiquimod, onion extract, silicone, and scar massage.

  4. Efficacy of long pulse Nd:YAG laser versus fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of hand wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira; Shafiee, Anoosh; Namazi, Nastaran; Talebi, Atefeh

    2018-04-01

    There are different modalities for hand rejuvenation. Fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser were introduced for treating hand wrinkles. We plan to compare fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser in a randomized controlled double-blind design with multiple sessions and larger sample size in comparison with previous studies. Thirty-three participants with hand wrinkles entered this study. They were randomly allocated to undergo three monthly laser treatments on each hand, one with a fractional Er:YAG laser and the other with a long pulse Nd:YAG laser. The evaluations included assessment of clinical improvement determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of hands using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, potential side effects and patients' satisfaction have been documented at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the final treatment session. Clinical evaluation revealed both modalities significantly reduce hand wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no significant difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to those of the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious persistent side effect after both laser treatments. Both fractional Er:YAG and long pulse Nd:YAG lasers show substantial clinical improvement of hand skin wrinkles with no serious side effects. However, combination treatment by these lasers along with the other modalities such as fat transfer could lead to better outcomes in hand rejuvenation. IRCT2016032020468N4.

  5. Fractional photothermolysis laser treatment of male pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Hye In; Lee, Jin Woong; Lim, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Won Serk

    2011-01-01

    Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL). A variety of laser and light sources have been used for the treatment of MPHL. To understand the effects of a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser on the hair cycle in an alopecia mouse model and to study the clinical effects of the same laser used as treatment for MPHL. Irradiation was applied to the shaved skin of C3H/HeN mice using various energy and density settings and varied irradiation intervals. In a clinical pilot study involving human subjects, 20 participants were treated over five sessions at 2-week intervals. A fractional photothermolysis laser was used at the energy of 5 mJ and a total density of 300 spots/cm(2). In the animal study, the hair stimulation effects were dependent upon the energy level, density, and irradiation interval. The anagen conversion of hair and the increase in Wnt 5a, β-catenin signals were observed. In the human pilot study, incremental improvements in hair density and growth rate were observed. This pilot study showed that a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser might induce hair growth, but more intensive studies are required to clarify the clinical applications of this treatment. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  6. Fractional CO2 laser is as effective as Q-switched ruby laser for the initial treatment of a traumatic tattoo.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Grunewald, Sonja; Wagner, Justinus A; Simon, Jan C; Paasch, Uwe

    2014-12-01

    Q-switched laser treatments are considered the standard method for removing both regular and traumatic tattoos. Recently, the removal of tattoo ink using ablative fractional lasers has been reported. Ablative fractional CO2 laser and q-switched ruby laser treatments were used in a split-face mode to compare the safety and efficacy of the two types of laser in removing a traumatic tattoo caused by the explosion of a firework. A male patient suffering from a traumatic tattoo due to explosive deposits in his entire face was subjected to therapy. A series of eleven treatments were performed. The right side of the face was always treated using an ablative fractional CO2 laser, whereas the left side was treated only using a q-switched ruby laser. After a series of eleven treatments, the patient demonstrated a significant lightening on both sides of his traumatic tattoo, with no clinical difference. After the first six treatments, the patient displayed greater lightening on the right side of his face, whereas after another five treatments, the left side of the patient's face appeared lighter. No side effects were reported. In the initial stage of removing the traumatic tattoo, the ablative fractional laser treatment appeared to be as effective as the standard ruby laser therapy. However, from the 6th treatment onward, the ruby laser therapy was more effective. Although ablative fractional CO2 lasers have the potential to remove traumatic tattoos, they remain a second-line treatment option.

  7. Laser Corrective Surgery with Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Following Full-thickness Skin Grafts.

    PubMed

    Forbat, Emily; Ali, Faisal R; Mallipeddi, Raj; Al-Niaimi, Firas

    2017-01-01

    Full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs) are frequently used to treat patients with burn injuries and to repair defects rendered by excisional (including Mohs) surgery. The evidence for corrective laser surgery after scar formation is well established. With regard to laser treatment of FTSG, the evidence is sparse. Laser treatment after FTSG is a novel concept, with minimal literature. We present a case series, one of the first to our knowledge, of the treatment of FTSG with fractional CO 2 laser in five patients after Mohs surgery.

  8. Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Böhler, C.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

  9. Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser in Skin Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to confirm the efficiency and safety of the fractional CO2 laser in skin renewal and to check the possibility of having a synergistic effect in patients who besides carbon dioxide laser are treated with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) too. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The first group (Examined Group 1 or EG1) included 107 patients treated with fractional CO2 laser (Lutronic eCO2) as mono-therapy. The second group (Control Group or CG) covered 100 patients treated with neither laser nor plasma in the same period but subjected to local therapy with drugs or other physio-procedures under the existing protocols for treatment of certain diseases. The third group (Examined Group 2 or EG2) treated 25 patients with combined therapy of CO2 laser and PRP in the treatment of facial rejuvenation or treatment of acne scars. RESULTS: Patient’s satisfaction, in general, is significantly greater in both examined groups (EG1 and EG2) (p < 0.001). It was found the significant difference between control and examined group from the treatment in acne scar (Fisher exact two tailed p < 0.001). Patients satisfaction with the treatment effect in rejuvenation of the skin is significant (χ2 = 39.41; df = 4; p < 0.001). But, patients satisfaction from the treatment with HPV on the skin was significantly lower in examined group (treated with laser), p = 0.0002. CONCLUSION: Multifunctional fractional carbon dioxide laser used in treatment of patients with acne and pigmentation from acne, as well as in the treatment of scars from different backgrounds, is an effective and safe method that causes statistically significant better effect of the treatment, greater patients’ satisfaction, minimal side effects and statistically better response to the therapy, according to assessments by the patient and the therapist. PMID:27335599

  10. Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser in Skin Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Andrej

    2016-06-15

    The aim of the study was to confirm the efficiency and safety of the fractional CO2 laser in skin renewal and to check the possibility of having a synergistic effect in patients who besides carbon dioxide laser are treated with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) too. The first group (Examined Group 1 or EG1) included 107 patients treated with fractional CO2 laser (Lutronic eCO2) as mono-therapy. The second group (Control Group or CG) covered 100 patients treated with neither laser nor plasma in the same period but subjected to local therapy with drugs or other physio-procedures under the existing protocols for treatment of certain diseases. The third group (Examined Group 2 or EG2) treated 25 patients with combined therapy of CO2 laser and PRP in the treatment of facial rejuvenation or treatment of acne scars. Patient's satisfaction, in general, is significantly greater in both examined groups (EG1 and EG2) (p < 0.001). It was found the significant difference between control and examined group from the treatment in acne scar (Fisher exact two tailed p < 0.001). Patients satisfaction with the treatment effect in rejuvenation of the skin is significant (χ2 = 39.41; df = 4; p < 0.001). But, patients satisfaction from the treatment with HPV on the skin was significantly lower in examined group (treated with laser), p = 0.0002. Multifunctional fractional carbon dioxide laser used in treatment of patients with acne and pigmentation from acne, as well as in the treatment of scars from different backgrounds, is an effective and safe method that causes statistically significant better effect of the treatment, greater patients' satisfaction, minimal side effects and statistically better response to the therapy, according to assessments by the patient and the therapist.

  11. Rapid fibrin plug formation within cutaneous ablative fractional CO2 laser lesions.

    PubMed

    Kositratna, Garuna; Evers, Michael; Sajjadi, Amir; Manstein, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Ablative fractional laser procedures have been shown to facilitate topical drug delivery into the skin. Past studies have mainly used ex vivo models to demonstrate enhanced drug delivery and in vivo studies have investigated laser created channels over a time course of days and weeks rather than within the first few minutes and hours after exposures. We have noticed rapid in vivo fibrin plug formation within ablative fractional laser lesions impairing passage through the laser created channels. In vivo laser exposures were performed in a porcine model. A fractional CO2 laser (AcuPulse™ system, AcuScan 120™ handpiece, Lumenis, Inc., Yokneam, Israel) was programmed in quasi-continuous wave (QCW) mode, at 40W, 50 mJ per pulse, 5% coverage, nominal 120 µm spot size, 8 × 8 mm square pattern, 169 MTZs per scan. Six millimeters punch biopsies were procured at 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90 minutes after completion of each scan, then fixed in 10% formalin. 12 repeats were performed of each time point. Skin samples were processed for serial vertically cut paraffin sections (5 μm collected every 25 μm) then H&E and special immunohistochemistry staining for fibrin and platelet. Dimensions of Microscopic Treatment Zones (MTZs) and extent of fibrin plug were assessed and quantified histologically. Ex vivo laser exposures of the identical laser parameter were performed on porcine and human skin at different storage conditions. Histology procured at various predetermined time intervals after in vivo fractional CO2 laser exposures revealed a rapidly forming fibrin plug initiating at the bottom of the MTZ lesions. At longer time intervals, the fibrin plug was extending towards the superficial sections. Within the first 5 minutes, more than 25% length of the entire laser-ablated channel was filled with a fibrin plug. With increased time intervals, the cavity was progressively filled with a fibrin plug. At 90 minutes, more than 90% length of the entire laser-ablated channel was

  12. Successful Treatment of Rhinophyma With Fractionated Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser in an African-American Man: Case Report and Review of Literature of Fractionated CO2 Laser Treatment of Rhinophyma.

    PubMed

    Kraeva, Ekaterina; Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-11-01

    Rhinophyma, a late complication of rosacea (phymatous subtype), is a chronic, progressive dermatological condition. The classic pre- sentation of rhinophyma is nodular, thickened skin over the distal nose, and is often accompanied by underlying erythema secondary to in ammation. Due to the unpleasant aesthetic and dis guring appearance, rhinophyma may be associated with a signi cant nega- tive psychosocial impact, resulting in decreased patient quality-of-life. Treatment of rhinophyma is challenging as topical and systemic pharmacotherapies have shown limited ef cacy. We present a case of a 39-year-old African-American male with long-standing, mild rhinophyma who was successfully treated with two sessions of fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. We also review the medical literature on fractionated CO2 laser treatment of rhinophyma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the rst report of successful treat- ment of rhinophyma using fractionated CO2 laser in an African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI). We believe that fractionated CO2 laser may be a safe and ef cacious treatment modality for rhinophyma in skin of color patients (Fitzpatrick IV-VI) and early intervention with fractionated CO2 laser to prevent rhinophyma worsening may yield better results than late intervention. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1465-1468..

  13. An open-label trial examining the efficacy and safety of a pre- and postprocedure topical five-product system (Clinique Medical Optimizing Regimen) specifically formulated to complement laser/light-based facial cosmetic procedures.

    PubMed

    Narurkar, Vic A; Beer, Kenneth R; Cohen, Joel L

    2010-12-01

    Specialized skin care regimens may help to minimize adverse events (AEs) following non-ablative facial procedures. A 14-week, open-label, three-center study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a topical five-product system (Clinique Medical Optimizing Regimen; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) for minimizing localized AEs during two 6-week procedure cycles with fractionated laser (FL) or intense pulsed light (IPL). The skin care regimen consisted of a 2-week preprocedure phase, a 1-week postprocedure phase, and a 3-week maintenance phase. Investigators and patients rated the presence and severity of erythema, itching, stinging/burning, edema, pain, pruritus, swelling, crusts/erosion, and photodamage. Two days after the FL/IPL treatment (IPL: n = 27; FL: n = 21), most assessments, including erythema, were near baseline values; at 4 weeks postprocedure, all investigator scores were comparable to baseline. Patients missed work or avoided social situations a mean of only 0.8 days. Mean subject ratings for itching, stinging/burning, pain, swelling, and redness for 2 weeks postprocedure were 'none' to 'mild'. Treatment-related AEs (acne, facial rash) occurred in four patients. All investigators stated they would recommend this topical over-the-counter regimen again in conjunction with non-ablative FL/IPL treatments. This topical five-product skin care system was safe and effective in conjunction with non-ablative FL/IPL procedures.

  14. Fractionated Er:YAG laser versus fully ablative Er:YAG laser for scar revision: Results of a split scar, double blinded, prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, W James; Owen, Cindy E; Kulp-Shorten, Carol; Maity, Abhishek; McCall, Michael; Brown, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing is a common treatment for post-surgical scars. Fractional ablative laser resurfacing has been an emerging treatment option that is replacing fully ablative lasers in many applications. Data comparing fractionated and fully ablative lasers in treating post-operative scars are lacking. Twenty patients were enrolled in a split scar study following excisions from dermatologic surgery. Wounds had to be older than 8 weeks but less than 1 year. The scars were randomly divided into two halves. One half of the scar was treated with fully ablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) and the other was treated with fractionated Er:YAG. The scars were treated at monthly intervals for 3 months, then followed up at months 1 and 2 after the last treatment. POSAS was used to evaluate the scars by a panel of dermatologists blinded to the lasers in conjunction with the patients, who were also blinded. Physicians and patients both observed a superior outcome of 32.5% (P = 0.019) and 58.1% (P = 0.001), respectively, using the POSAS. There was no trend in difference in pain reported by the patient between the two lasers. Patients overwhelmingly preferred the fractionated Er:YAG laser (94%) to the fully ablative laser when asked at the end of the study. Although this study is limited by a short follow-up period, it shows a statistically significant superior outcome in fractionated Er:YAG over fully ablative Er:YAG for scar revision. It also adds quantitative values to the assessment of scar appearance when treated with fractionated lasers compared to fully ablative lasers. It was also found that the fractionated Er:YAG had increased patient satisfaction, but there was no difference in reported pain scores. These data are useful when counseling patients undergoing laser surgery. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:837-843, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Clinical Outcomes and Complications Associated with Fractional Lasers: A Review of 730 Patients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Steven R; Goodacre, Ashley; Lim, Soobin; Johnston, Jennifer; Henssler, Cory; Jeffers, Brian; Saad, Ahmad; Leong, Tracy

    2017-02-01

    Fractional lasers were introduced to provide increased safety, while maintaining high efficacy and patient satisfaction. Patients with virtually all Fitzpatrick skin types could be safely treated using a wide spectrum of wavelengths and a broad array of skin conditions, and aging could be addressed. Although safety studies have been reported for ablative CO 2 and erbium lasers, surprisingly few data are available on adverse events and complications associated with fractional lasers. We report the frequency of adverse events, skin improvement and complications in a broad range of skin types using a standardized protocol that can be safely tailored to the patient's presenting complaints by varying the laser wavelength and number of treatments. The medical records of 730 patients (>90% females, age ranged from 50.5. to 59.9 years.) who had been treated at FACES+ Aesthetic Facility were reviewed. Patients were followed from 1 to 10 months and were reviewed to determine the frequency of complications, as well as their frequency, type, cause, treatment and resolution thereof. Patients were categorized by Fitzpatrick skin type (I-IV) to determine whether skin type was related to the frequency of complications. Improvement in skin condition (wrinkles, nasolabial folds and pigment) was rated by a technician before and after treatment using a Likert scale, 0-5, with 0 being no change and 5 being the most improvement. Seven hundred thirty patients underwent procedures using fractional lasers in our center. Procedures were carried out with 3 different laser wavelengths, depending on the condition(s) treated (wrinkling vs. pigmentation issues, etc.) and the patients' desired length of downtime. The fractional Fraxel 1927-nm laser was used in 224 patients [Fitzpatrick skin type I (2.2%), II (38.4%), III (46.0%), IV (12.5%)]; the fractional Fraxel 1550-nm laser was used in 334 [type I (4.5%), II (31.9%), III (50.0%), IV (13.3%)], and the fractional Fraxel CO 2 laser was used in

  16. Facelift combined with simultaneous fractional laser resurfacing: Outcomes and complications.

    PubMed

    Wright, Eric J; Struck, Steve K

    2015-10-01

    The combination of simultaneous surgical rhytidectomy with ablative resurfacing has been a controversial procedure due to the concern of postoperative wound healing. Traditional ablative resurfacing lasers are believed to have higher rates of complications, leading to delayed healing and skin flap loss when combined with face rhytidectomy surgeries. With the development of fractionated ablative laser therapy, there has been increased interest in combining these two procedures. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing simultaneous full-face rhytidectomy in combination with fractionated ablative skin resurfacing. A retrospective chart analysis was performed for all patients who had a combined procedure of facelift and ablative fractional laser resurfacing from 2008 to 2013 by the senior author (SKS). Postoperative recovery and complications were recorded. The surgical technique used for performing the facelift was an extended supraplatysmal dissection with SMAS plication. Fraxel Re:Pair 10,600-nm fractional carbon dioxide laser was used to perform an ablative resurfacing including the elevated skin flaps. A total of 86 patients were included. Average age was 60.01 years (range of 45-78 years). Longest follow up was five years. The average size of the elevated skin flaps was 100 cm(2). Average skin type was a Fitzpatrick type 2. All patients had complete re-epithelialization by one week after their procedure. Four patients (4.6%) experienced acne outbreaks. Four patients (4.6%) had facial erythema that persisted greater than two weeks. Of these four patients, all resolved by five weeks postoperatively. There was no delayed wound healing or skin flap loss observed. Our results indicate that simultaneous rhytidectomy with fractionated ablative laser resurfacing does not cause an increase in wound healing or skin loss. Due to improved patient outcomes with combining these procedures, we believe that this can be increasingly

  17. Intense pulsed light, near infrared pulsed light, and fractional laser combination therapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian subjects: a prospective multi-center study in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Wu, Jiaqiang; Qian, Hui; Lu, Zhong; Li, Yuanhong; Wang, Weizhen; Zhao, Xiaozhong; Tu, Ping; Yin, Rui; Xiang, Leihong

    2015-09-01

    Ablative skin rejuvenation therapies have limitations for Asian people, including post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and long down time. Non-ablative lasers are safer but have limited efficacy. This study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of intense pulsed light (IPL), near infrared (NIR) light, and fractional erbium YAG (Er:YAG) laser for skin rejuvenation in Asian people. This study recruited 113 subjects from six sites in China. Subjects were randomly assigned to a full-face group, who received combination therapy, and split-face groups, in which one half of the face received combination therapy and the other half received IPL monotherapy. Each subject received five treatment sessions during a period of 90 days. Subjects were followed up at 1 and 3 months post last treatment. Three months after last treatment, the full-face group (n = 57) had a global improvement rate of 29 % and 29 % for wrinkles, 32 % for skin texture, 33 % for pigment spots, 28 % for pore size, respectively. For patients in the split-face groups (n = 54), monotherapy side had a global improvement rate of 23 % and 20 % for wrinkles, 27 % for skin texture, 25 % for pigment spots, 25 % for pore size, respectively. Both combination therapy and monotherapy resulted in significant improvements at the follow-up visits compared to baseline (P < 0.001). Combination therapy showed significantly greater improvements compared to monotherapy at two follow-up visits (P < 0.05). Combination therapy is a safe and more effective strategy than IPL monotherapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian people.

  18. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection after Fractionated CO2 Laser Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Culton, Donna A.; Miller, Becky A.; Miller, Melissa B.; MacKuen, Courteney; Groben, Pamela; White, Becky; Cox, Gary M.; Stout, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly associated with cutaneous infections after cosmetic procedures. Fractionated CO2 resurfacing, a widely used technique for photorejuvenation, has been associated with a more favorable side effect profile than alternative procedures. We describe 2 cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection after treatment with a fractionated CO2 laser at a private clinic. Densely distributed erythematous papules and pustules developed within the treated area within 2 weeks of the laser procedure. Diagnosis was confirmed by histologic analysis and culture. Both infections responded to a 4-month course of a multidrug regimen. An environmental investigation of the clinic was performed, but no source of infection was found. The case isolates differed from each other and from isolates obtained from the clinic, suggesting that the infection was acquired by postprocedure exposure. Papules and pustules after fractionated CO2 resurfacing should raise the suspicion of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. PMID:23628077

  19. Hypopigmentation Induced by Frequent Low-Fluence, Large-Spot-Size QS Nd:YAG Laser Treatments.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yisheng; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-12-01

    The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser toning treatment with QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG.

  20. Use of an imaging device after nonablative radiofrequency (Pellevé): treatment of periorbital rhytids.

    PubMed

    Javate, Reynaldo M; Grantoza, Charlene L; Buyucan, Kathleen Faye N

    2014-01-01

    To use the Canfield Reveal imager in objective photo documentation of the effect of nonablative radiofrequency (Pellevé) treatment on periorbital rhytids. This is a prospective cohort study. Twelve patients underwent 1 to 2 sessions of nonablative radiofrequency (Pellevé) treatment over the periorbital region. aged 30 to 60 years old, minimal tissue laxity, and shallow wrinkle development. Standardized reproducible photographs (left, frontal, right views) with use of the Canfield Reveal imager's superimposition feature were taken of each patient prior, immediately after application, and on 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week follow up. Brow elevation was measured in the pre- and posttreatment photographs with the use of the Canfield Reveal imager and rendered the photographs in 3-dimensional images. Comparison of the pre- and posttreatment photographs taken via the Canfield Reveal imager showed reduction in the wrinkles, smoothening, and tightening of the eyelid and the periorbital tissue. Patients exhibited an average increase of 2.05 mm (p<0.001) of eyebrow lift and 0.98 mm (p<0.001) of superior eyelid crease elevation immediately after treatment. Eight weeks after, average brow elevation was measured at 3.52 mm (p<0.001) and crease elevation at 1.84 mm (p<0.001). The 3-dimensional imaging feature rendered in normal skin tone, and shades of gray showed softening of fine lines and crow's feet after treatment. Furthermore, it also rendered in color relief that highlighted the changes seen with depressions noted to decrease after treatment. The Canfield Reveal imager can be used in the objective photodocumentation of subtle and modest effects of nonablative radiofrequency (Pellevé) treatment to the periorbital region.

  1. Fractional versus ablative erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser resurfacing for facial rejuvenation: an objective evaluation.

    PubMed

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; Abd-El-Raheem, Talal; Abdel-Wahab, Hossam; Medhat, Walid; Hosam, Wael; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Al Anwer, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Laser is one of the main tools for skin resurfacing. Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) was the second ablative laser, after carbon dioxide, emitting wavelength of 2940 nm. Fractional laser resurfacing has been developed to overcome the drawbacks of ablative lasers. We aimed to objectively evaluate the histopathological and immunohistochemical effects of Er:YAG 2940-nm laser for facial rejuvenation (multiple sessions of fractional vs single session of ablative Er:YAG laser). Facial resurfacing with single-session ablative Er:YAG laser was performed on 6 volunteers. Another 6 were resurfaced using fractional Er:YAG laser (4 sessions). Histopathological (hematoxylin-eosin, orcein, Masson trichrome, and picrosirius red stains) and immunohistochemical assessment for skin biopsy specimens were done before laser resurfacing and after 1 and 6 months. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative assessment for neocollagen formation; collagen I, III, and VII; elastin; and tropoelastin were done for all skin biopsy specimens. Both lasers resulted in increased epidermal thickness. Dermal collagen showed increased neocollagen formation with increased concentration of collagen types I, III, and VII. Dermal elastic tissue studies revealed decreased elastin whereas tropoelastin concentration increased after laser resurfacing. Neither laser showed significant difference between their effects clinically and on dermal collagen. Changes in epidermal thickness, elastin, and tropoelastin were significantly more marked after ablative laser. The small number of patients is a limitation, yet the results show significant improvement. Multiple sessions of fractional laser have comparable effects to a single session of ablative Er:YAG laser on dermal collagen but ablative laser has more effect on elastic tissue and epidermis. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fractional CO2 laser for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) dyspareunia relief in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Pieralli, Annalisa; Fallani, Maria Grazia; Becorpi, Angelamaria; Bianchi, Claudia; Corioni, Serena; Longinotti, Manuela; Tredici, Zelinda; Guaschino, Secondo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fractional CO2 laser therapy in breast cancer survivors as a therapeutic method for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) dyspareunia. 50 patients (mean age 53.3 years) underwent fractional microablative CO2 laser treatment for dyspareunia in oncological menopause (mean time of menopause 6.6 years). The Gloria Bachmann's Vaginal Health Index (VHI) score was chosen as system to evaluate the presence of VVA and its improvement after the treatment. Intensity of dyspareunia was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Data indicated a significant improvement in VVA dyspareunia (p < 1.86e-22) in breast cancer survivors who had undergone 3 sessions of vaginal fractional CO2 laser treatment. Moreover, VHI scores were significantly higher 30 days post-treatment (T4) (p < 0.0001). 76 % of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment results. The majority (52 %) of patients were satisfied after a long-term follow-up (mean time 11 months). No adverse events due to fractional CO2 laser treatment occurred. The treatment with fractionated CO2 laser appeared to be a feasible and effective treatment for VVA dyspareunia in breast cancer survivors with contraindications to hormonal treatments.

  3. Fractional CO2 Laser: From Skin Rejuvenation to Vulvo-Vaginal Reshaping.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Maurizio; Del Duca, Ester; Negosanti, Francesca; Bonciani, Diletta; Negosanti, Luca; Sannino, Mario; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Nisticò, Steven Paul

    2017-03-01

    The CO 2 laser has become the gold standard treatment in dermatologic surgery for the treatment of a large number of skin and mucosal lesions. The introduction of the fractional micro-ablative technology represented an integration to the ablative resurfacing technique, reducing the healing time and the side effects. Vaginal rejuvenation performed with this technique is a minimally invasive procedure that stimulates internal tissues of the female lower genital tract to regenerate the mucosa, improving tissue trophism and restoring the correct functionality. In our experience, 386 menopausal women affected with vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA) were treated with three section of fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser. After three treatments, patients reported a complete improvement of the symptoms (59.94% dryness, 56.26% burn, sensation, 48.75% dyspareunia, 56.37% itch, 73.15% soreness, and 48.79% vaginal introitus pain). Fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser seems to reduce symptoms related to vaginal atrophy. The beneficial effects were reported just after the first session and confirmed 12 months after the last session.

  4. Comparison of the aerodynamic characteristics of an ablating and nonablating blunted conical body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of ablation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a blunted slender cone was investigated. Plastic models were launched in free flight at ablating conditions. The results were compared with results of similar tests using metal nonablating models. Ablation was found to decrease the dynamic stability and the drag, but had little effect on static stability and lift. The plastic models appeared to experience ablation-induced roll.

  5. Direct quantitative comparison of molecular responses in photodamaged human skin to fractionated and fully ablative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Orringer, Jeffrey S; Sachs, Dana L; Shao, Yuan; Hammerberg, Craig; Cui, Yilei; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2012-10-01

    Fractionated ablative laser resurfacing has become a widely used treatment modality. Its clinical results are often found to approach those of traditional fully ablative laser resurfacing. To directly compare the molecular changes that result from fractionated and fully ablative carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser resurfacing in photodamaged human skin. Photodamaged skin of 34 adult volunteers was focally treated at distinct sites with a fully ablative CO(2) laser and a fractionated CO(2) laser. Serial skin samples were obtained at baseline and several time points after treatment. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technology and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify molecular responses to each type of laser treatment. Fully ablative and fractionated CO(2) laser resurfacing induced significant dermal remodeling and collagen induction. After a single treatment, fractionated ablative laser resurfacing resulted in collagen induction that was approximately 40% to 50% as pronounced as that induced by fully ablative laser resurfacing. The fundamental cutaneous responses that result from fully ablative and fractionated carbon dioxide laser resurfacing are similar but differ in magnitude and duration, with the fully ablative procedure inducing relatively greater changes including more pronounced collagen induction. However, the molecular data reported here provide substantial support for fractionated ablative resurfacing as an effective treatment modality for improving skin texture. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing as Monotherapy in the Treatment of Atrophic Facial Acne Scars.

    PubMed

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher

    2014-04-01

    While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as 'excellent' if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as 'good' and 'poor' response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3%) while 15 (25%) and 19 patients (31.7%) demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar scars with minimal adverse effects.

  7. The role of transforming growth factor β1 in fractional laser resurfacing with a carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Ge, Hongmei; Zhou, Chuanqing; Chai, Xinyu; Deng, Hui

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of transforming growth factor β1 in mechanisms of cutaneous remodeling induced by fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment. The dorsal skin of Kunming mice was exposed to a single-pass fractional CO2 laser treatment. Biopsies were taken at 1 h and at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days after treatment. Transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 expression in skin samples was evaluated by ELISA, dermal thickness by hematoxylin-eosin staining, collagen and elastic fibers by Ponceau S and Victoria blue double staining, and types I and III collagens by ELISA. The level of TGF β1 in the laser-treated areas of skin was significantly increased compared with that in the control areas on days 1 (p < 0.05), 3 (p < 0.01), and 7 (p < 0.05) and then decreased by day 14 after treatment, at which time it had returned to the baseline level. Dermal thickness and the amount of type I collagen of the skin of the laser-treated areas had increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with that in control areas on days 28 and 56. Fibroblast proliferation showed a positive correlation with TGF β1 expression during the early stages (r = 0.789, p < 0.01), and there was a negative correlation between the level of TGF β1 and type I collagen in the late stages, after laser treatment (r = -0.546, p < 0.05). TGF β1 appears to be an important factor in fractional laser resurfacing.

  8. Fractional CO2 laser is an effective therapeutic modality for xanthelasma palpebrarum: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Samia M; Elramly, Amany Z; Abdel Halim, Dalia M; Gawdat, Heba I; Taha, Hanaa I

    2014-12-01

    Xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP) is a common cosmetic concern. Although there is a wide range of therapeutic modalities for XP, there is no general consensus on the optimal treatment for such condition. Compare the efficacy and safety of super pulsed (SP) and fractional CO2 lasers in the treatment of XP. This prospective randomized comparative clinical study included 20 adult patients with bilateral and symmetrical XP lesions. Xanthelasma palpebrarum lesions were randomly assigned to treatment by either single session of ablative SP CO2 laser or 3 to 5 sessions of ablative fractional CO2 laser with monthly intervals. All patients were assessed using digital photography and optical coherence tomography images. Xanthelasma palpebrarum lesions on both sides were successfully removed with significant improvement in size, color, and thickness. Although lesions treated by SP CO2 laser showed significantly better improvement regarding color and thickness of the lesions, downtime and patient satisfaction were significantly better for lesions treated with fractional CO2 laser. Scarring and recurrence were significantly higher in lesions treated by SP CO2 laser. Ablative fractional CO2 laser is an effective and safe therapeutic option for XP with significantly shorter downtime and higher patient satisfaction compared with SP CO2 laser.

  9. LATEST LASER AND LIGHT-BASED ADVANCES FOR ETHNIC SKIN REJUVENATION

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed Lotfy; Lloyd, Heather Woolery

    2008-01-01

    Background: Advances in nonablative skin rejuvenation technologies have sparked a renewed interest in the cosmetic treatment of aging skin. More options exist now than ever before to reverse cutaneous changes caused by long-term exposure to sunlight. Although Caucasian skin is more prone to ultraviolet light injury, ethnic skin (typically classified as types IV to VI) also exhibits characteristic photoaging changes. Widespread belief that inevitable or irreversible textural changes or dyspigmentation occurs following laser- or light-based treatments, has been challenged in recent years by new classes of devices capable of protecting the epidermis from injury during treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review recent clinical advances in the treatment of photoaging changes in ethnic skin. This article provides a basis for the classification of current advances in nonablative management of ethnic skin. PMID:19881986

  10. Molecular effects of fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing on photodamaged human skin.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Michael J; Cohen, Marc; Hokugo, Akishige; Keller, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the sequential changes in protein expression that play a role in the clinically beneficial results seen with fractional carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser resurfacing of the face and neck. Methods Nine healthy volunteers were recruited for participation from the senior author's facial plastic surgery practice. After informed consent was obtained, each volunteer underwent a 2-mm punch biopsy from a discrete area of infra-auricular neck skin prior to laser treatment. Patients then immediately underwent laser resurfacing of photodamaged face and neck skin at a minimal dose (30 W for 0.1 second) with the Pixel Perfect fractional CO(2) laser. On completion of the treatment, another biopsy specimen was taken adjacent to the first site. Additional biopsy specimens were subsequently taken from adjacent skin at 2 of 3 time points (day 7, day 14, or day 21). RNA was extracted from the specimens, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and protein microarray analysis were performed. Comparisons were then made between time points using pairwise comparison testing. Results We found statistically significant changes in the gene expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The data demonstrate a consistent up-regulation of MMPs 1, 3, 9, and 13, all of which have been previously reported for fully ablative CO(2) laser resurfacing. There was also a statistically significant increase in MMP-10 and MMP-11 levels in this data set. Conclusion This study suggests that the molecular mechanisms of action are similar for both fractional and fully ablative CO(2) laser resurfacing.

  11. In-vivo multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) in human skin (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Mihaela; Lentsch, Griffin; Korta, Dorota; Konig, Karsten; Kelly, Kristen M.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Zachary, Christopher B.

    2017-02-01

    We use a multiphoton microscopy (MPM)-based clinical microscope (MPTflex, JenLab, Germany) to describe changes in human skin following treatment with a fractional non-ablative laser (PicoWay, Candela). The treatment was based on a fractionated picosecond Nd:YAG laser (1064 and 532nm, 3mJ and 1.5mJ (no attenuation), respectively maximum energy/pulse, 100 microbeams/6mmx6mm). Improvements in skin appearance resulting from treatment with this laser have been noted but optimizing the efficacy depends on a thorough understanding of the specific skin response to treatment. MPM is a nonlinear laser scanning microscopy technique that features sub-cellular resolution and label-free molecular contrast. MPM contrast in skin is derived from second-harmonic generation of collagen and two-photon excited fluorescence of NADH/FAD+, elastin, keratin, melanin. In this pilot study, two areas on the arm of a volunteer (skin type II) were treated with the picoWay laser (1064nm, 3mJ; 532nm, 1.5mJ; 1pass). The skin response to treatment was imaged in-vivo at 8 time points over the following 4 weeks. MPM revealed micro-injuries present in epidermis. Damaged individual cells were distinguished after 3h and 24h from treatment with both wavelengths. Pigmented cells were particularly damaged in the process, suggesting that melanin is the main absorber and the primary target for laser induced optical breakdown. At later time points, clusters of cellular necrotic debris were imaged across the treated epidermis. These results represent the groundwork for future longitudinal studies on expanded number of subjects to understand the response to treatment in different skin types at different laser parameters, critical factors in optimizing treatment outcomes.

  12. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser and its Combination with Subcision in Improving Atrophic Acne Scars.

    PubMed

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Faghihi, Gita; Jaffary, Fariba; Haftbaradaran, Elaheh; Hoseini, Sayed Mohsen; Mazaheri, Nafiseh

    2017-01-01

    Acne is a very common skin disease in which scars are seen in 95% of the patients. Although numerous treatments have been recommended, researchers are still searching for a single modality to treat the complication due to its variety in shape and depth. We compared the effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser alone and in combination with subcision in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. This clinical trial study was performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center (Isfahan, Iran) during 2011-2012. Eligible patients with atrophic acne scars were treated with fractional CO 2 laser alone (five sessions with 3-week interval) on the right side of the face and fractional CO 2 laser plus subcision (one session using both with four sessions of fractional CO 2 laser, with 3-week interval) on the left side. The subjects were visited 1, 2, and 6 months after the treatment. Patient satisfaction rate was analyzed using SPSS 20 software. The average of recovery rate was 54.7% using the combination method and 43.0% using laser alone ( P < 0.001). The mean patient satisfaction was significantly higher with the combination method than laser alone (6.6 ± 1.2 vs. 5.2 ± 1.8; P < 0.001). Bruising was only seen with the combination method and lasted for 1 week in 57.0% and for 2 weeks in 43.0%. Erythema was seen in both methods. Postinflammatory pigmentation and hyperpigmentation were associated with combination method. No persistent side effects were seen after 6 months. Using a combination of subcision and laser had suitable results regarding scar recovery and satisfaction rate.

  13. Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing as Monotherapy in the Treatment of Atrophic Facial Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher

    2014-01-01

    Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as ‘excellent’ if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as ‘good’ and ‘poor’ response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Results: Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3%) while 15 (25%) and 19 patients (31.7%) demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Conclusions: Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar scars with minimal

  14. Fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic acne scars: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Lauren Rose; Schweiger, Eric S

    2014-04-01

    This review examines the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic scarring secondary to acne vulgaris. We reviewed 20 papers published between 2008 and 2013 that conducted clinical studies using fractional CO2 lasers to treat atrophic scarring. We discuss the prevalence and pathogenesis of acne scarring, as well as the laser mechanism. The histologic findings are included to highlight the ability of these lasers to induce the collagen reorganization and formation that improves scar appearance. We considered the number of treatments and different laser settings to determine which methods achieve optimal outcomes. We noted unique treatment regimens that yielded superior results. An overview of adverse effects is included to identify the most common ones. We concluded that more studies need to be done using uniform treatment parameters and reporting in order to establish which fractional CO2 laser treatment approaches allow for the greatest scar improvement.

  15. Histological Validity and Clinical Evidence for Use of Fractional Lasers for Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Arora, Pooja; Khurana, Nita

    2012-01-01

    Though fractional lasers are widely used for acne scars, very little clinical or histological data based on the objective clinical assessment or the depth of penetration of lasers on in vivo facial tissue are available. The depth probably is the most important aspect that predicts the improvement in acne scars but the studies on histology have little uniformity in terms of substrate (tissue) used, processing and stains used. The variability of the laser setting (dose, pulses and density) makes comparison of the studies difficult. It is easier to compare the end results, histological depth and clinical results. We analysed all the published clinical and histological studies on fractional lasers in acne scars and analysed the data, both clinical and histological, by statistical software to decipher their significance. On statistical analysis, the depth was found to be variable with the 1550-nm lasers achieving a depth of 679 μm versus 10,600 nm (895 μm) and 2940 nm (837 μm) lasers. The mean depth of penetration (in μm) in relation to the energy used, in millijoules (mj), varies depending on the laser studied. This was statistically found to be 12.9–28.5 for Er:glass, 3–54.38 for Er:YAG and 6.28–53.66 for CO2. The subjective clinical improvement was a modest 46%. The lack of objective evaluation of clinical improvement and scar-specific assessment with the lack of appropriate in vivo studies is a case for combining conventional modalities like subcision, punch excision and needling with fractional lasers to achieve optimal results. PMID:23060702

  16. Multiparameter thermo-mechanical OCT-based characterization of laser-induced cornea reshaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Vitkin, Alex; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Baum, Olga I.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Sovetsky, Alexander A.; Sobol, Emil N.

    2017-02-01

    Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for visualizing dynamic and cumulative strains and corneashape changes during laser-produced tissue heating. Such non-destructive (non-ablative) cornea reshaping can be used as a basis of emerging technologies of laser vision correction. In experiments with cartilaginous samples, polyacrilamide phantoms and excised rabbit eyes we demonstrate ability of the developed OCT system to simultaneously characterize transient and cumulated strain distributions, surface displacements, scattering tissue properties and possibility of temperature estimation via thermal-expansion measurements. The proposed approach can be implemented in perspective real-time OCT systems for ensuring safety of new methods of laser reshaping of cornea.

  17. Hair regrowth through wound healing process after ablative fractional laser treatment in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Min; Jung, Han Mi; Goo, Boncheol; Park, Young Min

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia is one of the most common dermatological problems in the elderly; however, current therapies for it are limited by low efficacy and undesirable side effects. Although clinical reports on fractional laser treatment for various alopecia types are increasing, the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the effect of ablative fractional laser treatment on hair follicle regrowth in vivo and investigate the molecular mechanism after laser treatment. Ablative CO2 fractional laser was applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice whose hair was in the telogen stage. After 12 mice were treated at various energy (10-40 mJ/spot) and density (100-400 spots/cm(2) ) settings to determine the proper dosage for maximal effect. Six mice were then treated at the decided dosage and skin specimens were sequentially obtained by excision biopsy from the dorsal aspect of each mouse. Tissue samples were used for the immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to examine hair follicle status and their related molecules. The most effective dosage was the 10 mJ/spot and 300 spots/cm(2) setting. The anagen conversion of hair was observed in the histopathological examination, while Wnt/β-catenin expression was associated with hair regrowth in the immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. Ablative fractional lasers appear to be effective for inducing hair regrowth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vivo. Our findings indicate that fractional laser treatment can potentially be developed as new treatment options for stimulating hair regrowth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Non-ablative radiofrequency associated or not with low-level laser therapy on the treatment of facial wrinkles in adult women: A randomized single-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thalita Rodrigues Christovam; Vassão, Patrícia Gabrielli; Venancio, Michele Garcia; Renno, Ana Cláudia Muniz; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Non-ablative Radiofrequency (RF) associated or not with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on aspect of facial wrinkles among adult women. Forty-six participants were randomized into three groups: Control Group (CG, n = 15), RF Group (RG, n = 16), and RF and LLLT Group (RLG, n = 15). Every participant was evaluated on baseline (T0), after eight weeks (T8) and eight weeks after the completion of treatment (follow-up). They were photographed in order to classify nasolabial folds and periorbital wrinkles (Modified Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Scale and Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Classification System, respectively) and improvement on appearance (Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale). Photograph analyses were performed by 3 blinded evaluators. Classification of nasolabial and periorbital wrinkles did not show any significant difference between groups. Aesthetic appearance indicated a significant improvement for nasolabial folds on the right side of face immediately after treatment (p = 0.018) and follow-up (p = 0.029) comparison. RG presented better results than CG on T8 (p = 0.041, ES = -0.49) and on follow-up (p = 0.041, ES = -0.49) and better than RLG on T8 (p = 0.041, ES = -0.49). RLG presented better results than CG on follow-up (p = 0.007, ES = -0.37). Nasolabial folds and periorbital wrinkles did not change throughout the study; however, some aesthetic improvement was observed. LLLT did not potentiate RF treatment.

  19. Micro-scale novel stable isotope fractionation during weathering disclosed by femtosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuessler, J. A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2012-12-01

    The stable isotope fractionation of metals and metalloids during chemical weathering and alteration of rocks at low temperature is a topic receiving increasing scientific attention. For these systems, weathering of primary minerals leads to selective partitioning of isotopes between the secondary minerals formed from them, and the dissolved phase of soil or river water. While the isotopic signatures of these processes have been mapped-out at the catchment or the soil scale, the actual isotopic fractionation is occurring at the mineral scale. To identify the processes underlying such micro-scale fractionation, the development of micro-analytical tools allows to investigate mechanisms of isotope fractionation in-situ, in combination with textural information of weathering reactions. We have developed a second-generation UV femtosecond (fs) laser system at GFZ Potsdam. The advantage of UV-fs laser ablation is the reduction of laser-induced isotopic and elemental fractionation by avoiding 'thermal effects' during ablation, such that accurate isotope ratios can be measured by standard-sample-standard bracketing using laser ablation multicollector ICP-MS; where the matrix of the bracketing standard does not need to match that of the sample [1]. Our system consists of the latest generation femtosecond solid-state laser (Newport Spectra Physics Solstice), producing an ultra short pulse width of about 100 femtoseconds at a wavelength of 196 nm. The system is combined with a custom-build computer-controlled sample stage and allows fully automated isotope analyses through synchronised operation of the laser with the Neptune MC-ICP-MS. To assess precision and accuracy of our laser ablation method, we analysed various geological reference materials. We obtained δ30Si values of -0.31 ± 0.23 (2SD, n = 13) for basalt glass BHVO-2G, and -1.25 ± 0.21 (2SD, n = 27) for pure Si IRMM17 when bracketed against NBS-28 quartz. δ56Fe and δ26Mg values obtained from non-matrix matched

  20. Mixture-Fraction Measurements with Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Jiang, Naibo; Gord, James R.; Danehy, Paul M.; Roy, Sukesh

    2017-01-01

    Tracer-free mixture-fraction measurements were demonstrated in a jet using femtosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging. Measurements were conducted across a turbulent jet at several downstream locations both in a pure-nitrogen jet exiting into an air-nitrogen mixture and in a jet containing an air-nitrogen mixture exiting into pure nitrogen. The signal was calibrated with known concentrations of oxygen in nitrogen. The spatial resolution of the measurement was approx.180 microns. The measurement uncertainty ranged from 5% to 15%, depending on the mixture fraction and location within the beam, under constant temperature and pressure conditions. The measurements agree with a mixture fraction of unity within the potential core of the jet and transition to the self-similar region.

  1. Fractional ablative and nonablative radiofrequency for skin resurfacing and rejuvenation of Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai; Siramangkhalanon, Vorapot; Duncan, Diane Irvine; Belenky, Inna

    2018-04-01

    Fractional radiofrequency (RF) technology is often the preferable skin resurfacing treatment, especially among Asian patients. Second generation fractional RF technology has exclusive capability to produce separate biological responses (ablation, coagulation, or a combination of both) with 3 distinguished penetration depth programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fractional RF handpiece such as this, on the Thai population. Fifty-five Thai patients were treated with a fractional RF handpiece. The clinical assessment included a pain score, satisfaction survey, physician assessment, a combined patient and physician's assessment of skin condition, and clinical photographic assessments. The wound healing response was evaluated according to 5-time points: immediately after applying a pulse, post 24 hours, post 7 days, post 1 month and post 8 weeks. The obtained patient satisfaction score was "very satisfied" among 74% of the patients, post 3 sessions. Positive correlation was found between patient satisfaction and the physician's assessment. The skin condition assessment showed an increase from an average of 4.2 to 7.9. All treated symptoms improved after each treatment and the clinical outcome lasted at least up to 3-5 months. No significant adverse events were recorded. The in vivo prospective study showed a dose-related response in the deepness of the coagulation injury. In addition, there was evidence for a progressive healing process beginning shortly after exposure and completed within a week. This study clinically and histologically supports the efficacy of fractional RF handpiece in question with a high safety profile. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ablative and transport fractionation of trace elements during laser sampling of glass and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outridge, P. M.; Doherty, W.; Gregoire, D. C.

    1997-12-01

    The fractionation of trace elements due to ablation and transport processes was quantified during Q-switched infrared laser sampling of glass and copper reference materials. Filter-trapping of the ablated product at different points in the sample introduction system showed ablation and transport sometimes caused opposing fractionation effects, leading to a confounded measure of overall (ablative + transport) fractionation. An unexpected result was the greater ablative fractionation of some elements (Au, Ag, Bi, Te in glass and Au, Be, Bi, Ni, Te in copper) at a higher laser fluence of 1.35 × 10 4W cm -2 than at 0.62 × 10 4W cm -2, which contradicted predictions from modelling studies of ablation processes. With glass, there was an inverse logarithmic relationship between the extent of ablative and overall fractionation and element oxide melting point (OMPs), with elements with OMPs < 1000° C exhibiting overall concentration increases of 20-1340%. Fractionation during transport was quantitatively important for most certified elements in copper, and for the most volatile elements (Au, Ag, Bi, Te) in glass. Elements common to both matrices showed 50-100% higher ablative fractionation in copper, possibly because of greater heat conductance away from the ablation site causing increased element volatilisation or zone refinement. These differences between matrices indicate that non-matrix-matched standardisation is likely to provide inaccurate calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of at least some elements.

