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Sample records for nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis

  1. Probiotics in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, and Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Amir A

    2015-01-01

    With the growing epidemic of obesity, the incidence of both nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing. The intestinal microbiota differs between individuals who are obese or have normal body mass indices. Animal studies have shown increased intestinal permeability in NAFL, NASH, and cirrhosis. This increases the risk of oxidative and inflammatory injury to the liver from intestinal microbacteria. It may also increase the risk of fatty acid injury and fatty deposition. Bacterial translocation is associated with increased portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. By preventing bacterial adhesion and translocation, probiotics may have a role in the management of patients with NAFL, NASH, and cirrhosis. Multiple small studies have suggested that probiotics improve some of the clinical markers of activity in patients with NAFL and NASH. Controlled studies have also shown improved outcomes in patients with cirrhosis who were treated with probiotics.

  2. Bacterial infections in alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sargenti, Konstantina; Prytz, Hanne; Nilsson, Emma; Bertilsson, Sara; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal, population-based data on the occurrence, localization, and severity of bacterial infections over time in patients with alcoholic compared with nonalcoholic cirrhosis are limited. All patients with incident cirrhosis diagnosed in 2001-2010 (area of 600,000 inhabitants) were retrospectively identified. All bacterial infections resulting in or occurring during an inpatient hospital episode during this period were registered. The etiology of cirrhosis (alcoholic vs. nonalcoholic), infection localization, and outcome as well as bacterial resistance patterns were analyzed. Patients were followed until death, transplant, or the end of 2011. In all, 633 cirrhotics (363 alcoholic, 270 nonalcoholic) experienced a total of 398 infections (2276 patient-years). Among patients diagnosed with cirrhosis each year from 2001 to 2010, increasing trends were noted in the occurrence of infection (from 13 to 27%, P<0.001) and infection-related in-hospital mortality (from 2 to 7%, P=0.05), the latter mainly in the alcoholic group. Although alcoholic etiology was related to the occurrence of more frequent infection (Kaplan-Meier, P<0.001), this relationship was not significant after adjustment for confounders in Cox regression analysis (P=0.056). Resistance to piperacilin-tazobactam and carbapenems was more common in infections occurring in alcoholic versus nonalcoholic cirrhosis (13 vs. 5%, P=0.057 and 12 vs. 2%, P=0.009). Alcoholic etiology predicted pneumonia and infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria in multivariate analysis (P<0.05 for both). In a population-based cirrhotic cohort, bacterial infections increased over time, which, in the case of alcoholic cirrhosis, was associated with pneumonia and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. However, alcoholic etiology was not related indepedently to the occurrence of bacterial infections.

  3. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with cirrhosis increases familial risk for advanced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Caussy, Cyrielle; Soni, Meera; Cui, Jeffrey; Bettencourt, Ricki; Schork, Nicholas; Chen, Chi-Hua; Ikhwan, Mahdi Al; Bassirian, Shirin; Cepin, Sandra; Gonzalez, Monica P; Mendler, Michel; Kono, Yuko; Vodkin, Irine; Mekeel, Kristin; Haldorson, Jeffrey; Hemming, Alan; Andrews, Barbara; Salotti, Joanie; Richards, Lisa; Brenner, David A; Sirlin, Claude B; Loomba, Rohit

    2017-06-30

    The risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis (NAFLD-cirrhosis) is unknown and needs to be systematically quantified. We aimed to prospectively assess the risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of 26 probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis and 39 first-degree relatives. The control population included 69 community-dwelling twin, sib-sib, or parent-offspring pairs (n = 138), comprising 69 individuals randomly ascertained to be without evidence of NAFLD and 69 of their first-degree relatives. The primary outcome was presence of advanced fibrosis (stage 3 or 4 fibrosis). NAFLD was assessed clinically and quantified by MRI proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF). Advanced fibrosis was diagnosed by liver stiffness greater than 3.63 kPa using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The prevalence of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis was significantly higher than that in the control population (17.9% vs. 1.4%, P = 0.0032). Compared with controls, the odds of advanced fibrosis among the first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis were odds ratio 14.9 (95% CI, 1.8-126.0, P = 0.0133). Even after multivariable adjustment by age, sex, Hispanic ethnicity, BMI, and diabetes status, the risk of advanced fibrosis remained both statistically and clinically significant (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 12.5; 95% CI, 1.1-146.1, P = 0.0438). Using a well-phenotyped familial cohort, we demonstrated that first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis have a 12 times higher risk of advanced fibrosis. Advanced fibrosis screening may be considered in first-degree relatives of NAFLD-cirrhosis patients. 140084. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH.

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with cirrhosis increases familial risk for advanced fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Caussy, Cyrielle; Soni, Meera; Cui, Jeffrey; Bettencourt, Ricki; Schork, Nicholas; Chen, Chi-Hua; Ikhwan, Mahdi Al; Bassirian, Shirin; Cepin, Sandra; Gonzalez, Monica P.; Mendler, Michel; Vodkin, Irine; Mekeel, Kristin; Haldorson, Jeffrey; Hemming, Alan; Andrews, Barbara; Salotti, Joanie; Richards, Lisa; Brenner, David A.; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis (NAFLD-cirrhosis) is unknown and needs to be systematically quantified. We aimed to prospectively assess the risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis. METHODS. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of 26 probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis and 39 first-degree relatives. The control population included 69 community-dwelling twin, sib-sib, or parent-offspring pairs (n = 138), comprising 69 individuals randomly ascertained to be without evidence of NAFLD and 69 of their first-degree relatives. The primary outcome was presence of advanced fibrosis (stage 3 or 4 fibrosis). NAFLD was assessed clinically and quantified by MRI proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF). Advanced fibrosis was diagnosed by liver stiffness greater than 3.63 kPa using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). RESULTS. The prevalence of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis was significantly higher than that in the control population (17.9% vs. 1.4%, P = 0.0032). Compared with controls, the odds of advanced fibrosis among the first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis were odds ratio 14.9 (95% CI, 1.8–126.0, P = 0.0133). Even after multivariable adjustment by age, sex, Hispanic ethnicity, BMI, and diabetes status, the risk of advanced fibrosis remained both statistically and clinically significant (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 12.5; 95% CI, 1.1–146.1, P = 0.0438). CONCLUSION. Using a well-phenotyped familial cohort, we demonstrated that first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis have a 12 times higher risk of advanced fibrosis. Advanced fibrosis screening may be considered in first-degree relatives of NAFLD-cirrhosis patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION. UCSD IRB: 140084. FUNDING. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and

  5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Absence of Cirrhosis in US Veterans is Associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sahil; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Sada, Yvonne H.; Kanwal, Fasiha; Duan, Zhigang; Temple, Sarah; May, Sarah B.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; Davila, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can develop in individuals without cirrhosis. We investigated risk factors for development of HCC in the absence of cirrhosis in a US population. Methods We identified a national cohort of 1500 patients with verified HCC during 2005–2010 in the US Veterans Administration (VA), and reviewed their full VA medical records for evidence of cirrhosis and risk factors for HCC. Patients without cirrhosis were assigned to categories of level 1 evidence for no cirrhosis (very high probability) or level 2 evidence for no cirrhosis (high probability), based on findings from histologic analyses, laboratory test results, markers of fibrosis from non-invasive tests, and imaging features. Results A total of 43 (2.9%) of the 1500 patients with HCC had level 1 evidence for no cirrhosis and 151 (10.1%) had level 2 evidence for no cirrhosis; the remaining 1203 patients (80.1%) had confirmed cirrhosis. Compared to patients with HCC in presence of cirrhosis, greater proportions of patients with HCC without evidence of cirrhosis had metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), or no identifiable risk factors. Patients with HCC without evidence of cirrhosis were less likely to have abused alcohol or have HCV infection than patients with cirrhosis. Patients with HCC and NAFLD (unadjusted odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–8.5) or metabolic syndrome (unadjusted odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.1–7.8) had more than a 5-fold risk of having HCC in the absence of cirrhosis, compared to patients with HCV-related HCC. Conclusions Approximately 13% of patients with HCC in the VA system do not appear to have cirrhosis. NAFLD and metabolic syndrome are the main risk factors HCC in the absence of cirrhosis. PMID:26196445

  6. Impact of Renal Impairment on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality After Liver Transplantation for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    VanWagner, Lisa B.; Lapin, Brittany; Skaro, Anton I.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Rinella, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity after liver transplantation, but its impact on CVD mortality is unknown. We sought to assess the impact of NASH on CVD mortality after liver transplantation and to predict which NASH recipients are at highest risk of a CVD-related death following a liver transplant. METHODS Using the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database we examined associations between NASH and post liver transplant CVD mortality, defined as primary cause of death from thromboembolism, arrhythmia, heart failure, myocardial infarction, or stroke. A physician panel reviewed cause of death. RESULTS Of 48,360 liver transplants (2/2002–12/2011), 5,057 (10.5%) were performed for NASH cirrhosis. NASH recipients were more likely to be older, female, obese, diabetic, and have history of renal failure or prior CVD versus non-NASH (p<0.001 for all). Although there was no difference in overall all-cause mortality (log-rank p=0.96), both early (30-day) and long-term CVD-specific mortality was increased among NASH recipients (Odds ratio=1.30, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.66; Hazard ratio=1.42, 95% CI: 1.07–1.41, respectively). These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for pre-transplant diabetes, renal impairment or CVD. A risk score comprising age ≥ 55, male sex, diabetes and renal impairment was developed for prediction of post liver transplant CVD mortality (c-statistic 0.60). CONCLUSION NASH recipients have an increased risk of CVD mortality after liver transplantation explained by a high prevalence of co-morbid cardiometabolic risk factors that in aggregate identify those at highest risk of post-transplant CVD mortality. PMID:25977117

  7. Characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients without cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Bashar; Shah, Vaishal; Onyshchenko, Mykola; Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Lopez, Rocio; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A; Alhaddad, Razan; Alkhouri, Naim

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has increased significantly in United States over the last few decades in parallel with the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Limited data suggests that HCC could arise in steatotic liver without the presence of cirrhosis. The present study was conducted to characterize patients with NAFLD presenting with HCC in non-cirrhotic liver (NCL) compared to the NAFLD- HCC patients in association with cirrhotic liver (CL). A retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with HCC and NAFLD diagnosis seen at our institution between 2003 and 2012 was done. The patients were characterized based on demographic and clinical variables as well as histological and tumor features. Comparisons between the NCL and CL groups were done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) or the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Pearson's chi-square tests or Fisher's Exact tests as appropriate. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Thirty-six patients with NAFLD and HCC in NCL (HCC-NCL group) were identified and compared to 47 patients with NAFLD-HCC and Liver Cirrhosis (HCC-LC group). Liver fibrosis was not present in 55.9 % of patients in the HCC-NCL group (F0), stage 1 was present in 17.6 %, stage 2 in 8.8 % and stage 3 in 17.6 %. Lobular inflammation was present in 63.6 % of non-cirrhotic patients. Patients in the HCC-NCL were older (67.5 ± 12.3 vs. 62.7 ± 8.1 years), and less likely to be obese (52 % vs. 83 %) or have type 2 diabetes (38 % vs. 83 %), with p value <0.05 for all. More importantly, compared with the HCC-CL group, those in the HCC-NCL group were more likely to present with a single nodule (80.6 % vs. 52.2 %), larger nodule size (>5 cm) (77.8 % vs. 10.6 %), and receive hepatic resection as the modality of HCC treatment (66.7 % vs. 17 %); and were less likely to receive loco-regional therapy (22.3 % vs. 61.7 %) or orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) (0 % vs. 72.3 %), with p value <0

  8. Circulating lipocalin 2 is neither related to liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease nor to residual liver function in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elisabeth M; Pohl, Rebekka; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Schacherer, Doris; Eisinger, Kristina; Wiest, Reiner; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2016-09-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is induced in the injured liver and associated with inflammation. Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether serum LCN2 is a non-invasive marker to assess hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, LCN2 was measured by ELISA in serum of 32 randomly selected patients without fatty liver (controls), 24 patients with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis mainly due to alcohol. Systemic LCN2 was comparable in patients with liver steatosis, those with liver cirrhosis and controls. LCN2 negatively correlated with bilirubin in both cohorts. In cirrhosis, LCN2 was not associated with more advanced liver injury defined by the CHILD-PUGH score and model for end-stage liver disease score. Resistin but not C-reactive protein or chemerin positively correlated with LCN2. LCN2 levels were not increased in patients with ascites or patients with esophageal varices. Consequently, reduction of portal pressure by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt did not affect LCN2 levels. Hepatic venous blood (HVS), portal venous blood and systemic venous blood levels of LCN2 were similar. HVS LCN2 was unchanged in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis compared to those with well-compensated disease arguing against increased hepatic release. Current data exclude that serum LCN2 is of any value as steatosis marker in patients with NAFLD and indicator of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variables Associated With Inpatient and Outpatient Resource Utilization Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease With or Without Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sayiner, Mehmet; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Cable, Rebecca; Younossi, Issah; Afendy, Mariam; Golabi, Pegah; Henry, Linda; Younossi, Zobair M

    2017-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide with tremendous clinical burden. The economic burden of NAFLD is not well studied. To assess the economic burden of NAFLD. Medicare beneficiaries (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010) with NAFLD diagnosis by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in the absence of other liver diseases were selected. Inpatient and outpatient resource utilization parameters were total charges and total provider payments. NAFLD patients with compensated cirrhosis (CC) were compared with decompensated cirrhosis (DC). A total of 976 inpatients and 4742 outpatients with NAFLD were included-87% were white, 36% male, 30% had cardiovascular disease (CVD) or metabolic syndrome conditions, and 12% had cirrhosis. For inpatients, median total hospital charge was $36,289. NAFLD patients with cirrhosis had higher charges and payments than noncirrhotic NAFLD patients ($61,151 vs. $33,863 and $18,804 vs. $10,146, P<0.001). Compared with CC, NAFLD patients with DC had higher charges and payments (P<0.02). For outpatients, median total charge was $9,011. NAFLD patients with cirrhosis had higher charges and payments than noncirrhotic NAFLD patients ($12,049 vs. $8,830 and $2,586 vs. $1,734, P<0.001). Compared with CC, DC patients had higher total charges ($15,187 vs. $10,379, P=0.04). In multivariate analysis, variables associated with increased inpatient resource utilization were inpatient mortality, DC, and CVD; for outpatients, having CVD, obesity, and hypertension (all P<0.001). NAFLD is associated with significant economic burden to Medicare. Presence of cirrhosis and CVD are associated with increased resource utilization.

  10. Variables Associated With Inpatient and Outpatient Resource Utilization Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease With or Without Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sayiner, Mehmet; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Cable, Rebecca; Younossi, Issah; Afendy, Mariam; Golabi, Pegah; Henry, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide with tremendous clinical burden. The economic burden of NAFLD is not well studied. Goal: To assess the economic burden of NAFLD. Study: Medicare beneficiaries (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010) with NAFLD diagnosis by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in the absence of other liver diseases were selected. Inpatient and outpatient resource utilization parameters were total charges and total provider payments. NAFLD patients with compensated cirrhosis (CC) were compared with decompensated cirrhosis (DC). Results: A total of 976 inpatients and 4742 outpatients with NAFLD were included—87% were white, 36% male, 30% had cardiovascular disease (CVD) or metabolic syndrome conditions, and 12% had cirrhosis. For inpatients, median total hospital charge was $36,289. NAFLD patients with cirrhosis had higher charges and payments than noncirrhotic NAFLD patients ($61,151 vs. $33,863 and $18,804 vs. $10,146, P<0.001). Compared with CC, NAFLD patients with DC had higher charges and payments (P<0.02). For outpatients, median total charge was $9,011. NAFLD patients with cirrhosis had higher charges and payments than noncirrhotic NAFLD patients ($12,049 vs. $8,830 and $2,586 vs. $1,734, P<0.001). Compared with CC, DC patients had higher total charges ($15,187 vs. $10,379, P=0.04). In multivariate analysis, variables associated with increased inpatient resource utilization were inpatient mortality, DC, and CVD; for outpatients, having CVD, obesity, and hypertension (all P<0.001). Conclusions: NAFLD is associated with significant economic burden to Medicare. Presence of cirrhosis and CVD are associated with increased resource utilization. PMID:27332747

  11. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE WITH ADVANCED FIBROSIS OR CIRRHOSIS: AN INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Bhala, Neeraj; Angulo, Paul; van der Poorten, David; Lee, Eric; Hui, Jason M.; Saracco, Giorgio; Adams, Leon A.; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Punchai; Topping, Joanne H.; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Day, Christopher P.; George, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Information on the long-term prognosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is limited. We sought to describe the long-term morbidity and mortality of patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. We conducted this prospective cohort study including 247 patients with NAFLD and 264 patients with HCV infection that were either naïve or non-responders to treatment. Both cohorts were Child-Pugh class A and had advanced (stage 3) fibrosis or cirrhosis (stage 4) confirmed by liver biopsy at enrolment. In the NAFLD cohort, followed-up for 85.6 months mean (range 6-297), there were 48 (19.4%) liver-related complications and 33 (13.4%) deaths or liver transplants. In the HCV cohort, followed-up for 74.9 months mean (range 6-238), there were 47 (16.7%) liver-related complications and 25 (9.4%) deaths or liver transplants. When adjusting for baseline differences in age and gender, the cumulative incidence of liver-related complications was lower in the NAFLD than the HCV cohort (p=0.03), including incident hepatocellular cancer (6 vs 18; p=0.03), but that of cardiovascular events (p=0.17) and overall mortality (p=0.6) was similar in both groups. In the NAFLD cohort, platelet count, stage 4 fibrosis, and serum levels of cholesterol and ALT were associated with liver-related complications; an AST/ALT ratio >1 and older age were associated with overall mortality; and higher serum bilirubin levels and stage 4 fibrosis were associated with liver-related mortality. Conclusions Patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis have lower rates of liver-related complications and hepatocellular cancer than corresponding patients with HCV infection, but similar overall mortality. Some clinical and laboratory features predict outcomes in patients with NAFLD. PMID:21688282

  12. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed.

  13. Alcoholic liver disease confers a worse prognosis than HCV infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with cirrhosis: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Marot, Astrid; Henrion, Jean; Knebel, Jean-François; Moreno, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Background Cirrhosis is a heterogeneous clinical condition that includes patients at wide-ranging stages of severity. The role of the underlying liver disease on patient prognosis remains unclear. Aim To assess the impact of the underlying liver disease on the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. Methods Data related to the occurrence of HCC and death were collected during a 21-year period among patients with cirrhosis related to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (n = 529), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (n = 145) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 78). Results At inclusion, ALD patients were younger than HCV and NAFLD patients (56 vs. 67 vs. 63 years; p<0.001) and had worse liver function (percent of patients with Child-Pugh stages B or C: 48% vs. 8% vs. 17%; p<0.001). During follow-up, 85 patients developed HCC and 379 died. The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of HCC was lower in ALD patients than in HCV and NAFLD patients (8.4% vs. 22.0% vs. 23.7%; p<0.001). The 10-year cumulative incidence rates of mortality were not statistically different between ALD, HCV and NAFLD patients (58.1% vs. 47.7% vs. 49.9%; p = 0.078). Alcohol abstinence and viral eradication were associated with reduced mortality among ALD and HCV patients, respectively. In multivariate analyses, ALD was associated with a reduced risk of HCC (0.39; 95% CI, 0.20–0.76; p = 0.005) but with a higher risk of mortality (1.53; 95% CI, 1.20–1.95; p<0.001). ALD patients died more frequently from decompensation of cirrhosis. Conclusion Despite a lower incidence of HCC, patients with ALD-related cirrhosis have a worse outcome than those with chronic HCV infection or NAFLD-related cirrhosis. PMID:29077714

  14. Lispro insulin in people with non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gentile, S; Guarino, G; Strollo, F; Romano, M; Genovese, S; Masarone, M; Ceriello, A

    2016-03-01

    To compare metabolic control under lispro and recombinant regular human insulin (RHI) in people with diet-unresponsive type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compensated non-alcoholic liver disease (CLD). 108 people with T2DM and CLD were randomly allocated to RHI or lispro according to a 12+12 week cross-over protocol. A 1-week continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) session was performed at the end of each treatment period followed by a standard meal test with a 12IU lispro or RHI shot ahead. CGM showed higher glycemic excursions under RHI than under lispro (p<0.01) with lower glucose levels in the late post-absorption phase (p<0.05) and even more during the night (p<0.01). Post-challenge incremental areas under the curve (ΔAUC) were undistinguishable for insulin but lower for glucose, while insulin peaked higher and earlier and glycemic excursions were lower with lispro than with RHI (0.05liver glucose output expected from its earlier hepatic distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis: A high-risk population for pre-liver transplant portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jonathan G; Argo, Curtis K; Pelletier, Shawn J; Maluf, Daniel G; Caldwell, Stephen H; Northup, Patrick G

    2017-01-28

    To examine if liver transplant recipients with high-risk non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk for pre-transplant portal venous thrombosis. Data on all liver transplants in the United States from February 2002 through September 2014 were analyzed. Recipients were sorted into three distinct groups: High-risk (age > 60, body mass index > 30 kg/m 2 , hypertension and diabetes), low-risk and non-NASH cirrhosis. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. Thirty-five thousand and seventy-two candidates underwent liver transplantation and of those organ recipients, 465 were transplanted for high-risk and 2775 for low-risk NASH. Two thousand six hundred and twenty-six (7.5%) recipients had pre-transplant portal vein thrombosis; 66 (14.2%) of the high-risk NASH group had portal vein thrombosis vs 328 (11.8%) of the low-risk NASH group. In general, all NASH recipients were less likely to be male or African American and more likely to be obese. In adjusted multivariable regression analyses, high-risk recipients had the greatest risk of pre-transplant portal vein thrombosis with OR = 2.11 (95%CI: 1.60-2.76, P < 0.001) when referenced to the non-NASH group. Liver transplant candidates with high-risk NASH are at the greatest risk for portal vein thrombosis development prior to transplantation. These candidates may benefit from interventions to decrease their likelihood of clot formation and resultant downstream hepatic decompensating events. Prospective study is needed.

  16. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis, ascites, choline deficiency, cirrhosis, drug-induced fatty liver, edema, encephalopathy, glycogen storage disorder, gynecomastia, hepatic steatosis, hepatomegaly, hereditary fructose intolerance, homocystinuria, hyperlipidemia, ...

  17. The Riddle of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Progression From Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver to Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mithun; Mitnala, Shasikala; Vishnubhotla, Ravi K.; Mukherjee, Rathin; Reddy, Duvvur N.; Rao, Padaki N.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is an emerging global epidemic which progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis in a subset of subjects. Various reviews have focused on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD. This review highlights specifically the triggers implicated in disease progression from NAFL to NASH. The integrating role of genes, dietary factors, innate immunity, cytokines and gut microbiome have been discussed. PMID:26155043

  18. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-06-21

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions.

  19. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions. PMID:24966602

  20. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  1. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Elisabeth M.; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-01-01

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively. PMID:28661458

  2. Treatment options for nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Shivakumar

    2008-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease comprises a range of disorders from steatosis and steatohepatitis through to cirrhosis. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can progress to cirrhosis and liver-related death. Therefore, managing this common disorder is becoming an important public health issue. Lifestyle measures are commonly suggested but robust data are lacking. Trials with antioxidants (vitamin E, betaine) as well as cytoprotectants (ursodeoxycholic acid) have been disappointing. While data for insulin sensitizers such as metformin are less conclusive, thiazolidinediones appear promising. However, not all patients respond to thiazolidinediones. Moreover, issues related to weight gain, cardiovascular risk need to be addressed. The use of endocannabinoid antagonists and insulin secretagogues are novel strategies to combat this disorder.

  3. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Macías, Juan; Pineda, Juan A; Real, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most frequent chronic hepatic conditions worldwide. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease goes from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are metabolic, mainly obesity and the accompanying consequences. Treatment and prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should target those metabolic abnormalities. The frequency of and the factors associated with hepatic steatosis in HIV infection seem to be similar to those reported in the general population, though direct comparisons are lacking. Hepatic steatosis in HIV infection may also be secondary to antiretroviral drugs or HCV-related factors in HCV-coinfected subjects. However, more recent data suggest that hepatic steatosis in HIV infection represents true non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As such, management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infection should follow the same principles as in the general population.

  4. De Novo and Recurrence of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Matthew; Abdelmalek, Manal

    2017-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developing countries. Approximately 25% of patients with NAFLD develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH-related cirrhosis is now a leading listing indication for liver transplantation in the United States. Although posttransplant survival for NASH-related cirrhosis is comparable with that of other liver diseases, many patients have features of metabolic syndrome, which can contribute to a recurrence of NAFLD or NASH. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of de novo and recurrence of NASH after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Liver fibrosis markers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Bando, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hideji; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver injury. NAFLD includes a wide range of clinical conditions from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. The histological findings of NASH indicate hepatic steatosis and inflammation with characteristic hepatocyte injury (e.g., ballooning degeneration), as is observed in the patients with alcoholic liver disease. NASH is considered to be a potentially health-threatening disease that can progress to cirrhosis. A liver biopsy remains the most reliable diagnostic method to appropriately diagnose NASH, evaluate the severity of liver fibrosis, and determine the prognosis and optimal treatment. However, this invasive technique is associated with several limitations in routine use, and a number of biomarkers have been developed in order to predict the degree of liver fibrosis. In the present article, we review the current status of noninvasive biomarkers available to estimate liver fibrosis in the patients with NASH. We also discuss our recent findings on the use of the glycated albumin-to-glycated hemoglobin ratio, which is a new index that correlates to various chronic liver diseases, including NASH. PMID:26139988

  6. Liver fibrosis markers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Bando, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hideji; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-06-28

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver injury. NAFLD includes a wide range of clinical conditions from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. The histological findings of NASH indicate hepatic steatosis and inflammation with characteristic hepatocyte injury (e.g., ballooning degeneration), as is observed in the patients with alcoholic liver disease. NASH is considered to be a potentially health-threatening disease that can progress to cirrhosis. A liver biopsy remains the most reliable diagnostic method to appropriately diagnose NASH, evaluate the severity of liver fibrosis, and determine the prognosis and optimal treatment. However, this invasive technique is associated with several limitations in routine use, and a number of biomarkers have been developed in order to predict the degree of liver fibrosis. In the present article, we review the current status of noninvasive biomarkers available to estimate liver fibrosis in the patients with NASH. We also discuss our recent findings on the use of the glycated albumin-to-glycated hemoglobin ratio, which is a new index that correlates to various chronic liver diseases, including NASH.

  7. Managing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ngu, Jing Hieng; Goh, George Boon Bee; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing rapidly with the obesity and diabetes mellitus epidemics. It is rapidly becoming the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD can progress to serious complications such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Therefore, it is important to recognise this condition so that early intervention can be implemented. Lifestyle modifications and strict control of metabolic risk factors are the mainstay of treatment. As disease progression is slow in the majority of NAFLD patients, most can be managed well by primary care physicians. NAFLD patients with advanced liver fibrosis should be referred to specialist care for further assessment. PMID:27439352

  8. Peripheral neuropathy in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Parampreet S; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Chawla, Yogesh K; Das, Chandi P; Syal, Puneet

    2003-08-01

    Neuropathy in association with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis, is recognized; however, there are differences in the incidence and type of neuropathy reported. The causal relationship of liver disease to neuropathy has been questioned. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence and character of peripheral neuropathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. The effect of alcohol consumption, severity of liver disease and encephalopathy on the incidence and severity of neuropathy were also studied. Patients having an identifiable cause of peripheral neuropathy, except alcohol, were excluded from the study. Patients with evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency or diabetes were also excluded from the study. In this study, 33 patients with liver cirrhosis were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically to detect any evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies were performed in the upper and lower limbs using surface electrodes. These patients also underwent a detailed clinical examination. Clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy were found in seven (21%) patients. Nerve conduction studies were abnormal in 24 (73%) patients. The pattern of involvement was predominantly of an axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy. Neuropathy was found both in patients with alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related cirrhosis. The presence of encephalopathy did not have a significant bearing on the incidence and severity of neuropathy. The neuropathy was also not significantly related to the severity of liver disease. The present study reveals that a significant number of patients with liver cirrhosis show evidence of peripheral neuropathy, which is present regardless of the etiology of cirrhosis, and is subclinical in a majority of these patients. The cause of neuropathy was probably the liver disease itself, as the incidence and severity of neuropathy in the alcohol-related cirrhosis, although higher, was not significantly different from the neuropathy in patients

  9. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis exhibit several features of gut dysfunction which may contribute to the development of cirrhosis complications as well as have an impact on nutritional status and health-related quality of life. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in cirrhosis and their pathophysiology probably involves factors related to liver disease severity, psychological distress, and gut dysfunction (e.g., increased gastric sensitivity to distension and delayed gut transit). They may lead to reduced food intake and, thus, may contribute to the nutritional status deterioration in cirrhotic patients. Although tense ascites appears to have a negative impact on meal-induced accommodation of the stomach, published data on gastric accommodation in cirrhotics without significant ascites are not unanimous. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit have generally been shown to be prolonged. This may be related to disturbances in postprandial glucose, insulin, and ghrelin levels, which, in turn, appear to be associated to insulin resistance, a common finding in cirrhosis. Furthermore, small bowel manometry disturbances and delayed gut transit may be associated with the development of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Finally, several studies have reported intestinal barrier dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis (especially those with portal hypertension), which is related to bacterial translocation and permeation of intestinal bacterial products, e.g., endotoxin and bacterial DNA, thus potentially being involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis. PMID:25356031

  10. [Treatment of liver cirrhosis - actually possibility of ambulant internist].

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Jiří; Aiglová, Květa; Konečný, Michal; Procházka, Vlastimil; Vrzalová, Drahomíra

    There are 40 000-60 000 patients with cirrhosis in the Czech Republic. 2 000 die of this disease yearly. This group of patients needs a complex treatment and it is mostly an internist cooperating with other specialists. The most important for an ambulant internist is to diagnose the disease as soon as possible and start with treatment of chronic liver disease that could lead to a cirrhosis. It means especially chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic or non-alcoholic steatosis/steatohepatitis, auto-immune liver damage and metabolic disease. The next step is to diagnose the cirrhosis in time when it is in no manifest stage. The third step is to diagnose and treat the liver decompensation. It means consequences of the portal hypertension, it is ascit, esophageal or gastric varices, hepatorenal syndrome. Next there are consequences of the metabolic insufficiency, it is icterus, coagulopathy and hepatic encephalopathy. It is necessary to diagnose and cure cholestasis from the very first extrahepatic causes. For a successful treatment of the hepatocellular carcinoma originated almost exclusively in the grounds of the cirrhosis must be early diagnosed. The ambulant internist respective hepatologist must diagnose the stage of the cirrhosis and decide when a hospitalization is necessary. Also a close cooperation with other specialists is urgent if it is about a liver transplantation. The treatment of successive stages of the cirrhosis is a topic of the showed educational article. compensated/decompensated liver cirrhosis - diet/nutrition in liver cirrhosis - etiology and diagnose of liver cirrhosis - treatment of liver insufficiency/failure - treatment of portal hypertension and its complications.

  11. Complications Requiring Hospital Admission and Causes of In-Hospital Death over Time in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Cirrhosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Yeon; Kim, Chang Wook; Choi, Jong Young; Lee, Chang Don; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Moon Young; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Wo, Hyun Young

    2016-01-01

    Data on the epidemiology of alcoholic cirrhosis, especially in Asian countries, are limited. We compared the temporal evolution of patterns of alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis over the last decade. We retrospectively examined the inpatient datasets of five referral centers during 2002 and 2011. The study included patients who were admitted due to specific complications of liver cirrhosis. We compared the causes of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths between patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Among the included 2,799 hospitalizations (2,165 patients), 1,496 (1,143 patients) were from 2002, and 1,303 (1,022 patients) were from 2011. Over time, there was a reduction in the rate of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) as a cause of hospitalization and an increase in the rate of hepatocellular carcinoma. Deaths that were attributable to HE or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) significantly decreased, whereas those due to hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) significantly increased over time in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. However, in patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis, hepatic failure and HRS remained the principal causes of in-hospital death during both time periods. The major causes of in-hospital deaths have evolved from acute cirrhotic complications, including HE or SBP to HRS in alcoholic cirrhosis, whereas those have remained unchanged in nonalcoholic cirrhosis during the last decade.

  12. Gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Makoto; Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamashita, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has the capacity to produce a diverse range of compounds that play a major role in regulating the activity of distal organs and the liver is strategically positioned downstream of the gut. Gut microbiota linked compounds such as short chain fatty acids, bile acids, choline metabolites, indole derivatives, vitamins, polyamines, lipids, neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones have many biological functions. This review focuses on the gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis. Dysbiosis in liver cirrhosis causes serious complications, such as bacteremia and hepatic encephalopathy, accompanied by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability. Gut dysbiosis in cirrhosis and intervention with probiotics and synbiotics in a clinical setting is reviewed and evaluated. Recent studies have revealed the relationship between gut microbiota and host metabolism in chronic metabolic liver disease, especially, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and with the gut microbiota metabolic interactions in dysbiosis related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Recently, our understanding of the relationship between the gut and liver and how this regulates systemic metabolic changes in liver cirrhosis has increased. The serum lipid levels of phospholipids, free fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially, eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have significant correlations with specific fecal flora in liver cirrhosis. Many clinical and experimental reports support the relationship between fatty acid metabolism and gut-microbiota. Various blood metabolome such as cytokines, amino acids, and vitamins are correlated with gut microbiota in probiotics-treated liver cirrhosis patients. The future evaluation of the gut-microbiota-liver metabolic network and the intervention of these relationships using probiotics

  13. Gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Usami, Makoto; Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamashita, Hayato

    2015-11-07

    The gut microbiota has the capacity to produce a diverse range of compounds that play a major role in regulating the activity of distal organs and the liver is strategically positioned downstream of the gut. Gut microbiota linked compounds such as short chain fatty acids, bile acids, choline metabolites, indole derivatives, vitamins, polyamines, lipids, neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones have many biological functions. This review focuses on the gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis. Dysbiosis in liver cirrhosis causes serious complications, such as bacteremia and hepatic encephalopathy, accompanied by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability. Gut dysbiosis in cirrhosis and intervention with probiotics and synbiotics in a clinical setting is reviewed and evaluated. Recent studies have revealed the relationship between gut microbiota and host metabolism in chronic metabolic liver disease, especially, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and with the gut microbiota metabolic interactions in dysbiosis related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Recently, our understanding of the relationship between the gut and liver and how this regulates systemic metabolic changes in liver cirrhosis has increased. The serum lipid levels of phospholipids, free fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially, eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have significant correlations with specific fecal flora in liver cirrhosis. Many clinical and experimental reports support the relationship between fatty acid metabolism and gut-microbiota. Various blood metabolome such as cytokines, amino acids, and vitamins are correlated with gut microbiota in probiotics-treated liver cirrhosis patients. The future evaluation of the gut-microbiota-liver metabolic network and the intervention of these relationships using probiotics

  14. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)--A Review.

    PubMed

    Karim, M F; Al-Mahtab, M; Rahman, S; Debnath, C R

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Hepatology clinics. It is closely related to the increased frequency of overweight or obesity. It has recognised association with metabolic syndrome. Central obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia are commonest risk factors. Association with hepatitis C genotype 3 is also recognised. NAFLD is an important cause of cyptogenic cirrhosis of liver. It affects all populations and all age groups. Most patients with NAFLD are asymptomatic or vague upper abdominal pain. Liver function tests are mostly normal or mild elevation of aminotranferases. Histological features almost identical to those of alcohol-induced liver damage and can range from mild steatosis to cirrhosis. Two hit hypothesis is prevailing theory for the development of NAFLD. Diagnosis is usually made by imaging tools like ultrasonogram which reveal a bright liver while liver biopsy is gold standard for diagnosis as well as differentiating simple fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Prognosis is variable. Simple hepatic steatosis generally has a benign long-term prognosis. However, one to two third of NASH progress to fibrosis or cirrhosis and may have a similar prognosis as cirrhosis from other liver diseases. Treatment is mostly control of underlying disorders and dietary advice, exercise, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, or cytoprotective agents. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing. So it needs more research to address this problem.

  15. Radiologic evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Soo; Park, Seong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent cause of chronic liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related liver cirrhosis. Although liver biopsy is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of NAFLD, especially for the diagnosis of NASH, imaging methods have been increasingly accepted as noninvasive alternatives to liver biopsy. Ultrasonography is a well-established and cost-effective imaging technique for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, especially for screening a large population at risk of NAFLD. Ultrasonography has a reasonable accuracy in detecting moderate-to-severe hepatic steatosis although it is less accurate for detecting mild hepatic steatosis, operator-dependent, and rather qualitative. Computed tomography is not appropriate for general population assessment of hepatic steatosis given its inaccuracy in detecting mild hepatic steatosis and potential radiation hazard. However, computed tomography may be effective in specific clinical situations, such as evaluation of donor candidates for hepatic transplantation. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging are now regarded as the most accurate practical methods of measuring liver fat in clinical practice, especially for longitudinal follow-up of patients with NAFLD. Ultrasound elastography and magnetic resonance elastography are increasingly used to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD and to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. This article will review current imaging methods used to evaluate hepatic steatosis, including the diagnostic accuracy, limitations, and practical applicability of each method. It will also briefly describe the potential role of elastography techniques in the evaluation of patients with NAFLD. PMID:24966609

  16. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular mechanisms for the hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2013-09-01

    Liver plays a central role in the biogenesis of major metabolites including glucose, fatty acids, and cholesterol. Increased incidence of obesity in the modern society promotes insulin resistance in the peripheral tissues in humans, and could cause severe metabolic disorders by inducing accumulation of lipid in the liver, resulting in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD, which is characterized by increased fat depots in the liver, could precede more severe diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. Accumulation of lipid in the liver can be traced by increased uptake of free fatty acids into the liver, impaired fatty acid beta oxidation, or the increased incidence of de novo lipogenesis. In this review, I would like to focus on the roles of individual pathways that contribute to the hepatic steatosis as a precursor for the NAFLD.

  17. Association between the HFE C282Y, H63D Polymorphisms and the Risks of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 5,758 Cases and 14,741 Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wei-Li; Wang, Feng-Mei; Han, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background Conflicting results have been obtained for the association between two common polymorphisms (C282Y, H63D) of human HFE (hereditary hemochromatosis) gene and the risks of the liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods An updated systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential role of HFE polymorphisms in the susceptibility to NAFLD, liver cirrhosis and HCC. After retrieving articles from online databases, eligible studies were enrolled according to the selection criteria. Stata/SE 12.0 software was utilized to perform the statistical analysis. Results In total, 43 articles with 5,758 cases and 14,741 controls were selected. Compared with the control group, a significantly increased risk of NAFLD was observed for the C282Y polymorphism in the Caucasian population under all genetic models and for the H63D polymorphism under the allele, heterozygote and dominant models (all OR>1, Passociation<0.05). However, no significant difference between liver cirrhosis cases and the control group was observed for HFE C282Y and H63D (all Passociation>0.05). In addition, we found that HFE C282Y was statistically associated with increased HCC susceptibility in the overall population, while H63D increased the odds of developing non-cirrhotic HCC in the African population (all OR>1, Passociation<0.05). Moreover, a positive association between compound heterozygosity for C282Y/H63D and the risk of NAFLD and HCC, but not liver cirrhosis, was observed. Conclusion Our meta-analysis provides evidence that the HFE C282Y and H63D polymorphisms confer increased genetic susceptibility to NAFLD and HCC but not liver cirrhosis. Additional well-powered studies are required to confirm our conclusion. PMID:27657935

  18. Panhypopituitarism due to Absence of the Pituitary Stalk: A Rare Aetiology of Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Rozas, Marta; Hernanz Roman, Lidia; Gonzalez, Diego Gonzalez; Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and the onset of liver damage, which may occasionally progress to cirrhosis. Patients with hypopituitarism can develop a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Insulin resistance is the main pathophysiological axis of metabolic syndrome and is the causal factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We present the case of a young patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology that was finally attributed to panhypopituitarism.

  19. Panhypopituitarism due to Absence of the Pituitary Stalk: A Rare Aetiology of Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Rozas, Marta; Hernanz Roman, Lidia; Gonzalez, Diego Gonzalez; Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and the onset of liver damage, which may occasionally progress to cirrhosis. Patients with hypopituitarism can develop a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Insulin resistance is the main pathophysiological axis of metabolic syndrome and is the causal factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We present the case of a young patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology that was finally attributed to panhypopituitarism. PMID:27213061

  20. Mediterranean diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Anania, Caterina; Perla, Francesco Massimo; Olivero, Francesca; Pacifico, Lucia; Chiesa, Claudio

    2018-05-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common chronic liver disease, and is characterized by a wide spectrum of fat-liver disorders that can result in severe liver disease and cirrhosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are the major risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Currently, there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment of NAFLD. However, lifestyle interventions based on exercise and a balanced diet for quality and quantity, are considered the cornerstone of NAFLD management. Mediterranean diet (MD), rich in polyunsaturated fats, polyphenols, vitamins and carotenoids, with their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, has been suggested to be effective in preventing cardiovascular risk factors. In adults, MD has also been demonstrated to be efficacious in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, few studies are available on the effects of the MD in both adult and pediatric subjects with NAFLD. Thus, the aims of the present narrative review are to analyze the current clinical evidence on the impact of MD in patients with NAFLD, and to summarize the main mechanisms of action of MD components on this condition.

  1. The Natural Course of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla Bertot, Luis; Adams, Leon Anton

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease in the world, paralleling the epidemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD exhibits a histological spectrum, ranging from “bland steatosis” to the more aggressive necro-inflammatory form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may accumulate fibrosis to result in cirrhosis. Emerging data suggests fibrosis, rather than NASH per se, to be the most important histological predictor of liver and non-liver related death. Nevertheless, only a small proportion of individuals develop cirrhosis, however the large proportion of the population affected by NAFLD has led to predictions that NAFLD will become a leading cause of end stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and indication for liver transplantation. HCC may arise in non-cirrhotic liver in the setting of NAFLD and is associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male gender. The MetS and its components also play a key role in the histological progression of NAFLD, however other genetic and environmental factors may also influence the natural history. The importance of NAFLD in terms of overall survival extends beyond the liver where cardiovascular disease and malignancy represents additional important causes of death. PMID:27213358

  2. Challenges and Management of Liver Cirrhosis: Practical Issues in the Therapy of Patients with Cirrhosis due to NAFLD and NASH.

    PubMed

    Traussnigg, Stefan; Kienbacher, Christian; Halilbasic, Emina; Rechling, Christian; Kazemi-Shirazi, Lili; Hofer, Harald; Munda, Petra; Trauner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and comprises a liver disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with risk of progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Associated metabolic conditions and comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are common and require concerted management. Adiponutrin (PNPLA3) variants may help to identify NAFLD patients at higher risk for liver disease progression towards advanced fibrosis and HCC. The therapeutic options in NAFLD/NASH include lifestyle modification, pharmacological treatment, bariatric surgery for patients with morbid obesity and treatment of complications of liver cirrhosis and HCC, including liver transplantation. Insulin sensitizers and antioxidative treatment strategies with vitamin E are among the best-established pharmacological approaches, but both drugs have long-term safety issues and there is limited evidence in cirrhotic patients. Treatment of concomitant/underlying metabolic conditions with statins or metformin may also have beneficial effects on portal hypertension, complications of liver cirrhosis and HCC prevention. The bile acid receptor FXR may be a promising novel therapeutic target for the treatment of NAFLD/NASH, fibrosis and portal hypertension, but the prognostic implications of associated changes in low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol require further studies. Morbidly obese NASH patients can benefit from bariatric surgery which may reduce liver fibrosis but carries a risk of decompensation in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. When carefully selected, patients with NASH cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation have a good outcome. This review summarizes recent progress in the management of patients with liver cirrhosis due to NASH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Endocrine causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Laura; Jornayvaz, François R

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, becoming a substantial public health burden. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of disorders, from simple conditions such as steatosis to severe manifestations such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. The relationship of NAFLD with metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes is well described and related to insulin resistance, with NAFLD being recognized as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD may also coincide with endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency or hypercortisolism. It is therefore essential to remember, when discovering altered liver enzymes or hepatic steatosis on radiological exams, that endocrine diseases can cause NAFLD. Indeed, the overall prognosis of NAFLD may be modified by treatment of the underlying endocrine pathology. In this review, we will discuss endocrine diseases that can cause NALFD. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms will be presented and specific treatments will be reviewed. PMID:26494962

  4. Role of the Gut Microbiome in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Bashar; DiBaise, John K

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to increase with prevalence estimates ranging from 17%-33%, making it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America. Its importance is due to not only its prevalence but also its association with increased cardiovascular morbidity and progression to cirrhosis in a subset of patients. NAFLD encompasses a pathologic spectrum of disease, from relatively benign accumulation of lipid (steatosis) to progressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and necrosis. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remains an important phenotypic state because this subgroup of patients is deemed at high risk for developing cirrhosis and progressing to liver failure requiring transplantation or to death. Gut microbiota has recently been identified as regulators of energy homeostasis and fat deposition, thereby implicating them in the development of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. The growing evidence that alteration in gut microbiota (dysbiosis) may affect liver pathology may allow for a better understanding of its role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, help to identify patients at risk of progression, and expose a microbial target for prevention and therapeutic intervention. In this review, we discuss the growing evidence that highlights the relationship between gut microbiota and its association with NAFLD. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia: An update.

    PubMed

    Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, progressing from simple steatosis to necroinflammation and fibrosis (leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH), and in some cases to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance are involved in NAFLD development and progression. NAFLD has been associated with several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and smoking. NAFLD is also characterized by atherogenic dyslipidemia, postprandial lipemia and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction. Most importantly, NAFLD patients have an increased risk for both liver and CV disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review, the associations between NAFLD, dyslipidemia and vascular disease in NAFLD patients are discussed. NAFLD treatment is also reviewed with a focus on lipid-lowering drugs. Finally, future perspectives in terms of both NAFLD diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - A multisystem disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470

  7. Clinical epidemiology and disease burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Perumpail, Brandon J; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Eric R; Cholankeril, George; Kim, Donghee; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the presence of hepatic fat accumulation after the exclusion of other causes of hepatic steatosis, including other causes of liver disease, excessive alcohol consumption, and other conditions that may lead to hepatic steatosis. NAFLD encompasses a broad clinical spectrum ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD is the most common liver disease in the world and NASH may soon become the most common indication for liver transplantation. Ongoing persistence of obesity with increasing rate of diabetes will increase the prevalence of NAFLD, and as this population ages, many will develop cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. There has been a general increase in the prevalence of NAFLD, with Asia leading the rise, yet the United States is following closely behind with a rising prevalence from 15% in 2005 to 25% within 5 years. NAFLD is commonly associated with metabolic comorbidities, including obesity, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of NAFLD is constantly evolving. Based on NAFLD subtypes, it has the potential to progress into advanced fibrosis, end-stage liver disease and HCC. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD with advanced fibrosis, is concerning because patients appear to experience higher liver-related and non-liver-related mortality than the general population. The increased morbidity and mortality, healthcare costs and declining health related quality of life associated with NAFLD makes it a formidable disease, and one that requires more in-depth analysis. PMID:29307986

  8. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease severity.

    PubMed

    Pavlides, Michael; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Tunnicliffe, Elizabeth M; Kelly, Catherine; Collier, Jane; Wang, Lai Mun; Fleming, Kenneth A; Cobbold, Jeremy F; Robson, Matthew D; Neubauer, Stefan; Barnes, Eleanor

    2017-07-01

    The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis staging are central to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessment. We evaluated multiparametric magnetic resonance in the assessment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis using histology as standard in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Seventy-one patients with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were recruited within 1 month of liver biopsy. Magnetic resonance data were used to define the liver inflammation and fibrosis score (LIF 0-4). Biopsies were assessed for steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis and classified as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or simple steatosis, and mild or significant (Activity ≥2 and/or Fibrosis ≥2 as defined by the Fatty Liver Inhibition of Progression consortium) non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Transient elastography was also performed. Magnetic resonance success rate was 95% vs 59% for transient elastography (P<.0001). Fibrosis stage on biopsy correlated with liver inflammation and fibrosis (r s =.51, P<.0001). The area under the receiver operating curve using liver inflammation and fibrosis for the diagnosis of cirrhosis was 0.85. Liver inflammation and fibrosis score for ballooning grades 0, 1 and 2 was 1.2, 2.7 and 3.5 respectively (P<.05) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.83 for the diagnosis of ballooning. Patients with steatosis had lower liver inflammation and fibrosis (1.3) compared to patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (3.0) (P<.0001); area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was 0.80. Liver inflammation and fibrosis scores for patients with mild and significant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were 1.2 and 2.9 respectively (P<.0001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of liver inflammation and fibrosis for the diagnosis of significant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was 0

  9. Mild Hypothermia and Acute Kidney Injury in Liver Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-18

    Cirrhosis; End Stage Liver Disease; Acute Kidney Injury; Liver Transplant; Complications; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hepatitis c; Hepatitis B; NASH - Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis; Alcoholic Cirrhosis; Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A poorly known pandemic.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Salvador; Graupera, Isabel; Caballeria, Juan

    2017-12-20

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) consists of an excessive depositing of fat in the liver, which can end up by causing inflammation, fibrosis and also cirrhosis with the corresponding complications including liver cancer. NAFLD has become the most common liver disease worldwide. The incidence has increased in parallel with the obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome epidemic, thus resulting in becoming one of the main indications for liver transplant. The diagnosis has principally been through histology but with the development of non-invasive methods, these have helped in simplifying the management of these patients in clinical practice. The only therapeutic strategies currently available are focused on weight loss (lifestyle changes or bariatric surgery). There is still no approved pharmacological option for the treatment of NAFLD, however there are a number of molecular studies in advanced stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Cirrhosis and autoimmune liver disease: Current understanding

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952

  12. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management.

    PubMed

    Başaranoğlu, Metin; Örmeci, Necati

    2014-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an umbrella term that covers both a relatively benign condition, which is simple steatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by a chronic and progressive liver pathology that may progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. Despite the growing body of evidence, one of the important and unresolved problems is the pathogenesis of NASH. It might be a metabolic disturbance as a primary abnormality in NAFLD. Insulin resistance is at the center of these metabolic abnormalities. Then, hepatocyte injury might be induced by oxidative stress. This ongoing process progresses to NASH, even to cirrhosis in some patients. In addition to oxidative stress, possibilities for the next hit are lipid peroxidation, reactive metabolites, adipose tissue products, transforming growth factor-β₁, Fas ligand, mitochondrial dysfunction, respiratory chain deficiency, and intestinal microbiota. Currently, there is no well-established and approved therapy. Recommendations are to improve existing co-morbidities, such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, or type 2 diabetes, and lifestyle modification with weight loss and exercise.

  13. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment (II). The treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Disease nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage same. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in our Western societies, from the point of view liver in its progressive evolution from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This updated January 2016 revision consists of two parts. In this second part, the treatment of NAFLD and its influence on cardiovascular disease and drugs used in the control of cardiovascular risk factors showing a beneficial effect on the liver disease will be reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ... diseases and conditions. Related Conditions & Diseases Autoimmune Hepatitis Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Nonalcoholic ...

  15. Liver surgery in cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Christina; Schlitt, Hans J; Renner, Philipp; Lang, Sven A

    2016-03-07

    The prevalence of hepatic cirrhosis in Europe and the United States, currently 250 patients per 100000 inhabitants, is steadily increasing. Thus, we observe a significant increase in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension needing liver resections for primary or metastatic lesions. However, extended liver resections in patients with underlying hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension still represent a medical challenge in regard to perioperative morbidity, surgical management and postoperative outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification recommends to restrict curative liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients to early tumor stages in patients with Child A cirrhosis not showing portal hypertension. However, during the last two decades, relevant improvements in preoperative diagnostic, perioperative hepatologic and intensive care management as well as in surgical techniques during hepatic resections have rendered even extended liver resections in higher-degree cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension possible. However, there are few standard indications for hepatic resections in cirrhotic patients and risk stratifications have to be performed in an interdisciplinary setting for each individual patient. We here review the indications, the preoperative risk-stratifications, the morbidity and the mortality of extended resections for primary and metastatic lesions in cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, we provide a review of literature on perioperative management in cirrhotic patients needing extrahepatic abdominal surgery and an overview of surgical options in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis.

  16. Liver surgery in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hackl, Christina; Schlitt, Hans J; Renner, Philipp; Lang, Sven A

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatic cirrhosis in Europe and the United States, currently 250 patients per 100000 inhabitants, is steadily increasing. Thus, we observe a significant increase in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension needing liver resections for primary or metastatic lesions. However, extended liver resections in patients with underlying hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension still represent a medical challenge in regard to perioperative morbidity, surgical management and postoperative outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification recommends to restrict curative liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients to early tumor stages in patients with Child A cirrhosis not showing portal hypertension. However, during the last two decades, relevant improvements in preoperative diagnostic, perioperative hepatologic and intensive care management as well as in surgical techniques during hepatic resections have rendered even extended liver resections in higher-degree cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension possible. However, there are few standard indications for hepatic resections in cirrhotic patients and risk stratifications have to be performed in an interdisciplinary setting for each individual patient. We here review the indications, the preoperative risk-stratifications, the morbidity and the mortality of extended resections for primary and metastatic lesions in cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, we provide a review of literature on perioperative management in cirrhotic patients needing extrahepatic abdominal surgery and an overview of surgical options in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:26973411

  17. Serum iron parameters in liver cirrhosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, G. A.; Maail, W.

    2018-03-01

    The liver plays a fundamental role in iron homeostasis. Iron parameters change, especially ferritin, need to be evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum ferritin could predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis since it reflects immunemediated and infectious stimuli. Ferritin could express the severity of liver disease and possible subsequent complications. Finally, it might reflect an iron overload condition resulting in significant morbidity and early mortality. 70 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis divided into three Child-Pugh subgroups. Serum iron parameters include serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin was measured in these groups. From these 70 patients, 30 (42.9%) with HbsAg positive, 26 (37.1%) with anti-HCV positive and 14 (20%) with both HbsAg and anti-HCV positive. Of the 70 patients, 14 (20%) had CTP Class A cirrhosis, 17 (24.3%) had CTP Class B cirrhosis, and 39 (55.7%) had CTP C cirrhosis. The median (range) value of serum iron was 36 (10-345) μg/dl, TIBC was 160 (59-520) μg/dl, Ferritin was 253.5 (8-6078) ng/ml and the transferrin saturation was 22.9 (3.65-216.98) %.We found a significant difference in serum ferritin level with CTP score. Ferritin levels increased as Child-Pugh class progressed (p<0.001).

  18. Strategies, models and biomarkers in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease research

    PubMed Central

    Willebrords, Joost; Pereira, Isabel Veloso Alves; Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Colle, Isabelle; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Da silva, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Cláudia P; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is currently the most dominant chronic liver disease in Western countries due to the fact that hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and drug-induced injury. A variety of chemicals, mainly drugs, and diets is known to cause hepatic steatosis in humans and rodents. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models rely on the application of a diet or the administration of drugs to laboratory animals or the exposure of hepatic cell lines to these drugs. More recently, genetically modified rodents or zebrafish have been introduced as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models. Considerable interest now lies in the discovery and development of novel non-invasive biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with specific focus on hepatic steatosis. Experimental diagnostic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, such as (epi)genetic parameters and ‘-omics’-based read-outs are still in their infancy, but show great promise. . In this paper, the array of tools and models for the study of liver steatosis is discussed. Furthermore, the current state-of-art regarding experimental biomarkers such as epigenetic, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabonomic biomarkers will be reviewed. PMID:26073454

  19. Insights from Genome-Wide Association Analyses of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kahali, Bratati; Halligan, Brian; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by hepatic steatosis, which can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease will become the number one cause of liver disease worldwide by 2020. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is correlated albeit imperfectly with obesity and other metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular disease, but exactly how having one of these diseases contributes to the development of other metabolic diseases is only now being elucidated. Development of NAFLD and related metabolic diseases is genetically influenced in the population, and recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered genetic variants that associate with these diseases. These GWAS-associated variants cannot only help us to identify individuals at high risk of developing NAFLD, but also to better understand its pathophysiology so that we can develop more effective treatments for this disease and related metabolic diseases in the future. PMID:26676813

  20. The risk of cirrhosis in non-alcohol drinkers is greater in female than male betel nut chewers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Hua; Wang, Lee; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lan, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2018-02-02

    The association of betel nut with liver cirrhosis among alcohol drinkers has been clearly shown. However, very few studies have shown such an association among non-alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis among non-alcohol drinkers. This study retrospectively analyzed data retrieved from the 2012 Adult Preventive Medical Services and the National Health Insurance Research Datasets in Taiwan. Participants' information included physical examination and lifestyle, alongside laboratory tests. Betel nut chewers were grouped into three categories: never, occasional and frequent. Diseases were diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Initially, 1573024 adults aged 40 years and above who engaged in the free adult preventive medical services in 2012 were recruited. However, only 1065246 of them were included in the analysis. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After multivariable adjustments, there were significant relationships between cirrhosis and betel nut chewing in both sexes (P-trend < 0.0001). The risk of cirrhosis was greater in females than males. The odds ratios of cirrhosis in occasional and frequent female chewers were respectively 2.91; 95% C.I: 1.75-4.83 and 3.06; 95% C.I: 1.69-5. However, they were respectively 1.76; 95% C.I: 1.47-2.10 and 2.32; 95% C.I: 1.90-2.85 in occasional and frequent male chewers. This study demonstrated significant relationships between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis in both male and female non-alcohol drinkers. The risk of cirrhosis was greater in female than male chewers.

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asia: emerging perspectives.

    PubMed

    Seto, Wai-Kay; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2017-02-01

    As in the West, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease in Asia, with a prevalence higher than 40 % in some countries. The risk factors for NAFLD development are similar to those in Western countries, including increased body mass index, diabetes, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD in Asians is associated with different extrahepatic manifestations involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal systems. A considerable proportion of Asians with NAFLD are described as having "lean" NAFLD. Present in approximately 20 % of the Asian population, lean NAFLD is closely linked with insulin resistance, diabetes, and other metabolic complications, but its association with disease progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis remains to be defined. There is emerging evidence of the interactions of NAFLD with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection in Asia. Unlike in Western countries, NAFLD constitutes only a minority of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma cases in Asia. Possible explanations are the lower prevalence of obesity and the overwhelming problem of viral hepatitis in Asia. With aging of the obesity cohort in Asia, NAFLD-related liver complications are expected to increase.

  2. Fibrosis Assessment in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in 2016.

    PubMed

    Kaswala, Dharmesh H; Lai, Michelle; Afdhal, Nezam H

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver pathologies characterized by hepatic steatosis with a history of little to no alcohol consumption or secondary causes of hepatic steatosis. The prevalence of NAFLD is 20-25 % of the general population in the Western countries and is associated with metabolic risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. The spectrum of disease ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Advanced fibrosis is the most significant predictor of mortality in NAFLD. It is crucial to assess for the presence and degree of hepatic fibrosis in order to make therapeutic decisions and predict clinical outcomes. Liver biopsy, the current gold standard to assess the liver fibrosis, has a number of drawbacks such as invasiveness, sampling error, cost, and inter-/intra-observer variability. There are currently available a number of noninvasive tests as an alternative to liver biopsy for fibrosis staging. These noninvasive fibrosis tests are increasingly used to rule out advanced fibrosis and help guide disease management. While these noninvasive tests perform relatively well for ruling out advanced fibrosis, they also have limitations. Understanding the strengths and limitations of liver biopsy and the noninvasive tests is necessary for deciding when to use the appropriate tests in the evaluation of patients with NAFLD.

  3. Liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - diagnostic challenge with prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Stål, Per

    2015-10-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, with a prevalence of 20%. In a subgroup of patients, inflammation, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and a varying degree of fibrosis may develop, a condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Advanced liver fibrosis (stage F3) and cirrhosis (stage F4) are histologic features that most accurately predict increased mortality in both liver-related and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis are at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal varices and should therefore be included in surveillance programs. However, liver disease and fibrosis are often unrecognized in patients with NAFLD, possibly leading to a delayed diagnosis of complications. The early diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD is therefore crucial, and it can be accomplished using serum biomarkers (e.g., the NAFLD Fibrosis Score, Fib-4 Index or BARD) or non-invasive imaging techniques (transient elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging). The screening of risk groups, such as patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for NAFLD development with these non-invasive methods may detect advanced fibrosis at an early stage. Additionally, patients with a low risk for advanced fibrosis can be identified, and the need for liver biopsies can be minimized. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenge and prognostic impact of advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD.

  4. Liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - diagnostic challenge with prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Stål, Per

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, with a prevalence of 20%. In a subgroup of patients, inflammation, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and a varying degree of fibrosis may develop, a condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Advanced liver fibrosis (stage F3) and cirrhosis (stage F4) are histologic features that most accurately predict increased mortality in both liver-related and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis are at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal varices and should therefore be included in surveillance programs. However, liver disease and fibrosis are often unrecognized in patients with NAFLD, possibly leading to a delayed diagnosis of complications. The early diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD is therefore crucial, and it can be accomplished using serum biomarkers (e.g., the NAFLD Fibrosis Score, Fib-4 Index or BARD) or non-invasive imaging techniques (transient elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging). The screening of risk groups, such as patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for NAFLD development with these non-invasive methods may detect advanced fibrosis at an early stage. Additionally, patients with a low risk for advanced fibrosis can be identified, and the need for liver biopsies can be minimized. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenge and prognostic impact of advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD. PMID:26494963

  5. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: East Versus West

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swastik; Duseja, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of liver disease worldwide with prevalence ranging from 10% to 30% in various countries. It has become an important cause of unexplained rise in transaminases, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathogenesis is related to obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and resultant inflammation in the liver progressing to fibrosis. Pharmacological treatment in patients with NAFLD is still evolving and the treatment of these patients rests upon lifestyle modification with diet and exercise being the cornerstones of therapy. While there are many similarities between patients with NAFLD from Asia and the West, there are certain features which make the patients with NAFLD from Asia stand apart. This review highlights the data on NAFLD from Asia comparing it with the data from the West. PMID:25755421

  6. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease--new view].

    PubMed

    Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Lawniczak, Małgorzata; Marlicz, Wojciech; Miezyńska-Kurtycz, Joanna; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2008-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, through the necroinflammatory disorder of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NAFLD/NASH is mostly related with visceral adiposity, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus (DM t.2) and metabolic syndrome. Pathogenetic concepts of NAFLD include overnutrition and underactivity, insulin resistance (IR) and genetic factor. The prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated to be 17-33% in some countries, NASH may be present in about 1/3 of such cases, while 20-25% of NASH cases could progress to cirrhosis. NAFLD is now recognized as one of the most frequent reason of liver tests elevation without clinical symptoms. Insulin resistance is considering as having a central role in NAFLD pathogenesis. In hepatocytes, IR is related to hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, formation of advanced glycation end-products, increased free fatty acids and their metabolites, oxidative stress and altered profiles of adipocytokines. Early stages of fatty liver are clinically silent and include elevation of ALT and GGTP, hyperechogenic liver in USG and/or hepatomegaly. Among clinical symptoms, abdominal discomfort is relatively common as well as chronic fatigue. NAFLD/NASH is not a benign disease, progressive liver biopsy have shown histological progression of fibrosis in 32%, the estimated rate of cirrhosis development is 20% and a liver--related death is 12% over 10 years. No treatment has scientifically proved to ameliorate NAFLD or to avoid its progression. The various therapeutic alternatives are aimed at interfering with the risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder in order to prevent the progression to end-stage liver disease. The most important therapeutic measure is increasing insulin sensitivity by an attempt to change a lifestyle mostly by dieting and physical activity in order to loose weight. The most used agent is metformin, the others

  7. Clinical approaches to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwenger, Katherine JP; Allard, Johane P

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and potentially cirrhosis, and it is one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is associated with other medical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. NASH can only be diagnosed through liver biopsy, but noninvasive techniques have been developed to identify patients who are most likely to have NASH or fibrosis, reducing the need for liver biopsy and risk to patients. Disease progression varies between individuals and is linked to a number of risk factors. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis are associated with diet and lifestyle, influx of free fatty acids to the liver from adipose tissue due to insulin resistance, hepatic oxidative stress, cytokines production, reduced very low-density lipoprotein secretion and intestinal microbiome. Weight loss through improved diet and increased physical activity has been the cornerstone therapy of NAFLD. Recent therapies such as pioglitazone and vitamin E have been shown to be beneficial. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and statins may offer additional benefits. Bariatric surgery should be considered in morbidly obese patients. More research is needed to assess the impact of these treatments on a long-term basis. The objective of this article is to briefly review the diagnosis, management and treatment of this disease in order to aid clinicians in managing these patients. PMID:24587650

  8. The role of bile acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Chow, Monica D; Lee, Yi-Horng; Guo, Grace L

    2017-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is growing in prevalence worldwide. It is marked by the presence of macrosteatosis on liver histology but is often clinically asymptomatic. However, it can progress into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis which is a more severe form of liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. Further progression leads to cirrhosis, which predisposes patients to hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure. The mechanism by which simple steatosis progresses to steatohepatitis is not entirely clear. However, multiple pathways have been proposed. A common link amongst many of these pathways is disruption of the homeostasis of bile acids. Other than aiding in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins, bile acids act as ligands. For example, they bind to farnesoid X receptor, which is critically involved in many of the pathways responsible for maintaining bile acid, glucose, and lipid homeostasis. Alterations to these pathways can lead to dysregulation of energy balance and increased inflammation and fibrosis. Repeated insults over time may be the key to development of steatohepatitis. For this reason, current drug therapies target aspects of these pathways to try to reduce and halt inflammation and fibrosis. This review will focus on the role of bile acids in these various pathways and how changes in these pathways may result in steatohepatitis. While there is no approved pharmaceutical treatment for either hepatic steatosis or steatohepatitis, this review will also touch upon the multitude of potential therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bloodstream infections in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bartoletti, Michele; Giannella, Maddalena; Lewis, Russell Edward; Viale, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bloodstream infections are a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. Dysregulated intestinal bacterial translocation is the predominant pathophysiological mechanism of infections in this setting. For this reason enteric Gram-negative bacteria are commonly encountered as the first etiological cause of infection. However, through the years, the improvement in the management of cirrhosis, the recourse to invasive procedures and the global spread of multidrug resistant pathogens have importantly changed the current epidemiology. Bloodstream infections in cirrhotic patients are characterized by high mortality rate and complications including metastatic infections, infective endocarditis, and endotipsitis (or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt-related infection). For this reason early identification of patients at risk for mortality and appropriated therapeutic management is mandatory. Liver cirrhosis can significantly change the pharmacokinetic behavior of antimicrobials. In fact hypoproteinaemia, ascitis and third space expansion and impairment of renal function can be translated in an unpredictable drug exposure. PMID:26864729

  10. Bloodstream infections in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Bartoletti, Michele; Giannella, Maddalena; Lewis, Russell Edward; Viale, Pierluigi

    2016-04-02

    Bloodstream infections are a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. Dysregulated intestinal bacterial translocation is the predominant pathophysiological mechanism of infections in this setting. For this reason enteric Gram-negative bacteria are commonly encountered as the first etiological cause of infection. However, through the years, the improvement in the management of cirrhosis, the recourse to invasive procedures and the global spread of multidrug resistant pathogens have importantly changed the current epidemiology. Bloodstream infections in cirrhotic patients are characterized by high mortality rate and complications including metastatic infections, infective endocarditis, and endotipsitis (or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt-related infection). For this reason early identification of patients at risk for mortality and appropriated therapeutic management is mandatory. Liver cirrhosis can significantly change the pharmacokinetic behavior of antimicrobials. In fact hypoproteinaemia, ascitis and third space expansion and impairment of renal function can be translated in an unpredictable drug exposure.

  11. Amiodarone-Induced Liver Injury and Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kappus, Matthew; Lagoo, Anand S.; Brady, Carla W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of an 80-year-old woman with volume overload thought initially to be secondary to heart failure, but determined to be amiodarone-induced acute and chronic liver injury leading to submassive necrosis and bridging fibrosis consistent with early cirrhosis. Her histopathology was uniquely absent of steatosis and phospholipidosis, which are commonly seen in AIC. PMID:26157932

  12. Amiodarone-Induced Liver Injury and Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Buggey, Jonathan; Kappus, Matthew; Lagoo, Anand S; Brady, Carla W

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of an 80-year-old woman with volume overload thought initially to be secondary to heart failure, but determined to be amiodarone-induced acute and chronic liver injury leading to submassive necrosis and bridging fibrosis consistent with early cirrhosis. Her histopathology was uniquely absent of steatosis and phospholipidosis, which are commonly seen in AIC.

  13. Gender and racial differences in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jen-Jung; Fallon, Michael B

    2014-05-27

    Due to the worldwide epidemic of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver injury ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may progress to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Individuals with NAFLD, especially those with metabolic syndrome, have higher overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and liver-related mortality compared with the general population. According to the population-based studies, NAFLD and NASH are more prevalent in males and in Hispanics. Both the gender and racial ethnic differences in NAFLD and NASH are likely attributed to interaction between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. Using genome-wide association studies, several genetic variants have been identified to be associated with NAFLD/NASH. However, these variants account for only a small amount of variation in hepatic steatosis among ethnic groups and may serve as modifiers of the natural history of NAFLD. Alternatively, these variants may not be the causative variants but simply markers representing a larger body of genetic variations. In this article, we provide a concise review of the gender and racial differences in the prevalence of NAFLD and NASH in adults. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for these disparities.

  14. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Study of Demographic and Predictive Factors.

    PubMed

    Shil, Bimal Chandra; Saha, Madhusudan; Ahmed, Faruque; Dhar, Swapan Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of liver disease characterized by excess of fat in liver which ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. The study was carried out in 216 with serologically defined fatty liver. They underwent detailed history evaluation, clinical examination and anthropometric measurements, biochemical and serological tests. The cut-off values for central obesity were waist hip ratio (WHR) > 0.85 in women and > 0.9 in men. The prevalence of NAFLD was highest in the age group of 31 to 60 years. It was more common in males than females. Twenty cases (11.7%) had discomfort at right upper abdomen. Hepatomegaly was found in 27 patients (13.2%), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in 29 (14.21%) and diabetes mellitus in 38 (18.63%) patients. Overweight or obesity was found in 110 (53.92%) cases and central obesity was seen in 129 (63.23%) patients. Hence, metabolic syndrome (according to International Diabetes Federation Criteria) was present in 62.25% cases of NAFLD. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) more than upper limit of normal was found in 36.76% cases. Risk factors for NAFLD in Bangladesh are similar to reported from the rest of the world. Age more than 30 years, male sex, WHR > 0.9 in men and more than 0.85 in female, BMI more than 25, glucose intolerance are predictive factors for NAFLD. Shil BC, Saha M, Ahmed F, Dhar SC. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Study of Demographic and Predictive Factors. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):4-6.

  15. Genetics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological, familial, and twin studies indicate that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, now the leading cause of liver damage in developed countries, has a strong heritability. The common I148M variant of PNPLA3 impairing hepatocellular lipid droplets remodeling is the major genetic determinant of hepatic fat content. The I148M variant has a strong impact on the full spectrum of liver damage related to fatty liver, encompassing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and influences the response to therapeutic approaches. Common variants in GCKR enhance de novo hepatic lipogenesis in response to glucose and liver inflammation. Furthermore, the low-frequency E167K variant of TM6SF2 and rare mutations in APOB, which impair very low-density lipoproteins secretion, predispose to progressive fatty liver. These and other recent findings reviewed here indicate that impaired lipid handling by hepatocytes has a major role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by triggering inflammation, fibrogenesis, and carcinogenesis. These discoveries have provided potential novel biomarkers for clinical use and have revealed intriguing therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16.  High prevalence of undiagnosed liver cirrhosis and advanced fibrosis in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Arab, Juan P; Barrera, Francisco; Gallego, Consuelo; Valderas, Juan P; Uribe, Sergio; Tejos, Cristian; Serrano, Cristóbal; Serrano, Cristóbal; Huete, Álvaro; Liberona, Jessica; Labbé, Pilar; Quiroga, Teresa; Benítez, Carlos; Irarrázaval, Pablo; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Arrese, Marco

    2016-01-01

     Background. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at risk for developing end-stage liver disease due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the aggressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Data on prevalence of advanced fibrosis among T2DM patients is scarce. To evaluate prevalence of steatosis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis using non-invasive methods in T2DM patients. 145 consecutive T2DM patients (> 55 years-old) were prospectively recruited. Presence of cirrhosis and advanced fibrosis was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) respectively. Exclusion criteria included significant alcohol consumption, markers of viral hepatitis infection or other liver diseases. Results are expressed in percentage or median (interquartile range). 52.6% of patients were women, the median age was 60 years old (57-64), mean BMI was 29.6 ± 4.7 kg/m2 and diabetes duration was 7.6 ± 6.9 years. A high prevalence of liver steatosis (63.9%), advanced fibrosis assessed by NFS (12.8%) and evidence of liver cirrhosis in MRI (6.0%) was observed. In a multivariate analysis GGT > 82 IU/L (P = 0.004) and no alcohol intake (P = 0.032) were independently associated to advanced fibrosis. A high frequency of undiagnosed advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis was observed in non-selected T2DM patients. Screening of these conditions may be warranted in this patient population.

  17. Rodent Models of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Imajo, Kento; Yoneda, Masato; Kessoku, Takaomi; Ogawa, Yuji; Maeda, Shin; Sumida, Yoshio; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Wada, Koichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Research in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has been limited by the availability of suitable models for this disease. A number of rodent models have been described in which the relevant liver pathology develops in an appropriate metabolic context. These models are promising tools for researchers investigating one of the key issues of NASH: not so much why steatosis occurs, but what causes the transition from simple steatosis to the inflammatory, progressive fibrosing condition of steatohepatitis. The different rodent models can be classified into two large groups. The first includes models in which the disease is acquired after dietary or pharmacological manipulation, and the second, genetically modified models in which liver disease develops spontaneously. To date, no single rodent model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but individual models can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that researchers choose the appropriate rodent models. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the metabolic abnormalities present in the currently available rodent models of NAFLD, summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the established models and the key findings that have furthered our understanding of the disease’s pathogenesis. PMID:24192824

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver and the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bashiardes, Stavros; Shapiro, Hagit; Rozin, Shachar; Shibolet, Oren; Elinav, Eran

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a common, multi-factorial, and poorly understood liver disease whose incidence is globally rising. NAFLD is generally asymptomatic and associated with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Yet, up to 25% of NAFLD patients develop a progressive inflammatory liver disease termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that may progress towards cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the need for liver transplantation. In recent years, several lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and its progression into NASH. Suggested microbiome-associated mechanisms contributing to NAFLD and NASH include dysbiosis-induced deregulation of the gut endothelial barrier function, which facilitates systemic bacterial translocation, and intestinal and hepatic inflammation. Furthermore, increased microbiome-modulated metabolites such as lipopolysaccharides, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids, and ethanol, may affect liver pathology through multiple direct and indirect mechanisms. Herein, we discuss the associations, mechanisms, and clinical implications of the microbiome's contribution to NAFLD and NASH. Understanding these contributions to the development of fatty liver pathogenesis and its clinical course may serve as a basis for development of therapeutic microbiome-targeting approaches for treatment and prevention of NAFLD and NASH. Intestinal host-microbiome interactions play diverse roles in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD and NASH. Elucidation of the mechanisms driving these microbial effects on the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH may enable to identify new diagnostic and therapeutic targets of these common metabolic liver diseases. This article is part of a special issue on microbiota.

  19. Coronary revascularization in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shiro; Miwa, Senri; Yamazaki, Kazuhiro; Minakata, Kenji; Nakata, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tadashi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2011-05-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a major risk factor for cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. However, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (OPCABG) may be a less invasive alternative strategy. Among the 9,877 patients undergoing first PCI or CABG enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry (a registry of first-time PCI and CABG patients in Japan), 332 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis were entered into the study (age 67.1±9.4 years; 246 male). Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed by liver biopsy or signs of portal hypertension with characteristic morphologic liver and spleen changes. A total of 233 patients received PCI, 58 conventional on-pump CABG (CCABG), and 41 OPCABG. Median follow-up was 3.3 years. The PCI group included less complex coronary lesions such as triple vessel and left main disease (p<0.01 each). Propensity score adjusted in-hospital mortality after CCABG or OPCABG was higher than that after PCI; however, the differences were not significant (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 6.84 [0.52 to 90.8], p=0.14 for CCABG versus PCI; and 1.86 [0.08 to 45.8], p=0.71 for OPCABG versus PCI). Adjusted overall mortality after CCABG or CABG was lower than that after PCI, but the differences were not significant (0.66 [0.31 to 1.40], p=0.28; and 0.64 [0.28 to 1.49], p=0.31, respectively). Approximately two thirds of patients died of noncardiovascular morbidities (malignancies, including hepatocarcinoma, or hepatic decompression). Because overall noncardiovascular mortality is high among patients with liver cirrhosis, complete revascularization may not be associated with better survival outcomes. Further study is warranted to determine the impact of a coronary revascularization strategy for liver cirrhosis patients. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent Advancements in Diagnosis and Therapy of Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Roberto Giulio; Stasi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a diffuse pathophysiological state of the liver considered to be the final stage of various liver injuries, characterized by chronic necroinflammatory and fibrogenetic processes, with subsequent conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules, dense fibrotic septa, concomitant parenchymal exaustment and collapse of the liver tissue. Alcoholic liver disease and chronic infections due to HBV and/or HCV constitute the main causes of liver cirrhosis worldwide. During a lag time of 15 to 30 years, chronic liver diseases can lead to liver cirrhosis and its complications. Active hepatic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the inflammation- necrosis-regeneration process, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Prognosis of liver cirrhosis is highly variable and influenced by several variables, such as etiology, severity of liver disease, presence of complications and comorbidities. In advanced cirrhosis, survival decreases to one or two years. Correct advanced diagnosis and selected treatment with different molecules may help in understanding mechanisms of fibrogenesis, the driving forces of cirrhosis's pathogenesis, and the scrupulous approach to more effective therapeutic procedures. Prevention of fibrosis with further deterioration of liver function through specific treatments is always required, through the removal of the underlying causes of liver disease. Advanced liver disease, with subsequent complications, requires targeted treatment. Therefore, the aim of this review is to assess the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis on the pathophysiological bases, searching for relevant studies published in English using the PubMed database from 2011 to the present.

  1. Gut Microbiota of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Reham M; Zhu, Lixin; Baker, Robert D; Baker, Susan S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been rapidly increasing worldwide. It has become a leading cause of liver transplantation. Accumulating evidence suggests a significant role for gut microbiota in its development and progression. Here we review the effect of gut microbiota on developing hepatic fatty infiltration and its progression. Current literature supports a possible role for gut microbiota in the development of liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. We also review the literature on possible interventions for NAFLD that target the gut microbiota.

  2. A comprehensive review of noninvasive liver fibrosis tests in pediatric nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Sana; Collyer, Elizabeth; Alkhouri, Naim

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis have been increasing in the pediatric population. The presence and severity of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD are important prognostic factors for the risk of disease progression to cirrhosis. The gold standard for staging liver fibrosis is a liver biopsy. However, given the risks of this procedure, especially in the pediatric population, the development of noninvasive markers to diagnose and monitor progression of NAFLD is desirable. This paper will review recently developed noninvasive methods for diagnosing liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD. These include simple fibrosis scores, advanced biochemical markers, and radiologic imaging studies. Simple fibrosis scores use readily available laboratory tests; available one include AST/ALT ratio, AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis (FIB)-4 index, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and pediatric NALFD fibrosis score (PNFS). Advanced biochemical markers include biomarkers of hepatocyte cell death such as cytokeratin 18 fragment levels, and markers of extracellular matrix turnover such as the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test and hyaluronic acid. Radiologic imaging studies estimate liver stiffness as a surrogate for liver fibrosis; these include transient elastography (TE), magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI).

  3. Metabolic Syndrome: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not one of the defining criteria for metabolic syndrome, it is a common hepatic manifestation. NAFLD includes a spectrum of histologic findings ranging from simple steatosis, known as nonalcoholic fatty liver, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To make the diagnosis of NAFLD, other etiologies of steatosis or hepatitis, such as hepatotoxic drugs, excessive alcohol intake, congenital errors of metabolism, or viral hepatitis, must be ruled out. After ruling out other conditions, the diagnosis of NAFLD often is made clinically, but a definitive diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy. As with other complications of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance is thought to be an underlying etiology of NAFLD. Management strategies attempt to reverse or improve insulin resistance while minimizing liver damage. The strongest evidence supports lifestyle modifications with weight loss, but there is some evidence to support bariatric surgery, medical therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents, and/or pharmacotherapy to promote weight loss. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD, so management must include modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. From the liver to the heart: Cardiac dysfunction in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Sessa, Anna; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Santoro, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge concerning the association between NAFLD and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:28144387

  5. From the liver to the heart: Cardiac dysfunction in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Di Sessa, Anna; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Santoro, Nicola

    2017-01-18

    In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge concerning the association between NAFLD and cardiac dysfunction.

  6. Neurologic Manifestations of Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    The normal functioning of brain is intimately as well as intricately interrelated with normal functioning of the liver. Liver plays a critical role of not only providing vital nutrients to the brain but also of detoxifying the splanchnic blood. Compromised liver function leads to insufficient detoxification thus allowing neurotoxins (such as ammonia, manganese, and other chemicals) to enter the cerebral circulation. In addition, portosystemic shunts, which are common accompaniments of advanced liver disease, facilitate free passage of neurotoxins into the cerebral circulation. The problem is compounded further by additional variables such as gastrointestinal tract bleeding, malnutrition, and concurrent renal failure, which are often associated with liver cirrhosis. Neurologic damage in chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis seems to be multifactorial primarily attributable to the following: brain accumulation of ammonia, manganese, and lactate; altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier; recruitment of monocytes after microglial activation; and neuroinflammation, that is, direct effects of circulating systemic proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β, and IL-6. Radiologist should be aware of the conundrum of neurologic complications that can be encountered in liver disease, which include hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocerebral degeneration, hepatic myelopathy, cirrhosis-related parkinsonism, cerebral infections, hemorrhage, and osmotic demyelination. In addition, neurologic complications can be exclusive to certain disorders, for example, Wilson disease, alcoholism (Wernicke encephalopathy, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease, etc). Radiologist should be aware of their varied clinical presentation and radiological appearances as the diagnosis is not always straightforward. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: which clinical arguments?

    PubMed

    Rosmorduc, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are growing epidemics associated with an increased risk for many types of cancer. In the liver, inflammatory and angiogenic changes due to insulin resistance and fatty liver disease are associated with an increased incidence of liver cancer. Regardless of underlying liver disease, cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) although are cases of HCC arising without cirrhosis raise the possibility of a direct carcinogenesis secondary to Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Moreover, metabolic syndrome and its different features may also increase the risk of HCC in the setting of chronic liver diseases of other causes such as viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse. Taking into account all these data, it is necessary to better determine the risk of developing HCC in patients with metabolic syndrome to improve the screening guidelines and develop prophylactic treatments in this setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Current Thinking.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Socha, Piotr

    2017-10-31

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an increasingly prevalent paediatric disorder is diagnosed and managed by both paediatric gastroenterologists / hepatologists but also frequently by the general paediatrician. This paper updates recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approach which may be applied to everyday practice. Diagnosis of NAFLD takes into account the risk factor profile and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Techniques such as transient elastography and specific biomarkers aimed at improving diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD need further validation in the paediatric population. Defining the risk to develop cirrhosis seems to be of primary importance already in childhood and a combination of genetic, clinical and environmental factors can help in monitoring and making decisions on therapy. Weight reduction therapy should be the aim of treatment approach but the compliance is poor and pharmacological treatment would be helpful- DHA, some probiotics, vitamin E are to be considered but evidence is not sufficient to recommend widespread use.

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver and the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mikolasevic, I; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Stimac, D; Klanac, A; Carovic, F; Milic, S

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome on the severity of acute pancreatitis. We hypothesized that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver would have a more severe form of acute pancreatitis. We retrospectively analyzed 822 patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis. We diagnosed acute pancreatitis and determined its severity according the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. We assessed nonalcoholic fatty liver with computed tomography. There were 198 (24.1%) patients out of 822 analyzed who had nonalcoholic fatty liver. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had statistically higher incidence of moderately severe (35.4% vs. 14.6%; p=0.02) and severe acute pancreatitis (20.7% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001) compared to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver. At the admission patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had higher values of C-reactive protein as well as at day three, higher APACHE II score at admission and significantly higher incidence of organ failure and local complications as well as higher values of computed tomography severity index compared to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver. We found independent association between the occurrence of moderately severe and severe acute pancreatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver (OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.236-3.689). Compared to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver, patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had a higher death rate, however not statistically significant (5.6% vs. 4.3%; p=NS). Presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver at admission can indicate a higher risk for developing more severe forms of acute pancreatitis and could be used as an additional prognostic tool. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An expanded review

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Zhang, Xuchen

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses the simple steatosis to more progressive steatosis with associated hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a growing epidemic, not only in the United States, but worldwide in part due to obesity and insulin resistance leading to liver accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids. Numerous risk factors for the development of NAFLD have been espoused with most having some form of metabolic derangement or insulin resistance at the core of its pathophysiology. NAFLD patients are at increased risk of liver-related as well as cardiovascular mortality, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for definitive diagnosis, but the development of noninvasive advanced imaging, biochemical and genetic tests will no doubt provide future clinicians with a great deal of information and opportunity for enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis and targeted treatment. As it currently stands several medications/supplements are being used in the treatment of NAFLD; however, none seem to be the “magic bullet” in curtailing this growing problem yet. In this review we summarized the current knowledge of NAFLD epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathologic changes, natural history, and treatment in order to aid in further understanding this disease and better managing NAFLD patients. PMID:28652891

  11. Genetics Home Reference: cryptogenic cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely result from a condition called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In NAFLD, fat accumulates in the ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (5 links) Encyclopedia: Cirrhosis Encyclopedia: Fatty Liver--Nonalcoholic Encyclopedia: Liver Cancer--Hepatocellular Carcinoma Health Topic: ...

  12. Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Interactions between Liver Parenchymal and Nonparenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Nancy; Zou, An

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of NASH is a complex process and implicates cell interactions between liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells as well as crosstalk between various immune cell populations in liver. Lipotoxicity appears to be the central driver of hepatic cellular injury via oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This review focuses on the contributions of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to NASH, assessing their potential applications to the development of novel therapeutic agents. Currently, there are limited pharmacological treatments for NASH; therefore, an increased understanding of NASH pathogenesis is pertinent to improve disease interventions in the future. PMID:27822476

  13. Cancer and liver cirrhosis: implications on prognosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Matthias; Trauner, Michael; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Sieghart, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis, the end-stage of every chronic liver disease, is not only the major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma but also a limiting factor for anticancer therapy of liver and non-hepatic malignancies. Liver cirrhosis may limit surgical and interventional approaches to cancer treatment, influence pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs, increase side effects of chemotherapy, render patients susceptible for hepatotoxicity, and ultimately result in a competitive risk for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a concise overview about the impact of liver cirrhosis on the management and prognosis of patients with primary liver cancer or non-hepatic malignancies. PMID:27843598

  14. ALCOHOLIC VERSUS NONALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS IN A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF EMERGENCY THERAPY OF BLEEDING VARICES

    PubMed Central

    Orloff, Marshall J.; Isenberg, Jon I.; Wheeler, Henry O.; Haynes, Kevin S.; Jinich-Brook, Horacio; Rapier, Roderick; Vaida, Florin; Hye, Robert J.; Orloff, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that portal-systemic shunts be avoided in alcoholic cirrhotics because survival rate is allegedly lower in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. We examined this issue in a randomized controlled trial. Methods 211 unselected, consecutive patients with cirrhosis and bleeding esophageal varices were randomized to endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) (n=106) or emergency portacaval shunt (EPCS) (105). Treatment was initiated within 8 hours. EST failure was treated by rescue PCS. 10-yr follow-up was 96%. Results Results strongly favored EPCS over EST (p<0.001). Among EPCS patients, 83% were alcoholic and 17% nonalcoholic. Outcomes were (1) permanent control of bleeding 100% vs. 100%; (2) 5-yr survival 71% vs.78%; (3) encephalopathy 14% vs. 19%; (4) yearly charges $38,300 vs. $43,000. Conclusions EPCS results were similar in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhotics. EPCS is an effective first line emergency treatment in all forms of cirrhosis, including alcoholic. PMID:21195430

  15. A Mechanistic Pharmacokinetic Model for Liver Transporter Substrates Under Liver Cirrhosis Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, R; Barton, HA; Maurer, TS

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a disease characterized by the loss of functional liver mass. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to interpret and predict how the interplay among physiological changes in cirrhosis affects pharmacokinetics. However, previous PBPK models under cirrhotic conditions were developed for permeable cytochrome P450 substrates and do not directly apply to substrates of liver transporters. This study characterizes a PBPK model for liver transporter substrates in relation to the severity of liver cirrhosis. A published PBPK model structure for liver transporter substrates under healthy conditions and the physiological changes for cirrhosis are combined to simulate pharmacokinetics of liver transporter substrates in patients with mild and moderate cirrhosis. The simulated pharmacokinetics under liver cirrhosis reasonably approximate observations. This analysis includes meta-analysis to obtain system-dependent parameters in cirrhosis patients and a top-down approach to improve understanding of the effect of cirrhosis on transporter-mediated drug disposition under cirrhotic conditions. PMID:26225262

  16. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver transplantation - Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Filipec-Kanizaj, Tajana; Mijic, Maja; Jakopcic, Ivan; Milic, Sandra; Hrstic, Irena; Sobocan, Nikola; Stimac, Davor; Burra, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) is a challenging and multisystem disease that has a high socioeconomic impact. NAFLD/NASH is a main cause of macrovesicular steatosis and has multiple impacts on liver transplantation (LT), on patients on the waiting list for transplant, on post-transplant setting as well as on organ donors. Current data indicate new trends in the area of chronic liver disease. Due to the increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, NASH cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma caused by NASH will soon become a major indication for LT. Furthermore, due to an increasing incidence of MetS and, consequently, NAFLD, there will be more steatotic donor livers and less high quality organs available for LT, in addition to a lack of available liver allografts. Patients who have NASH and are candidates for LT have multiple comorbidities and are unique LT candidates. Finally, we discuss long-term grafts and patient survival after LT, the recurrence of NASH and NASH appearing de novo after transplantation. In addition, we suggest topics and areas that require more research for improving the health care of this increasing patient population. PMID:29662288

  17. Molecular pathways in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Porras, José Antonio; Auguet, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathological change characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes and has frequently been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. It is an increasingly recognized condition that has become the most common liver disorder in developed countries, affecting over one-third of the population and is associated with increased cardiovascular- and liver-related mortality. NAFLD is a spectrum of disorders, beginning as simple steatosis. In about 15% of all NAFLD cases, simple steatosis can evolve into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a medley of inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and fibrosis, often resulting in cirrhosis and even hepatocellular cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying NAFLD progression is not completely understood. Its pathogenesis has often been interpreted by the “double-hit” hypothesis. The primary insult or the “first hit” includes lipid accumulation in the liver, followed by a “second hit” in which proinflammatory mediators induce inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and fibrosis. Nowadays, a more complex model suggests that fatty acids (FAs) and their metabolites may be the true lipotoxic agents that contribute to NAFLD progression; a multiple parallel hits hypothesis has also been suggested. In NAFLD patients, insulin resistance leads to hepatic steatosis via multiple mechanisms. Despite the excess hepatic accumulation of FAs in NAFLD, it has been described that not only de novo FA synthesis is increased, but FAs are also taken up from the serum. Furthermore, a decrease in mitochondrial FA oxidation and secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins has been reported. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiological changes of hepatic lipid metabolism that contribute to NAFLD. PMID:25045276

  18. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%–23% fat and 57%–65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%–55% fat and 27%–38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA) as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance. PMID:26556368

  19. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26494949

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and aging: Epidemiology to management

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotti, Marco; Lonardo, Amedeo; Mussi, Chiara; Baldelli, Enrica; Pellegrini, Elisa; Ballestri, Stefano; Romagnoli, Dante; Loria, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in the elderly, in whom it carries a more substantial burden of hepatic (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) and extra-hepatic manifestations and complications (cardiovascular disease, extrahepatic neoplasms) than in younger age groups. Therefore, proper identification and management of this condition is a major task for clinical geriatricians and geriatric hepatologists. In this paper, the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this condition are reviewed, and a full discussion of the link between NAFLD and the aspects that are peculiar to elderly individuals is provided; these aspects include frailty, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and dementia. The proper treatment strategy will have to consider the peculiarities of geriatric patients, so a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory. Non-pharmacological treatment (diet and physical exercise) has to be tailored individually considering the physical limitations of most elderly people and the need for an adequate caloric supply. Similarly, the choice of drug treatment must carefully balance the benefits and risks in terms of adverse events and pharmacological interactions in the common context of both multiple health conditions and polypharmacy. In conclusion, further epidemiological and pathophysiological insight is warranted. More accurate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of geriatric NAFLD will help in identifying the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approach for individual elderly patients. PMID:25339806

  1. Schistosomiasis and hepatopulmonary syndrome: the role of concomitant liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Macedo, Liana; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Domingues, Ana Lucia Coutinho; Markman, Brivaldo; Mota, Vitor Gomes; Luna, Carlos Feitosa

    2017-07-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is defined as an oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation in patients with liver disease or portal hypertension. It is investigated in patients with liver cirrhosis and less frequently in those with portal hypertension without liver cirrhosis, as may occur in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS). To investigate the prevalence of HPS in patients with HSS, and to determine whether the occurrence of HPS is influenced by concomitant cirrhosis. We evaluated patients with HSS with or without concomitant liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent laboratory testing, ultrasound, endoscopy, contrast echocardiography, and arterial blood gas analysis. Of the 121 patients with HSS, 64 were also diagnosed with liver cirrhosis. HPS was diagnosed in 42 patients (35%) and was more frequent among patients with concomitant liver cirrhosis than in those without cirrhosis (42% vs. 26%), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.069). HPS was more common in those with spider naevi, Child-Pugh classes B or C and high model for end stage liver disease (MELD) scores (p < 0.05 each). The prevalence of HPS was 35% in this study. The occurrence of liver cirrhosis concomitantly with HSS may have influenced the frequency of patients presenting with HPS.

  2. Origins of Portal Hypertension in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Baffy, Gyorgy

    2018-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) advanced to cirrhosis is often complicated by clinically significant portal hypertension, which is primarily caused by increased intrahepatic vascular resistance. Liver fibrosis has been identified as a critical determinant of this process. However, there is evidence that portal venous pressure may begin to rise in the earliest stages of NAFLD when fibrosis is far less advanced or absent. The biological and clinical significance of these early changes in sinusoidal homeostasis remains unclear. Experimental and human observations indicate that sinusoidal space restriction due to hepatocellular lipid accumulation and ballooning may impair sinusoidal flow and generate shear stress, increasingly disrupting sinusoidal microcirculation. Sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and Kupffer cells are key partners of hepatocytes affected by NAFLD in promoting endothelial dysfunction through enhanced contractility, capillarization, adhesion and entrapment of blood cells, extracellular matrix deposition, and neovascularization. These biomechanical and rheological changes are aggravated by a dysfunctional gut-liver axis and splanchnic vasoregulation, culminating in fibrosis and clinically significant portal hypertension. We may speculate that increased portal venous pressure is an essential element of the pathogenesis across the entire spectrum of NAFLD. Improved methods of noninvasive portal venous pressure monitoring will hopefully give new insights into the pathobiology of NAFLD and help efforts to identify patients at increased risk for adverse outcomes. In addition, novel drug candidates targeting reversible components of aberrant sinusoidal circulation may prevent progression in NAFLD.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection among patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Pogorzelska, Joanna; Łapińska, Magda; Kalinowska, Alicja; Łapiński, Tadeusz W; Flisiak, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory changes in the stomach caused by Helicobacter pylori indirectly and directly affect liver function. Moreover, the bacteria may worsen the course of the liver cirrhosis. The study aimed at evaluating the incidence of H. pylori infection among patients with liver cirrhosis, depending on the etiology and injury stage, scored according to Child-Pugh classification. Stage of esophageal varices and endoscopic inflammatory lesions in the stomach were evaluated, depending on the presence of H. pylori infection. The study included 147 patients with liver cirrhosis: 42 were infected with hepatitis C virus, 31 were infected with hepatitis B virus, 56 had alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and 18 had primary biliary cirrhosis. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection was performed based on the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies in serum. H. pylori infection was found in 46.9% of patients. The incidence of H. pylori infection among patients with postinflammatory liver cirrhosis was significantly higher (P=0.001), as compared with patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Ammonia concentration was significantly higher in patients infected with H. pylori, compared with noninfected individuals (129 vs. 112 μmol/l; P=0.002). Incidence of H. pylori infection in patients without esophageal varices was significantly lower compared with patients with esophageal varices (14 vs. 60%; P<0.001). H. pylori infection is significantly more frequent among patients with postinflammatory liver cirrhosis (infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus) than in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis or primary biliary cirrhosis. H. pylori infection correlates with elevated concentration of blood ammonia and the incidence of esophageal varices.

  4. Risk of Depressive Disorder following Non-Alcoholic Cirrhosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Hung, Yi-Ping; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Hu, Yu-Wen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Min-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims To evaluate the risk of depressive disorders among non-alcoholic patients by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of a matched cohort of 52 725 participants (10 545 non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 42 180 control patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 11 years to determine the rates of newly onset depressive disorders, and Cox regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with depressive disorders in cirrhotic patients. Results During the 11-year follow-up period, 395 (3.75%) non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 1 183 (2.80%) control patients were diagnosed with depressive disorders. The incidence risk ratio of depressive disorders between non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and control patients was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.57–1.98, P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients were 1.75 times more likely to develop depressive disorders (95% CI, 1.56–1.96, P<.001) compared with the control patients. The hazard ratios for patients younger than 60 years old (1.31) and female (1.25) indicated that each is an independent risk factor for depressive disorders in non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Conclusions The likelihood of developing depressive disorders is greater among non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients than among patients without cirrhosis. Symptoms of depression should be sought in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24533141

  5. Non-invasive Diagnosis of Fibrosis in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Anil; Sharma, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in developed as well as in developing countries. Its prevalence continues to rise currently affecting approximately 20-30% of adults and 10% of children in the United States. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver, which in general follows a benign non-progressive clinical course, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more serious form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for evaluating the degree of hepatic necroinflammation and fibrosis; however, several non-invasive investigations, such as serum biomarkers, have been developed to establish the diagnosis and also to evaluate treatment response. There has been a substantial development of non-invasive risk scores, biomarker panels, and radiological modalities to identify at risk patients with NAFLD without recourse to liver biopsy on a routine basis. Examples include combination of serum markers like NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), BARD score, fibrometer, FIB4, and non-invasive tools like fibroscan which assess fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Other markers of fibrosis that have been evaluated include high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasma pentraxin 3, interleukin-6, and cytokeratin-18. This review focuses on the methods currently available in daily clinical practice in hepatology and touches briefly on the potential future markers under investigation. PMID:25755423

  6. Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fustik, Stojka

    2013-01-01

    As the expected survival improves in individuals with the cystic fibrosis (CF), so they may be faced with a number of medical complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of liver cirrhosis in our CF population as well as the clinical and genetic characteristics of these patients. All patients older than 2 years (n = 96) were screened for liver disease. Liver cirrhosis was defined by ultrasonographic findings of distinct heterogeneity of liver parenchyma and nodular liver surface and/or by liver biopsy findings. Enlarged spleen, distended portal vein and abnormal portal venous flow indicated portal hypertension. Clinical and genotype data were analyzed. Sixteen patients were found to have liver cirrhosis, three of them with portal hypertension. All patients had pancreatic insufficiency. Nutritional status expressed as standard deviation score (Z score) for weight, height, and body mass index was as follows: zW = -0.40 +/- 1.24, zH = -0.83 +/- 1.02, and BMI = 20.1 +/- 2.3. CF patients with liver cirrhosis generally had mild-to-moderate lung disease, with average FVC and FEV1 values of 97.1 +/- 16.5% of predicted and 87.9 +/- 23.5% of predicted, respectively. Genetic analysis showed high frequency of F508del mutation in the group with cirrhosis (90.6%). The prevalence of liver cirrhosis in our CF population older than 2 years was 16.6%. Patients with pancreatic insufficiency and severe CFTR mutations, especially F508del, were exposed to higher risk of developing liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis has no significant impact on the pulmonary function and the nutritional status, until the end-stage liver disease.