  3. Lasers as an approach for promoting drug delivery via skin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-04-01

    Using lasers can be an effective drug permeation-enhancement approach for facilitating drug delivery into or across the skin. The controlled disruption and ablation of the stratum corneum (SC), the predominant barrier for drug delivery, is achieved by the use of lasers. The possible mechanisms of laser-assisted drug permeation are the direct ablation of the skin barrier, optical breakdown by a photomechanical wave and a photothermal effect. It has been demonstrated that ablative approaches for enhancing drug transport provide some advantages, including increased bioavailability, fast treatment time, quick recovery of SC integrity and the fact that skin surface contact is not needed. In recent years, the concept of using laser techniques to treat the skin has attracted increasing attention. This review describes recent developments in using nonablative and ablative lasers for drug absorption enhancement. This review systematically introduces the concepts and enhancement mechanisms of lasers, highlighting the potential of this technique for greatly increasing drug absorption via the skin. Lasers with different wavelengths and types are employed to increase drug permeation. These include the ruby laser, the erbium:yttrium-gallium-garnet laser, the neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and the CO2 laser. Fractional modality is a novel concept for promoting topical/transdermal drug delivery. The laser is useful in enhancing the permeation of a wide variety of permeants, such as small-molecule drugs, macromolecules and nanoparticles. This potential use of the laser affords a new treatment for topical/transdermal application with significant efficacy. Further studies using a large group of humans or patients are needed to confirm and clarify the findings in animal studies. Although the laser fluence or output energy used for enhancing drug absorption is much lower than for treatment of skin disorders and rejuvenation, the safety of using lasers is still an issue

  4. Early effect of fractional CO2 laser treatment in Post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Eder, Scott Evan

    2018-03-31

    Fractional CO 2 lasers have been shown to provide improvement of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). The aim of the current study was to assess the early effect of a fractional CO 2 laser system in treating postmenopausal women with clinical symptoms of VVA. 28 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age 60.1 ± 5.55 years) with VVA-related symptoms were treated with fractional CO 2 laser 3 times, in 4-week intervals. At each study visit, VHIS score and VVA symptom severity were recorded. Sexual function was assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). One month following the first laser treatment, the mean VHIS score was significantly improved (13.89 ± 4.25 vs. baseline 11.93 ± 3.82; p < 0.05), and improved further at 3 and 6 months following all three laser treatments (16.43 ± 4.20 and 17.46 ± 4.07, respectively). Almost all VVA symptoms were significantly improved at one month following the first treatment. A further significant improvement in VVA symptoms was noted at 3 and 6 months following the third laser treatment. Following treatments, the FSFI score increased significantly (22.36 ± 10.40 vs. baseline 13.78 ± 7.70; p < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than baseline at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. CO 2 laser therapy for post-menopausal women can be considered an effective therapeutic option providing relief of symptoms already noted after one laser treatment.

  5. Outcomes of fractional CO2 laser application in aesthetic surgery: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Neaman, Keith C; Baca, Marissa E; Piazza, Rocco C; VanderWoude, Douglas L; Renucci, John D

    2010-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of ablative CO(2) laser resurfacing for facial rejuvenation, its application has been limited owing to an undesirable side-effect profile, including prolonged hyperemia and potential pigmentary changes. However, newer fractional CO(2) laser technology has reduced the recovery time and led to decreases in postprocedural hypo- and hyperpigmentation. The authors investigate the application and outcomes of ablative fractional technology in a private cosmetic surgery practice. In this retrospective cohort study, the charts of patients who received fractional CO(2) laser resurfacing between March 2007 and May 2008 were reviewed. Data regarding patient demographics, pretreatment regimens, detailed operative data, and posttreatment findings were obtained. The length of hyperemia (less than five weeks, five to eight weeks, and more than eight weeks), complication rates, and revision rates were analyzed. A satisfaction survey was also sent to all patients. Throughout the 19-month study period, 97 patients received 101 treatments with an average follow-up of 4.5 months. Full-face laser resurfacing was performed in 81.1% of patients, with 64.3% receiving their treatment under local anesthesia without sedation. Length of hyperemia was less than five weeks in 93%, five to eight weeks in 5.9%, and more than eight weeks in 0.9% of patients. Hyperpigmentation (9.9%), milia (6.9%), acne breakout (5.9%), and transient ectropion (0.9%) were less common. Patient satisfaction surveys revealed that a majority of patients were satisfied with their results. New fractional CO(2) laser skin resurfacing is associated with shorter periods of hyperemia, resulting in shorter recovery time in comparison with older ablative technology. The side-effect profile is minor and infrequent. This new technology provides significant clinical improvement with high patient satisfaction.

  6. Polydeoxyribonucleotide improves wound healing of fractional laser resurfacing in rat model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi; Lee, Jun Young

    2017-02-01

    Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) is an active compound that can promote wound healing. PDRN stimulates wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis and increasing fibroblast growth rates. Laser skin resurfacing is a popular cosmetic procedure for skin rejuvenation. Despite excellent improvement of photo-damaged skin and acne scarring, it is accompanied with drawbacks, such as prolonged erythema and crusting. This study was designed to assess the effect of PDRN on wounds induced by fractional laser resurfacing. Twelve male rats aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to the PDRN treatment group and the control group. Wounds were induced using a fractional ablative CO 2 laser. The treatment group received daily injections of PDRN and the control group received injections of the vehicle. Wound healing assessed by clinical features and histopathologic findings. The process of wound healing was faster in the treatment group than in the control group. In the histopathological examination, the granulation tissue thickness score of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Results of immunohistochemical staining showed a marked increase of VEGF-positive cells and PECAM-1/CD31-positive microvessels in the treatment group. PDRN may be a beneficial option to promote wound healing after laser treatment.

  7. Successful Treatment of Keloid With Fractionated Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser and Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide Ointment in an African-American Man.

    PubMed

    Kraeva, Ekaterina; Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2017-09-01

    Keloids are fibrous growths that occur as a result of abnormal response to dermal injury. Keloids are cosmetically disfiguring and may impair function, often resulting in decreased patient quality-of-life. Treatment of keloids remains challenging, and rate of recurrence is high. We present a case of a 39-year-old African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI) with a 10-year history of keloid, who was successfully treated with eight sessions of fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser immediately followed by laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) of topical triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) ointment and review the medical literature on fractionated CO2 laser treatment of keloids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of a keloid using combination therapy of fractionated CO2 laser and LADD with topical TAC ointment in an African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI) with excellent cosmetic results sustained at 22 months post-treatment. We believe that this combination treatment modality may be safe and efficacious for keloids in skin of color (Fitzpatrick IV-VI) and other patients. This case highlights the ability of laser surgeons to safely use fractionated CO2 lasers in patients of all skin colors.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):925-927.

    .

  8. Skin Pretreatment With Conventional Non-Fractional Ablative Lasers Promote the Transdermal Delivery of Tranexamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Hu, Sindy; Huang, Chun-Hsun

    2016-07-01

    Laser pretreatment of skin can be used to enable drugs used in dermatology to penetrate the skin to the depth necessary for their effect to take place. To compare the permeation of tranexamic acid after conventional non-fractionated ablative Er:YAG and CO2 laser pretreatment in a laser-aided transdermal delivery system. An erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and a CO2 laser were used to pretreat dorsal porcine skin. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine disruption of the skin surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to determine the depth of penetration of a reporter molecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate) into the skin. A Franz diffusion assembly was used to examine fluency-related increases in transdermal delivery of transexamic acid. Transdermal delivery of tranexamic acid increased as Er:YAG laser fluency increased. Transdermal delivery was higher when CO2 laser pretreatment was used than when Er:YAG laser pretreatment was used, but a "ceiling effect" was present and increasing the wattage did not cause a further increase in delivery. CO2 laser pretreatment also caused more extensive and deeper skin disruption than Er:YAG laser pretreatment. For conventional, non-fractionated ablative laser pretreatment, the Er:YAG laser would be an optimal choice to enhance transdermal penetration of transexamic acid.

  9. Soot volume fraction fields in unsteady axis-symmetric flames by continuous laser extinction technique.

    PubMed

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bonnety, Jérôme; Guibert, Philippe; Morin, Céline; Legros, Guillaume

    2012-12-17

    A Laser Extinction Method has been set up to provide two-dimensional soot volume fraction field time history at a tunable frequency up to 70 Hz inside an axis-symmetric diffusion flame experiencing slow unsteady phenomena preserving the symmetry. The use of a continuous wave laser as the light source enables this repetition rate, which is an incremental advance in the laser extinction technique. The technique is shown to allow a fine description of the soot volume fraction field in a flickering flame exhibiting a 12.6 Hz flickering phenomenon. Within this range of repetition rate, the technique and its subsequent post-processing require neither any method for time-domain reconstruction nor any correction for energy intrusion. Possibly complemented by such a reconstruction method, the technique should support further soot volume fraction database in oscillating flames that exhibit characteristic times relevant to the current efforts in the validation of soot processes modeling.

  10. A Retrospective Analysis of the Treatment of Melasma Using a Fractional Long-Pulsed Alexandrite Laser in Korean Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Min, Kyung Sik; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2016-08-01

    Long-pulsed, 755-nm, alexandrite lasers have been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of pigmentary lesions. Clinical outcomes and side effects in the treatment of melasma using a fractional, long-pulsed, alexandrite laser were assessed. Forty-eight patients with melasma received 2 to 4 treatment sessions of fractional, long-pulsed, alexandrite laser at 2 to 3 weeks intervals. The parameter of treatment was 60 to 80 J/cm without dynamic cooling device using 15-mm spot size of fractional hand piece, with a 0.5- to 1-millisecond pulse width. The mean modified melasma area and severity index score decreased significantly 2 months after the final treatment compared with baseline (16.5 ± 8.2 vs 11.5 ± 7.0; p = .002). The patients with epidermal type melasma were more effective compared to dermal type (p < .001). Long-pulsed alexandrite lasers using a fractional hand piece are moderately effective in the treatment of melasma with low risk of adverse effects, and it is suggested that fractional, long-pulsed, alexandrite laser with combination of other modalities can be an additional therapeutic option in patients with melasma.

  11. Histologic analyses on the response of the skin to 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, In Ho; Bae, Youin; Yeo, Un-Cheol; Lee, Jin Yong; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Choi, Young Hee; Park, Gyeong-Hun

    2018-02-01

    The histologic responses to varied parameters of 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser treatment have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. This study sought to evaluate histologic changes immediately after 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser session at various parameters. The dorsal skin of Yucatan mini-pig was treated with 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser at varied parameters, with or without skin drying. The immediate histologic changes were evaluated to determine the effects of varying laser parameters on the width and the depth of treated zones. The increase in the level of pulse energy widened the area of epidermal changes in the low power level, but increased the dermal penetration depth in the high power level. As the pulse energy level increased, the increase in the power level under the given pulse energy level more evidently made dermal penetration deeper and the treatment area smaller. Skin drying did not show significant effects on epidermal changes, but evidently increased the depth of dermal denaturation under both high and low levels of pulse energy. These results may provide important information to establish treatment parameters of the 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser for various skin conditions.

  12. Ultrafast properties of femtosecond-laser-ablated GaAs and its application to terahertz optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Madéo, Julien; Margiolakis, Athanasios; Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Hale, Peter J; Man, Michael K L; Zhao, Quan-Zhong; Peng, Wei; Shi, Wang-Zhou; Dani, Keshav M

    2015-07-15

    We report on the first terahertz (THz) emitter based on femtosecond-laser-ablated gallium arsenide (GaAs), demonstrating a 65% enhancement in THz emission at high optical power compared to the nonablated device. Counter-intuitively, the ablated device shows significantly lower photocurrent and carrier mobility. We understand this behavior in terms of n-doping, shorter carrier lifetime, and enhanced photoabsorption arising from the ablation process. Our results show that laser ablation allows for efficient and cost-effective optoelectronic THz devices via the manipulation of fundamental properties of materials.

  13. Micro-fractional ablative skin resurfacing with two novel erbium laser systems.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, Christine C; Khatri, Khalil A; Tannous, Zeina S; Childs, James J; Cohen, Richard H; Erofeev, Andrei; Tabatadze, David; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2008-02-01

    Fractional ablation offers the potential benefits of full-surface ablative skin resurfacing while minimizing adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, damage profile, and efficacy of erbium fractional lasers. Histology from animal and human skin as well as clinical evaluations were conducted with erbium YAG (2,940 nm) and erbium YSGG (2,790 nm) fractional lasers varying pulse width, microbeam (microb) energy, number of passes, and stacking of pulses. Single-pulse treatment parameters from 1 to 12 mJ per 50-70 microm diameter microbeam and 0.25-5 milliseconds pulse widths produced microcolumns of ablation with border coagulation of up to 100 microm width and 450 microm depth. Stacking of pulses generated deeper microcolumns. Clinical observations and in vivo histology demonstrate rapid re-epithelization and limited adverse side effects. Facial treatments were performed in the periorbital and perioral areas using 1-8 passes of single and stacked pulses. Treatments were well-tolerated and subjects could resume their normal routine in 4 days. A statistically significant reduction in wrinkle scores at 3 months was observed for both periorbital and perioral wrinkles using blinded grading. For periorbital treatments of four passes or more, over 90% had > or =1 score wrinkle reduction (0-9 scale) and 42% had > or =2. For perioral wrinkles, over 50% had substantial improvements (> or =2). The clinical observations and histology findings demonstrate that micro-fractional ablative treatment with 2,790 and 2,940 nm erbium lasers resulted in safe and effective wrinkle reduction with minimal patient downtime. The depth and width of the ablated microcolumns and varying extent of surrounding coagulation can be controlled and used to design new treatment procedures targeted for specific indications and areas such as moderate to severe rhytides and photodamaged skin.

  14. Non-ablative skin tightening with radiofrequency in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Kushikata, Nobuharu; Negishi, Kei; Tezuka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Kaori; Wakamatsu, Shingo

    2005-02-01

    The recent successful application of radiofrequency (RF) in non-ablative skin tightening for skin laxity has attracted attention worldwide. The efficacy and clinical effect of RF were assessed in Asian skin, with additional study on the duration of the effect and any complications. Eighty-five Japanese females were enrolled in the study for treatment of nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and sagging jowls with 6-month follow-up. RF treatment was effective for nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and jowls. Objective physician evaluation found relatively good improvement at 3 months post-treatment, and even better improvement at the 6-month evaluation. RF treatment was very satisfactory for skin tightening in Asian facial skin. When compared with published literature from the United States, the results suggested that there might be race-related differences in the treatment parameters. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Financial analysis of technology acquisition using fractionated lasers as a model.

    PubMed

    Jutkowitz, Eric; Carniol, Paul J; Carniol, Alan R

    2010-08-01

    Ablative fractional lasers are among the most advanced and costly devices on the market. Yet, there is a dearth of published literature on the cost and potential return on investment (ROI) of such devices. The objective of this study was to provide a methodological framework for physicians to evaluate ROI. To facilitate this analysis, we conducted a case study on the potential ROI of eight ablative fractional lasers. In the base case analysis, a 5-year lease and a 3-year lease were assumed as the purchase option with a $0 down payment and 3-month payment deferral. In addition to lease payments, service contracts, labor cost, and disposables were included in the total cost estimate. Revenue was estimated as price per procedure multiplied by total number of procedures in a year. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for variability in model assumptions. Based on the assumptions of the model, all lasers had higher ROI under the 5-year lease agreement compared with that for the 3-year lease agreement. When comparing results between lasers, those with lower operating and purchase cost delivered a higher ROI. Sensitivity analysis indicates the model is most sensitive to purchase method. If physicians opt to purchase the device rather than lease, they can significantly enhance ROI. ROI analysis is an important tool for physicians who are considering making an expensive device acquisition. However, physicians should not rely solely on ROI and must also consider the clinical benefits of a laser. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Synergistic skin heat shock protein expression in response to combined laser treatment with a diode laser and ablative fractional lasers.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Sonja, Grunewald; Haedersdal, Merete

    2014-06-01

    Diode laser-based skin heating has been shown to minimise scars by interfering with wound healing responses through the induction of heat shock proteins (HSP). HSP are also induced after ablative fractional laser (AFXL) wound healing. AFXL itself is highly recommended for scar treatment. Therefore, the sequential combination of both modalities may produce superior outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the pretreatment effects of a diode laser before AFXL on wound healing responses in terms of HSP up-regulation in an in vitro model. Immediate responses and responses on days 1, 3 or 6 post-procedure were studied in an in vitro porcine skin model (n = 240). Untreated samples served as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (Hsp70) was performed in all untreated controls, diode laser-, AFXL-, and in diode laser + AFXL-treated samples. Hsp70 was shown to be up-regulated by all interventions between days 1 and 6 after interventions. The largest effect was caused by the combination of a diode laser and an AFXL procedure. Diode laser exposure induces a skin HSP response that can be further enhanced by sequential AFXL treatment. Clinical studies are necessary to investigate the dose response of HSP on scar formation and refine suitable laser exposure settings.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of fractional CO2 laser on histopathological picture and TGF-β1 expression in hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Makboul, Mohamed; Makboul, Rania; Abdelhafez, Assem Hk; Hassan, Safaa Said; Youssif, Sherif M

    2014-09-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a form of abnormal wound healing process in which tissue repair regulating mechanism is disrupted. Transforming growth factor β1 has a particular importance in the fibrotic scarring response. Treatment of hypertrophic scar included many chemical, physical, and surgical options. Fractional CO2 laser devices have gained acceptance as a way for managing hypertrophic scar. Aims of this study are: (a) to determine the clinical and histopathological effects of fractional CO2 laser on hypertrophic scar, (b) to evaluate the expression pattern of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) as an important fibrogenic factor before and 6 months after fractional CO2 laser treatment. Forty patients of hypertrophic scar were selected, each patient was treated by four sessions with 1 month apart with fractional CO2 laser. Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was used to assess the patients before and after laser treatment. Skin biopsy was taken from eight cases before and 3 months after four fractional CO2 laser sessions and four normal skin control biopsies. All were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome, Van Gieson and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with TGF-β1. The epidermal thickness was assessed before and after treatment by image analyzing system software. There was statistically significant difference in VSS before and after fractional CO2 laser (P > 0.001). The epidermal thickness showed significant increase after laser treatment (P > 0.001), and there was also thinning in stratum corneum and replacement of the irregular collagen bands with organized new collagen fibrils as demonstrated by H&E and the other special stains. The study also showed significant decrease in TGF-β1 expression after laser therapy (P = 0.008). Fractional CO2 laser could be considered as a good way for hypertrophic scar management. It normalizes dermal collagen as imaged by histopathological picture and the change in TGF-β1 expression. © 2014 Wiley

  18. Nonablative lightweight thermal protection system for Mars Aeroflyby Sample collection mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Takuya; Ogasawara, Toshio; Fujita, Kazuhisa

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the concept of a nonablative lightweight thermal protection system (NALT) were proposed for a Mars exploration mission currently under investigation in Japan. The NALT consists of a carbon/carbon (C/C) composite skin, insulator tiles, and a honeycomb sandwich panel. Basic thermal characteristics of the NALT were obtained by conducting heating tests in high-enthalpy facilities. Thermal conductivity values of the insulator tiles as well as the emissivity values of the C/C skin were measured to develop a numerical analysis code for predicting NALT's thermal performance in flight environments. Finally, a breadboard model of a 600-mm diameter NALT aeroshell was developed and qualified through vibration and thermal vacuum tests.

  19. Monitoring the inhibition of erosion by a CO2 laser with OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for measuring small dimensional changes on tooth surfaces, OCT has great potential for monitoring tooth erosion. Previous studies have shown that enamel areas ablated by a carbon dioxide laser manifested lower rates of erosion compared to the nonablated areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a model to monitor erosion in vitro that could potentially be used in vivo. Teeth surfaces were irradiated with a carbon dioxide laser at low sub-ablative fluence to create an acid-resistant reference layer without damaging the enamel. The laser treated areas were compared with the unprotected areas using OCT during exposure to a pH cycling model for up to 6 days. The laser treated areas markedly reduced the rate of erosion.

  20. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles using 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tian-Hua; Li, Yuan-Hong; Chen, John Z S; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser to treat infraorbital dark circles. Thirty women with infraorbital dark circles (predominant color: dark/brown) participated in this open-labeled study. The participants received eight sessions of 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser treatment using a fluence of 3.0-3.5 J/cm 2 , at an interval of 7 days. The melanin deposition in the lesional skin was observed in vivo using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The morphological changes were evaluated using a global evaluation, an overall self-assessment, and a Mexameter. Twenty-eight of the 30 patients showed global improvements that they rated as excellent or good. Twenty-six patients rated their overall satisfaction as excellent or good. The melanin index indicated a substantial decrease from 240.44 (baseline) to 194.56 (P < 0.05). The RCM results showed a dramatic decrease in melanin deposition in the upper dermis. The adverse effects were minimal. The characteristic finding of dark/brown infraorbital dark circles is caused by increased melanin deposition in the upper dermis. The treatment of these infraorbital dark circles using a 694-nm fractional QSR laser is safe and effective.

  1. Fractional Er:YAG laser assisting topical betamethasone solution in combination with NB-UVB for resistant non-segmental vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ru; Yuan, Jinping; Chen, Hongqiang; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2017-09-01

    Resistant non-segmental vitiligo is difficult to be treated. Ablative erbium-YAG (Er:YAG) laser has been used in the treatment of vitiligo, but the ablation of entire epidermis frustrated the compliance of patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of fractional Er:YAG laser followed by topical betamethasone and narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy in the treatment of resistant non-segmental vitiligo. The vitiligo lesions of each enrolled patient were divided into four treatment parts, which were all irradiated with NB-UVB. Three parts were, respectively, treated with low, medium, or high energy of Er:YAG laser, followed by topical betamethasone solution application. A control part was spared with laser treatment and topical betamethasone. The treatment period lasted 6 months. The efficacy was assessed by two blinded dermatologists. Treatment protocol with high energy of 1800 mJ/P of fractional Er:YAG laser followed by topical betamethasone solution and in combination with NB-UVB made 60% patients achieve marked to excellent improvement in white patches. The protocol with medium energy of 1200 mJ/P of laser assisted approximate 36% patients achieve such improvement. The two protocols, respectively, showed better efficacies than NB-UVB only protocol. However, fractional Er:YAG laser at low energy of 600 mJ/P did not provide such contributions to the treatment of vitiligo. The fractional Er:YAG laser in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB was suitable for resistant non-segmental vitiligo. The energy of laser was preferred to be set at relatively high level.

  2. Review of photorejuvenation: devices, cosmeceuticals, or both?

    PubMed

    Rokhsar, Cameron K; Lee, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Richard E

    2005-09-01

    Both the public and the medical profession have placed a lot of attention on reversal of signs of aging and photodamage, resulting in numerous cosmeceutical products and nonablative laser techniques designed to achieve these results. The purpose of this report is to briefly review both the cosmeceutical products and nonablative laser techniques that appear to be most promising based on published studies. After this review, recommendations for potential enhancement of benefits by combining cosmeceuticals and laser treatments will be explored. Pulsed dye lasers targeting microvessels, intense pulsed light targeting both melanin and microvessels, and midinfrared lasers targeting dermal water and collagen all appear to have some ability to improve skin texture, color, and wrinkling. Retinoids, vitamin C, alpha-hydroxy acids, and topical growth factors may also stimulate repair mechanisms that result in similar improvements in photodamaged skin. Although supported only by theoretic considerations and anecdotal reports, it seems logical that the concurrent use of appropriate cosmeceuticals with nonablative laser photorejuvenation should result in enhanced benefits.

  3. Efficacy of Punch Elevation Combined with Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing in Facial Atrophic Acne Scarring: A Randomized Split-face Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Faghihi, Gita; Nouraei, Saeid; Asilian, Ali; Keyvan, Shima; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Rakhshanpour, Mehrdad; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18–55) with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56). Their evaluation found that fractional CO2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02). Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring. PMID:26538695

  4. Deep pulse fractional CO2 laser combined with a radiofrequency system: results of a case series.

    PubMed

    Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Sannino, Mario; Tamburi, Federica; Chiricozzi, Andrea; Saraceno, Rosita; Morini, Cristiano; Nisticò, Steven

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of the safety and efficacy of this new combined technology that adds deep ablation to thermal stimulation. Minimally ablative or subablative lasers, such as fractional CO2 lasers, have been developed in an attempt to achieve the same clinical results observed with traditional ablative lasers, but with fewer side effects. Despite being an ablative laser, the system used in this study is able to produce a fractional supply of the beam of light. Fractional ablation of skin is performed through the development of microscopic vertical columns surrounded by spared areas of epidermis and dermis, ensuring rapid wound healing and minimum down time. Simultaneous synchronized delivery of a radiofrequency (RF) current to the deeper layers of the skin completes the therapeutic scenario, ensuring an effective skin tightening effect over the entire treated area. Nine adult patients were treated for wrinkles and acne scars using this new laser technology. An independent observer evaluated the improvement using a five point scale. All patients had good results in terms of improvement of skin texture, with mild and transitory side effects. This novel combined system produced improvement in wrinkles and acne scars, with progressive enhancement of skin tone and elasticity.

  5. Early treatment using fractional CO2 laser before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians.

    PubMed

    Du, Feiya; Yu, Yusheng; Zhou, Zhiqin; Wang, Liujia; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-01

    Fractional CO 2 laser is one of the most effective treatment options used to resurface scars. However, most previous studies have been performed on mature scars at least 2 months after surgery. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of early treatment to reduce scar formation. In the present study, we described our experience with fractional CO 2 laser intervention before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians, and found the treatment was safe and effective.

  6. Ablative fractional laser enhances MAL-induced PpIX accumulation: Impact of laser channel density, incubation time and drug concentration.

    PubMed

    Haak, C S; Christiansen, K; Erlendsson, A M; Taudorf, E H; Thaysen-Petersen, D; Wulf, H C; Haedersdal, M

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional laser enhances accumulation of topical provided photosensitizer, but essential information is lacking on the interaction between laser channel densities and pharmacokinetics. Hence our objectives were to investigate how protoporphyrin accumulation was affected by laser densities, incubation time and drug concentration. We conducted the study on the back of healthy male volunteers (n=11). Test areas were pretreated with 2940nm ablative fractional Er:YAG laser, 11.2mJ per laser channel using densities of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15% (AFL 1-15%). Control areas received pretreatment with curettage or no pretreatment. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) was applied under occlusion in concentrations of 0, 80 and 160mg/g. MAL-induced protoporphyrin fluorescence was quantified with a handheld photometer after 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180min incubation. The individual fluorescence intensity reached from the highest density (15%) and longest MAL 160mg/g incubation time (180min) was selected as reference (100%) for other interventional measurements. A low laser density of 1% markedly enhanced fluorescence intensities from 34% to 75% (no pretreatment vs. AFL 1%, MAL 160mg/g, 180min; p<0.001). Furthermore, fluorescence intensities increased substantially by enhancing densities up to 5% (p≤0.0195). Accumulation of protoporphyrins was accelerated by laser exposure. Thus, laser exposure of 5% density and a median incubation time of 80min MAL (range 46-133min) induced fluorescence levels similar to curettage and 180min incubation. Furthermore, MAL 80 and 160mg/g induced similar fluorescence intensities in skin exposed to laser densities of 1, 2 and 5% (p>0.0537, 30-180min). MAL-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is augmented by enhancing AFL densities up to 5%. Further, this model indicates that incubation time as well as drug concentration of MAL may be reduced with laser pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison between Er:YAG laser and bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared diode laser for the treatment of acne scars: Differential expression of fibrogenetic biomolecules may be associated with differences in efficacy between ablative and non-ablative laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Min, Seonguk; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2017-04-01

    Fractional Er:YAG minimizes the risk associated with skin ablation. Infrared diode laser and radiofrequency have suggested comparable improvements in acne scar. We compared the clinical efficacy of Er:YAG laser and bipolar radiofrequency combined with diode laser (BRDL) for the treatment of acne scars. Moreover, acute molecular changes of cytokine profile associated with wound healing have been evaluated to suggest mechanisms of improvement of acne scar. Twenty-four subjects with mild-to-moderate acne scars were treated in a split-face manner with Er:YAG and BRDL, with two treatment sessions, 4 weeks apart. Objective and subjective assessments were done at baseline, 1, 3, 7 days after each treatment and 4 weeks after last treatment. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, 7, 28 days after one session of treatment for investigation of molecular profile of acute skin changes by laser treatment. Investigator's Global Assessment representing the improvement degree shows 2.1 (50%) in fractional Er:YAG and 1.2 (25%) in BRDL. Er:YAG induced the later and higher peak expression of TGFβs and collagenases, whereas BRDL induced earlier and lower expression of TGFβ and collagenases, relatively. PPARγ dropped rapidly after a peak in Er:YAG-treated side, which is associated with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) expression. We observed higher expression of TIMP after Er:YAG treatment compared with BRDL by immunohistochemistry, which may be associated with the expression of upregulation of collagen fibers. The superior efficacy of Er:YAG to BRDL in the treatment of acne scars may be associated with higher expression of collagen which is associated with differential expression of TGFβs, collagenases, PPARγ, and TIMP. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:341-347, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Upper Eyelid Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing With Incisional Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kotlus, Brett S; Schwarcz, Robert M; Nakra, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    Laser resurfacing, performed at the same time as blepharoplasty, has most commonly been applied to the lower eyelid skin but can effectively be used on the upper eyelid to reduce rhytidosis and improve skin quality. The authors evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing was performed in conjunction with incisional upper blepharoplasty. The ultrapulsed laser energy was applied to the sub-brow skin, the upper medial canthal skin, and the pretarsal skin in 30 patients. Photos were obtained preoperatively and at 3 months. All patients demonstrated reduction in upper eyelid rhytidosis without any serious complications. Independent rhytidosis grading (0-4) showed a mean improvement of 42%. One patient experienced wound dehiscence that satisfactorily resolved without intervention. Upper eyelid laser resurfacing is effective and can be safely performed at the same time as upper blepharoplasty. This approach reduces or eliminates the need for medial incisions to address medial canthal skin redundancy and rhytidosis and it directly treats upper eyelid wrinkles on residual eyelid and infra-brow skin during blepharoplasty.

  9. Preliminary study on the treatment of vitiligo with carbon dioxide fractional laser together with tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Huang, Fei-Ran; Luo, Dan; Wang, Da-Guang

    2018-04-10

    Tacrolimus is a conventional medication for the treatment of vitiligo, but the effect of a single medication is limited. This paper aims at observing the effects, adverse responses, and repigmentation results of the joint treatment of vitiligo by Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser together with tacrolimus. Forty-five patients with vitiligo were randomly divided into two groups: treatment (T) group and control (C) group, and each group was further divided into three subgroups (face, torso and limbs, and hand and foot) according to the location of the skin defect. Both groups used topical 0.1% tacrolimus cream, but the T group was given one CO 2 fractional laser treatment each month. We observed the clinical efficacy, adverse responses, and repigmentation results after 6 months. Compared to the C group, the T group showed better improvement in both objective and subjective assessments. When the treatment time was increased, the efficacy was also improved, and the repigmentation in the T group occured in three ways: perifollicular repigmentation, marginal repigmentation and diffuse repigmentation. There were three cases of isomorphic responses (2 cases in the rapid progression stage, one case in the progression stage), and 1 case formed scarring on the neck in the T group. The treatment of vitiligo by CO 2 fractional laser together with tacrolimus is significantly effective and is most suitable for patients in the progression stage. Patients in the rapid progression stage should use this approach with caution, and its efficacy was limited for patients in the stable stage. An extended course of treatment is helpful for the repigmentation of white patches. All three forms of repigmentation can occur in the joint treatment of vitiligo by CO 2 fractional laser together with tacrolimus. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Translational medicine in the field of ablative fractional laser (AFXL)-assisted drug delivery: A critical review from basics to current clinical status.

    PubMed

    Haedersdal, Merete; Erlendsson, Andrés M; Paasch, Uwe; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Ablative fractional lasers enhance uptake of topical therapeutics and the concept of fractional laser-assisted drug delivery has now been taken into clinical practice. We systematically reviewed preclinical data and clinical evidence for fractional lasers to enhance drug uptake and improve clinical efficacy. We searched PubMed and Embase databases; 34 articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized into experimental preclinical studies and clinical trials, the latter graded according to level of evidence. All preclinical trials (n = 16) documented enhanced topical drug uptake into skin after ablative fractional laser treatment. Clinical evidence encompassed 18 studies, of which 9 were randomized controlled trials and 2 were controlled trials, examining neoplastic lesions, photodamaged skin, scars, onychomycosis, and topical anesthetics. The highest level of evidence was reached for actinic keratoses treated with methylaminolevulinate for photodynamic therapy (level IB, 5 randomized controlled trials), substantiating superior and long-lasting efficacy versus conventional photodynamic therapy. No adverse events were reported, but ablative fractional laser-assisted drug delivery implies risks of systemic drug absorption, especially when performed over large skin areas. Fractional laser-assisted drug delivery is beneficial in enhancing preclinical and clinical outcomes for certain skin conditions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser in acne scars and skin rejuvenation: A meta-analysis and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fereshteh; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Yaaghoobian, Barmak

    2018-01-31

    Fractional CO 2 has many indications in medicine including in treatment of acne scars and rejuvenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of Fractional CO 2 Laser in comparison with other methods of rejuvenation and acne scar treatment. Several databases including Medline, OVID, EMBASE, CINHAL, SCOPUS, Web of science, CRD, and Cochrane were searched. After conducting the search and evaluation of selected publications, critical appraisal was done and eligible studies were accepted for inclusion in the systematic review. From 2667 identified publications two of the trials were eligible. The effectiveness and complications of Fractional CO 2 laser were comparable with Er:YAG but Fractional CO 2 laser was 14.7% (p = 0.01) more effective than Q-Switched ND:YAG laser. Cost affectivity of this method was the same as other alternative lasers. In conclusion Fractional CO 2 laser is an effective and safe method for curing of several kinds of skin diseases. Nevertheless there was not sufficient evidence to support its advantage. This device has equal or lower price in comparison to competent technologies except for the non- fractional ablative CO 2 laser that has the same or lower price and comparable effects.

  12. Versatility of erbium YAG laser: from fractional skin rejuvenation to full-field skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, J David

    2011-05-01

    For the laser surgeon, the Er-YAG laser is an invaluable tool that delivers unsurpassed ablation efficiency, and with appropriate functionality (quasi long-pulse feature) provides sufficient tissue coagulation to remodel deep rhytids. As such, the 2940-nm wavelength is well suited for routine laser skin rejuvenation in full-field, fractional, and point-beam modes with additional benefits, including applicability to diverse skin types, short healing times, and a low likelihood of energy-related complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laser-assisted delivery of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ferulic acid formula serum decreases fractional laser postoperative recovery by increased beta fibroblast growth factor expression.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Jill S; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Ozog, David; Qu, Le; Zhou, Li; Rudnick, Ashley; Al-Niaimi, Firas; Woodward, Julie; Campos, Valerie; Mordon, Serge

    2016-03-01

    Laser-assisted drug delivery is an emerging technology to achieve greater penetration by existing topical medications to reach desired targets in the tissue. The objective of this research was to study whether laser-assisted delivery of Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic immediately postoperatively of fractional ablative laser could improve wound healing. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the potential molecular markers involved in this wound-healing process. A double blinded, prospective, single center, randomized split face trial of Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic topical formula #740019 to decrease postoperative recovery time in fractional ablative laser resurfacing for photo damage. Fifteen healthy men and women of ages 30-55 years were treated with the Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic acid serum to one side of face and vehicle to the other side of face, within 2 minutes immediately after fractional ablative CO2 laser surgery and daily during the healing process. Patients were evaluated daily on days 1-7 using photographs, patient questionnaires, and molecular evaluation. Clinically, postoperative Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic delivery resulted in decreased edema versus vehicle on postoperative day 7 and decreased erythema versus vehicle on postoperative days 3 and 5. Molecularly, the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was significantly increased at day 5 on the lesion treated with Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic acid serum compared to vehicle control on the other side. This is first study to show that Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic acid correlate with more rapid wound healing post-fractional ablative laser. Elevated bFGF could be involved in the Vitamin C, E, and Ferulic acid-induced rapid wound healing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fractional Ablative Laser Followed by Transdermal Acoustic Pressure Wave Device to Enhance the Drug Delivery of Aminolevulinic Acid: In Vivo Fluorescence Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Jill S; Rudnick, Ashley; Nousari, Carlos; Bhanusali, Dhaval G

    2016-01-01

    Topical drug delivery is the foundation of all dermatological therapy. Laser-assisted drug delivery (LAD) using fractional ablative laser is an evolving modality that may allow for a greater precise depth of penetration by existing topical medications, as well as more efficient transcutaneous delivery of large drug molecules. Additional studies need to be performed using energy-driven methods that may enhance drug delivery in a synergistic manner. Processes such as iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and the use of photomechanical waves aid in penetration. This study evaluated in vivo if there is increased efficacy of fractional CO2 ablative laser with immediate acoustic pressure wave device. Five patients were treated and biopsied at 4 treatment sites: 1) topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) alone; 2) fractional ablative CO2 laser and topical ALA alone; 3) fractional ablative CO2 laser and transdermal acoustic pressure wave device delivery system; and 4) topical ALA with transdermal delivery system. The comparison of the difference in the magnitude of diffusion with both lateral spread of ALA and depth diffusion of ALA was measured by fluorescence microscopy. For fractional ablative CO2 laser, ALA, and transdermal acoustic pressure wave device, the protoporphyrin IX lateral fluorescence was 0.024 mm on average vs 0.0084 mm for fractional ablative CO2 laser and ALA alone. The diffusion for the acoustic pressure wave device was an order of magnitude greater. We found that our combined approach of fractional ablative CO2 laser paired with the transdermal acoustic pressure wave device increased the depth of penetration of ALA.

  15. The mechanism of joint capsule thermal modification in an in-vitro sheep model.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Peters, D M; Thabit, G; Hecht, P; Vanderby, R; Fanton, G S; Markel, M D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism responsible for joint capsule shrinkage after nonablative laser application in an in-vitro sheep model. Femoropatellar joint capsular tissue specimens harvested from 20 adult sheep were treated with one of three power settings of a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser or served as a control. Laser treatment significantly shortened the tissue and decreased tissue stiffness in all three laser groups, whereas failure strength was not altered significantly by laser treatment. Transmission electron microscopic examination showed swollen collagen fibrils and loss of membrane integrity of fibroblasts. A thermometric study revealed nonablative laser energy caused tissue temperature to rise in the range of 64 degrees C to 100 degrees C. Electrophoresis after trypsin digestion of the tissue revealed significant loss of distinct alpha bands of Type I collagen in laser treated samples, whereas alpha bands were present in laser treated tissue without trypsin digestion. The results of this study support the concept that the primary mechanism responsible for the effect of nonablative laser energy is thermal denaturation of collagen in joint capsular tissue associated with unwinding of the triple helical structure of the collagen molecule.

  16. The use of the fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of photoaging in Asians: five years long-term results.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun; Lei, Ying; Ouyang, Hua-Wei; Gold, Michael H

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this clinical paper is to explore the therapeutic effects, healing times, adverse effects, and maintenance periods of using a CO2 fractional laser in the treatment of photoaging in Asian skin. One fractional CO2 laser procedure was performed on the full face in 56 patients with photoaging. Based on the Dover scoring system, we evaluated the degree of skin aging before treatment and at one-month post laser and at five years post laser therapy in 30 of the patients. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon's method. Thirty of the treated patients have had follow-up for 5 years at this time. The photoaging scores in these thirty patients were significantly changed (P < 0.01) at one month, one year, and five years after the fractional laser treatment, as compared with their baseline. Adverse events seen during this analysis were found to be minimal and not of clinical significance. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of photoaging in Asians is a useful modality with results, for the first time, being shown to have continued efficacy for up to 5 years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Analysis of incidence of bulla formation after tattoo treatment using the combination of the picosecond Alexandrite laser and fractionated CO2 ablation.

    PubMed

    Au, Sonoa; Liolios, Ana M; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2015-02-01

    The picosecond Alexandrite laser has shown increased efficacy in tattoo removal in comparison to Q-switched lasers. However, bulla formation is a well-known and expected side effect of this novel treatment and causes patient discomfort. To analyze the incidence of bulla formation after tattoo treatment using the combination of the picosecond Alexandrite laser and fractionated CO2 ablation. This is a retrospective chart review to determine the incidence of bulla formation after laser tattoo removal in 95 patients who were treated with either with the picosecond Alexandrite laser alone or in combination with fractional CO2 ablation. Twenty-six patients (32%) treated with the picosecond laser alone experienced blistering, whereas none of the patients treated with the combination of the picosecond laser and fractionated CO2 ablation experienced blistering. The difference in incidence of bulla formation between the 2 groups was found to be statistically significant (p < .05). This study shows a significant decrease in bulla formation associated with tattoo treatment when fractionated CO2 ablation is added to the picosecond Alexandrite laser, which is consistent with observations from a previous case series. This is important because decreasing extensive blistering likely results in increased patient satisfaction and willingness to return for future treatments.

  18. Fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-assisted drug delivery of hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Ashraf M; Osman, Mai Abdelraouf

    2018-01-01

    Background Melasma is a difficult-to-treat hyperpigmentary disorder. Ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted delivery of topically applied drugs to varied targets in the skin has been an area of ongoing study and research. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser as an assisted drug delivery for enhancing topical hydroquinone (HQ) permeation into the skin of melasma patients. Patients and methods Thirty female patients with bilateral melasma were randomly treated in a split-face controlled manner with a fractional Er:YAG laser followed by 4% HQ cream on one side and 4% HQ cream alone on the other side. All patients received six laser sessions with a 2-week interval. The efficacy of treatments was determined through photographs, dermoscopic photomicrographs and Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) score, all performed at baseline and at 12 weeks of starting therapy. The patient’s level of satisfaction was also recorded. Results Er:YAG laser + HQ showed significantly better results (p<0.005) with regard to decrease in the degree of pigmentation as assessed on the 4-point scale than HQ alone. There was a significant decrease in MASI scores on Er:YAG laser + HQ side vs HQ side. Minor reversible side effects were observed on both sides. Conclusion AFL-assisted delivery of HQ is a safe and effective method for the treatment of melasma. PMID:29379308

  19. Ablative Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in the Treatment of Chronic, Posttraumatic, Lower-Extremity Ulcers in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tania J; Morton, Laurel M; Uebelhoer, Nathan S; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-01

    Treating posttraumatic lower extremity wounds can be challenging, especially in elderly patients. Recently, the use of fractional carbon dioxide laser has been shown to improve wound healing in scar-related wounds. We used this treatment modality in posttraumatic wounds that were slow to heal in 3 elderly patients. Each wound underwent one fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment. The wound base was treated at 30 mJ and 5% density. The entire wound edge and 1 to 2 cm into the normal surrounding skin were treated at 50 mJ and 5% density. One pass was completed at 150 Hz per treatment. Treatments were well tolerated with only mild discomfort. Each wound healed by 60% or greater within 3 weeks. No adverse events were reported aside from mild and transient erythema at site of treatment. Fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment appeared to accelerate healing in each of these posttraumatic wounds. It may be a helpful adjunct in nonhealing posttraumatic wounds.

  20. Use of the fractional Fourier transform in {pi}/2 converters of laser modes

    SciTech Connect

    Malyutin, A A

    2004-02-28

    The possibility of using the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) in optical schemes for astigmatic {pi}/2 converters of Hermite-Gaussian modes to donut Laguerre-Gaussian modes is considered. Several schemes of converters based on the FrFT of the half-integer and irrational orders are presented. The lowest FrFT order than can be used in astigmatic mode converters is found. The properties of converters based on the fractional and ordinary Fourier transforms are compared. (laser beams)

  1. Risk assessment of excess drug and sunscreen absorption via skin with ablative fractional laser resurfacing : optimization of the applied dose for postoperative care.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Yang, Hung-Hsu; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-09-01

    The ablative fractional laser is a new modality used for surgical resurfacing. It is expected that laser treatment can generally deliver drugs into and across the skin, which is toxicologically relevant. The aim of this study was to establish skin absorption characteristics of antibiotics, sunscreens, and macromolecules via laser-treated skin and during postoperative periods. Nude mice were employed as the animal model. The skin received a single irradiation of a fractional CO2 laser, using fluences of 4-10 mJ with spot densities of 100-400 spots/cm(2). In vitro skin permeation using Franz cells was performed. Levels of skin water loss and erythema were evaluated, and histological examinations with staining by hematoxylin and eosin, cyclooxygenase-2, and claudin-1 were carried out. Significant signs of erythema, edema, and scaling of the skin treated with the fractional laser were evident. Inflammatory infiltration and a reduction in tight junctions were also observed. Laser treatment at 6 mJ increased tetracycline and tretinoin fluxes by 70- and 9-fold, respectively. A higher fluence resulted in a greater tetracycline flux, but lower skin deposition. On the other hand, tretinoin skin deposition increased following an increase in the laser fluence. The fractional laser exhibited a negligible effect on modulating oxybenzone absorption. Dextrans with molecular weights of 4 and 10 kDa showed increased fluxes from 0.05 to 11.05 and 38.54 μg/cm(2)/h, respectively. The optimized drug dose for skin treated with the fractional laser was 1/70-1/60 of the regular dose. The skin histology and drug absorption had recovered to a normal status within 2-3 days. Our findings provide the first report on risk assessment of excessive skin absorption after fractional laser resurfacing.

  2. 120: THE CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF FRACTIONAL CO2 LASER IN ACNE SCARS AND SKIN REJUVENATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    Yaaghoobian, Barmak; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Skin rejuvenation is one of high demand cosmetic interventions in Iran. Fractional CO2 Laser is a high power ablative laser which has variety of utilization in medicine including treatment of acne scars and rejuvenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of Fractional CO2 Laser in comparison with other methods of rejuvenation and acne scar treatment. Methods A systematic database search including Medline (via OVID and PubMed), EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, CRD, SCOPUS and Web of Science conducted. After screening search results, selected publications appraised by CASP and Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and eligible studies included in the systematic review. In economic evaluation, all costs and benefits analyzed from Iran ministry of health's perspective. Results From 2667 publications, two randomized control trials were eligible and included in the study. The affectivity and complications of Fractional CO2 laser were comparable with Er: YAG but Fractional CO2 laser was 14.7% (P=0.01) more effective than Q-Switched ND: YAG laser. Cost affectivity of this method was the same as other alternative lasers. Conclusions Fractional CO2 laser is an effective and safe method for curing several kinds of skin. Never the less there was not sufficient evidence to support its advantage. This device has equal or lower price in comparison to competent technologies except for the non- fractional ablative Co2 laser that has the same or lower price and comparable effects.