  7. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment. (I). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically lesions similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in the Western world and, from the point of view of the liver, in its gradual progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with acceleration of arteriosclerosis and events related to it, being the main cause of its morbidity and mortality. This review, updated to January 2016, consists of two parts, with the first part analysing the association of NAFLD with cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear receptors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease1

    PubMed Central

    Cave, Matthew C.; Clair, Heather B.; Hardesty, Josiah E.; Falkner, K. Cameron; Feng, Wenke; Clark, Barbara J.; Sidey, Jennifer; Shi, Hongxue; Aqel, Bashar A.; McClain, Craig J.; Prough, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors which sense changing environmental or hormonal signals and effect transcriptional changes to regulate core life functions including growth, development, and reproduction. To support this function, following ligand-activation by xenobiotics, members of subfamily 1 nuclear receptors (NR1s) may heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) to regulate transcription of genes involved in energy and xenobiotic metabolism and inflammation. Several of these receptors including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), the pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR), the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the liver X receptor (LXR) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are key regulators of the gut:liver:adipose axis and serve to coordinate metabolic responses across organ systems between the fed and fasting states. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and may progress to cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is associated with inappropriate nuclear receptor function and perturbations along the gut:liver:adipose axis including obesity, increased intestinal permeability with systemic inflammation, abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Environmental chemicals may compound the problem by directly interacting with nuclear receptors leading to metabolic confusion and the inability to differentiate fed from fasting conditions. This review focuses on the impact of nuclear receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD. Clinical trials including PIVENS and FLINT demonstrate that nuclear receptor targeted therapies may lead to the paradoxical dissociation of steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Novel strategies currently under development (including tissue-specific ligands and dual receptor agonists) may be required to separate the beneficial effects of nuclear receptor activation from unwanted metabolic

  9. A Nutrigenomic Approach to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca

    2017-07-16

    Following the epidemics of obesity due to the consumption of high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of liver disease in Western countries. NAFLD is epidemiologically associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and in susceptible individuals it may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genetic factors play a key role in NAFLD predisposition by interacting with nutritional and other environmental factors. To date, there is no drug therapy for the treatment of NAFLD, and the main clinical recommendation is lifestyle modification. In the last years, nutrigenomics is promoting an increased understanding of how nutrition affects the switch from health to disease by altering the expression of an individual's genetic makeup. The present review tries to summarize the most recent data evidencing how the interactions between nutrients and genetic factors can influence NAFLD development. The final goal should be to develop tools to quantify these complex interactions. The definition of a "nutrigenomic risk score" for each individual may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the management of NAFLD patients.

  10. Pathophysiology and Mechanisms of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Haas, Joel T; Francque, Sven; Staels, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver disorders characterized by abnormal hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation, and hepatocyte dysfunction. Importantly, it is also closely linked to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD predisposes susceptible individuals to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cardiovascular disease. Although the precise signals remain poorly understood, NAFLD pathogenesis likely involves actions of the different hepatic cell types and multiple extrahepatic signals. The complexity of this disease has been a major impediment to the development of appropriate metrics of its progression and effective therapies. Recent clinical data place increasing importance on identifying fibrosis, as it is a strong indicator of hepatic disease-related mortality. Preclinical modeling of the fibrotic process remains challenging, particularly in the contexts of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Future studies are needed to define the molecular pathways determining the natural progression of NAFLD, including key determinants of fibrosis and disease-related outcomes. This review covers the evolving concepts of NAFLD from both human and animal studies. We discuss recent clinical and diagnostic methods assessing NAFLD diagnosis, progression, and outcomes; compare the features of genetic and dietary animal models of NAFLD; and highlight pharmacological approaches for disease treatment.

  11. Prevalence of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis by underlying cause in understudied ethnic groups: The multiethnic cohort.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Stram, Daniel O; Porcel, Jacqueline; Lu, Shelly C; Le Marchand, Loïc; Noureddin, Mazen

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis are major sources of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Little is known about the epidemiology of these two diseases in ethnic minority populations in the United States. We examined the prevalence of CLD and cirrhosis by underlying etiologies among African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites in the Multiethnic Cohort. CLD and cirrhosis cases were identified using Medicare claims between 1999 and 2012 among the fee-for-service participants (n = 106,458). We used International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes, body mass index, history of diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption from questionnaires to identify underlying etiologies. A total of 5,783 CLD (3,575 CLD without cirrhosis and 2,208 cirrhosis) cases were identified. The prevalence of CLD ranged from 3.9% in African Americans and Native Hawaiians to 4.1% in whites, 6.7% in Latinos, and 6.9% in Japanese. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was the most common cause of CLD in all ethnic groups combined (52%), followed by alcoholic liver disease (21%). NAFLD was the most common cause of cirrhosis in the entire cohort. By ethnicity, NAFLD was the most common cause of cirrhosis in Japanese Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Latinos, accounting for 32% of cases. Alcoholic liver disease was the most common cause of cirrhosis in whites (38.2%), while hepatitis C virus was the most common cause in African Americans (29.8%). We showed racial/ethnic variations in the prevalence of CLD and cirrhosis by underlying etiology; NAFLD was the most common cause of CLD and cirrhosis in the entire cohort, and the high prevalence of NAFLD among Japanese Americans and Native Hawaiians is a novel finding, warranting further studies to elucidate the causes. (Hepatology 2016;64:1969-1977). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Is the Liver Another Target?

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation. The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1) IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA) flux into the liver; (2) IH up-regulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3) IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4) IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done. PMID:23087670

  13. Abnormalities of Lipoprotein Levels in Liver Cirrhosis: Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Graziella; Spadaro, Luisa; Marchisello, Simona; Fede, Giuseppe; Purrello, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Progressive lipoprotein impairment occurs in liver cirrhosis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The present review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the prognostic value of lipoprotein abnormalities in liver cirrhosis and to address the need of a better prognostic stratification of patients, including lipoprotein profile assessment. Low levels of lipoproteins are usual in cirrhosis. Much evidence supports the prognostic role of hypolipidemia in cirrhotic patients. In particular, hypocholesterolemia represents an independent predictor of survival in cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, lipoprotein impairment is associated with several complications: infections, malnutrition, adrenal function, and spur cell anemia. Alterations of liver function are associated with modifications of circulating lipids. Decreased levels of lipoproteins significantly impact the survival of cirrhotic patients and play an important role in the pathogenesis of some cirrhosis-related complications.

  14. Psoriasis and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, J M; Bonanad, C; Dauden, E; Botella, R; Olveira-Martín, A

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver condition in the West. The prevalence and severity of NAFLD is higher and the prognosis worse in patients with psoriasis. The pathogenic link between psoriasis and NAFLD is chronic inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance, a common finding in diseases associated with psoriasis. NAFLD should therefore be ruled out during the initial evaluation of patients with psoriasis, in particular if they show signs of metabolic syndrome and require systemic treatment. Concomitant psoriasis and NAFLD and the likelihood of synergy between them place limitations on general recommendations and treatment for these patients given the potential for liver toxicity. As hepatotoxic risk is associated with some of the conventional drugs used in this setting (e.g., acitretin, methotrexate, and ciclosporin), patients prescribed these treatments should be monitored as appropriate. Anti-tumor necrosis factor agents hold the promise of potential benefits based on their effects on the inflammatory process and improving peripheral insulin resistance. However, cases of liver toxicity have also been reported in relation to these biologics. No evidence has emerged to suggest that anti-p40 or anti-interleukin 17 agents provide benefits or have adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Della Pepa, Giuseppe; Vetrani, Claudia; Lombardi, Gianluca; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Rivellese, Angela Albarosa

    2017-09-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment alternative. The aim of the present review is to summarize currently available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of different nutrients including carbohydrates, lipids, protein and other dietary components, in isocaloric conditions, on NAFLD in people at high cardiometabolic risk. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary components could modulate liver fat content.

  16. Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Della Pepa, Giuseppe; Vetrani, Claudia; Lombardi, Gianluca; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Rivellese, Angela Albarosa

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment alternative. The aim of the present review is to summarize currently available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of different nutrients including carbohydrates, lipids, protein and other dietary components, in isocaloric conditions, on NAFLD in people at high cardiometabolic risk. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary components could modulate liver fat content. PMID:28954437

  17. Increased expression of Zinc finger protein 267 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Czech, Barbara; Valletta, Daniela; Weiss, Thomas S; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately cirrhosis. Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulate diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 expression is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis and is further increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in tissue specimens of NAFLD patients and found a significant up-regulation compared to normal liver tissue. Noteworthy, ZNF267 mRNA was already significantly increased in steatotic liver tissue without inflammation. In line with this, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with palmitic acid induced a dose-dependent lipid accumulation and corresponding dose-dependent ZNF267 induction in vitro. Furthermore, hepatocellular lipid accumulation induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also chemically induced ROS formation increased ZNF267 mRNA expression. In summary with previous findings, which revealed ZNF267 as pro-fibrogenic and pro-cancerogenic factor in chronic liver disease, the present study further suggests ZNF267 as promising therapeutic target particularly for NAFLD patients. In addition, it further indicates that hepatic steatosis per se has pathophysiological relevance and should not be considered as benign. PMID:22076166

  18. The Role of Intestinal Bacteria Overgrowth in Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferolla, Silvia M.; Armiliato, Geyza N. A.; Couto, Cláudia A.; Ferrari, Teresa C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is a progressive disorder involving a spectrum of conditions that include pure steatosis without inflammation, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. The key factor in the pathophysiology of NAFLD is insulin resistance that determines lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes, which may be followed by lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species and consequent inflammation. Recent studies suggest that the characteristics of the gut microbiota are altered in NAFLD, and also, that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) contributes to the pathogenesis of this condition. This review presents the chief findings from all the controlled studies that evaluated SIBO, gut permeability and endotoxemia in human NAFLD. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involving SIBO, lipid accumulation and development of NASH. The understanding of these mechanisms may allow the development of new targets for NASH treatment in the future. PMID:25479248

  19. Periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. Methods: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including ‘liver cirrhosis’, ‘end-stage liver disease’, ‘liver diseases’, ‘oral health’, ‘periodontal disease’, ‘mouth disease’, ‘gingivitis’, and ‘periodontitis’. Results: Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%–79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Conclusion: Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed. PMID:26770799

  20. Dietary fructose in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Vos, Miriam B; Lavine, Joel E

    2013-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in adults and children. A number of genetic and environmental factors are known to predispose individuals to NAFLD. Certain dietary sugars, particularly fructose, are suspected to contribute to the development of NAFLD and its progression. The increasing quantity of fructose in the diet comes from sugar additives (most commonly sucrose and high fructose corn syrup) in beverages and processed foods. Substantial links have been demonstrated between increased fructose consumption and obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Growing evidence suggests that fructose contributes to the development and severity of NAFLD. In human studies, fructose is associated with increasing hepatic fat, inflammation, and possibly fibrosis. Whether fructose alone can cause NAFLD or if it serves only as a contributor when consumed excessively in the setting of insulin resistance, positive energy balance, and sedentary lifestyle is unknown. Sufficient evidence exists to support clinical recommendations that fructose intake be limited through decreasing foods and drinks high in added (fructose-containing) sugars. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... different populations of microorganisms in the intestines (gut microbiota) on the breakdown and absorption of nutrients are ... Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Interplay between Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Genetic Background. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2016;2016: ...

  2. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is in parallel with the obesity epidemic and it is the most common cause of liver diseases. The development of hepatic steatosis in majority of patients is linked to dietary fat ingestion. NAFLD is characterized by excess accumulation of triglyceride in the hepatocyte due to both increased inflow of free fatty acids and de novo hepatic lipogenesis. Insulin resistance with the deficiency of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity causes an increase in intracellular fatty acid-derived metabolites such as diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA or ceramides. Lipotoxicity-related mechanism of NAFLD could be explained still best by the "double-hit" hypothesis. Insulin resistance is the major mechanism in the development and progression of NAFLD/Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Metabolic oxidative stress, autophagy, and inflammation induce NASH progression. In the "first hit" the hepatic concentrations of diacylglycerol increase with rising saturated liver fat content in human NAFLD. Activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes are decreased in liver tissue of patients with NASH. Furthermore, hepatocyte lipoapoptosis is a critical feature of NASH. In "second hit" reduced glutathione levels due to oxidative stress lead to overactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun signaling that induces cell death in the steatotic liver. Accumulation of toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is caused by the ineffectual cycling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductin (Ero1)-protein disulfide isomerase oxidation cycle through the downstream of the inner membrane mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)- Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway.

  3. Causal relationship of hepatic fat with liver damage and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, P; Stender, S; Pietrelli, A; Mancina, R M; Cespiati, A; Petta, S; Pelusi, S; Pingitore, P; Badiali, S; Maggioni, M; Mannisto, V; Grimaudo, S; Pipitone, R M; Pihlajamaki, J; Craxi, A; Taube, M; Carlsson, L M S; Fargion, S; Romeo, S; Kozlitina, J; Valenti, L

    2018-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is epidemiologically associated with hepatic and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation has a causal role in determining liver damage and insulin resistance. We performed a Mendelian randomization analysis using risk alleles in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR and MBOAT7, and a polygenic risk score for hepatic fat, as instruments. We evaluated complementary cohorts of at-risk individuals and individuals from the general population: 1515 from the liver biopsy cohort (LBC), 3329 from the Swedish Obese Subjects Study (SOS) and 4570 from the population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS). Hepatic fat was epidemiologically associated with liver damage, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The impact of genetic variants on liver damage was proportional to their effect on hepatic fat accumulation. Genetically determined hepatic fat was associated with aminotransferases, and with inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis in the LBC. Furthermore, in the LBC, the causal association between hepatic fat and fibrosis was independent of disease activity, suggesting that a causal effect of long-term liver fat accumulation on liver disease is independent of inflammation. Genetically determined hepatic steatosis was associated with insulin resistance in the LBC and SOS. However, this association was dependent on liver damage severity. Genetically determined hepatic steatosis was associated with liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and with a small increase in risk of type 2 diabetes in publicly available databases. These data suggest that long-term hepatic fat accumulation plays a causal role in the development of chronic liver disease. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Perla Oliveira; Ferreira, Fabio Gonçalves; Nascimento, Maria de Fátima Araújo; Vieira, Andrea; Ribeiro, Mauricio Alves; David, André Ibrahim; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver cancer, and NAFLD prevalence in different liver tumors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of the clinical, laboratory and histological data of 120 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary hepatic neoplasms and treated at a tertiary center where they underwent hepatic resection and/or liver transplantation, with subsequent evaluation of the explant or liver biopsy. The following criteria were used to exclude patients from the study: a history of alcohol abuse, hepatitis B or C infection, no tumor detected in the liver tissue examined by histological analysis, and the presence of chronic autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, or hepatoblastoma. The occurrence of NAFLD and the association with its known risk factors were studied. The risk factors considered were diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, body mass index, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension. Presence of reticulin fibers in the hepatic neoplasms was assessed by histological analysis using slide-mounted specimens stained with either hematoxylin and eosin or Masson’s trichrome and silver impregnation. Analysis of tumor-free liver parenchyma was carried out to determine the association between NAFLD and its histological grade. RESULTS: No difference was found in the association of NAFLD with the general population (34.2% and 30.0% respectively, 95%CI: 25.8-43.4). Evaluation by cancer type showed that NAFLD was more prevalent in patients with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer than in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (OR = 3.99, 95%CI: 1.78-8.94, P < 0.001 vs OR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.18-2.01, P = 0.406 and OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.18-2.80, P = 0.613, respectively). There was a higher prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 3.50, 95%CI: 1.06-11.57, P = 0.032). Evaluation of the

  5. Gut-liver axis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension: the chicken and the egg.

    PubMed

    Arab, Juan P; Martin-Mateos, Rosa M; Shah, Vijay H

    2018-02-01

    The term gut-liver axis is used to highlight the close anatomical and functional relationship between the intestine and the liver. The intestine has a highly specialized epithelial membrane which regulates transport across the mucosa. Due to dysbiosis, impairment of the intestinal barrier and altered immunity status, bacterial products can reach the liver through the portal vein, where they are recognized by specific receptors, activate the immune system and lead to a proinflammatory response. Gut microbiota and bacterial translocation play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and its complications, such as portal hypertension, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopaty. The gut microbiota also plays a critical role as a modulator of bile acid metabolism which can also influence intestinal permeability and portal hypertension through the farnesoid-X receptor. On the other hand, cirrhosis and portal hypertension affect the microbiota and increase translocation, leading to a "chicken and egg" situation, where translocation increases portal pressure, and vice versa. A myriad of therapies targeting gut microbiota have been evaluated specifically in patients with chronic liver disease. Further studies targeting intestinal microbiota and its possible hemodynamic and metabolic effects are needed. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases and portal hypertension.

  6. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) in HIV.

    PubMed

    Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt

    2017-04-01

    Abnormal liver enzymes (LE) are common in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) even in the absence of viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse. With availability of antiretroviral combination therapy, life expectancy has improved dramatically and as a consequence the spectrum of liver disease is changing. Increased reports on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in HIV coinfected patients raise questions around prevalence, clinical manifestations, and clinical outcome of these liver diseases in HIV coinfection. Moreover, the potential impact of combination antiretroviral therapy as well as direct HIV effects on the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease needs to be explored. This review summarizes the recent literature on NAFLD and NASH in HIV.

  7. Medical and Obstetric Complications Among Pregnant Women With Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Palatnik, Anna; Rinella, Mary E

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate clinical characteristics and obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with liver cirrhosis. This was a retrospective matched cohort study of women with liver cirrhosis between January 2005 and January 2016 in a university hospital. Women in a case group were matched to women in a control group according to year of delivery, age, body mass index, and parity in a 1:4 ratio. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the prevalence of the primary composite outcome, which included any one of the following: fetal or neonatal demise, placental abruption, preeclampsia, preterm delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation, and small-for-gestational age neonate between women in the case group and those in the control group. During the study period, the number of deliveries was approximately 110,000. Of these, 33 women with liver cirrhosis were identified, yielding an estimated frequency of cirrhosis of 1 per 3,333 pregnancies [95% confidence interval (CI) 3,313-3,353]. Thirty-one of these 33 women met all inclusion criteria. The most common etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic liver disease. The rate of the primary outcome was 61% in women with cirrhosis and 12% in women in the control group. There were no cases of maternal death, and the livebirth rate was 97%. Women with cirrhosis were more likely to be non-Hispanic black, have chronic hypertension, and use alcohol. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that cirrhosis in pregnancy was associated with the composite outcome (adjusted odds ratio 9.4, 95% CI 3.4-26.2). Despite lower rates of maternal and fetal mortality compared with earlier studies, pregnancy in women with liver cirrhosis is still associated with a high risk of adverse obstetric outcomes.

  8. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Evolving paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Maurantonio, Mauro; Marrazzo, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Luca; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio

    2017-01-01

    In the last years new evidence has accumulated on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) challenging the paradigms that had been holding the scene over the previous 30 years. NAFLD has such an epidemic prevalence as to make it impossible to screen general population looking for NAFLD cases. Conversely, focusing on those cohorts of individuals exposed to the highest risk of NAFLD could be a more rational approach. NAFLD, which can be diagnosed with either non-invasive strategies or through liver biopsy, is a pathogenically complex and clinically heterogeneous disease. The existence of metabolic as opposed to genetic-associated disease, notably including ”lean NAFLD” has recently been recognized. Moreover, NAFLD is a systemic condition, featuring metabolic, cardiovascular and (hepatic/extra-hepatic) cancer risk. Among the clinico-laboratory features of NAFLD we discuss hyperuricemia, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, gallstones, psoriasis and selected endocrine derangements. NAFLD is a precursor of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome and progressive liver disease develops in T2D patients in whom the course of disease is worsened by NAFLD. Finally, lifestyle changes and drug treatment options to be implemented in the individual patient are also critically discussed. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the new concepts on clinical and pathogenic heterogeneity of NAFLD, a systemic disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis and protean clinical manifestations. It is highly prevalent in certain cohorts of individuals who are thus potentially amenable to selective screening strategies, intensive follow-up schedules for early identification of liver-related and extrahepatic complications and in whom earlier and more aggressive treatment schedules should be carried out whenever possible. PMID:29085206

  9. Natural History of Cirrhosis of Liver after First Decompensation: A Prospective Study in India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Apurva S; Amarapurkar, Deepak N

    2018-03-01

    As liver cirrhosis is a dynamic condition, it is possible to improve survival in decompensated cirrhosis. Hence, we planned a prospective study to determine the natural history of cirrhosis after first decompensation. We enrolled all patients of liver cirrhosis who presented with first episode of decompensation defined by the presence of ascites, either overt or detected by Ultrasonography (UD), Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding (GEVB), and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE). All patients were followed up to death/liver transplant or at least for the period of 1 year. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the risk of failure (death or Orthotopic Liver Transplantation (OLT)). In total of 110 cirrhotic patients (93 males, mean age 50 ± 11 years), the most frequent etiology was alcohol (48%), followed by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis/cryptogenic (26%), hepatitis B (10%), autoimmune hepatitis (7%), and hepatitis C (6%). The distribution of CTP classes was: 4%, 56%, and 41% in class A, B, and C, respectively. Ascites was the most common decompensation found in 88 patients (80%) followed by HE (14%) and GEVB (6%). At 1-year follow up, transplant free survival was 78%, 2 underwent OLT, 4 developed hepatocellular carcinoma, and 24 died. Cumulative incidence of failure (death or OLT) by type of decompensation after 1 year was: 22% overt ascites, 50% GEVB, 28% UD ascites, 20% HE, and 33% ascites and GEVB concomitant. Patients with UD ascites do not have a negligible mortality rate as compared to overt ascites. Patients with cirrhosis after first decompensation have better transplant free survival with treatment of etiology and complications than previously mentioned in literature.

  10. [Etiology and complications of liver cirrhosis: data from a German centre].

    PubMed

    Sivanathan, V; Kittner, J M; Sprinzl, M F; Weinmann, A; Koch, S; Wiltink, J; Nguyen-Tat, M; Marquardt, J U; Wörns, M A; Zimmermann, T; Lang, H; Galle, P R; Schattenberg, J M

    2014-09-01

    Liver cirrhosis develops as a terminal complication of chronic liver disease. The clinical course is determined by the underlying etiology and the accompanying risk factors, which are influenced by the geographic and cultural background. A total of 236 patients (159 men, 77 women, median age 57 [22-81] years) were included for retrospective analysis between July 2012 and February 2014 using standardized questionnaires during an outpatient visit at a hepatology clinic. The most common etiologies of liver cirrhosis were related to alcohol consumption (52 %), chronic hepatitis C (28 %) or hepatitis B (14 %) infection and NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, 6 %). At the time of presentation 55 % patients had compensated cirrhosis corresponding to Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) stage A, while 45 % were in a decompensated stage (30 % CTP B and 15 % CTP C). Subgroups were analyzed for the incidence of complications and the emergence of infections. Most frequently esophageal varices (60 %) and ascites (49 %) were observed, followed by pleural effusion (14 %), hepatic encephalopathy (25 %) or hepatorenal syndrome (18 %). 16 % of patients exhibited infection based on clinical criteria. An infective agent was isolated in 38 % of all cases with infection and of those 50 % were gram positive bacteria. In multivariate analysis only the presence of ascites was an independent risk factor for infection. Despite improved medical therapies for viral hepatitis, these were the most frequent causes of liver cirrhosis, closely followed by alcoholic cirrhosis. The observed complications included bacterial infection and complication related to portal hypertension. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Modeling the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease demonstrates an exponential increase in burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Homie; Loomba, Rohit; Younossi, Zobair; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent in the United States, where they are a growing cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and increasingly an indicator for liver transplantation. A Markov model was used to forecast NAFLD disease progression. Incidence of NAFLD was based on historical and projected changes in adult prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Assumptions were derived from published literature where available and validated using national surveillance data for incidence of NAFLD‐related HCC. Projected changes in NAFLD‐related cirrhosis, advanced liver disease, and liver‐related mortality were quantified through 2030. Prevalent NAFLD cases are forecasted to increase 21%, from 83.1 million (2015) to 100.9 million (2030), while prevalent NASH cases will increase 63% from 16.52 million to 27.00 million cases. Overall NAFLD prevalence among the adult population (aged ≥15 years) is projected at 33.5% in 2030, and the median age of the NAFLD population will increase from 50 to 55 years during 2015‐2030. In 2015, approximately 20% of NAFLD cases were classified as NASH, increasing to 27% by 2030, a reflection of both disease progression and an aging population. Incidence of decompensated cirrhosis will increase 168% to 105,430 cases by 2030, while incidence of HCC will increase by 137% to 12,240 cases. Liver deaths will increase 178% to an estimated 78,300 deaths in 2030. During 2015‐2030, there are projected to be nearly 800,000 excess liver deaths. Conclusion: With continued high rates of adult obesity and DM along with an aging population, NAFLD‐related liver disease and mortality will increase in the United States. Strategies to slow the growth of NAFLD cases and therapeutic options are necessary to mitigate disease burden. (Hepatology 2018;67:123‐133). PMID:28802062

  12. Diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases risk of mortality from liver and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which may develop without cirrhosis. NAFLD predicts type 2 diabetes, even independently of obesity. Globally, the prevalence of NAFLD averages 25% and is as common as the metabolic syndrome. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The challenge for the diabetologist is to identify patients at risk of advanced liver disease and HCC. At a minimum, liver function tests (LFTs), despite being neither specific nor sensitive, should be performed in all patients with the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Increases in LFTs, for which the updated reference values are lower (serum ALT ≈30 U/l in men and ≈20 U/l in women) than those hitherto used in many laboratories, should prompt assessment of fibrosis biomarkers and referral of individuals at risk to a NAFLD/hepatology clinic. Preferably, evaluation of NAFLD should be based on measurement of steatosis biomarkers or ultrasound if easily available. A large number of individuals carry the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) I148M variant (30-50%) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) E167K variant (11-15%). These variants increase the risk of advanced liver disease and HCC but not of diabetes or CVD. Genotyping of selected patients for these variants is recommended. Many patients have 'double trouble', i.e. carry both a genetic risk factor and have the metabolic syndrome. Excess use of alcohol could be a cause of 'triple trouble', but such patients would be classified as having alcoholic fatty liver disease. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by John Jones, DOI: 10.1007/s00125

  13. Similarities and differences between pediatric and adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Maricruz; Lappe, Sara; Feldstein, Ariel E; Alkhouri, Naim

    2016-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly common and potentially serious in children and adolescents. The term NAFLD refers to a spectrum of diseases ranging from accumulation of fat in the liver (simple steatosis or nonalcoholic fatty liver "NAFL") to the potentially progressive form of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) characterized by hepatocyte ballooning, inflammation, and often associated with fibrosis. While large prospective longitudinal studies in pediatric NAFLD are still lacking, growing evidence suggests that children with NAFL are at increased risk for cardiometabolic complications, while those with NASH and advance fibrosis are also at risk for significant liver-related morbidity including cirrhosis and its complications. Pediatric NAFLD shares features of adult NAFLD but also shows many different characteristics in terms of prevalence, histology, diagnosis and management. Translational studies suggest that NAFLD is a highly heritable disease in which genetic variations and environment closely interact to determine the disease phenotype and the progression to the more advanced forms of the disease. Changes in lifestyle, targeting gradual weight reduction, and physical exercise continue to be the mainstay of treatment for NAFLD in children. Recent advances in development of noninvasive diagnostic modalities and the potential for identifying effective pharmacological interventions may result in significant progress in the management of NAFLD in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intrahepatic vascular changes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Potential role of insulin-resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pasarín, Marcos; Abraldes, Juan G; Liguori, Eleonora; Kok, Beverley; La Mura, Vincenzo

    2017-10-07

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of several clinical conditions characterized by insulin-resistance and high cardiovascular risk. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the liver expression of the metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance can be a frequent comorbidity in several chronic liver diseases, in particular hepatitis C virus infection and/or cirrhosis. Several studies have demonstrated that insulin action is not only relevant for glucose control, but also for vascular homeostasis. Insulin regulates nitric oxide production, which mediates to a large degree the vasodilating, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties of a healthy endothelium, guaranteeing organ perfusion. The effects of insulin on the liver microvasculature and the effects of IR on sinusoidal endothelial cells have been studied in animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The hypotheses derived from these studies and the potential translation of these results into humans are critically discussed in this review.

  15. Vegetarian diet, food substitution, and nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tina H; Lin, Ming-Nan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chen, Yen-Ching; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2018-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been shown to improve insulin resistance and reduce body weight, but the effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver require further confirmation. We aim to investigate the association between vegetarian diets, major food groups, and nonalcoholic fatty liver, and to compare the degree of liver fibrosis between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in those with fatty liver. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Tzu Chi Health Study which included 2127 nonvegetarians and 1273 vegetarians who did not smoke or habitually drink alcohol and had no hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Fatty liver and liver fibrosis were determined using ultrasonography and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score, respectively. Diet was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vegetarian diets were associated with lower odds of fatty liver (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.91) after adjusting for age, gender, education, history of smoking and alcohol drinking. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI) attenuated the protective association. Vegetarians had less severe fibrosis than nonvegetarians. Replacing a serving of soy with a serving of meat or fish was associated with 12%-13% increased risk, and replacing a serving of whole grains with a serving of refined grains, fruits, and fruit juice was associated with 3%-12% increased the risk of fatty liver. Vegetarian diets, replacing meat and fish with soy, and replacing refined carbohydrates with whole grains, may be inversely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver related to BMI.

  16. Vegetarian diet, food substitution, and nonalcoholic fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Tina H.; Lin, Ming-Nan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chen, Yen-Ching; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Vegetarian diets have been shown to improve insulin resistance and reduce body weight, but the effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver require further confirmation. We aim to investigate the association between vegetarian diets, major food groups, and nonalcoholic fatty liver, and to compare the degree of liver fibrosis between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in those with fatty liver. Materials and Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Tzu Chi Health Study which included 2127 nonvegetarians and 1273 vegetarians who did not smoke or habitually drink alcohol and had no hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Fatty liver and liver fibrosis were determined using ultrasonography and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score, respectively. Diet was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Vegetarian diets were associated with lower odds of fatty liver (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.91) after adjusting for age, gender, education, history of smoking and alcohol drinking. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI) attenuated the protective association. Vegetarians had less severe fibrosis than nonvegetarians. Replacing a serving of soy with a serving of meat or fish was associated with 12%–13% increased risk, and replacing a serving of whole grains with a serving of refined grains, fruits, and fruit juice was associated with 3%–12% increased the risk of fatty liver. Conclusion: Vegetarian diets, replacing meat and fish with soy, and replacing refined carbohydrates with whole grains, may be inversely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver related to BMI. PMID:29875591

  17. Procoagulant imbalance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Armando; Fracanzani, Anna L; Primignani, Massimo; Chantarangkul, Veena; Clerici, Marigrazia; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Peyvandi, Flora; Bertelli, Cristina; Valenti, Luca; Fargion, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by increased risk of cardiovascular events and liver-fibrosis. Both could be explained by a procoagulant-imbalance that was surmised but never directly demonstrated. We investigated 113 patients with varying histological liver damage [steatosis (n=32), steatohepatitis (n=51), metabolic-cirrhosis (n=30)], 54 with alcoholic/viral-cirrhosis and 179 controls. Plasma was evaluated for levels of pro- and anti-coagulants, and for thrombin-generation assessed as endogenous-thrombin-potential (ETP) with and without thrombomodulin or Protac® as protein C activators. The procoagulant-imbalance was defined as ETP-ratio (with-to-without thrombomodulin) or as Protac®-induced-coagulation-inhibition (PICI%). High ETP-ratios or low PICI% indicate resistance to thrombomodulin or Protac® and hence a procoagulant-imbalance. ETP-ratio increased from controls [0.57 (0.11-0.89)] to steatosis [0.72 (0.33-0.86)] and metabolic-cirrhosis [0.80 (0.57-0.95)], (p<0.001), the latter being comparable to that for alcoholic/viral-cirrhosis [0.80 (0.57-0.95) vs. 0.80 (0.44-0.96)]. Factor VIII (a potent procoagulant for thrombin-generation) increased from steatosis [99% (71-150)] to metabolic-cirrhosis [157% (64-232)], p<0.001. Protein C (a powerful anticoagulant) decreased from steatosis [103% (77-228)] to metabolic-cirrhosis [77 (17-146)], p<0.001. As a consequence, factor VIII-to-protein C ratio increased from steatosis [0.96 (0.36-1.60)] to metabolic-cirrhosis [2.05 (0.81-12.1)], p<0.001 and was correlated with the ETP-ratio (rho=0.543, p<0.001). Similar results were obtained for PICI%. Patients with procoagulant-imbalance detected as ETP-ratio greater or PICI% lower than the median value of controls tended to have a higher risk of metabolic-syndrome, higher intima-media thickness, fibrosis, steatosis or lobular inflammation, all considered clinical manifestations of NAFLD. NAFLD is characterized by a procoagulant-imbalance progressing

  18. Fructose, high fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and non-alcoholic liver disease

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), formerly called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is characterized by hepatic steatosis and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in liver cells. Its etiology, pathophysiology, and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Some have suggested that the increased in...

  19. The ischemic liver cirrhosis theory and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    The canonical pathway theory of cirrhosis addresses inflammation as the main driver of hepatic fibrogenesis in hepatitis, so needing a further hypothesis for etiologies missing inflammation, for which parenchymal extinction is postulated. The present paper reports an alternative hypothesis suggesting a central role of micro-vascular ischemia in fibrogenesis and cirrhosis development, whatever is the aetiology of liver chronic injury. In fact, since chronic liver injury could finally result in endothelial damage and micro-vascular thrombosis, leading to a trigger of inappropriate hepatocyte proliferation and fibrosis, finally cirrhosis development could arise from chronic micro-vascular ischemia. Recently, some important confirmation of this hypothesis has been reported. In fact, in a murine experimental model of congestive hepatopathy, it was found that chronic hepatic congestion leads to sinusoidal thrombosis and strain, which in turn promote hepatic fibrosis. Furthermore, a study on a murine model of cirrhosis reported enoxaparin to reduce hepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure by having a protective role against fibrogenesis. In conclusion, the hypothesis giving a central role of micro-vascular ischemia in fibrogenesis and cirrhosis development could change the clinical scenario of chronic liver disease and have several main implications on management of various liver disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin K status in cystic fibrosis patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Drzymała-Czyż, Sławomira; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Duś-Żuchowska, Monika; Skorupa, Wojciech; Bober, Lyudmyla; Sapiejka, Ewa; Oralewska, Beata; Rohovyk, Nataliya; Moczko, Jerzy; Nowak, Jan; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Rachel, Marta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    The available data on the influence of liver cirrhosis on vitamin K status in CF patients is scarce. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in cirrhotic CF subjects and to determine whether it correlates with liver cirrhosis. The study group comprised of 27 CF patients with and 63 without liver cirrhosis. Vitamin K status was assessed using prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II) and the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (u-OC). PIVKA-II concentrations were higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic CF patients (median [1st-3rd quartile]: 3.2ng/ml [1.0-10.0] vs. 1.3ng/ml [0.2-2.6], p=0.0029). However, the differences in u-OC percentages between the studied groups did not reach the level of significance (49.4% [7.0-73.8] vs. 8.0% [2.6-59.1], p=0.0501). Based on multiple linear regression analysis the dose of vitamin K and F508del mutation were potentially defined as determinants of vitamin K deficiency. Liver cirrhosis was not documented to be an independent risk factor. In CF patients with liver cirrhosis vitamin K deficiency is not only more frequent, but also more severe. However, not liver cirrhosis, but the presence of a F508del CFTR mutation constitutes an independent risk factor for vitamin K deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Focus on emerging drugs for the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Alessandro; Zulli, Claudio; de Sio, Ilario; Del Prete, Anna; Dallio, Marcello; Masarone, Mario; Loguercio, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in Western countries and is increasingly being recognized in developing nations. Fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of hepatic pathology, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver disease. Moreover, NAFLD is often associated with other metabolic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and visceral obesity. The most recent guidelines suggest the management and treatment of patients with NAFLD considering both the liver disease and the associated metabolic co-morbidities. Diet and physical exercise are considered the first line of treatment for patients with NAFLD, but their results on therapeutic efficacy are often contrasting. Behavior therapy is necessary most of the time to achieve a sufficient result. Pharmacological therapy includes a wide variety of classes of molecules with different therapeutic targets and, often, little evidence supporting the real efficacy. Despite the abundance of clinical trials, NAFLD therapy remains a challenge for the scientific community, and there are no licensed therapies for NAFLD. Urgently, new pharmacological approaches are needed. Here, we will focus on the challenges facing actual therapeutic strategies and the most recent investigated molecules. PMID:25492998

  2. Fructose and sugar: A major mediator of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Sullivan, Shelby; Nadeau, Kristen J; Green, Melanie; Roncal, Carlos; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kuwabara, Masanari; Sato, Yuka; Kang, Duk-Hee; Tolan, Dean R; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G; Rosen, Hugo R; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Johnson, Richard J

    2018-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome; its rising prevalence parallels the rise in obesity and diabetes. Historically thought to result from overnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, recent evidence suggests that diets high in sugar (from sucrose and/or high-fructose corn syrup [HFCS]) not only increase the risk of NAFLD, but also non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Herein, we review the experimental and clinical evidence that fructose precipitates fat accumulation in the liver, due to both increased lipogenesis and impaired fat oxidation. Recent evidence suggests that the predisposition to fatty liver is linked to the metabolism of fructose by fructokinase C, which results in ATP consumption, nucleotide turnover and uric acid generation that mediate fat accumulation. Alterations to gut permeability, the microbiome, and associated endotoxemia contribute to the risk of NAFLD and NASH. Early clinical studies suggest that reducing sugary beverages and total fructose intake, especially from added sugars, may have a significant benefit on reducing hepatic fat accumulation. We suggest larger, more definitive trials to determine if lowering sugar/HFCS intake, and/or blocking uric acid generation, may help reduce NAFLD and its downstream complications of cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiota, cirrhosis, and the emerging oral-gut-liver axis

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Chathur; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.

    2017-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality, especially for those at an advanced decompensated stage. Cirrhosis development and progression involves several important interorgan communications, and recently, the gut microbiome has been implicated in pathophysiology of the disease. Dysbiosis, defined as a pathological change in the microbiome, has a variable effect on the compensated versus decompensated stage of cirrhosis. Adverse microbial changes, both in composition and function, can act at several levels within the gut (stool and mucosal) and have also been described in the blood and oral cavity. While dysbiosis in the oral cavity could be a source of systemic inflammation, current cirrhosis treatment modalities are targeted toward the gut-liver axis and do not address the oral microbiome. As interventions designed to modulate oral dysbiosis may delay progression of cirrhosis, a better understanding of this process is of the utmost importance. The concept of oral microbiota dysbiosis in cirrhosis is relatively new; therefore, this review will highlight the emerging role of the oral-gut-liver axis and introduce perspectives for future research. PMID:28978799

  4. Gallstones in patients with liver cirrhosis: Incidence, etiology, clinical and therapeutical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Acalovschi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones occur in about one third of the patients having liver cirrhosis. Pigment gallstones are the most frequent type, while cholesterol stones represent about 15% of all stones in cirrhotics. Increased secretion of unconjugated bilirubin, increased hydrolysis of conjugated bilirubin in the bile, reduced secretion of bile acids and phospholipds in bile favor pigment lithogenesis in cirrhotics. Gallbladder hypomotility also contributes to lithogenesis. The most recent data regarding risk factors for gallstones are presented. Gallstone prevalence increases with age, with a ratio male/female higher than in the general population. Chronic alcoholism, viral C cirrhosis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the underlying liver diseases most often associated with gallstones. Gallstones are often asymptomatic, and discovered incidentally. If asymptomatic, expectant management is recommended, as for asymptomatic gallstones in the general population. However, a closer follow-up of these patients is necessary in order to earlier treat symptoms or complications. For symptomatic stones, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the therapy of choice. Child-Pugh class and MELD score are the best predictors of outcome after cholecystectomy. Patients with severe liver disease are at highest surgical risk, therefore gallstone complications should be treated using noninvasive or minimally invasive procedures, until stabilization of the patient condition. PMID:24966598

  5. The intersection of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity.

    PubMed

    Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Lavine, Joel E

    2016-01-27

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide and recently emerged as the most rapidly increasing indication for liver transplant. Although obesity is a risk factor for NAFLD, overlap between these two entities is incompletely understood. We highlight recent insights into the pathogenesis of human NAFLD in relation to obesity and discuss advances in the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis 2015.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hiroshi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uto, Hirofumi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Sakaida, Isao; Shibuya, Akitaka; Seike, Masataka; Nagoshi, Sumiko; Segawa, Makoto; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kato, Akinobu; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Michitaka, Kojiro; Murawaki, Toshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology revised the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis in 2015. Eighty-three clinical questions were selected, and a literature search was performed for the clinical questions with use of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases for the period between 1983 and June 2012. Manual searching of the latest important literature was added until August 2015. The guidelines were developed with use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This digest version in English introduces selected clinical questions and statements related to the management of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Branched-chain amino acids relieve hypoalbuminemia and hepatic encephalopathy and improve quality of life. Nucleoside analogues and peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy improve the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus related liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C related compensated liver cirrhosis, respectively, although the latter therapy may be replaced by direct-acting antivirals. For liver cirrhosis caused by primary biliary cirrhosis and active autoimmune hepatitis, urosodeoxycholic acid and steroid are recommended, respectively. The most adequate modalities for the management of variceal bleeding are the endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices and the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration following endoscopic obturation with cyanoacrylate for gastric varices. Beta-blockers are useful for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is a useful add-on therapy in careful diuretic therapy for ascites. Albumin infusion is useful for the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory disturbance and renal failure. In addition to disaccharides, the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin is useful for the management of encephalopathy. Anticoagulation therapy is proposed for

  7. Alterations of the human gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Nan; Yang, Fengling; Li, Ang; Prifti, Edi; Chen, Yanfei; Shao, Li; Guo, Jing; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Yao, Jian; Wu, Lingjiao; Zhou, Jiawei; Ni, Shujun; Liu, Lin; Pons, Nicolas; Batto, Jean Michel; Kennedy, Sean P; Leonard, Pierre; Yuan, Chunhui; Ding, Wenchao; Chen, Yuanting; Hu, Xinjun; Zheng, Beiwen; Qian, Guirong; Xu, Wei; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Zheng, Shusen; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-09-04

    Liver cirrhosis occurs as a consequence of many chronic liver diseases that are prevalent worldwide. Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. We build a reference gene set for the cohort containing 2.69 million genes, 36.1% of which are novel. Quantitative metagenomics reveals 75,245 genes that differ in abundance between the patients and healthy individuals (false discovery rate < 0.0001) and can be grouped into 66 clusters representing cognate bacterial species; 28 are enriched in patients and 38 in control individuals. Most (54%) of the patient-enriched, taxonomically assigned species are of buccal origin, suggesting an invasion of the gut from the mouth in liver cirrhosis. Biomarkers specific to liver cirrhosis at gene and function levels are revealed by a comparison with those for type 2 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. On the basis of only 15 biomarkers, a highly accurate patient discrimination index is created and validated on an independent cohort. Thus microbiota-targeted biomarkers may be a powerful tool for diagnosis of different diseases.

  8. Intestinal permeability in a patient with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Valadez, Jonathan Manuel; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Méndez-Guerrero, Osvely; Chávez-Pacheco, Juan Luis; García Juárez, Ignacio; Torre, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide public health problem, and patients with this disease are at high risk of developing complications, bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric nodes, and systemic circulation, resulting in the development of severe complications related to high mortality rate. The intestinal barrier is a structure with a physical and biochemical activity to maintain balance between the external environment, including bacteria and their products, and the internal environment. Patients with liver cirrhosis develop a series of alterations in different components of the intestinal barrier directly associated with the severity of liver disease that finally increased intestinal permeability. A “leaky gut” is an effect produced by damaged intestinal barrier; alterations in the function of tight junction proteins are related to bacterial translocation and their products. Instead, increasing serum proinflammatory cytokines and hemodynamics modification, which results in the appearance of complications of liver cirrhosis such as hepatic encephalopathy, variceal hemorrhage, bacterial spontaneous peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in maintaining the proper function of the intestinal barrier; bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis are two phenomena often present in people with liver cirrhosis favoring bacterial translocation. Increased intestinal permeability has an important role in the genesis of these complications, and treating it could be the base for prevention and partial treatment of these complications. PMID:27920543

  9. Status of and candidates for cell therapy in liver cirrhosis: overcoming the "point of no return" in advanced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Terai, Shuji; Tsuchiya, Atsunori

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of liver cirrhosis is currently being standardized and developed specifically to reduce activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), inhibit fibrosis, increase degradation of matrix components, and reduce activated myofibroblasts. Cell therapy can be applied in the treatment of liver cirrhosis; however, the characteristic features of this therapy differ from those of other treatments because of the involvement of a living body origin and production of multiple cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and growth factors. Thus, cell therapies can potentially have multiple effects on the damaged liver, including alleviating liver cirrhosis and stimulating liver regeneration with affecting the host cells. Cell therapies initially involved autologous bone marrow cell infusion, and have recently developed to include the use of specific cells such as mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages. The associated molecular mechanisms, routes of administration, possibility of allogeneic cell therapy, and host conditions appropriate for cell therapies are now being extensively analyzed. In this review, we summarize the status and future prospects of cell therapy for liver cirrhosis.

  10. Increased expression of zinc finger protein 267 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Bernd; Czech, Barbara; Valletta, Daniela; Weiss, Thomas S; Kirovski, Georgi; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD), which encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately cirrhosis. Zinc finger protein 267 (ZNF267) belongs to the family of Kruppel-like transcription factors, which regulate diverse biological processes that include development, proliferation, and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that ZNF267 expression is up-regulated in liver cirrhosis and is further increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we analyzed the expression of ZNF267 in tissue specimens of NAFLD patients and found a significant up-regulation compared to normal liver tissue. Noteworthy, ZNF267 mRNA was already significantly increased in steatotic liver tissue without inflammation. In line with this, incubation of primary human hepatocytes with palmitic acid induced a dose-dependent lipid accumulation and corresponding dose-dependent ZNF267 induction in vitro. Furthermore, hepatocellular lipid accumulation induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also chemically induced ROS formation increased ZNF267 mRNA expression. In summary with previous findings, which revealed ZNF267 as pro-fibrogenic and pro-cancerogenic factor in chronic liver disease, the present study further suggests ZNF267 as promising therapeutic target particularly for NAFLD patients. In addition, it further indicates that hepatic steatosis per se has pathophysiological relevance and should not be considered as benign.

  11. Role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Massart, Julie; Begriche, Karima; Moreau, Caroline; Fromenty, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is often associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which refers to a large spectrum of hepatic lesions including fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Different investigations showed or suggested that obesity and NAFLD are able to increase the risk of hepatotoxicity of different drugs. Some of these drugs could induce more frequently an acute hepatitis in obese individuals whereas others could worsen pre-existing NAFLD. Aim The main objective of the present review was to collect the available information regarding the role of NAFLD as risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, we performed a data-mining analysis using different queries including drug-induced liver injury (or DILI), drug-induced hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (or NAFLD), steatosis and obesity. The main data from the collected articles are reported in this review and when available, some pathophysiological hypotheses are put forward. Relevance for patients Drugs that could pose a potential risk in obese patients include compounds belonging to different pharmacological classes such as acetaminophen, halothane, methotrexate, rosiglitazone, stavudine and tamoxifen. For some of these drugs, experimental investigations in obese rodents confirmed the clinical observations and unveiled different pathophysiological mechanisms which could explain why these pharmaceuticals are particularly hepatotoxic in obesity and NAFLD. Other drugs such as pentoxifylline, phenobarbital and omeprazole might also pose a risk but more investigations are required to determine whether this risk is significant or not. Because obese people often take several drugs for the treatment of different obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease, it is urgent to identify the main pharmaceuticals that can cause acute hepatitis on a fatty liver background or induce NAFLD worsening

  12. Computed tomography findings in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Huber, A; Ebner, L; Montani, M; Semmo, N; Roy Choudhury, K; Heverhagen, J; Christe, A

    2014-02-19

    Computed tomography (CT) is inferior to the fibroscan and laboratory testing in the noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis. On the other hand, CT is a frequently used diagnostic tool in modern medicine. The auxiliary finding of clinically occult liver fibrosis in CT scans could result in an earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to analyse quantifiable direct signs of liver remodelling in CT scans to depict liver fibrosis in a precirrhotic stage. Retrospective review of 148 abdominal CT scans (80 liver cirrhosis, 35 precirrhotic fibrosis and 33 control patients). Fibrosis and cirrhosis were histologically proven. The diameters of the three main hepatic veins were measured 1-2 cm before their aperture into the inferior caval vein. The width of the caudate and the right hepatic lobe were divided, and measured horizontally at the level of the first bifurcation of the right portal vein in axial planes (caudate-right-lobe ratio). A combination of both (sum of liver vein diameters divided by the caudate-right lobe ratio) was defined as the ld/crl ratio. These metrics were analysed for the detection of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. An ld/crl-r <24 showed a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 76% for precirrhotic liver fibrosis. Liver cirrhosis could be detected with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 82% if ld/crl-r <20. An ld/crl-r <24 justifies laboratory testing and a fibroscan. This could bring forward the diagnosis and patients would profit from early treatment in a potentially reversible stage of disease.

  13. Reversal of liver cirrhosis: current evidence and expectations.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Kul; Yim, Hyung Joon

    2017-03-01

    In the past, liver cirrhosis was considered an irreversible phenomenon. However, many experimental data have provided evidence of the reversibility of liver fibrosis. Moreover, multiple clinical studies have also shown regression of fibrosis and reversal of cirrhosis on repeated biopsy samples. As various etiologies are associated with liver fibrosis via integrated signaling pathways, a comprehensive understanding of the pathobiology of hepatic fibrogenesis is critical for improving clinical outcomes. Hepatic stellate cells play a central role in hepatic fibrogenesis upon their activation from a quiescent state. Collagen and other extracellular material components from activated hepatic stellate cells are deposited on, and damage, the liver parenchyma and vascular structures. Hence, inactivation of hepatic stellate cells can lead to enhancement of fibrolytic activity and could be a potential target of antifibrotic therapy. In this regard, continued efforts have been made to develop better treatments for underlying liver diseases and antifibrotic agents in multiple clinical and therapeutic trials; the best results may be expected with the integration of such evidence. In this article, we present the underlying mechanisms of fibrosis, current experimental and clinical evidence of the reversibility of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis, and new agents with therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis.

  14. Reversal of liver cirrhosis: current evidence and expectations

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Kul; Yim, Hyung Joon

    2017-01-01

    In the past, liver cirrhosis was considered an irreversible phenomenon. However, many experimental data have provided evidence of the reversibility of liver fibrosis. Moreover, multiple clinical studies have also shown regression of fibrosis and reversal of cirrhosis on repeated biopsy samples. As various etiologies are associated with liver fibrosis via integrated signaling pathways, a comprehensive understanding of the pathobiology of hepatic fibrogenesis is critical for improving clinical outcomes. Hepatic stellate cells play a central role in hepatic fibrogenesis upon their activation from a quiescent state. Collagen and other extracellular material components from activated hepatic stellate cells are deposited on, and damage, the liver parenchyma and vascular structures. Hence, inactivation of hepatic stellate cells can lead to enhancement of fibrolytic activity and could be a potential target of antifibrotic therapy. In this regard, continued efforts have been made to develop better treatments for underlying liver diseases and antifibrotic agents in multiple clinical and therapeutic trials; the best results may be expected with the integration of such evidence. In this article, we present the underlying mechanisms of fibrosis, current experimental and clinical evidence of the reversibility of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis, and new agents with therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis. PMID:28171717

  15. Current treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, C

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most prevalent hepatopathy, estimated at 30% in the general population. In the coming years, it will likely be the most common indication for liver transplantation and the most frequent cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and exercise interventions that have been shown to be efficacious, even for reverting fibrosis. Unfortunately, compliance with general measures involving lifestyle modifications is very poor, making pharmacologic strategies a necessary option. At present, there are no treatments for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease approved by regulatory agencies, and the only ones with sufficient evidence and recommended by international societies are treatments with pioglitazone and vitamin E, which are not exempt from adverse effects. We review herein the current management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including dietary and physical activity interventions, available treatments, equivocal therapies, emerging treatments, and treatments presently in clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the liver disease of our age?