  3. The effect of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, G-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, W-S

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of hair loss in women, and its prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and social withdrawal. A variety of laser and light sources have been tried for treatment of hair loss, and some success has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in treatment of female pattern hair loss. Twenty eight ethnic South Korean patients with varying degrees of FPHL were enrolled in the study. Patients received ten treatments with a 1550 nm fractional Er:Glass Laser (Mosaic, Lutronic Co., Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) at 2-weeks intervals using the same parameters (5-10 mm tip, 6 mJ pulse energy, 800 spot/cm(2) density, static mode). Phototrichogram and global photographs were taken at baseline and at the end of laser treatment, and analysed for changes in hair density and hair shaft diameter. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists using a 7-point scale. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. All adverse effects were reported during the study. Twenty seven patients completed a 5-month schedule of laser treatment. One patient was excluded during treatment due to occurrence of alopecia areata. At the initial visit, mean hair density was 100 ± 14/cm(2) , and mean hair thickness was 58 ± 12 μm. After 5 months of laser treatment, hair density showed a marked increase to 157 ± 28/cm(2) (P < 0.001), and hair thickness also increased to 75 ± 13 μm (P < 0.001). Global photographs showed improvement in 24 (87.5%) of the 27 patients. Two patients (7.4%) reported mild pruritus after laser treatment; however, these resolved within 2 h. A 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser irradiation may be an effective and safe treatment option for women with female pattern hair loss. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European

  4. Efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in treatment of atrophic scar of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (<25%), moderate (25-50%), good (51-75%), and excellent (76-100%). Based on patients' opinion, in the first and second follow-up, 48.3 and 90% of them reported moderate to excellent healing, respectively (p < 0.001). In 3 and 6 months follow-up after the end of the experiment, most of the patients (88.3 and 95%, respectively) reported moderate to excellent healing of scars. Based on two observers' opinion, healing in the first follow-up in most of the patients (65%) was mild to moderate and 33% were reported as having no healing. In the second follow-up, only 5% of the patients were reported with no healing and 60% were reported as having moderate healing (p < 0.001). In 3 and 6 months follow-up, most of the patients (95 and 96.6%) were reported as having moderate to excellent healing (p = <0.001). Our results underlined the high efficacy of fractional CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.

  5. Fractional laser-assisted delivery of methyl aminolevulinate: Impact of laser channel depth and incubation time.

    PubMed

    Haak, Christina S; Farinelli, William A; Tam, Joshua; Doukas, Apostolos G; Anderson, R Rox; Haedersdal, Merete

    2012-12-01

    Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) enhances the uptake of topical photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Distribution of photosensitizer into skin layers may depend on depth of laser channels and incubation time. This study evaluates whether depth of intradermal laser channels and incubation time may affect AFXL-assisted delivery of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL). Yorkshire swine were treated with CO2 AFXL at energy levels of 37, 190, and 380 mJ/laser channel and subsequent application of MAL cream (Metvix) for 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes incubation time. Fluorescence photography and fluorescence microscopy quantified MAL-induced porphyrin fluorescence (PpIX) at the skin surface and at five specific skin depths (120, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 1,800 µm). Laser channels penetrated into superficial (∼300 µm), mid (∼1,400 µm), and deep dermis/upper subcutaneous fat layer (∼2,100 µm). Similar fluorescence intensities were induced at the skin surface and throughout skin layers independent of laser channel depth (180 minutes; P < 0.19). AFXL accelerated PpIX fluorescence from skin surface to deep dermis. After laser exposure and 60 minutes MAL incubation, surface fluorescence was significantly higher compared to intact, not laser-exposed skin at 180 minutes (AFXL-MAL 60 minutes vs. MAL 180 minutes, 69.16 a.u. vs. 23.49 a.u.; P < 0.01). Through all skin layers (120-1,800 µm), laser exposure and 120 minutes MAL incubation induced significantly higher fluorescence intensities in HF and dermis than non-laser exposed sites at 180 minutes (1,800 µm, AFXL-MAL 120 minutes vs. MAL 180 minutes, HF 14.76 a.u. vs. 6.69 a.u. and dermis 6.98 a.u. vs. 5.87 a.u.; P < 0.01). AFXL pretreatment accelerates PpIX accumulation, but intradermal depth of laser channels does not affect porphyrin accumulation. Further studies are required to examine these findings in clinical trials. Copyright

  6. Clinical efficacy of utilizing Ultrapulse CO2 combined with fractional CO2 laser for the treatment of hypertrophic scars in Asians-A prospective clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ying; Li, Shi Feng; Yu, Yi Ling; Tan, Jun; Gold, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is seen regularly. Tissue penetration of laser energy into hypertrophic scars using computer defaults from some lasers may be insufficient and penetration not enough. We have developed a treatment with an interrupted laser "drilling" by the Ultrapulse CO 2 (Manual Fractional Technology, MFT) and, a second pass, with fractional CO 2 . The MFT with fractional CO 2 lasers to treat hypertrophic scars is evaluated. A total of 158 patients with hypertrophic scars had three sessions of MFT with fractional CO 2 laser at 3-month intervals. Evaluations made before and 6 months after the 3rd treatment: (1) the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), (2) the University of North Carolina (UNC) Scar Scale, and (3) a survey of patient satisfaction. All data were analyzed using a t-test before and after treatment. The VSS score decreased from 9.35 to 3.12 (P<.0001), and the UNC Scar Scale score decreased from 8.03 to 1.62 (P<.0001). The overall satisfaction rate was 92%. No long-term complications occurred in the clinical trial. The interrupted laser drilling by MFT and a fractional CO2 laser had profound effects on the hypertrophic scars treated. It works by increasing the penetration depth of the CO 2 laser in the scar tissue, exerting more precise effects on the hypertrophic scars. MFT combined with fractional CO 2 laser has the potential to be a major advance in the treatment of hypertrophic scars. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Inflammatory responses, matrix remodeling, and re-epithelialization after fractional CO2 laser treatment of scars.

    PubMed

    DeBruler, Danielle M; Blackstone, Britani N; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Wulff, Brian C; Wilgus, Traci A; Bailey, J Kevin; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2017-09-01

    Fractional CO 2 laser therapy has been used to improve scar pliability and appearance; however, a variety of treatment protocols have been utilized with varied outcomes. Understanding the relationship between laser power and extent of initial tissue ablation and time frame for remodeling could help determine an optimum power and frequency for laser treatment. The characteristics of initial injury caused by fractional CO 2 laser treatment, the rates of dermal remodeling and re-epithelialization, and the extent of inflammation as a function of laser stacking were assessed in this study in a porcine scar model. Full-thickness burn wounds were created on female Red Duroc pigs followed by immediate excision of the eschar and split-thickness autografting. Three months after injury, the resultant scars were treated with a fractional CO 2 laser with 70 mJ of energy delivered as either a single pulse or stacked for three consecutive pulses. Immediately prior to laser treatment and at 1, 24, 96, and 168 hours post-laser treatment, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and microscopic characteristics of laser injury were measured. In addition, markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins, and re-epithelialization were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Both treatments produced erythema in the scar that peaked 24 hours after treatment then decreased to basal levels by 168 hours. TEWL increased after laser treatment and returned to normal levels between 24 and 96 hours later. Stacking of the pulses did not significantly increase the depth of ablated wells or extend the presence of erythema. Interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were found to increase significantly 1 hour after treatment but returned to baseline by 24 hours post laser. In contrast, expression of transforming growth factor β1 and transforming growth factor β3 increased slowly after treatment with a more modest increase than interleukin 6 and monocyte

  8. Long-term reliability of fractioned CO2 laser as a treatment for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pieralli, Annalisa; Bianchi, Claudia; Longinotti, Manuela; Corioni, Serena; Auzzi, Noemi; Becorpi, Angelamaria; Fallani, Maria Grazia; Cariti, Giuseppe; Petraglia, Felice

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term effects of the fractional CO 2 laser for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) symptoms. Women presenting with VVA symptoms and meeting inclusion criterion were enrolled to fractioned CO 2 laser therapy. Patient's satisfaction was measured on five-point Likert scale at 4 weeks and 6, 12, 18, 24 months after treatment by interview and clinical examination for vaginal livability. 184 patients constituted the final study group: 128 women were spontaneous menopause and 56 were oncological menopause. 117 women were nulliparous and 36 had previous hysterectomy. 95.4% (172/184) of the patients declared that they were satisfied or very satisfied with the procedure at 4 weeks after treatment. At 6 months 92% (170/184) patients were satisfied; at 12 months 72% (118/162) were satisfied; at 18 months 63% (60/94) were satisfied; at 24 months 25% (4/16) of patients answered they were still satisfied. We observed a decline in patient's satisfaction between 18 and 24 months after laser therapy. Data showed that the time interval from onset of menopause was a statistically significant factor (p < 0.05) for treatment satisfaction in oncological group. Long-term data showed that the improvement of vaginal health may continue up to 24 months after fractional CO 2 laser treatment although between 18 and 24 months benefits decline, and approximately 80% of women decide to start a new treatment cycle of laser applications.

  9. Fractional CO2 Laser Treatment of the Vestibule for Patients with Vestibulodynia and Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Murina, Filippo; Karram, Mickey; Salvatore, Stefano; Felice, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Chronic vulvar pain and burning remains one of the most perplexing problems faced by practicing gynecologists. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the application of micro-ablative fractional CO 2 laser to the vulvar vestibule in the management of patients with vulvar pain from vestibulodynia or genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Patients (N = 70) underwent fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser treatment for vestibular pain plus vestibulodynia (n = 37) or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (n = 33). Inclusion criteria were the existence of vestibular atrophic changes and the absence of moderate or severe pelvic floor hypertonic dysfunction. A visual analog scale of pain and the Marinoff score of dyspareunia were chosen to evaluate improvement. Grading of vestibular health also was quantified using a four-point scoring system (0 = no atrophy, 3 = severe atrophy). Data were collected at baseline, at weeks 4, 8, and 12, and 4 months after the final treatment. For visual analog scale and dyspareunia scoring and for the overall vestibular health index scoring, statistically significant improvement was noted after three sessions of vestibular fractional CO 2 laser treatment. Improvement gradually increased throughout the study period and was maintained through the 4-month follow-up visit. There was no statistically significant difference in outcomes between the two study groups. No adverse events from fractional CO 2 laser treatment were noted. Overall, 67.6% of patients stated significant improvement from the laser procedure. This preliminary case series showed encouraging results using fractional CO 2 laser treatment of the vestibule in women with vestibulodynia and genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of laser welding parameters on the austenite and martensite phase fractions of NiTi

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, J.P., E-mail: jp.oliveira@campus.fct.unl

    Although laser welding is probably the most used joining technique for NiTi shape memory alloys there is still a lack of understanding about the effects of laser welding parameters on the microstructural induced changes: in both the heat affected and fusion zones martensite may be present, while the base material is fully austenitic. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used for fine probing laser welded NiTi joints. Through Rietveld refinement the martensite and austenite phase fractions were determined and it was observed that the martensite content increases towards the weld centreline. This is related to a change of the local transformation temperaturesmore » on these regions, which occurs due to compositional variation in those regions. The martensite phase fraction in the thermally affected regions may have significant implications on functional properties on these joints. - Highlights: •Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used for fine probing of the microstructure in laser welded NiTi joints. •Rietveld refinement allowed to determine the content of martensite along the heat affected and fusion zones. •The martensite content increases from the base material towards the weld centreline.« less

  11. Skin vaccination via fractional infrared laser ablation - Optimization of laser-parameters and adjuvantation.

    PubMed

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Strobl, Anna; Hoepflinger, Veronika; Thalhamer, Theresa; Steiner, Martin; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2017-03-27

    Methods to deliver an antigen into the skin in a painless, defined, and reproducible manner are essential for transcutaneous immunization (TCI). Here, we employed an ablative fractional infrared laser (P.L.E.A.S.E. Professional) to introduce clinically relevant vaccines into the skin. To elicit the highest possible antibody titers with this system, we optimized different laser parameters, such as fluence and pore number per area, and tested various adjuvants. BALB/c mice were immunized with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by laser-microporation. Adjuvants used were alum, CRM 197 , monophosphoryl lipid A, heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B of E. coli (LT-B), and CpG ODN1826. The influence of different fluences (2.1 to 16.8J/cm 2 ) and pore densities (5-15%) was investigated. Furthermore, immunogenicity of HBsAg and the commercially available conjugate vaccines ActHIB® and Menveo® applied via TCI was compared to standard i.m. injection. Antigen-specific antibody titers were assessed by luminometric ELISA. Antibody titers against HBsAg were dependent on pore depth and peaked at a fluence of 8.4J/cm 2 . Immunogenicity was independent of pore density. Adjuvantation with alum significantly reduced antibody titers after TCI, whereas other adjuvants only induced marginal changes in total IgG titers. LT-B and CpG shifted the polarization of the immune response as indicated by decreased IgG1/IgG2a ratios. HBsAg/LT-B applied via TCI induced similar antibody titers compared to i.m. injection of HBsAg/alum. In contrast to i.m. injection, we observed a dose response from 5 to 20μg after TCI. Both, ActHIB® and Menveo® induced high antibody titers after TCI, which were comparable to i.m. injection. Alum, the most commonly used adjuvant, is contraindicated for transcutaneous vaccination via laser-generated micropores. TCI with optimized laser parameters induces high antibody titers, which cannot be significantly increased by the tested adjuvants. Commercially available

  12. Delivery of Methotrexate and Characterization of Skin Treated by Fabricated PLGA Microneedles and Fractional Ablative Laser.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hiep X; Banga, Ajay K

    2018-02-21

    This study investigated in vitro transdermal delivery of methotrexate through dermatomed porcine ear and cadaver human skin treated with poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) acid microneedles or fractional ablative laser. PLGA microneedles were fabricated and characterized using scanning electron microscopy and mechanical assessment techniques. The integrity of treated skin was evaluated by rheometer, transepidermal water loss, and skin electrical resistance measurements. Successful skin microporation was demonstrated by dye binding, histology, pore uniformity, confocal laser microscopy, and DermaScan studies. In vitro permeation experiment was performed on Franz diffusion cells to determine drug delivery into and across the skin. Both physical treatments resulted in a considerable decrease in skin resistance and an increase in transepidermal water loss value. The laser-created microchannels were significantly larger than those formed by microneedles (p < 0.05). An effective force of 41.04 ± 18.33 N was required to achieve 100% penetration efficiency of the microneedles. For both porcine ear and human skin, laser ablation provided a significantly higher methotrexate permeability into the receptor chamber and skin layers compared to microneedle poration and untreated skin (p < 0.05). Both fractional ablative laser and polymeric microneedles markedly enhanced in vitro transdermal delivery of methotrexate into and across skin. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Efficacy and safety of erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet fractional resurfacing laser for treatment of facial acne scars.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Balakrishnan; Pai, Sathish B; Sripathi, Handattu; Rao, Raghavendra; Prabhu, Smitha; Kudur, Mohan H; Nayak, Sudhir U K

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of acne scars with ablative fractional laser resurfacing has given good improvement. But, data on Indian skin are limited. A study comparing qualitative, quantitative, and subjective assessments is also lacking. Our aim was to assess the improvement of facial acne scars with Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) 2940 nm fractional laser resurfacing and its adverse effects in 25 patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. All 25 patients received four treatment sessions with Er:YAG fractional laser at 1-month interval. The laser parameters were kept constant for each of the four sittings in all patients. Qualitative and quantitative assessments were done using Goodman and Barron grading. Subjective assessment in percentage of improvement was also documented 1 month after each session. Photographs were taken before each treatment session and 1 month after the final session. Two unbiased dermatologists performed independent clinical assessments by comparing the photographs. The kappa statistics was used to monitor the agreement between the dermatologists and patients. Most patients (96%) showed atleast fair improvement. Rolling and superficial box scars showed higher significant improvement when compared with ice pick and deep box scars. Patient's satisfaction of improvement was higher when compared to physician's observations. No serious adverse effects were noted with exacerbation of acne lesions forming the majority. Ablative fractional photothermolysis is both effective and safe treatment for atrophic acne scars in Indian skin.Precise evaluation of acne scar treatment can be done by taking consistent digital photographs.

  14. The effect of fractional CO2 laser irradiation on remineralization of enamel white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Poosti, Maryam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Horieh; Najjaran, Hoda

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the combined effect of fractional CO(2) laser irradiation and fluoride on treatment of enamel caries. Sixty intact premolars were randomly assigned into four groups and then stored in a demineralizing solution to induce white spot lesions. Tooth color was determined at baseline (T1) and after demineralization (T2). Afterwards, the teeth in group 1 remained untreated (control), while group 2 was exposed to an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for 4 min. In groups 3 and 4, a fractional CO(2) laser was applied (10 mJ, 200 Hz, 10 s) either before (group 3) or through (group 4) the APF gel. The teeth were then immersed in artificial saliva for 90 days while subjected to daily fluoride mouthrinse and weekly brushing. Color examinations were repeated after topical fluoride application (T3) and 90 days later (T4). Finally, the teeth were sectioned, and microhardness was measured at the enamel surface and at 30 and 60 μ from the surface. In both lased groups, the color change between T1 and T4 stages (∆E(T1-T4)) was significantly lower than those of the other groups (p < 0.05). Laser irradiation followed by fluoride application (group 3) caused a significant increase in surface microhardness compared to APF alone and control groups (p < 0.05). Microhardness at depths of 30 and 60 μ was also significantly greater in group 3 compared to those of all other groups (p < 0.05). Application of a fractional CO(2) laser before fluoride therapy is suggested for recovering the color and rehardening of demineralized enamel.

  15. Histological study on the effects of microablative fractional CO2 laser on atrophic vaginal tissue: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Stefano; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Athanasiou, Stavros; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Calligaro, Alberto; Zerbinati, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Microablative fractional CO2 laser has been proven to determine tissue remodeling with neoformation of collagen and elastic fibers on atrophic skin. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effects of microablative fractional CO2 laser on postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal atrophy using an ex vivo model. This is a prospective ex vivo cohort trial. Consecutive postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal atrophy managed with pelvic organ prolapse surgical operation were enrolled. After fascial plication, the redundant vaginal edge on one side was treated with CO2 laser (SmartXide2; DEKA Laser, Florence, Italy). Five different CO2 laser setup protocols were tested. The contralateral part of the vaginal wall was always used as control. Excessive vagina was trimmed and sent for histological evaluation to compare treated and nontreated tissues. Microscopic and ultrastructural aspects of the collagenic and elastic components of the matrix were studied, and a specific image analysis with computerized morphometry was performed. We also considered the fine cytological aspects of connective tissue proper cells, particularly fibroblasts. During the study period, five women were enrolled, and 10 vaginal specimens were finally retrieved. Four different settings of CO2 laser were compared. Protocols were tested twice each to confirm histological findings. Treatment protocols were compared according to histological findings, particularly in maximal depth and connective changes achieved. All procedures were uneventful for participants. This study shows that microablative fractional CO2 laser can produce a remodeling of vaginal connective tissue without causing damage to surrounding tissue.

  16. Update of Ablative Fractionated Lasers to Enhance Cutaneous Topical Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Jill S; Rudnick, Ashley; Shagalov, Deborah R; Nicolazzo, Danielle M

    2017-08-01

    Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) enhance uptake of therapeutics and this newly emerging field is called laser-assisted drug delivery (LAD). This new science has emerged over the past decade and is finding its way into clinical practice. LAD is poised to change how medicine delivers drugs. Topical and systemic application of pharmaceutical agents for therapeutic effect is an integral part of medicine. With topical therapy, the stratum corneum barrier of the skin impairs the ability of drugs to enter the body. The purpose of LAD is to alter the stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis to facilitate increased penetration of a drug, device, or cell to its respected target. AFXL represents an innovative, non-invasive strategy to overcome the epidermal barrier. LAD employs three steps: (1) breakdown of the skin barrier with a laser, (2) optional use a laser for a therapeutic effect, (3) delivery of the medicine through laser channels to further enhance the therapeutic effect. The advantages of using lasers for drug delivery include the ease of accessibility, the non-invasive aspect, and its effectiveness. By changing the laser settings, one may use LAD to have a drug remain locally within the skin or to have systemic delivery. Many drugs are not intended for use in the dermis and so it has yet to be determined which drugs are appropriate for this technique. It appears this developing technology has the ability to be a new delivery system for both localized and systemic delivery of drugs, cells, and other molecules. With responsible development AFXL-assisted drug delivery may become a new important part of medicine.

  17. The comparison of skin rejuvenation effects of vitamin A, fractional laser, and their combination on rat.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Han, Chunyu; Gao, Dong; Jin, Waishu; Liang, Jinning; Xia, Xiujuan

    2018-03-15

    Because of long-term exposure of skin, skin aging is an unavoidable natural law with age. Traditional Vitamin A and novel ablative fractional laser technique both have the effects of skin rejuvenation, and studies have demonstrated both of them have apparent clinical efficacy and histology-improving effects on photo-aging skin. 45 female healthy Wistar rats were selected and the depilation areas of every rat were divided into four regions: control region(Region A), Vitamin A acid region(Region B), combination treatment region(Region C), and fractional laser region(Region D). 0.025% Vitamin A acid cream was applied to Region B and C every day for 3 weeks; Region C and D were irradiated once with 10600nm CO 2 fractional laser on the first day of the trail. The skin tissue was dissected and placed into liquid nitrogen according to the design. The real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting methods were taken to detect the expression changes of miR-29a, Akt, TGF-β, and mRNA of type III pre-collagen. It can be seen from the results of the real-time quantitative PCR that the mRNA expression levels of type III pre-collagen, Akt, and TGF-β in the treatment regions are up-regulated and the expression levels of miR-29a mRNA are down-regulated compared to the Region A. The hybridization tests showed that changes of the expression of type III pre-collagen, Akt gene, miR-29a gene, and TGF-β gene across the experiment regions are all significantly different in the third week, and the expression levels of them all achieve the highest value in the third week, the expression level of miR-29a gene achieves the lowest value in the third week, which are consistent with the results of real-time quantitative PCR. It is indicated that the combination region of Vitamin A acid and fractional laser may lead to low expression of miR-29a, thus the inhibition of downstream Akt activation is loss, Akt activation is enhanced, enhancement of the expression of TGF-β is induced, leading to

  18. Ablative fractional lasers (CO(2) and Er:YAG): a randomized controlled double-blind split-face trial of the treatment of peri-orbital rhytides.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Syrus; Czarnecka, Agnieszka; Jünger, Michael; Raulin, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides in an attempt to achieve results comparable to traditional ablative resurfacing but with fewer side effects. However, there is conflicting evidence on how well this goal has generally been achieved as well as on the comparative value of fractional CO(2) and Er:YAG lasers. The present study compares these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face study design. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled and completed the entire study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single treatment on each side of the peri-orbital region, one with a fractional CO(2) and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser. The evaluation included the profilometric measurement of wrinkle depth, the Fitzpatrick wrinkle score (both before and 3 months after treatment) as well as the assessment of side effects and patient satisfaction (1, 3, 6 days and 3 months after treatment). Both modalities showed a roughly equivalent effect. Wrinkle depth and Fitzpatrick score were reduced by approximately 20% and 10%, respectively, with no appreciable difference between lasers. Side effects and discomfort were slightly more pronounced after Er:YAG treatment in the first few days, but in the later course there were more complaints following CO(2) laser treatment. Patient satisfaction was fair and the majority of patients would have undergone the treatment again without a clear preference for either method. According to the present study, a single ablative fractional treatment session has an appreciable yet limited effect on peri-orbital rhytides. When fractional CO(2) and Er:YAG lasers are used in such a manner that there are comparable post-operative healing periods, comparable cosmetic improvement occurs. Multiple sessions may be required for full effect, which cancels out the proposed advantage of fractional methods, that is, fewer side effects and less down time.

  19. Mid-infrared laser-absorption diagnostic for vapor-phase fuel mole fraction and liquid fuel film thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J. M.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2011-02-01

    A novel two-wavelength mid-infrared laser-absorption diagnostic has been developed for simultaneous measurements of vapor-phase fuel mole fraction and liquid fuel film thickness. The diagnostic was demonstrated for time-resolved measurements of n-dodecane liquid films in the absence and presence of n-decane vapor at 25°C and 1 atm. Laser wavelengths were selected from FTIR measurements of the C-H stretching band of vapor n-decane and liquid n-dodecane near 3.4 μm (3000 cm-1). n-Dodecane film thicknesses <20 μm were accurately measured in the absence of vapor, and simultaneous measurements of n-dodecane liquid film thickness and n-decane vapor mole fraction (300 ppm) were measured with <10% uncertainty for film thicknesses <10 μm. A potential application of the measurement technique is to provide accurate values of vapor mole fraction in combustion environments where strong absorption by liquid fuel or oil films on windows make conventional direct absorption measurements of the gas problematic.

  20. Fractional carbon dioxide laser versus low-dose UVA-1 phototherapy for treatment of localized scleroderma: a clinical and immunohistochemical randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, S M; Bosseila, M; Fawzy, M M; Abdel Halim, D M; Sayed, S S; Allam, R S H M

    2016-11-01

    Morphea is a rare fibrosing skin disorder that occurs as a result of abnormal homogenized collagen synthesis. Fractional ablative laser resurfacing has been used effectively in scar treatment via abnormal collagen degradation and induction of healthy collagen synthesis. Therefore, fractional ablative laser can provide an effective modality in treatment of morphea. The study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of fractional carbon dioxide laser as a new modality for the treatment of localized scleroderma and to compare its results with the well-established method of UVA-1 phototherapy. Seventeen patients with plaque and linear morphea were included in this parallel intra-individual comparative randomized controlled clinical trial. Each with two comparable morphea lesions that were randomly assigned to either 30 sessions of low-dose (30 J/cm 2 ) UVA-1 phototherapy (340-400 nm) or 3 sessions of fractional CO 2 laser (10,600 nm-power 25 W). The response to therapy was then evaluated clinically and histopathologically via validated scoring systems. Immunohistochemical analysis of TGF-ß1 and MMP1 was done. Patient satisfaction was also assessed. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired (matched) samples and Spearman rank correlation equation were used as indicated. Comparing the two groups, there was an obvious improvement with fractional CO 2 laser that was superior to that of low-dose UVA-1 phototherapy. Statistically, there was a significant difference in the clinical scores (p = 0.001), collagen homogenization scores (p = 0.012), and patient satisfaction scores (p = 0.001). In conclusion, fractional carbon dioxide laser is a promising treatment modality for cases of localized morphea, with proved efficacy of this treatment on clinical and histopathological levels.

  1. Spatiotemporal closure of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Banzhaf, Christina A; Wind, Bas S; Mogensen, Mette; Meesters, Arne A; Paasch, Uwe; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Haedersdal, Merete

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offer high-resolution optical imaging of the skin, which may provide benefit in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery. We aimed to characterize postoperative healing of ablative fractional laser (AFXL)-induced channels and dynamics in their spatiotemporal closure using in vivo OCT and RCM techniques. The inner forearm of healthy subjects (n = 6) was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO2 laser using 5 and 25% densities, 120 μm beam diameter, 5, 15, and 25 mJ/microbeam. Treatment sites were scanned with OCT to evaluate closure of AFXL-channels and RCM to evaluate subsequent re-epithelialization. OCT and RCM identified laser channels in epidermis and upper dermis as black, ablated tissue defects surrounded by characteristic hyper-and hyporeflective zones. OCT imaged individual laser channels of the entire laser grid, and RCM imaged epidermal cellular and structural changes around a single laser channel to the depth of the dermoepidermal junction (DEJ) and upper papillary dermis. OCT images visualized a heterogeneous material in the lower part of open laser channels, indicating tissue fluid. By OCT the median percentage of open channels was evaluated at several time points within the first 24 hours and laser channels were found to gradually close, depending on the used energy level. Thus, at 5 mJ/microbeam, 87% (range 73-100%) of channels were open one hour after laser exposure, which declined to 27% (range 20-100%) and 20% (range 7-93%) at 12 and 24 hours after laser exposure, respectively. At 25 mJ/microbeam, 100% (range 100-100%) of channels were open 1 hour after laser exposure while 53% (range 33-100%) and 40% (range 0-100%) remained open at 12 and 24 hours after exposure. Median depth and width of open channels decreased over time depending of applied energy. RCM verified initial re-epithelialization from day 2 for all energy levels used. Morphology of ablation defects by OCT and

  2. Histological evaluation of vertical laser channels from ablative fractional resurfacing: an ex vivo pig skin model.

    PubMed

    Skovbølling Haak, Christina; Illes, Monica; Paasch, Uwe; Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-07-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) represents a new treatment potential for various skin conditions and new laser devices are being introduced. It is important to gain information about the impact of laser settings on the dimensions of the created laser channels for obtaining a safe and efficient treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to establish a standard model to document the histological tissue damage profiles after AFR and to test a new laser device at diverse settings. Ex vivo abdominal pig skin was treated with a MedArt 620, prototype fractional carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser (Medart, Hvidovre, Denmark) delivering single microbeams (MB) with a spot size of 165 μm. By using a constant pulse duration of 2 ms, intensities of 1-18 W, single and 2-4 stacked pulses, energies were delivered in a range from 2-144 mJ/MB. Histological evaluations included 3-4 high-quality histological measurements for each laser setting (n = 28). AFR created cone-shaped laser channels. Ablation depths varied from reaching the superficial dermis (2 mJ, median 41 μm) to approaching the subcutaneous fat (144 mJ, median 1,943 μm) and correlated to the applied energy levels in an approximate linear relation (r(2) = 0.84, p < 0.001). The dermal ablation width increased slightly within the energy range of 4-144 mJ (median 163 μm). The thickness of the coagulation zone reached a plateau around 65 μm at energies levels above 16 mJ. The calculated volumes of ablated tissue increased with increasing energies. We suggest this ex vivo pig skin model to characterize AFR laser channels histologically.

  3. Treatment of striae distensae with needling therapy versus CO2 fractional laser.

    PubMed

    Khater, Mohamed H; Khattab, Fathia M; Abdelhaleem, Manal R

    2016-01-01

    Striae are atrophic dermal scars with overlying epidermal atrophy causing cosmetic concern. This study assesses and compares the efficacy and safety of needling therapy versus CO2 fractional laser in treatment of striae. Twenty Egyptian female patients with striae in the abdomen and lower limbs were involved in the study. The patients were treated with needling therapy and CO2 laser every 1 month for 3 sessions. Follow-up by digital photography and skin biopsy was conducted at baseline and 6 months after treatment. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing photographs and patient's satisfaction before and after treatment. Nine of 10 (90%) needle-treated patients showed improvement. Among them, 3 (30%) had good, 4 (40%) had fair, and 2 (20%) had poor improvements; however, 1 (10%) did not show any improvement after the treatment. In CO2-laser treated patients, 5 of 10 (50%) of the patients showed clinical improvement; 1 (10%) were good, 3 (30%) were fair, and 1 (10%) were poor; however, 5 (50%) did not show improvement. The results support the use of microneedle therapy over CO2 lasers for striae treatment.

  4. The Clinical Efficacy of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined with Ultra-Pulsed Fractional CO2 Laser Therapy for Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Qiang; Chang, Peng; Guo, Bingyu; Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser is an efficient, precise, and safe therapeutic intervention for skin refreshing, although accompanied with prolonged edema and erythema. In recent years, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proven to promote wound and soft tissue healing and collagen regeneration. To investigate whether the combination of PRP and ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser had a synergistic effect on therapy for facial rejuvenation. Totally, 13 facial aging females were treated with ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser. One side of the face was randomly selected as experimental group and injected with PRP, the other side acted as the control group and was injected with physiological saline at the same dose. Comprehensive assessment of clinical efficacy was performed by satisfaction scores, dermatologists' double-blind evaluation and the VISIA skin analysis system. After treatment for 3 months, subjective scores of facial wrinkles, skin texture, and skin elasticity were higher than that in the control group. Similarly, improvement of skin wrinkles, texture, and tightness in the experimental group was better compared with the control group. Additionally, the total duration of erythema, edema, and crusting was decreased, in the experimental group compared with the control group. PRP combined with ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser had a synergistic effect on facial rejuvenation, shortening duration of side effects, and promoting better therapeutic effect. PMID:27222038

  5. Experimental Study of 5-fluorouracil Encapsulated Ethosomes Combined with CO2 Fractional Laser to Treat Hypertrophic Scar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Jun; Huang, Jun; Wo, Yan; Zhang, Yixin; Chen, Xiangdong

    2018-01-18

    This study is designed to explore permeability of ethosomes encapsulated with 5-florouracil (5-FU) mediated by CO 2 fractional laser on hypertrophic scar tissues. Moreover, therapeutic and duration effect of CO 2 fractional laser combined with 5-FU encapsulated ethosomes in rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model will be evaluated. The permeated amount of 5-FU and retention contents of 5-FU were both determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fluorescence intensities of ethosomes encapsulated with 5-FU (5E) labeled with Rodanmin 6GO (Rho) were measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The permeability promotion of 5E labeled with Rho in rabbit ear hypertrophic scar mediated by CO 2 fractional laser was evaluated at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after the irradiation. The opening rates of the micro-channels were calculated according to CLSM. The therapeutic effect of 5EL was evaluated on rabbit ear hypertrophic scar in vivo. Relative thickness of rabbit ear hypertrophic scar before and after the treatment was measured by caliper method. Scar elevation index (SEI) of rabbit ear hypertrophic scar was measured using H&E staining. The data showed that the penetration amount of 5EL group was higher than 5E group (4.15 ± 2.22 vs. 0.73 ± 0.33; p < 0.05) after 1-h treatment. Additionally, the penetration amount of 5EL was higher than that of the 5E group (107.61 ± 13.27 vs. 20.73 ± 3.77; p < 0.05) after 24-h treatment. The retention contents of the 5EL group also showed higher level than 5E group (24.42 ± 4.37 vs.12.25 ± 1.64; p < 0.05). The fluorescence intensity of Rho in hypertrophic scar tissues of the 5EL group was higher than that of the 5E group at different time points (1, 6, and 24 h). The opening rates of the micro-channels were decreased gradually within 24 h, and micro-channels were closed completely 3 days after the irradiation by CO 2 fractional laser. The relative thickness

  6. Fractional laser microablation of skin aimed at enhancing its permeability for nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, Elina A; Dolotov, L E; Bashkatov, A N

    2011-05-31

    A new method for delivering nanoparticles into the skin using the fractional laser microablation of its surface and the ultrasonic treatment is proposed. As a result of in vitro and in vivo studies, it is shown that the 290-nm laser pulses with the energy from 0.5 to 3.0 J provide the penetration of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide with the diameter {approx}100 nm from the skin surface to the depth, varying from 150 to 400 {mu}m. Histological testing of the skin areas, subjected to the treatment, shows that the particles stay in the dermis at the depth up to 400 {mu}mmore » no less than for three weeks. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)« less

  7. Comparison of a long-pulse Nd:YAG laser and a combined 585/1,064-nm laser for the treatment of acne scars: a randomized split-face clinical study.

    PubMed

    Min, Seong U K; Choi, Yu Sung; Lee, Dong Hun; Yoon, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2009-11-01

    Nonablative laser is gaining popularity because of the low risk of complications, especially in patients with darker skin. To compare the efficacy and safety of a long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and a combined 585/1,064-nm laser for the treatment of acne scars. Nineteen patients with mild to moderate atrophic acne scars received four long-pulse Nd:YAG laser or combined 585/1,064-nm laser treatment sessions at fortnightly intervals. Treatments were administered randomly in a split-face manner. Acne scars showed mild to moderate improvement, with significant Echelle d'évaluation clinique des cicatrices d'acné (ECCA) score reductions, after both treatments. Although intermodality differences were not significant, combined 585/1,064-nm laser was more effective for deep boxcar scars. In patients with combined 585/1,064-nm laser-treated sides that improved more than long-pulse Nd:YAG laser-treated sides, ECCA scores were significantly lower for combined 585/1,064-nm laser treatment. Histologic evaluations revealed significantly greater collagen deposition, although there was no significant difference between the two modalities. Patient satisfaction scores concurred with physicians' evaluations. Both lasers ameliorated acne scarring with minimal downtime. In light of this finding, optimal outcomes might be achieved when laser treatment types are chosen after considering individual scar type and response.

  8. Adipose-derived stem cells cooperate with fractional carbon dioxide laser in antagonizing photoaging: a potential role of Wnt and β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Wang, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan-Qi; Tao, Kai; Wu, Chu-Tse; Jin, Ji-de; Liu, Xiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) produce and secrete cytokines/growth factors that antagonize UV-induced photoaging of skin. However, the exact molecular basis underlying the anti-photoaging effects exerted by ADSCs is not well understood, and whether ADSCs cooperate with fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to facilitate photoaging skin healing process has not been explored. Here, we investigated the impacts of ADSCs on photoaging in a photoaging animal model, its associated mechanisms, and its functional cooperation with fractional CO2 laser in treatment of photoaging skin. We showed that ADSCs improved dermal thickness and activated the proliferation of dermal fibroblast. We further demonstrated that the combined treatment of ADSCs and fractional CO2 laser, the latter which is often used to resurface skin and treat wrinkles, had more beneficial effects on the photoaging skin compared with each individual treatment. In our prepared HDF photoaging model, flow cytometry showed that, after adipose derived stem cells conditioned medium (ADSC-CM) co-cultured HDF photoaging model, the cell proliferation rate is higher than UVB irradiation induced HDF modeling (p < 0.05). Additionally, the expressions of β-catenin and Wnt3a, which were up-regulated after the transplantation of ADSCs alone or in combination with fractional CO2 laser treatment. And the expression of wnt3a and β-catenin has the positive correlation with photoaging related protein TGF-β2 and COLI. We also verified these protein expressions in tissue level. In addition, after injected SFRP2 into ADSC-CM co-cultured HDF photoaging model, wnt3a inhibitor, compared with un-intervened group, wnt3a, β-catenin protein level significantly decreased. Both ADSCs and fractional CO2 laser improved photoaging skin at least partially via targeting dermal fibroblast activity which was increased in photoaging skin. The combinatorial use of ADSCs and fractional CO2 laser

  9. Adipose-derived stem cells cooperate with fractional carbon dioxide laser in antagonizing photoaging: a potential role of Wnt and β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well established that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) produce and secrete cytokines/growth factors that antagonize UV-induced photoaging of skin. However, the exact molecular basis underlying the anti-photoaging effects exerted by ADSCs is not well understood, and whether ADSCs cooperate with fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to facilitate photoaging skin healing process has not been explored. Here, we investigated the impacts of ADSCs on photoaging in a photoaging animal model, its associated mechanisms, and its functional cooperation with fractional CO2 laser in treatment of photoaging skin. Results We showed that ADSCs improved dermal thickness and activated the proliferation of dermal fibroblast. We further demonstrated that the combined treatment of ADSCs and fractional CO2 laser, the latter which is often used to resurface skin and treat wrinkles, had more beneficial effects on the photoaging skin compared with each individual treatment. In our prepared HDF photoaging model, flow cytometry showed that, after adipose derived stem cells conditioned medium (ADSC-CM) co-cultured HDF photoaging model, the cell proliferation rate is higher than UVB irradiation induced HDF modeling (p < 0.05). Additionally, the expressions of β-catenin and Wnt3a, which were up-regulated after the transplantation of ADSCs alone or in combination with fractional CO2 laser treatment. And the expression of wnt3a and β-catenin has the positive correlation with photoaging related protein TGF-β2 and COLI. We also verified these protein expressions in tissue level. In addition, after injected SFRP2 into ADSC-CM co-cultured HDF photoaging model, wnt3a inhibitor, compared with un-intervened group, wnt3a, β-catenin protein level significantly decreased. Conclusion Both ADSCs and fractional CO2 laser improved photoaging skin at least partially via targeting dermal fibroblast activity which was increased in photoaging skin. The combinatorial use of ADSCs and

  10. Combination of platelet rich plasma in fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment increased clinical efficacy of for acne scar by enhancement of collagen production and modulation of laser-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Min, Seonguk; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Suh, Dae Hun

    2018-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) which contains large amounts of growth factors has been tried to enhance therapeutic efficacy of laser treatment for acne scar with unknown underlying mechanism. The present study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism of increased clinical efficacy of PRP when combined with fractional laser treatment for treating acne scars. Subjects with mild to moderate acne scars were treated with two sessions of fractional CO 2 laser therapy given with and without co-administration of PRP. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, 7, and 28 days for investigation of molecular profiles associated with skin changes produced by laser plus PRP treatment. The PRP treatment increased clinical efficacy with decreased severity of adverse effects such as erythema, swelling and oozing. Productions of TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 proteins were more highly elevated on the PRP-treated side of the face compared to the control side at day 28. Furthermore, PRP-treated side showed significant increase of c-myc, TIMP, and HGF expression. Experimental fibroblast culture model was also used. PRP administration after laser irradiation increased expressions of p-Akt, TGFβ1, TGFβ3, β-catenin, collagen 1, and collagen 3 in both dose-dependent and time dependent manners in fibroblast. Moreover, we acquired clinical and histological data through randomized control clinical trial. Taken together with human study results combined with the data from cell experiments we suggest that PRP treatment increased fibrogenetic molecules induced by fractional CO 2 laser, which have association with clinical effect. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:302-310, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Image-guided automatic triggering of a fractional CO2 laser in aesthetic procedures.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Wiernek, Barbara K; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Laser procedures in dermatology and aesthetic medicine are associated with the need for manual laser triggering. This leads to pulse overlapping and side effects. Automatic laser triggering based on image analysis can provide a secure fit to each successive doses of radiation. A fractional CO2 laser was used in the study. 500 images of the human skin of healthy subjects were acquired. Automatic triggering was initiated by an application together with a camera which tracks and analyses the skin in visible light. The tracking algorithm uses the methods of image analysis to overlap images. After locating the characteristic points in analysed adjacent areas, the correspondence of graphs is found. The point coordinates derived from the images are the vertices of graphs with respect to which isomorphism is sought. When the correspondence of graphs is found, it is possible to overlap the neighbouring parts of the image. The proposed method of laser triggering owing to the automatic image fitting method allows for 100% repeatability. To meet this requirement, there must be at least 13 graph vertices obtained from the image. For this number of vertices, the time of analysis of a single image is less than 0.5s. The proposed method, applied in practice, may help reduce the number of side effects during dermatological laser procedures resulting from laser pulse overlapping. In addition, it reduces treatment time and enables to propose new techniques of treatment through controlled, precise laser pulse overlapping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing of photoaged facial and non-facial skin: histologic and clinical results and side effects.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Gordon H; Travis, Heather M; Tucker, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    CO(2) fractional ablation offers the potential for facial and non-facial skin resurfacing with minimal downtime and rapid recovery. The purpose of this study was (i) to document the average depths and density of adnexal structures in non-lasered facial and non-facial body skin; (ii) to determine injury in ex vivo human thigh skin with varying fractional laser modes; and (iii) to evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of treatments. Histologies were obtained from non-lasered facial and non-facial skin from 121 patients and from 14 samples of excised lasered thigh skin. Seventy-one patients were evaluated after varying energy (mJ) and density settings by superficial ablation, deeper penetration, and combined treatment. Skin thickness and adnexal density in non-lasered skin exhibited variable ranges: epidermis (47-105 mum); papillary dermis (61-105 mum); reticular dermis (983-1986 mum); hair follicles (2-14/ HPF); sebaceous glands (2-23/HPF); sweat glands (2-7/HPF). Histological studies of samples from human thigh skin demonstrated that increased fluencies in the superficial, deep and combined mode resulted in predictable deeper levels of ablations and thermal injury. An increase in density settings results in total ablation of the epidermis. Clinical improvement of rhytids and pigmentations in facial and non-facial skin was proportional to increasing energy and density settings. Patient assessments and clinical gradings by the Wilcoxon's test of outcomes correlated with more aggressive settings. Prior knowledge of normal skin depths and adnexal densities, as well as ex vivo skin laser-injury profiles at varying fluencies and densities, improve the safety and efficiency of fractional CO(2) for photorejuvenation of facial and non-facial skin.

  13. Effects of continuous wave and fractionated diode laser on human fibroblast cancer and dermal normal cells by zinc phthalocyanine in photodynamic therapy: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Navaeipour, Farzaneh; Afsharan, Hadi; Tajalli, Habib; Mollabashi, Mahmood; Ranjbari, Farideh; Montaseri, Azadeh; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-08-01

    In this experimental study, cancer and normal cells behavior during an in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT) under exposure of continuous wave (CW) and fractionated mode of laser with different irradiation power and time intervals was compared and investigated. At the first, human fibroblast cancer cell line (SW 872) and human dermal normal (HFFF2) cell line were incubated with different concentrations of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), as a PDT drug. The cells, then, were irradiated with a 675nm diode laser and the cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Under optimized conditions, the viability of the cancer cells was eventually reduced to 3.23% and 13.17%, and that of normal cells was decreased to 20.83% and 36.23% using CW and fractionated diode lasers, respectively. In general, the ratio of ZnPc LD50 values for the normal cells to the cancer cells with CW laser was much higher than that of the fractionated laser. Subsequently, cancer cells in comparison with normal ones were found to be more sensitive toward the photodynamic damage induced by ZnPc. In addition, treatment with CW laser was found to be more effective against the cancer cells with a lower toxicity to the normal cells compared with the fractionated diode laser. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The efficacy and safety of subcision using CO2 gas combined with fractional laser for acne scars: Clinical and microscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Suh, Dong Hye; Chang, Ka Yeon; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Tae In; Jeong, Ki-Heon; Shin, Min Kyung; Song, Kye Yong

    2016-11-01

    Various modalities have been used to treat acne scars. CO 2 fractional laser is an effective and commonly used treatment. CO 2 gas injection into the dermis by needle with high pressure can cause fibrotic collagen breakage, producing the effects of subcision. CO 2 also stimulates collagen synthesis by increasing neovascularization and releasing oxygen. This study evaluated the efficacy and the safety of the combined treatment with CO 2 gas subcision and CO 2 fractional laser for acne scars. Fourteen patients with acne scars were treated with three sessions of CO 2 gas subcision at 2-week intervals and two sessions of fractional laser at 4-week interval. The clinical improvement was assessed using a 4-point scale. For histologic analysis, punch biopsy was performed before and after treatment in 10 patients. All patients experienced clinical improvements. Excellent, marked, moderate, and mild response was achieved in 1 (7%), 8 (57%), 4 (29%), and 1 patient (7%), respectively. Histologic evaluation of the biopsy specimens showed increased dermal collagen with dermal thickening and elastic fiber straightening in the reticular dermis after the treatment. The combination therapy with CO 2 gas subcision and fractional laser was satisfactory and safe for treating acne scars. Abbreviation and acronym: CO 2 : Carbon dioxide GAS: Global assessment scale H&E: hematoxylin and eosin; SD: standard deviation.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing in Non-hypertrophic Traumatic and Burn Scars

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractional photothermolysis is one of the most effective treatment options used to resurface scars of different aetiologies. Aim: To assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing treatment in the management of non-hypertrophic traumatic and burn scars. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients affected by non-hypertrophic traumatic and burn scars were treated with four sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing treatment at 6-weekly intervals. Patients were photographed at each visit and finally, 3 months after the end of treatment schedule. Response to treatment was assessed clinically as well as by comparing the initial photograph of the patient with the one taken at the last follow-up visit 3-months after the final treatment session. Changes in skin texture, surface irregularity and pigmentation were assessed on a quartile grading scale and scored individually from 0 to 4. A mean of the three individual scores was calculated and the response was labelled as ‘excellent’ if the mean score achieved was >2. A score of 1-2 was labeled as good response while a score below 1 was labeled as ‘poor’ response. The subjective satisfaction of each patient with the treatment offered was also assessed at the last follow-up visit. Results: The commonest site of scarring treated was the face followed by hands. Response to treatment was rated as excellent in 60% (15/25) patients while 24% (6/25) and 16% (4/25) patients were labeled as good and poor responders, respectively. Skin texture showed better response than other variables with average score of 2.44. Linear post-traumatic scars were seen to respond less than other morphological types. Majority of the patients (19 out of 25) were highly satisfied with the treatment offered. No long-term adverse effects were noted in any patient. Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis with a fractional CO2 laser gives excellent results in patients with post-burn scars with minimal adverse

  16. Novel methotrexate soft nanocarrier/fractional erbium YAG laser combination for clinical treatment of plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ramez, Shahenda A; Soliman, Mona M; Fadel, Maha; Nour El-Deen, Faisal; Nasr, Maha; Youness, Eman R; Aboel-Fadl, Dalea M

    2018-02-15

    Psoriasis is a commonly encountered chronic dermatological disease, presenting with inflammatory symptoms in patients. Systemic treatment of psoriasis is associated with several adverse effects, therefore the development of a customized topical treatment modality for psoriasis would be an interesting alternative to systemic delivery. The therapeutic modality explored in this article was the comparative treatment of psoriatic patients using nanoparticulated methotrexate in the form of jojoba oil-based microemulsion with or without fractional erbium YAG laser. Assessment parameters included follow-up photography for up to 8 weeks of treatment, estimation of the psoriasis severity [TES (thickness, erythema, scales)] score, and histopathological skin evaluation. The prepared methotrexate microemulsion was clinically beneficial and safe in treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. The concomitant use of the fractional laser provided improvement in the psoriatic plaques within shorter time duration (3 weeks compared to 8 weeks of treatment), presenting an alternative topical treatment modality for psoriasis vulgaris.

  17. Structural characterization on in vitro porcine skin treated by ablative fractional laser using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kairui; Zhou, Kanheng; Ling, Yuting; O'Mahoney, Paul; Ewan, Eadie; Ibbotson, Sally H.; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Zhihong

    2018-02-01

    Ablative fractional skin laser is widely applied for various skin conditions, especially for cosmetic repairing and promoting the located drug delivery. Although the influence of laser treatment over the skin has been explored before in means of excision and biopsy with microscopy, these approaches are invasive, only morphological and capable of distorting the skin. In this paper the authors use fresh porcine skin samples irradiated by the lasers, followed by detected by using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This advanced optical technique has the ability to present the high resolution structure image of treated sample. The results shows that laser beams can produce holes left on the surface after the irradiation. The depth of holes can be affected by changes of laser energy while the diameter of holes have no corresponding relation. Plus, OCT, as a valuable imaging technology, is capable of monitoring the clinical therapy procedure and assisting the calibration.

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement of a small fraction of rhenium in bulk tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, D.; Ueda, Y.; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; Ibano, K.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of bulk rhenium (Re) and tungsten (W)-Re alloy has been performed using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (wavelength = 1064 nm, pulse width ∼4-6 ns, laser energy = 115 mJ). It is found that the electron temperature, Te, of laser-induced Re plasma is lower than that of W plasma, and that Te of W-Re plasma is in between Re and W plasmas. This indicates that material properties affect Te in a laser-induced plasma. For analysis of W-3.3%Re alloy, only the strongest visible Re I 488.9 nm line is found to be used because of the strong enough intensity without contamination with W lines. Using the calibration-free LIBS method, the atomic fraction of Re, cRe, is evaluated as a function of the ambient Ar gas pressure, PAr. At PAr < 10 Torr, LIBS-measured cRe agrees well with that from EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray micro-analysis), while cRe increases with an increase in PAr at >10 Torr due to spectral overlapping of the Re I 488.9 nm line by an Ar II 488.9 nm line.

  19. The comparison of the rejuvenation effects on the skin of Wistar rats between 10600 nm CO2 fractional laser and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Ma, W-Y; Sun, Q

    2017-04-01

    The fractional laser and topical retinoic acid treatment have been applied for skin rejuvenation; however, the possible molecular mechanism of promoting remodeling of dermis is not clearly. Here we aimed to compare the effects of 10600 nm CO2 fractional laser and topical retinoic acid formulation on the skin collagen proliferation of Wistar rats, and to further explore the possible molecular mechanism of promoting remodeling of dermis. The hair on the back of Wistar rats was removed, and the back was divided equally into four regions with the cross-streaking method: A (the control group), B (the retinoic acid group), C (retinoic acid and fractional laser combination treatment group), and D (the fractional laser group). Specimens were collected at 3rd day and in 1-8 weeks after CO2 fractional laser irradiation; then they were used for detection of the changes of dermis thickness and content of hydroxyproline in the four regions of the rats' back. Real-time PCR method was used to detect the dynamic changes of the expression level of type III procollagen mRNA and the expression levels of miR-29a, Akt and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA at 3rd week in the skin tissue of Wistar rats. The thickness of dermis, content of hydroxyproline and expression level of type III procollagen mRNA in the treatment groups (B, C, and D) were found all significantly increased compared with those in the control group (A) (p<0.05); at 3rd week, up-regulation of Akt and TGF-β mRNA expression and down-regulation of miR-29a mRNA expression were observed in the treatment groups (B, C, and D). The difference in the combination treatment group (C) was the most significant (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that retinoic acid formulation and CO2 fractional laser both can promote collagen proliferation and reconstruction, with the skin rejuvenation efficacy in group C > group D > group B. miR-29a/Akt/TGF-β signal pathways may play a certain role in the promotion of collagen

  20. Comparison between laser-induced photoemissions and phototransmission of hard tissues using fibre-coupled Nd:YAG and Er(3+)-doped fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, Ashraf Fathy

    2012-07-01

    During pulsed laser irradiation of dental enamel, laser-induced photoemissions result from the laser-tissue interaction through mechanisms including fluorescence and plasma formation. Fluorescence induced by non-ablative laser light interaction has been used in tissue diagnosis, but the photoemission signal accompanying higher power ablative processes may also be used to provide real-time monitoring of the laser-tissue interaction. The spectral characteristics of the photoemission signals from normal and carious tooth enamel induced by two different pulsed lasers were examined. The radiation sources compared were a high-power extra-long Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1,066 nm giving pulses (with pulse durations in the range 200-250 μs) in the near infrared and a free-running Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fibre laser operating at a wavelength near 3 μm with similar pulse durations in the mid-infrared region. The photoemission spectra produced during pulsed laser irradiation of enamel samples were recorded using a high-resolution spectrometer with a CCD array detector that enabled an optical resolution as high as 0.02 nm (FWHM). The spectral and time-dependence of the laser-induced photoemission due to thermal emission and plasma formation were detected during pulsed laser irradiation of hard tissues and were used to distinguish between normal and carious teeth. The use of these effects to distinguish between hard and soft biological tissues during photothermal ablation with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser or an Er fibre laser appears feasible. The real-time spectrally resolved phototransmission spectrum produced during pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation of human tooth enamel samples was recorded, with a (normalized) relative transmission coefficient of 1 (100%) for normal teeth and 0.6 (60%) for the carious teeth. The photoemission signal accompanying ablative events may also be used to provide real-time monitoring of the laser-tissue interaction.

  1. Healing of chronic wounds with adjunctive ablative fractional laser resurfacing in two pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Andrew C; Diaz, Lucia; Admani, Shehla; Uebelhoer, Nathan S; Shumaker, Peter R

    2016-02-01

    The development of chronic non-healing wounds is multifactorial and can lead to increased patient morbidity. When traditional wound care methods fail, alternative treatments are needed to prevent chronic ulcer complications. Ablative fractional laser resurfacing (AFR) is an emerging therapy for chronic wounds. We report the successful use of AFR to facilitate the healing of chronic wounds in two pediatric patients. This is a case series including two patients with chronic wounds within scars that were treated with a micro-fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser in a single pass at a pulse energy of 50 mJ and a treatment density of 5%. One patient had one treatment and the other had two treatments 1 month apart. AFR led to rapid healing of chronic wounds in both pediatric patients. The wounds remained epithelialized after 9 months in one patient and 4 months in the other. There were no complications. The combination of tolerability and efficacy observed in these cases introduces AFR as a potential promising adjunct to existing treatments for chronic, non-healing wounds in the pediatric population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional ablative carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: A split-face randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Gita; Keyvan, Shima; Asilian, Ali; Nouraei, Saeid; Behfar, Shadi; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohamad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men) who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal platelet-rich plasma treatment on one half of their face and ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser with intradermal normal saline on the other half. The injections were administered immediately after laser therapy. The treatment sessions were repeated after an interval of one month. The clinical response was assessed based on patient satisfaction and the objective evaluation of serial photographs by two blinded dermatologists at baseline, 1 month after the first treatment session and 4 months after the second. The adverse effects including erythema and edema were scored by participants on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15 and 30 after each session. Overall clinical improvement of acne scars was higher on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser treated side but the difference was not statistically significant either 1 month after the first treatment session (P = 0.15) or 4 months after the second (P = 0.23). In addition, adverse effects (erythema and edema) on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser-treated side were more severe and of longer duration. Small sample size, absence of all skin phototypes within the study group and lack of objective methods for the evaluation of response to treatment and adverse effects were the limitations. This study demonstrated that adding platelet-rich plasma to fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment did not produce any statistically significant synergistic effects and also resulted in more severe side effects and longer downtime.

  3. Reduction of post-surgical scarring with the use of ablative fractional CO2 lasers: A pilot study using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Baca, Marissa E; Neaman, Keith C; Rapp, Derek A; Burton, Michael E; Mann, Robert J; Renucci, John D

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing inevitably leads to scarring, which leads to functional and cosmetic defects. It is the goal of this study to investigate the immediate use of ablative fractional CO 2 lasers to reduce post-operative scarring secondary to surgical wounds. In this prospective controlled study, 20 surgical incisions were created on each of three pigs. Fifteen of the incisions were treated with an ablative fractional CO 2 laser at one of three laser settings. The remaining five incisions served as a control. Punch biopsies were taken post-operatively over time. Digital photographs were taken of each incisional scar at each time period. Blinded evaluators used a previously verified scoring system to score photographs of the incisional scars taken at the 6 month time period. With regards to the comparison between the three individual laser treatment groups and the control, there were no statistically significant effects for treatment (P = 0.40), time (P = 0.48), or for the interaction of time and treatment (P = 0.57). With regards to the visual assessment tool, there were no statistically significant differences between treatments for Overall Appearance (P = 0.21) or for Total Score (P = 0.24). In the limited setting of this pilot study, treatment of surgical incisions with ablative fractional CO 2 lasers does not significantly lessen scar formation. In addition, photographic analysis was not able to demonstrate a significant difference. Future studies on this topic will need a larger sample size to better answer whether a statistically significant difference may exist. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:122-128, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Histological examination of the oral mucosa after fractional diode laser irradiation with different power and pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Ermolaeva, Ludmila A.; Korzhevsky, Dmitriy E.; Sergeeva, Elena S.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.; Antropova, Maria M.; Fedotov, Denis Y.; Zaitseva, Maria A.; Kashina, Tatiana V.

    2018-04-01

    Optical and histological methods were used to examination of influence the power and pulse duration of 980-nm diode laser to the dimensions and morphology of tissue around fractional micro injuries created by the radiation of that laser in the oral mucosa of rats in vivo. The power of laser radiation (P) varied in the range of 1÷21 W, and its pulse duration (tp) - in the range 50÷500 ms. Histological examination showed that in the mucosa of the oral cavity after the laser fractional irradiation, there following effects are found: a tissue defect, a transudate in the lumen of ablative micro injury, stretching and compacting effect of the nuclei of the basal epithelium, the disappearance of granules of the keratohialin, destroying the structure of the connective tissue, erythrocyte stasis in the vessels, the disappearance of transverse striation in the muscle fibers in muscle layer. It has been found that ablative micro injury begins to form up at P = 5 W, tp = 100 ms and affects only the epithelial layer of the mucosa. At P = 7 W, tp = 120 ms, the ratio of width to depth of ablative micro injury is 1 : 1, and at P = 10 W, tp = 100 ms, an ablative micro column with ratio of 1 : 1.5 is formed in the epithelial and submucosal layers of the mucosa. The laser effect with P = 15 W, tp = 200 ms leads to lengthening of the ablation micro-column to 1 : 2, with the bottom of the ablative micro column reaching the muscular layer. With a further growth of laser power or pulse duration, the width of the micro injury increases, and the growth of the micro injury depth is slowed down so that the micro column buildup is ceased.

  5. Biophysical evaluation of fractional laser skin resurfacing with an Er:YSGG laser device in Japanese skin.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Utako; Kinoshita, Ayako; Osawa, Aki; Negi, Osamu; Haruna, Kunitaka; Mizuno, Yuki; Suga, Yasushi

    2012-05-01

    Ablative fractional laser skin resurfacing (FLSR) has recently been used for the amelioration of acne scars, and previous studies have shown clinical effectiveness. Despite its extensive use, few studies have focused on the associated changes in biophysical properties of the epidermis. Herein, we evaluate transepidermal water loss, sebum levels, skin hydration, and skin elasticity, following FLSR treatments with an Er:YSGG laser device (Pearl FractionalTM, Cutera Inc., Brisbane, CA), employing non-invasive measurements. Five Japanese patients with facial acne scars underwent one FLSR session. Some acne scars appeared to become less obvious as a consequence of the treatment. All patients were aware of a feeling of skin tightness in treated areas. Objective measurements on the lower lateral angle of the eye and on the inner cheeks were evaluated at baseline and at 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks after FLSR. Transepidermal water loss showed a significant two-fold (100%) increase at day 3, but had returned to almost the baseline level at week 4 in both areas. Sebum secretion showed a 50% increase at day 3, but had returned to the baseline level after day 7. Skin hydration showed a significant decrease at day 3, but had returned to the baseline level by day 7, and showed significant improvement at the end of the study. Skin elasticity (R2) was still at baseline on day 3, but showed some improvement--an increase of at least 30%--at the end of the study. Based on our findings, we believe that FLSR should be performed no more than once a month to allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function in most areas of the face.

  6. Clinical and Histological Evaluations of Enlarged Facial Skin Pores After Low Energy Level Treatments With Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Korean Patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Choi, Sun Chul; Lee, Won-Yong; Jung, Jae Yoon; Park, Gyeong-Hun

    2018-03-01

    Enlarged facial pores can be an early manifestation of skin aging and they are a common aesthetic concern for Asians. However, studies of improving the appearance of enlarged pores have been limited. The authors aimed to study the application of CO2 fractional laser treatment in patients with enlarged facial pores. A total of 32 patients with dilated facial pores completed 3 consecutive sessions of low energy level treatments with a fractional CO2 laser at 4-week intervals. Image analysis was performed to calculate the number of enlarged pores before each treatment session and 12 weeks after the final treatment. After application of laser treatments, there was a significant decrease in the number of enlarged pores. The mean number of enlarged pores was decreased by 28.8% after the second session and by 54.5% at post-treatment evaluation. Post-treatment side effects were mild and transitory. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated clear increases in the number of collagen fibers and the expression of transforming growth factor-β1. The short-term results showed that treatment with low energy level CO2 fractional laser therapy could be a safe and effective option for patients with Fitzpatrick skin Types III and IV who are concerned with enlarged pores.

  7. Integrated Cooling-Vacuum-Assisted Non-Fractional 1540 nm Erbium:Glass Laser is Effective in Treating Acne Scars.

    PubMed

    Politi, Yael; Levi, Assi; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2016-11-01

    Acne scars are a common result of in ammatory acne, affecting many patients worldwide. Among which, atrophic scars are the most prevalent form, presenting as dermal depressions caused by inflammatory degeneration of dermal collagen. Mid-infrared laser skin interaction is characterized by its modest absorption in water and nite penetration to the mid-dermis. Since collagen is a desirable laser target, 1540-nm wavelength is amenable for collagen remodeling within the depressed area of atrophic scars. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of acne scars treatment using an integrated cooling-vacuum-assisted 1540 nm Erbium: Glass Laser. This interventional prospective study included 25 volunteers (10 men, 15 women) with post acne atrophic scars. Patients were treated with a mid-infrared non-fractional 1540 nm Er:Glass laser (Alma Lasers Ltd. Caesarea, Israel) with integrat- ed cooling- vacuum assisted technology. Acne scars were exposed to 3 stacked laser pulses (400-600 mJ/pulse, 4 mm spot size, frequency of 3 Hz). Patients underwent 3-6 treatment sessions with a 2-3 week interval and were followed-up 1 month and 3 months after the last treatment. Clinical photographs were taken by high resolution digital camera before and after treatment. Clinical evaluation was performed by two independent dermatologists and results were graded on a scale of 0 (exacerbation) to 4 (76%-100% improvement). Patients' and physicians' satisfaction were also recorded (on a 1-5 scale). Pain perception and adverse effects were evaluated as well. Almost all patients (24/25) demonstrated a moderate to significant improvement. Average improvement was 3.9 and 4.1 points on the quartile scale used for outcome assessment 1 and 3 months following the last session, respectively. Patient satisfaction rate was 4.2. Side effects were minimal and transient: erythema, mild transient vesicles, and mild pain or inconvenience. CONCLUSION Cooling-Vacuum-Assisted mid-infrared non-fractional Er:Glass 1540 nm laser

  8. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by topical sodium stibogluconate application: A treatment option for pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Hilerowicz, Yuval; Koren, Amir; Mashiah, Jacob; Katz, Oren; Sprecher, Eli; Artzi, Ofir

    2018-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan zoonotic parasitic infection with cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral manifestations. Israel is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a self-limited disease but is associated with scarring, which is often a source of psychological and social burden for patients. Scars can be especially devastating for children and teenagers. A wide range of physical and medical approaches is used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, among which intralesional injections of sodium stibogluconate rank among the most frequently used. Unfortunately, despite being effective, this therapeutic modality can be very painful. Fractional ablative laser creates a controlled mesh-like pattern of tissue ablation in the skin that promotes dermal remodeling and collagen production while at the same time facilitating enhanced delivery of topically applied medications. Patients were treated with fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by immediate topical application of sodium stibogluconate. All children were diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis prior to treatment initiation.. Ten children were treated. One leishmania tropica-positive girl failed to respond. The other nine patients achieved clinical cure and demonstrated good to excellent final cosmesis. Self-rated patient satisfaction and tolerance were high No adverse effects were observed or reported during treatment. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by topical sodium stibogluconate application appears to be a safe and promising treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis infection in children. Future controlled studies are required to validate these findings and compare this technique with traditional approaches. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The efficacy in melasma treatment using a 1410 nm fractional photothermolysis laser.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, R; Keoprasom, N; Eimpunth, S; Manuskiatti, W

    2014-03-01

    Melasma treatment modalities including topical and procedural therapy have been employed with variable results and high recurrence rate. To quantitatively assess improvement in melasma and side effects after 1410 nm fractional photothermolysis laser treatments and to determine efficacy at 1-, 2- and 3-month follow-up after treatment. Thirty volunteers with melasma were treated with 1410 nm fractional photothermolysis for four passes on full face and additional four passes on melasma area. They were randomly treated on one side of their face with 20 mJ at 5% coverage and the other side of their face with 20 mJ at 20% coverage. All subjects were treated monthly for five times. Melanin index, Visual analogue scale and Melasma Area and Severity Index score were measured at baseline and 1-, 2- and 3-month follow-up after complete treatment protocol. There was statistically significant improvement of Melanin index at 2- and 3-month follow-up visits, but not at 1-month follow-up visit. Visual analogue scale and Melasma Area and Severity Index score improved significantly on both sides at 1-, 2- and 3-month follow-ups. The overall patients' satisfaction was significantly higher on the side treated with 20 mJ, 5% coverage. Adverse reactions included erythema, dryness and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation on melasma area. Those side effects were significantly more intense on the side treated with 20 mJ, 20% coverage. 1410 nm fractional photothermolysis laser treatment is a safe and temporary effective procedure for melasma; however, long-term follow-up is still needed. Only 5% coverage should be used to minimize risks of adverse effects. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. A Survey Comparing Delegation of Cosmetic Procedures Between Dermatologists and Nondermatologists.

    PubMed

    Austin, Molly B; Srivastava, Divya; Bernstein, Ira H; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-01

    How delegation of procedures varies among cosmetic specialties in the United States is not well described. To better describe current practices in delegation of procedures to nonphysicians among physicians of different cosmetic specialties in the United States. An Internet-based survey was administered to physician members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS), the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), and the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery (ASLMS). A total of 823 responses were collected. Two hundred ninety-one of the 521 dermatologists (55.9%) reported delegating cosmetic procedures compared with 223 of the 302 nondermatologists (73.8%) (p < .05). When delegation occurred, dermatologists were more likely than nondermatologists to delegate the following procedures to higher level non-physician providers (NPP): chemical peels, neuromodulator and filler injections, laser hair removal, pulsed dye laser, tattoo removal, intense pulsed light, nonablative fractional laser, and sclerotherapy. No difference in delegation rate was noted between dermatologists and non-dermatologist physicians with respect to microdermabrasion, ablative fractional laser, cryolipolysis, radiofrequency skin tightening, focused ultrasound skin tightening, and focused ultrasound fat reduction. Dermatologists delegate procedures to NPP less frequently than non-dermatologist physicians, and when they do, it is typically to higher level NPP.

  11. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  12. Fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing of rhytides and photoaged skin--a prospective clinical study on patient expectation and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Elisabeth; Meierhöfer, Julia; Koller, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Groesser, Leopold; Karrer, Sigrid; Hohenleutner, Ulrich; Landthaler, Michael; Hohenleutner, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Fractional CO2 -laser resurfacing is increasingly used for treating rhytides and photoaged skin because of its favorable benefit-risk ratio. A key outcome measure and treatment goal in aesthetic laser therapy is patient satisfaction. However, few data are available on patient-reported outcomes after fractional ablative skin-resurfacing. To compare patient expectations before and patient satisfaction after three fractional CO2 -laser treatments and to correlate objectively measured wrinkle reduction with patient satisfaction after treatment. We investigated patient expectation and satisfaction using a 14-item questionnaire in 24 female patients. We assessed the skin-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with skin appearance. We profilometrically measured wrinkle size in four facial areas before and three months after treatment and investigated correlations between wrinkle reduction and patient satisfaction. The high patient expectations before treatment (ceiling effect) were actually slightly exceeded. The average score of 14 items delineating patient satisfaction with laser treatment was higher (4.64 ± 0.82; n = 24) than the respective expectations before treatment (4.43 ± 0.88; n = 24). Skin-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with skin appearance had significantly improved after the last treatment. Patients dissatisfied with their skin appearance before treatment (mean 2.1 ± 1.5; evaluated on a scale ranging from 0-6) were satisfied (mean 5.1 ± 1.2) (P < 0.001) with skin appearance at the follow-up. Patient satisfaction with skin appearance was not correlated to the profilometrically measured reduction of wrinkle size of any facial area. Our results show high patient satisfaction with ablative fractional skin resurfacing, also regarding improved self-esteem and self-satisfaction despite high pre-treatment expectations. Skin-specific quality of life had significantly improved. Thus, this treatment modality

  13. Lower energy and pulse stacking. A safer alternative for skin tightening using fractional CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Motta, Marcos Matias; Stelini, Rafael Fantelli; Calderoni, Davi Reis; Gilioli, Rovilson; Kharmandayan, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different energies and stacking in skin shrinkage. Three decreasing settings of a fractional CO2 laser were applied to the abdomen of Twenty five Wistar rats divided into three groups. Group I (n=5) was histologically evaluated for microthermal zones dimensions. Groups II and III (n=10 each) were macroscopic evaluated with freeware ImageJ for area contraction immediately and after 30 and 60 days. No statistical significance was found within microthermal zone histological dimensions (Group I) in all settings studied. (Ablation depth: 76.90 to 97.18µm; Coagulation depth: 186.01 to 219.84 µm). In Group II, macroscopic evaluation showed that all settings cause significant immediate skin contraction. The highest setting cause significant more intense tightening effect initially, contracting skin area from 258.65 to 179.09 mm2. The same pattern was observed in Group III. At 30 and 60 days, the lowest setting significantly sustained contraction. Lower fractional CO2 laser energies associated to pulse stacking could cause consistent and long lasting tissue contraction in rats.

  14. The long-term effect of 1550 nm erbium:glass fractional laser in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yale; Zeng, Weihui; Hu, Die; Jha, Smita; Ge, Qin; Geng, Songmei; Xiao, Shengxiang; Hu, Guanglei; Wang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the short-term and long-term effects of the 1550 nm erbium:glass (Er:glass) fractional laser in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Forty-five (9 male and 36 female) acne patients were treated 4 times at 4-week intervals with the following parameters: 169 spot density and 15-30 mJ/cm(2) fluence. There was no control group. The laser spots were adjustable (maximum overlap: 20%) according to the treatment area, and delivered in rows in order to cover all the face. Clinical photographs were taken. The IGA scores and lesion counts were performed for each treatment. Their current state was obtained by phone call follow-up to determine the long-term effect and photographs were offered by themselves or taken in hospital. After four treatments, all patients had an obvious reduction of lesion counts and IGA score and the peak lesion counts decreased to 67.7% after the initial four treatment sessions. For long-term effect, 8 patients lost follow-up, hence 37 patients were followed-up. 8 patients were 2-year follow up, 27 at the 1-year follow-up, and all patients at the half-year follow-up. The mean percent reduction was 72% at the half-year follow-up, 79 at the 1-year follow-up and 75% at the 2-year follow-up. Side effects and complications were limited to transient erythema and edema, and few patients suffered from transient acne flare-ups and sensitivity. All patients responded that their skin was less prone to oiliness. In conclusion, acne can be successfully treated by 1550 nm Er:glass fractional laser, with few side effects and prolonged acne clearing.

  15. YAG laser treatment causes rapid degeneration and regeneration of collagen fibres in pig skin and facilitates fibroblast growth.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ayuko; Oguri, Akiko; Yokoo, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Hideto

    2012-10-01

    The non-ablative laser therapies have been speculated to cause microinjury in the dermal collagen fibres and increase collagen synthesis in the fibroblasts, leading to remodelling of the extracellular matrix. This study investigated the effects of neodymium YAG laser treatment on pig skin, especially focusing on its extracellular matrix molecules. The dorsal areas of a minipig were subjected to laser treatment, and samples were obtained by punch biopsies, and histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were performed. The laser treatment caused degeneration of collagen fibres and fibrils, which were reconstituted within 24 hours, whereas there was no inflammation and no apparent damage on elastic fibres. Small blood vessels disappeared by the laser treatment, which re-appeared in 3 days. Biochemically, the amounts of collagen decreased up to day 3 after the treatment and then increased at day 7. When fibroblasts in dermal tissue at day 28 were counted, more fibroblasts in the treated tissue were observed than non-treated control. These results suggest that, although the laser treatment transiently degenerates collagen fibres and fibrils, it restores and increases them, mainly by an increase in dermal fibroblasts, assuring its minimal complication of skin.

  16. Safety and long-term efficacy of fractional CO2 laser treatment in women suffering from genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    PubMed

    Behnia-Willison, Fariba; Sarraf, Sara; Miller, Joseph; Mohamadi, Behrang; Care, Alison S; Lam, Alan; Willison, Nadia; Behnia, Leila; Salvatore, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of fractional CO 2 laser treatment in reducing the severity of symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) in menopausal women. 102 women presenting with symptomatic GSM were treated with the fractional CO 2 laser (MonaLisa Touch, DEKA) system across a series of treatments delivered at intervals of six or more weeks. The Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire was used to gather data on sexual function and side-effects at three time-points across the study period (prospective panel design study). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to detect statistically and clinically significant changes in sexual function and side-effects occurring from pre- to post-treatment. The primary outcome of this study was an improvement of the symptoms of GSM. The secondary outcome included bladder function and prolapse symptoms. A total of 102 women suffering from moderate to severe GSM were recruited. Eighty-four percent experienced significant improvement in their symptoms after CO 2 laser treatment. Scores on measures of sexual function, dyspareunia, and bothersomeness of sexual issues were improved from pre-treatment to long-term (12-24 month) follow-up. Furthermore, there were improvements on measures of bladder function (P=0.001), prolapse (P=0.001), vaginal sensation (P=0.001), vaginal lubrication (P<0.001) and urge incontinence (P=0.003) from the pre-treatment assessment to the second assessment (i.e. after the third treatment). In this study, fractional microablative CO 2 laser treatment was associated with an improvement in symptoms of GSM and sexual function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The efficacy of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream for the treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Li, Jin; Huang, He; Permatasari, Felicia; Liu, Juan; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Zhou, Bing-Rong; Luo, Dan

    2017-10-01

    Although systemic and topical antifungal agents are widely used to treat onychomycosis, oral medications can cause adverse effects and the efficacy of topical agents is not satisfying. Currently, laser treatment has been studied for its efficacy in the treatment of onychomycosis. Our study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser treatment combined with terbinafine cream for 6 months in the treatment of onychomycosis and to analyze the influencing factors. A total of 30 participants (124 nails) with clinical and mycological diagnosis of onychomycosis received fractional CO 2 laser treatment at 2-week interval combined with terbinafine cream once daily for 6 months. The clinical efficacy rate (CER) was assessed from the percentage of fully normal-appearing nails or nails with ≤5% abnormal appearance, and the mycological clearance rate (MCR) was assessed from the percentage of nails with negative fungal microscopy. The CER was evaluated at 3 time points: at the end of treatment (58.9%), at 1 month after the last treatment (63.5%), and at 3 months after the last treatment (68.5%). The MCRs at 1 month and 3 months after the last treatment were 77.4 and 74.2%, respectively. The evaluation of influencing factors showed significantly higher CER (p < 0.05) in nails of participants with age <50 years, distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), superficial white onychomycosis (SWO), nail thickness <2 mm, affected first-to-fourth finger/toenails, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. All participants experienced tolerable mild burning sensation during laser treatment, but there were no other adverse reactions reported. Fractional CO 2 laser treatment combined with terbinafine cream for 6 months was an effective and safe method for the treatment of onychomycosis. There were 5 factors that positively influenced the treatment outcome: age, clinical type of onychomycosis, nail thickness, involved nail, and species of

  18. Photorejuvenation: still not a fully established clinical tool for cosmetic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Xie, Shusen; Li, Hui

    2006-01-01

    Several methods have been used to improve the esthetic appearance of photodamaged skin including dermabrasion, chemical peels and laser resurfacing using CO2 and Er:YAG laser. These procedures sacrifice epidermis, resulting in a long recuperation period and potential complications including persistent scarring, infection, hyperpigmentation, etc. Compared to ablative CO2 or Er:YAG laser resurfacing, non-ablative photorejuvenation technologies are playing an increasing role in the treatment of photodamaged skin. The clinical objective of which is to maximize thermal damage to upper dermis while minimizing injury to overlying skin. A variety of laser and non-laser systems have been used in the initial stage for this treatment. In our review, different treatment modalities have resulted in varying degrees of clinical effects. The basic mechanisms relate to improvement in employing non-ablative technologies are also discussed. Photorejuvenation is still not a fully established clinical tool for cosmetic treatment according to our review, therefore more research on basic mechanisms should be made.

  19. The effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser on vaginal flora of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, S; Pitsouni, E; Antonopoulou, S; Zacharakis, D; Salvatore, S; Falagas, M E; Grigoriadis, T

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser (MFCO2-Laser) therapy on the vaginal microenvironment of postmenopausal women. Three laser therapies at monthly intervals were applied in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, pH of vaginal fluid >4.5 and superficial epithelial cells on vaginal smear <5%. Vaginal fluid pH values, fresh wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after each subsequent therapy. Nugent score and Hay-Ison criteria were used to evaluate vaginal flora. Fifty-three women (mean age 57.2 ± 5.4 years) participated and completed this study. MFCO2-Laser therapy increased Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) and normal flora (p < 0.001) after the completion of the therapeutic protocol, which decreased vaginal pH from a mean of 5.5 ± 0.8 (initial value) to 4.7 ± 0.5 (p < 0.001). The prevalence of Lactobacillus changed from 30% initially to 79% after the last treatment. Clinical signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis or candidiasis did not appear in any participant. MFCO2-Laser therapy is a promising treatment for improving the vaginal health of postmenopausal women by helping repopulate the vagina with normally existing Lactobacillus species and reconstituting the normal flora to premenopausal status.

  20. Excellent Aesthetic and Functional Outcome After Fractionated Carbon Dioxide Laser Skin Graft Revision Surgery: Case Report and Review of Laser Skin Graft Revision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-11-01

    Skin grafts are utilized in dermatology to reconstruct a defect secondary to surgery or trauma of the skin. Common indications for skin grafts include surgical removal of cutaneous malignancies, replacement of tissue after burns or lacerations, and hair transplantation in alopecia. Skin grafts may be cosmetically displeasing, functionally limiting, and significantly impact patient's quality-of-life. There is limited published data regarding skin graft revision to enhance aesthetics and function. Here, we present a case demonstrating excellent aesthetic and functional outcome after fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin graft revision surgery and review of the medical literature on laser skin graft revision techniques.

  1. Ways of Noninvasive Facial Skin Tightening and Fat Reduction.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Klaus; Salavastru, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    For skin tightening, ablative and nonablative lasers have been used with various parameters full or fractionated. Currently, other energy-based technologies have been developed such as radiofrequency (RF) from mono- to multipolar, microneedling RF, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. They heat up the tissue to a clinical endpoint. Temperatures above 42°C stimulate fibroblasts to produce more collagen and some technologies produce small coagulation points that allow to shrink and to tighten the tissue with less downtime or side effects. Alternative treatments not based on heat can be chemical peels from light to deep and microneedling without RF. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm(-1) (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm(-1) (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  3. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  4. Effects of early combinatorial treatment of autologous split-thickness skin grafts in red duroc pig model using pulsed dye laser and fractional CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Kevin; Blackstone, Britani N; DeBruler, Danielle M; Kim, Jayne Y; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Imeokparia, Folasade O; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    The use of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and fractional CO 2 (FX CO 2 ) laser therapy to treat and/or prevent scarring following burn injury is becoming more widespread with a number of studies reporting reduction in scar erythema and pruritus following treatment with lasers. While the majority of studies report positive outcomes following PDL or FX CO 2 therapy, a number of studies have reported no benefit or worsening of the scar following treatment. The objective of this study was to directly compare the efficacy of PDL, FX CO 2 , and PDL + FX CO 2 laser therapy in reducing scarring post burn injury and autografting in a standardized animal model. Eight female red Duroc pigs (FRDP) received 4 standardized, 1 in. x 1 in. third degree burns that were excised and autografted. Wound sites were treated with PDL, FX CO 2 , or both at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post grafting. Grafts receiving no laser therapy served as controls. Scar appearance, morphology, size, and erythema were assessed and punch biopsies collected at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. At week 16, additional tissue was collected for biomechanical analyses and markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, re-epithelialization, pigmentation, and angiogenesis were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Treatment with PDL, FX CO 2 , or PDL + FX CO 2 resulted in significantly less contraction versus skin graft only controls with no statistically significant difference among laser therapy groups. Scars treated with both PDL and FX CO 2 were visually more erythematous than other groups with a significant increase in redness between two and three standard deviations above normal skin redness. Scars treated with FX CO 2 were visually smoother and contained significantly fewer wrinkles. In addition, hyperpigmentation was significantly reduced in scars treated with FX CO 2 . The use of fractional carbon dioxide or pulsed dye laser therapy within 1 month of autografting significantly reduced scar

  5. The efficacy of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined with luliconazole 1% cream for the treatment of onychomycosis: A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing Rong; Lu, Yan; Permatasari, Felicia; Huang, He; Li, Jin; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jia An; Luo, Dan; Xu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined with luliconazole 1% cream for the treatment of onychomycosis and to compare it with that of fractional CO2 laser alone. This was a randomized, parallel group, 2-arm, positive-controlled, single-center, superiority trial with a 1:2 allocation ratio. Sixty patients with clinical and mycological diagnosis of onychomycosis were enrolled from the Dermatology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University in Nanjing, China from March 2015 to May 2015. Patients were randomized following simple randomization procedures (computerized random number generator) into 2 groups; L group only received 12 sessions of laser treatment at 2-week interval for 6 months, while L + D group received 12 sessions of laser treatment at 2-week interval combined with luliconazole 1% cream once daily for 6 months. This was not a blind trial. The main outcome measures were the clinical efficacy rate (CER) assessed from the percentage of fully and >60% normal-appearing nails and the mycological clearance rate (MCR) assessed from the percentage of nails with negative fungal microscopy. There were no changes to trial outcome measures after the trial commenced. A total of 60 patients (N = 233 nails) completed treatments and follow-up, and were randomized and divided into 2 groups: L group (31 patients, N = 108 nails) and L + D group (29 patients, N = 115 nails). The CER and MCR of L + D group were 69.6% and 57.4%, respectively. L + D group showed significantly higher CER (69.6% vs 50.9%; χ = 8.1, P = 0.004) and MCR (57.4% vs 38.9%; χ = 7.6, P = 0.006) compared with those in L group. Some patients experienced mild pain during laser treatment, but there was no bleeding or oozing during or after treatment. There were no adverse effects reported during the observation period. Fractional CO2 laser treatment combined with 1% luliconazole cream for 6 months was

  6. Fractional laser microablation of skin: increasing the efficiency of transcutaneous delivery of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Dolotov, L. E.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    We study several regimes of fractional laser microablation using a pulsed Er : YAG laser for producing microchannels of different depth and incisions that allow transcutaneous delivery of particles of different size, namely, Al2O3 (27 μm), ZrO2 (smaller than 5 μm) and TiO2 (smaller than 100 nm). The shock wave regime was used both for enhancing the penetration of particles into the ablation zones and as an independent method of particle delivery into the skin. Based on optical coherence tomography we assessed the coherent depth of particle detection in the skin in 2 hours, 3 days and 10 days after the administration. The maximal localisation depth (up to 450 μm) was obtained for TiO2 nanoparticles in the regime of incisions with enhancement of particle penetration by pulses of a multiple-beam hydrodynamic shock wave. The results of the study can be useful for developing new methods of transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanocarriers of medicinal preparations.

  7. Comparison of a fractional microplasma radio frequency technology and carbon dioxide fractional laser for the treatment of atrophic acne scars: a randomized split-face clinical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Fei, Ye; Chen, Xiangdong; Lu, Wenli; Chen, Jinan

    2013-04-01

    No studies have compared fractional microplasma radio frequency (RF) technology with the carbon dioxide fractional laser system (CO2 FS) in the treatment of atrophic acne scars in the same patient. To compare the efficacy and safety of fractional microplasma RF with CO2 FS in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Thirty-three Asian patients received three sessions of a randomized split-face treatment of fractional microplasma RF or CO2 FS. Both modalities had a roughly equivalent effect. Échelle d'Évaluation Clinique Des Cicatrices d'Acné scores were significantly lower after fractional microplasma RF (from 51.1 ± 14.2 to 22.3 ± 8.6, 56.4% improvement) and CO2 FS (from 48.8 ± 15.1 to 19.9 ± 7.9, 59.2% improvement) treatments. There was no statistically significant difference between the two therapies. Twelve subjects (36.4%) experienced postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) after 30 of 99 treatment sessions (30.3%) on the CO2 FS side and no PIH was observed on the fractional microplasma RF sides. Both modalities have good effects on treating atrophic scars. PIH was not seen with the fractional microplasma RF, which might make it a better choice for patients with darker skin. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 2940-nm Er:YAG fractional laser enhanced the effect of topical drug for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruilian; Zhou, Jun; Su, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Yongxian; Xiao, Shengxiang; Ma, Huiqun

    2017-08-01

    We observed the promoting effects of the 2940-nm erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) fractional laser in topical drug delivery for psoriasis. A total of five (four males and one female) recalcitrant psoriasis patients were given laser treatment eight times at 1-week intervals with the following parameters: 5-11% spot density and 100-μm energy depth. The psoriatic skin lesions on the left knee and the corresponding lesions at the right ones of each psoriasis patient were randomly divided into two groups: laser + topical drug group (L) and drug alone group (D). The psoriatic lesions in both groups were treated with the same topical treatment (calcipotriol ointment). The corresponding psoriatic lesions in the L group received extra 2940-nm Er:YAG laser irradiation before topical treatment. The photos of psoriatic lesions were taken before each treatment. The final photos were obtained from the patients at the seventh day after the final treatment. Drug alone or in combination with laser Er:YAG both reduced psoriatic lesions. However, with the increase in the number of treatments, increasing differences were observed between the treatment and the control sides. The therapeutic outcomes in the L groups were better than those in the D groups. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) scores for five cases of both groups were decreased. However, the scores in the L groups were lower than those in the D groups. The use of 2940 nm Er:YAG promoted the absorption of topical drugs for psoriasis, improving the therapeutic effect.

  9. Effects of topical application of B-Resorcinol and Glycyrrhetinic acid monotherapy and in combination with fractional CO2 laser treatment for benign hand hyperpigmentation treatment.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, Francesca Romana; Di Russo, Pier Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Hand solar lentigines are frequent benign lesions of elderly population, requiring longtime treatments with topical agents or laser to lighten. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of CO 2 fractional laser photothermolysis followed by topical application of B-Resorcinol and Glycyrrhetinic acid vs. only topical B-Resorcinol and Glycyrrhetinic acid application for hand solar lentigines treatment. Hand solar lentigines of eleven volunteers were divided into two groups: Group A spots received CO 2 fractional laser photothermolysis followed by 4 weeks topical application of B-Resorcinol and Glycyrrhetinic acid, and Group B spots received only 4 weeks topical treatments. All hands were photographed, and hand solar lentigines scanned with dermatoscope at the beginning of the study (T 0 ), 1 month after laser treatment (T 1 ), and at the end of the study (T 2 ) to document spots dimensions and color. A blinded dermatologist evaluated dermoscopic T 0 and T 2 images. The considered variables were assessed for significance by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test. In all volunteers, investigators and blinded dermatologist's evaluation hand solar lentigines features improved, with no statistical differences in the two groups. Topical application of B-Resorcinol and Glycyrrhetinic acid is effective to lighten hand solar lentigines after 4 weeks of treatment, with or without a previous fractional laser photothermolysis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Treatment of café-au-lait macules with a high-fluenced 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiehoon; Hur, Hoon; Kim, Yu Ri; Cho, Sung Bin

    2018-02-01

    Café-au-lait macules (CALMs) are light to dark brown macules or patches of increased melanin concentration found along the dermoepidermal junction. Although many attempts to treat CALMs using various kinds of laser/light-based devices have been reported, CALMs remain refractory thereto with high recurrence rates. In this case series, we describe four patients with idiopathic CALMs that were effectively and safely treated with a non-ablative, high-fluenced, Q-switched (QS), 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. The typical laser parameters for treating CALMs, including a spot size of 7-7.5 mm, a fluence of 2.4-2.5 J/cm 2 , and one to two passes until the appearance of mild erythema, but not petechiae, were utilized in this study over 12-24 treatment sessions at 2-week intervals. We suggest that high-fluenced QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatment can be used as an effective and alternative treatment modality for CALMs with minimal risk of side effects.

  11. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographicmore » sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.« less

  12. Fractional Resurfacing Aiding Photodynamic Therapy of a Recalcitrant Plantar Verruca

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Fractional resurfacing has become a very popular laser modality in recent years, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a mainstay of many practices treating a wide array of clinical entities. In this case report, we describe a recalcitrant verrucous lesion on the foot that is unresponsive to cryotherapy, pulsed dye laser, and pulsed dye laser with PDT. The lesion did, however, respond very well to the use of a fractional laser to enhance the penetration of the PDT photosensitizer and then responded to pulsed dye laser with PDT. Fractional resurfacing prior to PDT may be a novel dermatologic treatment approach, making PDT an even better treatment option in the future. PMID:21103307

  13. Low versus High Fluence Parameters in the Treatment of Facial Laceration Scars with a 1,550 nm Fractional Erbium-Glass Laser

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Jun, Dai-Won; Kim, Sang-Wha; Jung, Sung-No; Kwon, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Early postoperative fractional laser treatment has been used to reduce scarring in many institutions, but the most effective energy parameters have not yet been established. This study sought to determine effective parameters in the treatment of facial laceration scars. Methods. From September 2012 to September 2013, 57 patients were enrolled according to the study. To compare the low and high fluence parameters of 1,550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser treatment, we virtually divided the scar of each individual patient in half, and each half was treated with a high and low fluence setting, respectively. A total of four treatment sessions were performed at one-month intervals and clinical photographs were taken at every visit. Results. Results were assessed using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and global assessment of the two portions of each individual scar. Final evaluation revealed that the portions treated with high fluence parameter showed greater difference compared to pretreatment VSS scores and global assessment values, indicating favorable cosmetic results. Conclusion. We compared the effects of high fluence and low fluence 1,550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser treatment for facial scarring in the early postoperative period and revealed that the high fluence parameter was more effective for scar management. PMID:26236738

  14. Enhancing hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by a combination of fractional CO2 laser therapy and hair growth factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Zhuo, Fenglin; Li, Linfeng

    2017-11-01

    Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO 2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed. Global photographs and dermoscopy assessments were performed at the baseline and 4 months after first treatment. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in hair-follicle phase and hair-shaft diameter. Twenty-seven participants completed the 4-month treatment schedule. One patient was lost. Mean hair density increased from 114 ± 27 to 143 ± 25/cm 2 (P < 0.001) in the combined group and from 113 ± 24 to 134 ± 19/cm 2 in the growth factor group (P < 0.001). The mean change from baseline between two groups was also compared (P = 0.003). Global photographs showed improvement in 93% (25/27) patients in the combined group and 67% (18/27) patients in the growth factor group. Under scanning electron microscopy, hair follicles appeared to transition from telogen to anagen, and hair-shaft diameter increased in five randomly selected patients. Ablative fractional CO 2 laser combined with hair growth factors may serve as an alternative treatment for MAA in individuals unwilling/unable to undergo medical or surgical treatment.

  15. Safety and Efficacy of a 1550nm/1927nm Dual Wavelength Laser for the Treatment of Photodamaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Narurkar, Vic A; Alster, Tina S; Bernstein, Eric F; Lin, Tina J; Loncaric, Anya

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractional photothermolysis (FP) is a popular treatment option for photodamaged skin and addresses shortcomings of ablative skin resurfacing and nonablative dermal remodeling. Previous studies have demonstrated that FP using the 1550nm wavelength has led to improvement of ultrastructural changes and clinical effects associated with photodamaged skin in the deeper dermal structures, while treatment with the 1927nm wavelength has shown clinical effects in the superficial dermis. Both wavelengths produce precise microscopic treatment zones (MTZs) in the skin. The two wavelengths used in combination may optimize the delivery of fractional nonablative resurfacing intended for dermal and epidermal coagulation of photodamage skin.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 1550/1927 Laser System (Fraxel Dual, Solta), using both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths in combination for treatment of facial and non-facial photodamage.

    METHODS: Prospective, multi-center, post-market study in subjects with clinically identifiable photodamage (N=35) (Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV). Both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths were used at each treatment visit. Investigator assessment of the affected area(s) occurred at one week, one month and 3 months after a series of up to four treatments. Severity of adverse events (AEs) were assessed using a 4-point scale (where 0=none and 3=marked). Assessments included erythema, edema, hyperkeratosis, hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, scarring, itchiness, dryness, and flaking. Severity of photoaging, fine and coarse wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, sallowness, and tactile roughness at baseline was assessed using the same scale. Investigators and subjects assessed overall appearance of photodamage and pigmentation based on a 5-point quartile improvement scale at all follow-up visits (where 0=no improvement and 4=very significant improvement [76%-100%]).