    PubMed

    Firneisz, Gábor

    2014-07-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that might affect up to one-third of the adult population in industrialised countries. NAFLD incorporates histologically and clinically different non-alcoholic entities; fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis hepatis) and steatohepatitis (NASH-characterised by hepatocyte ballooning and lobular inflammation ± fibrosis) might progress to cirrhosis and rarely to hepatocellular cancer. NAFL increasingly affects children (paediatric prevalence is 4.2%-9.6%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are particularly closely related. Increased hepatic lipid storage is an early abnormality in insulin resistant women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The accumulation of triacylglycerols in hepatocytes is predominantly derived from the plasma nonesterified fatty acid pool supplied largely by the adipose tissue. A few NAFLD susceptibility gene variants are associated with progressive liver disease, IR, T2DM and a higher risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Although not approved, pharmacological approaches might be considered in NASH patients.

  17. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The liver disease of our age?

    PubMed Central

    Firneisz, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that might affect up to one-third of the adult population in industrialised countries. NAFLD incorporates histologically and clinically different non-alcoholic entities; fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis hepatis) and steatohepatitis (NASH-characterised by hepatocyte ballooning and lobular inflammation ± fibrosis) might progress to cirrhosis and rarely to hepatocellular cancer. NAFL increasingly affects children (paediatric prevalence is 4.2%-9.6%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are particularly closely related. Increased hepatic lipid storage is an early abnormality in insulin resistant women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The accumulation of triacylglycerols in hepatocytes is predominantly derived from the plasma nonesterified fatty acid pool supplied largely by the adipose tissue. A few NAFLD susceptibility gene variants are associated with progressive liver disease, IR, T2DM and a higher risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Although not approved, pharmacological approaches might be considered in NASH patients. PMID:25083080

  18. Early life programming and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C; Chan, C S; Drake, A J

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and can be considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of disease, from the relatively benign simple steatosis to the more serious non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which can progress to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver failure, necessitating liver transplantation. Although the increasing prevalence of NAFLD in developed countries has substantial implications for public health, many of the precise mechanisms accounting for the development and progression of NAFLD are unclear. The environment in early life is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk in later life and studies suggest this also extends to NAFLD. Here we review data from animal models and human studies which suggest that fetal and early life exposure to maternal under- and overnutrition, excess glucocorticoids and environmental pollutants may confer an increased susceptibility to NAFLD development and progression in offspring and that such effects may be sex-specific. We also consider studies aimed at identifying potential dietary and pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing this risk. We suggest that further human epidemiological studies are needed to ensure that data from animal models are relevant to human health.

  19. Proteomic and genomic studies of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - clues in the pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Wei; Dillon, John; Miller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a widely prevalent hepatic disorder that covers wide spectrum of liver pathology. NAFLD is strongly associated with liver inflammation, metabolic hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Frequently, NAFLD has been considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. Some patients can remain in the stage of simple steatosis, which generally is a benign condition; whereas others can develop liver inflammation and progress into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism behind the progression is still not fully understood. Much ongoing proteomic researches have focused on discovering the unbiased circulating biochemical markers to allow early detection and treatment of NAFLD. Comprehensive genomic studies have also begun to provide new insights into the gene polymorphism to understand patient-disease variations. Therefore, NAFLD is considered a complex and mutifactorial disease phenotype resulting from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This paper reviewed the current status of proteomic and genomic studies that have contributed to the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis. For proteomics section, this review highlighted functional proteins that involved in: (1) transportation; (2) metabolic pathway; (3) acute phase reaction; (4) anti-inflammatory; (5) extracellular matrix; and (6) immune system. In the genomic studies, this review will discuss genes which involved in: (1) lipolysis; (2) adipokines; and (3) cytokines production. PMID:25024592

  20. Cirrhosis Diagnosis and Liver Fibrosis Staging: Transient Elastometry Versus Cirrhosis Blood Test.

    PubMed

    Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Oberti, Frédéric; Bardou, Derek; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; de Lédinghen, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Elastometry is more accurate than blood tests for cirrhosis diagnosis. However, blood tests were developed for significant fibrosis, with the exception of CirrhoMeter developed for cirrhosis. We compared the performance of Fibroscan and CirrhoMeter, and classic binary cirrhosis diagnosis versus new fibrosis staging for cirrhosis diagnosis. The diagnostic population included 679 patients with hepatitis C and liver biopsy (Metavir staging and morphometry), Fibroscan, and CirrhoMeter. The prognostic population included 1110 patients with chronic liver disease and both tests. Binary diagnosis: AUROCs for cirrhosis were: Fibroscan: 0.905; CirrhoMeter: 0.857; and P=0.041. Accuracy (Youden cutoff) was: Fibroscan: 85.4%; CirrhoMeter: 79.2%; and P<0.001. Fibrosis classification provided 6 classes (F0/1, F1/2, F2±1, F3±1, F3/4, and F4). Accuracy was: Fibroscan: 88.2%; CirrhoMeter: 88.8%; and P=0.77. A simplified fibrosis classification comprised 3 categories: discrete (F1±1), moderate (F2±1), and severe (F3/4) fibrosis. Using this simplified classification, CirrhoMeter predicted survival better than Fibroscan (respectively, χ=37.9 and 19.7 by log-rank test), but both predicted it well (P<0.001 by log-rank test). Comparison: binary diagnosis versus fibrosis classification, respectively, overall accuracy: CirrhoMeter: 79.2% versus 88.8% (P<0.001); Fibroscan: 85.4% versus 88.2% (P=0.127); positive predictive value for cirrhosis by Fibroscan: Youden cutoff (11.1 kPa): 49.1% versus cutoffs of F3/4 (17.6 kPa): 67.6% and F4 classes (25.7 kPa): 82.4%. Fibroscan's usual binary cutoffs for cirrhosis diagnosis are not sufficiently accurate. Fibrosis classification should be preferred over binary diagnosis. A cirrhosis-specific blood test markedly attenuates the accuracy deficit for cirrhosis diagnosis of usual blood tests versus transient elastometry, and may offer better prognostication.

  1. Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diagnosed by Non-Invasive Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Novakovic, Tatjana; Mekic, Mevludin; Smilic, Ljiljana; Smilic, Tanja; Inić-Kostic, Biljana; Jovicevic, Ljiljana; Mirkovic, Zlatica; Milinic, Srbislava

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Non-alcoholic (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of disease states, from steatosis (fatty liver) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (also called NASH steatosis with inflammatory changes) followed by progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma Excess liver fat is believed to be a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and not surprisingly NASH is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes in humans. Aim of the study: is to establish anthropometric and biochemical specificities in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis diagnosed with non-invasive diagnostic methods Material and methods: Study enrolled 170 participants, 130 with NASH steatosis. The non-alcoholic group (control), consisted of 40 normal weight patients without metabolic syndrome. Alcohol intake was estimated with established protocol. Routine biochemistry analysis were performed by standard laboratory procedures; serum levels of serum levels of fasting cholesterol and triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin resistance estimated by HOMA index (Homeostasis model assessment), biochemistry tests and a liver ultrasound examination. Results: In study participants group, patients were more obese comparing with controls p < 0, 01, waist line extent also was of greater statistical significance in the non-alcoholic group fatty liver (p < 0, 01). Comparing biochemical parameter values, significant statistical deference has been noted in glaucosis and insulin levels, total cholesterol and gama-glutamil transferase levels, between groups (p<0, 01). Fasting glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR were significantly greater in study cohort group patients, as was significantly positive correlation between BMI and waist line extent. Conclusion: Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver are excessively obese, have greater waist line extent, consequently insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance

  2. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24966592

  3. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Childhood: Endocrine-Metabolic “Mal-Programming”

    PubMed Central

    Manti, Sara; Romano, Claudio; Chirico, Valeria; Filippelli, Martina; Cuppari, Caterina; Loddo, Italia; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver". Results: NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by “multiple parallel hits”: environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown. Conclusions: Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:24829591

  4. HRQOL using SF36 (generic specific) in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Janani, K; Varghese, Joy; Jain, Mayank; Harika, Kavya; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Michael, Tom; Jayanthi, Venkataraman

    2017-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is influenced by the disease state, associated complications and their management. In patients with liver cirrhosis co-morbidity, severity of liver disease and their complications are likely to affect the QOL. The aim of the study was to determine the factors that are likely to influence the domains of HRQOL using SF-36 in patients with liver cirrhosis. For the study, 149 patients with liver cirrhosis were compared with age-gender matched healthy controls for physical and mental components of SF-36 score and the effects of age, co-morbidity severity of liver disease and complications of liver cirrhosis on HRQOL were assessed using the same questionnaire. Results of the study showed that except for body pain, all the patients had a significantly low individual and composite domain score (p-value <0.0001) compared to age-gender matched controls. Patients below 45 years, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) C, a high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and higher rates of complication had low scores for body pain (KW p <0.005) and those above 55 years, for physical function (p <0.05). Both the physical components had a major impact on mental composite score (MCS) (KW p <0.05). Co-morbidity that included diabetes, hypertension and hypothyroid states in various combinations had no effect on SF-36 scores while co-morbid conditions like musculoskeletal pain, arthralgia etc. affected physical domains (physical function, body pain and role physical) and physical component score (PCS) (KW p <0.01 to <0.0001). By linear regression, MELD had a direct and significant association with overall PCS and mental component score (MCS).

  5. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis. PMID:25561782

  6. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-12-28

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis.

  7. Resveratrol inhibits nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, Luis; Hijona, Elizabeth; Larzabal, Mikel; Beraza, Marta; Aldazabal, Pablo; García-Urkia, Nerea; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Cosme, Angel; Irastorza, Belen; González, Alberto; Arenas, Juan I

    2008-01-01

    Background The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is high. NAFLD is linked to obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia. Approximately 20% of patients with NAFLD will eventually develop cirrhosis. Our purpose was to investigate whether resveratrol decreased hepatic steatosis in an animal model of steatosis, and whether this therapeutic approach resulted in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Methods Male Wistar CRL: Wi (Han) (225 g) rats were randomized into three groups. A control group (n = 12) was given free access to regular dry rat chow for 4 weeks. The steatosis (n = 12) and resveratrol (n = 12) groups were given free access to feed (a high carbohydrate-fat free modified diet) and water 4 days per week, and fasted for the remaining 3 days for 4 weeks. Rats in the resveratrol group were given resveratrol 10 mg daily by the oral route. All rats were killed at 4 weeks and assessed for fatty infiltration and bacterial translocation. Levels of TNF-α in serum, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and nitric oxide synthase) and biochemical parameters were measured. Results Fat deposition was decreased in the resveratrol group as compared to the steatosis group (Grade 1 vs Grade 3, P < 0.05). TNF-α and MDA levels were significantly increased in the steatosis group (TNF-α; 33.4 ± 5.2 vs 26.24 ± 3.47 pg/ml and MDA; 9.08 ± 0.8 vs 3.17 ± 1.45 μM respectively, P < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and decreased nitric oxide synthase in the liver of resveratrol group significantly (P < 0.05 vs steatosis group). Bacterial translocation was not found in any of the groups. Glucose levels were decreased in the group of rats given resveratrol (P < 0.05). Conclusion Resveratrol decreased NAFLD severity in rats. This effect was mediated, at least

  8. Th17 involvement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Chackelevicius, Carla Melisa; Gambaro, Sabrina Eliana; Tiribelli, Claudio; Rosso, Natalia

    2016-11-07

    The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide histological spectrum ranging from benign simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sustained inflammation in the liver is critical in this process. Hepatic macrophages, including liver resident macropaghes (Kupffer cells), monocytes infiltrating the injured liver, as well as specific lymphocytes subsets play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory response, with a major deleterious impact on the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis. During the last years, Th17 cells have been involved in the development of inflammation not only in liver but also in other organs, such as adipose tissue or lung. Differentiation of a naïve T cell into a Th17 cell leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production with subsequent myeloid cell recruitment to the inflamed tissue. Th17 response can be mitigated by T regulatory cells that secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines. Both T cell subsets need TGF-β for their differentiation and a characteristic plasticity in their phenotype may render them new therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the role of the Th17 pathway in NAFLD progression to NASH and to liver fibrosis analyzing different animal models of liver injury and human studies.

  9. Epigenetic mechanisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An emerging field.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging health concern in both developed and non-developed world, encompassing from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and liver cancer. Incidence and prevalence of this disease are increasing due to the socioeconomic transition and change to harmful diet. Currently, gold standard method in NAFLD diagnosis is liver biopsy, despite complications and lack of accuracy due to sampling error. Further, pathogenesis of NAFLD is not fully understood, but is well-known that obesity, diabetes and metabolic derangements played a major role in disease development and progression. Besides, gut microbioma and host genetic and epigenetic background could explain considerable interindividual variability. Knowledge that epigenetics, heritable events not caused by changes in DNA sequence, contribute to development of diseases has been a revolution in the last few years. Recently, evidences are accumulating revealing the important role of epigenetics in NAFLD pathogenesis and in NASH genesis. Histone modifications, changes in DNA methylation and aberrant profiles or microRNAs could boost development of NAFLD and transition into clinical relevant status. PNPLA3 genotype GG has been associated with a more progressive disease and epigenetics could modulate this effect. The impact of epigenetic on NAFLD progression could deserve further applications on therapeutic targets together with future non-invasive methods useful for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD.

  10. Review of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Carly E; Brown, Ann J; Diehl, Anna Mae; Setji, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS frequently have metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), early diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between PCOS and another metabolic complication: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD occurs as a result of abnormal lipid handling by the liver, which sensitizes the liver to injury and inflammation. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by hepatocyte injury and apoptosis. With time and further inflammation, NASH can progress to cirrhosis. Thus, given the young age at which NAFLD may occur in PCOS, these women may be at significant risk for progressive hepatic injury over the course of their lives. Many potential links between PCOS and NAFLD have been proposed, most notably IR and hyperandrogenemia. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between PCOS and NAFLD. In the interim, clinicians should be aware of this connection and consider screening for NAFLD in PCOS patients who have other metabolic risk factors. The optimal method of screening is unknown. However, measuring alanine aminotransferase and/or obtaining ultrasound on high-risk patients can be considered. First line treatment consists of lifestyle interventions and weight loss, with possible pharmacologic interventions in some cases. PMID:25339805

  11. Relevant Aspects of Nutritional and Dietary Interventions in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Rodas, Maria Catalina; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Videla, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is linked to circumstances such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Since the obesity figures and related comorbidities are increasing, NAFLD has turned into a liver problem that has become progressively more common. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for NAFLD; therefore, interventions in lifestyles remain the first line of treatment. Bearing in mind that adherence rates to this type of treatment are poor, great efforts are currently focused on finding novel therapeutic agents for the prevention in the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. This review presents a compilation of the scientific evidence found in the last years showing the results of interventions in lifestyle, diet, and behavioral therapies and research results in human, animal and cell models. Possible therapeutic agents ranging from supplementation with vitamins, amino acids, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to interventions with medicinal plants are analyzed. PMID:26512643

  12. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Ho; Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as a pathologic accumulation of fat in the form of triglycerides (TG) in the liver (steatosis) that is not caused by alcohol. A subgroup of NAFLD patients shows liver cell injury and inflammation coupled with the excessive fat accumulation (steatohepatitis), which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Patients with NASH may develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD shares the key features of metabolic syndrome including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is multi-factorial, however the oxidative stress seems to plays a major role in the development and progression of the disease. The emerging field of epigenetics provides a new perspective on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Epigenetics is an inheritable but reversible phenomenon that affects gene expression without altering the DNA sequence and refers to DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Epigenetic manipulation through metabolic pathways such as one-carbon metabolism has been proposed as a promising approach to retard the progression of NAFLD. Investigating the epigenetic modifiers in NAFLD may also lead to the development of preventive or therapeutic strategies for NASH-associated complications. PMID:25195642

  13. Tyrosine levels are associated with insulin resistance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawanaka, Miwa; Nishino, Ken; Oka, Takahito; Urata, Noriyo; Nakamura, Jun; Suehiro, Mitsuhiko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Yamada, Gotaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Amino acid imbalance is often found in patients with cirrhosis, and this imbalance is associated with insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the relationship between amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance remains unclear. We evaluated serum amino acid concentrations in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to determine if any of the levels of amino acids were associated with the biochemical markers and fibrosis stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods In 137 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent liver biopsy, plasma levels of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), tyrosine (Tyr), and the BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were determined using mass spectroscopy. These values were then assessed for associations with fibrosis stage, anthropometric markers (age, sex, and body mass index), biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, albumin, platelet count, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin), and relevant disease-specific biomarkers (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], serum iron, ferritin, leptin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid). Results Serum albumin levels, plasma BCAA levels, and BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were negatively associated with the fibrosis stage. In contrast, Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic staging. Tyr levels were also correlated with HOMA-IR results. Conclusion Plasma BCAA levels in patients with NASH decreased with increasing liver fibrosis, while Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic stage. These results suggest that amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance are intimately involved in a complex pathogenic mechanism for NASH. PMID:26082668

  14. Left Lobe Auxiliary Liver Transplantation for End-stage Hepatitis B Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S-F; Chen, X-P; Chen, Z-S; Wei, L; Dong, S-L; Guo, H; Jiang, J-P; Teng, W-H; Huang, Z-Y; Zhang, W-G

    2017-06-01

    Auxiliary liver transplantation (ALT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis previously showed poor results, because the native liver was a significant source of HBV recurrence and the graft could be rapidly destroyed by HBV infection in an immunosuppressive condition. Four patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis were unable to undergo orthotopic liver transplantation because the only available grafts of left lobe were too small. Under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment, they underwent ALT in which the recipient left liver was removed and the small left lobe graft was implanted in the corresponding space. The mean graft weight/recipient weight was 0.49% (range, 0.38%-0.55%). One year after transplantation, the graft sizes were increased to 273% and the remnant livers were decreased to 44%. Serum HBV DNA was persistently undetectable. Periodic graft biopsy showed no signs of tissue injury and negative immunostaining for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen. After a mean follow-up period of 21 months, all patients live well with normal graft function. Our study suggests that ALT for HBV-related liver cirrhosis is feasible under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment. Successful application of small left livers in end-stage liver cirrhosis may significantly increase the pool of left liver grafts for adult patients. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and vascular disease: State-of-the-art

    PubMed Central

    Fargion, Silvia; Porzio, Marianna; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common of chronic liver disease in Western Country, is closely related to insulin resistance and oxidative stress and includes a wide spectrum of liver diseases ranging from steatosis alone, usually a benign and non-progressive condition, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome with which shares several characteristics, however recent data suggest that NAFLD is linked to increased cardiovascular risk independently of the broad spectrum of risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that the clinical burden of NAFLD is not restricted to liver-related morbidity and mortality, with the majority of deaths in NAFLD patients related to cardiovascular disease and cancer and not to the progression of liver disease. Retrospective and prospective studies provide evidence of a strong association between NAFLD and subclinical manifestation of atherosclerosis (increased intima-media thickness, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, impaired left ventricular function and coronary calcification). A general agreement emerging from these studies indicates that patients with NASH are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than those with simple steatosis, emphasizing the role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis of these patients. It is very likely that the different mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD have a different relevance in the patients according to individual genetic background. In conclusion, in the presence of NAFLD patients should undergo a complete cardiovascular evaluation to prevent future atherosclerotic complications. Specific life-style modification and aggressive pharmaceutical modification will not only reduce the progression of liver disease, but also reduce morbidity for cardiovascular

  16. Serum level of IL-6 in liver cirrhosis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, I.; Effendi-YS, R.; Dairi, L. B.; Siregar, G. A.; Zain, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    Cytokines are polypeptides that have a wide spectrum of inflammatory, metabolic, hematopoietic and immunologic regulatory properties. The liver represents an important site of synthesis and clearance organ for several cytokines. This study aimed to evaluate serum IL-6 in liver cirrhosis with the type of underlying disease, child pugh group and various clinical and laboratory parameter. This cross-sectional study was at Adam Malik General Hospital and Pirngadi General Hospital from July - December 2016. We examine 75 patients with liver cirrhosis. The exclusion criteria were hepatoma, sepsis and renal impairment. There were 28 (37.3%), 8 (10.6%) and 39 (52%) for HBV-positive; HCV-positive and HBV- HCV negative liver cirrhosis patients, respectively were 14 (18.7 %), 15 (20 %) and 46 (61.3%) for Child- Pugh A, B and C respectively. There was no significant difference value of IL-6 between HBV positive, HCV positive, and HBV-HCV negative group (7.7/6.1/10.9). There was no significant difference value of IL-6 between child pugh A, B, and C group (4.2/11.0/7.9).

  17. Neurosurgical procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Chang; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2015-09-28

    Liver cirrhosis, a devastating liver fibrosis caused by hepatitis/inflammation or tumors, is a major comorbid factor in known surgery fields, such as cardiovascular and abdominal surgeries. It is important to review possible comorbid results in neurosurgical procedures in cirrhotic patients. In the reviewed literature, Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease scores are commonly used in the assessment of surgical risks for cirrhotic patients undergoing abdominal, cardiovascular or neurosurgical procedures. The major categories of neurosurgery are traumatic brain injury (TBI), spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (SICH), brain tumors, and spinal instrumentation procedures. TBI was reported with surgical mortality as high as 34.5% and a complication rate of 87.2%. For SICH, mortality ranged from 22.7% to 47.0%, while complications were reported to be 43.2%. Less is discussed in brain tumor patients; still the postoperative hemorrhage rate approached 26.7%. In spinal fusion instrumentation procedures, the complication rate was as high as 41.0%. Preoperative assessment and correction could possibly decrease complications such as hemorrhage, wound infection and other cirrhosis-related complications (renal, pulmonary, ascites and encephalopathy). In this study, we reviewed the neurosurgical-related literature with regard to liver cirrhosis as a prognostic factor influencing neurosurgical outcomes.

  18. Neurosurgical procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Chang; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis, a devastating liver fibrosis caused by hepatitis/inflammation or tumors, is a major comorbid factor in known surgery fields, such as cardiovascular and abdominal surgeries. It is important to review possible comorbid results in neurosurgical procedures in cirrhotic patients. In the reviewed literature, Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease scores are commonly used in the assessment of surgical risks for cirrhotic patients undergoing abdominal, cardiovascular or neurosurgical procedures. The major categories of neurosurgery are traumatic brain injury (TBI), spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (SICH), brain tumors, and spinal instrumentation procedures. TBI was reported with surgical mortality as high as 34.5% and a complication rate of 87.2%. For SICH, mortality ranged from 22.7% to 47.0%, while complications were reported to be 43.2%. Less is discussed in brain tumor patients; still the postoperative hemorrhage rate approached 26.7%. In spinal fusion instrumentation procedures, the complication rate was as high as 41.0%. Preoperative assessment and correction could possibly decrease complications such as hemorrhage, wound infection and other cirrhosis-related complications (renal, pulmonary, ascites and encephalopathy). In this study, we reviewed the neurosurgical-related literature with regard to liver cirrhosis as a prognostic factor influencing neurosurgical outcomes. PMID:26413225

  19. Improving Quality of Care in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Saberifiroozi, Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a major chronic disease in the field of digestive diseases. It causes more than one million deaths per year. Despite established evidence based guidelines, the adherence to standard of care or quality indicators are variable. Complete adherence to the recommendations of guidelines is less than 50%. To improve the quality of care in patients with cirrhosis, we need a more holistic view. Because of high rate of death due to cardiovascular disease and neoplasms, the care of comorbid conditions and risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, high blood sugar or cholesterol, would be important in addition to the management of primary liver disease. Despite a holistic multidisciplinary approach for this goal, the management of such patients should be patient centered and individualized. The diagnosis of underlying etiology and its appropriate treatment is the most important step. Definition and customizing the quality indicators for quality measure in patients are needed. Because most suggested quality indicators are designed for measuring the quality of care in decompensated liver cirrhosis, we need special quality indicators for compensated and milder forms of chronic liver disease as well. Training the patients for participation in their own management, design of special clinics with dedicated health professionals in a form of chronic disease model, is suggested for improvement of quality of care in this group of patients. Special day care centers by a dedicated gastroenterologist and a trained nurse may be a practical model for better management of such patients.

  20. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors involved in the development of liver cirrhosis in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a chronic illness caused by inflammatory responses and progressive fibrosis. Globally, the most common causes of chronic liver disease include persistent alcohol abuse, followed by viral hepatitis infections and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, regardless of the etiological factors, the susceptibility and degree of liver damage may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms that are associated with distinct ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Consequently, metabolic genes are influenced by variable environmental lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical inactivity, and emotional stress, which are associated with regional differences among populations. This Topic Highlight will focus on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the metabolism of alcohol and nutrients in the setting of distinct etiologies of liver disease. The interaction between genes and environment in the current-day admixed population, Mestizo and Native Mexican, will be described. Additionally, genes involved in immune regulation, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix deposition may modulate the degree of severity. In conclusion, LC is a complex disease. The onset, progression, and clinical outcome of LC among the Mexican population are influenced by specific genetic and environmental factors. Among these are an admixed genome with a heterogenic distribution of European, Amerindian and African ancestry; a high score of alcohol consumption; viral infections; a hepatopathogenic diet; and a high prevalence of obesity. The variance in risk factors among populations suggests that intervention strategies directed towards the prevention and management of LC should be tailored according to such population-based features. PMID:26556986

  1. Markers of activated inflammatory cells correlate with severity of liver damage in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Rita; Alisi, Anna; Masotti, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Sara; Panera, Nadia; Citti, Arianna; Salata, Michele; Valenti, Luca; Feldstein, Ariel E; Nobili, Valerio

    2012-07-01

    Concomitantly to the obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of liver disease in children. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histological damage ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with possible progression to cirrhosis. There is growing evidence that the immune system plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression to NASH but the cellular nature of the hepatic inflammation is still unknown. The present study includes 34 children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Liver damage was evaluated by the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and the inflammatory infiltrate was characterized by immunohistochemistry for CD45, CD3 and CD163 which are markers of leukocytes, T cells and activated Kupffer cells/macrophages, respectively. Our results have shown that CD45+ (P<0.0001) and CD163+ (P<0.0001) cells were markedly increased in children with severe histological activity (NAS≥5) compared to children with lower activity (NAS<5), whereas CD3+ cells were significantly lower (P<0.01) in children with severe histological activity. There was a significant association between the numbers of CD45+, CD3+ and CD163+ cells, regarding both the portal tract and liver lobule, and the severity of steatosis, ballooning and fibrosis (P<0.01). These data suggest that the severity and composition of the inflammatory infiltrate correlate with steatosis and the severity of disease in children with NAFLD. Moreover, a decrease in CD3+ cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage. Future studies should evaluate whether it can predict the progression of liver disease independently of established histological scores.

  2. Nursing Assessment Tool for People With Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Renata Karina; da Silva, Patrícia Costa dos Santos; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Atila, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the process of developing a nursing assessment tool for hospitalized adult patients with liver cirrhosis. A descriptive study was carried out in three stages. First, we conducted a literature review to develop a data collection tool on the basis of the Conceptual Model of Wanda Horta. Second, the data collection tool was assessed through an expert panel. Third, we conducted the pilot testing in hospitalized patients. Most of the comments offered by the panel members were accepted to improve the tool. The final version was in the form of a questionnaire with open-closed questions. The panel members concluded that the tool was useful for accurate nursing diagnosis. Horta's Conceptual Model assisted with the development of this data collection tool to help nurses identify accurate nursing diagnosis in hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis. We hope that the tool can be used by all nurses in clinical practice. PMID:26425862

  3. Tolvaptan for the treatment of liver cirrhosis oedema.

    PubMed

    Sakaida, Isao

    2014-07-01

    No alternative therapeutic option exists if liver cirrhosis patients have insufficient response to conventional diuretics and/or experience conventional diuretic-related adverse events. In 2013, tolvaptan (7.5 mg/day), an arginine vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, was approved in Japan for the treatment of liver cirrhosis with oedema. Short-term use of tolvaptan produced decreases in body weight, reduction in ascites volume and increases in urine volume when compared to placebo, despite the use of conventional diuretics. Additionally, approximately 60% of patients with oedema-related symptoms improved. Low-dose tolvaptan, 3.75 mg, was also efficacious. Even in patients with low serum albumin (<2.5 g/dL), decrease in body weight was greater with tolvaptan than with placebo. For future research, the efficacy and safety of lower tolvaptan doses for the treatment of liver cirrhosis patients with oedema should be confirmed in Japan. The results of this research could be used as an indicator or a guideline for physicians around the world.

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Guber, Robert D.; Takyar, Varun; Kokkinis, Angela; Fox, Derrick A.; Alao, Hawwa; Kats, Ilona; Bakar, Dara; Remaley, Alan T.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Kleiner, David E.; Liu, Chia-Ying; Hadigan, Colleen; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Rotman, Yaron

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and features of fatty liver disease in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods: Two groups of participants with SBMA were evaluated. In the first group, 22 participants with SBMA underwent laboratory analysis and liver imaging. In the second group, 14 participants with SBMA were compared to 13 female carriers and 23 controls. Liver biopsies were done in 4 participants with SBMA. Results: Evidence of fatty liver disease was detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in all participants with SBMA in the first group, with an average dome intrahepatic triacylglycerol of 27% (range 6%–66%, ref ≤5.5%). Liver dome magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were significantly increased in participants with SBMA in the second group relative to age- and sex-matched controls, with average disease and male control measurements of 17% and 3%, respectively. Liver biopsies were consistent with simple steatosis in 2 participants and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in 2 others. Conclusions: We observed evidence of nonalcoholic liver disease in nearly all of the participants with SBMA evaluated. These observations expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disease and provide a potential biomarker that can be monitored in future studies. PMID:29142082

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease–From the cardiologist perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sîrbu, Oana; Floria, Mariana; Dăscălița, Petru; Şorodoc, Victorița; Şorodoc, Laurențiu

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a range of disorders characterized by excess accumulation of triglycerides within the liver. While simple steatosis may be clinically stable, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be progressive. Inflammation is believed to be the driving force behind NASH and the progression to fibrosis and subsequent cirrhosis. NAFLD is globally considered a significant health concern not only because of its incidence but also because of its economic impact. The fact that NAFLD is associated with cardiovascular disease is widely recognized, as well as the fact that NAFLD patient mortality rises when such an association is present. In particular, NAFLD is associated with coronary and carotid atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and arterial rigidity, ventricles function, valves morphology, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias (especially atrial fibrillation). Additionally, the hypercoagulability status in NAFLD patient may be suggested by the presence of inflammatory and coagulation markers. In order to differentiate between milder forms and the more severe ones that necessitate aggressive therapy, individualized risk scores may be used. This narrative review will analyze and interpret the papers published in PubMed in the last 16 years, in an attempt to expand our understanding of the NASH as a possible cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:27389154

  6. Coffee and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: brewing evidence for hepatoprotection?

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaohua; Teoh, Narci C; Chitturi, Shiv; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2014-03-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Several studies consistently show that coffee drinkers with chronic liver disease have a reduced risk of cirrhosis and a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma regardless of primary etiology. With the increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide, there is renewed interest in the effect of coffee intake on NAFLD severity and positive clinical outcomes. This review gives an overview of growing epidemiological and clinical evidence which indicate that coffee consumption reduces severity of NAFLD. These studies vary in methodology, and potential confounding factors have not always been completely excluded. However, it does appear that coffee, and particular components other than caffeine, reduce NAFLD prevalence and inflammation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Several possible mechanisms underlying coffee's hepatoprotective effects in NAFLD include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects, while a chemopreventive effect against hepatocarcinogenesis seems likely. The so-far limited data supporting such effects will be discussed, and the need for further study is highlighted. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Development of gene polymorphisms in meditators of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Gong, Jianping; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, the morbidity of which closely correlates with diversity of ethnicity, minority, family and location. Its histology spans from simple steatosis, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which ultimately results in fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The accelerating prevalence of NAFLD is due to an incremental incidence of metabolic syndrome that is distinguished by dyslipidemia, glucose impairment, obesity, excessive oxidative stress and adipocytokine impairment. Additionally, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is thought to be a multifactorial and complicated disease associated with lifestyle habits, nutritional factors and genetics. However, the pathogenesis and underlying mechanism in the development of NAFLD caused by genetics remains unclear. People have been increasingly emphasizing on the relationship between NAFLD and gene polymorphisms in recent years, with the aim of having a comprehensive elucidation of associated gene polymorphisms influencing the pathogenesis of the disease. In the current article, the authors attempted to critically summarize the most recently identified gene polymorphisms from the facets of glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, oxidative stress and related cytokines in NAFLD that contribute to promoting the progression of the disease. PMID:28804621

  8. Correlation between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Saini

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver means the presence of hepatosteatosis without significant alcohol consumption; it is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic disorder like type 2 diabetes and dyslipideamia. NASH may progress to advanced stages of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Increased body mass index and viral genotype contribute to steatosis in chronic hepatitis. The sonographic features of NAFLD include the presence of bright hepatic echotexture deep attenuation, and vascular blurring either singly or in combination. Dyslipidemia in patients with NAFLD is atherogenic in nature and it is characterized by increased levels of serum triglycerides and decreased levels of HDL cholesterol. Statins are potent lipid-lowering agents which decrease LDL cholesterol by 20-60%, decrease triglycerides by 10-33% and increase HDL cholesterol by 5-10% for the patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liver cirrhosis: a risk factor for gallstone disease in chronic hepatitis C patients in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Wang, Zhongfeng; Wang, Le; Pan, Meng; Gao, Pujun

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the possible link between liver cirrhosis and gallstone risk in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in China.To analyze the association between liver cirrhosis and gallstone development, we compared outcomes of 133 Chinese CHC patients with gallstones and an age-, sex-, and hepatitis C virus RNA level-matched control group of 431 CHC patients without gallstones.We found that liver cirrhosis was more prevalent in gallstone patients (40.6%) than in the control group (24.4%). Logistic regression analyses adjusting for demographic features and other gallstone risk factors revealed that liver cirrhosis increased the risk of gallstone development 2-fold (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.122; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.408-3.198). Moreover, multivariate analyses comparing the risk of gallstone development in liver cirrhosis patients with decompensated or compensated liver cirrhosis yielded an estimated AOR (95% CI) of 2.869 (1.277-6.450) in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Gallstone risk also increased significantly with older age (>60 years) (AOR: 2.019; 95% CI: 1.017-4.009).Liver cirrhosis significantly correlates with increased risk of gallstone development in CHC patients in China. Decompensated liver cirrhosis and older age further heighten this risk in patients diagnosed with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis.

  10. Radiographical findings in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Elwir, Saleh; Hal, Hassan; Veith, Joshua; Schreibman, Ian; Kadry, Zakiyah; Riley, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication encountered in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy is not reflected in the current liver transplant allocation system. Correlation was sought between hepatic encephalopathy with findings detected on radiographic imaging studies and the patient's clinical profile. A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients with cirrhosis, who presented for liver transplant evaluation in 2009 and 2010. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, ejection fraction less than 60% and who had a TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting) procedure or who did not complete the evaluation were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed and variables found to be significant on univariate analysis (P < 0.05) were analysed by a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 117 patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into a hepatic encephalopathy group (n = 58) and a control group (n = 59). Univariate analysis found that a smaller portal vein diameter, smaller liver antero-posterior diameter, liver nodularity and use of diuretics or centrally acting medications showed significant correlation with hepatic encephalopathy. This association was confirmed for smaller portal vein, use of diuretics and centrally acting medications in the multivariate analysis. A decrease in portal vein diameter was associated with increased risk of encephalopathy. Identifying patients with smaller portal vein diameter may warrant screening for encephalopathy by more advanced psychometric testing, and more aggressive control of constipation and other factors that may precipitate encephalopathy. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  11. Does pressure cause liver cirrhosis? The sinusoidal pressure hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sebastian

    2016-12-28

    Independent of their etiology, all chronic liver diseases ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis, which is a major health problem worldwide. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood and no efficient treatment strategies are available. This paper introduces the sinusoidal pressure hypothesis (SPH), which identifies an elevated sinusoidal pressure (SP) as cause of fibrosis. SPH has been mainly derived from recent studies on liver stiffness. So far, pressure changes have been exclusively seen as a consequence of cirrhosis. According to the SPH, however, an elevated SP is the major upstream event that initiates fibrosis via biomechanic signaling by stretching of perisinusoidal cells such as hepatic stellate cells or fibroblasts (SPH part I: initiation). Fibrosis progression is determined by the degree and time of elevated SP. The SPH predicts that the degree of extracellular matrix eventually matches SP with critical thresholds > 12 mmHg and > 4 wk. Elevated arterial flow and final arterialization of the cirrhotic liver represents the self-perpetuating key event exposing the low-pressure-organ to pathologically high pressures (SPH part II: perpetuation). It also defines the "point of no return" where fibrosis progression becomes irreversible. The SPH is able to explain the macroscopic changes of cirrhotic livers and the uniform fibrotic response to various etiologies. It also opens up new views on the role of fat and disease mechanisms in other organs. The novel concept will hopefully stimulate the search for new treatment strategies.

  12. Does pressure cause liver cirrhosis? The sinusoidal pressure hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Independent of their etiology, all chronic liver diseases ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis, which is a major health problem worldwide. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood and no efficient treatment strategies are available. This paper introduces the sinusoidal pressure hypothesis (SPH), which identifies an elevated sinusoidal pressure (SP) as cause of fibrosis. SPH has been mainly derived from recent studies on liver stiffness. So far, pressure changes have been exclusively seen as a consequence of cirrhosis. According to the SPH, however, an elevated SP is the major upstream event that initiates fibrosis via biomechanic signaling by stretching of perisinusoidal cells such as hepatic stellate cells or fibroblasts (SPH part I: initiation). Fibrosis progression is determined by the degree and time of elevated SP. The SPH predicts that the degree of extracellular matrix eventually matches SP with critical thresholds > 12 mmHg and > 4 wk. Elevated arterial flow and final arterialization of the cirrhotic liver represents the self-perpetuating key event exposing the low-pressure-organ to pathologically high pressures (SPH part II: perpetuation). It also defines the “point of no return” where fibrosis progression becomes irreversible. The SPH is able to explain the macroscopic changes of cirrhotic livers and the uniform fibrotic response to various etiologies. It also opens up new views on the role of fat and disease mechanisms in other organs. The novel concept will hopefully stimulate the search for new treatment strategies. PMID:28082801

  13. Noninvasive Assessment of Advanced Fibrosis Based on Hepatic Volume in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Fukuzawa, Kei; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Junji; Kawamura, Yusuke; Akuta, Norio; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kenji; Fujii, Takeshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-09-15

    Noninvasive liver fibrosis evaluation was performed in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We used a quantitative method based on the hepatic volume acquired from gadoxetate disodium-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. A total of 130 patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD and underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were retrospectively included. Histological data were available for 118 patients. Hepatic volumetric parameters, including the left hepatic lobe to right hepatic lobe volume ratio (L/R ratio), were measured. The usefulness of the L/R ratio for diagnosing fibrosis ≥F3-4 and F4 was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify variables (age, body mass index, serum fibrosis markers, and histological features) that were associated with the L/R ratio. The L/R ratio demonstrated good performance in differentiating advanced fibrosis (AUROC, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.88) from cirrhosis (AUROC, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.99). Multiple regression analysis showed that only fibrosis was significantly associated with the L/R ratio (coefficient, 0.121; p<0.0001). The L/R ratio, which is not influenced by pathological parameters other than fibrosis, is useful for diagnosing cirrhosis in patients with NAFLD.

  14. Dietary fructose as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Gebhardt, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Glucose is a major energy source for the entire body, while fructose metabolism occurs mainly in the liver. Fructose consumption has increased over the last decade globally and is suspected to contribute to the increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome affecting about one-third of the population worldwide and has progressive pathological potential for liver cirrhosis and cancer through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we have reviewed the possible contribution of fructose to the pathophysiology of NAFLD. We critically summarize the current findings about several regulators, and their potential mechanisms, that have been studied in humans and animal models in response to fructose exposure. A novel hypothesis on fructose-dependent perturbation of liver regeneration and metabolism is advanced. Fructose intake could affect inflammatory and metabolic processes, liver function, gut microbiota, and portal endotoxin influx. The role of the brain in controlling fructose ingestion and the subsequent development of NAFLD is highlighted. Although the importance for fructose (over)consumption for NAFLD in humans is still debated and comprehensive intervention studies are invited, understanding of how fructose intake can favor these pathological processes is crucial for the development of appropriate noninvasive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to detect and treat these metabolic effects. Still, lifestyle modification, to lessen the consumption of fructose-containing products, and physical exercise are major measures against NAFLD. Finally, promising drugs against fructose-induced insulin resistance and hepatic dysfunction that are emerging from studies in rodents are reviewed, but need further validation in human patients.

  15. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an emerging driving force in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Targher, Giovanni; Byrne, Christopher D

    2017-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by an accumulation of fat in the liver; the condition can progress over time to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing rapidly owing to the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and NAFLD has been predicted to become the most important indication for liver transplantation over the next decade. It is now increasingly clear that NAFLD not only affects the liver but can also increase the risk of developing extra-hepatic diseases, including T2DM, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which have a considerable impact on health-care resources. Accumulating evidence indicates that NAFLD exacerbates insulin resistance, predisposes to atherogenic dyslipidaemia and releases a variety of proinflammatory factors, prothrombotic factors and profibrogenic molecules that can promote vascular and renal damage. Furthermore, communication or 'crosstalk' between affected organs or tissues in these diseases has the potential to further harm function and worsen patient outcomes, and increasing amounts of evidence point to a strong association between NAFLD and CKD. Whether a causal relationship between NAFLD and CKD exists remains to be definitively established.

  16. Non-invasive diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana V; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2013-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects one in every three subjects in the occidental world. The vast majority will not progress, but a relevant minority will develop liver cirrhosis and its complications. The classical gold standard for diagnosing and staging NAFLD and assessing fibrosis is liver biopsy (LB). However, it has important sample error issues and subjectivity in the interpretation, apart from a small but real risk of complications. The decision to perform an LB is even harder in a condition so prevalent such as NAFLD, in which the probability of finding severe liver injury is low. In an attempt to overcome LB and to subcategorize patients with NAFLD in different prognoses allowing better management decisions, several non-invasive methods have been studied in the last decade. The literature is vast and confusing. This review will summarize which methods have been tested and how they perform, which tests are adequate for clinical practice and how they can change the management of these patients. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, J.T.; Pereira, I.V.A.; Torres, M.M.; Bida, P.M.; Coelho, A.M.M.; Xerfan, M.P.; Cogliati, B.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Mazo, D.F.C.; Kubrusly, M.S.; D'Albuquerque, L.A.C.; Souza, H.P.; Carrilho, F.J.; Oliveira, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg-1·day-1 by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH. PMID:25714891

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging and transient elastography in the management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Saouaf, Rola; Ayoub, Walid; Todo, Tsuyoshi; Mena, Edward; Noureddin, Mazen

    2017-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis worldwide and the second most common cause of liver transplantation in major medical centers. Because liver steatosis and fibrosis severity are related to disease morbidity and mortality, the extent of disease, and disease progression, they need to be assessed and monitored. In addition, innovation with new drug developments requires disease staging and monitoring in both phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Currently, disease assessment in both clinical practice and research is mostly performed by liver biopsy, an invasive, procedure with risks. Noninvasive, highly accurate tests are needed that could be used in clinical trials as surrogate endpoints and in clinical practice for monitoring patients. Area Covered: We discuss noninvasive tests, transient elastography (TE) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MR elastography (MRE), summarize the available evidence of their usefulness for assessing steatosis and fibrosis. Therefore they could be used as clinical trials outcomes and in disease monitoring in clinical practice. Expert Commentary: TE with CAP, MRI and MRE are highly accurate noninvasive diagnostic tools for quantifying hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Therefore they could be used as clinical trials outcomes and in disease monitoring in clinical practice.

  19. What are the implications of the spontaneous spleno-renal shunts in liver cirrhosis?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although significant advances are expected to be made in the assessment of the portal hypertension-related complications, the prognostic role of spleno-renal shunts has not been fully explored so far. Clarifying this aspect could help tackle the life-treating events occurring in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationships between the spleno-renal shunts presence at doppler ultrasound and the liver cirrhosis complications. Methods Design: eighty one patients out of 129 formed the study population (35 females). Chronic liver damage in these patients was caused by HCV (66), HBV (2), alcohol abuse (2) or unknown etiology, likely non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (11). Setting: two Liver Units of university/primary hospitals in Southern Italy. Main outcome measures: grading of esofageal varices; detection of ascites: assessment of hepatic encephalopathy; evaluation of liver cirrhosis severity; tracking hepatocellular carcinoma; doppler features of spleno-renal shunts and splenic flow velocity; spleen longitudinal diameter at sonography. Results The prevalence of spleno-renal shunts was 18.5%, without no difference concerning the etiology (HCV versus non-HCV, p = 0.870); the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with spleno-renal shunts was superior to that of patients without them (Pearson Chi-square, p = 0.006, power of sample size 74%), also after adjustment for liver decompensation (p = 0.024). The median score of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with and without spleno-renal shunts was similar, i.e., 0 (range, 0-2) versus 0 (0 - 3), p = 0.67. The median splenic vein flow velocity in patients with spleno-renal shunts was significantly inferior to that of patients without them, i.e., 13 cm/sec (95% confidence intervals, 6-18) versus 21 cm/sec (17-24), p < 0.0001. By far the largest percentage of large esophageal varices was in patients without spleno-renal shunts (p = 0.005). In contrast, the

  20. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) potentiates autoimmune hepatitis in the CYP2D6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Peter; Messmer, Marie; Bayer, Monika; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Hintermann, Edith; Christen, Urs

    2016-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe development non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are increasing worldwide. In particular NASH, which is characterized by an active hepatic inflammation, has often severe consequences including progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we investigated how metabolic liver injury is influencing the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We used the CYP2D6 mouse model in which wild type C57BL/6 mice are infected with an Adenovirus expressing the major liver autoantigen cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Such mice display several features of human AIH, including interface hepatitis, formation of LKM-1 antibodies and CYP2D6-specific T cells, as well as hepatic fibrosis. NAFLD was induced with a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that pre-existing NAFLD potentiates the severity of AIH. Mice fed for 12 weeks with a HFD displayed increased cellular infiltration of the liver, enhanced hepatic fibrosis and elevated numbers of liver autoantigen-specific T cells. Our data suggest that a pre-existing metabolic liver injury constitutes an additional risk for the severity of an autoimmune condition of the liver, such as AIH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of EGFR attenuates fibrosis and stellate cell activation in diet-induced model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dandan; Chen, Hongjin; Zhao, Leping; Zhang, Wenxin; Hu, Jie; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhong, Peng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingying; Liang, Guang

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. NAFLD begins with steatosis and advances to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in NAFLD progression are not understood. Based on recent studies showing dysregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in animal models of liver injury, we sought to determine if inhibition of EGFR mitigates liver fibrosis and HSC activation in NAFLD. We utilized the high fat diet (HFD)-induced murine model of liver injury to study the role of EGFR in NAFLD. The lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and matrix deposition were examined in the liver tissues. We also evaluated the EGFR signaling pathway, ROS activation and pro-fibrogenic phenotype in oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) challenged cultured HSCs. We demonstrate that EGFR was phosphorylated in liver tissues of HFD murine model of NAFLD. Inhibition of EGFR prevented diet-induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and HSC activation and matrix deposition. In cultured HSCs, we show that ox-LDL caused rapid activation of the EGFR signaling pathway and induce the production of reactive oxygen species. EGFR also mediated HSC activation and promoted a pro-fibrogenic phenotype. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that EGFR plays an important role in NAFLD and is an attractive target for NAFLD therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Setji, Tracy L; Holland, Nicole D; Sanders, Linda L; Pereira, Kathy C; Diehl, Anna Mae; Brown, Ann J

    2006-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are both associated with insulin resistance. Thus, women with PCOS may have an increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of NASH and abnormal aminotransferase activity in women with PCOS. The study is a retrospective chart review. The setting is an academic endocrinology clinic. Patients were 200 women with PCOS, defined as irregular menses and hyperandrogenism. Biopsy-documented NASH and aminotransferase levels were the main outcome measures. Fifteen percent (29 of 200) had aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase more than 60 U/liter. Women with aminotransferase elevations had lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (41 vs. 50 mg/dl, P = 0.006), higher triglycerides (174 vs. 129 mg/dl, P = 0.024), and higher fasting insulin (21 vs. 12 microIU/ml, P = 0.036) compared with women with normal aminotransferases. Six women (mean age 29 yr) with persistent aminotransferase elevations underwent liver biopsy. All six had NASH with fibrosis. Compared with the 194 of 200 PCOS women who did not undergo biopsy, women with biopsy-documented NASH had lower HDL (median 34 vs. 50 mg/dl, P < 0.001), and higher triglycerides (245 vs. 132 mg/dl, P = 0.025), fasting insulin (26 vs. 13 microIU/ml, P = 0.038), aspartate aminotransferase (144 vs. 22 U/liter, P < 0.001), and alanine aminotransferase (143 vs. 28 U/liter, P < 0.001). Abnormal aminotransferase activity is common in women with PCOS. Low HDL, high triglycerides, and high fasting insulin were associated with abnormal aminotransferase activity. Some women already had evidence of NASH with fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether to screen PCOS women for liver disease at an earlier age than is currently recommended for the general population.

  3. Surgically-Induced Weight Loss Significantly Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Samer G.; Velcu, Laura M.; Rabinovitz, Mordechai; Demetris, A J.; Krasinskas, A M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Eid, George M.; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Taylor, Debra S.; Schauer, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of surgical weight loss on fatty liver disease in severely obese patients. Summary Background Data: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum that extends to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, is rising at an alarming rate. This increase is occurring in conjunction with the rise of severe obesity and is probably mediated in part by metabolic syndrome (MS). Surgical weight loss operations, probably by reversing MS, have been shown to result in improvement in liver histology. Methods: Patients who underwent laparoscopic surgical weight loss operations from March 1999 through August 2004, and who agreed to have an intraoperative liver biopsy followed by at least one postoperative liver biopsy, were included. Results: There were 70 patients who were eligible. All patients underwent laparoscopic operations, the majority being laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The mean excess body weight loss at time of second biopsy was 59% ± 22% and the time interval between biopsies was 15 ± 9 months. There was a reduction in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, from 70% to 14% (P < 0.001), and a marked improvement in liver steatosis (from 88% to 8%), inflammation (from 23% to 2%), and fibrosis (from 31% to 13%; all P < 0.001). Inflammation and fibrosis resolved in 37% and 20% of patients, respectively, corresponding to improvement of 82% (P < 0.001) in grade and 39% (P < 0.001) in stage of liver disease. Conclusion: Surgical weight loss results in significant improvement of liver morphology in severely obese patients. These beneficial changes may be associated with a significant reduction in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:16192822

  4. Cirrhosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Liver failure - discharge; Liver cirrhosis - discharge ... You have cirrhosis of the liver. Scar tissue forms and your liver gets smaller and harder. Most of the time, this damage cannot be undone. However, the ...