    RESULTS: There was a positive treatment effect at all study

  16. New application of the long-pulsed Nd-YAG laser as an ablative resurfacing tool for skin rejuvenation: a 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali

    2013-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Er-YAG) lasers are the gold standards in ablative skin resurfacing. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser is considered a nonablative skin resurfacing laser whose usage is limited due to its high cost. To assess the efficacy and safety of Nd-YAG as an ablative resurfacing laser and to compare the results with those previously published for CO2 and Erbium-YAG lasers. A total of 296 patients (251 female and 45 male) with Fitzpatrick skin types III-IV and dermatological conditions amenable to ablative skin resurfacing participated in this study. Nd-YAG laser parameters assessed were wavelength (1064 nm), pulse duration (5 ms), fluence (10 J/cm(2) ), and spot size (8-10 mm). Efficacy of Nd-YAG laser was assessed by comparing pre- and posttreatment photographs. An improvement of 30-80% was observed in treated patients. The degree of improvement correlated positively with the number of laser sessions. The most common side effect was hyperpigmentation. Other side effects were less common and mild in intensity compared with published results for gold standard ablative lasers. Not only was the Nd-YAG laser found to be as effective as Er-YAG and CO2 lasers, but treated patients also had shorter recovery and treatment times, and at lower cost. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser: histological characterization of relationships between laser settings and micropore dimensions.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M; Philipsen, Peter A; Anderson, R Rox; Paasch, Uwe; Haedersdal, Merete

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating laser parameters with tissue effects. Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to a miniaturized 2,940 nm AFXL, spot size 225 µm, density 5%, power levels 1.15-2.22 W, pulse durations 50-225 microseconds, pulse repetition rates 100-500 Hz, and 2, 20, or 50 stacked pulses, resulting in pulse energies of 2.3-12.8 mJ/microbeam and total energy levels of 4.6-640 mJ/microchannel. Histological endpoints were ablation depth (AD), coagulation zone (CZ) and ablation width (AW). Data were logarithmically transformed if required prior to linear regression analyses. Results for histological endpoints were combined in a mathematical model. In 138 sections from 91 biopsies, AD ranged from 16 to a maximum of 1,348 µm and increased linearly with the logarithm of total energy delivered by stacked pulses, but also depended on variations in power, pulse duration, pulse repetition rate, and pulse energy (r(2)  = 0.54-0.85, P < 0.0001). Microchannels deeper than 500 µm were created only by the highest pulse energy of 12.8 mJ/microbeam. Pulse stacking increased AD, and enlarged CZ and AW. CZ varied from 0 to 205 µm and increased linearly with total energy (r(2)  = 0.56-0.75, P < 0.0001). AW ranged from 106 to 422 µm and increased linearly with the logarithm of number of stacked pulses (r(2)  = 0.53-0.61, P < 0.001). The mathematical model estimated micropores of specific ADs with an associated range of CZs and AWs, for example, 300 µm ADs were associated with CZs from 27 to 73 µm and AWs from 190 to 347 µm. Pulse stacking with a small, low power 2,940 nm AFXL created reproducible shallow to deep micropores, and influenced micropore configuration. Mathematical modeling

  18. The association of fractional CO2 laser 10.600nm and photodynamic therapy in the treatment of onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Guilherme Bueno; Antonio, João Roberto; Antonio, Carlos Roberto; Tomé, Fernanda Alves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails caused in most cases by dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Despite numerous available antifungal drugs for therapy of this infection, the cure rate is low, with high rates of relapse after treatment and side effects. OBJECTIVES To present a new option for the treatment of onychomycosis, in search of a more effective and rapid method than conventional ones. METHODS Patients underwent two sessions of CO2 fractional laser 10.600nm associated with photodynamic therapy. Mycological and digital photography were performed before and after the treatment. RESULTS McNemar test with continuity correction and degrees of freedom = 1: for clinical cure rate, 13.06, with p=0.00005; for mycological cure, 17.05, with p=0.00005; 72% felt fully satisfied with the procedure. CONCLUSIONS The use of fractional CO2 laser 10.600nm associated with photodynamic therapy can be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis, decreasing the risk of systemic lesions that may be triggered with prolonged use of oral antifungals. PMID:26375214

  19. Fractional 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: One of the safest novel treatment modality to treat café-au-lait macules.

    PubMed

    Won, Kwang Hee; Lee, Ye Jin; Rhee, Do Young; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-10-01

    Café-au-lait macules (CALMs) are benign epidermal basilar hyperpigmentations that can be found in an isolated form or in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Frequency-doubled Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser (532-nm QSNYL) does not penetrate deeply into the skin and is therefore suitable for epidermal pigmented lesion. Fractional photothermolysis (FP) targets only very small areas of the skin, without injuring adjacent areas of healthy, normal skin. Herein, we report a case of CALMs successfully treated with fractional 532-nm QSNYL. By applying FP to 532-nm QSNYL, we could treat CALMs safely with less downtime as compared to conventional laser treatments and expect more energy delivery for each microscopic hole, thereby allowing higher response rate.

  20. In-vivo experimental evaluation of nonablative skin remodeling using a 1.54-μm laser with surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Capon, Alexandre; Creusy, Collette; Fleurisse, Laurence; Buys, Bruno; Faucheux, Marc A.; Servell, Pascal

    2000-05-01

    Selective dermal remodeling using diode or 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers has been recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. This new technique consists in inducing collagen tightening and/or neocollagen synthesis without significant damage of the overlying epidermis. Such an approach requires (1) a cooling system in order to target dermal collagen with relatively good protection of the epidermal layer, (2) a specific wavelength for confining the thermal damage into the upper dermis (100 to 400 micrometer). Based on previous studies, demonstrating a better water absorption and a reduced melanin absorption at 1.54 micrometer compared to the 1.32 micrometer, this experimental study aimed to evaluate a new laser (co-doped Yb-Er:phosphate glass material, Aramis, Quantel-France) emitting at 1.54 micrometer. This laser was used in combination with the Dermacool system (Dermacool, Mableton, USA) in order to achieve epidermis cooling before, during and after irradiation. Male hairless rats were used for the study. Pulse train irradiation (1.1 J, 3 Hz, 30 pulses) and different cooling temperatures (+5 degree(s)C, 0 degree(s)C, -5 degree(s)C) were screened with clinical examination and histological evaluation at 1, 3, and 7 days after laser irradiation. The clinical effects showed that pulse train irradiation produced reproducible epidermal preservation and confinement of the thermal damage into the dermis. The different cooling temperatures did not provide detectable differences in terms of size and depth of thermal damage. New collagen synthesis was confirmed by a marked fibroblastic proliferation, detected in the lower dermis at D3 and clearly seen in the upper dermis at D7. This new laser appears to be a promising new tool for the treatment of skin laxity, solar elastosis, facial rhytids and mild reduction of wrinkles.

  1. Molecular effects of fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser treatment with multiple stacked pulses on standardized human three-dimensional organotypic skin models.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Laurenz; Amann, P M; Marquardt, Y; Heise, R; Czaja, K; Gerber, P A; Steiner, T; Hölzle, F; Baron, Jens Malte

    2017-05-01

    The molecular changes in gene expression following ablative laser treatment of skin lesions, such as atrophic scars and UV-damaged skin, are not completely understood. A standardized in vitro model of human skin, to study the effects of laser treatment on human skin, has been recently developed. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to examine morphological and molecular changes caused by fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser treatment on an in vitro full-thickness 3D standardized organotypic model of human skin. A fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser was used to irradiate organotypic human 3D models. Laser treatments were performed at four different settings using a variety of stacked pulses with similar cumulative total energy fluence (60 J/cm 2 ). Specimens were harvested at specified time points and real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and microarray studies were performed. Frozen sections were examined histologically. Three days after erbium:YAG laser treatment, a significantly increased mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, TIMP1, and TIMP2), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, and CXCL6), and cytokines such as IL6, IL8, and IL24 could be detected. qRT-PCR studies confirmed the enhanced mRNA expression of IL6, IL8, IL24, CXCLs, and MMPs. In contrast, the mRNA expression of epidermal differentiation markers, such as keratin-associated protein 4, filaggrin, filaggrin 2, and loricrin, and antimicrobial peptides (S100A7A, S100A9, and S100A12) as well as CASP14, DSG2, IL18, and IL36β was reduced. Four different settings with similar cumulative doses have been tested (N10%, C10%, E10%, and W25%). These laser treatments resulted in different morphological changes and effects on gene regulations. Longer pulse durations (1000 μs) especially had the strongest impact on gene expression and resulted in an upregulation of genes, such as collagen-1A2, collagen-5A2, and collagen-6A2, as well as FGF2. Histologically, all treatment

  2. [Open laser surgery on the locomotor apparatus].

    PubMed

    Gerber, B E; al-Khodairy, A T; Morscher, E; Hefti, F

    1996-02-01

    The first applications of laser in surgery of the locomotor apparatus in the early 1980s used the haemostatic properties of laser to diminish the amount of substitution of coagulation factors in haemophiliac patients. Only since the early 1990s has a device been available in corporating the pulsed holmium:YAG laser which works in a fluid medium without relevant side effects. Apart from haemostasis, the cutting function and tissue ablation, together with the thermal shrinking effect, are exploited in arthroscopy and percutaneous disc decompression. Now that the biophysical mechanisms of action have been elucidated, nothing stands in the way of the use of infrared lasers in open surgery of the locomotor apparatus in some indications. In a prospective clinical study we included 30 consecutive patients who underwent open laser surgery from November 1992 to August 1994, for the following indications: the sparing haemostatic tissue ablation was used for synovectomy or for bony resection in osteophytes and osteochondromas of different locations, an osteoid osteoma and a painful sacral hyperplasia in the presence of incomplete sacral meningomyelocele. With bleeding eliminated, the shaping was much easier. The non-ablative shrinking produced less tissue loss and a stabilizing strengthening of tissue at the margins of soft tissue resections, e.g. in jumper's knee, tennis elbow and Achilles tendon cysts. All laser functions that are useful in open surgery have also been used in sequestered disc herniations that are inaccessible a percutaneous procedure and, in spinal decompression, for remodelling of the posterior spine contour. An analgesic effect of laser limited the postoperative administration of analgesic drugs to an average of 3 days. No complications related to the laser treatment were observed. At follow-up 12-21 months after operation, 25 of the 30 patients in this heterogeneous population showed complete or near-total healing of the operated pathological finding

  3. Ablative non-fractional lasers for atrophic facial acne scars: a new modality of erbium:YAG laser resurfacing in Asians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ju; Kang, Jin Moon; Chung, Won Soon; Kim, Young Koo; Kim, Hei Sung

    2014-03-01

    Atrophic facial scars which commonly occur after inflammatory acne vulgaris can be extremely disturbing to patients both physically and psychologically. Treatment with fractional laser devices has become increasingly popular, but there has been disappointment in terms of effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ablative full-face resurfacing on atrophic acne scars in the Korean population. A total of 22 patients, aged 25-44 years, underwent a new modality of resurfacing combining both short-pulsed and dual-mode erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser. The patients had Fitzpatrick skin types ranging from III to V. Photographs were taken before and up to 6 months after treatment. Results were evaluated for the degree of clinical improvement and any adverse events. Degree of improvement was graded using a four-point scale: poor (1) = <25%, fair (2) = 25-50%, good (3) = 51-75%, and excellent (4) = >75%. Based on the blinded photo assessments by two independent reviewers, clinically and statistically significant mean improvement of 3.41 was observed (one-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, P < 0.001). Complete wound healing occurred between 6 and 9 days. Erythema occurred in all patients and lasted longer than 3 months in two patients (9.1%). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation occurred in ten patients (45.5%) and lasted longer than 3 months in one patient (4.5%). One patient experienced mild hypopigmentation (4.5%). Mild to moderate acne flare-up occurred in five patients (22.7%). No other adverse effects were observed. A new modality of Er:YAG laser resurfacing combining short-pulsed and dual-mode Er:YAG laser is a safe and very effective treatment modality for atrophic facial acne scars in Asians with darker skin tones.

  4. Use of fractional laser microablation of skin for improvement of its immersion clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikova, Ekaterina A.; Kolesnikov, Aleksandr S.; Genina, Elina A.; Dolotov, Leonid E.; Tuchina, Darya K.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2013-02-01

    We are proposing a new method for enhancement of optical clearing agent delivery into the skin using fractional laser microablation of the skin surface. The Palomar Lux2940 erbium laser with the wavelength 2940 nm and pulse duration of 5 ms was used as a light source. Two regimes of laser action were used in the experiments: the first one realized microablation of skin upper layer and the second one created microchannels in skin. As optical clearing agents mineral oil and PEG-300 were used. In vivo studies were carried out with white outbred rats. Both parameters: the permeability coefficient of the agents in the tissue and the optical probing depth were measured using the OCT system at a wavelength of 930 nm. The following values of the permeability coefficient of the skin with microablation were obtained: (3.41+/-0.46)×10-5 cm/s and (2.35+/-0.30)×10-5 cm/s for mineral oil and PEG-300, respectively, at the use of the surface microablation and (3.32+/-0.09)×10-5 cm/s and (3.61+/-0.34)×10-5 cm/s for mineral oil and PEG-300, respectively, at the use of the microporation. The results have shown that the joint application of mineral oil with microablation in the first regime promotes maximal (nearly 2-folds) increasing of optical probing depth in 30 min. Obtained data can be used for development of optical diagnostic methods of skin diseases.

  5. Effects of laser fluence non-uniformity on ambient-temperature soot measurements using the auto-compensating laser-induced incandescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengshan; Rogak, Steven; Snelling, David R.; Saffaripour, Meghdad; Thomson, Kevin A.; Smallwood, Gregory J.

    2016-11-01

    Multimode pulsed Nd:YAG lasers are commonly used in auto-compensating laser-induced incandescence (AC-LII) measurements of soot in flames and engine exhaust as well as black carbon in the atmosphere. Such lasers possess a certain degree of fluence non-uniformity across the laser beam even with the use of beam shaping optics. Recent research showed that the measured volume fraction of ambient-temperature soot using AC-LII increases significantly, by about a factor of 5-8, with increasing the laser fluence in the low-fluence regime from a very low fluence to a relatively high fluence of near sublimation. The causes of this so-called soot volume fraction anomaly are currently not understood. The effects of laser fluence non-uniformity on the measured soot volume fraction using AC-LII were investigated. Three sets of LII experiments were conducted in the exhaust of a MiniCAST soot generator under conditions of high elemental carbon using Nd:YAG lasers operated at 1064 nm. The laser beams were shaped and relay imaged to achieve a relatively uniform fluence distribution in the measurement volume. To further homogenize the laser fluence, one set of LII experiments was conducted by using a diffractive optical element. The measured soot volume fractions in all three sets of LII experiments increase strongly with increasing the laser fluence before a peak value is reached and then start to decrease at higher fluences. Numerical calculations were conducted using the experimental laser fluence histograms. Laser fluence non-uniformity is found partially responsible for the soot volume fraction anomaly, but is insufficient to explain the degree of soot volume fraction anomaly observed experimentally. Representing the laser fluence variations by a histogram derived from high-resolution images of the laser beam energy profile gives a more accurate definition of inhomogeneity than a simple averaged linear profile across the laser beam.

  6. The Effect of Neodymium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Lasers on Alopecia Areata: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Yalici-Armagan, Basak; Elcin, Gonca

    2016-04-01

    Effective treatment options for alopecia areata (AA) are missing. Whether lasers might be effective is a topic of debate. We aimed to evaluate whether neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) or fractional carbon dioxide lasers might stimulate the development of new hair. Thirty-two patients who had long-standing and treatment refractory diseases were recruited for the study. Three different patches on the scalp were selected, 1 of which served as control. The mean outcome measure was the hair count, which was calculated with the digital phototrichogram. Response was defined as at least 25% increase in the mean hair count at the treated patch compared with the control patch. At the end of the study, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean hair count for the 3 patches. In 7 of 32 patients (22%), an increase in the mean hair count was observed on the whole scalp including the control patch, which resulted in an improved Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score. We have observed that Nd:YAG or fractional carbon dioxide lasers did not increase the mean hair count on the treated AA patches when compared with the control patch. However, an SALT score improvement in 22% of the patients suggested spontaneous remission.

  7. Effect of combination of fractional CO2 laser and narrow-band ultraviolet B versus narrow-band ultraviolet B in the treatment of non-segmental vitiligo.

    PubMed

    El-Zawahry, Mohamed Bakr; Zaki, Naglaa Sameh; Wissa, Marian Youssry; Saleh, Marwah Adly

    2017-12-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of combining fractional CO 2 laser with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) versus NB-UVB in the treatment of non-segmental vitiligo. The study included 20 patients with non-segmental stable vitiligo. They were divided into two groups. Group I received a single session of fractional CO 2 laser therapy on the right side of the body followed by NB-UVB phototherapy twice per week for 8 weeks. Group II received a second session of fractional CO 2 laser therapy after 4 weeks from starting treatment with NB-UVB. The vitiligo lesions were assessed before treatment and after 8 weeks of treatment by VASI. At the end of the study period, the vitiligo area score index (VASI) in group I decreased insignificantly on both the right (-2.6%) and left (-16.4%) sides. In group II, VASI increased insignificantly on the right (+14.4%) and left (+2.5%) sides. Using Adobe Photoshop CS6 extended program to measure the area of vitiligo lesions, group I showed a decrease of -1.02 and -6.12% in the mean area percentage change of vitiligo lesions on the right and left sides, respectively. In group II the change was +9.84 and +9.13% on the right and left sides, respectively. In conclusion, combining fractional CO 2 laser with NB-UVB for the treatment of non-segmental vitiligo did not show any significant advantage over treatment with NB-UVB alone. Further study of this combination for longer durations in the treatment of vitiligo is recommended.

  8. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of ion species fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J S; Park, H S; Amendt, A

    2012-05-01

    Simultaneous Thomson scattering measurements of collective electron-plasma and ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion species fraction from laser produced CH plasmas. The CH{sub 2} foil is heated with 10 laser beams, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Thomson scattering measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 30 J 2{omega} probe laser with a 1 ns pulse length. Using a series of target shots the plasma evolution is measured from 2.5 ns to 9 ns after the rise of the heater beams. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuationsmore » constrains the fit of the two-ion species theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperature, plasma flow velocity and ion species fraction are determined. The ion species fraction is determined to an accuracy of {+-}0.06 in species fraction.« less

  9. Deposition and element fractionation processes during atmospheric pressure laser sampling for analysis by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggins, S. M.; Kinsley, L. P. J.; Shelley, J. M. G.

    1998-05-01

    We have used an ArF excimer laser coupled to a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the measurement of a range of elements during excavation of a deepening ablation pit in a synthetic glass (NIST 612). Analyte behaviour shows progressive volatile element enrichment at shallow hole depths, with a change to refractory element enrichment as the ablation pit deepens further. Examination of ablation pit morphology and the surface condensate deposited around the ablation site reveals the importance of sequential condensation of refractory, then volatile phases from the cooling plasma plume after the end of the laser pulse. We interpret the observed element fractionation behaviour to reflect a change in ablation processes from photothermal dominated to plasma dominated mechanisms. The development of the surface deposit is greatly reduced by ablating in an ambient atmosphere of He instead of Ar and is accompanied by a two- to four-fold increase in ICP-MS sensitivity.

  10. Simultaneous imaging of fuel vapor mass fraction and gas-phase temperature inside gasoline sprays using two-line excitation tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zigan, Lars; Trost, Johannes; Leipertz, Alfred

    2016-02-20

    This paper reports for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the simultaneous imaging of the gas-phase temperature and fuel vapor mass fraction distribution in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) spray under engine-relevant conditions using tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (TPLIF). For measurements in the spray, the fluorescence tracer 3-pentanone is added to the nonfluorescent surrogate fuel iso-octane, which is excited quasi-simultaneously by two different excimer lasers for two-line excitation LIF. The gas-phase temperature of the mixture of fuel vapor and surrounding gas and the fuel vapor mass fraction can be calculated from the two LIF signals. The measurements are conducted in a high-temperature, high-pressure injection chamber. The fluorescence calibration of the tracer was executed in a flow cell and extended significantly compared to the existing database. A detailed error analysis for both calibration and measurement is provided. Simultaneous single-shot gas-phase temperature and fuel vapor mass fraction fields are processed for the assessment of cyclic spray fluctuations.

  11. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  12. Effect of laser on pain relief and wound healing of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Suter, Valerie G A; Sjölund, Sophia; Bornstein, Michael M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to assess a potential benefit of laser use in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). The primary outcome variables were pain relief, duration of wound healing and reduction in episode frequency. A PICO approach was used as a search strategy in Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. After scanning and excluding titles, abstracts and full texts, 11 studies (ten RCTs and one non-randomised controlled trial) were included. Study selection and data extraction was done by two observers. Study participants varied between 7-90 for the laser and 5-90 for the control groups. Laser treatment included Nd:YAG laser ablation, CO 2 laser applied through a transparent gel (non-ablative) and diode laser in a low-level laser treatment (LLLT) mode. Control groups had placebo, no therapy or topical corticosteroid treatment. Significant pain relief immediately after treatment was found in five out of six studies. Pain relief in the days following treatment was recorded in seven studies. The duration of RAS wound healing was also reduced in five studies. However, criteria of evaluation differed between the studies. The episode frequency was not evaluated as only one study addressed this outcome parameter, but did not discriminate between the study (LLLT) and control (corticosteroid) groups. Jadad scores (ranging from 0 to 5) for quality assessment of the included studies range between 0 and 2 (mean = 1.0) for studies analysing pain relief and between 0 and 3 (mean = 1.1) for studies evaluating wound healing. The use of lasers (CO 2 laser, Nd:YAG laser and diode laser) to relieve symptoms and promote healing of RAS is a therapeutic option. More studies for laser applications are necessary to demonstrate superiority over topical pharmaceutical treatment and to recommend a specific laser type, wavelength, power output and applied energy (ablative versus photobiomodulation).

  13. Long pulsed dye laser treatment of facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Tay, Yong-Kwang; Khoo, Boo-Peng; Tan, Eileen; Kwok, Colin

    2004-11-01

    The flashlamp pulsed dye laser has been used in the treatment of rhytids. To evaluate the efficacy of the long pulsed dye laser in the treatment of mild to moderate wrinkles in Asian patients. Wrinkles on one half of the face in 10 subjects were treated with the long pulsed dye laser (595 nm, 10 mm spot size, 10 ms, 7 J/cm2, 40 ms spray, 40 ms delay, single-pass, 30% overlap) with the other side serving as a control. A total of three treatments were given at 2 monthly intervals. The following sites were treated: periorbital area, six patients; forehead, two patients; cheek, two patients. No preoperative anesthesia or postoperative treatment were used. Clinical photographs were taken before and after each treatment, and analysis was undertaken through photographic evaluation by non-treating physicians. At 2 months after the last treatment, the clinical improvement of rhytids was noted in all patients compared with baseline. Four subjects had mild improvement (< or = 25%), five had moderate improvement (26-50%) and one had marked improvement (51-75%). The periorbital area was more responsive to treatment compared with the other sites. No clinical changes were noted in the control areas. No adverse effects were reported except for transient mild erythema in two patients which lasted for up to an hour. Nine patients were somewhat satisfied with the treatment and one was highly satisfied. All wanted the other half of the face to be treated. Treatment with a non-ablative 595 nm flashlamp pulsed dye laser can lead to mild to moderate clinical improvement in class I-II rhytids with minimal to no side effects in patients with darker skin types.

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) coupled to XAD fractionation: Method to algal organic matter characterization.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Rudy; Leloup, Maud; Lachassagne, Delphine; Pinault, Emilie; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the development of an analytical procedure for the improvement of the Organic Matter structure characterization, particularly the algal matter. Two fractions of algal organic matter from laboratory cultures of algae (Euglena gracilis) and cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were extracted with XAD resins. The fractions were studied using laser desorption ionization (LDI) and Matrix-Assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). A comparison with the natural organic matter characteristics from commercial humic acids and fulvic acids extracted from Suwannee River was performed. Results show that algal and natural organic matters have unique quasi-polymeric structures. Significant repeating patterns were identified. Different fractions extracted from organic matter with common origin had common structures. Thus, 44, 114 and 169Da peaks separation for fractions from E. gracilis organic matter and 28, 58 and 100Da for M. aeruginosa ones were clearly observed. Using the developed protocol, a structural scheme and organic matter composition were obtained. The range 600-2000Da contained more architectural composition differences than the range 100-600Da, suggesting that organic matter is composed of an assembly of common small molecules. Associated to specific monomers, particular patterns were common to all samples but assembly and resulting structure were unique for each organic matter. Thus, XAD fractionation coupled to mass spectroscopy allowed determining a specific fingerprint for each organic matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo animal histology and clinical evaluation of multisource fractional radiofrequency skin resurfacing (FSR) applicator.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Sato, Masaki; Palmisano, Diana; Frank, Ido; Cohen, Hila; Harth, Yoram

    2011-10-01

    Acne scars are one of the most difficult disorders to treat in dermatology. The optimal treatment system will provide minimal downtime resurfacing for the epidermis and non-ablative deep volumetric heating for collagen remodeling in the dermis. A novel therapy system (EndyMed Ltd., Cesarea, Israel) uses phase-controlled multi-source radiofrequency (RF) to provide simultaneous one pulse microfractional resurfacing with simultaneous volumetric skin tightening. The study included 26 subjects (Fitzpatrick's skin type 2-5) with moderate to severe wrinkles and 4 subjects with depressed acne scars. Treatment was repeated each month up to a total of three treatment sessions. Patients' photographs were graded according to accepted scales by two uninvolved blinded evaluators. Significant reduction in the depth of wrinkles and acne scars was noted 4 weeks after therapy with further improvement at the 3-month follow-up. Our data show the histological impact and clinical beneficial effects of simultaneous RF fractional microablation and volumetric deep dermal heating for the treatment of wrinkles and acne scars.

  16. Laser based thermo-conductometry as an approach to determine ribbon solid fraction off-line and in-line.

    PubMed

    Wiedey, Raphael; Šibanc, Rok; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-06-06

    Ribbon solid fraction is one of the most important quality attributes during roll compaction/dry granulation. Accurate and precise determination is challenging and no in-line measurement tool has been generally accepted, yet. In this study, a new analytical tool with potential off-line as well as in-line applicability is described. It is based on the thermo-conductivity of the compacted material, which is known to depend on the solid fraction. A laser diode was used to punctually heat the ribbon and the heat propagation monitored by infrared thermography. After performing a Gaussian fit of the transverse ribbon profile, the scale parameter σ showed correlation to ribbon solid fraction in off-line as well as in-line studies. Accurate predictions of the solid fraction were possible for a relevant range of process settings. Drug stability was not affected, as could be demonstrated for the model drug nifedipine. The application of this technique was limited when using certain fillers and working at higher roll speeds. This study showed the potentials of this new technique and is a starting point for additional work that has to be done to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful Treatment of Tattoo-Induced Pseudolymphoma with Sequential Ablative Fractional Resurfacing Followed by Q-Switched Nd: YAG 532 nm Laser

    PubMed Central

    Lucinda, Tan Siyun; Hazel, Oon Hwee Boon; Joyce, Lee Siong Siong; Hon, Chua Sze

    2013-01-01

    Decorative tattooing has been linked with a range of complications, with pseudolymphoma being unusual and challenging to manage. We report a case of tattoo-induced pseudolymphoma, who failed treatment with potent topical and intralesional steroids. She responded well to sequential treatment with ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) followed by Q-Switched (QS) Nd:YAG 532 nm laser. Interestingly, we managed to document the clearance of her tattoo pigments after laser treatments on histology and would like to highlight the use of special stains such as the Grocott's Methenamine Silver (GMS) stain as a useful method to assess the presence of tattoo pigment in cases where dense inflammatory infiltrates are present. PMID:24470721

  18. Novel technique to treat melasma in Chinese: The combination of 2940-nm fractional Er:YAG and 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei Cheng Brian Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is one of the most common pigmented lesions in Chinese women. Although topical therapies are the mainstay treatment, lasers are being used increasingly to treat pigmented lesions. Laser treatment of melasma is however still controversial. This is because lasers have not been able to produce complete clearance of melasma and recurrence rates are high. Laser treatments also cause complications such as hypopigmentation and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. In this article, we report on a novel technique using a combination of fractional 2940-nm Er:YAG and 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers. We achieved a rapid improvement in two cases of melasma in Chinese type III skin. The improvement was seen rapidly within a month of treatment. Follow-up at 6 months showed sustained results with no complications. This novel technique is able to safely confer excellent and sustained clearance within a short treatment time.

  19. A prospective, split-face, double-blinded, randomized study of the efficacy and safety of a fractional 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for photoaging-associated mottled pigmentation in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Won, Kwang Hee; Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Mi Hye; Rhee, Do-Young; Yeo, Un-Cheol; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-11-01

    Laser toning using low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum laser (QSNY) has gained popularity in the treatment of photoaging-associated mottled pigmentation (PMP). However, hypopigmentation or lack of efficacy has been reported depending on the fluences used. To compare a novel fractional 1064-nm QSNY with conventional 1064-nm QSNY for the treatment of photoaging-associated mottled pigmentary lesions except epidermal lesions of lentigines and freckles through a randomized, split-face, double-blind study. Thirteen Asian women were treated every week for 6 weeks with fractional 1064-nm QSNY on one side of the face and conventional 1064-nm QSNY on the other side. We evaluated the pigmentation area and severity index (PSI), melanin index, erythema index, and the patient's global assessment of improvement. At three months post-treatment, the PSI score improved compared with baseline, by 14.48% on the conventional 1064-nm QSNY side and 21.81% on the fractional 1064-nm QSNY side. Both groups showed improvements in the melanin index. Both fractional 1064-nm QSNY and strictly low-fluence conventional 1064-nm QSNY are moderately effective against PMP and other photoaging signs. Fractional laser toning shows better subjective outcomes than conventional toning.

  20. Bile Salt Micelles and Phospholipid Vesicles Present in Simulated and Human Intestinal Fluids: Structural Analysis by Flow Field-Flow Fractionation/Multiangle Laser Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Elvang, Philipp A; Hinna, Askell H; Brouwers, Joachim; Hens, Bart; Augustijns, Patrick; Brandl, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge about colloidal assemblies present in human intestinal fluids (HIFs), such as bile salt micelles and phospholipid vesicles, is regarded of importance for a better understanding of the in vivo dissolution and absorption behavior of poorly soluble drugs (Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II/IV drugs) because of their drug-solubilizing ability. The characterization of these potential drug-solubilizing compartments is a prerequisite for further studies of the mechanistic interplays between drug molecules and colloidal structures within HIFs. The aim of the present study was to apply asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with multiangle laser light scattering in an attempt to reveal coexistence of colloidal particles in both artificial and aspirated HIFs and to determine their sizes. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation/multiangle laser light scattering analysis of the colloidal phase of intestinal fluids allowed for a detailed insight into the whole spectrum of submicron- to micrometer-sized particles. With respect to the simulated intestinal fluids mimicking fasted and fed state (FaSSIF-V1 and FeSSIF-V1, respectively), FaSSIF contained one distinct size fraction of colloidal assemblies, whereas FeSSIF contained 2 fractions of colloidal species with significantly different sizes. These size fractions likely represent (1) mixed taurocholate-phospholipid-micelles, as indicated by a size range up to 70 nm (in diameter) and a strong UV absorption and (2) small phospholipid vesicles of 90-210 nm diameter. In contrast, within the colloidal phase of the fasted state aspirate of a human volunteer, 4 different size fractions were separated from each other in a consistent and reproducible manner. The 2 fractions containing large particles showed mean sizes of approximately 50 and 200 nm, respectively (intensity-weighted mean diameter, Dz), likely representing mixed cholate/phospholipid micelles and phospholipid vesicles

  1. Effects of morphology and wavelength on the measurement accuracy of soot volume fraction by laser extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-fei; Huang, Qun-xing; Wang, Fei; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2018-01-01

    A novel method to evaluate the quantitative effects of soot morphology and incident wavelength on the measurement accuracy of soot volume fraction, by the laser extinction (LE) technique is proposed in this paper. The results indicate that the traditional LE technique would overestimate soot volume fraction if the effects of morphology and wavelength are not considered. Before the agglomeration of isolated soot primary particles, the overestimation of the LE technique is in the range of 2-20%, and rises with increasing primary particle diameter and with decreasing incident wavelength. When isolated primary particles are agglomerated into fractal soot aggregates, the overestimation would exceed 30%, and rise with increasing primary particle number per soot aggregate, fractal dimension and fractal prefactor and with decreasing incident wavelength to a maximum value of 55%. Finally, based on these results above, the existing formula of the LE technique gets modified, and the modification factor is 0.65-0.77.

  2. Time-resolved study of femtosecond laser induced micro-modifications inside transparent brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, F.; Matylitsky, V. V.; Domke, M.; Huber, Heinz P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser processing of optically transparent or semi-transparent, brittle materials is finding wide use in various manufacturing sectors. For example, in consumer electronic devices such as smartphones or tablets, cover glass needs to be cut precisely in various shapes. The unique advantage of material processing with femtosecond lasers is efficient, fast and localized energy deposition in nearly all types of solid materials. When an ultra-short laser pulse is focused inside glass, only the localized region in the neighborhood of the focal volume absorbs laser energy by nonlinear optical absorption. Therefore, the processing volume is strongly defined, while the rest of the target stays unaffected. Thus ultra-short pulse lasers allow cutting of the chemically strengthened glasses such as Corning Gorilla glass without cracking. Non-ablative cutting of transparent, brittle materials, using the newly developed femtosecond process ClearShapeTM from Spectra-Physics, is based on producing a micron-sized material modification track with well-defined geometry inside. The key point for development of the process is to understand the induced modification by a single femtosecond laser shot. In this paper, pump-probe microscopy techniques have been applied to study the defect formation inside of transparent materials, namely soda-lime glass samples, on a time scale between one nanosecond to several tens of microseconds. The observed effects include acoustic wave propagation as well as mechanical stress formation in the bulk of the glass. Besides better understanding of underlying physical mechanisms, our experimental observations have enabled us to find optimal process parameters for the glass cutting application and lead to better quality and speed for the ClearShapeTM process.

  3. Fractional carbon dioxide laser for the treatment of facial atrophic acne scars: prospective clinical trial with short and long-term evaluation.

    PubMed

    Elcin, Gonca; Yalici-Armagan, Basak

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser for the treatment of acne scars. Thirty-one participants, 15 female and 16 male, whose mean age was 34.84 ± 10.94 years, were included in this prospective study. The study took place between 2012 and 2016. Participants were evaluated with the "ECCA Grading Scale" before the first session, 3 months (short-term evaluation) and 3 years after the last session (long-term evaluation). Participants received two or three treatment sessions at 4-week intervals, with a 10,600 nm fractional carbon dioxide laser with pulse energies ranging between 100 and 160 mJ, 120 spot type, 75-100 spot/cm 2 density, and 30 W power. Self-assessments by the participants were done 3 months and 3 years after the last session. The mean ECCA score was 107.90 ± 39.38 before the first session, and 82.17 ± 36.23 at the time of short-term evaluation (p = 0.000). The grade of improvement at the short-term evaluation was as follows: no improvement, mild, moderate, and significant improvement for 7 (22.6%), 11 (35.5%), 9 (29%), and 4 (12.9%) of the participants, respectively. Regarding self-assessments, 80.6 and 61.3% of the participants rated themselves as having at least mild improvement at the short-term and the long-term follow-up periods, respectively. The results of this study suggest that fractional carbon dioxide laser is an efficient treatment option for acne scars. Furthermore, self-assessment results show that more than half of the participants still experience at least mild improvement at the end of 3 years.

  4. Safe and effective one-session fractional skin resurfacing using a carbon dioxide laser device in super-pulse mode: a clinical and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Shohat, Michael; Urdiales, Fernando

    2011-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser ablative fractional resurfacing produces skin damage, with removal of the epidermis and variable portions of the dermis as well as associated residual heating, resulting in new collagen formation and skin tightening. The nonresurfaced epidermis helps tissue to heal rapidly, with short-term postoperative erythema. The results for 40 patients (8 men and 32 women) after a single session of a fractional CO(2) resurfacing mode were studied. The treatments included resurfacing of the full face, periocular upper lip, and residual acne scars. The patients had skin prototypes 2 to 4 and wrinkle degrees 1 to 3. The histologic effects, efficacy, and treatment safety in various clinical conditions and for different phototypes are discussed. The CO(2) laser for fractional treatment is used in super-pulse mode. The beam is split by a lens into several microbeams, and super-pulse repetition is limited by the pulse width. The laser needs a power adaptation to meet the set fluence per microbeam. Laser pulsing can operate repeatedly on the same spot or be moved randomly over the skin, using several passes to achieve a desired residual thermal effect. Low, medium, and high settings are preprogrammed in the device, and they indicate the strength of resurfacing. A single treatment was given with the patient under topical anesthesia. However, the anesthesia was injected on areas of scar tissue. Medium settings (2 Hz, 30 W, 60 mJ) were used, and two passes were made for dark skins and degree 1 wrinkles. High settings (2 Hz, 60 W, 120 mJ) were used, and three passes were made for degree 3 wrinkles and scar tissue. Postoperatively, resurfaced areas were treated with an ointment of gentamycin, Retinol Palmitate, and DL-methionine (Novartis; Farmaceutics, S.A., Barcelona, Spain). Once epithelialization was achieved, antipigment and sun protection agents were recommended. Evaluations were performed 15 days and 2 months after treatment by both patients and

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in soot volume fraction estimates using Bayesian inference of auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadwin, Paul J.; Sipkens, T. A.; Thomson, K. A.; Liu, F.; Daun, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence (AC-LII) infers the soot volume fraction (SVF) of soot particles by comparing the spectral incandescence from laser-energized particles to the pyrometrically inferred peak soot temperature. This calculation requires detailed knowledge of model parameters such as the absorption function of soot, which may vary with combustion chemistry, soot age, and the internal structure of the soot. This work presents a Bayesian methodology to quantify such uncertainties. This technique treats the additional "nuisance" model parameters, including the soot absorption function, as stochastic variables and incorporates the current state of knowledge of these parameters into the inference process through maximum entropy priors. While standard AC-LII analysis provides a point estimate of the SVF, Bayesian techniques infer the posterior probability density, which will allow scientists and engineers to better assess the reliability of AC-LII inferred SVFs in the context of environmental regulations and competing diagnostics.

  6. The effect of pre-operative topical anaesthetic cream on the ablative width and coagulative depth of ablative fractional resurfacing laser.

    PubMed

    Punyaratabandhu, Preawphan; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Sitthinamsuwan, Panitta; Phothong, Weeranut; Eimpunth, Sasima; Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2017-02-01

    Topical anaesthetic cream (TAC) is commonly used as a pre-treatment of ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) laser. Most of anaesthetic cream contains distilled water as major component. Therefore, pre-operative TAC may interfere the photothermal reaction in the skin treated with fractional carbon-dioxide (FCO 2 ) laser and fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (FEr:YAG) laser. The objective of the study was to compare the ablative width (AW) and coagulative depth (CD) of AFR laser with and without pre-treatment with TAC. Four Thai females who underwent abdominoplasty were included in the study. The excised skin of each subject was divided into four areas. TAC (eutectic mixture of local anaesthesia; EMLA) with 1-h occlusion was applied only on the first and second areas. The first and third areas were treated with FCO 2 at 15 mj and 5% density. The second and fourth areas were treated with FEr:YAG at 28 J/cm 2 and 5% density. Six biopsied specimens were obtained from each area. A total of 96 specimens (24 specimens from each area) were collected from four patients and examined randomly by two dermatopathologists. The ablative width and coagulative depth from each specimen were determined. In FCO 2 -treated specimens, the mean AW of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 174.86 ± 24.57 and 188.52 ± 41.32 μm. The mean CD of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 594.96 ± 111.72 and 520.03 ± 147.40 μm. There were no significant differences in AW and CD between both groups (p = 0.53 and p = 0.15). In FEr:YAG-treated specimens, the mean AW of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 381.11 ± 48.02 and 423.65 ± 60.16 μm. The mean CD of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 86.03 ± 29.44 and 71.59 ± 18.99 μm. There were no significant differences in AW and CD between both groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.24). The pre

  7. Efficacy and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser for treatment of unwanted facial freckles in phototypes II-IV: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    El Zawahry, Bakr; Zaki, Naglaa; Hafez, Vanessa; Abdel Hay, Rania; Hay, Rania Abdel; Fahim, Aya

    2014-11-01

    Facial freckles are a cosmetic concern to Egyptians, particularly young females. Several therapeutic lines exist with variable response rates and limitations. Fractional carbon dioxide (FCO2) laser provides minimal ablation and therefore less down time and less side effects. The efficacy and safety of this laser technology have still not been studied in freckles. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of FCO2 laser in the treatment of unwanted facial freckles in Egyptians. Twenty patients undergone a single session of FCO2 laser and then were followed up clinically a month later. Photographs were taken before treatment and at follow-up visit and were assessed by three blinded investigators. Percent of global improvement was measured on a 4-point grading scale. Patient's satisfaction and adverse events were recorded. Two patients (10 %) showed grade 1 improvement, while eight patients (40 %) showed grade 2 improvement. Nine patients (45 %) showed grade 3 improvement, and only one patient (5 %) showed grade 4 improvement. FCO2 laser resurfacing is effective and safe in treatment of facial freckles in skin phototypes II-IV. It can offer a more practical alternative to topical treatments, and a cheaper alternative to Q-switched lasers.

  8. Laser Resurfacing Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonia; Alam, Murad

    2012-01-01

    Ablative skin resurfacing using the carbon dioxide laser was long considered the gold standard for treatment of photoaging, acne scars, and rhytids. However, conventional full-face carbon dioxide resurfacing is associated with significant risk of side effects and a prolonged postoperative recovery period. Fractional resurfacing has recently revolutionized laser surgery by offering close to comparable results with minimal side effects and a more rapid recovery. Although fractional devices have grown in popularity, and have essentially replaced traditional resurfacing, fractional resurfacing can still be a challenging modality to control precisely due to hardware variations across comparable devices, the range of settings that can be used, and patient-specific considerations. Certain precautions and rules of thumb can reduce the risk associated with fractional resurfacing, and increase the likelihood of a good outcome. PMID:23904821

  9. Laser resurfacing pearls.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonia; Alam, Murad

    2012-08-01

    Ablative skin resurfacing using the carbon dioxide laser was long considered the gold standard for treatment of photoaging, acne scars, and rhytids. However, conventional full-face carbon dioxide resurfacing is associated with significant risk of side effects and a prolonged postoperative recovery period. Fractional resurfacing has recently revolutionized laser surgery by offering close to comparable results with minimal side effects and a more rapid recovery. Although fractional devices have grown in popularity, and have essentially replaced traditional resurfacing, fractional resurfacing can still be a challenging modality to control precisely due to hardware variations across comparable devices, the range of settings that can be used, and patient-specific considerations. Certain precautions and rules of thumb can reduce the risk associated with fractional resurfacing, and increase the likelihood of a good outcome.

  10. A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huajun; Ji, Haifeng; Huang, Zhiyao; Wang, Baoliang; Li, Haiqing; Wu, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA). Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow) are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers’ works. PMID:26828488

  11. A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Huajun; Ji, Haifeng; Huang, Zhiyao; Wang, Baoliang; Li, Haiqing; Wu, Guohua

    2016-01-27

    Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA). Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow) are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers' works.

  12. Similarities and differences in ablative and non-ablative iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryk, Alicia A.; Misra, Adwiteeya; Kastner, Elliot J.; Mazur, Courtney M.; Petryk, James D.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    The use of hyperthermia to treat cancer is well studied and has utilized numerous delivery techniques, including microwaves, radio frequency, focused ultrasound, induction heating, infrared radiation, warmed perfusion liquids (combined with chemotherapy), and recently, metallic nanoparticles (NP) activated by near infrared radiation (NIR) and alternating magnetic field (AMF) based platforms. It has been demonstrated by many research groups that ablative temperatures and cytotoxicity can be produced with locally NP-based hyperthermia. Such ablative NP techniques have demonstrated the potential for success. Much attention has also been given to the fact that NP may be administered systemically, resulting in a broader cancer therapy approach, a lower level of tumor NP content and a different type of NP cancer therapy (most likely in the adjuvant setting). To use NP based hyperthermia successfully as a cancer treatment, the technique and its goal must be understood and utilized in the appropriate clinical context. The parameters include, but are not limited to, NP access to the tumor (large vs. small quantity), cancer cell-specific targeting, drug carrying capacity, potential as an ionizing radiation sensitizer, and the material properties (magnetic characteristics, size and charge). In addition to their potential for cytotoxicity, the material properties of the NP must also be optimized for imaging, detection and direction. In this paper we will discuss the differences between, and potential applications for, ablative and non-ablative magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  13. Potential role of S100A8 in skin rejuvenation with the 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yan; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhi, Yuanting; Xia, Weili; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2018-04-01

    The 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated to be effective for non-ablative skin rejuvenation, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to laser-induced damage and initiates skin remodeling is still unclear. HaCaT cells and 3T3 skin fibroblasts were irradiated with the 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at the different doses. Then, cells were collected and lysed for PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) before and after laser irradiation. The expressions of S100A8, advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (RAGE) and inflammatory cytokines in two cell lines were markedly upregulated after laser treatments. The PCR, Western blot, and ELISA analysis showed the significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the 3T3 cells treated with the 1064-nm laser. Interestingly, si S100A8 effectively inhibited the expression of cytokines and collagen, while S100A8 treatments significantly increased them. P-p38 and p-p65 levels were also elevated after the 1064-nm laser irradiation, which is positively related with S100A8. Cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were not changed, while the content of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) in two cells was increased after laser irradiation. Our results demonstrated that the overexpression of S100A8 induced by the 1064-nm laser irradiation triggered inflammatory reactions in skin cells. The inflammatory microenvironment and improvement of skin antioxidant capacity contribute to new collagen synthesis in the skin cells. Thus, S100A8 was required for laser-induced new collagen synthesis in skin cells. p38/MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways were involved in S100A8-mediated inflammatory reactions in response to laser irradiation.

  14. The effects of fractional microablative CO2 laser therapy on sexual function in postmenopausal women and women with a history of breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy.

    PubMed

    Gittens, Paul; Mullen, Gregory

    2018-06-08

    To examine the outcomes of sexual function in postmenopausal women and women with a history of breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy who were experiencing the symptoms of GSM for which they were treated with fractional microablative CO 2 laser. From July 2015 to October 2016, a retrospective chart review of women who underwent fractional microablative CO 2 laser therapy (MonaLisa Touch, DEKA) for GSM was conducted. Several validated questionnaires were used to assess changes in symptoms and sexual function including the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Wong-Baker Faces Scale (WBFS), and the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDSR). Comparisons of mean symptom scores were described at baseline and six weeks after each treatment. There was a statistically significant improvement in every domain of FSFI, WBFS, and FSDS-R when comparing baseline symptom scores to after treatment three symptom scores for all patients. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the differences, if any, in outcomes of sexual function between postmenopausal women and women with a history of breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy. Both groups had statistically significant improvements in many domains studied. Fractional microablative CO 2 laser therapy (MonaLisa Touch, DEKA) is an effective modality in treating the symptoms of GSM in postmenopausal women and women with a history of breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy.

  15. Non-ablative scar revision using a long pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Cassuto, Daniel; Emanuelli, Guglielmo

    2003-12-01

    Unsightly scars often are the only reminder of a previous surgical or traumatic wound. Surgical or ablative scar revision is sought by patients, sometimes unnecessarily. When the aesthetic drawback is mainly a result of hypervascularity or hyperpigmentation, these problems can be specifically targeted with a wavelength that is well absorbed by the two above mentioned chromophores. Some degree of epidermal tightening can also be achieved, which is sometimes useful in slightly atrophic scars. The average improvement after 2-3 sessions was 81% (75%-100%) clearance, as judged by an independent observer who reviewed pre- and post-treatment photographs. No undesired effects were reported. All our patients were satisfied and required no further treatment. Selective photothermolysis by means of a long pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (DioLite 532, IRIDEX Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA) was used to eliminate the unsightly vascular and pigmented components of 23 mature scars (scars older than 2 years) in 22 consecutive patients. Energy densities of 17-22 j/cm2 were used with a 500 micron spot, or 65-90 j/cm2 with a 200 micron spot. overall scar clearance averaged 81% after 2.4 treatments. Facial scars showed the best clearance averaging 94% after 2 treatments. Inframammary scars were the most difficult to clear averaging 46%. Postoperative undesired effects were immediate erythema and swelling that subsided within 2-10 hours and microcrusting on 19/22 (88%) patients that resolved within one week. No other temporary or permanent undesired effects such as purpura, hypo- or hyperpigmentation were noticed, even in patients with darker skin types.

  16. Alliance for NanoHealth Competitive Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    changes for skin rejuvenation .32,33 2.3 Measurement of ABR Thresholds Sine wave stimuli were generated using a digital signal pro- cessing system. The...lasers for noninva- sive skin rejuvenation and toning,” Arch. Dermatol. 13910, 1265– 1276 2003. 33. M. H. Tan, J. S. Dover, T. S. Hsu, K. A. Arndt, and...B. Stewart, “Clinical evaluation of enhanced nonablative skin rejuvenation using a combination of a 532 and a 1,064 nm laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 345

  17. Videodisc Instruction in Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnine, Douglas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    How laser videodisc technology can be used to improve mathematics instruction is described, with note of the development of a videodisc curriculum on mastering fractions. Relevant research is reviewed, as well as how teachers can use the technology. The instructional design is described, and field-testing and revision reported. (MNS)

  18. Advanced film-forming gel formula vs spring thermal water and white petrolatum as primary dressings after full-face ablative fractional CO2 laser resurfacing: a comparative split-face pilot study.

    PubMed

    Marini, L

    2018-01-01

    Aesthetically pleasing results and fast, uneventful recovery are highly desirable after rejuvenating ablative laser procedures. Wound dressings following ablative laser procedures should ideally improve and optimize the wound healing environment. The purpose of this comparative split-face, single-blinded, prospective observational study was to assess the efficacy and acceptability of two primary wound dressings immediately after a full-face fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing procedure. The assessments of an innovative film-forming dressing called Stratacel (SC) vs spring thermal water + Vaseline (V+) were conducted after a standardized, single-pass, full-face ablative fractional CO 2 laser skin resurfacing procedure. Clinical parameters, such as haemoglobin - HB; surface temperature - ST; micro-textural modifications - MT; superficial melanin - M; intrafollicular porphyrins - P, were assessed at different phases of the healing process using standardized, non-invasive technologies. Five female volunteers were enrolled in this inpatient, controlled pilot study. Most of the clinical parameters considered, including 3D surface texture analysis, revealed a better performance of SC vs. V+ during the early, more delicate phases of the healing process. This preliminary study, even if performed on a small number of volunteers, confirmed a definite advantage of the tested semipermeable film-forming formula (SC) over a more conventional postoperative skin care regime (V+). Clinical results could be explained by a better uniformity of distribution of SC over the micro-irregularities induced by ablative fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing. Its thin, semipermeable film might, in fact, act as an efficient, perfectly biocompatible, full contact, temporary skin barrier, able to protect extremely delicate healing surfaces from potential environmental irritations. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. In vivo and ex vivo characterization of a novel Er fiber laser system for fractional treatment of soft oral tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatilova, Ksenia; Aloian, Georgii; Karabut, Maria; Ryabova, Valentina; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present the first histological in vivo and ex vivo study of effects of fractional Er fiber laser (wavelength 1550 nm, peak power 25 W) on keratinized gum and alveolar mucosa for gum regeneration. Biopsy with subsequent NBTC staining was used as primary evaluation technique. Ex vivo, porcine tissue model was used. Effects of pulse energy, beam diameter, and beam divergence were investigated in detail. It has been demonstrated that under optimal conditions columns up to 800 μm in depth could be reliably produced with 130 mJ pulses. Clinically, 2 subjects were treated and 4 punch biopsies were collected. The results were compared with ex vivo data. Both ex vivo and in vivo datasets suggest feasibility of a dental fractional system intended for gum regeneration.

  20. Ignition feedback regenerative free electron laser (FEL) amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Zholents, Alexander; Zolotorev, Max

    2001-01-01

    An ignition feedback regenerative amplifier consists of an injector, a linear accelerator with energy recovery, and a high-gain free electron laser amplifier. A fraction of the free electron laser output is coupled to the input to operate the free electron laser in the regenerative mode. A mode filter in this loop prevents run away instability. Another fraction of the output, after suitable frequency up conversion, is used to drive the photocathode. An external laser is provided to start up both the amplifier and the injector, thus igniting the system.

  1. Laser beam interactions with vapor plumes during Nd:YAG laser welding on aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, H. C.; Russo, A. J.; Hadley, G. R.; Akau, R. L.

    Welds produced on pure aluminum targets using pulsed Nd:YAG lasers can be accurately described using a relatively simple conduction mode heat transfer model provided that the fraction of laser energy absorbed is known and the amount of metal vaporized is smalled however at laser fluences commonly used in many production welding schedules significant aluminum vaporization does occur. The possible mechanisms have been identified which could result in laser beam attenuation by the vapor plume.

  2. Efficacy of Erbium:YAG laser treatment compared to topical estriol treatment for symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Adrian; Brandi, Hugo; Gomez, Valentin; Luque, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this prospective comparative cohort study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause and to compare it with an established topical estriol treatment. Fifty patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause were divided into two groups. The estriol group received a treatment of 0.5 mg estriol ovules for 8 weeks and the laser group was first treated for 2 weeks with 0.5 mg estriol ovules 3 times per week to hydrate the mucosa and then received three sessions with 2,940 nm Er:YAG laser in non-ablative mode. Biopsies were taken before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Maturation index, maturation value and pH where recorded up to 12-months post-treatment, while the VAS analysis of symptoms was recorded up to 18 months post-treatment. Statistically significant (P < 0.05), reduction of all assessed symptoms was observed in the laser group at all follow-ups up to 18 months post-treatment. Significant improvement in maturation value and a decrease of pH in the laser group was detected up to 12 months after treatment. The improvement in all endpoints was more pronounced and longer lasting in the laser group. Histological examination showed changes in the tropism of the vaginal mucosa and also angiogenesis, congestion, and restructuring of the lamina propria in the laser group. Side effects were minimal and of transient nature in both groups, affecting 4% of patients in the laser group and 12% of patients in the estriol group. Our results show that Er:YAG laser treatment successfully relieves symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause and that the results are more pronounced and longer lasting compared to topical estriol treatment. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:160-168, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The fractional laser-induced coagulation zone characterized over time by laser scanning confocal microscopy-A proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Banzhaf, Christina A; Lin, Lynlee L; Dang, Nhung; Freeman, Michael; Haedersdal, Merete; Prow, Tarl W

    2018-01-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is an acknowledged technique to increase uptake of topical agents in skin. Micro thermal ablation zones (MAZs) consist of ablated vertical channels surrounded by a coagulation zone (CZ). Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) images individual MAZs at 733 nm (reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)). Further, LSCM can image sodium fluorescein (NaF) fluorescence with 488 nm excitation (fluorescence confocal microcopy (FCM)), a small hydrophilic test molecule (370 MW, log P -1.52), which may simulate uptake, bio-distribution and kinetics of small hydrophilic drugs. To explore LSCM for combined investigations of CZ thickness and uptake, bio-distribution and kinetics of NaF in AFXL-exposed skin. Excised human abdominal skin samples were exposed to AFXL (15 mJ/microbeam, 2% density) and NaF gel (1000 μg/ml, 10 μl/cm2) in six repetitions, including untreated control samples. CZ thickness and spatiotemporal fluorescence intensities (FI) were quantified up to four hours after NaF application by RCM and FCM. Test sites were scanned to a depth of 200 μm, quantifying thickness of skin compartments (stratum corneum, epidermis, upper dermis), individual CZ thicknesses and FI in CZ and surrounding skin. RCM images established skin morphology to a depth of 200 μm. The CZ thickness measurements were feasible to a depth of 50 μm, and remained unchanged over time at 50 μm (P > 0.5). FI were detected to a depth of 160 μm and remained constant in CZ up to four hours after NaF application (15 minutes: 79 AU (73-92 AU), 60 minutes: 72 AU (58-82 AU), four hours: 78 AU (71-90 AU), P > 0.1). In surrounding skin, FI increased significantly over time, but remained lower than FI in CZ (15 minutes: 21 AU (17-22 AU), 60 minutes: 21 AU (19-26 AU), four hours: 42 (31- 48 AU), P = 0.03). AFXL-processed skin generated higher FI compared to non-laser processed skin in epidermis and upper dermis at 60 minutes and four hours

  4. Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Vander Wal, R. L.; Zhou, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute calibration of laser-induced incandescence (LII) is demonstrated via comparison of LII signal intensities with gravimetrically determined soot volume fractions. This calibration technique does not rely upon calculated or measured optical characteristics of soot. The variation of the LII signal with gravimetrically measured soot volume fractions ranging from 0.078 to 1.1 ppm established the linearly of the calibration. With the high spatial and temporal resolution capabilities of laser-induced incandescence (LII), the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the soot field within a gravimetric chimney were characterized. Radial uniformity of the soot volume fraction, f(sub v) was demonstrated with sufficient averaging of the single laser-shot LII images of the soot field thus confirming the validity of the calibration method for imaging applications. As illustration, instantaneous soot volume fractions within a Re = 5000 ethylene/air diffusion flame measured via planar LII were established quantitatively with this calibration.

  5. Efficacy and safety of fractional Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser in the treatment of melasma in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Yue, Baishuang; Yang, Qianli; Xu, Jinhua; Lu, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Melasma is an acquired disorder of symmetrical hyperpigmentation commonly seen in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV. Various novel therapeutic modalities have emerged to treat melasma. The large-spot low-fluence QS Nd:YAG laser has been widely used in Asia; however, the modality needs to be optimized because of the high recurrence rate. The objective of this study is to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of fractional-mode (Pixel) Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) 1064-nm laser for treatment of melasma in Chinese patients. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled and completed all the treatment sessions and the 12-week follow-up. All were treated using the fractional-mode Pixel QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser for eight sessions at a 2-3-week interval. Clinical photographs were taken using the Visia skin analysis imaging system. Two blinded assessors evaluated melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores before and 4 weeks after the final session. Melanin index (MI) and erythema index (EI) was measured before each treatment visit and after the final treatment. The degree of pigmentation and erythema was assessed using a tristimulus color analyzer. Physicians' global assessment (PGA) and patients' self-assessment were taken as the subjective assessments. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to evaluate clinical response. Recurrence rate were also evaluated. Mean MASI scores decreased from 12.84 ± 6.89 to 7.29 ± 4.15 after treatment (p = 0.000). Seventy percent of patients got moderate to good improvements after all the treatment. Mean MI decreased significantly from 56.52 ± 23.35 to 32.75 ± 12.91 (p = 0.000). L value increased from 59.21 ± 2.22 before treatment to 61.60 ± 2.40 (p = 0.000) after therapy. The mean score of PGA was 3.76 ± 0.71, indicating a "moderate" clearance of the lesion. In patients' self-evaluations, 70 % of the patients rated the result as "good" to

  6. Fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined with topical tretinoin for the treatment of different forms of cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Pestoni Porvén, Carmela; Vieira Dos Santos, Vanessa; Del Pozo Losada, Jesus

    2017-12-01

    Nodulocystic acne is prone to scarring and difficult to treat with treatments other than oral isotretinoin. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of a single session of a fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser combined with a topical treatment with a tretinoin and antibiotic gel for a month as a successful treatment to improve nodulocystic acne and chronic microcystic acne. Two cases were involved: the first with nodulocystic acne lesions that persisted after oral retinoids and the second with chronic microcystic acne resistant to topical treatments. After only one session of treatment with the CO 2 laser and the topical treatment, a complete healing of the nodulocystic acne lesions was observed with minimal secondary effects. The microcystic acne showed great improvement. No other topical or oral treatment was needed. This treatment could be a safe and effective treatment for nodulocystic acne lesions and microcystic acne when other treatments fail. More studies should be performed to confirm our results.

  7. Use of a novel fractional CO2 laser for the treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause: 1-year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Eric R; Karram, Mickey M

    2017-07-01

    To assess safety and efficacy of a fractional CO2 laser therapy for the treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) with follow-up to 1 year posttreatment. Women presenting with GSM and meeting inclusion criterion were enrolled. Visual Analog Scales were used to grade vaginal pain, burning, itching, dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria. Dilators were used to rate vaginal elasticity at baseline and at each follow-up visit. Before each treatment and at follow-up, Vaginal Health Index scoring and Female Sexual Function Index questionnaires were completed. Women received three vaginal laser treatments spaced 6 weeks apart. Participant satisfaction was measured on 5-point Likert scales (1 = very dissatisfied, 5 = very satisfied). Of 30 women (mean age 58.6 ± 8.8 years), three were lost to follow-up at 3 months and six at 1 year. None were discontinued or withdrew due to an adverse event. Average improvement in Visual Analog Scale scores for all symptom categories was statistically significant at 3 months and remained so through 1 year, except dysuria. Differences between data at 3 months and 1 year were not statistically significant, indicating persistence of positive outcomes. Average overall improvement in pain was 1.9 (±3.4), burning 1.9 (±3.1), itching 1.4 (±1.9), dryness 5.9 (±2.8), dyspareunia 4.9 (±3.3), and dysuria 0.9 (±3.1). Improvement in average Vaginal Health Index and Female Sexual Function Index scores was also statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Of 19 women undergoing dilator examination at 1 year, 18 (94.8%) were comfortable with the same or larger dilator size. Twenty-two of 24 women (92%) were satisfied or extremely satisfied with the treatment at 1 year. Based on study data up to 1 year, the fractional CO2 laser may be an effective and safe treatment for women suffering from symptoms of GSM, although additional studies with larger populations and placebo control is needed to confirm these results.

  8. Results of fractional ablative facial skin resurfacing with the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser 1 week and 2 months after one single treatment in 30 patients.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Mordon, Serge; Velez, Mariano; Urdiales, Fernando; Levy, Jean Luc

    2009-03-01

    The erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser has recently been used in the fractional resurfacing of photo-aged skin. Our study evaluated the results after one single session of fractional resurfacing with Er:YAG. Thirty women participated in the study, with an average age of 46 years, skin types from II to IV, and wrinkle grades I to III. The 2,940 nm Er:YAG system used (Pixel, Alma Laser, Israel) had variable pulse durations (1 ms to 2 ms) and energy densities (800 mJ/cm(2) to 1,400 mJ/cm(2)) which, together with the number of passes (four to eight), were selected as a function of wrinkle severity. All patients received only one treatment. Postoperative side effects were evaluated. The number of wrinkles was documented with clinical photography and was scored. Histological assessment was carried out on two patients before and 2 months after treatment. All patients completed the study. Of the patients, 93% reported good or very good improvement of the degree of their wrinkles, with a satisfaction index of 83%. Pain was not a problem during treatment, and there were no side effects except for in one phototype IV patient, who had hyperpigmentation. Histology 2 months after the single treatment demonstrated younger morphology of both the epidermis and dermis, with improvement of the pretreatment typical elastotic appearance. At the parameters used in our study, only one treatment session of Er:YAG laser could achieve effective skin rejuvenation, with effects recognized in both the dermis and, more importantly, the epidermis. This regimen offers an interesting alternative to the conventional approach of multi-session fractional resurfacing.

  9. Use of fractional laser microablation and ultrasound to facilitate the delivery of gold nanoparticles into skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyuk, G. S.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Ryzhova, M. V.; Tsyganova, N. A.; Chumakov, D. S.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Sazonov, A. A.; Dolotov, L. E.; Tuchin, Valerii V.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Inozemtseva, O. A.

    2012-06-01

    The delivery of gold nanoparticles (nanocages coated with a layer of silicon dioxide (40/20 nm)) dispersed in the solution (glycerol + polyethylene glycol-400, 1 : 1) into the skin tissue is studied experimentally in vivo. From the data of optical coherence tomography and histochemical analysis it follows that simple application of suspension of nanoparticles is not efficient enough for delivery of the particles into the skin as a result of passive diffusion. It is shown that fractional laser microablation of skin before the application of the suspension, followed by the topical treatment by ultrasound allows penetration through the epidermis layer and delivery of nanoparticles into dermis and hypodermis

  10. Retrospective analysis of the treatment of melasma lesions exhibiting increased vascularity with the 595-nm pulsed dye laser combined with the 1927-nm fractional low-powered diode laser.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Elizabeth R C; Stout, Ashlyn B; Friedman, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Melasma presents a significant challenge to laser surgeons. Aggressive treatments often result in rebound melasma or post-inflammatory pigmentary alteration. Recent reports suggest melasma pathogenesis may have a vascular component. Spectrocolorimetry can detect subtle or sub-clinical telangiectatic erythema within melasma lesions. For certain patients identified by spectrocolorimetry, effective melasma treatment may include vascular-targeted therapy together with pigment-specific treatment modalities. Such combined therapies may reduce the likelihood of melasma recurrence. To evaluate the efficacy of treating melasma lesions exhibiting subtle or sub-clinical telangiectatic erythema with the 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) combined with the 1927-nm fractional low-powered diode laser (FDL). A retrospective review was performed over a 2-year period as follows. Evaluated patients (n = 11) include 10 women and 1 man, average age of 38.7 years, and Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV. Each patient exhibited melasma lesions with subtle or sub-clinical telangiectatic erythema identified by spectrocolorimetry. Each underwent a series of treatments (average of four) at approximate 4-6 week intervals of the PDL followed by the FDL. Treatments were performed same-day, sequentially, with 10-15 minute interim time allowance for skin cooling. The following PDL parameters were utilized: 10 mm spot, 10-20 ms pulse duration, 7.5-8.5 J/cm 2 fluence, 30/30 DCD. Eight passes with the FDL (Clear + Brilliant ® Permea™, Solta Medical, Hayward, CA) were then performed utilizing a "low" treatment level. Clinical endpoint was mild erythema and edema. Patients were encouraged to practice strict photoprotection and apply topical skin lightening agents, but compliance was not measured. An independent physician evaluated photographs taken at baseline and at follow-up after last treatment session (average follow-up of 96 days). A quartile improvement score was used to grade the

  11. Novel Treatment Approach for Deep Palmoplantar Warts Using Long-Pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG Laser and a Moisturizing Cream Without Prior Paring of the Wart Surface.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali; Mohana, Mona Jameel

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of palmoplantar wart removal using long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser after application of a moisturizing cream. Previously described laser treatments for wart removal are associated with negative side effects and need to pare the warts before laser treatment. Two hundred forty patients (142 males, 98 females) were treated for 1-40 palmoplantar warts by long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser (spot size 4-6 mm, pulse duration 20 msec, fluence 200 J/cm 2 ) after covering the wart surface with a thin film of a moisturizing cream. The endpoint was lesion graying or whitening with or without development of a hemorrhagic bulla beneath the treated wart. Color photographs were taken before and immediately after each laser session and at 1, 4, and 16 weeks after the last session. The overall clearance rate was 97%, with 90% of treated patients cured after one session, 4% after two, and 3% after three. Clearance rate after three laser sessions decreased linearly with the number of warts from 100% to 95%. Less accessible wart location in interdigital spaces also decreased the cure rate after three sessions from 100% to 95%. Additionally, warts became more difficult to eradicate as they aged. Remission lasted up to 6 years, and complications were mild and infrequent (17.5%). This novel method is effective in removing palmoplantar warts. It is easier, time-saving, and safer than other methods described in previous studies conducted with ablative or nonablative lasers.

  12. Prognostic significance of S-phase fractions in peritumoral invading zone analyzed by laser scanning cytometry in patients with high-grade glioma: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Syoichi; Morii, Ken; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yukihiko; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2016-03-01

    The predominant characteristic of malignant glioma is the presence of invading tumor cells in the peritumoral zone. Distinguishing between tumor cells and normal cells in a peritumoral lesion is challenging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the cell-cycle phase measurements of fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from the peritumoral invading zone of high-grade gliomas using laser scanning cytometry. A total of 12 high-grade gliomas (2 anaplastic astrocytomas and 10 glioblastomas) were studied. The tumor core and peritumoral invading zone of each tumor specimen were investigated. Tissue sections (50 µm) from the paraffin blocks were deparaffinized, rehydrated and enzymatically disintegrated, and the cells in suspension were stained with propidium iodide and placed on microscope slides. A slight trend for an increased S-phase fraction in the peritumoral invading zone compared with the tumor core was observed (P=0.24). Additionally, there was a trend for a decrease in the overall survival time of patients with increasing peritumoral invading zone S-phase fraction (P=0.12). These data suggest that laser scanning cytometry is a powerful and clinically relevant tool for the objective analysis of the cell cycle in malignant gliomas.

  13. Efficient, frequency-stable laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, B.; Kane, T. J.; Dixon, G. J.; Byer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    One of the main goals of the study was to demonstrate a low-power efficient Nd:YAG laser oscillator for applications in remote coherent Doppler anemometry. An electrical-to-optical slope efficiency of 6.5 percent has been achieved by using commercially available CW laser diodes of up to 100 mW to pump monolithic Nd:YAG rod lasers. The observed Nd:YAG oscillation threshold is at 2.3 mW of laser-diode output power, i.e., a small fraction of the rated output power. The highest Nd:YAG CW output power reached is 4.4 mW at an overall electrical-to-optical efficiency of 1.5 percent. The frequency jitter is less than 10 kHz in 0.3 s.

  14. In vivo non-invasive monitoring of collagen remodelling by two-photon microscopy after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Troiano, Michela; Campolmi, Piero; Morini, Cristiano; Massi, Daniela; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-11-01

    Non-linear optical microscopy is becoming popular as a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality in dermatology. In this study, combined TPF and SHG microscopy were used to monitor collagen remodelling in vivo after micro-ablative fractional laser resurfacing. Papillary dermis of living subjects, covering a wide age range, was imaged immediately before and forty days after treatment. A qualitative visual examination of acquired images demonstrated an age-dependent remodelling effect on collagen. Additional quantitative analysis of new collagen production was performed by means of two image analysis methods. A higher increase in SHG to TPF ratio, corresponding to a stronger treatment effectiveness, was found in older subjects, whereas the effect was found to be negligible in young, and minimal in middle age subjects. Analysis of collagen images also showed a dependence of the treatment effectiveness with age but with controversial results. While the diagnostic potential of in vivo multiphoton microscopy has already been demonstrated for skin cancer and other skin diseases, here we first successfully explore its potential use for a non-invasive follow-up of a laser-based treatment. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing Followed by Ultrashort Incubation Aminolevulinic Acid Blue Light Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis.

    PubMed

    Alexiades, Macrene

    2017-08-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment option for actinic keratosis (AK), and recently fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was shown to improve outcomes; but studies of short incubation photosensitizer are lacking. Assess the efficacy of short incubation ALA followed by blue light PDT with and without previous fractional CO2 treatment for the treatment of AK. Randomized, paired split-design, controlled trial of fractional CO2 followed by ultrashort 15-minute versus 30-minute incubation ALA and blue light PDT for the treatment of AK on the face. The complete clearance rates (CRs) at 8 weeks after ALA PDT with and without FxCO2 at 30- and 15-minute ALA incubation times were 89.78% (+FxCO2) versus 71.20% CR (-FxCO2) at 30', and 86.38% (+FxCO2) versus 69.23% (-FxCO2) at 15' ALA incubation. All lesion improvements were statistically significant. This randomized, comparative paired group controlled clinical study demonstrates that ultrashort 15- and 30-minute incubation ALA PDTs are of limited efficacy for the treatment of AK. Pretreatment with fractional ablative resurfacing yields statistically significant greater AK clearance with ALA-PDT at ultrashort ALA incubations followed by blue light.

  16. Lasers and laser-like devices: part one.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Nicholas; Lim, Adrian C; Lowe, Patricia M; Goodman, Greg

    2013-08-01

    Lasers have been used in dermatology for nearly 50 years. Through their selective targeting of skin chromophores they have become the preferred treatment for many skin conditions, including vascular malformations, photorejuvenation and acne scars. The technology and design of lasers continue to evolve, allowing greater control of laser parameters and resulting in increased safety and efficacy for patients. Innovations have allowed the range of conditions and the skin types amenable to treatment, in both general and cosmetic dermatology, to expand over the last decade. Integrated skin cooling and laser beam fractionation, for example, have improved safety, patient tolerance and decreased downtime. Furthermore, the availability and affordability of quality devices continues to increase, allowing clinicians not only to access laser therapies more readily but also to develop their personal experience in this field. As a result, most Australian dermatologists now have access to laser therapies, either in their own practice or within referable proximity, and practical knowledge of these technologies is increasingly required and expected by patients. Non-laser energy devices utilising intense pulsed light, plasma, radiofrequency, ultrasound and cryolipolysis contribute to the modern laser practitioners' armamentarium and will also be discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  17. Treatment of acne scarring with a novel fractionated, dual‐wavelength, picosecond‐domain laser incorporating a novel holographic beam‐splitter

    PubMed Central

    Schomacker, Kevin T.; Basilavecchio, Lisa D.; Plugis, Jessica M.; Bhawalkar, Jayant D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fractional treatment with a dual wavelength 1,064 and 532 nm picosecond‐domain laser, delivering a 10 × 10 array of highly focused beamlets via a holographic optic, was investigated for the treatment of acne scars. Study Twenty‐seven of 31 subjects completed the study, 19 were treated using 1,064 nm and 8 were treated at 532 nm, all having four‐monthly treatments. Blinded evaluation of digital images by three physician evaluators comparing pre‐ and 3‐month post‐treatment images measured efficacy using a 10‐point scale. Subject self‐assessment of treatment effects were also recorded. Safety was measured by recording subject discomfort scores and adverse effects. Results Blinded reviewers correctly identified the baseline image in 61 of the 81 image sets (75%), and baseline acne scar scores were 1.8 ± 0.7 and 1.8 ± 0.5 for the 1,064 and 532 nm cohorts, and decreased to 1.1 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001) and 1.1 ± 0.0 (P < 0.005), respectively. Post‐treatment erythema, mild edema, and petechiae were the only side effects noted. Conclusion The 1,064 and 532 nm picosecond‐domain laser incorporating a 10 × 10 holographic beam‐splitting handpiece was found to be safe and effective for the treatment of facial acne scars. The treatments were well tolerated and the subjects experienced little to no downtime. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:796–802, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28960395

  18. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and particle size distribution in NIR fs-LA-ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Laser parameters, typically wavelength, pulse width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser ablation process and thereby influence the LA-ICP-MS signal. In recent times, femtosecond laser ablation has gained popularity owing to the reduction in fractionation related issues and improved analytical performance which can provide matrix-independent sampling. The advantage offered by fs-LA is due to shorter pulse duration of the laser as compared to the phonon relaxation time and heat diffusion time. Hence the thermal effects are minimized in fs-LA. Recently, fs-LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved analytical performance as compared to ns-LA-ICP-MS, but detailed mechanisms and processes are still not clearly understood. Improvement of fs-LA-ICP-MS over ns-LA-ICP-MS elucidates the importance of laser pulse duration and related effects on the ablation process. In this study, we have investigated the influence of laser pulse width (40 fs to 0.3 ns) and energy on LA-ICP-MS signal intensity and repeatability using a brass sample. Experiments were performed in single spot ablation mode as well as rastering ablation mode to monitor the Cu/Zn ratio. The recorded ICP-MS signal was correlated with total particle counts generated during laser ablation as well as particle size distribution. Our results show the importance of pulse width effects in the fs regime that becomes more pronounced when moving from femtosecond to picosecond and nanosecond regimes. PMID:26664120

  19. Fractional CO2 resurfacing: has it replaced ablative resurfacing techniques?

    PubMed

    Duplechain, Jesse Kevin

    2013-05-01

    The author uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser regularly for skin rejuvenation. This decision is based on the gold standard status of the CO2 modality and an innovative aftercare treatment shown in the author's practice to greatly reduce the complications of ablative pulsed CO2 laser treatment. Depending on the patient and the severity of the skin condition, the author customizes each treatment, which may also include fractional CO2 lasers, fat grafting, facelifting, or any combination of these techniques. This article presents a detailed description of the evolution of skin rejuvenation with lasers and the current role of lasers as an adjunct to face and necklift surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of laser power density on tribological properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited DLC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayathri, S.; Kumar, N.; Krishnan, R.; AmirthaPandian, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sridharan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication of wear resistant and low friction carbon films on the engineered substrates is considered as a challenging task for expanding the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to deposit DLC films on two different types of technologically important class of substrates such as silicon and AISI 304 stainless steel. Laser power density is one of the important parameter used to tailor the fraction of sp2 bonded amorphous carbon (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) made by sp3 domain in the DLC film. The I(D)/I(G) ratio decreases with the increasing laser power density which is associated with decrease in fraction of a-C/ta-C ratio. The fraction of these chemical components is quantitatively analyzed by EELS which is well supported to the data obtained from the Raman spectroscopy. Tribological properties of the DLC are associated with chemical structure of the film. However, the super low value of friction coefficient 0.003 is obtained when the film is predominantly constituted by a-C and sp2 fraction which is embedded within the clusters of ta-C. Such a particular film with super low friction coefficient is measured while it was deposited on steel at low laser power density of 2 GW/cm2. The super low friction mechanism is explained by low sliding resistance of a-C/sp2 and ta-C clusters. Combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties of wear resistance and super low friction coefficient of DLC films is desirable for engineering applications. Moreover, the high friction coefficient of DLC films deposited at 9GW/cm2 is related to widening of the intergrain distance caused by transformation from sp2 to sp3 hybridized structure.

  1. Residual heat generated during laser processing of CFRP with picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Christian; Pauly, Leon; Förster, Daniel J.; Wiedenmann, Margit; Weber, Rudolf; Kononenko, Taras V.; Konov, Vitaly I.; Graf, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    One of the major reasons for the formation of a heat-affected zone during laser processing of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) with repetitive picosecond (ps) laser pulses is heat accumulation. A fraction of every laser pulse is left as what we termed residual heat in the material also after the completed ablation process and leads to a gradual temperature increase in the processed workpiece. If the time between two consecutive pulses is too short to allow for a sufficient cooling of the material in the interaction zone, the resulting temperature can finally exceed a critical temperature and lead to the formation of a heat-affected zone. This accumulation effect depends on the amount of energy per laser pulse that is left in the material as residual heat. Which fraction of the incident pulse energy is left as residual heat in the workpiece depends on the laser and process parameters, the material properties, and the geometry of the interaction zone, but the influence of the individual quantities at the present state of knowledge is not known precisely due to the lack of comprehensive theoretical models. With the present study, we, therefore, experimentally determined the amount of residual heat by means of calorimetry. We investigated the dependence of the residual heat on the fluence, the pulse overlap, and the depth of laser-generated grooves in CRFP. As expected, the residual heat was found to increase with increasing groove depth. This increase occurs due to an indirect heating of the kerf walls by the ablation plasma and the change in the absorbed laser fluence caused by the altered geometry of the generated structures.

  2. Standard guidelines of care: CO2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Krupashankar, D S

    2008-01-01

    Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. MACHINES: Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. INDICATIONS FOR CO 2 LASER: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. AESTHETIC INDICATIONS: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD) may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer's facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist's minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be discussed with the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and

  3. The use of sunscreen starting on the first day after ablative fractional skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, R; Phuardchantuk, R; Manuskiatti, W

    2014-11-01

    The most common side-effect of ablative fractional skin resurfacing in Asians is post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). Various attempts have been made to reduce the occurrence of PIH after laser treatment including sun avoidance, the use of preoperative and postoperative treatment regimens, and treatment using conservative energy settings and epidermal protection. To determine whether the use of broad-spectrum sunscreen with anti-inflammatory agents starting on the first day after fractional CO2 laser skin resurfacing reduces the incidence of post laser PIH. Thirty patients were treated with ablative fractional CO2 resurfacing on both sides of their faces at 10 mJ and 10% density. Each subject was randomly treated on one side of the face with petrolatum ointment four times a day for the first week after laser treatment and on the other side of the face with petrolatum ointment four times a day plus broad-spectrum sunscreen with anti-inflammatory agents in the morning starting on the first day after laser treatment. Transepidermal water loss was recorded at baseline and every day for 1 week. Melanin and erythema indexes were measured at baseline, 1-, 2-week, 1-, 2- and at 3-month post treatment. Of the 30 patients involved in the study, 26 received the treatment and attended 1-, 2-week, 1-, 2- and 3-month post-treatment visits. Four patients were withdrawn from the study because they could not attend every follow-up visit. There was no statistically significant difference in transepidermal water loss at baseline, immediately after laser treatment, or at the D1 to D7 follow-up visits. Erythema index had no significantly statistical difference at baseline, 1-, 2- and at 3-month after laser treatment. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in melanin index at 1-week post laser treatment between both sides (P = 0.001). Melanin index at the 1-week follow-up visit on the side treated with broad-spectrum sunscreen with anti

  4. Treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients using a novel 694-nm Q-switched ruby fractional laser.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Said; Heise, Heike; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Bölke, Edwin; Gerber, Peter Arne

    2013-11-14

    Melasma is a common hypermelanosis of the face. The use of a classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) to treat melasma is discussed controversially and is associated with frequent adverse effects, such as hyper- or hypopigmentation. Recently a fractional-mode (FRx) QSRL was developed to minimize the adverse effects of classical QSRL. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel FRx-QSRL in the treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients. We performed a retrospective study of 25 Caucasian melasma patients (Fitzpatrick skin types I to III). Patients received one to three FRx-QSRL treatments (Tattoostar FRx, Asclepion Laser Technologies, Jena, Germany) at pulse energies of 4 to 8 J/cm2. Three blinded investigators independently evaluated the melasma area and severity index (MASI) score before treatment and at the four- to six-week follow-ups. At additional three-month follow-ups, patients evaluated subjective improvement, pain and over-all satisfaction with the treatment according to a numeric analogue score (NAS). Side effects were documented. At four to six weeks post laser treatment for a mean of 1.4 sessions, we observed a significant (P=0.0001) reduction of the MASI score from 6.54 to 1.98 (72.3%). Patients rated the pain of the intervention at a mean 2.46 points (0=no pain; 10=maximum pain), the improvement at a mean 5.55 points (0=no improvement; 10=maximum improvement) and the overall satisfaction at a mean 4.66 points (0=not satisfied; 10=maximum satisfaction). After three months, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and/or recurring melasma were observed in 7 (28%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. The 694-nm FRx-QSRL is a safe and effective option for treating melasma in Caucasian patients. Over periods of >3 months, PIH and/or recurring melasma may develop at significant rates and may reduce patient satisfaction. Multiple treatment sessions with lower pulse energies and/or a post-interventional therapy with

  5. Ablative skin resurfacing with a novel microablative CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Robert H; Sarnoff, Deborah S; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Sadick, Neil S; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene

    2009-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing has been a mainstay of facial rejuvenation since its introduction in the mid 1990s. Recently, a new generation of fractional or microablative CO2 lasers has been introduced to the marketplace. According to the concept of fractional photothermolysis, these lasers ablate only a fraction of the epidermal and dermal architecture in the treatment area. An array of microscopic thermal wounds is created that ablates the epidermis and dermis within very tiny zones; adjacent to these areas, the epidermis and dermis are spared. This microablative process of laser skin resurfacing has proven safe and effective not only for facial rejuvenation, but elsewhere on the body as well. It is capable of improving wrinkles, acne scars, and other types of atrophic scars and benign pigmented lesions associated with elastotic, sun-damaged skin. Because of the areas of spared epidermis and dermis inherent in a procedure that employs fractional photothermolysis, healing is more rapid compared to fully ablative CO2 laser skin resurfacing and downtime is proportionately reduced. A series of 32 consecutive patients underwent a single laser resurfacing procedure with the a new microablative CO2 laser. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months and were asked to complete patient satisfaction questionnaires; a 6 month postoperative photographic evaluation by an independent physician, not involved in the treatment, was also performed. Both sets of data were graded and reported on a quartile scale. Results demonstrated greater than 50% improvement in almost all patients with those undergoing treatment for wrinkles, epidermal pigment or solar elastosis deriving the greatest change for the better (>75%).

  6. Laser in the management of burn scars.

    PubMed

    Willows, Brooke M; Ilyas, Muneeb; Sharma, Amit

    2017-11-01

    Burn scars are associated with significant morbidity ranging from contractures, pruritus, and disfigurement to psychosocial impairment. Traditional therapies include silicone gel, compression garments, corticosteroid injections, massage therapy, and surgical procedures, however, newer and advanced therapies for the treatment of burn scars have been developed. Lasers, specifically ablative fractional lasers, show potential for the treatment of burn scars. Both MeSH and keyword searches of the PubMed, Medline and Embase databases were performed and relevant articles were read in full for the compilation of this review. Fifty-one relevant observational studies, clinical trials, and systematic reviews published in English from 2006 to 2016 were reviewed and summarized. Laser therapy is effective for the treatment of burn scar appearance, including measures such as pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and thickness. Ablative fractional laser therapy, in particular, shows significant potential for the release of contractures allowing for improved range of motion of affected joints. Patients may benefit from the use of lasers in the treatment of burn scars, and the safety profile of lasers allows the benefits of treatment to outweigh the risks. Laser therapy should be included in burn scar treatment protocols as an adjuvant therapy to traditional interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Fraxel laser indications and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Elizabeth L; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Alster, Tina S

    2008-01-01

    Fractional photothermolysis, based on creating spatially precise microscopic thermal wounds, is performed using a 1550-nm erbium fiber laser that targets water-containing tissue to effect the photocoagulation of narrow, sharply defined columns of skin known as microscopic thermal zones. According to the authors, Fraxel resurfacing has been shown to be both safe and effective for facial and nonfacial photodamage, atrophic acne scars, hypopigmented scars, and dyspigmentation. Because only a fraction of the skin is treated during a single session, a series (typically 3 to 6 treatments) of fractional resurfacing at 2- to 4-week intervals is required for the best clinical improvement. It is the authors' experience that a series of Fraxel treatments can achieve a similar clinical result for atrophic scars compared with traditional ablative laser skin resurfacing. However, the improvement seen after a series of Fraxel treatments for perioral laxity and rhytides often falls short of the impressive results that can be achieved with ablative laser skin resurfacing.

  8. Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.

  9. Chaotic He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Tom A.

    2017-09-01

    A He-Ne laser is an example of a class A laser, which can be described by a single nonlinear differential equation of the complex electric field. This laser system has only one degree of freedom and is thus inherently stable. A He-Ne laser can be driven to the chaotic condition when a large fraction of the output beam is injected back to the laser. In practice, this can be done simply by adding an external mirror. In this situation, the laser system has infinite degrees of freedom and therefore it can have a chaotic attractor. We show the fundamental laser equations and perform elementary stability analysis. In experiments, the laser intensity variations are measured by a simple photodiode circuit. The laser output intensity time series is studied using nonlinear analysis tools which can be found freely on the internet. The results show that the laser system with feedback has an attractor of a reasonably high dimension and that the maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive, which is clear evidence of chaotic behaviour. The experimental setup and analysis steps are so simple that the studies can even be implemented in the undergraduate physics laboratory.

  10. Laser induced fluorescence in Ar and He plasmas with a tunable diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, R. F.; Scime, E. E.

    2003-10-01

    A diode laser based laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic that uses an inexpensive diode laser system is described. This LIF diagnostic has been developed on the hot helicon experiment (HELIX) plasma device. The same diode laser is used to alternatively pump Ar II and He I transitions to obtain argon ion and atomic helium temperatures, respectively. The 1.5 MHz bandwidth diode laser has a Littrow external cavity with a mode-hop free tuning range up to 14 GHz (≈0.021 nm) and a total power output of about 12 mW. Wavelength scanning is achieved by varying the voltage on a piezoelectric controlled grating located within the laser cavity. The fluorescence radiation is monitored with a photomultiplier detector. A narrow band interference filter is used to eliminate all but the plasma radiation in the immediate vicinity of the fluorescence wavelength. Lock-in amplification is used to isolate the fluorescence signal from noise and electron-impact induced radiation. For the Ar ion, the laser tuned at 668.43 nm is used to pump the 3d 4F7/2 Ar II metastable level to the 4p 4D5/2 level. The 442.60 nm fluorescence radiation between the 4p 4D5/2 and the 4s 4P3/2 levels is captured by the photomultiplier tube. For atomic He, the laser is tuned at 667.82 nm to pump a fraction of the electron population from the 21P state to the 31D upper level. Although the 21P level is not a metastable, the close proximity of 21S metastable makes this new He I LIF scheme possible. In this scheme, a fraction of the laser-excited electrons undergo collisional excitation transfer from the 31D to the 31P level. In turn, the 31P state decays to the metastable 21S by emitting 501.57 nm fluorescence photons.

  11. Propagation of optical vortices with fractional topological charge in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Tamelia; Kreminska, Liubov; Golovin, Andrii B.; Crouse, David T.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of the optical vortices with fractional topological charges in the far-field is assessed through numerical modeling and confirmed by experimental results. The generation of fractional topological charge variations of the phase within a Gaussian beam was achieved by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCoS SLM). It is shown that a laser beam carrying an optical vortex with a fractional topological charge evolves into a beam with a topological charge of integer value, specifically an integer value closer to the fractional number in the far field. A potential application of this work is for data transmission within optical telecommunication systems.

  12. Optimizing the Ar-Xe infrared laser on the Naval Research Laboratory's Electra generator

    SciTech Connect

    Apruzese, J. P.; Giuliani, J. L.; Wolford, M. F.

    2008-07-01

    The Ar-Xe infrared laser has been investigated in several series of experiments carried out on the Naval Research Laboratory's Electra generator. Our primary goals were to optimize the efficiency of the laser (within Electra's capabilities) and to gain understanding of the main physical processes underlying the laser's output as a function of controllable parameters such as Xe fraction, power deposition, and gas pressure. We find that the intrinsic efficiency maximizes at {approx}3% at a total pressure of 2.5 atm, Xe fraction of 1%, and electron beam power deposition density of 50-100 kW cm{sup -3}. We deployed an interferometer to measuremore » the electron density during lasing; the ionization fractions of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} that it detected well exceed previous theoretical estimates. Some trends in the data as a function of beam power and xenon fraction are not fully understood. The as-yet incomplete picture of Ar-Xe laser physics is likely traceable in large part to significant uncertainties still present in many important rates influencing the atomic and molecular kinetics.« less

  13. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  14. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  15. The effects of fractional CO2 laser, Nano-hydroxyapatite and MI paste on mechanical properties of bovine enamel after bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Horieh

    2017-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effect of post bleaching treatments to the change of enamel elastic modulus and microhardness after dental bleaching in- vitro. Material and Methods Fifty bovine incisor slab were randomly assigned into five groups (n=10). The samples were bleached for three times; 20 minutes each time, by 40% hydrogen peroxide. Next it was applied fractional CO2 laser for two minutes, Nano- hydroxy apatite (N-HA) and MI-paste for 7 days and 2 minutes per day. The sound enamel and bleached teeth without post treatment remained as control groups. The elastic modulus and microhardness were measured at three times; 24 hours, 1 and 2 months. Data were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance with 95% confidence level. Results Different methods of enamel treatment caused a significant increase in elastic modulus compared to bleached group (P<0.05). Modulus was significantly increased in 1 and 2 months (P<0/001: bleach, P= 0/015: laser, P= 0/008: NHA, P=0/010: MI paste) but there were no significantly difference between 1 and 2 months (P>0.05). There was any significance difference for hardness among treated and control groups, but hardness increased significantly by increasing storage time (P<0.05). Conclusions The use of the protective tested agents can be useful in clinical practice to reduce negative changes of enamel surface after whitening procedures. Key words:Bleaching enamel, CO2 laser, MI pastes, Nano-hydroxy apatite, Microhardness, Elastic modulus. PMID:29410753

  16. Two-Dimensional Laser-Speckle Surface-Strain Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, John P.; Lant, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Extension of Yamaguchi's laser-speckle surface-strain-gauge method yields data on two-dimensional surface strains in times as short as fractions of second. Laser beams probe rough spot on surface of specimen before and after processing. Changes in speckle pattern of laser light reflected from spot indicative of changes in surface strains during processing. Used to monitor strains and changes in strains induced by hot-forming and subsequent cooling of steel.

  17. Efficacy of 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) combined with sonophoresis on levorotatory vitamin C for treatment of melasma in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H L; Hu, B; Zhang, C

    2016-07-01

    Melasma is a common acquired and distressing pigmentary disorder presenting to dermatology clinics. It is notably difficult to cure and has a tendency to relapse. The efficacy of classical Q-switched laser in treatment of melasma remains controversial. This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of 694-nm fractional QSRL combined with sonophoresis on levorotatory vitamin C for the treatment of melasma patients. Twenty-six patients with melasma were enrolled. Each patient received four to six fractional QSRL treatments at pulse energies of 2.5 to 4 J/cm(2) combined with sonophoresis on levorotatory vitamin C at 2-week intervals. The severity and the area of melasma were assessed by two investigators using the melasma area and severity index (MASI). Side effects were documented. Mean MASI score decreased from 15.51 ± 3.00 before treatment to 10.02 ± 4.39 3 months after the final treatment (P < 0.01). Side effects were few and transient. High-density coverage fractional QSRL combined with sonophoresis on levorotatory vitamin C is safe and effective for the treatment of melasma in Chinese patients.