  5. The role of nutraceuticals for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Angelico, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of hepatic changes, which may progress to liver fibrosis and to cirrhosis. NAFLD is considered as the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome but mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of NAFLD are still under investigation. The traditional 'two hit hypothesis' has been developed within a more complex 'multiple parallel hit hypothesis' which comprises a wide spectrum of parallel hits. Many therapeutic approaches have been proposed so far and several types of nutraceuticals have been suggested for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the most promising of which are those with antioxidant effects. In particular, vitamin E appears to be effective for the treatment of nondiabetic subjects with more advanced NASH, although the high suggested daily dosages are a matter of concern. Moreover, polyphenols reduce liver fat accumulation, mainly by inhibiting lipogenesis. At present, there are insufficient data to support the use of vitamin C supplements in patients with NAFLD. Data on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation are heterogeneous, and no well-designed randomized controlled studies (RCTs) of adequate size, with histological assessment of steatosis, have been conducted. Based on the available data, silymarin supplementation for the treatment of NAFLD seems to have a favourable effect. The results with anti-inflammatory agents, such as vitamin D and carnitine are uncertain. In conclusion, there are insufficient data either to support or refute the use of nutraceuticals for subjects with NAFLD. Further RTCs, with histological changes as an outcome measure, are needed. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masaki; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yousuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Noguchi, Yohei; Nakahara, Kazunari; Ikeda, Hiroki; Ishii, Toshiya; Okuse, Chiaki; Sase, Shigeru; Itoh, Fumio; Suzuki, Michihiro

    2016-09-14

    The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF) correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC) was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC) (p = 0.014). Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p < 0.05). It is important to recognize the difference between NAFLD and CHC. We concluded that changes in hepatic blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  7. Factors predicting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Majid, Zain

    2018-04-01

    Introduction To determine the factors predicting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methodology All patients aged >18 years and having a fatty liver on abdominal ultrasound (US), presenting from January 2011 to January 2017, were included. A liver biopsy was performed on all the patients. Results Of 96 patients undergoing liver biopsy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 76 (79.2%) were men. On liver US, diffuse fatty liver (DFL) was noted in 68 (70.8%) patients. Liver biopsy showed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 78 (81.3%) patients. Factors associated with NASH were male gender, body mass index (BMI) > 27 kg/m 2 , DFL and raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A GULAB score (based on gender, US liver findings, lipid (fasting) levels, ALT level and BMI) of ≥5 predicted NASH with 82.05% sensitivity. Factors associated with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD were age >40 years, diabetes mellitus, AST/ALT ratio > 1 and raised GGT. Conclusion NASH is common in patients with male gender, high BMI, DFL on liver US, raised ALT and GULAB score ≥5.

  8. Prevalence and Indicators of Portal Hypertension in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Flavia D.; Suzuki, Ayako; Sanderson, Schuyler O.; Lindor, Keith D.; Angulo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known about the prevalence and severity of portal hypertension in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the prevalence and non-invasive predictors of portal hypertension in patients with NAFLD. Methods Signs of portal hypertension, including esophageal varices, splenomegaly, portosystemic encephalopathy, and ascites where investigated in 354 patients with NAFLD. Results One-hundred patients had portal hypertension at the time of NAFLD diagnosis (28.2%), 88 of these with septal fibrosis or cirrhosis (88%). Fibrosis stage correlated with presence (r=0.41, P<.0001) and number of findings (r=0.48, P=.006) of portal hypertension. Of the 204 patients with no or mild fibrosis (stages 0–2), 12 had portal hypertension (6%); they had a significantly higher grade of steatosis, based on biopsy analysis, compared to the 192 patients without portal hypertension (94%). Thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia, cirrhosis, and obesity were independently associated with portal hypertension. Esophageal varices were found in 57 of the 128 patients undergoing endoscopic screening (44.5%) and independently associated with thrombocytopenia, type 2 diabetes, and splenomegaly. Conclusions Signs of portal hypertension are present in 25% of patients at the time of diagnosis of NAFLD; most had advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Portal hypertension can occur in a small proportion of patients with mild or no fibrosis and is associated with the extent of steatosis. Features of advanced liver disease and insulin resistance might identify patients with NAFLD and portal hypertension, and those expected to derive the most benefit from endoscopic screening for esophageal varices. PMID:22610002

  9. The Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Interplay between Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Sharon; Hu, Junbo; Feng, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and it comprises a spectrum of hepatic abnormalities from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. While the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains incompletely understood, a multihit model has been proposed that accommodates causal factors from a variety of sources, including intestinal and adipose proinflammatory stimuli acting on the liver simultaneously. Prior cellular and molecular studies of patient and animal models have characterized several common pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD, including proinflammation cytokines, lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In recent years, gut microbiota has gained much attention, and dysbiosis is recognized as a crucial factor in NAFLD. Moreover, several genetic variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies, particularly rs738409 (Ile748Met) in PNPLA3 and rs58542926 (Glu167Lys) in TM6SF2, which are critical risk alleles of the disease. Although a high-fat diet and inactive lifestyles are typical risk factors for NAFLD, the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and genetic background is believed to be more important in the development and progression of NAFLD. This review summarizes the common pathogenic mechanisms, the gut microbiota relevant mechanisms, and the major genetic variants leading to NAFLD and its progression. PMID:27247565

  10. Short-Term Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy for Carcinoma In Patients with Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sozzi, Marco; Siboni, Stefano; Asti, Emanuele; Bonitta, Gianluca; Bonavina, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    Open esophagectomy is a high-risk procedure in patients with liver cirrhosis. With the advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques, the overall morbidity and mortality rates of esophagectomy have decreased. The aim of this study was to describe short-term outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy in patients with proven liver cirrhosis. Retrospective observational cohort study. Demographics, preoperative clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients undergoing minimally invasive esophagectomy for carcinoma were analyzed. Patients with concomitant liver cirrhosis were compared to patients without liver cirrhosis undergoing similar surgical procedures. In addition, variables possibly associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis were investigated. Out of 443 patients undergoing minimally invasive esophagectomy, 18 (4.1%) had concomitant liver cirrhosis. Demographics and preoperative clinical variables were similar in the 2 patient groups. While the overall morbidity rate was similar, the 90-day mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with liver cirrhosis (P = .023). There was a significantly higher rate of sepsis and anastomotic, respiratory, and hemorrhagic complications in patients with liver cirrhosis who died in the postoperative period. Minimally invasive esophagectomy is feasible in patients with liver cirrhosis. Future strategies should focus on total minimally invasive procedures and early recognition of surgical complications.

  11. Renal water handling in rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Jonassen, T E; Christensen, S; Kwon, T H; Langhoff, S; Salling, N; Nielsen, S

    2000-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the renal handling of water in rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of carbon tetrachloride twice weekly for 16 wk. Control rats were treated with vehicle. The cirrhotic rats developed severe disturbances in water homeostasis: urine production was decreased and hyperosmotic, the rats had significantly decreased plasma sodium concentration and ascites, and the ability to excrete an intravenous water load was significantly impaired. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin and aldosterone were increased. Mean arterial pressure, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and fractional lithium excretion were decreased. Acute vasopressin type 2-receptor blockade with the selective nonpeptide antagonist OPC-31260 (800 microg. kg(-1). h(-1)) was performed during conditions whereby volume depletion was prevented by computer-driven, servo-controlled intravenous volume replacement with 150 mM glucose. The aquaretic response to OPC-31260 was similar in cirrhotic and control rats. However, the OPC 31260-induced rises in fractional water excretion (delta V/GFR; +24%) and fractional distal water excretion (delta V/C(Li); +46%) were significantly increased in the cirrhotic rats, where V is flow rate and delta is change. This suggests that vasopressin-mediated renal water reabsorption capacity was increased in the cirrhotic rats. Semiquantitative immunoblotting revealed that the expression of the vasopressin-regulated water channel aquaporin-2 was unchanged in membrane fractions of both whole kidney and inner medulla from cirrhotic rats. Together, these results suggest a relative escape from vasopressin on collecting duct water reabsorption in rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis.

  12. Oxidative stress promotes pathologic polyploidization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gentric, Géraldine; Maillet, Vanessa; Paradis, Valérie; Couton, Dominique; L’Hermitte, Antoine; Panasyuk, Ganna; Fromenty, Bernard; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes that can occur in the genome. In the liver, physiological polyploidization events occur during both liver development and throughout adult life. Here, we determined that a pathological polyploidization takes place in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a widespread hepatic metabolic disorder that is believed to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In murine models of NAFLD, the parenchyma of fatty livers displayed alterations of the polyploidization process, including the presence of a large proportion of highly polyploid mononuclear cells, which are rarely observed in normal hepatic parenchyma. Biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) revealed the presence of alterations in hepatocyte ploidy compared with tissue from control individuals. Hepatocytes from NAFLD mice revealed that progression through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle was inefficient. This alteration was associated with activation of a G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, which prevented activation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex. Furthermore, we determined that oxidative stress promotes the appearance of highly polyploid cells, and antioxidant-treated NAFLD hepatocytes resumed normal cell division and returned to a physiological state of polyploidy. Collectively, these findings indicate that oxidative stress promotes pathological polyploidization and suggest that this is an early event in NAFLD that may contribute to HCC development. PMID:25621497

  13. Oxidative stress promotes pathologic polyploidization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Géraldine; Maillet, Vanessa; Paradis, Valérie; Couton, Dominique; L'Hermitte, Antoine; Panasyuk, Ganna; Fromenty, Bernard; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2015-03-02

    Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes that can occur in the genome. In the liver, physiological polyploidization events occur during both liver development and throughout adult life. Here, we determined that a pathological polyploidization takes place in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a widespread hepatic metabolic disorder that is believed to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In murine models of NAFLD, the parenchyma of fatty livers displayed alterations of the polyploidization process, including the presence of a large proportion of highly polyploid mononuclear cells, which are rarely observed in normal hepatic parenchyma. Biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) revealed the presence of alterations in hepatocyte ploidy compared with tissue from control individuals. Hepatocytes from NAFLD mice revealed that progression through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle was inefficient. This alteration was associated with activation of a G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, which prevented activation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex. Furthermore, we determined that oxidative stress promotes the appearance of highly polyploid cells, and antioxidant-treated NAFLD hepatocytes resumed normal cell division and returned to a physiological state of polyploidy. Collectively, these findings indicate that oxidative stress promotes pathological polyploidization and suggest that this is an early event in NAFLD that may contribute to HCC development.

  14. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Noninvasive Methods of Diagnosing Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    AlShaalan, Rasha; Aljiffry, Murad; Al-Busafi, Said; Metrakos, Peter; Hassanain, Mazen

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is the buildup of lipids within hepatocytes. It is the simplest stage in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It occurs in approximately 30% of the general population and as much as 90% of the obese population in the United States. It may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is a state of hepatocellular inflammation and damage in response to the accumulated fat. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard tool to diagnose and stage NAFLD. However, it comes with the risk of complications ranging from simple pain to life-threatening bleeding. It is also associated with sampling error. For these reasons, a variety of noninvasive radiological markers, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the controlled attenuation parameter using transient elastography and Xenon-133 scan have been proposed to increase our ability to diagnose NAFLD, hence avoiding liver biopsy. The aim of this review is to discuss the utility and accuracy of using available noninvasive diagnostic modalities for fatty liver in NAFLD. PMID:25843191

  15. Drug metabolism alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Merrell, Matthew D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a vital role in the elimination of the majority of therapeutic drugs. The major organ involved in drug metabolism is the liver. Chronic liver diseases have been identified as a potential source of significant interindividual variation in metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting between 60 and 90 million Americans, yet the vast majority of NAFLD patients are undiagnosed. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of NAFLD on hepatic gene expression, observing significant alterations in mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Information on the effects of NAFLD in human patients is limited, though several significant investigations have recently been published. Significant alterations in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions. With the enormous prevalence of NAFLD, it is conceivable that every drug currently on the market is being given to patients with NAFLD. The current review is intended to present the results from both animal models and human patients, summarizing the observed alterations in the expression and activity of the phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:21612324

  16. Valproic acid and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A possible association?

    PubMed Central

    Farinelli, Edoardo; Giampaoli, David; Cenciarini, Anja; Cercado, Ephraim; Verrotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most prescribed drugs in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Weight gain and obesity have been observed as side effects of VPA. These are often linked with other metabolic disturbances such as development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD refers to a group of liver disorders with marked hepatic steatosis. It is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and overall reduced life expectancy. NAFLD occurs in 20%-25% of the general population and it is known to be the most common cause of chronic liver disease. NAFLD therefore represents a major public health issue worldwide. This study reviews and summarizes relevant literature that supports the existence of an association between VPA therapy and the development of NAFLD in children. Long-term VPA-therapy appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing NAFLD. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenic mechanisms that lie behind this association and to standardize the options for the use of this drug in overweight patients and in those with risks for developing MetS and NAFLD. PMID:26019740

  17. Evidence that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome are associated by necessity rather than chance: a novel hepato-ovarian axis?

    PubMed

    Targher, Giovanni; Rossini, Maurizio; Lonardo, Amedeo

    2016-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cirrhosis, and liver tumors. On these grounds, we have hypothesized that NAFLD and PCOS occur more frequently than expected by chance alone. We have tested this hypothesis by reviewing the clinical and biological evidence that supports a significant association between NAFLD and PCOS. PubMed was extensively searched for articles published through March 2015 using the keywords "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" or "fatty liver" combined with "PCOS." Several cross-sectional and case-control studies have consistently demonstrated that the prevalence of NAFLD is remarkably increased in young women with PCOS, independent of overweight/obesity and other coexisting metabolic syndrome features, and that these women are more likely to have the more severe forms of NAFLD (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis). Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD, especially its necro-inflammatory form, may exacerbate hepatic and systemic insulin resistance and releases multiple pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant, and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PCOS. These findings call for more active and systematic search for NAFLD among women with PCOS. Conversely, gastroenterologists/hepatologists need to be aware of the presence of PCOS among female patients with NAFLD and compatible clinical features. Finally, all these patients should undergo regular follow-up not only for liver-related complications but also for cardio-metabolic diseases.

  18. Nutritional Approaches to Achieve Weight Loss in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease123

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Christine C; Ness, Erik; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can range in spectrum from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by lipotoxicity, hepatocellular ballooning, and inflammation and can progress to cirrhosis. Weight loss is the cornerstone treatment for NAFLD and NASH. Various randomized controlled trials have shown that weight loss of ≥5–10% leads to significant improvements in hepatic steatosis. Diets high in sodium and fructose have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Although some clinical studies suggest that an isocaloric high-fructose diet does not worsen NAFLD, these clinical studies are often short in duration. More recently, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, a sodium-restricted diet, has been associated with less prevalence of NAFLD and has been shown to improve NAFLD. In addition, the Mediterranean diet has been promising in improving hepatic steatosis, and a larger randomized controlled trial is currently enrolling subjects. For those who are unable to pursue weight loss through dietary approaches, bariatric surgery has been shown to improve hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. This method has been variable in improving hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, weight loss is crucial to the improvement of NAFLD and NASH, and patients should attempt various diets in an attempt to achieve weight loss. PMID:28298270

  19. Nutritional Approaches to Achieve Weight Loss in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christine C; Ness, Erik; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can range in spectrum from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by lipotoxicity, hepatocellular ballooning, and inflammation and can progress to cirrhosis. Weight loss is the cornerstone treatment for NAFLD and NASH. Various randomized controlled trials have shown that weight loss of ≥5-10% leads to significant improvements in hepatic steatosis. Diets high in sodium and fructose have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Although some clinical studies suggest that an isocaloric high-fructose diet does not worsen NAFLD, these clinical studies are often short in duration. More recently, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, a sodium-restricted diet, has been associated with less prevalence of NAFLD and has been shown to improve NAFLD. In addition, the Mediterranean diet has been promising in improving hepatic steatosis, and a larger randomized controlled trial is currently enrolling subjects. For those who are unable to pursue weight loss through dietary approaches, bariatric surgery has been shown to improve hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. This method has been variable in improving hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, weight loss is crucial to the improvement of NAFLD and NASH, and patients should attempt various diets in an attempt to achieve weight loss. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. [Liver cirrhosis patogenetics: polymorphism of glutation S-transferase genes].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, I A; Rachkovskiĭ, M I; Beloborodova, E V; Gamal' Abd El'-Aziz Nasar, Kh; Puzyrev, V P

    2010-01-01

    Association of deletion polymorphism in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and polymorphic variant A313G of GSTP1 gene with cirrhosis diseases and 4-year survival rate for the Tomsk region (West Siberia) patients were tested. Homozygous deletion of GSTM1 gene (null genotype) was a protective factor for alcoholic and mixed (HCV, HBV and alcohol) liver cirrhosis development. The patients from the joint group (all etiology forms) as well as having alcoholic and mixed cirrhosis had lower frequency of GSTM1 null genotype (39.2, 39.0, and 34.2%, respectively) in comparison with the control group (64.6%). The GSTM1 null genotype and GSTP1 gene A313G polymorphic variant correlated with the patients' survival rate. The patients survived in comparison with the dead had higher frequency of a GSTM1 null genotype (46.6 vs. 30.2%) and GSTP1 AA genotype (63.1 vs. 40.5%), and lower frequency of GSTP1 AG (A313G) genotype (31.1 vs. 51.2%). A survival rate was 2.5 times higher for patients having GSTP1 AA genotype in comparison with the GG and AG genotype carriers and 2 times higher for patients having GSTM1 null genotype than the gene carriers. A 4-year fatal case probability was 2.3 times higher among the patients having heterozygous AG GSTP1 genotype in comparison with homozygous AA and GG genotype carriers.

  1. Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christopher; Yeoh, Sern Wei; Patrick, Desmond; Ket, Shara; Marion, Kaye; Gow, Paul; Angus, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine characteristics and prognostic predictors of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in association with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients with NAFLD associated HCC between 2000 and 2012. Data collected included demographics; histology; presence or absence of cirrhosis, size and number of HCC, alpha-fetoprotein, body mass index (BMI), and the presence of diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidaemia. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients with NAFLD associated HCC were identified. Mean age was 64 years with 87% male. Fifteen percent (8/54) were not cirrhotic. 11%, 24% and 50% had a BMI of < 25 kg/m2, 25-29 kg/m2 and ≥ 30 kg/m2 respectively. Fifty-nine percent were diabetic, 44% hypertensive and 26% hyperlipidaemic. Thirty-four percent of the patients had ≤ 1 of these risk factors. Non-cirrhotics had a significantly larger mean tumour diameter at diagnosis than cirrhotics (P = 0.041). Multivariate analysis did not identify any other patient characteristics that predicted the size or number of HCC. CONCLUSION: HCC can develop in NAFLD without cirrhosis. At diagnosis such tumours are larger than those in cirrhotics, conferring a poorer prognosis. PMID:25632192

  2. Animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: current perspectives and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jennie Ka Ching; Zhang, Xiang; Yu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a continuous spectrum of diseases characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. NAFLD progresses from simple liver steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and, in more severe cases, to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of its growing worldwide prevalence, various animal models that mirror both the histopathology and the pathophysiology of each stage of human NAFLD have been developed. The selection of appropriate animal models continues to be one of the key questions faced in this field. This review presents a critical analysis of the histopathology and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the most frequently used and recently developed animal models for each stage of NAFLD and NAFLD-induced HCC, the main mechanisms involved in the experimental pathogenesis of NAFLD in different animal models, and a brief summary of recent therapeutic targets found by the use of animal models. Integrating the data from human disease with those from animal studies indicates that, although current animal models provide critical guidance in understanding specific stages of NAFLD pathogenesis and progression, further research is necessary to develop more accurate models that better mimic the disease spectrum, in order to provide both increased mechanistic understanding and identification/testing of novel therapeutic approaches. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Potential for Dietary ω-3 Fatty Acids to Prevent Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Reduce the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer123

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B; Depner, Christopher M; Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in parallel with central obesity, and its prevalence is anticipated to increase as the obesity epidemic remains unabated. NAFLD is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and is defined as excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, that is, hepatosteatosis. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and NASH is characterized by hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. NASH can progress to cirrhosis, and cirrhosis is a risk factor for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevention of NASH will lower the risk of cirrhosis and NASH-associated HCC. Our studies have focused on NASH prevention. We developed a model of NASH by using mice with the LDL cholesterol receptor gene ablated fed the Western diet (WD). The WD induces a NASH phenotype in these mice that is similar to that seen in humans and includes robust induction of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. With the use of transcriptomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic approaches, we examined the capacity of 2 dietary ω-3 (n–3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3; DHA), to prevent WD-induced NASH. Dietary DHA was superior to EPA at attenuating WD-induced changes in plasma lipids and hepatic injury and at reversing WD effects on hepatic metabolism, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. The outcome of these studies suggests that DHA may be useful in preventing NASH and reducing the risk of HCC. PMID:26567194

  4. Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Gao; Cao, Hai-Xia

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Left-sided infective endocarditis in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Morales, J; Ivanova-Georgieva, R; Fernández-Hidalgo, N; García-Cabrera, E; Miró, Jose M; Muñoz, P; Almirante, B; Plata-Ciézar, A; González-Ramallo, V; Gálvez-Acebal, J; Fariñas, M C; Bravo-Ferrer, J M; Goenaga-Sánchez, M A; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Goikoetxea-Agirre, J; de Alarcón-González, A

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the course of left-sided infective endocarditis (LsIE) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) analyzing its influence on mortality and the impact of surgery. Prospective cohort study, conducted from 1984 to 2013 in 26 Spanish hospitals. A total of 3.136 patients with LsIE were enrolled and 308 had LC: 151 Child-Pugh A, 103 B, 34 C and 20 were excluded because of unknown stage. Mortality was significantly higher in the patients with LsIE and LC (42.5% vs. 28.4%; p < 0.01) and this condition was in general an independent worse factor for outcome (HR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.23-1.85; p < 0.001). However, patients in stage A had similar mortality to patients without cirrhosis (31.8% vs. 28.4% p = NS) and in this stage heart surgery had a protective effect (28% in operated patients vs. 60% in non-operated when it was indicated). Mortality was significantly higher in stages B (52.4%) and C (52.9%) and the prognosis was better for patients in stage B who underwent surgery immediately (mortality 50%) compared to those where surgery was delayed (58%) or not performed (74%). Only one patient in stage C underwent surgery. Patients with liver cirrhosis and infective endocarditis have a poorer prognosis only in stages B and C. Early surgery must be performed in stages A and although in selected patients in stage B when indicated. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low Hepatic Tissue Copper in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Michael; Caltharp, Shelley; Song, Ming; Collin, Lindsay; Konomi, Juna V; McClain, Craig J; Vos, Miriam B

    2017-07-01

    Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD. Secondary outcomes compared hepatic copper levels against steatosis, fibrosis, lobular inflammation, balloon degeneration, and NAFLD activity score (NAS). The study analysis included 150 pediatric subjects (102 with NAFLD and 48 non-NAFLD). After adjusting for age, body mass index z score, gamma glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin, NAFLD subjects had lower levels of hepatic copper than non-NAFLD (P = 0.005). In addition, tissue copper concentration decreased as steatosis severity increased (P < 0.001). Copper levels were not associated with degree of fibrosis, lobular inflammation, portal inflammation, or balloon degeneration. In this cohort of pediatric subjects with NAFLD, we observed decreased tissue copper levels in subjects with NAFLD when compared with non-NAFLD subjects. In addition, tissue copper levels were lower in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a more severe form of the disease, when compared with steatosis alone. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between copper levels and NAFLD progression.

  7. Non-invasive imaging techniques in assessing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a current status of available methods

    PubMed Central

    Lăpădat, AM; Jianu, IR; Ungureanu, BS; Florescu, LM; Gheonea, DI; Sovaila, S; Gheonea, IA

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an ailment affecting and increasing a number of people worldwide diagnosed via non-invasive imaging techniques, at a time when a minimum harm caused by medical procedures is rightfully emphasized, more sought after, than ever before. Liver steatosis should not be taken lightly even if its evolution is largely benign as it has the potential to develop into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or even more concerning, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Traditionally, liver biopsy has been the standard for diagnosing this particular liver disease, but nowadays, a consistent number of imagistic methods are available for diagnosing hepatosteatosis and choosing the one appropriate to the clinical context is the key. Although different in sensitivity and specificity when it comes to determining the hepatic fat fraction (FF), these imaging techniques possessing a diverse availability, operating difficulty, cost, and reproducibility are invaluable to any modern physician. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), elastography, and spectroscopy will be discussed in order to lay out the advantages and disadvantages of their diagnostic potential and application. Although imagistics has given physicians a valuable insight into the means of managing NAFLD, the current methods are far from perfect, but given the time, they will surely be improved and the use of liver biopsy will be completely removed. PMID:28255371

  8. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy in a patient with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Hyeong Cheol; Jeong, Taek Geun; Cho, Young Bum; Yang, Bong Joon; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Haak Cheoul; Cho, Eun-Young

    2011-06-01

    Encephalopathy is a disorder characterized by altered brain function, which can be attributed to various causes. Encephalopathy associated with metronidazole administration occurs rarely and depends on the cumulative metronidazole dose, and most patients with this condition recover rapidly after discontinuation of therapy. Because metronidazole is metabolized in the liver and can be transported by the cerebrospinal fluid and cross the blood-brain barrier, it may induce encephalopathy even at a low cumulative dose in patients with hepatic dysfunction. We experienced a patient who showed ataxic gait and dysarthric speech after receiving metronidazole for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy that was not controlled by the administration of lactulose. The patient was diagnosed as metronidazole-induced encephalopathy, and stopping drug administration resulted in a complete recovery from encephalopathy. This case shows that caution should be exercised when administering metronidazole because even a low dose can induce encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  9. Coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks underlie the immune response in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueming; Huang, Yongming; Yang, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Yuguo; Zhang, Weihui; Gao, Zu-hua; Xue, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is recognized as being the consequence of immune-mediated hepatocyte damage and repair processes. However, the regulation of these immune responses underlying liver cirrhosis has not been elucidated. In this study, we used GEO datasets and bioinformatics methods to established coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks including transcription factor-/lncRNA-microRNA-mRNA, and competing endogenous RNA interaction networks. Our results identified 2224 mRNAs, 70 lncRNAs and 46 microRNAs were differentially expressed in liver cirrhosis. The transcription factor -/lncRNA- microRNA-mRNA network we uncovered that results in immune-mediated liver cirrhosis is comprised of 5 core microRNAs (e.g., miR-203; miR-219-5p), 3 transcription factors (i.e., FOXP3, ETS1 and FOS) and 7 lncRNAs (e.g., ENTS00000671336, ENST00000575137). The competing endogenous RNA interaction network we identified includes a complex immune response regulatory subnetwork that controls the entire liver cirrhosis network. Additionally, we found 10 overlapping GO terms shared by both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma including “immune response” as well. Interestingly, the overlapping differentially expressed genes in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were enriched in immune response-related functional terms. In summary, a complex gene regulatory network underlying immune response processes may play an important role in the development and progression of liver cirrhosis, and its development into hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28355233

  10. Coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks underlie the immune response in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Zhang, Xueming; Huang, Yongming; Yang, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Yuguo; Zhang, Weihui; Gao, Zu-Hua; Xue, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is recognized as being the consequence of immune-mediated hepatocyte damage and repair processes. However, the regulation of these immune responses underlying liver cirrhosis has not been elucidated. In this study, we used GEO datasets and bioinformatics methods to established coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks including transcription factor-/lncRNA-microRNA-mRNA, and competing endogenous RNA interaction networks. Our results identified 2224 mRNAs, 70 lncRNAs and 46 microRNAs were differentially expressed in liver cirrhosis. The transcription factor -/lncRNA- microRNA-mRNA network we uncovered that results in immune-mediated liver cirrhosis is comprised of 5 core microRNAs (e.g., miR-203; miR-219-5p), 3 transcription factors (i.e., FOXP3, ETS1 and FOS) and 7 lncRNAs (e.g., ENTS00000671336, ENST00000575137). The competing endogenous RNA interaction network we identified includes a complex immune response regulatory subnetwork that controls the entire liver cirrhosis network. Additionally, we found 10 overlapping GO terms shared by both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma including "immune response" as well. Interestingly, the overlapping differentially expressed genes in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were enriched in immune response-related functional terms. In summary, a complex gene regulatory network underlying immune response processes may play an important role in the development and progression of liver cirrhosis, and its development into hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Gut-liver axis in liver cirrhosis: How to manage leaky gut and endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A “leaky gut” may be the cutting edge for the passage of toxins, antigens or bacteria into the body, and may play a pathogenic role in advanced liver cirrhosis and its complications. Plasma endotoxin levels have been admitted as a surrogate marker of bacterial translocation and close relations of endotoxemia to hyperdynamic circulation, portal hypertension, renal, cardiac, pulmonary and coagulation disturbances have been reported. Bacterial overgrowth, increased intestinal permeability, failure to inactivate endotoxin, activated innate immunity are all likely to play a role in the pathological states of bacterial translocation. Therapeutic approach by management of the gut-liver axis by antibiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, prebiotics and their combinations may improve the clinical course of cirrhotic patients. Special concern should be paid on anti-endotoxin treatment. Adequate management of the gut-liver axis may be effective for prevention of liver cirrhosis itself by inhibiting the progression of fibrosis. PMID:25848468

  12. Genomics and proteomics in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genomics and proteomics have become increasingly important in biomedical science in the past decade, as they provide an opportunity for hypothesis-free experiments that can yield major insights not previously foreseen when scientific and clinical questions are based only on hypothesis-driven approaches. Use of these tools, therefore, opens new avenues for uncovering physiological and pathological pathways. Liver fibrosis is a complex disease provoked by a range of chronic injuries to the liver, among which are viral hepatitis, (non-) alcoholic steatohepatitis and autoimmune disorders. Some chronic liver patients will never develop fibrosis or cirrhosis, whereas others rapidly progress towards cirrhosis in a few years. This variety can be caused by disease-related factors (for example, viral genotype) or host-factors (genetic/epigenetic). It is vital to establish accurate tools to identify those patients at highest risk for disease severity or progression in order to determine who are in need of immediate therapies. Moreover, there is an urgent imperative to identify non-invasive markers that can accurately distinguish mild and intermediate stages of fibrosis. Ideally, biomarkers can be used to predict disease progression and treatment response, but these studies will take many years due to the requirement for lengthy follow-up periods to assess outcomes. Current genomic and proteomic research provides many candidate biomarkers, but independent validation of these biomarkers is lacking, and reproducibility is still a key concern. Thus, great opportunities and challenges lie ahead in the field of genomics and proteomics, which, if successful, could transform the diagnosis and treatment of chronic fibrosing liver diseases. PMID:22214245

  13. Pulmonary changes in liver transplant candidates with hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Moamary, M S; Gorka, T; Al-Traif, I H; Al-Jahdali, H H; Al-Shimemeri, A A; Al-Kanway, B; Abdulkareeem, A A; Abdulkareeem, A A

    2001-12-01

    Several studies have shown that pulmonary abnormalities are common in patients with end-stage liver disease. However, most of these studies were conducted on patients with heterogeneous etiologies. Therefore, we studied these changes in a homogenous group of hepatitis C cirrhotic patients who were potential candidates for liver transplantation. The charts of 81 patients from King Fahad National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with hepatitis C cirrhosis who were evaluated for liver transplantation were reviewed. The following data was retrieved: echocardiography with micro-bubble study, arterial blood gases, and pulmonary function tests of 81 candidates and reviewed over 3 years from 1994 to 1997. The mean age was 53 (+/-9) years with male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Echocardiographic micro-bubble study, revealed 4 of 62 (7%) had an intrapulmonary shunt. Arterial blood gases results were pH of 7.44 (+/-0.4), partial arterial tension of carbon dioxide of 33 mm Hg (+/-4), partial arterial tension of oxygen of 84 mm Hg (+/-12), and alveolar-arterial gradient of 30 mm Hg (+/-10). Eleven percent had obstructive airway disease, 17% had restrictive lung impairment, and 43% had reduced diffusion capacity. Seventy five percent of patients with reduced diffusion capacity had normal lung volumes. Various pulmonary function test abnormalities did not lead to significant differences in arterial blood gases. Pulmonary changes were frequent in liver transplant candidates with hepatitis C virus cirrhosis with reduced diffusion capacity being the most. Apart from the effect of hepatopulmonary syndrome on arterial oxygenation, other pulmonary abnormalities were not significantly different.

  14. Liver cirrhosis in Fontan patients does not affect 1-year post-heart transplant mortality or markers of liver function.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen E; Esmaeeli, Amir; Khanna, Geetika; White, Francis; Turnmelle, Yumirle; Eghtesady, Pirooz; Boston, Umar; Canter, Charles E

    2014-02-01

    Liver cirrhosis is recognized with long-term follow-up of patients after the Fontan procedure. The effect of liver cirrhosis on the use of heart transplant (HT) and on post-HT outcomes is unknown. We reviewed Fontan patients evaluated for HT from 2004 to 2012 with hepatic computed tomography (CT) imaging, classified as normal, non-cirrhotic changes, or cirrhosis. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was differences in serial post-HT liver evaluation. CT imaging in 32 Fontan patients evaluated for HT revealed 20 (63%) with evidence of liver disease, including 13 (41%) with cirrhosis. Twenty underwent HT, including 5 non-cirrhotic and 7 cirrhosis patients. Characteristics at listing between normal or non-cirrhotic (n = 13) and cirrhosis (n = 7) groups were similar, except cirrhosis patients were older (median 17.6 vs 9.6 years, p = 0.002) and further from Fontan (median 180 vs 50 months, p < 0.05). Serial liver evaluation was similar, including aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, and tacrolimus dose at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Overall patient survival was 80% at 1 year, with no difference between cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis patients (86% vs 77%, p = 0.681). Liver biopsies were performed in 7 patients before HT, and all specimens showed architectural changes with bridging fibrosis. Most patients evaluated for HT had abnormal liver findings by CT, with cirrhosis in 41%. One-year mortality and serial liver evaluation were similar between groups after HT. Liver cirrhosis identified by CT imaging may not be an absolute contraindication to HT alone in this population. © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Published by International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation All rights reserved.

  15. A Relative Deficiency of Lysosomal Acid Lypase Activity Characterizes Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Tovoli, Francesco; Napoli, Lucia; Negrini, Giulia; D'Addato, Sergio; Tozzi, Giulia; D'Amico, Jessica; Piscaglia, Fabio; Bolondi, Luigi

    2017-05-25

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. Initial reports have suggested a role for a relative acquired LAL deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-however, it is still unclear whether this mechanism is specific for NAFLD. We aimed to determine LAL activity in a cohort of NAFLD subjects and in a control group of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, investigating the role of liver cirrhosis. A total of 81 patients with a diagnosis of NAFLD, and 78 matched controls with HCV-related liver disease were enrolled. For each patient, LAL activity was determined on peripheral dried blood spots (DBS) and correlated with clinical and laboratory data. A subgroup analysis among cirrhotic patients was also performed. LAL activity is significantly reduced in NAFLD, compared to that in HCV patients. This finding is particularly evident in the pre-cirrhotic stage of disease. LAL activity is also correlated with platelet and white blood cell count, suggesting an analytic interference of portal-hypertension-induced pancytopenia on DBS-determined LAL activity. NAFLD is characterized by a specific deficit in LAL activity, suggesting a pathogenetic role of LAL. We propose that future studies on this topic should rely on tissue specific analyses, as peripheral blood tests are also influenced by confounding factors.

  16. The Biological Clock: A Pivotal Hub in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Mazza, Tommaso

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent hepatic pathology in the Western world and may evolve into steatohepatitis (NASH), increasing the risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD derives from the accumulation of hepatic fat due to discrepant free fatty acid metabolism. Other factors contributing to this are deranged nutrients and bile acids fluxes as well as alterations in nuclear receptors, hormones, and intermediary metabolites, which impact on signaling pathways involved in metabolism and inflammation. Autophagy and host gut-microbiota interplay are also relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis. Notably, liver metabolic pathways and bile acid synthesis as well as autophagic and immune/inflammatory processes all show circadian patterns driven by the biological clock. Gut microbiota impacts on the biological clock, at the same time as the appropriate timing of metabolic fluxes, hormone secretion, bile acid turnover, autophagy and inflammation with behavioural cycles of fasting/feeding and sleeping/waking is required to circumvent hepatosteatosis, indicating significant interactions of the gut and circadian processes in NAFLD pathophysiology. Several time-related factors and processes interplay in NAFLD development, with the biological clock proposed to act as a network level hub. Deranged physiological rhythms (chronodisruption) may also play a role in liver steatosis pathogenesis. The current article reviews how the circadian clock circuitry intimately interacts with several mechanisms involved in the onset of hepatosteatosis and its progression to NASH, thereby contributing to the global NAFLD epidemic. PMID:29662454

  17. Abnormality of autophagic function and cathepsin expression in the liver from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fukuo, Yuka; Yamashina, Shunhei; Sonoue, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Nakadera, Eisuke; Aoyama, Tomonori; Uchiyama, Akira; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidences indicate that hepatic steatosis suppresses autophagic proteolysis. The present study evaluated the correlation between autophagic function and cathepsin expression in the liver from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Liver biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with chronic liver diseases (chronic hepatitis C [CHC; n = 20], chronic hepatitis B [CHB; n = 16], primary biliary cirrhosis [PBC; n = 23], NAFLD [n = 22] and control [n = 14]). The number of autophagic vesicles in hepatocytes was counted by using transmission electron microscopy. Expression of cathepsin B, D, L and p62 in the liver section was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The histological severity of NAFLD is assessed by NAFLD activity score (NAS). The number of autophagic vesicles in hepatocytes was significantly increased in both CHC and NAFLD groups, but not CHB and PBC, more than control. Although hepatocytes with aggregation of p62 were observed in less than 15% of CHC, p62 aggregation was detected in approximately 65% of NAFLD. Cathepsin B, D and L expression was significantly suppressed in the liver from NAFLD patients. Suppression of cathepsin B, D and L expression was not observed in CHB, CHC and PBC. In NAFLD patients, p62 aggregation was correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase value and inflammatory activity by NAS. These results indicate that a decrease in hepatic cathepsin expression in NAFLD is associated with autophagic dysfunction. Hepatic inflammation correlates with autophagic dysfunction in NAFLD. These findings indicate that the suppression of autophagic proteolysis by hepatic steatosis is involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Pathophysiology and management

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Rotonya M.; Oranu, Amanke; Khungar, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract/Summary NAFLD is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide both because of cardiovascular, hepatic and oncologic sequelae as well as because it is rapidly becoming the leading cause of end stage liver disease and liver transplant. With a prevalence of 30% in the US, it has reached epidemic proportions. While the metabolic syndrome is a common risk factor, there are differences among racial and ethnic groups, suggesting the complex interaction between hormonal, nutritional and genetic factors at play in disease pathogenesis. The clinical syndrome of NAFLD spans from bland steatosis to steatohepatitis which can progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The pathogenesis including roles of hormones, nutritional and intestinal dysbiosis, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, and hepatic inflammation, and genes are examined. Non-invasive testing and liver biopsy indications are reviewed. Approved and investigational therapies for NAFLD and NASH are outlined in this review of a disease that is currently an area of great interest to the hepatology community. PMID:27837778

  19. Diagnosis of different liver fibrosis characteristics by blood tests in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Chaigneau, Julien; Lainé, Fabrice; Sandrini, Jeremy; Michalak, Sophie; Hubert, Isabelle; Dib, Nina; Oberti, Frédéric; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hunault, Gilles; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Gallois, Yves; Deugnier, Yves; Rousselet, Marie C

    2010-10-01

    Our aim was to develop an accurate, non-invasive, blood-test-based method for identifying the main characteristics of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fibrosis was staged according to NASH-CRN and Metavir systems in 226 patients with NAFLD. A fully automated algorithm measured the fractal dimension (FD) and the area of fibrosis (AOF). Independent predictors of diagnostic targets were determined using bootstrap methods. (i) Development. Significant fibrosis defined by NASH-CRN F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, glycaemia, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and prothrombin index [area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)=0.867]; significant fibrosis defined by Metavir F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, age, glycaemia, AST, ALT, ferritin and platelets (FibroMeter AUROC=0.941, P<0.005). AOF was estimated by the combination of hyaluronic acid, glycaemia, AST, ALT, platelets and prothrombin index ((a) R(2) =0.530), while FD was estimated by hyaluronic acid, glycaemia, AST/ALT, weight and platelets ((a) R(2) =0.529). (ii) Evaluation. Although NASH-CRN was a better system for fibrosis staging, Metavir staging was a better reference for blood test. Thus, the patient rate with predictive values ≥90% by tests was 97.3% with Metavir reference vs. 66.5% with NASH-CRN reference (P<10(-3)). FibroMeter showed a significantly higher AUROC than the NAFLD fibrosis score for significant fibrosis, but not for severe fibrosis or cirrhosis, with both staging systems. Relationships between fibrosis lesions were well reflected by blood tests, e.g., the correlation between histological area and FD of fibrosis (r(s) =0.971, P<10(-3)) was well reflected by the relationship between respective blood tests (r(s) =0.852, P<10(-3)). Different characteristics of fibrosis in NAFLD can be diagnosed and quantified by blood tests with excellent accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Diabetes, plasma glucose and incidence of fatty liver, cirrhosis and liver cancer: A prospective study of 0.5 million people.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuanjie; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Turnbull, Iain; Guo, Yu; Clarke, Robert; Chen, Yiping; Bragg, Fiona; Yang, Ling; Bian, Zheng; Millwood, Iona Y; Hao, Juanzhi; Han, Xianyong; Zang, Yajing; Chen, Junshi; Li, Liming; Holmes, Michael V; Chen, Zhengming

    2018-05-07

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly in China. However, evidence is limited about its effects on chronic liver diseases and liver cancer. We aimed to examine the associations of diabetes with chronic liver diseases and liver cancer and of random plasma glucose (RPG) with these liver diseases among participants without diabetes in Chinese adults, and to assess the possible interaction by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512,891 adults. During 10 years of follow-up, 2,568 liver cancer, 2,082 cirrhosis, 1,298 hospitalised non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and 244 hospitalised alcoholic liver disease (ALD) were recorded among 503,993 participants without prior history of cancer or chronic liver diseases at baseline. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for each disease by diabetes status (previously diagnosed or screen-detected) and, among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, by levels of RPG. Overall 5.8% of participants had diabetes at baseline. Compared with those without diabetes, individuals with diabetes had adjusted HRs of 1.49 (95% CI 1.30-1.70) for liver cancer, 1.81 (1.57-2.09) for cirrhosis, 1.76 (1.47-2.16) for NAFLD, and 2.24 (1.42-3.54) for ALD. The excess risks decreased but remained elevated in those with longer duration. Among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, RPG was positively associated with liver diseases, with adjusted HRs per 1 mmol/L higher RPG of 1.04 (1.03-1.06) for liver cancer, 1.07 (1.05-1.09) for cirrhosis, 1.07 (1.05-1.10) for NAFLD, and 1.10 (1.05-1.15) for ALD. These associations did not differ by HBV infection. In Chinese adults, diabetes and higher blood glucose levels among those without known diabetes are associated with increased risks of liver cancer and major chronic liver diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Global epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-Meta-analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Koenig, Aaron B; Abdelatif, Dinan; Fazel, Yousef; Henry, Linda; Wymer, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. We estimated the global prevalence, incidence, progression, and outcomes of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PubMed/MEDLINE were searched from 1989 to 2015 for terms involving epidemiology and progression of NAFLD. Exclusions included selected groups (studies that exclusively enrolled morbidly obese or diabetics or pediatric) and no data on alcohol consumption or other liver diseases. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis, overall mortality, and liver-related mortality were determined. NASH required histological diagnosis. All studies were reviewed by three independent investigators. Analysis was stratified by region, diagnostic technique, biopsy indication, and study population. We used random-effects models to provide point estimates (95% confidence interval [CI]) of prevalence, incidence, mortality and incidence rate ratios, and metaregression with subgroup analysis to account for heterogeneity. Of 729 studies, 86 were included with a sample size of 8,515,431 from 22 countries. Global prevalence of NAFLD is 25.24% (95% CI: 22.10-28.65) with highest prevalence in the Middle East and South America and lowest in Africa. Metabolic comorbidities associated with NAFLD included obesity (51.34%; 95% CI: 41.38-61.20), type 2 diabetes (22.51%; 95% CI: 17.92-27.89), hyperlipidemia (69.16%; 95% CI: 49.91-83.46%), hypertension (39.34%; 95% CI: 33.15-45.88), and metabolic syndrome (42.54%; 95% CI: 30.06-56.05). Fibrosis progression proportion, and mean annual rate of progression in NASH were 40.76% (95% CI: 34.69-47.13) and 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06-0.12). HCC incidence among NAFLD patients was 0.44 per 1,000 person-years (range, 0.29-0.66). Liver-specific mortality and overall mortality among NAFLD and NASH were 0.77 per 1,000 (range, 0.33-1.77) and 11.77 per 1,000 person-years (range, 7.10-19.53) and 15.44 per 1,000 (range, 11.72-20.34) and 25.56 per 1,000 person

  2. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Yoav; Webb, Muriel; Cytter-Kuint, Ruth; Shteingart, Shimon; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation and follow up of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis have been traditionally performed by liver biopsy. However, during the last 20 years, it has become evident that this “gold-standard” is imperfect; even according to its proponents, it is only “the best” among available methods. Attempts at uncovering non-invasive diagnostic tools have yielded multiple scores, formulae, and imaging modalities. All are better tolerated, safer, more acceptable to the patient, and can be repeated essentially as often as required. Most are much less expensive than liver biopsy. Consequently, their use is growing, and in some countries the number of biopsies performed, at least for routine evaluation of hepatitis B and C, has declined sharply. However, the accuracy and diagnostic value of most, if not all, of these methods remains controversial. In this review for the practicing physician, we analyze established and novel biomarkers and physical techniques. We may be witnessing in recent years the beginning of the end of the first phase for the development of non-invasive markers. Early evidence suggests that they might be at least as good as liver biopsy. Novel experimental markers and imaging techniques could produce a dramatic change in diagnosis in the near future. PMID:26556987

  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diet and gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a severe liver disease that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity and its related insulin-resistance state. Evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in energy storage and the subsequent development of obesity and some of its related diseases is now well established. More recently, a new role of gut microbiota has emerged in NAFLD. The gut microbiota is involved in gut permeability, low-grade inflammation and immune balance, it modulates dietary choline metabolism, regulates bile acid metabolism and produces endogenous ethanol. All of these factors are molecular mechanisms by which the microbiota can induce NAFLD or its progression toward overt non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Modification of the gut microbiota composition and/or its biochemical capacity by specific dietary or pharmacological interventions may advantageously affect host metabolism. Large-scale intervention trials, investigating the potential benefit of prebiotics and probiotics in improving cardiometabolic health in high-risk populations, are fervently awaited. PMID:26417275

  4. Glycosyltransferases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yu-Tao; Su, Hai-Ying; An, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of NAFLD are still not fully understood. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are a diverse class of enzymes involved in catalyzing the transfer of one or multiple sugar residues to a wide range of acceptor molecules. GTs mediate a wide range of functions from structure and storage to signaling, and play a key role in many fundamental biological processes. Therefore, it is anticipated that GTs have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this article, we present an overview of the basic information on NAFLD, particularly GTs and glycosylation modification of certain molecules and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis. In addition, the effects and mechanisms of some GTs in the development of NAFLD are summarized. PMID:26937136

  5. PNPLA3 genotype increases susceptibility of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis among obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chi-Ming; Huang, Chih-Kun; Tu, Hung-Pin; Hwang, Jau-Chung; Chang, Chi-Yang; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2015-01-01

    The patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 variant is associated with histologic disease severity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, whether the PNPLA3 genotype has an effect on susceptibility of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from NAFLD among severely obese patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the PNPLA3 genotype on NASH in severely obese Asian patients with NAFLD. The PNPLA3 rs738409 genotype was determined in 181 severely obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. The diagnosis of NASH and the NAFLD activity score (NAS) were determined by liver histopathology. Of the 181 patients, 29 (16.0%), 60 (33.2%), and 92 (50.8%) were in the non-NAFLD, steatosis, and NASH groups, respectively. The PNPLA3 rs738409 GG genotype was associated with higher liver enzymes and a higher risk for NASH (odds ratio [OR], 3.72; 95% CI, 1.25-11.05). The GG genotype was also associated with histologic severity of NAFLD, including higher steatosis grade (OR, 9.94; 95% CI, 2.20-44.83 for patients with grade 3 steatosis) and NAS (OR, 11.49; 95% CI, 2.50-52.83 for patients with a NAS ≥5). Finally, multiple logistic regression also showed that the GG genotype was an independent risk factor for NASH (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.15-11.12) in NAFLD patients. The PNPLA3 rs738409 GG genotype increases susceptibility of NASH in severely obese Asians with NAFLD and correlates to histologic severity of NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Usefulness of granular BCAA after hepatectomy for liver cancer complicated with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Togo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kuniya; Morioka, Daisuke; Sugita, Mitsutaka; Ueda, Michio; Miura, Yasuhiko; Kubota, Toru; Nagano, Yasuhiko; Matsuo, Kenichi; Endo, Itaru; Sekido, Hitoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Nutritional disturbances such as ascites and hypoalbuminemia frequently arise after hepatectomy for liver cancer with liver cirrhosis. We examined the possibility of maintaining a favorable state of nutrition by outpatient administration of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules. Forty-three patients who had gross liver cirrhosis complicated by liver cancer and underwent surgery up to May 2002 were given BCAA granules (n = 21, BCAA group) or no granules (n = 22, control group). 1) Background details such as age, sex, surgical technique, blood loss, and duration of surgery showed no significant differences. 2) Among objective findings, improvement of ascites and edema tended to occur sooner in the BCAA group, but without a significant difference. 3) Although serum albumin recovered its preoperative value 9 mo after surgery in the control group, only 6 mo was required for recovery in the BCAA group. Total protein showed similar changes, but neither group showed any difference in changes of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase, or platelets. 4) One year postoperatively, the change from the preoperative indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min after intravenous administration tended to be worse in the control group, but not significantly so. 5) In the BCAA group, hyaluronic acid and type IV collagen 7S improved significantly sooner than in the control group. BCAA supplementation after hepatectomy promotes rapid improvement in protein metabolism and inhibits progression to liver cirrhosis. Administration of BCAA after hepatectomy is considered beneficial to a patient's nutritional state.