  18. Treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients using a novel 694-nm Q-switched ruby fractional laser

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common hypermelanosis of the face. The use of a classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) to treat melasma is discussed controversially and is associated with frequent adverse effects, such as hyper- or hypopigmentation. Recently a fractional-mode (FRx) QSRL was developed to minimize the adverse effects of classical QSRL. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel FRx-QSRL in the treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 25 Caucasian melasma patients (Fitzpatrick skin types I to III). Patients received one to three FRx-QSRL treatments (Tattoostar FRx, Asclepion Laser Technologies, Jena, Germany) at pulse energies of 4 to 8 J/cm2. Three blinded investigators independently evaluated the melasma area and severity index (MASI) score before treatment and at the four- to six-week follow-ups. At additional three-month follow-ups, patients evaluated subjective improvement, pain and over-all satisfaction with the treatment according to a numeric analogue score (NAS). Side effects were documented. Results At four to six weeks post laser treatment for a mean of 1.4 sessions, we observed a significant (P = 0.0001) reduction of the MASI score from 6.54 to 1.98 (72.3%). Patients rated the pain of the intervention at a mean 2.46 points (0 = no pain; 10 = maximum pain), the improvement at a mean 5.55 points (0 = no improvement; 10 = maximum improvement) and the overall satisfaction at a mean 4.66 points (0 = not satisfied; 10 = maximum satisfaction). After three months, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and/or recurring melasma were observed in 7 (28%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. Conclusion The 694-nm FRx-QSRL is a safe and effective option for treating melasma in Caucasian patients. Over periods of >3 months, PIH and/or recurring melasma may develop at significant rates and may reduce patient satisfaction. Multiple treatment

  19. Matrix effects for elemental fractionation within ICPMS: applications for U-Th-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.

    2016-12-01

    Recent development in instruments provides significant technical supports for daily, quick, money saving geochemical analyses. Laser ablation ICPMS stands out due to these reasons, especially for the U-Th-Pb isotopic dating. Matrix-matched external standardization is by far the most common approach used in U-Th-Pb dating via LA-ICPMS. However, matrix-effects between standard and sample for in-situ dating have shown to be both significant and insignificant. It remains mysterious whether a well matrix-matched standard is needed for U-Th-Pb dating by LA-ICPMS. This study provides an experimental framework for the understanding of matrix effects induced elemental fractionation for U-Th-Pb associated with ICPMS. A preliminary study on the influence of varied U, Th and Pb amounts on their fractionations has been carried out. Experimental data show that different U, Th and Pb contents result in varied 238U/206Pb and 232Th/208Pb ratios. The fractionations of U/Pb and Th/Pb increase with the increasing contents (1 ppb to 100 ppb) with a strong positive anomaly at 10 ppb. Matrixes representing minerals frequently used in dating have been investigated for the influences on U/Pb and Th/Pb fractionations, which suggest a complicated effect. Little fractionations observed between mineral pairs (e.g., monazite and apatite; zircon and perovskite; rutile and perovskite; xenotime and baddeleyite), whereas large fractionations identified for other minerals (e.g., zircon and baddeleyite; monazite and sphene; rutile and baddeleyite). Single element matrix (i.e., Si, P, Ca, Zr, Ti) has been studied to identify their effects on the fractionations. U/Pb ratio increases with the increasing Si and P contents, whereas it decreases for Zr, Ca and Ti. Th/Pb ratio increases with increasing Si contents, decreases for P and Zr, and increases first then decreases for Ca and Ti. Above all, different matrix and U, Th and Pb amounts show distinct U/Pb and Th/Pb fractionations within ICPMS. The

  20. Kinetics and tissue repair process following fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment.

    PubMed

    Kokolakis, G; von Eichel, L; Ulrich, M; Lademann, J; Zuberbier, T; Hofmann, M A

    2018-05-15

    Fractionated radiofrequency (RF) tissue tightening is an alternative method to fractionated laser treatment of skin wrinkling, laxity and acne scars, with reduced risk of scarring or persistent pigmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the wound healing process after RF treatment. 12 patients were treated with a 64-pin fractional bipolar RF device with 60 mJ/pin applied energy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) examination was performed on day 1, day 2, day 7 and day 14 after treatment. Clinical wound healing process was measured and expressed as a percentage. All patients developed erythema, mild edema and crusts at the treated areas. Two weeks after treatment clinical symptoms resolved. During ablation patients reported moderate pain. Directly after ablation microscopic ablation zones could be detected in CLSM. Measurement of MAZ at epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction and papilary dermis showed a constant diameter until two weeks after treatment. Re-epithelization of the MAZ could be detected already 1 week after treatment. However, 2 weeks after ablation the honeycomb pattern of the epidermis was not yet completely restored. Bipolar fractionated RF treatment demonstrates clinically a rapid wound healing response. The subepidermal remodelling process still ongoing after 14 days, showing new granulation tissue. Therefore, treatment intervals of at least 14 days should be recommended to allow completion of the remodelling process.

  1. Theoretical analysis of phase locking in an array of globally coupled lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Vysotskii, D V; Elkin, N N; Napartovich, A P

    2013-09-30

    A model of an array of globally coupled fibre lasers, with the same fraction of the total output beam power injected into each laser, is considered. Phase self-locking of the laser array makes it possible to increase the brightness of the total output beam without any devices for controlling the phases of output beams, which significantly complicate the laser system. The spread of the laser optical lengths is several hundreds of wavelengths (or even more); within the theory of hollow cavities, this spread should lead to a fast decrease in the total power with an increase in the number ofmore » lasers. The presence of the active medium may reduce this drop to a great extent due to the self-tuning of the laser array radiation wavelength to a value providing a maximum gain for the array lasing mode. The optical length of each element is assumed to be random. The increase in the phase-locking efficiency due to the gain saturation is explained based on the probabilistic approach. An iterative procedure is developed to find the array output power in the presence of steady-state phase locking. Calculations for different values of small-signal gain and the output-power fraction spent on global coupling are performed. It is shown that, when this fraction amounts to ∼20 % – 30 %, phase locking of up to 20 fibre lasers can be implemented with an efficiency as high as 70 %. (control of laser radiation parameters)« less

  2. An update on the use of laser technology in skin vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyuan; Wang, Ji; Shah, Dilip; Wu, Mei X

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination via skin often induces stronger immune responses than via muscle. This, in line with potential needle-free, painless delivery, makes skin a very attractive site for immunization. Yet, despite decades of effort, effective skin delivery is still in its infant stage and safe and potent adjuvants for skin vaccination remain largely undefined. We have shown that laser technologies including both fractional and non-fractional lasers can greatly augment vaccine-induced immune response without incurring any significant local and systemic side effects. Laser illumination at specific settings can accelerate the motility of antigen-presenting cells or trigger release of ‘danger’ signals stimulating the immune system. Moreover, several other groups including the authors explore laser technologies for needle-free transcutaneous vaccine delivery. As these laser-mediated resurfacing technologies are convenient, safe and cost-effective, their new applications in vaccination warrant clinical studies in the very near future. PMID:24127871

  3. Nonequilibrium Interlayer Transport in Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischler, J. Z.; Eres, Gyula; Larson, B. C.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Zschack, P.; Lowndes, Douglas H.

    2006-06-01

    We use time-resolved surface x-ray diffraction measurements with microsecond range resolution to study the growth kinetics of pulsed laser deposited SrTiO3. Time-dependent surface coverages corresponding to single laser shots were determined directly from crystal truncation rod intensity transients. Analysis of surface coverage evolution shows that extremely fast nonequilibrium interlayer transport, which occurs concurrently with the arrival of the laser plume, dominates the deposition process. A much smaller fraction of material, which is governed by the dwell time between successive laser shots, is transferred by slow, thermally driven interlayer transport processes.

  4. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Dynamics of formation of the liquid-drop phase of laser erosion jets near the surfaces of metal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. K.; Kontsevoi, V. L.; Puzyrev, M. V.

    1995-03-01

    An investigation was made of laser erosion jets formed at 0.1-1.5 mm above the surfaces of Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, and Zn targets. A neodymium laser emitting rectangular pulses of 400 μs duration and of energy up to 400 J was used. The diameters, as well as the number density and volume fraction of the metal particles present in the jet, were measured. An analysis of the results showed that the metal liquid drops broke up near the surface and experienced additional evaporation because of their motion opposite to the laser beam.

  5. Ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intense pulsed light for the treatment of photoaging skin in Chinese population: A split-face study.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xue-Ling; Wang, Li

    2018-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) is effective for the treatment of lentigines, telangiectasia, and generalized erythema, but is less effective in the removal of skin wrinkles. Fractional laser is effective on skin wrinkles and textural irregularities, but can induce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), especially in Asians. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ablative fractional laser (AFL) in combination with IPL in the treatment of photoaging skin in Asians.This study included 28 Chinese women with Fitzpatrick skin type III and IV. The side of the face to be treated with IPL alone (3 times) or AFL in combination with IPL (2 IPL treatments and 1 AFL treatment) was randomly selected. Skin conditions including hydration, transepidermal water loss, elasticity, spots, ultraviolet spots, brown spots, wrinkle, texture, pore size and red areas, as well as adverse effects were evaluated before the treatment and at 30 days after the treatment.Compared with IPL treatment alone, AFL in combination with IPL significantly increased elasticity, decreased pore size, reduced skin wrinkles, and improved skin texture (P = .004, P = .039, P = .015, and P = .035, respectively). Both treatment protocols produced similar effects in relation to the improvement of photoaging-induced pigmentation. The combined therapy did not impair epidermal barrier function. No postoperative infection, hypopigmentation, or scarring occurred after IPL and AFL treatments. PIH occurred at 1 month after AFL treatment and disappeared at 30 days after completion of the combined therapy.AFL in combination with IPL is safe and effective for photoaging skin in Asians. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modification of the amorphous carbon films by the ns-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigonis, Alfonsas; Marcinauskas, Liutauras; Vinciunaite, Vinga; Raciukaitis, Gediminas

    2011-10-01

    The effect of a nanosecond laser irradiation of thin (60 and 145 nm) amorphous, diamond-like carbon films deposited on Si substrate by an ion beam deposition (IBD) from pure acetylene and acetylene/hydrogen (1:2) gas mixture was analyzed in this work. The films were irradiated with the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the nanosecond Nd:YAG lasers working at the first (1.16 eV) and the third (3.48 eV) harmonics, using a multi-shot regime. The IR laser irradiation stimulated a minor increase in the fraction of sp2 bonds, causing a slight decrease in the hardness of the films and initiated SiC formation. Irradiation with the UV laser caused the formation of carbides and increased hydrogenization of the Si substrate and the fraction of sp2 sites. Spalliation and ablation were observed at a higher energy density and with a large number of laser pulses per spot.

  7. Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu-Le; Zhao, Yao; Qian, Lie-Jia; Chen, Min; Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Optical modulators can have high modulation speed and broad bandwidth, while being compact. However, these optical modulators usually work for low-intensity light beams. Here we present an ultrafast, plasma-based optical modulator, which can directly modulate high-power lasers with intensity up to 1016 W cm−2 to produce an extremely broad spectrum with a fractional bandwidth over 100%, extending to the mid-infrared regime in the low-frequency side. This concept relies on two co-propagating laser pulses in a sub-millimetre-scale underdense plasma, where a drive laser pulse first excites an electron plasma wave in its wake while a following carrier laser pulse is modulated by the plasma wave. The laser and plasma parameters suitable for the modulator to work are based on numerical simulations. PMID:27283369

  8. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  9. Laser-plasma interactions in direct-drive ignition plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froula, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Hu, S. X.; Yaakobi, B.; Myatt, J. F.; Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R.; Glebov, V. Yu; Goncharov, V. N.; Kessler, T. J.; Maximov, A. V.; Radha, P. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Short, R. W.; Solodov, A. A.; Sorce, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2012-12-01

    Direct-drive ignition is most susceptible to multiple-beam laser-plasma instabilities, as the single-beam intensities are low (Is ˜ 1014 W cm-2) and the electron temperature in the underdense plasma is high (Te ≃ 3.5 keV). Cross-beam energy transfer is driven by multiple laser beams and can significantly reduce the hydrodynamic efficiency in direct-drive experiments on OMEGA (Boehly et al 1997 Opt. Commun. 133 495). Reducing the radii of the laser beams significantly increases the hydrodynamic efficiency at the cost of an increase in the low-mode modulations. Initial 2D hydrodynamic simulations indicate that zooming, transitioning the laser-beam radius prior to the main drive, does not increase low-mode nonuniformities. The combination of zooming and dynamic bandwidth reduction will provide a 30% effective increase in the drive energy on OMEGA direct-drive implosions. It was shown that two-plasmon decay (TPD) can be driven by multiple laser beams and both planar and spherical experiments were performed to study the hot electrons generated by TPD. The fraction of laser energy converted to hot electrons scales with the hot-electron temperature for all geometries and over a wide range of intensities. At ignition-relevant intensities, the fraction of laser energy converted to hot electrons is measured to decrease by an order of magnitude when the ablator material is changed from carbon-hydrogen to aluminum. The TPD results are compared with a multiple-beam linear theory and a nonlinear Zakharov model.

  10. Study on laser-assisted drug delivery with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Guei; Tsai, Ting-Yen; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Tsai, Meng-Tsan

    2017-04-01

    The nail provides a functional protection to the fingertips and surrounding tissue from external injuries. Nail plate divided into three layers including dorsal, intermediate, and ventral layers. The dorsal layer consists of compact, hard keratins, limiting topical drug delivery through the nail. In this study, we investigate the application of fractional CO2 laser that produces arrays of microthermal ablation zones (MAZs) to facilitate drug delivery in the nails. Moreover, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is implemented for real-time monitoring of the laser-skin tissue interaction, sparing the patient from invasive surgical sampling procedure. Observations of drug diffusion through the induced MAZ array are achieved by evaluating the time-dependent OCT intensity variance. Subsequently, nails are treated with cream and liquid topical drugs to investigate the feasibility and diffusion efficacy of laser-assisted drug delivery. Our results show that fractional CO2 laser improves the efficacy of topical drug delivery in the nail plate, and that OCT could potentially be used for in vivo monitoring of the depth of laser penetration as well as real-time observations of drug delivery.

  11. Energy-Based Facial Rejuvenation: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Britt, Christopher J; Marcus, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The market for nonsurgical, energy-based facial rejuvenation techniques has increased exponentially since lasers were first used for skin rejuvenation in 1983. Advances in this area have led to a wide range of products that require the modern facial plastic surgeon to have a large repertoire of knowledge. To serve as a guide for current trends in the development of technology, applications, and outcomes of laser and laser-related technology over the past 5 years. We performed a review of PubMed from January 1, 2011, to March 1, 2016, and focused on randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines including case control, case studies and case reports when necessary, and included 14 articles we deemed landmark articles before 2011. Three broad categories of technology are leading non-energy-based rejuvenation technology: lasers, light therapy, and non-laser-based thermal tightening devices. Laser light therapy has continued to diversify with the use of ablative and nonablative resurfacing technologies, fractionated lasers, and their combined use. Light therapy has developed for use in combination with other technologies or stand alone. Finally, thermally based nonlaser skin-tightening devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) and intense focused ultrasonography (IFUS), are evolving technologies that have changed rapidly over the past 5 years. Improvements in safety and efficacy for energy-based treatment have expanded the patient base considering these therapies viable options. With a wide variety of options, the modern facial plastic surgeon can have a frank discussion with the patient regarding nonsurgical techniques that were never before available. Many of these patients can now derive benefit from treatments requiring significantly less downtime than before while the clinician can augment the treatment to maximize benefit to fit the patient's time schedule.

  12. Irradiance tailoring by fractional Fourier transform of a radial Gaussian beam array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Haotong; Liu, Zejin

    2011-03-01

    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is applied to a radial Gaussian beam array. Analytical formula is derived for the irradiance distribution of coherent and incoherent radial Gaussian beam array in FRFT domain using Collins integral formula. It is revealed that the irradiance pattern can be tailored to be controllable dark-hollow, flat-topped and Gaussian beam pattern by changing of the fractional order of FRFT and the coherent state of the laser array.

  13. Irradiance tailoring by fractional Fourier transform of a radial Gaussian beam array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Haotong; Liu, Zejin

    2010-07-01

    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is applied to a radial Gaussian beam array. Analytical formula is derived for the irradiance distribution of coherent and incoherent radial Gaussian beam array in FRFT domain using Collins integral formula. It is revealed that the irradiance pattern can be tailored to be controllable dark-hollow, flat-topped and Gaussian beam pattern by changing of the fractional order of FRFT and the coherent state of the laser array.

  14. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  15. Pilot investigation of the correlation between histological and clinical effects of infrared fractional resurfacing lasers.

    PubMed

    Walgrave, Susan; Zelickson, Brian; Childs, James; Altshuler, Gregory; Erofeev, Andrei; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Kist, David; Counters, Jeff

    2008-11-01

    Yucatan Black pig skin was treated with a 1,540-nm erbium (Er):glass laser (Lux1540, 15 and 30 mJ) and two 1,550-nm Er-doped fiber lasers (Fraxel SR750 and SR1500, 8, 10, and 12 mJ). Histologic sections were examined to determine the depth of damage and to correlate subjects' clinical response. Concurrently, six subjects with photodamaged skin received three split-face and ipsilateral dorsal hand treatments with the 1,540-nm Er:glass laser on one side and one of the 1,550-nm Er-doped lasers (Fraxel SR750) on the other. The 1,550-nm Er-doped lasers, using lower fluences and higher densities, produced shallower micro-columns than the 1,540-nm Er:glass device at higher fluences and lower densities (mean depths 250-275 microm vs 425-525 microm, respectively). Blinded assessors found greater overall improvement in pigmentation with the 1,550-nm Er-doped laser and better overall improvement in texture with the 1,540-nm Er:glass laser. Greater densities of shallower damage columns at lower energies may better improve pigmentation, whereas deeper injuries, using higher energies and moderate densities, may better improve texture. This pilot study did not compare similar fluences and histologic damage between the two systems, and newer available systems allow for greater depth of penetration.

  16. Laser-heated rocket studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Root, R. G.; Wu., P. K. S.; Caledonia, G. E.; Pirri, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    CW laser heated rocket propulsion was investigated in both the flowing core and stationary core configurations. The laser radiation considered was 10.6 micrometers, and the working gas was unseeded hydrogen. The areas investigated included initiation of a hydrogen plasma capable of absorbing laser radiation, the radiation emission properties of hot, ionized hydrogen, the flow of hot hydrogen while absorbing and radiating, the heat losses from the gas and the rocket performance. The stationary core configuration was investigated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. It was found that the flowing core rockets can have specific impulses between 1,500 and 3,300 sec. They are small devices, whose heating zone is only a millimeter to a few centimeters long, and millimeters to centimeters in radius, for laser power levels varying from 10 to 5,000 kW, and pressure levels of 3 to 10 atm. Heat protection of the walls is a vital necessity, though the fraction of laser power lost to the walls can be as low as 10% for larger powers, making the rockets thermally efficient.

  17. Early use of CO2 lasers and silicone gel on surgical scars: Prospective study.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Vicari, Eduardo Faria; De Souza Jardim Vicari, Roselaine; Petroianu, Andy

    2017-08-01

    Some publications have shown good aesthetic results for scars through the early application of fractional CO 2 lasers on elective surgery scars. The aim of this randomized, double-blinded clinical trial was to compare the aesthetic quality of the scar from a group of patients submitted to super-pulsed fractional CO 2 laser applications (10,600 nm fractional CO 2 , set at a density of 20% and an energy of 10 mJ, a scanner of 03 × 03 mm, and a pulse repetition time of 0.3 seconds) in contrast with the other group that used only the silicone gel on the scar after plastic surgery. A prospective study was conducted by analyzing 42 patients with recent scars of up to three weeks in patients with a I-IV Fitz-Patrick skin phototype. The scars were evaluated aesthetically in the second and sixth months by applying the Vancouver scale. At 2 months of treatment, the statistical data showed a discrete superiority in the LASER group's treatment, as compared to that of the SILICONE group, in both percentage and significance concerning flexibility (P = 0.05) and pigmentation (P = 0.01). Laser group presented better results in the sixth month (P = 0,03). The early use of the fractional CO 2 laser contributed to improving the aesthetic quality of scars from elective surgeries in the second and in the 6th months. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:570-576, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Planar measurements of soot volume fraction and OH in a JP-8 pool fire

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, Tara L.; Ring, Terry A.; Eddings, Eric G.

    2009-07-15

    The simultaneous measurement of soot volume fraction by laser induced incandescence (LII) and qualitative imaging of OH by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was performed in a JP-8 pool fire contained in a 152 mm diameter pan. Line of sight extinction was used to calibrate the LII system in a laminar flame, and to provide an independent method of measuring average soot volume fraction in the turbulent flame. The presence of soot in the turbulent flame was found to be approximately 50% probable, resulting in high levels of optical extinction, which increased slightly through the flame from approximately 30% near themore » base, to approximately 50% at the tip. This high soot loading pushes both techniques toward their detection limit. Nevertheless, useful accuracy was obtained, with the LII measurement of apparent extinction in the turbulent flame being approximately 21% lower than a direct measurement, consistent with the influence of signal trapping. The axial and radial distributions of soot volume fraction are presented, along with PDFs of volume fraction, and new insight into the behavior of soot sheets in pool fires are sought from the simultaneous measurements of OH and LII. (author)« less

  19. High-speed mixture fraction and temperature imaging of pulsed, turbulent fuel jets auto-igniting in high-temperature, vitiated co-flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorge, Michael J.; Arndt, Christoph; Fuest, Frederik; Meier, Wolfgang; Sutton, Jeffrey A.

    2014-07-01

    In this manuscript, we describe an experimental approach to simultaneously measure high-speed image sequences of the mixture fraction and temperature fields during pulsed, turbulent fuel injection into a high-temperature, co-flowing, and vitiated oxidizer stream. The quantitative mixture fraction and temperature measurements are determined from 10-kHz-rate planar Rayleigh scattering and a robust data processing methodology which is accurate from fuel injection to the onset of auto-ignition. In addition, the data processing is shown to yield accurate temperature measurements following ignition to observe the initial evolution of the "burning" temperature field. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence (CL) was used to determine the spatial location of the initial auto-ignition kernel. In order to ensure that the ignition kernel formed inside of the Rayleigh scattering laser light sheet, OH* CL was observed in two viewing planes, one near-parallel to the laser sheet and one perpendicular to the laser sheet. The high-speed laser measurements are enabled through the use of the unique high-energy pulse burst laser system which generates long-duration bursts of ultra-high pulse energies at 532 nm (>1 J) suitable for planar Rayleigh scattering imaging. A particular focus of this study was to characterize the fidelity of the measurements both in the context of the precision and accuracy, which includes facility operating and boundary conditions and measurement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The mixture fraction and temperature fields deduced from the high-speed planar Rayleigh scattering measurements exhibited SNR values greater than 100 at temperatures exceeding 1,300 K. The accuracy of the measurements was determined by comparing the current mixture fraction results to that of "cold", isothermal, non-reacting jets. All profiles, when properly normalized, exhibited self-similarity and collapsed upon one another. Finally, example mixture fraction, temperature, and OH* emission

  20. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  1. Laser-irradiated drug chromatographic analysis and laser injection of drugs to treat staphyloccocal lesions of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Latyshev, Alexei S.; Kovsh, Anna I.; Razumova, Svetlana A.; Masyukova, Svetlana A.; Volnukhin, Vladimir A.

    2001-05-01

    This article deals with further development of laser drug delivery methods. In order to estimate the effect of laser- drug interactions, we carried out the chromatographic fractionation of dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, and gentamicine, both prior to and after irradiating them by pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation. The laser radiation parameters were as follows: the wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse duration were, respectively, 2.94 micrometers , 0.7 J, and 100 microsecond(s) . The total laser radiation dose administered to a 100 (mu) l sample of these drug preparations amounted to 150 J. A chromatographic analysis revealed that drug samples exposed to Er:YAG laser radiation did not show any change. The results obtained made it possible to employ pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation to perform laser-acoustic injection of the above-mentioned drug preparations to study the treatment of staphylococcal lesions in 30 guinea pigs. The perforated channel depth was measured and the injected drug solution volume was calculated. It was found that laser injection enabled one to introduce therapeutic doses of drugs, and that it expedited the healing of lesions by 3 to 4 days, as compared to the control group that received the topical application of drugs without laser irradiation.

  2. Correlations between Lymphocytes, Mid-Cell Fractions and Granulocytes with Human Blood Characteristics Using Low Power He-Ne Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssein, Hend A. A.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ramli, R. M.; Ismail, N. E.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Y.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the subpopulations of human blood parameters including lymphocytes, the mid-cell fractions (eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes), and granulocytes were determined by electronic sizing in the Health Centre of Universiti Sains Malaysia. These parameters have been correlated with human blood characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, and blood types; before and after irradiation with 0.95 mW He-Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm). The correlations were obtained by finding patterns, paired non-parametric tests, and an independent non-parametric tests using the SPSS version 11.5, centroid and peak positions, and flux variations. The findings show that the centroid and peak positions, flux peak and total flux, were very much correlated and can become a significant indicator for blood analyses. Furthermore, the encircled flux analysis demonstrated a good future prospect in blood research, thus leading the way as a vibrant diagnosis tool to clarify diseases associated with blood.

  3. Teaching with Videodiscs [and] Teaching Fractions with Videodiscs [and] Mainstreaming Students with Learning Disabilities for Videodisc Math Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an introduction to laser videodisc technology, covering both hardware and courseware considerations and technological applications to special education. Described is the application of videodisc courseware to the teaching of fractions, and results of a successful program to teach fractions to eight mainstreamed students with learning…

  4. Soil Particle Size Analysis by Laser Diffractometry: Result Comparison with Pipette Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šinkovičová, Miroslava; Igaz, Dušan; Kondrlová, Elena; Jarošová, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Soil texture as the basic soil physical property provides a basic information on the soil grain size distribution as well as grain size fraction representation. Currently, there are several methods of particle dimension measurement available that are based on different physical principles. Pipette method based on the different sedimentation velocity of particles with different diameter is considered to be one of the standard methods of individual grain size fraction distribution determination. Following the technical advancement, optical methods such as laser diffraction can be also used nowadays for grain size distribution determination in the soil. According to the literature review of domestic as well as international sources related to this topic, it is obvious that the results obtained by laser diffractometry do not correspond with the results obtained by pipette method. The main aim of this paper was to analyse 132 samples of medium fine soil, taken from the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia, from depths of 15-20 cm and 40-45 cm, respectively, using laser analysers: ANALYSETTE 22 MicroTec plus (Fritsch GmbH) and Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments Ltd). The results obtained by laser diffractometry were compared with pipette method and the regression relationships using linear, exponential, power and polynomial trend were derived. Regressions with the three highest regression coefficients (R2) were further investigated. The fit with the highest tightness was observed for the polynomial regression. In view of the results obtained, we recommend using the estimate of the representation of the clay fraction (<0.01 mm) polynomial regression, to achieve a highest confidence value R2 at the depths of 15-20 cm 0.72 (Analysette 22 MicroTec plus) and 0.95 (Mastersizer 2000), from a depth of 40-45 cm 0.90 (Analysette 22 MicroTec plus) and 0.96 (Mastersizer 2000). Since the percentage representation of clayey particles (2nd fraction according to the methodology of

  5. PHOTONICS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY Laser nanostructuring of materials surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavestovskaya, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews results of experimental and theoretical studies of surface micro- and nanostructuring of metals and other materials irradiated directly by short and ultrashort laser pulses. Special attention is paid to direct laser action involving melting of the material (with or without ablation), followed by ultrarapid surface solidification, which is an effective approach to producing surface nanostructures. Theoretical analysis of recrystallisation kinetics after irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses makes it possible to determine the volume fraction of crystallised phase and the average size of forming crystalline structures as functions of laser treatment regime and thermodynamic properties of the material. The present results can be used to optimise pulsed laser treatment regime in order to ensure control nanostructuring of metal surfaces.

  6. Prospective studies of the efficacy and safety of the picosecond 755, 1,064, and 532 nm lasers for the treatment of infraorbital dark circles.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2018-01-01

    Infraorbital dark circles result from a combination of factors. The fractionated picosecond 755 nm alexandrite laser and dual wavelength picosecond Nd:YAG laser have not been examined as a method of addressing infraorbital hyperpigmentation. To determine the efficacy and safety of treatment of infraorbital dark circles using fractionated picosecond 755 nm and dual wavelength picosecond Nd:YAG laser. These trials did not utilize a comparative design; rather, these were separate, prospective, open-label, evaluator-blinded trials utilizing two treatment regimens: (i) 19 adult subjects were treated in a single session with the dual wavelengths of 532 nm and 1,064 nm in consecutive passes using the fractionated lens; (ii) 10 adult subjects were treated using the picosecond 755 nm laser via the fractionated lens in three treatment sessions at 3 week intervals. Subjects in both studies were followed-up for blinded-investigator assessment of infraorbital hyperpigmentation, adverse events, and improvement compared to baseline. The dual wavelength picosecond Nd:YAG laser, blinded-investigator assessment did not demonstrate a significant improvement in infraorbital hyperpigmentation at day 60 (P = 0.16). The picosecond 755 nm alexandrite laser significantly improved infraorbital hyperpigmentation by day 42, with improvement maintained through day 132 (P = 0.07 and 0.00001, respectively). Adverse events were mild and temporary. A single treatment with the fractionated picosecond 1,064/532 nm lasers did not produce a significant improvement in infraorbital hyperpigmentation. A series of three treatments with the fractionated picosecond 755 nm laser resulted in significant improvement in hyperpigmentation. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:45-50, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nanowire lasers as intracellular probes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Qiushu; Xu, Peizhen; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Biming; Coleman, Rhima M; Tong, Limin; Fan, Xudong

    2018-05-24

    We investigate a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowire (NW) laser that is spontaneously internalized into a single cell to serve as a stand-alone intracellular probe. By pumping with nano-joule light pulses, green laser emission (500-520 nm) can be observed inside cells with a peak linewidth as narrow as 0.5 nm. Due to the sub-micron diameter (∼200 nm), the NW has an appreciable fraction of the evanescent field outside, facilitating a sensitive detection of cellular environmental changes. By monitoring the lasing peak wavelength shift in response to the intracellular refractive index change, our NW laser probe shows a sensitivity of 55 nm per RIU (refractive index units) and a figure of merit of approximately 98.

  8. Experimental radiative lifetimes, branching fractions, and oscillator strengths of some levels in Tm III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qi; Wang, Xinghao; Li, Qiu; Gong, Yimin; Dai, Zhenwen

    2018-06-01

    Natural radiative lifetimes for five even-parity levels of Tm III were measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence method. The branching fraction measurements were performed based on the emission spectra of a hollow cathode lamp. By combining the measured branching fractions and the lifetime values reported in this work and in literature, experimental transition probabilities and oscillator strengths for 11 transitions were derived for the first time.

  9. Tensile behavior of laser treated Fe-Si-B metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Sameehan S.; Samimi, Peyman; Ghamarian, Iman

    2015-10-28

    Fe-Si-B metallic glass foils were treated with a linear laser track using a continuous wave Nd-YAG laser and its effect on the overall tensile behavior was investigated. Microstructure and phase evolutions were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, resistivity measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. Crystallization fraction was estimated via the differential scanning calorimetry technique. Metallic glass foils treated with the lower laser fluences (<0.49 J/mm{sup 2}) experienced structural relaxation, whereas higher laser fluences led to crystallization within the laser treated region. The overall tensile behavior was least impacted by structural relaxation, whereas crystallization severely reduced the ultimate tensile strength of the laser treatedmore » metallic glass foils.« less

  10. Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot in turbulent pool fires.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Kraig; Kearney, Sean P; Grasser, Thomas W

    2011-02-01

    We present what we believe to be the first application of the laser-induced incandescence (LII) technique to large-scale fire testing. The construction of an LII instrument for fire measurements is presented in detail. Soot volume fraction imaging from 2 m diameter pool fires burning blended toluene/methanol liquid fuels is demonstrated along with a detailed report of measurement uncertainty in the challenging pool fire environment. Our LII instrument relies upon remotely located laser, optical, and detection systems and the insertion of water-cooled, fiber-bundle-coupled collection optics into the fire plume. Calibration of the instrument was performed using an ethylene/air laminar diffusion flame produced by a Santoro-type burner, which allowed for the extraction of absolute soot volume fractions from the LII images. Single-laser-shot two-dimensional images of the soot layer structure are presented with very high volumetric spatial resolution of the order of 10(-5) cm3. Probability density functions of the soot volume fraction fluctuations are constructed from the large LII image ensembles. The results illustrate a highly intermittent soot fluctuation field with potentially large macroscale soot structures and clipped soot probability densities.

  11. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Haichen

    Laser ablation is becoming a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample (remove a portion of) a material. The advantages of laser ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition. This review describes recent research to understand and utilize laser ablation for direct solid sampling,more » with emphasis on sample introduction to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Current research related to contemporary experimental systems, calibration and optimization, and fractionation is discussed, with a summary of applications in several areas.« less

  12. Treatment of acne scars and wrinkles in asian patients using carbon-dioxide fractional laser resurfacing: its effects on skin biophysical profiles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Ji; Lee, Yu Na; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2013-11-01

    Although ablative fractional resurfacing is known to be effective against photoaging and acne scars, studies on its efficacy, safety and changes in the skin characteristics of Asians are limited. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide fractional laser (CO2FL) in Koreans treated for wrinkles and acne scars, and to define the changes in skin characteristics during recovery period. We administered one session of CO2FL on 10 acne scar patients and 14 wrinkles patients with skin types IV and V. The surveillance of efficacy and side effects along with the measurement of biophysical properties was carried out before 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after treatment. Using a non-invasive method, skin barrier damage, erythema and bronzing of skin during the recovery period were assessed, and all of the items eventually returned to the pre-treatment level. Skin elasticity was measured in the wrinkle group, and the statistically significant effect was sustained throughout the next three months. The outcome of treatment was found to be better than 'moderate improvement' in both the acne scar and wrinkle groups. Further, there were no serious side effects three months post-procedure. CO2 FL is thought to be an effective and safe method for treating moderate to severe acne scars and wrinkles in Asians.

  13. Thermal evolution behavior and fluid dynamics during laser additive manufacturing of Al-based nanocomposites: Underlying role of reinforcement weight fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dongdong; Yuan, Pengpeng

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional transient computational fluid dynamics model was established to investigate the influence of reinforcement weight fraction on thermal evolution behavior and fluid dynamics during selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing of TiC/AlSi10Mg nanocomposites. The powder-to-solid transition and nonlinear variation of thermal physical properties of as-used materials were considered in the numerical model, using the Gaussian distributed volumetric heat source. The simulation results showed that the increase of operating temperature and the resultant formation of larger melt pool were caused by the increase of weight fraction of reinforcement. The Marangoni convection was intensified using a larger reinforcement content, accelerating the coupled motion of fluid and solid particles. The circular flows appeared when the TiC content reached 5.0 wt. % and the larger-sized circular flows were present as the reinforcement content increased to 7.5 wt. %. The experimental study on surface morphologies and microstructures on the polished sections of SLM-processed TiC/AlSi10Mg nanocomposite parts was performed. A considerably dense and smooth surface free of any balling effect and pore formation was obtained when the reinforcement content was optimized at 5.0 wt. %, due to the sufficient liquid formation and moderate Marangoni flow. Novel ring-structured reinforcing particulates were tailored because of the combined action of the attractive effect of centripetal force and repulsive force, which was consistent with the simulation results.

  14. Short incubation fractional CO2 laser-assisted photodynamic therapy vs. conventional photodynamic therapy in field-cancerized skin: 12-month follow-up results of a randomized intraindividual comparison study.

    PubMed

    Vrani, F; Sotiriou, E; Lazaridou, E; Vakirlis, E; Sideris, N; Kirmanidou, E; Apalla, Z; Lallas, A; Ioannides, D

    2018-06-04

    Topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) with 3 h incubation is recommended as a field directed treatment. Skin pretreatment with ablative CO 2 fractional laser (AFXL) prior to MAL-PDT enhances drug penetration and could minimize incubation time. To evaluate and compare the safety and the preventive effect in the development of new non-melanocytic skin cancers (NMSCs) of AFXL-assisted MAL-PDT with 1-h incubation with that of conventional MAL-PDT in patients with clinical and histological signs of field cancerization. Forty-two patients with two mirror cancerized areas of face or scalp were randomized to field treatment with 1-h incubation AFXL-assisted PDT or conventional PDT (CPDT). All patients underwent two treatment sessions 1 week apart. Irradiation was performed using a red light-emitting diode lamp at 37 J/cm 2 . Patients were followed up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months for the evaluation of development of new NMSCs lesions. All patients completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference with respect to the total number of new actinic keratoses at any point of follow-up as well as to the mean time of occurrence of new lesions between treatment fields. Both treatment regimens were safe and well tolerated. Ablative CO 2 fractional laser pretreatment may be considered as an option for reducing photosensitizer occlusion time while providing the same preventative efficacy as CPDT in patients with field-cancerized skin. © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Novel device-based acne treatments: comparison of a 1450-nm diode laser and microneedling radiofrequency on mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris and seborrhoea in Korean patients through a 20-week prospective, randomized, split-face study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H H; Park, H Y; Choi, S C; Bae, Y; Jung, J Y; Park, G-H

    2018-04-01

    While device-based acne treatments are widely applied for patients not tolerating conventional medications, related controlled studies have been still limited. Recently, non-ablative 1450-nm diode laser (DL) and fractional microneedling radiofrequency (FMR) have been effectively used for acne, in addition to well-recognized dermal remodelling effects. To compare the clinical course of acne treatment between DL and FMR. Twenty-five Korean patients with mild-to-moderate facial acne completed treatments with DL and FMR through a 20-week, randomized split-face study. One randomly assigned half side of each patient's face received DL and the other side by FMR. Treatments were scheduled to receive three consecutive sessions at 4-week intervals. Objective assessments including revised Leeds grades, lesion counts, sebum output measurements, and patients' subjective satisfaction were investigated. Both DL and FMR demonstrated steady improvement of acne and seborrhoea during treatment sessions. While results between two devices were similar during treatment sessions, FMR was superior to DL in the 12-week follow-up. Patients' subjective assessments for seborrhoea improvement were similar between two devices, while those for acne, skin texture, and acne scars were more satisfactory for FMR. For safety profile, no significant difference was observed between two regimens, while mild postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed only in DL side. Both DL and FMR demonstrated efficacies for acne and seborrhoea, with reasonable safety profile. FMR was more effective than DL for the long-term maintenance, and subjective assessments for texture and scar improvements. Therefore, a few sessions of these devices would be a viable option for acne treatments. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Theory of Talbot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet de Chatellus, H.; Lacot, E.; Glastre, W.; Jacquin, O.; Hugon, O.

    2013-09-01

    We provide a theoretical study of frequency-shifted feedback (FSF) lasers, i.e., lasers with an internal frequency shifter, seeded with a monochromatic wave. The resulting spectrum consists in a set of equidistant modes, labeled by n, whose phases vary quadratically with n. We prove the emergence of a temporal fractional Talbot effect, leading to generation of Fourier-transform-limited pulses at a repetition rate tunable by the parameters of the FSF cavity (cavity length and frequency shift per round trip), and limited by the spectral bandwidth of the laser. We characterize in detail the output field of this so-called “Talbot laser” and emphasize its specific intensity fluctuations. We evidence connections with some aspects of number theory by the appearance of Gauss sums and theta series in the expression of the laser field. Our predictions are in full agreement with the experimental results published in Guillet de Chatellus [Opt. ExpressOPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.21.015065 21, 15065 (2013)]. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.

  17. Effective and lesion-free cutaneous influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji; Li, Bo; Wu, Mei X.

    2015-01-01

    The current study details efficient lesion-free cutaneous vaccination via vaccine delivery into an array of micropores in the skin, instead of bolus injection at a single site. Such delivery effectively segregated vaccine-induced inflammation, resulting in rapid resolution of the inflammation, provided that distances between any two micropores were sufficient. When the inoculation site was treated by FDA-approved nonablative fractional laser (NAFL) before insertion of a PR8 model influenza vaccine-packaged, biodegradable microneedle array (MNs), mice displayed vigorous antigen-uptake, eliciting strong Th1-biased immunity. These animals were completely protected from homologous viral challenges, and fully or partially protected from heterologous H1N1 and H3N2 viral challenges, whereas mice receiving MNs alone suffered from severe illnesses or died of similar viral challenges. NAFL-mediated adjuvanicity was ascribed primarily to dsDNA and other “danger” signals released from laser-damaged skin cells. Thus, mice deficient in dsDNA-sensing pathway, but not Toll like receptor (TLR) or inflammasome pathways, showed poor responses to NAFL. Importantly, with this novel approach both mice and swine exhibited strong protective immunity without incurring any appreciable skin irritation, in sharp contrast to the overt skin irritation caused by intradermal injections. The effective lesion-free cutaneous vaccination merits further clinical studies. PMID:25848020

  18. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marynowicz, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples' surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  19. Novel core-shell (TiO2@Silica) nanoparticles for scattering medium in a random laser: higher efficiency, lower laser threshold and lower photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Villar, Ernesto; Mestre, Valdeci; de Oliveira, Paulo C; de Sá, Gilberto F

    2013-12-21

    There has been growing interest in scattering media in recent years, due to their potential applications as solar collectors, photocatalyzers, random lasers and other novel optical devices. Here, we have introduced a novel core-shell scattering medium for a random laser composed of TiO2@Silica nanoparticles. Higher efficiency, lower laser threshold and long photobleaching lifetime in random lasers were demonstrated. This has introduced a new method or parameter (fraction of absorbed pumping), which opens a new avenue to characterize and study the scattering media. Optical chemical and colloidal stabilities were combined by coating a suitable silica shell onto TiO2 nanoparticles.

  20. Light and laser treatment modalities for disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aird, Gregory A; Sitenga, Jenna L; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Vaudreuil, Adam; Huerter, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is poorly standardized. The present review seeks to comprehensively discuss the potential for laser and light modalities in the treatment of DSAP. A systematic review of light and laser treatment modalities was conducted to include 26 cases of patients with DSAP. Systematic review resulted in 14 articles to be included. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) overall was the least successful treatment modality, with clinical improvement seen in a minority of patients (MAL-PDT: N = 9 patients, 33.3% showed improvement; ALA-PDT: N = 3 patients, 0% improvement; hypericin-PDT: N = 2 patients, 0% improvement) after numerous post-procedural side effects of hyperpigmentation, inflammation, erythema, and discomfort. Overall, in the available reports, PDT demonstrates poor outcomes with greater incidence of side effects. The response rates of DSAP lesions treated with lasers were as follows: (Q-switched ruby lasers: N = 2, 100%; CO 2 laser: N = 1, 100%; PDT and CO 2 combination therapy: N = 2, 0-50%; erbium and neodymium YAG lasers: N = 2, 100%; fractional 1927-nm thulium fiber lasers: N = 2, 100%; Grenz rays: N = 1, 100%; and fractional photothermolysis: N = 2, 100%). The side effects of laser therapy were minimal and included mild erythema, slight hyperpigmentation, and moderate edema. Laser therapy is a promising treatment option for DSAP with an excellent side effect profile. However, higher power studies are required to determine optimal guidelines for laser treatment of DSAP.

  1. Efficacy of ablative fractional laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis: 12-month follow-up results of a prospective, randomized, comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Kim, K H; Song, K-H

    2015-07-01

    Early identification and treatment of actinic cheilitis (AC) is recommended. Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapeutic option for AC, PDT for AC does not result in the same satisfactory outcomes as in actinic keratosis (AK). The aim of our study was to compare efficacy, recurrence rate, cosmetic outcome and safety between erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet ablative fractional laser-assisted methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT (Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT) and standard MAL-PDT. Thirty-three patients with histologically confirmed AC randomly received either one session of Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT or two sessions of MAL-PDT. In the MAL-PDT group, the second session of MAL-PDT was administered 7 days later. Patients were followed up at 1 week and 3 and 12 months, and biopsies were taken from all patients at 3 and 12 months after the last treatment session. At the final 12-month follow-up, cosmetic outcomes were assessed. Adverse events were assessed at week 1 of the treatment phase and every subsequent follow-up visit. In the per-protocol (PP) population, Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT was significantly more effective (92% complete response rate) than MAL-PDT (59%; P = 0.040) at the 3-month follow-up, and differences in efficacy remained significant at the 12-month follow-up (85% in Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT and 29% in MAL-PDT). The recurrence rate was significantly lower for Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT (8%) than for MAL-PDT (50%) group at 12 months (P = 0.029). No significant difference in cosmetic outcome or safety was observed between Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT and MAL-PDT. Ablative fractional laser pretreatment has significant benefit for the treatment of AC with PDT. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Controlled intra- and transdermal protein delivery using a minimally invasive Erbium:YAG fractional laser ablation technology.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, Y G; Heinrich, A; Kalia, Y N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was (i) to investigate the feasibility of using fractional laser ablation to create micropore arrays in order to deliver proteins into and across the skin and (ii) to demonstrate how transport rates could be controlled by variation of poration and formulation conditions. Four proteins with very different structures and properties were investigated - equine heart cytochrome c (Cyt c; 12.4 kDa), recombinant human growth hormone expressed in Escherichia coli (hGH; 22 kDa), urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH; 30 kDa) and FITC-labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA; 70 kDa). The transport experiments were performed using a scanning Er:YAG diode pumped laser (P.L.E.A.S.E.®; Precise Laser Epidermal System). The distribution of FITC-BSA in the micropores following P.L.E.A.S.E.® poration was visualised by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Porcine skin was used for the device parameter and CLSM studies; its validity as a model was confirmed by subsequent comparison with transport of Cyt c and FITC-BSA across P.L.E.A.S.E.® porated human skin. No protein transport (deposition or permeation) was observed across intact skin; however, P.L.E.A.S.E.® poration enabled total delivery after 24h of 48.2±8.9, 8.1±4.2, 0.2±0.1 and 273.3±30.6 μg/cm(2) for Cyt c, hGH, FSH and FITC-BSA, respectively, using 900 pores/135.9 cm(2). Calculation of permeability coefficients showed that there was no linear dependence of transport on molecular weight ((1.6±0.3), (0.1±0.05), (0.08±0.03) and (0.9±0.1)×10(-3) cm/h, for Cyt c, hGH, FSH and FITC-BSA, respectively); indeed, a U-shaped curve was observed. This suggested that molecular weight was not a sufficiently sensitive descriptor and that transport was more likely to be determined by the surface properties of the respective proteins since these would govern interactions with the local microenvironment. Increasing pore density (i.e. the number of micropores per unit area) had a statistically

  3. Correlation of histological findings of single session Er:YAG skin fractional resurfacing with various passes and energies and the possible clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Vélez, Mariano; Mordon, Serge

    2008-03-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing shows promise for skin resurfacing and tightening and also to improve treatment of epidermal and dermal pigmentary disorders. This study aimed at determining any correlation between epidermal ablation and effects on the dermis when using an Er:YAG laser in ablative fractional resurfacing mode. Ten female subjects participated in the study, mean age 52 years, Skin phototypes: 1 Fitzpatrick type II; 8 type III and 1 type IV. The degree of wrinkles (Glogau scale II or III) was similar in all cases. The laser used was the Pixel Er:YAG system (Alma Lasertrade mark, Israel) which delivers the laser beam via a hand-piece equipped with a beam splitter to divide the 2,940 nm beam into various microbeams of 850 microm in diameter in an 11 mmx11 mm treatment area. Using a constant energy of 1,400 mJ/cm(2), on a test area of 4 cmx2 cm. Two, 4, 6, and 8 passes on the preauricular area of the face were evaluated immediately after treatment. In all cases, the handpiece was kept in the same position, and rotated slightly around its perpendicular axis between passes, then moved on to the next spot. Biopsies were performed and tissue samples were routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). No patient reported any noticeable discomfort, even at 8 passes. The histological findings revealed that, independent of the degree of the wrinkles, more laser passes produced more ablative removal of the epidermis. Residual thermal damage (RTD) with 2 laser passes was not observed but with 4 and 6 passes increased thermal effects and vacuole formation in the epidermal cells were noticed. With 8 laser passes, total epidermal removal was seen together with frank RTD-related changes in the upper part of the papillary dermis. In this study, we have demonstrated that high density fractional Er:YAG laser energy in a single session with multiple passes targeted not only the skin surface with elimination of the epidermis, but could also achieve heat

  4. The effect of ultrafast laser wavelength on ablation properties and implications on sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    LaHaye, N. L.; Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.; Kulkarni, P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of femtosecond (fs) laser wavelength on laser ablation (LA) and its relation to laser generated aerosol counts and particle distribution, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) signal intensity, detection limits, and elemental fractionation. Four different NIST standard reference materials (610, 613, 615, and 616) were ablated using 400 nm and 800 nm fs laser pulses to study the effect of wavelength on laser ablation rate, accuracy, precision, and fractionation. Our results show that the detection limits are lower for 400 nm laser excitation than 800 nm laser excitation at lower laser energies but approximately equal at higher energies. Ablation threshold was also found to be lower for 400 nm than 800 nm laser excitation. Particle size distributions are very similar for 400 nm and 800 nm wavelengths; however, they differ significantly in counts at similar laser fluence levels. This study concludes that 400 nm LA is more beneficial for sample introduction in ICP-MS, particularly when lower laser energies are to be used for ablation. PMID:26640294

  5. Treatment of Acne Scars and Wrinkles in Asian Patients Using Carbon-Dioxide Fractional Laser Resurfacing: Its Effects on Skin Biophysical Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young Ji; Lee, Yu Na; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2013-01-01

    Background Although ablative fractional resurfacing is known to be effective against photoaging and acne scars, studies on its efficacy, safety and changes in the skin characteristics of Asians are limited. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide fractional laser (CO2FL) in Koreans treated for wrinkles and acne scars, and to define the changes in skin characteristics during recovery period. Methods We administered one session of CO2FL on 10 acne scar patients and 14 wrinkles patients with skin types IV and V. The surveillance of efficacy and side effects along with the measurement of biophysical properties was carried out before 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after treatment. Results Using a non-invasive method, skin barrier damage, erythema and bronzing of skin during the recovery period were assessed, and all of the items eventually returned to the pre-treatment level. Skin elasticity was measured in the wrinkle group, and the statistically significant effect was sustained throughout the next three months. The outcome of treatment was found to be better than 'moderate improvement' in both the acne scar and wrinkle groups. Further, there were no serious side effects three months post-procedure. Conclusion CO2 FL is thought to be an effective and safe method for treating moderate to severe acne scars and wrinkles in Asians. PMID:24371392

  6. Amplitude Noise Reduction of Ion Lasers with Optical Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in amplitude noise on the output of a multi-mode continuous-wave Ar-ion laser was previously demonstrated when a fraction of the output power was retroreflected back into the laser cavity. This result was reproduced in the present work and a Fabry-Perot etalon was used to monitor the longitudinal mode structure of the laser. A decrease in the number of operating longitudinal cavity modes was observed simultaneously with the introduction of the optical feedback and the onset of the amplitude noise reduction. The noise reduction is a result of a reduced number of lasing modes, resulting in less mode beating and amplitude fluctuations of the laser output power.

  7. Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-05-01

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to FI. Increases in computational and modelling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modelling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modelling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale FI problem.

  8. Skin pre-ablation and laser assisted microjet injection for deep tissue penetration.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hun-Jae; Yeo, Seonggu; Yoh, Jack J

    2017-04-01

    For conventional needless injection, there still remain many unresolved issues such as the potential for cross-contamination, poor reliability of targeted delivery dose, and significantly painstaking procedures. As an alternative, the use of microjets generated with Er:YAG laser for delivering small doses with controlled penetration depths has been reported. In this study, a new system with two stages is evaluated for effective transdermal drug delivery. First, the skin is pre-ablated to eliminate the hard outer layer and second, laser-driven microjet penetrates the relatively weaker and freshly exposed epidermis. Each stage of operation shares a single Er:YAG laser that is suitable for skin ablation as well as for the generation of a microjet. In this study, pig skin is selected for quantification of the injection depth based on the two-stage procedure, namely pre-ablation and microjet injection. The three types of pre-ablation devised here consists of bulk ablation, fractional ablation, and fractional-rotational ablation. The number of laser pulses are 12, 18, and 24 for each ablation type. For fractional-rotational ablation, the fractional beams are rotated by 11.25° at each pulse. The drug permeation in the skin is evaluated using tissue marking dyes. The depth of penetration is quantified by a cross sectional view of the single spot injections. Multi-spot injections are also carried out to control the dose and spread of the drug. The benefits of a pre-ablation procedure prior to the actual microjet injection to the penetration is verified. The four possible combinations of injection are (a) microjet only; (b) bulk ablation and microjet injection; (c) fractional ablation and microjet injection; and (d) fractional-rotational ablation and microjet injection. Accordingly, the total depth increases with injection time for all cases. In particular, the total depth of penetration attained via fractional pre-ablation increased by 8 ∼ 11% and that of fractional

  9. Instantaneous temperature field measurements using planar laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Seitzman, J M; Kychakoff, G; Hanson, R K

    1985-09-01

    A single-pulse, laser-induced-fluorescence diagnostic for the measurement of two-dimensional temperature fields in combustion flows is described. The method uses sheet illumination from a tunable laser to excite planar laserinduced fluorescence in a stable tracer molecule, seeded at constant mole fraction into the flow field. The temporal resolution of this technique is determined by the laser pulse length. Experimental results are presented for a rodstabilized, premixed methane-air flame, using the Q(1) (22) line of the nitric oxide A(2) Sigma(+) (v = 0) ? X(2)II((1/2))(v = 0) transition (lambda approximately 225.6 nm).

  10. Polarization dependence of laser interaction with carbon fibers and CFRP.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christian; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas

    2014-01-27

    A key factor for laser materials processing is the absorptivity of the material at the laser wavelength, which determines the fraction of the laser energy that is coupled into the material. Based on the Fresnel equations, a theoretical model is used to determine the absorptivity for carbon fiber fabrics and carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). The surface of each carbon fiber is considered as multiple layers of concentric cylinders of graphite. With this the optical properties of carbon fibers and their composites can be estimated from the well-known optical properties of graphite.

  11. Catalytic Oxidation of CO for Closed-Cycle CO2 Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I. M.; Schryer, D. R.; Hess, R. V.; Sidney, B. D.; Wood, G. M., Jr.; Paulin, P. A.; Upchurch, B. T.; Brown, K. G.

    1987-01-01

    Stoichiometric mixture converted completely. High-energy pulsed CO2 lasers have potential for measuring many different features of atmosphere of Earth and particularly useful on airborne or space platforms. For this application, laser must be operated in closed cycle to conserve gas, especially if rare nonradioactive isotopes of carbon and oxygen used. However, laser discharge decomposes fraction of CO2 to CO and O2, causing rapid loss in power leading to erratic behavior. To maintain operation, CO and O2 must be recombined to form CO2.

  12. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladded Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V high-entropy alloy coating after laser remelting processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhaobing; Cui, Xiufang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yang; Dong, Meiling; Jin, Guo

    2018-02-01

    An attempt, combined with the technologies of laser cladding and laser remelting, has been made to develop a Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V high entropy alloy coating. The phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and wear resistance (rolling friction) were studied in detail. The results show that after laser remelting, the phase composition remains unchanged, that is, as-cladded coating and as-remelted coatings are all composed of (Ni, Co)Ti2 intermetallic compound, Ti-rich phase and BCC solid solution phase. However, after laser remelting, the volume fraction of Ti-rich phase increases significantly. Moreover, the micro-hardness is increased, up to ∼900 HV at the laser remelting parameters: laser power of 1 kW, laser spot diameter of 3 mm, and laser speed of 10 mm/s. Compared to the as-cladded high-entropy alloy coating, the as-remelted high-entropy alloy coatings have high friction coefficient and low wear mass loss, indicating that the wear resistance of as-remelted coatings is improved and suggesting practical applications, like coatings on brake pads for wear protection. The worn surface morphologies show that the worn mechanism of as-cladded and as-remelted high-entropy alloy coatings are adhesive wear.

  13. Evaporation Induced Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in Impact Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, C. A.; Young, E. D.; Kohl, I. E.; zur Loye, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Tektites are natural glasses formed as quenched impact melt ejecta. Because they experienced extreme heating while entrained in a hot impact vapor plume, tektites allow insight into the nature of these ephemeral events, which play a critical role in planetary accretion and evolution. During tektite formation, the chemical and isotopic composition of parent materials may be modified by (1) vapor/liquid fractionation at high T in the plume, (2) incorporation of meteoric water at the target site, (3) isotope exchange with atmospheric oxygen (if present), or some combination of the three. Trends from O isotope studies reveal a dichotomy: some tektite δ18O values are 4.0-4.5‰ lower than their protoliths (Luft et al. 1987; Taylor & Epstein 1962), opposite in direction to a vaporization induced fractionation; increases in δ18O with decreasing SiO2 in tektites (Taylor & Epstein 1969) is consistent with vapor fractionation. Using an aerodynamic levitation laser furnace (e.g. Macris et al. 2016), we can experimentally determine the contributions of processes (1), (2) and (3) above to tektite compositions. We conducted a series of evaporation experiments to test process (1) using powdered tektite fused into 2 mm spheres and heated to 2423-2473 K for 50-90 s while levitated in Ar in the furnace. Mass losses were from 23 to 26%, reflecting evaporation of Si and O from the melt. The starting tektite had a δ18O value of 10.06‰ (±0.01 2se) and the residues ranged from 13.136‰ (±0.006) for the least evaporated residue to 14.30‰ (±0.02) for the most evaporated (measured by laser fluorination). The increase in δ18O with increasing mass loss is consistent with Rayleigh fractionation during evaporation, supporting the idea that O isotopes are fractionated due to vaporization at high T in an impact plume. Because atmospheric O2 and water each have distinctive Δ17O values, we should be able to use departures from our measured three-isotope fractionation law to evaluate

  14. Synthesis and characterization of bulk metallic glasses prepared by laser direct deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaoyang

    Fe-based and Zr-based metallic glasses have attracted extensive interest for structural applications due to their excellent glass forming ability, superior mechanical properties, unique thermal and corrosion properties. In this study, the feasibility of synthesizing metallic glasses with good ductility by laser direct deposition is explored. Both in-situ synthesis with elemental powder mixture and ex-situ synthesis with prealloyed powder are discussed. Microstructure and properties of laser direct deposited metallic glass composites are analyzed. Synthesis of Fe-Cr-Mo-W-Mn-C-Si-B metallic glass composite with a large fraction of amorphous phase was accomplished using laser direct deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed the existence of amorphous structure. Microstructure analyses by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the periodically repeated microstructures of amorphous and crystalline phases. Partially crystallized structure brought by laser reheating and remelting during subsequent laser scans aggregated in the overlapping area between each scan. XRD analysis showed that the crystalline particle embedded in the amorphous matrix was Cr 1.07Fe18.93 phase. No significant microstructural differences were found from the first to the last layer. Microhardness of the amorphous phase (HV0.2 1591) showed a much higher value than that of the crystalline phase (HV0.2 947). Macrohardness of the top layer had a value close to the microhardness of the amorphous region. Wear resistance property of deposited layers showed a significant improvement with the increased fraction of amorphous phase. Zr65Al10Ni10Cu15 amorphous composites with a large fraction of amorphous phase were in-situ synthesized by laser direct deposition. X-ray diffraction confirmed the existence of both amorphous and crystalline phases. Laser parameters were optimized in order to increase the fraction of amorphous phase

  15. 698-nm diode laser with 1-Hz linewidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Linbo; Xu, Guanjun; Liu, Jun; Dong, Ruifang; Liu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Two diode lasers at 698 nm are separately locked to two independent optical reference cavities with a finesse of about 128,000 by the Pound-Drever-Hall method. The more accurate coefficient between voltage and frequency of the error signal is measured, with which quantitative evaluation of the effect of many noises on the frequency stability can be made much more conveniently. A temperature-insensitive method is taken to reduce the effect of residual amplitude modulation on laser frequency stability. With an active fiber noise cancellation, the optical heterodyne beat between two independent lasers shows that the linewidth of one diode laser reaches 1 Hz. The fractional Allan deviation removed linear frequency shift less than 30 mHz/s is below 2.6×10-15 with 1- to 100-s average time.

  16. Lasers for treatment of melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pooja; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay K; Arya, Latika

    2012-04-01

    Hyperpigmentary disorders, especially melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), cause significant social and emotional stress to the patients. Although many treatment modalities have been developed for melasma and PIH, its management still remains a challenge due to its recurrent and refractory nature. With the advent of laser technology, the treatment options have increased especially for dermal or mixed melasma. To review the literature on the use of cutaneous lasers for melasma and PIH. We carried out a PubMed search using following terms "lasers, IPL, melasma, PIH". We cited the use of various lasers to treat melasma and PIH, including Q-switched Nd:YAG, Q-switched alexandrite, pulsed dye laser, and various fractional lasers. We describe the efficacy and safety of these lasers for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Choosing the appropriate laser and the correct settings is vital in the treatment of melasma. The use of latter should be restricted to cases unresponsive to topical therapy or chemical peels. Appropriate maintenance therapy should be selected to avoid relapse of melasma.

  17. Lasers for Treatment of Melasma and Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pooja; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay K; Arya, Latika

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpigmentary disorders, especially melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), cause significant social and emotional stress to the patients. Although many treatment modalities have been developed for melasma and PIH, its management still remains a challenge due to its recurrent and refractory nature. With the advent of laser technology, the treatment options have increased especially for dermal or mixed melasma. To review the literature on the use of cutaneous lasers for melasma and PIH. We carried out a PubMed search using following terms “lasers, IPL, melasma, PIH”. We cited the use of various lasers to treat melasma and PIH, including Q-switched Nd:YAG, Q-switched alexandrite, pulsed dye laser, and various fractional lasers. We describe the efficacy and safety of these lasers for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Choosing the appropriate laser and the correct settings is vital in the treatment of melasma. The use of latter should be restricted to cases unresponsive to topical therapy or chemical peels. Appropriate maintenance therapy should be selected to avoid relapse of melasma. PMID:23060704

  18. Laser-induced reversion of δ' precipitates in an Al-Li alloy: Study on temperature rise in pulsed laser atom probe.

    PubMed

    Khushaim, Muna; Gemma, Ryota; Al-Kassab, Talaat

    2016-08-01

    The influence of tuning the laser pulse energy during the analyses on the resulting microstructure in a specimen utilizing an ultra-fast laser assisted atom probe was demonstrated by a case study of a binary Al-Li alloy. The decomposition parameters, such as the size, number density, volume fraction, and composition of δ' precipitates, were carefully monitored after each analysis. A simple model was employed to estimate the corresponding specimen temperature for each value of the laser energy. The results indicated that the corresponding temperatures for the laser pulse energy in the range of 10 to 80 pJ are located inside the miscibility gap of the binary Al-Li phase diagram and fall into the metastable equilibrium field. In addition, the corresponding temperature for a laser pulse energy of 100 pJ was in fairly good agreement with reported range of  δ' solvus temperature, suggesting a result of reversion upon heating due to laser pulsing. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:727-737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Role of photoacoustic effects occurring at laser perforation of skin and laser transcutaneous drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Latyshev, Alexei S.

    2000-05-01

    A further study is given of photoacoustic (PA) drug delivery technologies using an Er:YAG laser, with the main emphasis being placed on the laser perforation of skin and on PA impregnation using an additional covering quartz plate. A mathematical model based on Fick's law for PA impregnation with regard to a free and rigid interface is considered. The histological examination of the perforated guinea-pig skin ex vivo shoed that a powerful PA wave forced skin epidermis to be bent inwards. In biopsies taken 15 min later the nuclei pyknosis of epidermis cells lining the perforated channel was observed. In biopsies obtained 36 hours later an insignificant necrotic lesion remained, whereas 120 hours laser the cells recovered. I twas shown experimentally that the PA signal increased 30 times after applying a quartz plate over the drug solution, which substantially enhanced drug penetration through the skin .The dependancies were obtained of the penetration depth of the haematoporphyrin derivative photosensitizer versus the number of laser pulses and the pressing force applied to the quartz plate. The chromatographic fractionation of Diprospan and Dexamethasone hormonal preparations prior to and after the action of 200 Er:YAG laser-induced PA waves demonstrated that no additional chemical agents resulting from drug dissociation were detected. The application of laser drug delivery methods in respect of treating dermatological diseases is also discussed.

  20. [Laser-assisted blepharoplasty].

    PubMed

    Thiesmann, R

    2018-04-01

    Blepharoplasty is one of the most frequently performed plastic cosmetic interventions. For this purpose the CO 2 laser is an instrument that can be used as a laser scalpel to cut as well as in its ablative function to remove skin irregularities, such as scars and tumors and also to treat changes of the skin due to aging. Fractionated laser irradiation reduces the duration of skin redness and the postoperative rehabilitation time after a resurfacing. The advantages of the CO 2 laser are a gentle intraoperative preparation and less postoperative swelling due to an additional cauterization of blood vessels. Disadvantages are an increased occurrence of wound dehiscence and the high cost of instrumentation. Before performing a blepharoplasty an exact analysis of changes of the eyelid and also the wishes of the patients are necessary to establish the most suitable surgical procedure and the correct dosage. In addition to skin and fat resection, depending on the original situation it is possible to tighten slack skin with a resurfacing, to shift the fat compartments, to change the position of the eyebrows, to correct a ptosis and also to modulate the tension of the lid. The frequency of complications can be reduced by good planning of the surgical intervention. In the case of occurrence of complications, suitable treatment strategies should be available.

  1. Iron isotope composition of particles produced by UV-femtosecond laser ablation of natural oxides, sulfides, and carbonates.

    PubMed

    d'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Beard, Brian L; Czaja, Andrew D; Konishi, Hiromi; Schauer, James J; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-12-17

    The need for femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) systems coupled to MC-ICP-MS to accurately perform in situ stable isotope analyses remains an open question, because of the lack of knowledge concerning ablation-related isotopic fractionation in this regime. We report the first iron isotope analysis of size-resolved, laser-induced particles of natural magnetite, siderite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite, collected through cascade impaction, followed by analysis by solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS, as well as imaging using electron microscopy. Iron mass distributions are independent of mineralogy, and particle morphology includes both spheres and agglomerates for all ablated phases. X-ray spectroscopy shows elemental fractionation in siderite (C-rich agglomerates) and pyrrhotite/pyrite (S-rich spheres). We find an increase in (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratios of +2‰, +1.2‰, and +0.8‰ with increasing particle size for magnetite, siderite, and pyrrhotite, respectively. Fe isotope differences in size-sorted aerosols from pyrite ablation are not analytically resolvable. Experimental data are discussed using models of particles generation by Hergenröder and elemental/isotopic fractionation by Richter. We interpret the isotopic fractionation to be related to the iron condensation time scale, dependent on its saturation in the gas phase, as a function of mineral composition. Despite the isotopic variations across aerosol size fractions, total aerosol composition, as calculated from mass balance, confirms that fs-LA produces a stoichiometric sampling in terms of isotopic composition. Specifically, both elemental and isotopic fractionation are produced by particle generation processes and not by femtosecond laser-matter interactions. These results provide critical insights into the analytical requirements for laser-ablation-based stable isotope measurements of high-precision and accuracy in geological samples, including the importance of quantitative aerosol transport to the ICP.

  2. Mid-infrared laser-absorption diagnostic for vapor-phase measurements in an evaporating n-decane aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J. M.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2009-09-01

    A novel three-wavelength mid-infrared laser-based absorption/extinction diagnostic has been developed for simultaneous measurement of temperature and vapor-phase mole fraction in an evaporating hydrocarbon fuel aerosol (vapor and liquid droplets). The measurement technique was demonstrated for an n-decane aerosol with D 50˜3 μ m in steady and shock-heated flows with a measurement bandwidth of 125 kHz. Laser wavelengths were selected from FTIR measurements of the C-H stretching band of vapor and liquid n-decane near 3.4 μm (3000 cm -1), and from modeled light scattering from droplets. Measurements were made for vapor mole fractions below 2.3 percent with errors less than 10 percent, and simultaneous temperature measurements over the range 300 K< T<900 K were made with errors less than 3 percent. The measurement technique is designed to provide accurate values of temperature and vapor mole fraction in evaporating polydispersed aerosols with small mean diameters ( D 50<10 μ m), where near-infrared laser-based scattering corrections are prone to error.

  3. Laser-driven fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1973-10-01

    A laser-driven fusion reactor consisting of concentric spherical vessels in which the thermonuclear energy is derived from a deuterium-tritium (D + T) burn within a pellet'', located at the center of the vessels and initiated by a laser pulse. The resulting alpha -particle energy and a small fraction of the neutron energy are deposited within the pellet; this pellet energy is eventually transformed into sensible heat of lithium in a condenser outside the vessels. The remaining neutron energy is dissipated in a lithium blanket, located within the concentric vessels, where the fuel ingredient, tritium, is also produced. The heat content of the blanket and of the condenser lithium is eventually transferred to a conventional thermodynamic plant where the thermal energy is converted to electrical energy in a steam Rankine cycle. (Official Gazette)

  4. Electron beam pumped semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Electron-beam-pumped semiconductor ultra-violet optical sources (ESUVOSs) are disclosed that use ballistic electron pumped wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The sources may produce incoherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped light emitting triodes (ELETs). The sources may produce coherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped laser triodes (ELTs). The ELTs may take the form of electron-beam-pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (EVCSEL) or edge emitting electron-beam-pumped lasers (EEELs). The semiconductor medium may take the form of an aluminum gallium nitride alloy that has a mole fraction of aluminum selected to give a desired emission wavelength, diamond, or diamond-like carbon (DLC). The sources may be produced from discrete components that are assembled after their individual formation or they may be produced using batch MEMS-type or semiconductor-type processing techniques to build them up in a whole or partial monolithic manner, or combination thereof.

  5. An Investigation into the Relationship Between Distillate Yield and Stable Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T.; Wagner, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Recent breakthroughs in laser spectrometry have allowed for faster, more efficient analyses of stable isotopic ratios in water samples. Commercially available instruments from Los Gatos Research and Picarro allow users to quickly analyze a wide range of samples, from seawater to groundwater, with accurate isotope ratios of D/H to within ± 0.2 ‰ and 18O/16O to within ± 0.03 ‰. While these instruments have increased the efficiency of stable isotope laboratories, they come with some major limitations, such as not being able to analyze hypersaline waters. The Los Gatos Research Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer (LWIA) can accurately and consistently measure the stable isotope ratios in waters with salinities ranging from 0 to 4 grams per liter (0 to 40 parts per thousand). In order to analyze water samples with salinities greater than 4 grams per liter, however, it was necessary to develop a consistent method through which to reduce salinity while causing as little fractionation as possible. Using a consistent distillation method, predictable fractionation of δ 18O and δ 2 H values was found to occur. This fractionation occurs according to a linear relationship with respect to the percent yield of the water in the sample. Using this method, samples with high salinity can be analyzed using laser spectrometry instruments, thereby enabling laboratories with Los Gatos or Picarro instruments to analyze those samples in house without having to dilute them using labor-intensive in-house standards or expensive premade standards.

  6. Dilution effect on the formation of amorphous phase in the laser cladded Ni-Fe-B-Si-Nb coatings after laser remelting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruifeng; Li, Zhuguo; Huang, Jian; Zhu, Yanyan

    2012-08-01

    Ni-Fe-B-Si-Nb coatings have been deposited on mild steel substrates using high power diode laser cladding. Scanning laser beam at high speeds was followed to remelt the surface of the coatings. Different laser cladding powers in the range of 700-1000 W were used to obtain various dilution ratios in the coating. The dilution effect on the chemical characterization, phase composition and microstructure is analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning-electron microscopy. The microhardness distribution of the coatings after laser processing is also measured. The results reveal that Ni-based amorphous composite coatings have successfully been fabricated on mild steel substrate at low dilution ratio when the cladding power was 700 W, 800 W and 900 W. While at high laser power of 1000 W, no amorphous phase was found. The coatings with low dilution ratio exhibit the highest microhardness of 1200 HV0.5 due to their largest volume fraction of amorphous phase.

  7. Spectra of laser generated relativistic electrons using cone-wire targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    We report on the characterization of the in situ energy spectrum of fast electrons generated by ultra-intense (I˜10^19 W cm-2) short pulse (τ˜0.7 and 10 ps) laser-plasma interactions using the TITAN and OMEGA EP lasers. That in situ spectrum is a key component of ignition efficiency for the Fast Ignition (FI) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) concept. It is challenging to model and, until now, has resisted direct experimental characterization; other techniques have very large error bars or measure the modified spectrum of escaped electrons. This technique also gives an indication of the forward coupling efficiency of the laser to fast electrons. This information is derived from the measurement of Cu Kα x-rays emitted from a 1.5 mm long Cu wire attached to the tip of Au or Al cone targets. Fast electrons, generated in the cone, transport through the cone tip with a fraction of coupling to the wire. Electrons in the wire excite fluorescence measured by a monochromatic imager and an absolutely calibrated HOPG spectrometer. An implicit hybrid-PIC code, LSP, is applied to deduce electron parameters from the Kα measurements. Experiments on the TITAN laser with Au cones attached to wires show an increase in pre-pulse energy from 17 to 1000 mJ, decreases the fast electron fraction entering the wire from 8.4% to 2.5%. On OMEGA EP with Al cones attached to wires, total Kα yield, normalized to laser energy, drops ˜30% for laser pulse length increasing from 1 to 10 ps, indicative of a saturation mechanism. For Au cones, Kα yields were 50% of that measured for Al cones indicating a strong material dependence. In all cases, the spatial distribution can only be fit with a two-temperature electron energy distribution, the relative fractions depending on prepulse level. These results are being used to develop an optimum cone design for integrated FI experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the USDOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-FG-02

  8. Period locking due to delayed feedback in a laser with saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Carr, T W

    2003-08-01

    We consider laser with saturable absorber operating in the pulsating regime that is subject to delayed feedback. Alone, both the saturable absorber and delayed feedback cause the clockwise output to become unstable to periodic output via Hopf bifurcations. The delay feedback causes the laser pulse period to lock to an integer fraction of the feedback time. We derive a map from the original model to describe the periodic pulsations of the laser. Equations for the period of the laser predict the occurrence of the different locking states as well as the value of the pump when there is a switch between the locked states.

  9. Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face Study Evaluating Fractional Ablative Erbium:YAG Laser-Mediated Trans-Epidermal Delivery of Cosmetic Actives and a Novel Acoustic Pressure Wave Ultrasound Technology for the Treatment of Skin Aging, Melasma, and Acne Scars.

    PubMed

    Alexiades, Macrene

    2015-11-01

    Fractional laser resurfacing enhances trans-epidermal delivery (TED), however laser penetration depths >250- μm fail to substantively increase drug delivery. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel acoustic pressure wave ultrasound device following fractional ablative Er:YAG 2940-nm laser (FELR) and topical agents for rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Randomized, blinded, parallel group split-face side-by-side, controlled study evaluating FELR and topical anti-aging and anti-pigment agents to entire face succeeded by ultrasound to randomized side. Fifteen subjects were enrolled to three treatment arms:rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Two monthly treatments were administered with 1, 3, and 6 month follow-up. Efficacy was assessed by Comprehensive Grading Scale of Rhytids, Laxity, and Photoaging by Investigator and two blinded physician evaluators. Subject assessments, digital photographs, and reflectance spectroscopic analyses were obtained. Rhytid severity was reduced from a mean of 3.25 to 2.60 on the 4-point grading scale. Spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated increases in lightness (L*) and reductions in redness (a*) and pigment (b*), with greater improvements on the ultrasound side as compared to FELR and topicals alone. Moderate erythema post-treatment resolved in 7 days and no serious adverse events were observed. In this randomized, paired split-face clinical study, FELR-facilitated TED of topical anti-aging actives with ultrasound treatment is safe and effective with improvement in rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Statistically significant greater improvement in pigment levels was observed on the ultrasound side as compared to FELR-TED and topical agents alone.

  10. Tunable dispersion compensation of quantum cascade laser frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Hillbrand, Johannes; Jouy, Pierre; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme

    2018-04-15

    Compensating for group velocity dispersion is an important challenge to achieve stable midinfrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) frequency combs with large spectral coverage. We present a tunable dispersion compensation scheme consisting of a planar mirror placed behind the back facet of the QCL. Dispersion can be either enhanced or decreased depending on the position of the mirror. We demonstrate that the fraction of the comb regime in the dynamic range of the laser increases considerably when the dispersion induced by the Gires-Tournois interferometer compensates the intrinsic dispersion of the laser. Furthermore, it is possible to tune to the offset frequency of the comb with the Gires-Tournois interferometer while the repetition frequency is almost unaffected.

  11. Experimental radiative lifetimes, branching fractions, and oscillator strengths of some levels in Co I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinghao; Yu, Qi; Li, Qiu; Gao, Yang; Dai, Zhenwen

    2018-04-01

    The radiative lifetime measurements by the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique are reported for 24 levels of Co I with the energy range of 283 45.86-55 922.3 cm-1, amongst which the lifetimes of 20 levels are reported for the first time. The branching fraction measurements by the emission spectrum of a hollow cathode lamp were performed for 11 levels of them together with other two levels reported in the literature, and branching fractions of 39 transitions were obtained. By combining them with lifetime values, the transition probabilities and absolute oscillator strengths of these lines were determined.

  12. Laser application to measure vertical sea temperature and turbidity, design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, J. G.; Wouters, A. W.; Simon, K. M.; Byrne, J. D.; Deverdun, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment to test a new method was designed, using backscattered radiation from a laser beam to measure oceanographic parameters in a fraction of a second. Tyndall, Rayleigh, Brillouin, and Raman scattering all are utilized to evaluate the parameters. A beam from a continuous argon ion laser is used together with an interferometer and interference filters to gather the information. The results are checked by direct measurements. Future shipboard and airborne experiments are described.

  13. The Effect of Conditioned Media of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Wound Healing after Ablative Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bing-Rong; Xu, Yang; Guo, Shi-Lei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Fen; Wu, Di; Yin, Zhi-Qiang; Luo, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the benefits of conditioned medium of Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-CM) on wound healing after fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing (FxCR) on human skin. Materials and Methods. Nineteen subjects were treated with FxCR on the bilateral inner arms. ADSC-CM was applied on FxCR site of one randomly selected arm. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, and gross-elasticity of FxCR site on both arms were measured. Skin samples were taken by biopsy from three subjects 3 weeks after treatment for histopathological manifestations and mRNA expressions of procollagen types I and III, elastin genes were noted. Results. The index of erythema, melanin, and TEWL of the ADSC-CM-treated skin were significantly lower than those of the control side. The mRNA expression of type III procollagen in ADSC-CM-treated group at 3 weeks posttreatment was 2.6 times of that of the control group. Conclusion. Application of allograft ADSC-CM is an effective method for enhancing wound healing after FxCR, by reducing transient adverse effects such as erythema, hyperpigmentation, and increased TEWL. PMID:24381938

  14. Phase-Shifted Laser Feedback Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovryn, Benjie

    1999-01-01

    Phase-shifted, laser feedback interferometry is a new diagnostic tool developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center under the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program directed by NASA Headquarters Microgravity Research Division. It combines the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and laser-feedback interferometry (LFI) to produce an instrument that can quantify both optical path length changes and sample reflectivity variations. In a homogenous medium, the optical path length between two points is the product of the index of refraction and the geometric distance between the two points. LFI differs from other forms of interferometry by using the laser as both the source and the phase detector. In LFI, coherent feedback of the incident light either reflected directly from a surface or reflected after transmission through a region of interest will modulate the output intensity of the laser. The combination of PSI and LFI has produced a robust instrument, based on a low-power helium-neon (HeNe) gas laser, with a high dynamic range that can be used to measure either static or oscillatory changes of the optical path length. Small changes in optical path length are limited by the fraction of a fringe that can be measured; we can measure nonoscillatory changes with a root mean square (rms) error of the wavelength/1000 without averaging.

  15. Laser assisted drug delivery: a review of an evolving technology.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Lindsay R; Burnett, Christopher T; Waibel, Jill S; Moy, Ronald L; Ozog, David M

    2014-04-01

    Topically applied drugs have a relatively low cutaneous bioavailability. This article reviews the existing applications of laser assisted drug delivery, a means by which the permeation of topically applied agents can be enhanced into the skin. The existing literature suggests that lasers are a safe and effective means of enhancing the delivery of topically applied agents through the skin. The types of lasers most commonly studied in regards to drug delivery are the carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) lasers. Both conventional ablative and fractional ablative modalities have been utilized and are summarized herein. The majority of the existing studies on laser assisted drug delivery have been performed on animal models and additional human studies are needed. Laser assisted drug delivery is an evolving technology with potentially broad clinical applications. Multiple studies demonstrate that laser pretreatment of the skin can increase the permeability and depth of penetration of topically applied drug molecules for both local cutaneous and systemic applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.

    2006-07-01

    We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.

  17. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  18. Composition and molecular weight distribution of carob germ protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brennan M; Bean, Scott R; Schober, Tilman J; Tilley, Michael; Herald, Thomas J; Aramouni, Fadi

    2010-07-14

    Biochemical properties of carob germ proteins were analyzed using a combination of selective extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS), and electrophoretic analysis. Using a modified Osborne extraction procedure, carob germ flour proteins were found to contain approximately 32% albumin and globulin and approximately 68% glutelin with no prolamins detected. The albumin and globulin fraction was found to contain low amounts of disulfide-bonded polymers with relatively low M(w) ranging up to 5 x 10(6) Da. The glutelin fraction, however, was found to contain large amounts of high molecular weight disulfide-bonded polymers with M(w) up to 8 x 10(7) Da. When extracted under nonreducing conditions and divided into soluble and insoluble proteins as typically done for wheat gluten, carob germ proteins were found to be almost entirely ( approximately 95%) in the soluble fraction with only ( approximately 5%) in the insoluble fraction. As in wheat, SEC-MALS analysis showed that the insoluble proteins had a greater M(w) than the soluble proteins and ranged up to 8 x 10(7) Da. The lower M(w) distribution of the polymeric proteins of carob germ flour may account for differences in functionality between wheat and carob germ flour.

  19. Laser Cooling for Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D. D.-M.; Brandon, S.; Lee, Y.

    1997-05-01

    A critical requirement for HIF is the ability to focus space-charge dominated beams onto a millimeter-size spot. However, chromatic aberration can result in a substantial fraction of the beam ions falling outside the spot radius. Because of the space-charge force, correcting the chromatic aberration using sextupoles is impractical. Success in laser cooling of low-current ion beams in storage rings leads us to explore the application of laser cooling to HIF. Basic scheme: After the beams have been accelerated to the desired energy by the recirculating induction linac, we let the beams coast around at constant energy. For efficient interaction between the laser and the beam ions, we use Ba+ beams. We use two lasers to pump the transitions in the Ba+ for generating the laser force FL. There is also an auxiliary force Fa, which is in the opposition direction of FL, provided by the induction cores. The momentum spread along the beam can be compressed by FL and Fa. We will present preliminary PIC simulations using the PIC code CONDOR. Potential difficulties caused by velocity space instabilities will be discussed.

  20. Advances in laser ablation MC-ICPMS isotopic analysis of rock materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. D.

    2007-12-01

    Laser ablation multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) is a rapid method for obtaining high-precision isotope ratio measurements in geological samples. The method has been used with success for measuring isotope ratios of numerous elements, including Pb, Hf, Mg, Si, and Fe in terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. It fills the gap between the highest precision obtainable with acid digestion together with MC-ICPMS and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and the maximum spatial resolution afforded by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Matrix effects have been shown to be negligible for Pb isotopic analysis by LA-MC-ICPMS (Simon et al., 2007). Glass standards NBS 610, 612, and 614 have Pb/matrix ratios spanning two orders of magnitude. Our sample-standard bracketing laser ablation technique gives accurate and precise 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb for these glasses. The accuracy is superior to that obtained when using Tl to correct for mass fractionation. Accuracy and precision (± 0.2 ‰) for Pb in feldspars is comparable to that for double-spike TIMS. Data like these have been used to distinguish distinct sources of magmas in the Long Valley silicic magma system. LA-MC-ICPMS analyses of Mg isotope ratios in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from carbonaceous chondrite meteorites have revealed a wealth of new information about the history of these objects. A byproduct of this work has been recognition of the importance of different mass fractionation laws among three isotopes of a given element. Kinetic and equilibrium processes define distinct fractionation laws. Reservoir effects can further modify these laws. The result is that the linear coefficient β that relates the logarithms of the ratios n2/n1 and n3/n1 (ni refers to the number of atoms of isotope i) of isotopes with masses m3 > m2 > m1 is not unique. Rather, it is process dependent. In the case of Mg, this coefficient ranges from 0.521 for

  1. Electric oxygen-iodine laser discharge scaling and laser performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Brian S.

    In 2004, a research partnership between the University of Illinois and CU Aerospace demonstrated the first electric discharge pumped oxygen-iodine laser referred to as ElectricOIL. This exciting improvement over the standard oxygen-iodine laser utilizes a gas discharge to produce the necessary electronically-excited molecular oxygen, O2(a 1Delta), that serves as the energy reservoir in the laser system. Pumped by a near-resonant energy transfer, the atomic iodine lases on the I(2P1/2) → I(2P3/2) transition at 1315 nm. Molecular oxygen diluted with helium and a small fraction of nitric oxide flows through a radiofrequency discharge where O2(a 1Delta) and many other excited species are created. Careful investigations to understand the benefits and problems associated with these other states in the laser system allowed this team to succeed where other research groups had failed, and after the initial demonstration, the ElectricOIL research focus shifted to increasing the efficiencies along with the output laser energy. Among other factors, the laser power scales with the flow rate of oxygen in the desired excited state. Therefore, high yields of O2(a 1Delta) are desired along with high input oxygen flow rates. In the early ElectricOIL experiments, the pressure in the discharge was approximately 10 Torr, but increased flow rates forced the pressure to between 50 and 60 Torr requiring a number of new discharge designs in order to produce similar yields of O2(a1Delta) efficiently. Experiments were conducted with only the electric discharge portion of the laser system using emission diagnostics to study the effects of changing the discharge geometry, flow residence time, and diluent. The power carried by O2(a 1Delta) is the maximum power that could be extracted from the laser, and the results from these studies showed approximately 2500 W stored in the O2(a1Delta) state. Transferring this energy into the atomic iodine has been another challenge in ElectricOIL as

  2. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  3. Laser-driven particle acceleration for radiobiology and radiotherapy: where we are and where we are going

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulietti, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Radiation therapy of tumors progresses continuously and so do devices, sharing a global market of about $ 4 billions, growing at an annual rate exceeding 5%. Most of the progress involves tumor targeting, multi-beam irradiation, reduction of damage on healthy tissues and critical organs, dose fractioning. This fast-evolving scenario is the moving benchmark for the progress of the laser-based accelerators towards clinical uses. As for electrons, both energy and dose requested by radiotherapy are available with plasma accelerators driven by lasers in the power range of tens of TW but several issues have still to be faced before getting a prototype device for clinical tests. They include capability of varying electron energy, stability of the process, reliability for medical users. On the other side hadron therapy, presently applied to a small fraction of cases but within an exponential growth, is a primary option for the future. With such a strong motivation, research on laser-based proton/ion acceleration has been supported in the last decade in order to get performances suitable to clinical standards. None of these performances has been achieved so far with laser techniques. In the meantime a rich crop of data have been obtained in radiobiological experiments performed with beams of particles produced with laser techniques. It is quite significant however that most of the experiments have been performed moving bio samples to laser labs, rather moving laser equipment to bio labs or clinical contexts. This give us the measure that laser community cannot so far provide practical devices usable by non-laser people.

  4. Backward-propagating MeV electrons in ultra-intense laser interactions: Standing wave acceleration and coupling to the reflected laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, Chris, E-mail: orban@physics.osu.edu; Feister, Scott; Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459

    Laser-accelerated electron beams have been created at a kHz repetition rate from the reflection of intense (∼10{sup 18 }W/cm{sup 2}), ∼40 fs laser pulses focused on a continuous water-jet in an experiment at the Air Force Research Laboratory. This paper investigates Particle-in-Cell simulations of the laser-target interaction to identify the physical mechanisms of electron acceleration in this experiment. We find that the standing-wave pattern created by the overlap of the incident and reflected laser is particularly important because this standing wave can “inject” electrons into the reflected laser pulse where the electrons are further accelerated. We identify two regimes of standingmore » wave acceleration: a highly relativistic case (a{sub 0} ≥ 1), and a moderately relativistic case (a{sub 0} ∼ 0.5) which operates over a larger fraction of the laser period. In previous studies, other groups have investigated the highly relativistic case for its usefulness in launching electrons in the forward direction. We extend this by investigating electron acceleration in the specular (back reflection) direction and over a wide range of intensities (10{sup 17}–10{sup 19 }W cm{sup −2})« less

  5. Improved pulse laser ranging algorithm based on high speed sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuan-yi; Qian, Rui-hai; Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; He, Shi-jie; Guo, Xiao-kang

    2016-10-01

    Narrow pulse laser ranging achieves long-range target detection using laser pulse with low divergent beams. Pulse laser ranging is widely used in military, industrial, civil, engineering and transportation field. In this paper, an improved narrow pulse laser ranging algorithm is studied based on the high speed sampling. Firstly, theoretical simulation models have been built and analyzed including the laser emission and pulse laser ranging algorithm. An improved pulse ranging algorithm is developed. This new algorithm combines the matched filter algorithm and the constant fraction discrimination (CFD) algorithm. After the algorithm simulation, a laser ranging hardware system is set up to implement the improved algorithm. The laser ranging hardware system includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. Subsequently, using Verilog HDL language, the improved algorithm is implemented in the FPGA chip based on fusion of the matched filter algorithm and the CFD algorithm. Finally, the laser ranging experiment is carried out to test the improved algorithm ranging performance comparing to the matched filter algorithm and the CFD algorithm using the laser ranging hardware system. The test analysis result demonstrates that the laser ranging hardware system realized the high speed processing and high speed sampling data transmission. The algorithm analysis result presents that the improved algorithm achieves 0.3m distance ranging precision. The improved algorithm analysis result meets the expected effect, which is consistent with the theoretical simulation.

  6. Multiscale permutation entropy analysis of laser beam wandering in isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Felipe; Zunino, Luciano; Gulich, Damián; Pérez, Darío G; Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2017-10-01

    We have experimentally quantified the temporal structural diversity from the coordinate fluctuations of a laser beam propagating through isotropic optical turbulence. The main focus here is on the characterization of the long-range correlations in the wandering of a thin Gaussian laser beam over a screen after propagating through a turbulent medium. To fulfill this goal, a laboratory-controlled experiment was conducted in which coordinate fluctuations of the laser beam were recorded at a sufficiently high sampling rate for a wide range of turbulent conditions. Horizontal and vertical displacements of the laser beam centroid were subsequently analyzed by implementing the symbolic technique based on ordinal patterns to estimate the well-known permutation entropy. We show that the permutation entropy estimations at multiple time scales evidence an interplay between different dynamical behaviors. More specifically, a crossover between two different scaling regimes is observed. We confirm a transition from an integrated stochastic process contaminated with electronic noise to a fractional Brownian motion with a Hurst exponent H=5/6 as the sampling time increases. Besides, we are able to quantify, from the estimated entropy, the amount of electronic noise as a function of the turbulence strength. We have also demonstrated that these experimental observations are in very good agreement with numerical simulations of noisy fractional Brownian motions with a well-defined crossover between two different scaling regimes.

  7. Analysis of Depth of Ablation,Thermal Damage, Wound Healing, and Wound Contraction With Erbium YAG Laser in a Yorkshire Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Alsaad, Salman M S; Ross, E Victor; Smith, Wiley J; DeRienzo, Damian P

    2015-11-01

    The erbium YAG laser is commonly used for skin resurfacing. It is known that varying the pulse duration can influence residual thermal damage and wound healing. Our study used a porcine model to evaluate a broad range of settings in a comparison of depth of ablation, depth of residual thermal damage (RTD), and wound contraction employing both a full coverage and fractional hand piece with an erbium YAG laser. The laser delivered an ablative pulse followed by a heating pulse of variable duration using either the full coverage or fractional hand piece. Pulse durations for specific coagulation depths were selected based on existing heat transfer models. The bilateral flanks of a single Yorkshire pig were irradiated. There were 14 treatment groups. 3 sites were treated per group for a total of 42 sites. Two of the 3 sites were for observational assessments and the 3rd site served as a reservoir for biopsies. Biopsy specimens were collected on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Bleeding, erythema, wound healing, and wound contraction (in the fractional hand piece groups) were assessed. Wound healing is faster for fractional laser skin resurfacing compared with traditional contiguous resurfacing as demonstrated by textural changes and degree of erythema. The laser operator can be confident that the depth of ablation displayed on this system accurately reflects what is occurring in vivo for both confluent and fractional modes. Likewise, the measured degree of coagulation was consistent with panel display settings for the confluent mode. However, the degree of coagulation, as measured by the thickness of residual thermal damage, did not vary significantly between the fractional groups. In other words, the pulse duration of the second (heating) pulse did not impact the degree of coagulation in the fractional mode. There was a 2.3% wound contraction between some groups and a 6.5% wound contraction between other groups. A two way analysis of variance found a statistically

  8. Low-level laser effects on bacterial cultures submitted to heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, E. M.; Guimarães, O. R.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Low-level lasers have been used worldwide to treat a number of diseases, pain relief, and wound healing. Some studies demonstrated that low-level laser radiations induce effects depending on the physiological state and DNA repair mechanisms of cells. In this work we evaluated the effects of low-level red and infrared lasers on Escherichia coli cells deficient in SOS responses submitted to heat stress. Exponential and stationary E. coli cultures of wild type (AB1157), RecA deficient (AB2463) and LexA deficient (AB2494), both SOS response deficient, were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers at different fluences and submitted to heat stress (42 °C, 20 min). After that, cell survival and morphology were evaluated. Previous exposure to red, but not infrared lasers, increases survival fractions and decreases the area ratios of E. coli AB1157 cells submitted to heat stress. Our research suggests that a low-level red laser increases cell viability and protects cells from morphological alteration in E. coli cultures submitted to heat stress depending on laser wavelength and SOS response.

  9. 0.26-Hz-linewidth ultrastable lasers at 1557 nm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lifei; Jiang, Yanyi; Ma, Chaoqun; Qi, Wen; Yu, Hongfu; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-linewidth ultrastable lasers at 1.5 μm are essential in many applications such as coherent transfer of light through fiber and precision spectroscopy. Those applications all rely on the ultimate performance of the lasers. Here we demonst