  7. PNPLA3 I148M variant in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: demographic and ethnic characteristics and the role of the variant in nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Zhen; Xin, Yong-Ning; Geng, Ning; Jiang, Man; Zhang, Ding-Ding; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-21

    Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3 or adiponutrin) displays anabolic and catabolic activities in lipid metabolism, and has been reported to be significantly associated with liver fat content. Various studies have established a strong link between the 148 isoleucine to methionine protein variant (I148M) of PNPLA3 and liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, detailed demographic and ethnic characteristics of the I148M variant and its role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the association between the PNPLA3 I148M variant and NAFLD, and especially its role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis. First, we analyze the impact of demographic and ethnic characteristics of the PNPLA3 I148M variant and the presence of metabolic syndrome on the association between PNPLA3 I148M and NAFLD. Then, we explore the role of the PNPLA3 I148M in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis, and hypothesize the underlying mechanisms by speculating a pro-fibrogenic network. Finally, we briefly highlight future research that may elucidate the specific mechanisms of the PNPLA3 I148M variant in fibrogenesis, which, in turn, provides a theoretical foundation and valuable experimental data for the clinical management of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis.

  8. PNPLA3 I148M variant in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Demographic and ethnic characteristics and the role of the variant in nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Zhen; Xin, Yong-Ning; Geng, Ning; Jiang, Man; Zhang, Ding-Ding; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3 or adiponutrin) displays anabolic and catabolic activities in lipid metabolism, and has been reported to be significantly associated with liver fat content. Various studies have established a strong link between the 148 isoleucine to methionine protein variant (I148M) of PNPLA3 and liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, detailed demographic and ethnic characteristics of the I148M variant and its role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the association between the PNPLA3 I148M variant and NAFLD, and especially its role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis. First, we analyze the impact of demographic and ethnic characteristics of the PNPLA3 I148M variant and the presence of metabolic syndrome on the association between PNPLA3 I148M and NAFLD. Then, we explore the role of the PNPLA3 I148M in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis, and hypothesize the underlying mechanisms by speculating a pro-fibrogenic network. Finally, we briefly highlight future research that may elucidate the specific mechanisms of the PNPLA3 I148M variant in fibrogenesis, which, in turn, provides a theoretical foundation and valuable experimental data for the clinical management of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis. PMID:25624712

  9. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Management: Dietary and Lifestyle Modifications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vi; George, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities that can range from bland liver fat (steatosis), to hepatic inflammation and liver injury (steatohepatitis). It is estimated that NAFLD will become the principal cause of liver disease in Western nations and the leading indication for liver transplantation. Advancements in disease recognition and management are therefore paramount. Although the development of new, reliable drug therapies is vital, lifestyle interventions remain the most effective treatment modality. In addition to weight loss as a primary measure of treatment success, there is growing recognition that other endpoints, including the prevention or delay of diabetes onset, reduced cardiovascular events, prevention of cancer, and improved overall mortality, are equally important outcomes that can be independently modified by lifestyle change. Moreover, NAFLD is inextricably part of a complex, systemic disease process that is linked with deeply entrenched maladaptive lifestyle behaviors. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and individualized approach to disease management will be the key to achieving any realistic population-level change. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. The spleen in liver cirrhosis: revisiting an old enemy with novel targets.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Duan, Mubing; Chen, Weisan; Jiang, An; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Jun; Li, Zongfang

    2017-05-23

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ which can influence the progression of multiple diseases, notably liver cirrhosis. In chronic liver diseases, splenomegaly and hypersplenism can manifest following the development of portal hypertension. These splenic abnormalities correlate with and have been postulated to facilitate the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis, although precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the literature to highlight the mechanistic contributions of splenomegaly and hypersplenism to the development of liver cirrhosis, focusing on three key aspects: hepatic fibrogenesis, hepatic immune microenvironment dysregulation and liver regeneration. We conclude with a discussion of the possible therapeutic strategies for modulating splenic abnormalities, including the novel potential usage of nanomedicine in non-surgically targetting splenic disorders for the treatment of liver cirrhosis.

  11. Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, Stanley; Huang, Shengyang; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Yu, Jun; Ahuja, Anil T.; Zhang, Yuan-ting; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2010-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that terahertz pulsed imaging is able to distinguish between rat tissues from different healthy organs. In this paper we report our measurements of healthy and cirrhotic liver tissues using terahertz reflection spectroscopy. The water content of the fresh tissue samples was also measured in order to investigate the correlations between the terahertz properties, water content, structural changes and cirrhosis. Finally, the samples were fixed in formalin to determine whether water was the sole source of image contrast in this study. We found that the cirrhotic tissue had a higher water content and absorption coefficient than the normal tissue and that even after formalin fixing there were significant differences between the normal and cirrhotic tissues' terahertz properties. Our results show that terahertz pulsed imaging can distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue due to differences in absorption originating from both water content and tissue structure.

  12. Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiaosen; Cirillo, Pietro; Sautin, Yuri; McCall, Shannon; Bruchette, James L; Diehl, Anna Mae; Johnson, Richard J; Abdelmalek, Manal F

    2008-06-01

    While the rise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) parallels the increase in obesity and diabetes, a significant increase in dietary fructose consumption in industrialized countries has also occurred. The increased consumption of high fructose corn syrup, primarily in the form of soft drinks, is linked with complications of the insulin resistance syndrome. Furthermore, the hepatic metabolism of fructose favors de novo lipogenesis and ATP depletion. We hypothesize that increased fructose consumption contributes to the development of NAFLD. A dietary history and paired serum and liver tissue were obtained from patients with evidence of biopsy-proven NAFLD (n=49) without cirrhosis and controls (n=24) matched for gender, age (+/-5 years), and body mass index (+/-3 points). Consumption of fructose in patients with NAFLD was nearly 2- to 3-fold higher than controls [365 kcal vs 170 kcal (p<0.05)]. In patients with NAFLD (n=6), hepatic mRNA expression of fructokinase (KHK), an important enzyme for fructose metabolism, and fatty acid synthase, an important enzyme for lipogenesis were increased (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively). In an AML hepatocyte cell line, fructose resulted in dose-dependent increase in KHK protein and activity. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the development of NAFLD may be associated with excessive dietary fructose consumption.

  13. Impact of physical and psychological factors on health-related quality of life in adult patients with liver cirrhosis: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Polis, Suzanne; Fernandez, Ritin

    2015-01-01

    What is the impact of physical and psychological factors on health-related quality of life in adult patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis? All chronic liver diseases stimulate a degree of repetitive hepatocyte injury that alters the normal liver architecture and ends in cirrhosis.Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to livercirrhosis are a major public health burden, reporting increasing mortality and morbidity both in Australia and globally.The four leading causes of cirrhosis include harmful alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis B and C and metabolic syndromes related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity.A cirrhotic liver is characterized by the presence of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands that inhibit the passing of molecules between blood and functional units of liver hepatocytes, leading to liver dysfunction.Additionally, the presence of fibrous bands disrupts the normal vascular architecture, increasing resistance within the liver sinusoids and contributing to increased portal vein pressure.The early stages of cirrhosis are referred to as compensated liver disease with no reported symptoms or evidence of impaired liver function.However, the signs and symptoms of liver failure, as well as the mortality rate, increase as the severity of cirrhosis increases.Transition from compensated to decompensated cirrhosis is marked by one or more physiological changes. The physiological changes include increased portal vein pressure, impaired synthetic function, electrolyte imbalance and malnourishment.These physiological changes trigger the development of physical signs and symptoms and impact on the psychological wellbeing of the individual living with cirrhosis. The physical signs and symptoms include esophageal varices, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, jaundice, irregular sleep patterns, muscle cramps, pruritus, fatigue, impaired mobility, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort, gastrointestinal symptoms, change of body

  14. One-Year Mortality after Traumatic Brain Injury in Liver Cirrhosis Patients—A Ten-Year Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chieh-Yang; Ho, Chung-Han; Wang, Che-Chuan; Liang, Fu-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chio, Chung-Ching; Chang, Chin-Hung; Kuo, Jinn-Rung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the 1-year mortality of patients who underwent brain surgery following traumatic brain injury (TBI) who also had alcoholic and/or nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis (LC) using a nationwide database in Taiwan. A longitudinal cohort study matched by propensity score with age, gender, length of ICU stay, HTN, DM, MI, stroke, HF, renal diseases, and year of TBI diagnosis in TBI patients with alcoholic and/or nonalcoholic LC and TBI patients without LC was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between January 1997 and December 2007. The main outcome studied was 1-year mortality. In total, 7296 subjects (2432 TBI patients with LC and 4864 TBI patients without LC) were enrolled in this study. The main findings were (1) TBI patients with LC had a higher 1-year mortality (52.18% vs 30.61%) and a 1.75-fold increased risk of mortality (95% CI 1.61–1.90) compared with non-LC TBI patients, (2) renal diseases and HF are risk factors, but hypertension could be a protective factor in cirrhotic TBI patients, and (3) TBI patients with non-alcoholic LC and the coexistence of alcoholic and nonalcoholic LC had higher 1-year mortality compared with TBI patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. This study showed that patients with LC who have undergone brain surgery might have higher risk of 1-year mortality than those without LC. In addition, nonalcoholic and the coexistence of alcoholic and nonalcoholic LC show higher 1-year mortality risk than alcoholic in TBI patients with LC, especially in those with comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke. PMID:26448001

  15. Molecular pathogenesis and clinical consequences of iron overload in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, Katarzyna; Bernat, Agnieszka; Wroblewska, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The liver, as the main iron storage compartment and the place of hepcidin synthesis, is the central organ involved in maintaining iron homeostasis in the body. Excessive accumulation of iron is an important risk factor in liver disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we review the literature on the molecular pathogenesis of iron overload and its clinical consequences in chronic liver diseases. PubMed was searched for English-language articles on molecular genesis of primary and secondary iron overload, as well as on their association with liver disease progression. We have also included literature on adjuvant therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate detrimental effects of excessive body iron load in liver cirrhosis. Excess of free, unbound iron induces oxidative stress, increases cell sensitivity to other detrimental factors, and can directly affect cellular signaling pathways, resulting in accelerated liver disease progression. Diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is, in turn, often associated with the identification of a pathological accumulation of iron, even in the absence of genetic background of hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron depletion and adjuvant therapy with antioxidants are shown to cause significant improvement of liver functions in patients with iron overload. Phlebotomy can have beneficial effects on liver histology in patients with excessive iron accumulation combined with compensated liver cirrhosis of different etiology. Excessive accumulation of body iron in liver cirrhosis is an important predictor of liver failure and available data suggest that it can be considered as target for adjuvant therapy in this condition.

  16. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  17. An update on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most overwhelming liver disease in Asia. In consideration of its increasing medical and economic impact on Asian people, it is time for us to review the update data in Asian countries and formulate strategies to cope with this emerging health problem in Asia. Moreover, growing data indicates that NAFLD may be a systemic disease, not just confined to liver-specific morbidity and mortality, but also associated with several extra-hepatic manifestations, such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal diseases, and malignancy. As the co-occurrence of NAFLD and viral hepatitis is common in Asia, issues related to the impact of NAFLD on the clinical outcomes and management of viral hepatitis remain to be elucidated. Areas covered: In this article, a narrative review was conducted, searching for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database till August 2016. Studies relevant to the emerging data of NAFLD in Asia, including the diagnosis, risk factors, the assessment and management of Asian NAFLD patients were examined and discussed. Expert commentary: Collaboration in Asian countries to develop an effective and practical measurement to assess the severity of NAFLD is urgently required.

  18. Role of folate in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sid, Victoria; Siow, Yaw L; O, Karmin

    2017-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of chronic liver conditions that are characterized by steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and liver injury. The global prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing in proportion to the rising incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because NAFLD is a multifaceted disorder with many underlying metabolic abnormalities, currently, there is no pharmacological agent that is therapeutically approved for the treatment of this disease. Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin that plays an essential role in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in nucleic acid biosynthesis, methylation reactions, and sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism. The liver is the primary organ responsible for storage and metabolism of folates. Low serum folate levels have been observed in patients with obesity and diabetes. It has been reported that a low level of endogenous folates in rodents perturbs folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism, and may be associated with development of metabolic diseases such as NAFLD. This review highlights the biological role of folate in the progression of NAFLD and its associated metabolic complications including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Understanding the role of folate in metabolic disease may position this vitamin as a potential therapeutic for NAFLD.

  19. Association between complicated liver cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Liang, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Tai, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Kai-Lung; Ku, Ming-Kun; Wang, Jiunn-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Lun; Yuan, Lan-Ting; Nguang, Seng-Howe; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, and variceal bleeding are the three major complications of cirrhosis. It is well known that cirrhosis is the most important risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about whether the severity of liver cirrhosis has an effect on the incidence of HCC. This population-based cohort study aimed to explore the association between complicated cirrhosis and HCC, and identify the risk factors of HCC in patients with complicated cirrhosis. Data of the years 1997-2011 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. A total of 2568 patients with complicated cirrhosis without HCC at baseline were enrolled. After propensity score matching, another 2568 patients with non-complicated cirrhosis were included. Hazards Cox regression analysis by using a competing risk regression model to control for possible confounding factors was utilized to estimate the association of the complications of liver cirrhosis with the risk of HCC. We observed by using competing risk analysis that the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for developing HCC during the follow-up period after the initial hospitalization was higher among the patients with baseline complicated cirrhosis than in those with uncomplicated cirrhosis (HR, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.10-1.37, p<0.001). Additionally, older patients (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02, p<0.001), males (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.96, p = 0.009), and patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.65-2.26, p<0.001) had a statistically significant difference in the incidence of HCC. In conclusion, complicated liver cirrhosis is associated with a higher risk of HCC in Taiwan compared with cirrhosis without complications.

  20. [Research advances in indices and methods for nutritional status evaluation in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Zhang, L

    2017-03-20

    In recent years, malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis has been taken more and more seriously in clinical physicians, and patients' nutritional status is closely associated with prognosis. At present, there are many methods for the evaluation of nutritional status in patients with liver cirrhosis, but there are still no unified standards. This article reviews the common evaluation indices and methods used in clinical practice in China and foreign countries, in order to provide a basis for accurately evaluating nutritional status and guiding nutritional therapy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  1. Dietary habits and behaviors associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Manabu; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of health problems in Western (industrialized) countries. Moreover, the incidence of infantile NAFLD is increasing, with some of these patients progressing to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. These trends depend on dietary habits and life-style. In particular, overeating and its associated obesity affect the development of NAFLD. Nutritional problems in patients with NAFLD include excess intake of energy, carbohydrates, and lipids, and shortages of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Although nutritional therapeutic approaches are required for prophylaxis and treatment of NAFLD, continuous nutrition therapy is difficult for many patients because of their dietary habits and lifestyle, and because the motivation for treatment differs among patients. Thus, it is necessary to assess the nutritional background and to identify nutritional problems in each patient with NAFLD. When assessing dietary habits, it is important to individually evaluate those that are consumed excessively or insufficiently, as well as inappropriate eating behaviors. Successful nutrition therapy requires patient education, based on assessments of individual nutrients, and continuing the treatment. In this article, we update knowledge about NAFLD, review the important aspects of nutritional assessment targeting treatment success, and present some concrete nutritional care plans which can be applied generally. PMID:24587653

  2. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): new challenge for general practitioners and important burden for health authorities?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed H; Abu, Emmanuel O; Byrne, Christopher D

    2010-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of hepatic dysfunction encountered in general practice. A large proportion of individuals with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome develop NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with severe insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and can progress to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and cancer. Currently the only known effective treatments for NAFLD are lifestyle changes including stable weight loss and a diet low in calories. General practitioners will increasingly play a key role in dealing with this evolving but serious epidemic of NAFLD and associated metabolic complications. However, success will depend on the appropriate systems and mechanisms being in place in primary care and the proper motivation, support and education of the patient. This review provides the primary care physician with: (a) a step-by step guide of how to identify NAFLD, (b) information to exclude common other causes of liver fat accumulation and (c) additional insight into relationships between NAFLD and other conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is cryptogenic cirrhosis different from NASH cirrhosis?

    PubMed

    Thuluvath, Paul J; Kantsevoy, Sergey; Thuluvath, Avesh J; Savva, Yulia

    2018-03-01

    We hypothesized that patients currently diagnosed with cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) have truly 'cryptogenic' liver disease, which is unlikely to have evolved from NASH. The aim of this study is to characterize patients with CC, and compare their characteristics to patients with cirrhosis of other etiologies. To investigate this, we compared the clinical characteristics of adults with CC (n = 7,999) to those with cirrhosis caused by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 11,302), alcohol (n = 21,714) and autoimmune hepatitis (n = 3,447), using the UNOS database from 2002-16. We performed an age, gender and year of listing matched comparison of CC and NASH (n = 7,201 in each group), and also stratified patients by the presence of obesity or diabetes mellitus (DM). From 2002 to 2016, patients listed with a diagnosis of NASH increased from about 1% to 16% while CC decreased from 8% to 4%. A logistic regression model using the entire United Network for Organ Sharing data (n = 138,021) suggested that the strongest predictors of NASH were type 2 DM, obesity, age ≥60 years, female gender and white race. Type 2 DM was more common in patients with NASH (53%) than those with CC (29%), alcoholic cirrhosis (16%) and autoimmune hepatitis (16%), and obesity was more common in NASH (65.3%) compared to the other three groups (33-42%). There were more white individuals (82.3%) in the NASH group and a lower prevalence of black, Hispanic and Asian individuals, compared to the other three groups. Hepatocellular carcinoma was more commonly seen in NASH (19% vs. 9-13% in the other groups) and this is not influenced by obesity and type 2 DM. The differences between CC and NASH remained unchanged even when two groups were matched for age, gender and year of listing, or when stratified by the presence or absence of obesity or type 2DM. Based on risk perspectives, CC should not be equated with the term 'NASH cirrhosis'. We hypothesized that cryptogenic cirrhosis

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-07-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD.

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD. PMID:25024594

  6. Liver cirrhosis in selected autoimmune diseases: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chien-Hsueh; Lai, Ning-Seng; Lu, Ming-Chi; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-02-01

    The association between autoimmune diseases and liver cirrhosis has rarely been explored in Asian populations, an endemic area of viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative risk of liver cirrhosis among a group of selective autoimmune diseases in Taiwanese patients and to identify groups of high risk. This retrospective study was a nationwide, population-based study and used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 29,856 patients with definite diagnosis of selected autoimmune diseases (Registry of Taiwan Catastrophic Illness Database, ACR classification) at the starting time point of January 1, 2005, were enrolled in this study. After tracked for a 5-year period, the endpoints were diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (in accordance with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, ICD-9-CM codes 571). The control group was composed of other patients in the same database and consisted of randomly selected 753,495 sex- and age-matched non-autoimmune disease patients. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the risk of liver cirrhosis after adjusting for certain variables such as comorbidity, living area, and socioeconomic status. Among the patients with selected autoimmune diseases, 1987 liver cirrhosis were observed. Patients with psoriasis had a significantly increased risk of liver cirrhosis (HR 1.87, 95 % CI 1.25-2.81) than control group without psoriasis. The risk of liver cirrhosis was significantly lower in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (HR 0.29, 95 % CI 0.19-0.44). There is a gradient of risk of liver cirrhosis among the autoimmune diseases; the specific risks need to be investigated on the basis of hypotheses. Conventional immunosuppressive drug administration should be carefully implemented by regular monitoring of liver condition in order to avoid causing an adverse effect of chronic liver fibrosis.

  7. The evaluation of hepatic fibrosis scores in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Sana; Yerian, Lisa; Kohli, Rohit; Xanthakos, Stavra; Angulo, Paul; Ling, Simon; Lopez, Rocio; Christine, Carter-Kent; Feldstein, Ariel E; Alkhouri, Naim

    2015-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and can progress to liver cirrhosis during childhood. Patients with more advanced fibrosis on biopsy tend to have more liver complications. Noninvasive hepatic fibrosis scores have been developed for adult patients with NAFLD; however, these scores have not been validated in children. The aim of our study was to evaluate some of these scores in assessing the presence of fibrosis in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Our study consisted of 92 biopsy-proven NAFLD children from five major US centers. Fibrosis was determined by an experienced pathologist (F0-4). Clinically significant fibrosis was defined as fibrosis stage ≥ 2, and advanced fibrosis was defined as F3-4. The following fibrosis scores were calculated for each child: AST/ALT ratio, AST/platelet ratio index (APRI), NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), and FIB-4 index. ROC was performed to assess the performance of different scores for prediction of presence of any, significant, or advanced fibrosis. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean age was 13.3 ± 3 years, and 33 % were females. Eleven (12 %) subjects had no fibrosis, 35 (38 %) had fibrosis score of 1, 26 (28 %) had fibrosis score of 2, and 20 (22 %) had a score of 3. APRI had a fair diagnostic accuracy for the presence of any fibrosis (AUC of 0.80) and poor diagnostic accuracy for significant or advanced fibrosis. AST/ALT, NFS, and FIB-4 index all either had poor diagnostic accuracy or failed to diagnose the presence of any, significant, or advanced fibrosis. Noninvasive hepatic fibrosis scores developed in adults had poor performance in diagnosing significant fibrosis in children with NAFLD. Our results highlight the urgent need to develop a reliable pediatric fibrosis score.

  8. Potential strategies to improve uptake of exercise interventions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Frith, James; Day, Christopher P; Robinson, Lisa; Elliott, Chris; Jones, David E J; Newton, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    The management of non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) concerns lifestyle modification and exercise; however, adherence is poor. Factors such as lack of confidence to exercise, poor understanding of the benefits of exercise, and a fear of falling all influence engagement in physical activity. To increase exercise in NAFLD it is important to understand the barriers to performing it. Three chronic liver disease cohorts were identified from the Newcastle Liver Database: NAFLD (n=230), alcoholic liver disease (ALD, n=110) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, n=97). Assessment tools were completed by all subjects: Outcome Expectation for Exercise Scale (OEES, understanding the benefits of exercise, lower scores indicate greater understanding), Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEES, confidence to exercise), Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I, higher scores indicate greater fear of falling). Activity was analysed from a functional perspective using the PROMIS-HAQ. Understanding the benefits of exercise was similar across each group [median OEES scores: NAFLD 2.38 (range 0.0-5.0), ALD 2.25 (0.0-5.0), PBC 2.28 (1.0-5.0), p=0.6]. In NAFLD confidence to exercise was significantly lower [median SEES score 0.0 (0.0-10.0), PBC 4.5 (0.0-10.0), p<0.001]. Fear of falling was similar in NAFLD and PBC, and greatest in ALD [22 (0-64), 22 (3-64), 30 (0-64), p=0.044]. In NAFLD, fear of falling was independently associated with increasing difficulty performing activity. NAFLD patients understand the benefits of exercise but lack confidence to perform it. Fear of falling was independently associated with more difficulty performing activity. Fear of falling and confidence are modifiable and potential targets to improve uptake and adherence for exercise intervention.

  9. Hypogonadism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mintziori, Gesthimani; Poulakos, Pavlos; Tsametis, Christos; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more common in men than in women. Thus, it has been suggested that sex steroids do have a role in the development of NAFLD. The aim of the current paper is to illustrate the association between NAFLD and hypogonadism, by reviewing data derived from both human and animal studies. The prevalence of NAFLD is high in men with hypogonadism, including those with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), as well as in women in post-menopause, those under estrogen receptor antagonist treatment or women with Turner syndrome. Estrogens seem to play a pivotal role in hepatic lipid homeostasis, as demonstrated in animal models with diminished ovarian estrogens (i.e., ovariectomized mice) and low serum testosterone (T) concentration is independently associated with NAFLD. The elucidation of the exact role of sex steroids in NAFLD pathogenesis would create a unique opportunity to develop novel therapies to tackle NAFLD disease.

  10. Iron overload and HFE gene mutations in Polish patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, Katarzyna; Romanowski, Tomasz; Stalke, Piotr; Iżycka-Świeszewska, Ewa; Bielawski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2011-06-01

    Increased liver iron stores may contribute to the progression of liver injury and fibrosis, and are associated with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development. Pre-transplant symptoms of iron overload in patients with liver cirrhosis are associated with higher risk of infectious and malignant complications in liver transplant recipients. HFE gene mutations may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver iron overload and influence the progression of chronic liver diseases of different origins. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of iron overload in relation to HFE gene mutations among Polish patients with liver cirrhosis. Sixty-one patients with liver cirrhosis included in the study were compared with a control group of 42 consecutive patients subjected to liver biopsy because of chronic liver diseases. Liver function tests and serum iron markers were assessed in both groups. All patients were screened for HFE mutations (C282Y, H63D, S65C). Thirty-six of 61 patients from the study group and all controls had liver biopsy performed with semiquantitative assessment of iron deposits in hepatocytes. The biochemical markers of iron overload and iron deposits in the liver were detected with a higher frequency (70% and 47% respectively) in patients with liver cirrhosis. There were no differences in the prevalence of all HFE mutations in both groups. In patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, no significant associations with iron disorders and HFE gene mutations were found. Iron disorders were detected in patients with liver cirrhosis frequently but without significant association with HFE gene mutations. Only the homozygous C282Y mutation seems to occur more frequently in the selected population of patients with liver cirrhosis. As elevated biochemical iron indices accompanied liver iron deposits more frequently in liver cirrhosis compared to controls with chronic liver disease, there is a need for more extensive studies searching for

  11. Risk factors for hepatic steatosis in adults with cystic fibrosis: Similarities to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Fares; Trillo-Alvarez, Cesar; Morelli, Giuseppe; Lascano, Jorge

    2018-01-27

    To investigate the clinical, biochemical and imaging characteristics of adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with hepatic steatosis as compared to normal CF controls. We performed a retrospective review of adult CF patients in an academic outpatient setting during 2016. Baseline characteristics, genetic mutation analysis as well as laboratory values were collected. Abdominal imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) was used to determine presence of hepatic steatosis. We compare patients with hepatic steatosis to normal controls. Data was collected on 114 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Seventeen patients (14.9%) were found to have hepatic steatosis on imaging. Being overweight (BMI > 25) ( P = 0.019) and having a higher ppFEV1 (75 vs 53, P = 0.037) were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis. Patients with hepatic steatosis had a significantly higher median alanine aminotransferase level (27 vs 19, P = 0.048). None of the hepatic steatosis patients had frank CF liver disease, cirrhosis or portal hypertension. We found no significant association with pancreatic insufficiency or CF related diabetes. Hepatic steatosis appears to be a clinically and phenotypically distinct entity from CF liver disease. The lack of association with malnourishment and the significant association with higher BMI and higher ppFEV1 demonstrate similarities with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Long term prospective studies are needed to ascertain whether CF hepatic steatosis progresses to fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  12. Risk factors for hepatic steatosis in adults with cystic fibrosis: Similarities to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Fares; Trillo-Alvarez, Cesar; Morelli, Giuseppe; Lascano, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    AIM To investigate the clinical, biochemical and imaging characteristics of adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with hepatic steatosis as compared to normal CF controls. METHODS We performed a retrospective review of adult CF patients in an academic outpatient setting during 2016. Baseline characteristics, genetic mutation analysis as well as laboratory values were collected. Abdominal imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) was used to determine presence of hepatic steatosis. We compare patients with hepatic steatosis to normal controls. RESULTS Data was collected on 114 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Seventeen patients (14.9%) were found to have hepatic steatosis on imaging. Being overweight (BMI > 25) (P = 0.019) and having a higher ppFEV1 (75 vs 53, P = 0.037) were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis. Patients with hepatic steatosis had a significantly higher median alanine aminotransferase level (27 vs 19, P = 0.048). None of the hepatic steatosis patients had frank CF liver disease, cirrhosis or portal hypertension. We found no significant association with pancreatic insufficiency or CF related diabetes. CONCLUSION Hepatic steatosis appears to be a clinically and phenotypically distinct entity from CF liver disease. The lack of association with malnourishment and the significant association with higher BMI and higher ppFEV1 demonstrate similarities with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Long term prospective studies are needed to ascertain whether CF hepatic steatosis progresses to fibrosis and cirrhosis. PMID:29399276

  13. Microbiota and the liver.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ting-Chin David; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos; Rustgi, Vinod K

    2018-04-01

    The gut microbiome outnumbers the human genome by 150-fold and plays important roles in metabolism, immune system education, tolerance development, and prevention of pathogen colonization. Dysbiosis has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as cirrhosis and complications. This article provides an overview of this relationship. Liver Transplantation 24 539-550 2018 AASLD. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Infections in patients affected by liver cirrhosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Ascione, Tiziana; Di Flumeri, Giusy; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis present an increased incidence of infections. The main cause has been founded in alterations of the enteric flora and of the intestinal barrier probably due to portal hypertension, in addition to a reticulo-endothelial system dysfunction. Furthermore, those living with cirrhosis can report a high predisposition to sepsis and septic shock, due to the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a complessive hemodynamic derangement. By the analysis in the experimental model of the cirrhotic rat, it was demonstrated that radio-labelled Escherichia coli given by the oral route resulted in the location of the bacteria in the gut, the ascitic fluid and mesenteric lymph nodes, a phenomenon known as bacterial translocation. Bacteria encountered with the highest frequency are those colonizing the intestinal tract, such as E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacteriaceae, intracellular bacteria and parasites are reported with a lower frequency. Multi-drug resistant bacteria are cultured with the highest frequency in those with frequent hospitalisations and report both high septic shock and mortality rates. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the commonest infection in cirrhotic, estimated to occur in 10-30% of the cases with ascites. A practical approach may include administration of a protected penicillin, III generation cephalosporin or quinolones in uncomplicated cases. Instead, in complicated cases and in nosocomial SBP, administration of cephalosporin or quinolones can be burned by the high resistance rate and drugs active against ESBL-producing bacteria and multi-drug resistant Gram positive bacteria have to be considered as empiric therapy, until cultures are available. When cultures are not readily available and patients fail to improve a repeated diagnostic paracentesis should be performed. Current investigations suggest that norfloxacin 400 mg/day orally has been reported to successfully prevent SBP in patients

  15. Systematic review: microbial dysbiosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Wieland, A; Frank, D N; Harnke, B; Bambha, K

    2015-11-01

    The human intestinal microbiota is a key regulator of host metabolic and immune functions and alterations in the microbiome ('dysbiosis') have been implicated in several human diseases. Because of the anatomical links between the intestines and the liver, dysbiosis may also disrupt hepatic function and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To perform a comprehensive review of the medical literature investigating associations between intestinal dysbiosis and NAFLD, with a particular emphasis on studies that characterise the microbiome in NAFLD. We conducted a search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science using multiple search terms including: 'NAFLD, NASH, fatty liver, steatohepatitis' combined with 'metagenome, microbiom*, microbiota*, fecal flora, intestinal flora, gut bacteria'. Results were manually reviewed and studies selected based on relevance to intestinal microbiota and NAFLD. We also included studies that addressed potential mechanistic models of pathways linking the dysbiosis to NAFLD. Nine studies (five human and four animal models) were identified in our search that assessed associations between specific intestinal microbiota composition and NAFLD. We reviewed and summarised the results of additional investigations that more broadly addressed the mechanisms by which the microbiome may impact NAFLD pathogenesis. Investigations in humans and animals demonstrate associations between intestinal dysbiosis and NAFLD; however, causality has not been proven and mechanistic links require further delineation. As the field of microbiome research matures in techniques and study design, more detailed insights into NAFLD pathogenesis and its associations with the intestinal microbiota will be elucidated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genetic background in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Maida, Marcello; Petta, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In the Western world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as one of the most significant liver diseases of the twenty-first century. Its development is certainly driven by environmental factors, but it is also regulated by genetic background. The role of heritability has been widely demonstrated by several epidemiological, familial, and twin studies and case series, and likely reflects the wide inter-individual and inter-ethnic genetic variability in systemic metabolism and wound healing response processes. Consistent with this idea, genome-wide association studies have clearly identified Patatin-like phosholipase domain-containing 3 gene variant I148M as a major player in the development and progression of NAFLD. More recently, the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 E167K variant emerged as a relevant contributor in both NAFLD pathogenesis and cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, numerous case-control studies have been performed to elucidate the potential role of candidate genes in the pathogenesis and progression of fatty liver, although findings are sometimes contradictory. Accordingly, we performed a comprehensive literature search and review on the role of genetics in NAFLD. We emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of the available literature and outline the putative role of each genetic variant in influencing susceptibility and/or progression of the disease. PMID:26494964

  17. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-09-06

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes. In support of these mechanisms, fructose intake increases hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL and raises plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in humans. However, epidemiological and fructose-intervention studies have had inconclusive results with respect to liver fat, and there is currently no good human evidence that fructose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts, causes more liver fat accumulation than other energy-dense nutrients. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the seemingly contradicting literature on fructose and NAFLD. We outline fructose physiology, the mechanisms that link fructose to NAFLD, and the available evidence from human studies. From this framework, we conclude that the cellular mechanisms underlying hepatic fructose metabolism will likely reveal novel targets for the treatment of NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance. Finally, fructose-containing sugars are a major source of excess calories, suggesting that a reduction of their intake has potential for the prevention of NAFLD and other obesity-related diseases.

  18. Dysregulation of iron and copper homeostasis in nonalcoholic fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Aigner, Elmar; Weiss, Günter; Datz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Elevated iron stores as indicated by hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation and mostly mild hepatic iron deposition are a characteristic finding in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Excess iron is observed in approximately one third of NAFLD patients and is commonly referred to as the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome”. Clinical evidence suggests that elevated body iron stores aggravate the clinical course of NAFLD with regard to liver-related and extrahepatic disease complications which relates to the fact that excess iron catalyses the formation of toxic hydroxyl-radicals subsequently resulting in cellular damage. Iron removal improves insulin sensitivity, delays the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, improves pathologic liver function tests and likewise ameliorates NAFLD histology. Several mechanisms contribute to pathologic iron accumulation in NAFLD. These include impaired iron export from hepatocytes and mesenchymal Kupffer cells as a consequence of imbalances in the concentrations of iron regulatory factors, such as hepcidin, cytokines, copper or other dietary factors. This review summarizes the knowledge about iron homeostasis in NAFLD and the rationale for its therapeutic implications. PMID:25729473

  19. Risk factors for biopsy-proven advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y A; Gifford, E J; Glass, L M; McNeil, R; Turner, M J; Han, B; Provenzale, D; Choi, S S; Moylan, C A; Hunt, C M

    2018-01-01

    With its increasing incidence, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is of particular concern in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). To evaluate risk factors for advanced fibrosis in biopsy-proven NAFLD in the VHA, to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes. In randomly selected cases from VHA databases (2005-2015), we performed a retrospective case-control study in adults with biopsy-defined NAFLD or normal liver. Of 2091 patients reviewed, 399 met inclusion criteria. Normal controls (n = 65) had normal liver function. The four NAFLD cohorts included: NAFL steatosis (n = 76), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without fibrosis (n = 68), NAFLD/NASH stage 1-3 fibrosis (n = 82), and NAFLD/NASH cirrhosis (n = 70). NAFLD with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was separately identified (n = 38). Most patients were older White men. NAFLD patients with any fibrosis were on average severely obese (BMI>35 kg/m 2 ). Diabetes (54.4%-79.6%) and hypertension (85.8%-100%) were more common in NAFLD with fibrosis or HCC. Across NAFLD, 12.3%-19.5% were enrolled in diet/exercise programs and 0%-2.6% had bariatric surgery. Hispanics exhibited higher rates of NASH (20.6%), while Blacks had low NAFLD rates (1.4%-11.8%), particularly NAFLD cirrhosis and HCC (1.4%-2.6%). Diabetes (OR 11.8, P < .001) and BMI (OR 1.4, P < .001) were the most significant predictors of advanced fibrosis. In the VHA, diabetes and severe obesity increased risk for advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. Of these patients, only a small proportion (~20%) had enrolled in diet/exercise programs or had bariatric surgery (~2%). These results suggest that providers should focus/tailor interventions to improve outcomes, particularly in those with diabetes and severe obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Equivalent survival following liver transplantation in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared with patients with other liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher; Redden, David; Gray, Stephen; Eckhoff, Devin; Massoud, Omar; McGuire, Brendan; Alkurdi, Basem; Bloomer, Joseph; DuBay, Derek A

    2012-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing in parallel with the obesity epidemic. This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of LTs in NASH (n = 129) and non-NASH (n = 775) aetiologies carried out at a single centre between 1999 and 2009. Rates of 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival in NASH (90%, 88% and 85%, respectively) were comparable with those in non-NASH (92%, 86% and 80%, respectively) patients. Mortality within 4 months of LT was twice as high in NASH as in non-NASH patients (8.5% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.04). Compared with non-NASH patients, post-LT mortality in NASH patients was more commonly caused by infectious (38% vs. 26%; P < 0.05) or cardiac (19% vs. 7%; P < 0.05) aetiologies. Five-year survival was lower in NASH patients with a high-risk phenotype (age >60 years, body mass index >30 kg/m(2), with hypertension and diabetes) than in NASH patients without these characteristics (72% vs. 87%; P = 0.02). Subgroup analyses revealed that 5-year overall survival in NASH was equivalent to that in Laennec's cirrhosis (85% vs. 80%; P 0.87), but lower than that in cirrhosis of cryptogenic aetiology (85% vs. 96%; P = 0.04). Orthotopic LT in NASH was associated with increased early postoperative mortality, but 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were equivalent to those in non-NASH patients. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  1. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, to struggle with the strangle: Oxygen availability in fatty livers.

    PubMed

    Anavi, Sarit; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Oxygen is a central component of the cellular microenvironment, which participate in the regulation of cell survival, differentiation, functions and energy metabolism. Accordingly, sufficient oxygen supply is an important factor for tissue durability, mainly in highly metabolic tissues, such as the liver. Accumulating evidence from the past few decades provides strong support for the existence of interruptions in oxygen availability in fatty livers. This outcome may be the consequence of both, impaired systemic microcirculation and cellular membrane modifications which occur under steatotic conditions. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the main factors which can affect oxygen supply in fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Liver transplantation for HCV cirrhosis at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Gjertsen, H; Weiland, O; Oksanen, A; Söderdahl, G; Broomé, U; Ericzon, B-G

    2006-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced cirrhosis is the major indication for liver transplantation globally, and an increasing indication for liver transplantation in Sweden. We have retrospectively examined the 120 patients transplanted for HCV cirrhosis from 1987 through 2005, including 11 who received more than one graft. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year postoperative survivals for all patients transplanted for HCV with or without hepatocellular cancer (HCC) were 77%, 66%, and 53%, respectively. HCV patients without HCC had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals of 78%, 73%, and 61%, compared with 84%, 79% and 74%, respectively, for patients transplanted with chronic liver diseases without cancer or HCV. The number of patients with HCV cirrhosis transplanted in our center is increasing. Compared with patients transplanted for other chronic liver diseases, we experienced inferior results among patients with HCV cirrhosis.

  3. Doxorubicin coupled to lactosaminated albumin: Effects on rats with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, G; Fiume, L; Domenicali, M; Busi, C; Chieco, P; Kratz, F; Lanza, M; Mattioli, A; Pariali, M; Bernardi, M

    2006-06-01

    The conjugate of doxorubicin with lactosaminated human albumin has the potential of increasing the doxorubicin efficacy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas expressing the asialoglycoprotein receptor. However, coupled doxorubicin also accumulates in the liver, which might damage hepatocytes. To verify whether coupled doxorubicin impairs liver function in rats with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Coupled doxorubicin was administered using the same schedule which exerted an antineoplastic effect on rat hepatocellular carcinomas (4-weekly injections of doxorubicin at 1 microg/g). Liver fibrosis/cirrhosis was produced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) poisoning. Liver samples were studied histologically. Serum parameters of liver function and viability were determined. In normal rats, administration of coupled doxorubicin neither caused microscopic changes of hepatocytes nor modified serum liver parameters. In rats with fibrosis/cirrhosis, although a selective doxorubicin accumulation within the liver followed coupled doxorubicin administration, the drug did not have a detrimental effect on the histology of the liver and, among serum liver tests, only alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were moderately modified. Coupled doxorubicin can be administered to rats with liver fibrosis/cirrhosis without inducing a severe liver damage. If further studies will confirm the efficacy and safety of this compound, coupled doxorubicin therapy may open a new perspective in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Serum Liver Fibrosis Markers in the Prognosis of Liver Cirrhosis: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingshun; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yongguo; Hou, Yue; Ren, Linan; Wu, Chunyan; Chen, Jiang; Xia, Chunlian; Zhao, Jiajun; Wang, Di; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhang, Xia; Lin, Hao; Wang, Hezhi; Wang, Jinling; Cui, Zhongmin; Li, Xueyan; Deng, Han; Hou, Feifei; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xueying; Shao, Xiaodong; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-08-02

    BACKGROUND The prognostic role of serum liver fibrosis markers in cirrhotic patients remains unclear. We performed a prospective observational study to evaluate the effect of amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III pro-collagen (PIIINP), collagen IV (CIV), laminin (LN), and hyaluronic acid (HA) on the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS All patients who were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and admitted to our department were prospectively enrolled. PIIINP, CIV, LN, and HA levels were tested. RESULTS Overall, 108 cirrhotic patients were included. Correlation analysis demonstrated that CIV (coefficient r: 0.658, p<0.001; coefficient r: 0.368, p<0.001), LN (coefficient r: 0.450, p<0.001; coefficient r: 0.343, p<0.001), and HA (coefficient r: 0.325, p=0.001; coefficient r: 0.282, p=0.004) levels, but not PIIINP level (coefficient r: 0.081, p=0.414; coefficient r: 0.090, p=0.363), significantly correlated with Child-Pugh and MELD scores. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that HA (odds ratio=1.00003, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.000004-1.000056, p=0.022) was significantly associated with the 6-month mortality. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that the area under the curve (AUC) of HA for predicting the 6-month mortality was 0.612 (95%CI=0.508-0.709, p=0.1531). CONCLUSIONS CIV, LN, and HA levels were significantly associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, but might be inappropriate for the prognostic assessment of liver cirrhosis.

  5. Serum Liver Fibrosis Markers in the Prognosis of Liver Cirrhosis: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingshun; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yongguo; Hou, Yue; Ren, Linan; Wu, Chunyan; Chen, Jiang; Xia, Chunlian; Zhao, Jiajun; Wang, Di; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhang, Xia; Lin, Hao; Wang, Hezhi; Wang, Jinling; Cui, Zhongmin; Li, Xueyan; Deng, Han; Hou, Feifei; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xueying; Shao, Xiaodong; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic role of serum liver fibrosis markers in cirrhotic patients remains unclear. We performed a prospective observational study to evaluate the effect of amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III pro-collagen (PIIINP), collagen IV (CIV), laminin (LN), and hyaluronic acid (HA) on the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods All patients who were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and admitted to our department were prospectively enrolled. PIIINP, CIV, LN, and HA levels were tested. Results Overall, 108 cirrhotic patients were included. Correlation analysis demonstrated that CIV (coefficient r: 0.658, p<0.001; coefficient r: 0.368, p<0.001), LN (coefficient r: 0.450, p<0.001; coefficient r: 0.343, p<0.001), and HA (coefficient r: 0.325, p=0.001; coefficient r: 0.282, p=0.004) levels, but not PIIINP level (coefficient r: 0.081, p=0.414; coefficient r: 0.090, p=0.363), significantly correlated with Child-Pugh and MELD scores. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that HA (odds ratio=1.00003, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.000004–1.000056, p=0.022) was significantly associated with the 6-month mortality. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that the area under the curve (AUC) of HA for predicting the 6-month mortality was 0.612 (95%CI=0.508–0.709, p=0.1531). Conclusions CIV, LN, and HA levels were significantly associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, but might be inappropriate for the prognostic assessment of liver cirrhosis. PMID:27480906

  6. Updates on Dietary Models of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Current Studies and Insights

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kristen; Kennedy, Lindsey; Hargrove, Laura; Demieville, Jennifer; Thomson, Joanne; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease of increasing interest, as its prevalence is on the rise. NAFLD has been linked to metabolic syndrome, which is becoming more common due to the Western diet. Because NAFLD can lead to cirrhosis and related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma, the increasing prevalence is concerning, and medical therapy aimed at treating NAFLD is of great interest. Researchers studying the effects of medical therapy on NAFLD use dietary mouse models. The two main types of mouse model diets are the methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet and the Western-like diet (WD). Although both induce NAFLD, the mechanisms are very different. We reviewed several studies conducted within the last 5 years that used MCD diet or WD mouse models in order to mimic this disease in a way most similar to humans. The MCD diet inconsistently induces NAFLD and fibrosis and does not completely induce metabolic syndrome. Thus, the clinical significance of the MCD diet is questionable. In contrast, WD mouse models consisting of high fat, cholesterol, and a combination of high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, fructose, or glucose not only lead to metabolic syndrome but also induce NAFLD with fibrosis, making these choices most suitable for research. PMID:29096730

  7. Physiologic and laboratory correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fang-Yuan; Yang, Albert C; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Lie-Ming

    2013-01-22

    Studies have shown psychological distress in patients with cirrhosis, yet no studies have evaluated the laboratory and physiologic correlates of psychological symptoms in cirrhosis. This study therefore measured both biochemistry data and heart rate variability (HRV) analyses, and aimed to identify the physiologic correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in cirrhosis. A total of 125 patients with cirrhosis and 55 healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject was assessed through routine biochemistry, 5-minutes ECG monitoring, and psychological ratings of depression, anxiety, and sleep. HRV analysis were used to evaluate autonomic functions. The relationship between depression, sleep, and physiologic correlates was assessed using a multiple regression analysis and stepwise method, controlling for age, duration of illness, and severity of cirrhosis. Reduced vagal-related HRV was found in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. Severity of cirrhosis measured by the Child-Pugh score was not correlated with depression or anxiety, and only had a weak correlation with poor sleep. The psychological distress in cirrhosis such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia were correlated specifically to increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), increased ratios of low frequency to high frequency power, or reduced nonlinear properties of HRV (α1 exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis). Increased serum AST and abnormal autonomic nervous activities by HRV analysis were associated with psychological distress in cirrhosis. Because AST is an important mediator of inflammatory process, further research is needed to delineate the role of inflammation in the cirrhosis comorbid with depression.

  8. Physiologic and laboratory correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown psychological distress in patients with cirrhosis, yet no studies have evaluated the laboratory and physiologic correlates of psychological symptoms in cirrhosis. This study therefore measured both biochemistry data and heart rate variability (HRV) analyses, and aimed to identify the physiologic correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in cirrhosis. Methods A total of 125 patients with cirrhosis and 55 healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject was assessed through routine biochemistry, 5-minutes ECG monitoring, and psychological ratings of depression, anxiety, and sleep. HRV analysis were used to evaluate autonomic functions. The relationship between depression, sleep, and physiologic correlates was assessed using a multiple regression analysis and stepwise method, controlling for age, duration of illness, and severity of cirrhosis. Results Reduced vagal-related HRV was found in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. Severity of cirrhosis measured by the Child-Pugh score was not correlated with depression or anxiety, and only had a weak correlation with poor sleep. The psychological distress in cirrhosis such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia were correlated specifically to increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), increased ratios of low frequency to high frequency power, or reduced nonlinear properties of HRV (α1 exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis). Conclusions Increased serum AST and abnormal autonomic nervous activities by HRV analysis were associated with psychological distress in cirrhosis. Because AST is an important mediator of inflammatory process, further research is needed to delineate the role of inflammation in the cirrhosis comorbid with depression. PMID:23339829

  9. Carbohydrate intake and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: fructose as a weapon of mass destruction

    PubMed Central

    Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Bugianesi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in liver, in the absence of significant alcohol consumption is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a significant risk factor for developing cirrhosis and an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-containing beverages were associated with metabolic abnormalities, and contributed to the development of NAFLD in human trials. Ingested carbohydrates are a major stimulus for hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and are more likely to directly contribute to NAFLD than dietary fat. Substrates used for the synthesis of newly made fatty acids by DNL are primarily glucose, fructose, and amino acids. Epidemiological studies linked HFCS consumption to the severity of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. New animal studies provided additional evidence on the role of carbohydrate-induced DNL and the gut microbiome in NAFLD. The excessive consumption of HFCS-55 increased endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated the stress-related kinase, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased apoptotic activity in the liver. A link between dietary fructose intake, increased hepatic glucose transporter type-5 (Glut5) (fructose transporter) gene expression and hepatic lipid peroxidation, MyD88, TNF-α levels, gut-derived endotoxemia, toll-like receptor-4, and NAFLD was reported. The lipogenic and proinflammatory effects of fructose appear to be due to transient ATP depletion by its rapid phosphorylation within the cell and from its ability to raise intracellular and serum uric acid levels. However, large prospective studies that evaluated the relationship between fructose and NAFLD were not performed yet. PMID:26005677

  10. Spatial Systems Lipidomics Reveals Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular lipid accumulation characterizes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the types of lipids associated with disease progression are debated, as is the impact of their localization. Traditional lipidomics analysis using liver homogenates or plasma dilutes and averages lipid concentrations, and does not provide spatial information about lipid distribution. We aimed to characterize the distribution of specific lipid species related to NAFLD severity by performing label-free molecular analysis by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Fresh frozen liver biopsies from obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery (n = 23) with various degrees of NAFLD were cryosectioned and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI. Molecular identification was verified by tandem MS. Tissue sections were histopathologically stained, annotated according to the Kleiner classification, and coregistered with the MSI data set. Lipid pathway analysis was performed and linked to local proteome networks. Spatially resolved lipid profiles showed pronounced differences between nonsteatotic and steatotic tissues. Lipid identification and network analyses revealed phosphatidylinositols and arachidonic acid metabolism in nonsteatotic regions, whereas low–density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low–density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism was associated with steatotic tissue. Supervised and unsupervised discriminant analysis using lipid based classifiers outperformed simulated analysis of liver tissue homogenates in predicting steatosis severity. We conclude that lipid composition of steatotic and nonsteatotic tissue is highly distinct, implying that spatial context is important for understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in NAFLD. MSI combined with principal component–linear discriminant analysis linking lipid and protein pathways represents a novel tool enabling detailed, comprehensive studies of the heterogeneity of NAFLD. PMID:29570976

  11. Gut-Liver Axis Derangement in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Marco; Pierri, Luca; Vajro, Pietro

    2017-08-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis. In this regard, the gut-liver axis (GLA) seems to play a central role. Principal players are the gut microbiota, its bacterial products, and the intestinal barrier. A derangement of GLA (namely, dysbiosis and altered intestinal permeability) may promote bacteria/bacterial product translocation into portal circulation, activation of inflammation via toll-like receptors signaling in hepatocytes, and progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH). Among other factors a relevant role has been attributed to the farnesoid X receptor, a nuclear transcriptional factor activated from bile acids chemically modified by gut microbiota (GM) enzymes. The individuation and elucidation of GLA derangement in NAFLD pathomechanisms is of interest at all ages and especially in pediatrics to identify new therapeutic approaches in patients recalcitrant to lifestyle changes. Specific targeting of gut microbiota via pre-/probiotic supplementation, feces transplantation, and farnesoid X receptor modulation appear promising.

  12. Connection of Nicotine to Diet-Induced Obesity and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Cellular and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P.; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20–40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Multiple mechanisms can be involved in nicotine plus high-fat diet-induced (HFD) hepatic steatosis. Emerging evidence now suggests that nicotine exacerbates hepatic steatosis triggered by HFD, through increased oxidative stress and hepatocellular apoptosis, decreased phosphorylation (inactivation) of adenosine-5-monophosphate-activated protein kinase and, in turn, up-regulation of sterol response-element binding protein 1-c, fatty acid synthase, and activation of acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase, leading to increased hepatic lipogenesis. There is also growing evidence that chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress through regulation of several pathways leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, perturbed hepatic lipid homeostasis, apoptosis, and autophagy can induce hepatic steatosis and its progression to NASH. Evidence also suggests a central role of the gut microbiota in obesity and its related disorders, including NAFLD. This review explores the contribution of nicotine and obesity to the development of NAFLD and its molecular underpinning. PMID:28239368

  13. Changes in drug transport and metabolism and their clinical implications in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Rau, Monika; Jahn, Daniel; Geier, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, especially in Western countries. Drug treatment in patients with NAFLD is common since it is linked to other conditions like diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, changes in drug metabolism may have serious clinical implications. Areas covered: A literature search for studies in animal models or patients with obesity, fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or NASH cirrhosis published before November 2016 was performed. After discussing epidemiology and animal models for NAFLD, we summarized both basic as well as clinical studies investigating changes in drug transport and metabolism in NAFLD. Important drug groups were assessed separately with emphasis on clinical implications for drug treatment in patients with NAFLD. Expert opinion: Given the frequency of NAFLD even today, a high degree of drug treatment in NAFLD patients appears safe and well-tolerated despite considerable changes in hepatic uptake, distribution, metabolism and transport of drugs in these patients. NASH causes changes in biliary excretion, systemic concentrations, and renal handling of drugs leading to alterations in drug efficacy or toxicity under specific circumstances. Future clinical drug studies should focus on this special patient population in order to avoid serious adverse events in NAFLD patients.

  14. Evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease using magnetic resonance in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Benetolo, Patrícia O; Fernandes, Maria I M; Ciampo, Ieda R L Del; Elias-Junior, Jorge; Sawamura, Regina

    2018-02-10

    To determine the frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease using nuclear magnetic resonance as a noninvasive method. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 50 children and adolescents followed up at an outpatient obesity clinic. The subjects were submitted to physical examination, laboratory tests (transaminases, liver function tests, lipid profile, glycemia, and basal insulin) and abdominal nuclear magnetic resonance (calculation of hepatic, visceral, and subcutaneous fat). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed in 14 (28%) participants, as a severe condition in eight (percent fat >18%), and as non-severe in four (percent fat from 9% to 18%). Fatty liver was associated with male gender, triglycerides, AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, and acanthosis nigricans. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome did not show an association with fatty liver. The frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the present population of children and adolescents was lower than that reported in the international literature. It is suggested that nuclear magnetic resonance is an imaging exam that can be applied to children and adolescents, thus representing an effective noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in this age range. However, further national multicenter studies with longitudinal design are needed for a better analysis of the correlation between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its risk factors, as well as its consequences. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    López-Velázquez, Jorge A; Silva-Vidal, Karen V; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arrese, Marco; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an alarming public health problem. The disease is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and is directly linked to the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the general population. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated at 20-30%, but the prevalence is unknown in the Americas because of a lack of epidemiological studies. However, given the trends in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD and its consequences are expected to increase in the near future. The aim of the present study is to present the current data on the prevalence of NAFLD in the Americas. We performed an electronic search of the main databases from January 2000 to September 2013 and identified 356 reports that were reviewed. We focused on the epidemiology and prevalence of known NAFLD risk factors including obesity, T2DM, and the metabolic syndrome (MS). The prevalence of the MS was highest in the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Chile, and Venezuela. In addition, Puerto Rico, Guyana, and Mexico have the highest prevalence of T2DM in the Americas, while USA has the most people with T2DM. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of NAFLD and obesity were highest in the United States, Belize, Barbados, and Mexico.

  16. Circadian occurrence of variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Siringo, S; Bolondi, L; Sofia, S; Hermida, R C; Gramantieri, L; Gaiani, S; Piscaglia, F; Carbone, C; Misitano, B; Corinaldesi, R

    1996-12-01

    Several clinical events have a rhythmicity over the 24 h period. We assessed the presence of periodic rhythm in the occurrence of haematemesis in patients with liver cirrhosis under different daylight regimens, namely during standard time and during daylight savings. Over a 48 month period there were 212 consecutive admissions of 118 cirrhotics with variceal bleeding. Complete data were available for 181 episodes of bleeding: 121 (66.9%) started with haematemesis and 60 (33.1%) started with melaena. One hundred and two (56%) episodes occurred during daylight savings and 79 (44%) occurred during standard time. The cosinor test showed a 24 h biphasic peak for the occurrence of haematemesis (09.45 and 21.45 h). Moreover, a biphasic diurnal asymmetric frequency was also found by multiple component rhythmometry. The time peaks of onset of variceal haemorrhage did not change significantly during standard time and daylight savings. Patients with more than one haematemesis episode significantly bled over the same time interval. The present study confirms that over the 24 h period variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients occurs with a predictable rhythmicity that does not seem to be under the control of the light-dark cycle. The finding of a chronorisk for variceal haemorrhage addresses specific questions for pathophysiological studies as well as for new treatment strategies.

  17. Nutrition and exercise in the management of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) patients often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and decreased physical activity. These conditions often lead to sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictors for poor survival in LC patients. Nutrition and exercise management can improve PEM and sarcopenia in those patients. Nutrition management includes sufficient dietary intake and improved nutrient metabolism. With the current high prevalence of obesity, the number of obese LC patients has increased, and restriction of excessive caloric intake without the exacerbation of impaired nutrient metabolism is required for such patients. Branched chain amino acids are good candidates for supplemental nutrients for both obese and non-obese LC patients. Exercise management can increase skeletal muscle volume and strength and improve insulin resistance; however, nutritional status and LC complications should be assessed before an exercise management regimen is implemented in LC patients. The establishment of optimal exercise regimens for LC patients is currently required. In this review, we describe nutritional status and its clinical impact on the outcomes of LC patients and discuss general nutrition and exercise management in LC patients. PMID:24966599

  18. Umbilical hernia in patients with liver cirrhosis: A surgical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Julio C U; Claus, Christiano M P; Campos, Antonio C L; Costa, Marco A R; Blum, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical hernia occurs in 20% of the patients with liver cirrhosis complicated with ascites. Due to the enormous intraabdominal pressure secondary to the ascites, umbilical hernia in these patients has a tendency to enlarge rapidly and to complicate. The treatment of umbilical hernia in these patients is a surgical challenge. Ascites control is the mainstay to reduce hernia recurrence and postoperative complications, such as wound infection, evisceration, ascites drainage, and peritonitis. Intermittent paracentesis, temporary peritoneal dialysis catheter or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may be necessary to control ascites. Hernia repair is indicated in patients in whom medical treatment is effective in controlling ascites. Patients who have a good perspective to be transplanted within 3-6 mo, herniorrhaphy should be performed during transplantation. Hernia repair with mesh is associated with lower recurrence rate, but with higher surgical site infection when compared to hernia correction with conventional fascial suture. There is no consensus on the best abdominal wall layer in which the mesh should be placed: Onlay, sublay, or underlay. Many studies have demonstrated several advantages of the laparoscopic umbilical herniorrhaphy in cirrhotic patients compared with open surgical treatment. PMID:27462389

  19. Umbilical hernia in patients with liver cirrhosis: A surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Julio C U; Claus, Christiano M P; Campos, Antonio C L; Costa, Marco A R; Blum, Caroline

    2016-07-27

    Umbilical hernia occurs in 20% of the patients with liver cirrhosis complicated with ascites. Due to the enormous intraabdominal pressure secondary to the ascites, umbilical hernia in these patients has a tendency to enlarge rapidly and to complicate. The treatment of umbilical hernia in these patients is a surgical challenge. Ascites control is the mainstay to reduce hernia recurrence and postoperative complications, such as wound infection, evisceration, ascites drainage, and peritonitis. Intermittent paracentesis, temporary peritoneal dialysis catheter or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may be necessary to control ascites. Hernia repair is indicated in patients in whom medical treatment is effective in controlling ascites. Patients who have a good perspective to be transplanted within 3-6 mo, herniorrhaphy should be performed during transplantation. Hernia repair with mesh is associated with lower recurrence rate, but with higher surgical site infection when compared to hernia correction with conventional fascial suture. There is no consensus on the best abdominal wall layer in which the mesh should be placed: Onlay, sublay, or underlay. Many studies have demonstrated several advantages of the laparoscopic umbilical herniorrhaphy in cirrhotic patients compared with open surgical treatment.

  20. Assessment of health utilities and quality of life in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sayiner, Mehmet; Stepanova, Maria; Pham, Huong; Noor, Bashir; Walters, Mercedes; Younossi, Zobair M

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease associated with increased liver-related mortality. Additionally, NAFLD could potentially impair health-related quality of life. Although an approved treatment for NAFLD does not exist, a number of new drugs for treatment of NAFLD are being developed. As the efficacy and safety of these regimens are being established, their cost-effectiveness, which requires the use of quality of life metrics and health utility scores to quality-adjusted outcomes, must also be assessed. The aim of this study was to report quality of life and health utilities in patients with NAFLD with and without cirrhosis for future use. Methods Patients with NAFLD were seen in an outpatient clinic setting. Each patient had extensive clinical data and completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36 V.1) questionnaire. The SF-6D health utility scores were calculated. Results There were 89 patients with the spectrum of NAFLD completed the SF-36 questionnaire: 59 with non-cirrhotic NAFLD and 30 with cirrhosis. Patients with NAFLD had significantly lower quality of life and health utility scores than the general population (all p<0.0001). Furthermore, patients with cirrhosis had lower quality of life and utility scores than non-cirrhotic NAFLD patients: SF-6D 0.660±0.107 in non-cirrhotic NAFLD vs 0.551±0.138 in cirrhotic NAFLD (p=0.0003). Conclusions Health utilities and quality of life scores are impaired in patients with cirrhotic NAFLD. These values should be used in cost-effectiveness analysis of the upcoming treatment regimens for advanced NAFLD. PMID:27648297

  1. Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood tests, imaging tests, or a biopsy. Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes ... make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  2. Endoscopic ultrasonography predicts early esophageal variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Men, Changjun; Zhang, Guoliang

    2017-04-01

    Bleeding esophageal and gastric varices constitute a serious complication in liver cirrhosis. Previous studies have shown that endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) can be used to predict early esophageal variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis. We report a case of a 46-year-old man with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (CTP score, 5; Child-Pugh class, A) who was admitted to our hospital due to a decreased appetite lasting 1 week. He was initially diagnosed with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis; an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan indicated a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PHT). Common endoscopic examination showed no evidence of gastroesophageal varices; EUS revealed distinct varices of the esophageal and gastric veins. Six months after discharge, the patient was rehospitalized because of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic ligation was implemented as well as esophageal varices loop ligature (EVL). Six months later, EUS showed obvious collateral and perforator veins. We should strongly recommend that patients with liver cirrhosis undergo EUS in addition to a routine endoscopic examination. EUS can play an important role in evaluating the risk for bleeding in PHT and can be used to assess the efficacy of EVL.

  3. Characteristics of liver cirrhosis in Italy: Evidence for a decreasing role of HCV aetiology.

    PubMed

    Stroffolini, Tommaso; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Sagnelli, Caterina; Andriulli, Angelo; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Pirisi, Mario; Colloredo, Guido; Morisco, Filomena; Furlan, Caterina; Almasio, Piero Luigi

    2017-03-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been the main agent associated with liver cirrhosis in Italy. To assess epidemiological, laboratory and clinical features of liver cirrhosis in Italy in 2014. Out of the 2557 consecutive subjects evaluated in 16 hospitals located throughout Italy in 2014, 832 (32.6%) had liver cirrhosis and were enrolled in this study. The mean age of subjects was 60.3years, with a male/female ratio of 1.7; 74.9% of cases had Child A cirrhosis and 17.9% superimposed hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV infection, alone or in combination with other aetiologic agents, was responsible of 58.6% of cases, HBV aetiology accounted for the 17.6% and alcohol abuse for the 16.0%. Compared with virus-related cirrhotic patients, those alcohol-related more frequently showed decompensation (p=0.02). Compared to previous surveys performed in 1992 and in 2001, we observe a statistically significant (p<0.05) decreasing role of both HCV infection and alcohol abuse as aetiologic agents of liver cirrhosis in Italy, explaining, at least in part, the slow, progressive decline of the mortality rate for liver cirrhosis in the last decades in this country (from 34.5 deaths/100,000 inhabitants in1980 to 10.8 in 2012). Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for osteoporosis in liver cirrhosis patients measured by transient elastography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Ping; Miao, Hai-Xiong; Zheng, Shao-Wei; Liu, Wei-le; Chen, Chu-Qun; Zhong, Hao-Bo; Li, Sheng-Fa; Fang, Yong-Ping; Sun, Chun-Han

    2018-05-01

    Osteoporosis or osteopenia is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis, but little is known about the risk factors for the occurrence of osteoporosis.Patients with liver cirrhosis due to chronic virus infection and alcoholic abuse were enrolled. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osteoporosis was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. The severity of liver stiffness was measured by Fibroscan. Demographic data, such as age, gender, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), were collected. Logistic regression analysis was used to recognize the risk factors of osteoporosis in patients with cirrhosis.A total of 446 patients were included in this study: 217 had liver cirrhosis (male, 74.2%; mean age, 57.2 ± 10.27) and 229 were matched controls (male, 69%, mean age, 56.69 ± 9.37). Osteoporosis was found in 44 patients (44/217, 20.3%). The spine and hip BMD in cirrhotic patients were significantly lower than that in controls. When the cirrhotic and control subjects were stratified by age, gender, and BMI, the significant difference was also observed in women patients, patients older than 60, and patients with BMI < 18. Multivariate analysis showed that the older age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78, P = .046], lower BMI (OR = 0.63, P = .049), greater fibroscan score (OR = 1.15, P = .009), and liver cirrhosis induced by alcohol liver disease (OR = 3.42, P < .001) were independently associated with osteoporosis in cirrhotic patients.Osteoporosis occurred in about one-fifth of patients with liver cirrhosis, which was associated with age, BMI, Fibroscan score, and alcohol liver disease related liver cirrhosis.

  5. Childhood Adiposity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yinkun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of childhood adiposity and change in adiposity status from childhood to adulthood with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and abnormal liver enzyme levels in adulthood. METHODS: Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of children aged 6 to 18 years started in 1987. From 2010 to 2014, 1350 subjects (aged 28–45 years) from the original cohort were followed. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using BMI and subscapular skinfold thickness, respectively. In adulthood, ultrasound-based NAFLD, abnormal liver enzymes, and related risk factors were assessed. Results Overweight or obese children were more likely to have adult NAFLD (males: odds ratio [OR] = 2.49 for BMI and 2.78 for subscapular skinfold thickness; females: OR = 3.34 and 3.61; all Ps < .001) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation (males: OR = 1.64 and 1.66; females: OR = 2.12 and 3.01; all Ps < .05) than children with normal weight for both sexes. Compared with subjects who had normal weight in childhood and were nonobese in adulthood, subjects who were obese in adulthood, irrespective of their childhood adiposity status, were more likely to have NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood for both sexes. However, subjects who were overweight or obese in childhood but became nonobese in adulthood had similar likelihood of having NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight or obese children are more likely to have NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood. However, the risk associated with increased weight during childhood can be mitigated by becoming nonobese in adulthood. PMID:28356335

  6. Childhood Adiposity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yinkun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Wang, Youfa; Mi, Jie

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the association of childhood adiposity and change in adiposity status from childhood to adulthood with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and abnormal liver enzyme levels in adulthood. Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of children aged 6 to 18 years started in 1987. From 2010 to 2014, 1350 subjects (aged 28-45 years) from the original cohort were followed. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using BMI and subscapular skinfold thickness, respectively. In adulthood, ultrasound-based NAFLD, abnormal liver enzymes, and related risk factors were assessed. Overweight or obese children were more likely to have adult NAFLD (males: odds ratio [OR] = 2.49 for BMI and 2.78 for subscapular skinfold thickness; females: OR = 3.34 and 3.61; all P s < .001) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation (males: OR = 1.64 and 1.66; females: OR = 2.12 and 3.01; all P s < .05) than children with normal weight for both sexes. Compared with subjects who had normal weight in childhood and were nonobese in adulthood, subjects who were obese in adulthood, irrespective of their childhood adiposity status, were more likely to have NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood for both sexes. However, subjects who were overweight or obese in childhood but became nonobese in adulthood had similar likelihood of having NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood for both sexes. Overweight or obese children are more likely to have NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood. However, the risk associated with increased weight during childhood can be mitigated by becoming nonobese in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-07

    To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0.05]. Certain adipokines may

  8. Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Espírito Santo.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Patricia Lofego; Zago-Gomes, Maria da Penha; Marques, Carla Couzi; Mendonça, Ana Tereza; Gonçalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2013-01-01

    To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2 ± 12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1 %), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1 %), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p<0.001) with reduced age (at the time of cirrhosis diagnosis) and increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.052). Alcoholism, HCV and HBV are the main factors associated with liver cirrhosis in the state of Espirito Santo. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection reduced the age of patients at the time of liver cirrhosis diagnosis.

  9. A single blood test adjusted for different liver fibrosis targets improves fibrosis staging and especially cirrhosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Oberti, Frédéric; Moal, Valérie; Fouchard Hubert, Isabelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hunault, Gilles; Rousselet, Marie Christine

    2018-04-01

    Fibrosis blood tests are usually developed using significant fibrosis, which is a unique diagnostic target; however, these tests are employed for other diagnostic targets, such as cirrhosis. We aimed to improve fibrosis staging accuracy by simultaneously targeting biomarkers for several diagnostic targets. A total of 3,809 patients were included, comprising 1,012 individuals with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) into a derivation population and 2,797 individuals into validation populations of different etiologies (CHC, chronic hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus/CHC, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol) using Metavir fibrosis stages as reference. FibroMeter biomarkers were targeted for different fibrosis-stage combinations into classical scores by logistic regression. Independent scores were combined into a single score reflecting Metavir stages by linear regression and called Multi-FibroMeter Version Second Generation (V2G). The primary objective was to combine the advantages of a test targeted for significant fibrosis (FibroMeter V2G ) with those of a test targeted for cirrhosis (CirrhoMeter V2G ). In the derivation CHC population, we first compared Multi-FibroMeter V2G to FibroMeter V2G and observed significant increases in the cirrhosis area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), Obuchowski index (reflecting all fibrosis-stage AUROCs), and classification metric (six classes expressed as a correctly classified percentage) and a nonsignificant increase in significant fibrosis AUROC. Thereafter, we compared it to CirroMeter V2G and observed a nonsignificant increase in the cirrhosis AUROC. In all 3,809 patients, respective accuracies for Multi-FibroMeter V2G and FibroMeter V2G were the following: cirrhosis AUROC, 0.906 versus 0.878 ( P < 0.001; versus CirroMeter V2G , 0.897, P = 0.014); Obuchowski index, 0.795 versus 0.791 ( P = 0.059); classification, 86.0% versus 82.1% ( P < 0.001); significant fibrosis AUROC, 0.833 versus 0.832 ( P = 0

  10. A single blood test adjusted for different liver fibrosis targets improves fibrosis staging and especially cirrhosis diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Boursier, Jérôme; Oberti, Frédéric; Moal, Valérie; Fouchard Hubert, Isabelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hunault, Gilles; Rousselet, Marie Christine

    2018-01-01

    Fibrosis blood tests are usually developed using significant fibrosis, which is a unique diagnostic target; however, these tests are employed for other diagnostic targets, such as cirrhosis. We aimed to improve fibrosis staging accuracy by simultaneously targeting biomarkers for several diagnostic targets. A total of 3,809 patients were included, comprising 1,012 individuals with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) into a derivation population and 2,797 individuals into validation populations of different etiologies (CHC, chronic hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus/CHC, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol) using Metavir fibrosis stages as reference. FibroMeter biomarkers were targeted for different fibrosis‐stage combinations into classical scores by logistic regression. Independent scores were combined into a single score reflecting Metavir stages by linear regression and called Multi‐FibroMeter Version Second Generation (V2G). The primary objective was to combine the advantages of a test targeted for significant fibrosis (FibroMeterV2G) with those of a test targeted for cirrhosis (CirrhoMeterV2G). In the derivation CHC population, we first compared Multi‐FibroMeterV2G to FibroMeterV2G and observed significant increases in the cirrhosis area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), Obuchowski index (reflecting all fibrosis‐stage AUROCs), and classification metric (six classes expressed as a correctly classified percentage) and a nonsignificant increase in significant fibrosis AUROC. Thereafter, we compared it to CirroMeterV2G and observed a nonsignificant increase in the cirrhosis AUROC. In all 3,809 patients, respective accuracies for Multi‐FibroMeterV2G and FibroMeterV2G were the following: cirrhosis AUROC, 0.906 versus 0.878 (P < 0.001; versus CirroMeterV2G, 0.897, P = 0.014); Obuchowski index, 0.795 versus 0.791 (P = 0.059); classification, 86.0% versus 82.1% (P < 0.001); significant fibrosis AUROC, 0.833 versus 0.832 (P = 0

  11. Liver cirrhosis in England-an observational study: are we measuring its burden occurrence correctly?

    PubMed

    Ratib, Sonia; West, Joe; Fleming, Kate M

    2017-07-13

    Mortality due to liver disease (of which cirrhosis is the end stage) is increasing more than any other chronic condition in the UK. This study aims to demonstrate that (1) exclusive reliance on mortality rates may not reveal the true burden of liver cirrhosis, and (2) diverse use of diagnostic coding may produce misleading estimates. Observational study. The Office for National Statistics death registry was interrogated to investigate liver cirrhosis mortality trends in England and Wales from 1968 to 2011. Standardised mortality trends according to three different definitions of liver cirrhosis based on the specificity of diagnostic codes were calculated: 1 (chronic liver diseases), 2 (alcoholic and unspecified cirrhosis only) and 3 (cirrhosis as end-stage liver disease). The mortality trends were compared with incidence rates established in a previous population-based study (based on definition 3), from 1998 to 2009, to investigate discrepancies between these two measures. Over the study period, the overall standardised liver cirrhosis mortality rates were 8.8, 5,1 and 5.4 per 100 000 person-years for definitions 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The mortality rates for definition 3 in 1998 and 2009 were 6.2 and 5.9 per 100 000 person-years, respectively; while the equivalent incidence rates were at least threefold and sixfold higher: 23.4 and 35.9 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. This discrepancy between incidence and mortality rates was also at least threefold in men and women separately and across age groups. Mortality rates underestimated the incidence of liver cirrhosis by at least threefold between 1998 and 2009 and varied with differing definitions of disease. Mortality data should not be used exclusively as an indicator for the occurrence of liver cirrhosis in the population. Routinely collected healthcare data are available to measure occurrence of this disease. Careful consideration should be taken when selecting diagnostic codes for cirrhosis.

  12. Biophysics and clinical practice for regenerative processes in cirrhosis of the liver/of liver cirrhosis assisted by Delta-S Entropy Variation Systems.

    PubMed

    Marineo, G; Fesce, E

    2006-12-01

    The therapy in question uses an innovative bioengineering device denoted as ''Delta-S DVD Entropy Variation System''. Previous research indicated regression of cirrhosis as evaluated in its morphofunctional and symptomatological aspects. The aim of the study is to confirm and extend previous experimental observations by enhancing hemodynamic evaluation techniques. In order to clarify scar regression, it was decided to include in the endpoints a quantitative evaluation of portal hypertension called HVPG, which is sensitive to the breakdown of hepatic architecture and the influence of regeneration nodules and therefore the advance of cirrhosis. The experimental design consists of a self-controlled study carried out on Child A-B cirrhosis patients with portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient, HVPG > or = 10 mmHg). Five patients were enrolled, 4 HCV positive, one with autoimmune cirrhosis, all showing extensive symptoms. At the end of the treatment all patients showed a reduction in portal hypertension (mean reduction HVPG = 40.2%, P<0.011), together with an improved ultrasound flowmeter pattern and a sharp decrease or disappearance of the symptoms. No adverse effects were reported. Efficacy on autoimmune cirrhosis was unaffected. By means of a quantitative analysis of portal hypertension and of functional aspects, this study confirms that the Delta-S DVD system can lead to the regression of the scar component of cirrhosis, promote the regeneration of functioning liver tissue with positive effects on hepatic functionality and prevent symptoms and the risk of varicose vein rupture.

  13. Sugammadex antagonism of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in patients with liver cirrhosis undergoing liver resection: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Abdulatif, Mohamed; Lotfy, Maha; Mousa, Mahmoud; Afifi, Mohamed H; Yassen, Khaled

    2018-02-05

    This randomized controlled study compared the recovery times of sugammadex and neostigmine as antagonists of moderate rocuroniuminduced neuromuscular block in patients with liver cirrhosis and controls undergoing liver resection. The study enrolled 27 adult patients with Child class "A" liver cirrhosis and 28 patients with normal liver functions. Normal patients and patients with liver cirrhosis were randomized according to the type of antagonist (sugammadex 2mg/kg or neostigmine 50μg/kg). The primary outcome was the time from antagonist administration to a trainoffour (TOF) ratio of 0.9 using mechanosensor neuromuscular transmission module. The durations of the intubating and topup doses of rocuronium, the length of stay in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), and the incidence of postoperative re curarization were recorded. The durations of the intubating and topup doses of rocuronium were prolonged in patients with liver cirrhosis than controls. The times to a TOF ratio of 0.9 were 3.1 (1.0) and 2.6 (1.0) min after sugammadex administration in patients with liver cirrhosis and controls, respectively, p=1.00. The corresponding times after neostigmine administration were longer than sugammadex 14.5 (3.6) and 15.7 (3.6) min, respectively, p<0.001. The duration of PACU stay was shorter with the use of sugammadex compared to neostigmine. We did not encounter postoperative recurarization after sugammadex or neostigmine. Sugammadex rapidly antagonize moderate residual rocuronium induced neuromuscular block in patients with Child class "A" liver cirrhosis undergoing liver resection. Sugammadex antagonism is associated with 80% reduction in the time to adequate neuromuscular recovery compared to neostigmine.

  14. Prevalence, Risk Factors and In-hospital Outcomes of QTc Interval Prolongation in Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiancheng; Qi, Xingshun; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhang, Xintong; Deng, Han; Peng, Ying; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiaoxi; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-09-01

    QTc interval prolongation is an electrocardiographic abnormality in liver cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of QTc interval prolongation in Chinese patients with liver cirrhosis. This was a retrospective analysis of a total of 1,268 patients with liver cirrhosis who were consecutively admitted to our hospital between January 2011 and June 2014. QTc interval data were collected from the medical records. QTc interval prolongation was defined as QTc interval > 440 milliseconds. The prevalence of QTc interval prolongation was 38.2% (485 of 1268). In the entire cohort, the risk factors for QTc interval prolongation included an older age, a higher proportion of alcohol abuse and ascites, higher bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, Child-Pugh score and model for end-stage liver diseases score, and lower red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase and calcium. The in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between patients with and without QTc interval prolongation (2.1% versus 1.3%, P = 0.276). In the subgroup analyses of patients with hepatitis B virus or alcohol alone-related liver cirrhosis, the risk factors included higher bilirubin, creatinine, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, Child-Pugh score and model for end-stage liver diseases score, and lower RBC, Hb and ALB. In the subgroups analyses of patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or ascites, the risk factors included lower RBC, Hb and ALB. QTc interval prolongation was frequent in liver cirrhosis. Although QTc interval prolongation was positively associated with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis and more severe liver dysfunction, it did not significantly influence the in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training on Liver Enzymes and Hepatic Fat in Iranian Men With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Shamsoddini, Alireza; Sobhani, Vahid; Ghamar Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Zaree, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has different prevalence rates in various parts of the world and is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease that could progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of Aerobic Training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on hepatic fat content and liver enzyme levels in Iranian men. In a randomized clinical trial study, 30 men with clinically defined NAFLD were allocated into three groups (aerobic, resistance and control). An aerobic group program consisted of 45 minutes of aerobic exercise at 60% - 75% maximum heart rate intensity, a resistance group performed seven resistance exercises at intensity of 50% - 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM ) and the control group had no exercise training program during the study. Before and after training, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity, liver enzymes and hepatic fat were elevated. After training, hepatic fat content was markedly reduced, to a similar extent, in both the aerobic and resistance exercise training groups (P ≤ 0.05). In the two exercise training groups, alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase serum levels were significantly decreased compared to the control group (P = 0.002) and (P = 0.02), respectively. Moreover, body fat (%), fat mass (kg), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMI-IR) were all improved in the AT and RT. These changes in the AT group were independent of weight loss. This study demonstrated that RT and AT are equally effective in reducing hepatic fat content and liver enzyme levels among patients with NAFLD. However, aerobic exercise specifically improves NAFLD independent of any change in body weight.

  16. Effect of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training on Liver Enzymes and Hepatic Fat in Iranian Men With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shamsoddini, Alireza; Sobhani, Vahid; Ghamar Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Zaree, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has different prevalence rates in various parts of the world and is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease that could progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of Aerobic Training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on hepatic fat content and liver enzyme levels in Iranian men. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial study, 30 men with clinically defined NAFLD were allocated into three groups (aerobic, resistance and control). An aerobic group program consisted of 45 minutes of aerobic exercise at 60% - 75% maximum heart rate intensity, a resistance group performed seven resistance exercises at intensity of 50% - 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM ) and the control group had no exercise training program during the study. Before and after training, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity, liver enzymes and hepatic fat were elevated. Results: After training, hepatic fat content was markedly reduced, to a similar extent, in both the aerobic and resistance exercise training groups (P ≤ 0.05). In the two exercise training groups, alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase serum levels were significantly decreased compared to the control group (P = 0.002) and (P = 0.02), respectively. Moreover, body fat (%), fat mass (kg), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMI-IR) were all improved in the AT and RT. These changes in the AT group were independent of weight loss. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that RT and AT are equally effective in reducing hepatic fat content and liver enzyme levels among patients with NAFLD. However, aerobic exercise specifically improves NAFLD independent of any change in body weight. PMID:26587039

  17. Intestinal farnesoid X receptor signaling promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Changtao; Xie, Cen; Li, Fei; Zhang, Limin; Nichols, Robert G.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Cai, Jingwei; Qi, Yunpeng; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Takahashi, Shogo; Tanaka, Naoki; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu G.; Albert, Istvan; Patterson, Andrew D.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major worldwide health problem. Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota influences NAFLD pathogenesis. Here, a murine model of high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) NAFLD was used, and the effects of alterations in the gut microbiota on NAFLD were determined. Mice treated with antibiotics or tempol exhibited altered bile acid composition, with a notable increase in conjugated bile acid metabolites that inhibited intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling. Compared with control mice, animals with intestine-specific Fxr disruption had reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation in response to a HFD. The decrease in hepatic triglyceride accumulation was mainly due to fewer circulating ceramides, which was in part the result of lower expression of ceramide synthesis genes. The reduction of ceramide levels in the ileum and serum in tempol- or antibiotic-treated mice fed a HFD resulted in downregulation of hepatic SREBP1C and decreased de novo lipogenesis. Administration of C16:0 ceramide to antibiotic-treated mice fed a HFD reversed hepatic steatosis. These studies demonstrate that inhibition of an intestinal FXR/ceramide axis mediates gut microbiota–associated NAFLD development, linking the microbiome, nuclear receptor signaling, and NAFLD. This work suggests that inhibition of intestinal FXR is a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD treatment. PMID:25500885

  18. Aneuploidy and asynchronous replication in non-alcholic fatty liver disease and cryptogenic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Laish, Ido; Mannasse-Green, Batya; Hadary, Ruth; Konikoff, Fred M; Amiel, Aliza; Kitay-Cohen, Yona

    2016-11-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC), which is largely a late sequela of NAFLD, are considered pre-neoplastic conditions that might progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Aneuploidy, telomere aggregates and synchronization of replication were evaluated as markers of genetic instability in these patients. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 22 patients with NAFLD, 20 patients with CC and 20 age-matched healthy controls were analyzed. To determine random aneuploidy, we used the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 9 and 18. The rate of aneuploidy was inferred from the fraction of cells revealing one, three or more hybridization signals per cell. Aggregate size was divided into three fusion groups of 2-5, 6-10 and 11-15 telomeres, relative to the size of a single telomere. The replication pattern was determined by FISH in two pairs of alleles, 15qter and 13qter. Asynchrony was determined by the presence of one single and one set of double dots in the same cell. Significantly higher random aneuploidy rate was found in the CC patients than in the control group, and to a lesser degree in NAFLD patients. Telomere aggregates were insignificantly higher in both groups. Only patients with CC showed significantly higher rate of asynchronous replication with proportionately more cells with two single dots among the normal cells (p<0.001). These results likely reflect changes in gene replication and cell cycle progression in these conditions, possibly correlating with their malignant potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emricasan Improves Liver Function in Patients With Cirrhosis and High Model for End-stage Liver Disease Scores Compared With Placebo.

    PubMed

    Frenette, Catherine T; Morelli, Giuseppe; Shiffman, Mitchell L; Frederick, R Todd; Rubin, Raymond A; Fallon, Michael B; Cheng, Jason T; Cave, Matt; Khaderi, Saira A; Massoud, Omar; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos; Park, James S; Robinson, James M; Yamashita, Mason; Spada, Alfred P; Chan, Jean L; Hagerty, David T

    2018-06-15

    Caspase-mediated apoptosis and inflammation contribute to progression of liver disease. Emricasan is a pan-caspase inhibitor that reduced serum markers of apoptosis and liver inflammation in patients with hepatitis C and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We performed a multicenter study of 86 patients with cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A or B; mean score, 6.9; 38% with alcohol-associated cirrhosis, 29% with HCV-associated cirrhosis, and 23% with NASH) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores of 11-18 (mean, 12.8). Patients were randomly assigned to groups given placebo (n=42) or emricasan (25 mg, n=44), twice daily for 3 months; subjects then received open-label emricasan (25 mg) twice-daily for 3 months. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in serum levels of cleaved keratin 18 (CK-18) at month 3. Seventy-four patients completed the 3-month study period (40 given emricasan and 34 given placebo); 69 patients received open-label emricasan for 3 months afterward. At the 3-month timepoint, emricasan significantly reduced mean MELD (P=.003) and Child-Pugh (P=.003) scores in subjects with high MELD scores (15 or more), compared with placebo, with significant reductions in INR (95% CI, -0.2882 to -0.0866) and total bilirubin (95% CI, -1.5069 to -0.0823) vs placebo. There were no significant differences between emricasan and placebo groups in mean MELD (P=.466) or Child-Pugh (P=.124) scores overall at 3 months compared to placebo. Of patients with high MELD scores, 6/9 given emricasan (67%) had a reduction of 2 points or more at month 3, compared with 2/10 given placebo (20%). Serum levels of full-length CK-18 (P=.02) and caspase 3/7 (P<.001), but not cleaved CK-18 (P=.092), decreased significantly at 3 months in the emricasan vs placebo group. Emricasan was well tolerated, and adverse events were balanced between groups. Emricasan's effects were generally maintained or increased after 6 months of treatment. In a randomized trial of patients with

  20. [Routes of resorption of peritoneal fluid in the diaphragm in liver cirrhosis (morphologic study)].

    PubMed

    Khoroshaev, V A; Vorozheĭkin, V M; Baĭbekov, I M

    1991-01-01

    The diaphragm peritoneum from 12 operated patients and 34 patients who died from liver cirrhosis with or without ascites was studied by means of light microscopy and electron transmission and scanning microscopy. Considerable lesions are found in the peritoneum: cuboidization of mesothelial cells, basal membrane thickening, dilation of stomata, lymphatic lacunae and collectors lumina. Liver cirrhosis with ascites is frequently followed by lymphatic vessels thrombosis and firm attachment of the diaphragm to the liver resulting in the inhibition of the ascitic liquid elimination. Thus both the enhancement of liquid transudation into the abdominal cavity and the disturbance of the drainage function of the diaphragm peritoneum take place.

  1. [Dietetary recommendation for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Ostrowska, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Boniecka, Iwona; Gronostajska, Wioletta

    2017-12-22

    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the developed world. Nowadays, in the adult population of Europe it is estimated at 14% to 21%. Its most important risk factors are obesity and metabolic syndrome. Introducing lifestyle changes such as: dietary intervention and increased physical activity are the first-line treatment and are intended to support not only NAFLD but also associated diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Dietary management focuses on weight reduction of overweight or obese people by decreasing energy in diet. It is recommended to limit the intake of saturated fats and trans fatty acids as well as cholesterol. Instead, it is important to increase the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid diets, mainly from the n-3 family, which exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. It is also beneficial to eat nuts, despite their high energy value, as a source of alpha linolenic acid, which lowers LDL cholesterol. It is important to increase the share of vegetable protein (eg. soya) and limit the intake of fat meat, milk and the dairy products. A key role in the treatment and prevention of NAFLD is also a reduction of simple sugars and total exclusion of added sugar in the diet. The rise of NAFLD in developed countries is analogous to the increase of fructose consumption, which high intake is directly indicated as the main cause of the disease. Choosing foods with high fiber content, low glycemic index and meals composed with low glycemic load, is conducive to weight reduction. An important role in supporting NAFLD treatment is also attributed to vitamin D, C and E supplementation and some probiotic bacteria, as well as cinnamon and turmeric, which improve insulin sensitivity. Daily physical activity is strongly recommended as the supplement of healthy lifestyle.

  2. Weight reduction for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lijun; Wang, Jiyao; Li, Feng

    2011-06-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a wide spread liver disease. The present recommendations for treatment are not evidence-based. Some of them are various weight reduction measures with diet, exercise, drug, or surgical therapy. To assess the benefits and harms of intended weight reduction for patients with NAFLD. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Chinese Biomedicine Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov until February 2011. We included randomised clinical trials evaluating weight reduction with different measures versus no intervention or placebo in NAFLD patients. We extracted data independently. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous data and calculated the mean difference (MD) for continuous data, both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The review includes seven trials; five on aspects of lifestyle changes (eg, diet, physical exercise) and two on treatment with a weight reduction drug 'orlistat'. In total, 373 participants were enrolled, and the duration of the trials ranged from 1 month to 1 year. Only one trial on lifestyle programme was judged to be of low risk of bias. We could not perform meta-analyses for the main outcomes as they were either not reported or there were insufficient number of trials for each outcome to be meta-analysed. We could meta-analyse the available data for body weight and body mass index only. Adverse events were poorly reported. The sparse data and high risk of bias preclude us from drawing any definite conclusion on lifestyle programme or orlistat for treatment of NAFLD. Further randomised clinical trials with low risk of bias are needed to test the beneficial and harmful effects of weight reduction for NAFLD patients. The long-term prognosis of development of fibrosis, mortality, and quality of life should be studied.

  3. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Fibrosis in Youth Taking Psychotropic Medications: Literature Review, Case Reports, and Management.

    PubMed

    Gracious, Barbara L; Bhatt, Ramona; Potter, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a worldwide epidemic because of the greater prevalence of obesity. Despite implications for youth with severe mental disorders, little has been published in the psychiatric literature about this increasingly common medical comorbidity. The goals of this article are to: 1) provide an overview of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of NAFLD, including progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); 2) describe two clinical cases illustrating difficulties faced in management; and 3) review screening recommendations, differential diagnosis, and monitoring and intervention approaches. A literature review was conducted, including guidelines and recommendations, with case presentations including case and control liver histology biopsy photographs. NAFLD in childhood and adolescence, as a precursor to NASH, progresses to fibrosis in a small percentage of youth, leading to risk for early onset cirrhosis and the need for transplantation. The cases presented raise concern that youth with severe mental health disorders, already at greater risk for obesity and its sequelae, may be at higher risk for progression to NASH, potentially because of greater rates of weight gain on top of overweight or obese status, and to liver metabolism changes from psychotropic medications favoring fat deposition. Patients with rapid weight gain into the overweight or obese categories, or who develop elevated liver transaminases that persist across 3-6 months, should be screened or referred for screening by their psychotropic-providing clinicians for early detection, diagnosis, and co-management by a pediatric gastroenterologist, to decrease risk of progression to NASH, which is reversible if early and sufficient lifestyle change results in significant weight loss. There is urgent need for controlled research on the relationships among weight gain, psychotropic medications, ultrasound and biopsy findings, and rates of progression to NAFLD and

  4. Impact of dietary fat on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Ldlr−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in parallel with central obesity and is now the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries. NAFLD is defined as excessive accumulation of lipid in the liver, i.e. hepatosteatosis. The severity of NAFLD ranges from simple fatty liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Simple steatosis is relatively benign until it progresses to NASH, which is characterised by hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is a risk factor for cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Our studies have focused on the impact of diet on the onset and progression of NASH. We developed a mouse model of NASH by feeding Ldlr−/− mice a western diet (WD), a diet moderately high in saturated and trans-fat, sucrose and cholesterol. The WD induced a NASH phenotype in Ldlr−/− mice that recapitulates many of the clinical features of human NASH. We also assessed the capacity of the dietary n-3 PUFA, i.e. EPA (20 : 5,n-3) and DHA (22 : 6,n-3), to prevent WD-induced NASH in Ldlr−/− mice. Histologic, transcriptomic, lipidomic and metabolomic analyses established that DHA was equal or superior to EPA at attenuating WD-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Dietary n-3 PUFA, however, had no significant effect on WD-induced changes in body weight, body fat or blood glucose. These studies provide a molecular and metabolic basis for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of using dietary n-3 PUFA to prevent NASH in human subjects. PMID:26282529

  5. [Current status and perspectives of diagnosis and treatment of complications related to liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Nan, Y M

    2017-04-20

    Liver cirrhosis is the severe period of chronic liver diseases, especially decompensated liver cirrhosis and its complications, such as ascites, esophagogastric variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, acute kidney injury, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which greatly affect patients' quality of life and even threaten their lives. Early prevention and treatment of the causes of development and progression and pathogenic mechanism may slow down or reverse liver cirrhosis and its severe complications. Once the disease progresses to portal hypertension and related complications, it is very important to select preventive measures for acute exacerbation of different complications, as well as the methods and timing for treatment in acute stage, which may help to save patients' lives and improve their prognosis.

  6. Laparoscopic splenectomy for patients with liver cirrhosis: Improvement of liver function in patients with Child-Pugh class B.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Okano, Keiichi; Oshima, Minoru; Akamoto, Shitaro; Fujiwara, Masao; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to assess the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) and liver function at 1 year after splenectomy in the patients with liver cirrhosis. Forty-five patients with liver cirrhosis and hypersplenism underwent LS. We reviewed electronic medical records regarding the liver functional reserve, the etiology of liver cirrhosis, and the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma and esophago-gastric varices. Prospectively collected data of perioperative variables, postoperative complications, and long-term liver function were analyzed. Forty-five patients had a chronic liver disease classified into Child-Pugh classes (A/B/C: 23/20/2). The etiologies of disease were hepatitis C virus infection in 34 patients, hepatitis B virus infection in 4, and others in 7. Fourteen patients underwent procedures in addition to LS, including hepatectomy (n = 7) and devascularization for esophagogastric varices (n = 8). Postoperative complications occurred in 11 patients (24%). Neither postoperative liver failure nor in-hospital mortality occurred. White blood cell and platelet counts determined 7 days, 1 month, and 1 year after LS doubled or increased more than twice compared with the preoperative values (P < .001). One year after LS, patients who had been classified preoperatively into Child-Pugh class B had decreased total serum bilirubin levels (P = .03), and increased prothrombin activity (P = 003) and decreased Child-Pugh scores (P = .001). The Child-Pugh classifications improved in 14 of 18 patients (78%) who had Child-Pugh class B preoperatively. LS is a safe and feasible procedure for hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, LS most likely ameliorates liver function at 1 year after LS in patients with Child-Pugh class B liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Experimental Liver Cirrhosis in Mice by Telomerase Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Chang, Sandy; Millard, Melissa; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerated telomere loss has been proposed to be a factor leading to end-stage organ failure in chronic diseases of high cellular turnover such as liver cirrhosis. To test this hypothesis directly, telomerase-deficient mice, null for the essential telomerase RNA (mTR) gene, were subjected to genetic, surgical, and chemical ablation of the liver. Telomere dysfunction was associated with defects in liver regeneration and accelerated the development of liver cirrhosis in response to chronic liver injury. Adenoviral delivery of mTR into the livers of mTR-/- mice with short dysfunctional telomeres restored telomerase activity and telomere function, alleviated cirrhotic pathology, and improved liver function. These studies indicate that telomere dysfunction contributes to chronic diseases of continual cellular loss-replacement and encourage the evaluation of ``telomerase therapy'' for such diseases.

  8. The nutritional geometry of liver disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; Cogger, Victoria C; Macia, Laurence; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Le Couteur, David G; George, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes. Recently the GFN has provided insights into the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients on obesity and ageing in mammals including humans. Mouse studies using the GFN have disentangled the effects of macronutrients on fatty liver and the gut microbiome. The GFN is likely to play a significant role in disentangling the effects of nutrients on liver disease, especially NAFLD, in humans. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epigenetic Modifications in the Biology of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pirola, Carlos J.; Scian, Romina; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Dopazo, Hernán; Rohr, Cristian; Martino, Julio San; Castaño, Gustavo O.; Sookoian, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic modification whose role in the pathogenesis of metabolic-related complex diseases remains unexplored; 5-hmC appears to be prevalent in the mitochondrial genome. The Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) family of proteins is responsible for catalyzing the conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hmC. We hypothesized that epigenetic editing by 5-hmC might be a novel mechanism through which nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-associated molecular traits could be explained. Hence, we performed an observational study to explore global levels of 5-hmC in fresh liver samples of patients with NAFLD and controls (n = 90) using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay and immunohistochemistry. We also screened for genetic variation in TET 1–3 loci by next generation sequencing to explore its contribution to the disease biology. The study was conducted in 2 stages (discovery and replication) and included 476 participants. We observed that the amount of 5-hmC in the liver of both NAFLD patients and controls was relatively low (up to 0.1%); a significant association was found with liver mitochondrial DNA copy number (R = 0.50, P = 0.000382) and PPARGC1A-mRNA levels (R = −0.57, P = 0.04). We did not observe any significant difference in the 5-hmC nuclear immunostaining score between NAFLD patients and controls; nevertheless, we found that patients with NAFLD (0.4 ± 0.5) had significantly lower nonnuclear-5-hmC staining compared with controls (1.8 ± 0.8), means ± standard deviation, P = 0.028. The missense p.Ile1123Met variant (TET1-rs3998860) was significantly associated with serum levels of caspase-generated CK-18 fragment-cell death biomarker in the discovery and replication stage, and the disease severity (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–1.97; P = 0.005). The p.Ile1762Val substitution (TET2-rs2454206) was associated with liver PPARGC1A-methylation and

  10. Genome-Wide Associations Related to Hepatic Histology in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hispanic Boys.

    PubMed

    Wattacheril, Julia; Lavine, Joel E; Chalasani, Naga P; Guo, Xiuqing; Kwon, Soonil; Schwimmer, Jeffrey; Molleston, Jean P; Loomba, Rohit; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Goodarzi, Mark O; Taylor, Kent D; Yates, Katherine P; Tonascia, James; Rotter, Jerome I

    2017-11-01

    To identify genetic loci associated with features of histologic severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a cohort of Hispanic boys. There were 234 eligible Hispanic boys age 2-17 years with clinical, laboratory, and histologic data enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network included in the analysis of 624 297 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After the elimination of 4 outliers and 22 boys with cryptic relatedness, association analyses were performed on 208 DNA samples with corresponding liver histology. Logistic regression analyses were carried out for qualitative traits and linear regression analyses were applied for quantitative traits. The median age and body mass index z-score were 12.0 years (IQR, 11.0-14.0) and 2.4 (IQR, 2.1-2.6), respectively. The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (scores 1-4 vs 5-8) was associated with SNP rs11166927 on chromosome 8 in the TRAPPC9 region (P = 8.7 -07 ). Fibrosis stage was associated with SNP rs6128907 on chromosome 20, near actin related protein 5 homolog (p = 9.9 -07 ). In comparing our results in Hispanic boys with those of previously reported SNPs in adult nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, 2 of 26 susceptibility loci were associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and 2 were associated with fibrosis stage. In this discovery genome-wide association study, we found significant novel gene effects on histologic traits associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and fibrosis that are distinct from those previously recognized by adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease genome-wide association studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatopulmonary syndrome caused by hypothalamic obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after surgery for craniopharyngioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dai; Seo, Go Hun; Kim, Yoon-Myung; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2018-03-01

    Hypothalamic obesity is often complicated in patients with craniopharyngioma due to hypothalamic damage by the tumor itself, treatment modalities, and associated multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. Hypothalamic obesity causes secondary diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). We report a 19-year-old female who was diagnosed with craniopharyngioma, developed hypothalamic obesity after tumor resection, and progressed to hepatopulmonary syndrome. She manifested NAFLD 1 year after tumor resection. Two years later, the craniopharyngioma recurred, and she underwent a second resection. Three years after her second operation, she was diagnosed with type 2 DM, after which she did not visit the outpatient clinic for 2 years and then suddenly reappeared with a weight loss of 25.8 kg that had occurred over 21 months. One month later, she presented to the Emergency Department with dyspnea. Laboratory findings revealed liver dysfunction and hypoxia with increased alveolar artery oxygen gradient. Liver biopsy showed portal hypertension and micronodular cirrhosis. Echocardiography and a lung perfusion scan demonstrated a right to left shunt. She was finally diagnosed with hepatopulmonary syndrome and is currently awaiting a donor for liver transplantation. Patients surviving craniopharyngioma need to be followed up carefully to detect signs of hypothalamic obesity and monitored for the development of other comorbidities such as DM, NAFLD, and hepatopulmonary syndrome.

  12. Oncologic and surgical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients with liver cirrhosis: A propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Han, Eon Chul; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Park, Ji Won; Yi, Jin Wook; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Choe, Eun Kyung; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Park, Byung Kwan; Moon, Sang Hui; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2017-01-01

    The management of colorectal cancer in patients with liver cirrhosis requires a thorough understanding of both diseases. This study evaluated the effect of liver cirrhosis on oncologic and surgical outcomes and prognostic factors in colorectal cancer patients. Fifty-five consecutive colorectal cancer patients with liver cirrhosis underwent colorectal resection (LC group). Using a prospectively maintained database, these patients were matched 1:4 using propensity scoring with R programming language, package "MatchIt" and "optmatch" by sex, age, cancer location, and tumor stage with 220 patients without liver cirrhosis (non-LC group), resulting in 275 patients. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was significantly worse in the LC group than in the non-LC group (46.7% vs. 76.2% respectively, P < 0.001); however, the 5-year proportion of recurrence free (PRF) rates were similar (73.1% vs. 84.5% respectively, P = 0.094). On multivariate analysis of the LC group, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage ≥III disease, venous invasion, and a model for end-stage liver disease plus serum sodium (MELD-Na) score >10 were prognostic factors for OS. However, the OS was not different between the LC group with MELD-Na score ≤10 and the non-LC group (5-year OS rate, TNM stage ≤II, 85.7 vs 89.5%, p = 0.356; TNM stage ≥III, 41.1 vs 66.2%, p = 0.061). Colorectal cancer patients with liver cirrhosis have poorer OS compared to those without liver cirrhosis; however, the PRF rates are similar. It might be due to the mortality from the liver, and surgical treatment should be actively considered for patients with MELD-Na score <10.

  13. Pilot study of the prevalence of binge eating disorder in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinyu; Abbasi, Omair; Malevanchik, Lev; Mohan, Neena; Denicola, Richard; Tarangelo, Nicholas; Marzio, Dina Halegoua-De

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the United States. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common form of eating disorder. NAFLD and BED have similar risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study was to examine prevalence of BED in NAFLD patients. We administered the Binge Eating Scale (BES), a questionnaire validated to screen for BED, to NAFLD patients at our Fatty Liver Center. Demographics were retrieved retrospectively from our electronic medical record. Of the total 95 NAFLD patients screened, 22 (23.1%) had binge eating tendencies; 6 of the 22 (6.3%) scored 27 or more points, suggestive of severe binge eating. Patient demographics included 59 females and 36 males (14 females and 8 males positive for BED). Liver disease severity and of metabolic syndrome presence were similar in both groups: 45 patients had steatosis, 25 steatohepatitis, and 24 cirrhosis, of which 10 steatosis, 5 steatohepatitis, and 7 cirrhosis patients screened positive for BED. Of the NAFLD patients with BED, 50.0% had insulin resistance, 68.2% hypertension, and 50.0% hyperlipidemia, whereas among non-BED NAFLD patients 58.9% had insulin resistance, 63.0% hypertension, and 67.1% hyperlipidemia. This pilot study suggests that BED may have a higher prevalence among NAFLD patients than in the general population. Based on these preliminary results, further study into the prevalence of BED is recommended. More data is need to identify effects of BED on the progression of NAFLD and role of BED treatment.

  14. Transporter Expression in Liver Tissue from Subjects with Alcoholic or Hepatitis C Cirrhosis Quantified by Targeted Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Collins, Carol; Kelly, Edward J.; Chu, Xiaoyan; Ray, Adrian S.; Salphati, Laurent; Xiao, Guangqing; Lee, Caroline; Lai, Yurong; Liao, Mingxiang; Mathias, Anita; Evers, Raymond; Humphreys, William; Hop, Cornelis E. C. A.; Kumer, Sean C.

    2016-01-01

    Although data are available on the change of expression/activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver cirrhosis patients, corresponding data on transporter protein expression are not available. Therefore, using quantitative targeted proteomics, we compared our previous data on noncirrhotic control livers (n = 36) with the protein expression of major hepatobiliary transporters, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1), multidrug resistance–associated protein (MRP)2, MRP3, MRP4, sodium taurocholate–cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion–transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B1, 1B3, 2B1, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in alcoholic (n = 27) and hepatitis C cirrhosis (n = 30) livers. Compared with control livers, the yield of membrane protein from alcoholic and hepatitis C cirrhosis livers was significantly reduced by 56 and 67%, respectively. The impact of liver cirrhosis on transporter protein expression was transporter-dependent. Generally, reduced protein expression (per gram of liver) was found in alcoholic cirrhosis livers versus control livers, with the exception that the expression of MRP3 was increased, whereas no change was observed for MATE1, MRP2, OATP2B1, and P-gp. In contrast, the impact of hepatitis C cirrhosis on protein expression of transporters (per gram of liver) was diverse, showing an increase (MATE1), decrease (BSEP, MRP2, NTCP, OATP1B3, OCT1, and P-gp), or no change (BCRP, MRP3, OATP1B1, and 2B1). The expression of hepatobiliary transporter protein differed in different diseases (alcoholic versus hepatitis C cirrhosis). Finally, incorporation of protein expression of OATP1B1 in alcoholic cirrhosis into the Simcyp physiologically based pharmacokinetics cirrhosis module improved prediction of the disposition of repaglinide in liver cirrhosis patients. These transporter expression data will be useful in the future to predict

  15. Assessment of the hepatic microvascular changes in liver cirrhosis by perfusion computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mai-Lin; Zeng, Qing-Yu; Huo, Jian-Wei; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Li, Bao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the hepatic microvascular parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis by perfusion computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Perfusion CT was performed in 29 patients without liver disease (control subjects) and 39 patients with liver cirrhosis, including 22 patients with compensated cirrhosis and 17 patients with decompensated cirrhosis, proved by clinical and laboratory parameters. CT cine-scans were obtained over 50 s beginning with the injection of 50 mL of contrast agent. Hepatic microvascular parameters, mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) were obtained with the Perfusion 3 software (General Electric, ADW 4.2). RESULTS: The overall differences of MTT and PS between control subjects, patients with compensated cirrhosis and those with decompensated cirrhosis were statistically significant (P = 0.010 and P = 0.002, respectively). MTT values were 15.613 ± 4.1746 s, 12.592 ± 4.7518 s, and 11.721 ± 4.5681 s for the three groups, respectively, while PS were 18.945 ± 7.2347 mL/min per 100 mL, 22.767 ± 8.3936 mL/min per 100 mL, and 28.735 ± 13.0654 mL/min per 100 mL. MTT in decompensated cirrhotic patients were significantly decreased compared to controls (P = 0.017), whereas PS values were remarkably increased (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The hepatic microvascular changes in patients with liver cirrhosis can be quantitatively assessed by perfusion CT. Hepatic microvascular parameters (MTT and PS), as measured by perfusion CT, were significantly altered in decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:19630110

  16. Increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease after diagnosis of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Norelle R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2015-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common cause of chronic liver disease. Celiac disease alters intestinal permeability and treatment with a gluten-free diet often causes weight gain, but so far there are few reports of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with celiac disease. Population-based cohort study. We compared the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed from 1997 to 2009 in individuals with celiac disease (n = 26,816) to matched reference individuals (n = 130,051). Patients with any liver disease prior to celiac disease were excluded, as were individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol-related disorder to minimize misclassification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were determined. During 246,559 person-years of follow-up, 53 individuals with celiac disease had a diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (21/100,000 person-years). In comparison, we identified 85 reference individuals diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease during 1,488,413 person-years (6/100,000 person-years). This corresponded to a hazard ratio of 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.8), with the highest risk estimates seen in children (HR = 4.6; 95% CI 2.3-9.1). The risk increase in the first year after celiac disease diagnosis was 13.3 (95% CI 3.5-50.3) but remained significantly elevated even beyond 15 years after the diagnosis of celiac disease (HR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.0-5.9). Individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease compared to the general population. Excess risks were highest in the first year after celiac disease diagnosis, but persisted through 15 years after diagnosis with celiac disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. QT Interval Prolongation and QRS Voltage Reduction in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Tomaszewski, Michał; Kowalik, Agnieszka; Lis, Emilia; Tomaszewski, Andrzej; Lach, Tomasz; Boczkowska, Sylwia; Celiński, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is associated with functional abnormalities of the cardiovascular system with co-existing electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities. The aim was to analyze ECG changes in patients with cirrhosis, to evaluate whether alcoholic etiology of cirrhosis and ascites has an impact on ECG changes. The study involved 81 patients with previously untreated alcoholic cirrhosis (64 patients with ascites, classes B and C according to the Child-Pugh classification; and 17 without ascites, categorized as class A); 41 patients with previously untreated cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C (HCV--30 patients with ascites, classes B and C; and 11 without ascites, class A); 42 with alcoholic steatohepatitis and 46 with alcoholic steatosis. The control group consisted of 32 healthy volunteers. Twelve-lead ECG recordings were performed and selected parameters were measured. Significantly longer QT and QTc intervals and lower QRS voltage were found in patients with alcoholic and HCV cirrhosis compared to the controls. Significantly lower QRS voltage was found in subjects with ascites than in those without ascites. Removal of ascites significantly increased QRS voltage. In cirrhosis, irrespective of etiology, ECG changes involved prolonged QT and QTc intervals and reduced QRS voltage. Prolonged QT and QTc intervals were not related to the severity of cirrhosis or to the presence of ascites. However, low QRS voltage was associated with the presence of ascites. Removal of ascites reverses low QRS voltage.

  18. Pharmacological and antioxidant actions of garlic and.or onion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Din, Sayed H Seif; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A; Hammam, Olfat A; Ebeid, Fatma A; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M

    2014-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a broad spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from mild steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure. This study investigates the hepatoprotective properties of garlic and onion in NAFLD rat model. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups; normal (I), NAFLD induced with high fat diet (HFD; II), NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or NAFLD-RD treated with garlic (IV, V), onion (VI, VII) or the combined garlic+onion (VIII, IX) respectively. A NAFLD rat model was established by feeding the animals with a high-fat diet for 12 wk. These animals were then treated with garlic or/and onion or vehicle for 8 wk (weeks 13-20) and then killed to obtain serum samples and liver tissues. Liver histology, lipids, parameters of oxidative stress, TNF-α and TGF-β were measured. The liver in NAFLD-HFD showed typical steatosis, accompanied with mild to moderate lobular inflammatory cell infiltration. Serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides, TNF-α, TGF-β and hepatic MDA' were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with normal group. This was accompanied with reduction of hepatic GSH, GR, GPx, GST, SOD and serum adiponectin. These changes were to a less degree in NAFLD-RD group. Combined administration of garlic+onion produced a better and significant decrease in liver steatosis, serum liver enzymes, oxidative markers and lipid peroxidation versus each one alone. In the same time, NAFLD-induced inflammation was also mitigated via reduction of TNF-α and TGF-β. In addition, these results were better in the group IX versus group VIII.

  19. PNPLA3 as a Genetic Determinant of Risk for and Severity of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Habeeb; Hanayneh, Muhannad Al; Masadeh, Maen; Naseemuddin, Mohammed; Matin, Tasnia; Erwin, Angelika; Singal, Ashwani K

    2016-09-28

    Background and Aims: Patatin-like phospholipase domain protein 3 ( PNPLA3 ) polymorphisms ( rs738409 C>G) are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association of PNPLA3 polymorphisms with the spectrum and severity of this disease. Methods: Studies evaluating the association between the PNPLA3 polymorphism spectrum (fatty liver, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma) and NAFLD were included. Pooled data are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 393 potentially relevant studies, 35 on NAFLD were included in the analysis. Compared to healthy controls, the pooled ORs for rs738409 CG and GG compared to CC among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) were 1.46 (1.16-1.85) and 2.76 (2.30-3.13), and were 1.75 (1.24-2.46) and 4.44 (2.92-6.76) among patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis respectively. The respective ORs for CG and GG compared to the CC genotype were 2.35 (0.90-6.13) and 5.05 (1.47-17.29) when comparing non-alcoholic hepatocellular carcinoma to NAFL patients. Among the NAFLD patients, the ORs for G allele frequency when comparing steatosis grade 2-3 to grade 0-1 NAFL, when comparing the NAFLD activity score of ≥ 4 to score ≤ 3, when comparing NASH to NAFLD, when comparing the presence of lobular inflammation to absence, and when comparing the presence of hepatocyte ballooning to absence were 2.33 (1.43-3.80), 1.80 (1.36-2.37), 1.66 (1.42-1.94), 1.58 (1.19-2.10), and 2.63 (1.87-3.69) respectively. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed similar results. Conclusions: PNPLA3 polymorphisms have strong association with the risk for and severity of NAFLDs. PNPLA3 polymorphism plays an evolving role in diagnosis and treatment decisions in patients with NAFLD.

  20. PNPLA3 as a Genetic Determinant of Risk for and Severity of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Habeeb; Hanayneh, Muhannad Al; Masadeh, Maen; Naseemuddin, Mohammed; Matin, Tasnia; Erwin, Angelika; Singal, Ashwani K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Patatin-like phospholipase domain protein 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms (rs738409 C>G) are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association of PNPLA3 polymorphisms with the spectrum and severity of this disease. Methods: Studies evaluating the association between the PNPLA3 polymorphism spectrum (fatty liver, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma) and NAFLD were included. Pooled data are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 393 potentially relevant studies, 35 on NAFLD were included in the analysis. Compared to healthy controls, the pooled ORs for rs738409 CG and GG compared to CC among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) were 1.46 (1.16–1.85) and 2.76 (2.30–3.13), and were 1.75 (1.24–2.46) and 4.44 (2.92–6.76) among patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis respectively. The respective ORs for CG and GG compared to the CC genotype were 2.35 (0.90–6.13) and 5.05 (1.47–17.29) when comparing non-alcoholic hepatocellular carcinoma to NAFL patients. Among the NAFLD patients, the ORs for G allele frequency when comparing steatosis grade 2–3 to grade 0–1 NAFL, when comparing the NAFLD activity score of ≥ 4 to score ≤ 3, when comparing NASH to NAFLD, when comparing the presence of lobular inflammation to absence, and when comparing the presence of hepatocyte ballooning to absence were 2.33 (1.43–3.80), 1.80 (1.36–2.37), 1.66 (1.42–1.94), 1.58 (1.19–2.10), and 2.63 (1.87–3.69) respectively. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed similar results. Conclusions: PNPLA3 polymorphisms have strong association with the risk for and severity of NAFLDs. PNPLA3 polymorphism plays an evolving role in diagnosis and treatment decisions in patients with NAFLD. PMID:27777887

  1. Outcomes of pregnancies complicated by liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Puljic, Anela; Salati, Jennifer; Doss, Amy; Caughey, Aaron B

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of 2,284,218 pregnancies in 2005-2009 recorded in the California Birth Registry database. Utilizing ICD-9 codes we analyzed the following outcomes for liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices in pregnancy: preeclampsia (PET), preterm delivery (PTD; <37 weeks), cesarean section, low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile), neonatal death (NND), and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Cirrhosis in pregnancy conferred an increased risk of PET, PTD, CS in multiparous women, LBW, and NND. Portal hypertension in pregnancy was associated with PTD, LBW, NND, and PPH. Non-bleeding esophageal varices in pregnancy were not associated with the outcomes assessed in a statistically significant manner. One case of bleeding esophageal varices was observed, resulting in PTD with a LBW infant. There were three cases of concomitant portal hypertension or concomitant esophageal varices with cirrhosis in pregnancy. Pregnancy in women with concomitant liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices can be successful. However, pregnancy outcomes are worse and may warrant closer antenatal monitoring and patient counseling. Cirrhosis in pregnancy with concomitant portal hypertension or esophageal varices is rare.

  2. [Late complications of liver cirrhosis - management of gastrointestinal bleeding in the presence of portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Hejda, Václav

    Cirrhosis is the end stage of progressive development of different liver diseases and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Cirrhosis is associated with a number of potential complications, in particular with development of portal hypertension. Portal hypertension with the production of ascites, hepatic and gastric varices bleeding in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, presents the breakpoint in the natural course of cirrhosis, and it is associated with a considerably worse prognosis of patients, with a dramatically increased risk of mortality. A major progress was reached during the past 10-20 years in diagnosing liver cirrhosis (including non-invasive methods), in primary prevention of the initial episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and in the therapy of acute bleeding due to modern pharmacotherapy, with regard to expanding possibilities of therapeutic endoscopy and relatively new options for management of acute bleeding (esophageal stents, TIPS and suchlike). However acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with portal hypertension still presents a considerable risk of premature death (15-20 %). Early diagnosing and causal treatment of numerous liver diseases may lead to slowing or regression of fibrosis and cirrhosis and possibly even of the degree of portal hypertension and thereby also the risk of bleeding.Key words: cirrhosis - esophageal varices - treatment of bleeding - portal hypertension.

  3. Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with and without Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Drzymała-Czyż, Sławomira; Szczepanik, Mariusz; Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Duś-Żuchowska, Monika; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Sapiejka, Ewa; Juszczak, Paweł; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Koletzko, Berthold; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) liver disease is the third most frequent cause of death in CF patients. Although it alters fatty acid (FA) metabolism, data concerning the profile of FA in CF patients with liver cirrhosis is lacking. This study aimed to assess the FA composition of serum phospholipids in CF patients with and without liver cirrhosis. The study comprised 25 CF patients with liver cirrhosis and 25 without it. We assessed Z-scores for body height and weight, lung function, exocrine pancreatic sufficiency and colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FAs' profile of serum glycerophospholipids was quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In CF patients with liver cirrhosis, the levels of C16:0 were higher and the amounts of C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6, and all the n-3 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) (C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, C22:6n-3) were lower than those in CF subjects without liver cirrhosis. The n-6/n-3, C20:4n-6/C18:2n-6, total n-6/C18:2n-6, C20:5n-3/C18:3n-3 and total n-3/C18:3n-3 ratios did not differ between the 2 groups. Liver cirrhosis may associate with profound abnormalities in the composition of serum glycerophospholipids FAs in CF patients. None of the analyzed clinical factors could explain the greater prevalence of low levels of PUFAs in this CF subgroup. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Molecular classification of liver cirrhosis in a rat model by proteomics and bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiu-Qin; Leow, Chon K; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Xuegong; Liu, Jun S; Wong, Wing-Hung; Asperger, Arndt; Deininger, Sören; Eastwood Leung, Hon-Chiu

    2004-10-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide health problem. Reliable, noninvasive methods for early detection of liver cirrhosis are not available. Using a three-step approach, we classified sera from rats with liver cirrhosis following different treatment insults. The approach consisted of: (i) protein profiling using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) technology; (ii) selection of a statistically significant serum biomarker set using machine learning algorithms; and (iii) identification of selected serum biomarkers by peptide sequencing. We generated serum protein profiles from three groups of rats: (i) normal (n=8), (ii) thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis (n=22), and (iii) bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis (n=5) using a weak cation exchanger surface. Profiling data were further analyzed by a recursive support vector machine algorithm to select a panel of statistically significant biomarkers for class prediction. Sensitivity and specificity of classification using the selected protein marker set were higher than 92%. A consistently down-regulated 3495 Da protein in cirrhosis samples was one of the selected significant biomarkers. This 3495 Da protein was purified on-chip and trypsin digested. Further structural characterization of this biomarkers candidate was done by using cross-platform matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Combined data from PMF and MS/MS spectra of two tryptic peptides suggested that this 3495 Da protein shared homology to a histidine-rich glycoprotein. These results demonstrated a novel approach to discovery of new biomarkers for early detection of liver cirrhosis and classification of liver diseases.

  5. IL-17A, MCP-1, CCR-2, and ABCA1 polymorphisms in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Ulas Emre; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Citli, Senol; Cebi, Alper Han; Korkmaz, Hatice Ayca Ata; Baki, Gaye

    2018-05-05

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children has risen significantly, owing to the worldwide childhood obesity epidemic in the last two decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is closely linked to sedentary lifestyle, increased body mass index, and visceral adiposity. In addition, individual genetic variations also have a role in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene polymorphisms of MCP-1 (-2518 A/G) (rs1024611), CCR-2 (190 G/A) (rs1799864), ABCA1 (883 G/A) (rs4149313), and IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) in obese Turkish children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The study recruited 186 obese children aged 10-17 years, including 101 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 85 children without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Anthropometric measurements, insulin resistance, a liver panel, a lipid profile, liver ultrasound examination, and genotyping of the four variants were performed. No difference was found between the groups in respect to age and gender, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, or body fat ratio. In addition to the elevated ALT levels, AST and GGT levels were found significantly higher in the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group compared to the non non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group (p<0.05). The A-allele of IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) was associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratio 2.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-3.77, p=0.02). The findings of this study suggest that there may be an association between IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) polymorphism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development in obese Turkish children. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of three Wenyang Jianpi Tang on cell proliferation and apoptosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Yao; Tao, Dong-Qing; Liu, Song; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Wei; Shi, Zhao-Hong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Sijunzi Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver cells through the nonalcoholic fatty liver cell model established by inducing L02 cells with oleic acid. Different concentrations of oleic acid were added into L02 cells to induce the nonalcoholic fatty liver cell model. Oil red O staining was used to observe fatty droplets of fatty liver cells. Automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of aspartic transaminase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), total cholesterol(TC), and triglyceride(TG) in the cell supernatants. There were five groups, namely normal group, model group, model and Sijunzi Tang group, model and Lizhong Tang group, and model and Fuzi Lizhong Tang group. The cell proliferation and apoptosis of the five groups were detected by MTT colorimetry test and flow cytometer. The expressions of PCNA, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins of the five groups were detected by Western blot. The oil red O staining results showed that the optimum concentration of oleic acid that was used to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver cell models was 80 mg•L-1. The levels of AST, ALT, TC and TG in the nonalcoholic fatty liver cell supernatants were higher than that in normal liver cell supernatants(P<0.01). MTT colorimetry test and flow cytometer results showed that all of Sijunzi Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang could effectively promote the cell proliferation, and inhibit the cellular apoptosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver cells(P<0.01). And Fuzi Lizhong Tang showed the best effect. Western blot results showed that Sijunzi Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang could down-regulate the expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and Bax proteins, and up-regulate the expressions of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins of nonalcoholic fatty liver cells. And Fuzi Lizhong Tang showed the best effect

  7. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pathomechanism, new diagnostic markers].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Klupa, Tomasz; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex of a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The pathogenic concept of NAFLD covers overnutrition with fatty acids, underactivity. Insulin resistance is believed to play the main role in this process. NAFLD is mostly related to visceral adiposity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes melitus. The presented work is a review of in vitro and in vivo modern studies, as well as clinical observations on molecular mechanisms leading to development and progress of NAFLD. Up till today their is no treatment od NAFLD, and this pathology is not benign--it may lead to patients' death in 10 years. The clinical approach to NAFLD is prevention of it's development. The manuscript is a review of new biochemical markers allowing for early detection of metabolic disorders leading to NAFLD development, thus to sufficient prevention of this pathology in patients.

  8. Role of Oxygen Free Radicals, Nitric Oxide and Mitochondria in Mediating Cardiac Alterations During Liver Cirrhosis Induced by Thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Amirtharaj, G Jayakumar; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Pulimood, Anna; Balasubramanian, K A; Venkatraman, Aparna; Ramachandran, Anup

    2017-04-01

    Thioacetamide (TAA) administration is widely used for induction of liver cirrhosis in rats, where reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) participate in development of liver damage. Cardiac dysfunction is an important complication of liver cirrhosis, but the role of ROS or NO in cardiac abnormalities during liver cirrhosis is not well understood. This was investigated in animals after TAA-induced liver cirrhosis and temporal changes in oxidative stress, NO and mitochondrial function in the heart evaluated. TAA induced elevation in cardiac levels of nitrate before development of frank liver cirrhosis, without gross histological alterations. This was accompanied by an early induction of P38 MAP kinase, which is influenced by ROS and plays an important signaling role for induction of iNOS. Increased nitrotyrosine, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the heart and cardiac mitochondria, suggestive of oxidative stress, also preceded frank liver cirrhosis. However, compromised cardiac mitochondrial function with a decrease in respiratory control ratio and increased mitochondrial swelling was seen later, when cirrhosis was evident. In conclusion, TAA induces elevations in ROS and NO in the heart in parallel to early liver damage. This leads to later development of functional deficits in cardiac mitochondria after development of liver cirrhosis.

  9. Is computed tomography volumetric assessment of the liver reliable in patients with cirrhosis?

    PubMed Central

    Goumard, Claire; Perdigao, Fabiano; Cazejust, Julien; Zalinski, Stéphane; Soubrane, Olivier; Scatton, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The estimation of liver volume (LV) has been widely studied in normal liver, the density of which is considered to be equivalent to 1 kg/l. In cirrhosis, volumetric evaluation and its correlation to liver mass remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) scanning to assess LV in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: Liver volume was evaluated by CT (CTLV) and correlated to the explanted liver weight (LW) in 49 patients. Liver density (LD) and its association with clinical features were analysed. Commonly used formulae for estimating LV were also evaluated. The real density of cirrhotic liver was prospectively measured in explant specimens. Results: Wide variations between CTLV (in ml) and LW (in g) were found (range: 3–748). Cirrhotic livers in patients with hepatitis B virus infection presented significantly increased LD (P = 0.001) with lower CTLV (P = 0.005). Liver volume as measured by CT was also decreased in patients with Model for End-stage Liver Disease scores of >15 (P = 0.023). Formulae estimating LV correlated poorly with CTLV and LW. The density of cirrhotic liver measured prospectively in 15 patients was 1.1 kg/l. Conclusions: In cirrhotic liver, LV assessed by CT did not correspond to real LW. Liver density changed according to the aetiology and severity of liver disease. Commonly used formulae did not accurately assess LV. PMID:23679861

  10. Minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies in the management of complications of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A case report.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Kang, Kyungmin; Fan, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from simple steatosis to inflammation leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes, major risk factors in the development and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications including liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma is expected to increase by 2030 with an enormous health and economic impact. We present a patient who developed Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. Due to morbid obesity, she was not an optimal transplant candidate and was not initially listed. After attempts for lifestyle modifications failed to lead to weight reduction, a transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery was performed. This is the sixth such procedure in humans in literature. Subsequently she had a meaningful drop in BMI from 42 to 36 over the following 6 months ultimately leading to her being listed for transplant. During this time, the left hepatic HCC was treated with chemoembolization without evidence of recurrence. In this article, we wish to highlight the use of minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the comprehensive management of the NAFLD spectrum and percutaneous transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method, for the management of obesity.

  11. Minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies in the management of complications of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A case report

    PubMed Central

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Kang, Kyungmin; Fan, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disorders from simple steatosis to inflammation leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the progressive epidemics of obesity and diabetes, major risk factors in the development and pathogenesis of NAFLD, the prevalence of NAFLD and its associated complications including liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma is expected to increase by 2030 with an enormous health and economic impact. We present a patient who developed Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. Due to morbid obesity, she was not an optimal transplant candidate and was not initially listed. After attempts for lifestyle modifications failed to lead to weight reduction, a transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery was performed. This is the sixth such procedure in humans in literature. Subsequently she had a meaningful drop in BMI from 42 to 36 over the following 6 months ultimately leading to her being listed for transplant. During this time, the left hepatic HCC was treated with chemoembolization without evidence of recurrence. In this article, we wish to highlight the use of minimally invasive percutaneous endovascular therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the comprehensive management of the NAFLD spectrum and percutaneous transarterial embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA), a novel method, for the management of obesity. PMID:26629307

  12. Gut Microbiota as a Driver of Inflammation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Simonelli, Claudia; Newton, Estelle E.

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the consequent burden of metabolic syndrome have increased in recent years. Although the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is not completely understood, it is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of the dysregulation of insulin-dependent pathways leading to insulin resistance and adipose tissue accumulation in the liver. Recently, the gut-liver axis has been proposed as a key player in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, as the passage of bacteria-derived products into the portal circulation could lead to a trigger of innate immunity, which in turn leads to liver inflammation. Additionally, higher prevalence of intestinal dysbiosis, larger production of endogenous ethanol, and higher prevalence of increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation were found in patients with liver injury. In this review, we describe the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the activation of the inflammatory cascade in NAFLD. PMID:29563854

  13. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Economy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Dai, Yi-Ning; Wang, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Qin-Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing health issue around the world. This study is to investigate whether adult prevalence of NAFLD correlates with national economic status. Literature search on PubMed database was conducted to identify eligible records fully published before September 2014. Gross national income (GNI) per capita was chosen to evaluate national economic status. Pearson coefficient, linear regression, and unpaired t test were performed in the statistical analyses. Twenty-one population-based surveys (seven in East Asia, five in South Asia, three in Middle East, and six in Europe) were included. The pooled prevalence of NAFLD was 24.24%, and the global prevalence was positively correlated with GNI per capita (r = 0.4782, P = 0.0283). Europe witnessed a higher prevalence (28.04%) than Middle East (12.95%, P = 0.0092) and East Asia (19.24%, P = 0.0083). Male presented a higher prevalence than female (P = 0.019), especially in Europe (P = 0.0132) and in Caucasians (P = 0.0383). Furthermore, male prevalence and rural prevalence individually were correlated with economic status (r = 0.5725, P = 0.0257 and r = 0.7389, P = 0.0060). Lastly, the urban (23.93%) witnessed a higher prevalence than the rural or the urban + rural (12.65%, P = 0.0141) in the countries of GNI per capita <$10,000. This study suggested that countries with higher economic status tend to present a higher prevalence of NAFLD. It is believed to provide a distinctive epidemiologic perspective to global situation of NAFLD.

  14. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Pagadala, Mangesh R.; Zein, Claudia O.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Yerian, Lisa; Lopez, Rocio; McCullough, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypothyroidism has been suggested. Possible explanations for this association are the recognized links between hypothyroidism and various elements of the metabolic syndrome which is often present in NAFLD. To further explore this association, we determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of patients with NAFLD and analyzed the potential factors associated with hypothyroidism in this patient population. Methods Two hundred and forty six patients with biopsy proven NAFLD attending hepatology clinics at the Cleveland Clinic between October 2006 to June 2009 and 430 age, gender, race and BMI matched control subjects seen in the general internal medicine clinic were included. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism who were on thyroid replacement therapy were considered to be hypothyroid. Results Hypothyroidism was more frequent among patients with NAFLD (21%vs 9.5%.; P<0.01) compared to controls and was higher in NASH patients than NAFLD patients without NASH (25% vs 12.8%, P=0.03). Subjects with hypothyroidism were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.9,P=0.02)) and 3.8 (95% CI:2,6.9, P<0.001) times more likely to have NAFLD and NASH respectively. By Multivariate analysis, female gender (P<0.001) and increased BMI (P=.03) were associated with hypothyroidism. NAFLD subjects who reported mild alcohol consumption were less likely to have hypothyroidism compared to those who reported complete abstinence (OR 0.37, P=0.008). Conclusions A higher prevalence of hypothyroidism was demonstrated in patients with NAFLD compared to controls. Patients with hypothyroidism were more likely to have NASH. Among subjects with NALFD, female gender, increased BMI and history of abstinence from alcohol were associated with hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed in order to confirm and better characterized these findings as well as the described associations and their pathogenesis. PMID

  15. Hepatoprotective Effect and Synergism of Bisdemethoycurcumin against MCD Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Seob; Han, Sin-Hee; Ahn, Young-Sup; Cha, Seon-Woo; Seo, Yun-Soo; Kong, Ryong; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease over the last decade in developed countries. NAFLD includes a spectrum of pathological hepatic changes, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is polyphenolic compounds with a diarylheptanoid skeleton, curcumin close analogues, which is derived from the Curcumae Longae Rhizoma. While the rich bioavailability research of curcumin, BDMC is the poor studies. We investigated whether BDMC has the hepatoprotective effect and combinatory preventive effect with silymarin on methionine choline deficient (MCD)-diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were divided into five groups of normal (normal diet without any treatment), MCD diet (MCD diet only), MCD + silymarin (SIL) 100 mg/kg group, MCD + BDMC 100 mg/kg group, MCD + SIL 50 mg/kg + BDMC 50 mg/kg group. Body weight, liver weight, liver function tests, histological changes were assessed and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were conducted after 4 weeks. Mice lost body weight on the MCD-diet, but BDMC did not lose less than the MCD-diet group. Liver weights decreased from BDMC, but they increased significantly in the MCD-diet groups. All liver function test values decreased from the MCD-diet, whereas those from the BDMC increased significantly. The MCD- diet induced severe hepatic fatty accumulation, but the fatty change was reduced in the BDMC. The BDMC showed an inhibitory effect on liver lipogenesis by reducing associated gene expression caused by the MCD-diet. In all experiments, the combinations of BDMC with SIL had a synergistic effect against MCD-diet models. In conclusion, our findings indicate that BDMC has a potential suppressive effect on NAFLD. Therefore, our data suggest that BDMC may act as a novel and potent therapeutic agent against NAFLD

  16. Underappreciation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by primary care clinicians: limited awareness of surrogate markers of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preya J; Banh, Xuan; Horsfall, Leigh U; Hayward, Kelly L; Hossain, Fabrina; Johnson, Tracey; Stuart, Katherine A; Brown, Nigel N; Saad, Nivene; Clouston, Andrew; Irvine, Katharine M; Russell, Anthony W; Valery, Patricia C; Williams, Suzanne; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2018-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of incidental liver test abnormalities. General practitioners (GP) have a key role in identifying people with NAFLD at risk of significant liver disease. Recent specialist guidelines emphasise the use of fibrosis algorithms or serum biomarkers rather than routine liver tests, to assess advanced fibrosis. To evaluate primary care clinicians' current approach to diagnosis, management and referral of NAFLD. A cross-sectional survey of primary care clinicians was undertaken through a structured questionnaire about NAFLD. A convenience sample of general practice clinics and general practice conferences in Metropolitan Brisbane and regional south east Queensland was selected. A total of 108 primary care clinicians completed the survey (participation rate 100%). Fifty-one percent of respondents considered the prevalence of NAFLD in the general population to be ≤10%. Twenty-four percent of respondents felt that liver enzymes were sufficiently sensitive to detect underlying NAFLD. Most respondents were unsure whether the Fibrosis 4 score (62.7% unsure) or Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (63.7% unsure) could help to identify advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Although 47% of respondents said they would refer a patient to a Gastroenterologist/Hepatologist if they suspect the patient has NAFLD, 44.1% do not make any referrals. Of concern, 70.6% of clinicians said they were unlikely to refer a patient to Hepatology unless liver function tests are abnormal. Our findings demonstrate that many primary care clinicians underestimate the prevalence of NAFLD and under-recognise the clinical spectrum of NAFLD and how this is assessed. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Hepatoprotective Effect and Synergism of Bisdemethoycurcumin against MCD Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, Young-Seob; Han, Sin-Hee; Ahn, Young-Sup; Cha, Seon-Woo; Seo, Yun-Soo; Kong, Ryong; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease over the last decade in developed countries. NAFLD includes a spectrum of pathological hepatic changes, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is polyphenolic compounds with a diarylheptanoid skeleton, curcumin close analogues, which is derived from the Curcumae Longae Rhizoma. While the rich bioavailability research of curcumin, BDMC is the poor studies. We investigated whether BDMC has the hepatoprotective effect and combinatory preventive effect with silymarin on methionine choline deficient (MCD)-diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were divided into five groups of normal (normal diet without any treatment), MCD diet (MCD diet only), MCD + silymarin (SIL) 100 mg/kg group, MCD + BDMC 100 mg/kg group, MCD + SIL 50 mg/kg + BDMC 50 mg/kg group. Body weight, liver weight, liver function tests, histological changes were assessed and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were conducted after 4 weeks. Mice lost body weight on the MCD-diet, but BDMC did not lose less than the MCD-diet group. Liver weights decreased from BDMC, but they increased significantly in the MCD-diet groups. All liver function test values decreased from the MCD-diet, whereas those from the BDMC increased significantly. The MCD- diet induced severe hepatic fatty accumulation, but the fatty change was reduced in the BDMC. The BDMC showed an inhibitory effect on liver lipogenesis by reducing associated gene expression caused by the MCD-diet. In all experiments, the combinations of BDMC with SIL had a synergistic effect against MCD-diet models. In conclusion, our findings indicate that BDMC has a potential suppressive effect on NAFLD. Therefore, our data suggest that BDMC may act as a novel and potent therapeutic agent against NAFLD.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-β1 and TNF-α were evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde, urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine levels. The protective activity of CLRE free-radical scavenging mechanisms were evaluated through antioxidant enzymes. Protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in animal blood sera was studied and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl2 proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and liver biochemistry were significantly lower in the Curcuma longa-treated groups compared with controls. CLRE induced apoptosis, inhibited hepatocytes proliferation but had no effect on hepatic CYP2E1 levels. Conclusion The progression of liver cirrhosis could be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CLRE and the normal status of the liver could be preserved. PMID:23496995

  19. Design and rationale for a real-world observational cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: The TARGET-NASH study.

    PubMed

    Barritt, A S; Gitlin, Norman; Klein, Samuel; Lok, Anna S; Loomba, Rohit; Malahias, Laura; Powell, Margaret; Vos, Miriam B; Weiss, L Michael; Cusi, Kenneth; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Sanyal, Arun

    2017-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver disease. NAFLD comprises the spectrum from simple steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver, NAFL), to steatosis with inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH). Current primary therapy recommended for NAFLD is weight loss induced by lifestyle modification. The difficulty in achieving this has led to robust pharmacological therapy development. While new drugs may show efficacy in selected phase II/III clinical trial populations, their real-world effectiveness is unknown. TARGET-NASH is a 5-year, longitudinal, observational study of patients with NAFLD designed to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical practice interventions and provide practical information unobtainable in registration trials. A biological specimen repository is included in TARGET-NASH for translational studies of genomics and biomarkers of disease activity. Patients are enrolling at adult and pediatric sites representing multiple specialties. All patients being managed for NAFLD are eligible, whereas those in other NASH registries or clinical trials will be excluded. Enrolled patients range in age from 6 and up and will have 3years of clinical data reviewed. Patient comorbidities, concomitant medications, disease progression and off-label interventions will be assessed, and adverse outcomes, monitored. Confirming the use, safety and effectiveness of NAFLD interventions in children and adults and establishing pragmatic methods of assessing disease progression under real-world conditions are key study outcomes. Ultimately, TARGET-NASH will establish a large, diverse registry of NAFLD patients at academic and community practices to be leveraged to improve health and reduce development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptoms of Daytime Sleepiness and Sleep Apnea in Liver Cirrhosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Enezi, Abdullah; Al-Jahdali, Fares; Ahmed, Anwar; Shirbini, Nahid; Harbi, Abdullah; Salim, Baharoon; Ali, Yosra; Abdulrahman, Aljumah; Khan, Mohd; Khaleid, Abdullah; Hamdan, Al-Jahdali

    2017-01-01

    Background/propose. Sleep disturbance and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) have been reported in patients with hepatic cirrhosis with no hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The objective of this study was to evaluate daytime sleepiness and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among liver cirrhosis patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC)-Riyadh over a period of six months, using a structured questionnaire that investigated: 1) Sleep patterns and daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleeping Scale (ESS), and 2) The risk for sleep apnea using the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ). We enrolled patients with a confirmed diagnosis of liver cirrhosis who were being followed at the hepatology and pre-liver transplant clinics. We enrolled 200 patients with liver cirrhosis, 57.5% of whom were male. The mean age was 60 (± SD 12.2). The reported prevalence of EDS, OSA, and both EDS and OSA were 29.5%, 42.9%, and 13.6%, respectively. The prevalence of EDS was higher in patients with Hepatitis-C and patients with DM, who experienced short sleep duration. We did not find any association between the severity of liver disease and EDS or OSA as measured by Child-Pugh scores (CPS). The risk of OSA and EDS is high among liver cirrhosis patients. Those patients with cirrhosis secondary to Hepatitis C are at higher risk of EDS and OSA. Both EDS and OSA affect patients designated as CPS Class A more frequently than patients designated as CPS Class B.

  1. NASPGHAN Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Miriam B.; Abrams, Stephanie H.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Caprio, Sonia; Daniels, Stephen R.; Kohli, Rohit; Mouzaki, Marialena; Sathya, Pushpa; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Sundaram, Shikha S.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD (ECON) reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD. PMID:28107283

  2. Fructose-Drinking Water Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Ultrastructural Alteration of Hepatocyte Mitochondria in Male Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Thent, Zar Chi; Haji Suhaimi, Farihah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the complications of the metabolic syndrome. It encompasses a wide range of disease spectrum from simple steatosis to liver cirrhosis. Structural alteration of hepatic mitochondria might be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Aims. In the present study, we used a newly established model of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male Wistar rats in order to investigate the ultrastructural changes in hepatic mitochondria that occur with fructose consumption and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis. Methods. The concentration of fructose-drinking water (FDW) used in this study was 20%. Six male Wistar rats were supplemented with FDW 20% for eight weeks. Body composition and metabolic parameters were measured before and after 8 weeks of FDW 20%. Histomorphology of the liver was evaluated and ultrastructural changes of mitochondria were assessed with transmission electron micrograph. Results. After 8 weeks of fructose consumption, the animals developed several features of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, fructose consumption led to the development of macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, such as increase in mitochondrial size, disruption of the cristae, and reduction of matrix density. Conclusion. We conclude that in male Wistar rat 8-week consumption of FDW 20% leads to NAFLD likely via mitochondrial structural alteration. PMID:26273656

  3. Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight loss Nausea or belly pain Small, red spider-like blood vessels on the skin As liver ... result of too much fluid Reddened palms Red spider-like blood vessels on the skin Small testicles ...

  4. Hepatocellular Carcinoma is Associated with Gut Microbiota Profile and Inflammation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Bhoori, Sherrie; Castelli, Chiara; Putignani, Lorenza; Rivoltini, Licia; Del Chierico, Federica; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Morelli, Daniele; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Petito, Valentina; Reddel, Sofia; Calvani, Riccardo; Camisaschi, Chiara; Picca, Anna; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Pompili, Maurizio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2018-04-17

    The gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the third cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, the link between gut microbiota and hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be clarified. The aim of this study is to explore what features of the gut microbiota are associated with HCC in cirrhotic patients with NAFLD. A consecutive series of patients with NAFLD-related cirrhosis and HCC (group 1: 21 patients), NAFLD-related cirrhosis without HCC (group 2: 20 patients) and healthy controls (group 3: 20 patients) was studied for gut microbiota profile, intestinal permeability, inflammatory status and circulating mononuclear cells. We finally constructed a model depicting the most relevant correlations among these features, possibly involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Patients with HCC showed increased levels of fecal calprotectin, whilst intestinal permeability was similar to cirrhotic patients without HCC. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL) 8, IL13, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 3, CCL4 and CCL5 were higher in the HCC group and were associated with an activated status of circulating monocytes. The fecal microbiota of the whole group of cirrhotic patients showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus, and a reduction in Akkermansia. Bacteroides and Ruminococcaceae were increased in the HCC group, while Bifidobacterium was reduced. Akkermansia and Bifidobacterium were inversely correlated with calprotectin concentration, which in turn was associated with humoral and cellular inflammatory markers. A similar behavior was also observed for Bacteroides. Our results suggest that in cirrhotic patients with NAFLD gut microbiota profile and systemic inflammation are significantly correlated, and can concur in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. The benefits of exercise for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Keating, Shelley E; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    As exercise is now an established therapy for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recent investigations have sought to identify the optimal dose (type, intensity and amount) of exercise for hepatic benefit. Here, the authors discuss the following: the role of aerobic exercise for the modulation of hepatic steatosis; the limited evidence for the role of resistance training in reducing liver fat; the lack of evidence from clinical trials on the role of exercise in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; and the benefits of exercise for patients with NAFLD, beyond steatosis. Based on current evidence, the authors provide recommendations for exercise prescription for patients with NAFLD.

  6. [Gastric ulcers in liver cirrhosis and their exposure to low-intensity infrared laser radiation].

    PubMed

    Vorozheĭkin, V M; Nazyrov, F G; Artykov, Sh N; Baĭbekov, I M

    1992-01-01

    By means of light, scanning electron microscopy and planimetry, the pathomorphology of gastric ulcers (GU) was investigated in patients who had died from liver cirrhosis (LC) and in rats with experimental portal hypertension (PH). It was noticed that GU are frequent (13.3%) in patients with LC. Experimental GU induced in rats with PH persist longer and their areas are larger than in ulcers without cirrhosis. The treatment of ulcers through abdominal wall with low-intensive infrared laser irradiation (LILR) causes significant acceleration of their epithelialization in the rat without cirrhosis. Ulcers in the animals with cirrhosis do not repair under LILR influence, but their area significantly decreases after forming collateral shunting. The congestion in the portal system is the main pathogenetic element in gastroesophageal ulcerogenesis. The laser therapy without decreasing portal hypertension is not efficient.

  7. Whey-hydrolyzed peptide-enriched immunomodulating diet prevents progression of liver cirrhosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jobara, Kanta; Kaido, Toshimi; Hori, Tomohide; Iwaisako, Keiko; Endo, Kosuke; Uchida, Yoichiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2014-10-01

    Liver fibrosis and subsequent cirrhosis is a major cause of death worldwide, but few effective antifibrotic therapies are reported. Whey-hydrolyzed peptide (WHP), a major peptide component of bovine milk, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models. A WHP-enriched diet is widely used for immunomodulating diets (IMD) in clinical fields. However, the effects of WHP on liver fibrosis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifibrotic effects of WHP in a rat cirrhosis model. Progressive liver fibrosis was induced by repeated intraperitoneal administration of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) for 3 wk. Rats were fed either a WHP-enriched IMD (WHP group) or a control enteral diet (control group). The degree of liver fibrosis was compared between groups. Hepatocyte-protective effects were examined using hepatocytes isolated from rats fed a WHP diet. Reactive oxygen species and glutathione in liver tissue were investigated in the DMN cirrhosis model. Macroscopic and microscopic progression of liver fibrosis was remarkably suppressed in the WHP group. Elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and hyaluronic acid, and liver tissue hydroxyproline content were significantly attenuated in the WHP group. Necrotic hepatocyte rates with DMN challenge, isolated from rats fed a WHP-enriched IMD, were significantly lower. In the DMN cirrhosis model, reactive oxygen species were significantly lower, and glutathione was significantly higher in the WHP group's whole liver tissue. A WHP-enriched IMD effectively prevented progression of DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats via a direct hepatocyte-protective effect and an antioxidant effect through glutathione synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gut microbial translocation corrupts myeloid cell function to control bacterial infection during liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Hackstein, Carl-Philipp; Assmus, Lisa Mareike; Welz, Meike; Klein, Sabine; Schwandt, Timo; Schultze, Joachim; Förster, Irmgard; Gondorf, Fabian; Beyer, Marc; Kroy, Daniela; Kurts, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Kastenmüller, Wolfgang; Knolle, Percy A; Abdullah, Zeinab

    2017-03-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis suffer from increased susceptibility to life-threatening bacterial infections that cause substantial morbidity. Experimental liver fibrosis in mice induced by bile duct ligation or CCl 4 application was used to characterise the mechanisms determining failure of innate immunity to control bacterial infections. In murine liver fibrosis, translocation of gut microbiota induced tonic type I interferon (IFN) expression in the liver. Such tonic IFN expression conditioned liver myeloid cells to produce high concentrations of IFN upon intracellular infection with Listeria that activate cytosolic pattern recognition receptors. Such IFN-receptor signalling caused myeloid cell interleukin (IL)-10 production that corrupted antibacterial immunity, leading to loss of infection-control and to infection-associated mortality. In patients with liver cirrhosis, we also found a prominent liver IFN signature and myeloid cells showed increased IL-10 production after bacterial infection. Thus, myeloid cells are both source and target of IFN-induced and IL-10-mediated immune dysfunction. Antibody-mediated blockade of IFN-receptor or IL-10-receptor signalling reconstituted antibacterial immunity and prevented infection-associated mortality in mice with liver fibrosis. In severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, failure to control bacterial infection is caused by augmented IFN and IL-10 expression that incapacitates antibacterial immunity of myeloid cells. Targeted interference with the immune regulatory host factors IL-10 and IFN reconstitutes antibacterial immunity and may be used as therapeutic strategy to control bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Effect of liver cirrhosis on metastasis in colorectal cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chang, Chun-Ming; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lin, Hon-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chun; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Lee, Moon-Sing; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the liver metastasis risk among colorectal cancer patients with liver cirrhosis. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of 2973 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients with liver cirrhosis and 11 892 age-sex matched controls enrolled in Taiwan between 2000 and 2010. The cumulative risk by Kaplan-Meier method, hazard ratio by the multivariate Cox proportional model and the incidence density were evaluated. The median time interval from the colorectal cancer diagnosis to the liver metastasis event was 7.42 months for liver cirrhosis group and 7.67 months for non-liver cirrhosis group. The incidence density of liver metastasis was higher in the liver cirrhosis group (61.92/1000 person-years) than in the non-liver cirrhosis group (47.48/1000 person-years), with a significantly adjusted hazard ratio of 1.15 (95% CI = 1.04-1.28, P = 0.007). The 10-year cumulative risk of liver metastasis for the liver cirrhosis and the non-liver cirrhosis group was 27.1 and 23.6%, respectively (P = 0.006). For early cancer stage with locoregional disease patients receiving surgery alone without adjuvant anti-cancer treatments, patients with liver cirrhosis (10-year cumulative risk 23.9 vs. 15.7%, P < 0.001) or cirrhotic symptoms (10-year cumulative risk 25.6 vs. 16.6%, P = 0.009) both still had higher liver metastasis risk compared with their counterparts. For etiologies of liver cirrhosis, the 10-year cumulative risk for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, other causes and non-liver cirrhosis were 29.5, 28.9, 27.5, 26.7 and 23.4%, respectively, (P = 0.03). Our study found that liver metastasis risk was underestimated and even higher in colorectal cancer patients with liver cirrhosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Associations of systemic sphingolipids with measures of hepatic function in liver cirrhosis are related to cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Wiest, Reiner; Liebisch, Gerhard; Buechler, Christa

    2017-07-01

    Lipoprotein particles are composed of various lipid classes including cholesterol and sphingolipids, and are low in serum of patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatic decompensation is associated with a further decline of lipoproteins. Aim of the present work was to evaluate whether ceramide and sphingomyelin species are similarly changed in patients with liver cirrhosis and whether these variations are related to systemic cholesterol levels. In a cohort of 45 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, cholesteryl ester species and subsequently total cholesterol were identified to be negatively associated with model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score. Indeed, the negative correlations of ceramide (Cer) and sphingomyelin (SM) species with MELD score, bilirubin and anti-thrombin 3 were non-significant after adjustment for cholesterol. Cer/SM ratios of species with identical acyl chains were not related to Child-Pugh or MELD score indicating that both lipids are comparably changed. Further, cholesterol levels and concentrations of all sphingolipids measured were similar in systemic, hepatic vein and portal vein blood. Cholesterol and distinct sphingolipids were similar before and 3 months after insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt while hexosylceramide 24:1 was significantly induced. It is concluded that analysis of distinct systemic sphingolipid species is not superior to measurement of cholesterol as non-invasive marker of hepatic injury in patients with liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence, predictors and outcomes of acute-on-chronic liver failure in outpatients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Vettore, Elia; Stanco, Marialuisa; Pilutti, Chiara; Romano, Antonietta; Mareso, Sara; Gambino, Carmine; Brocca, Alessandra; Sticca, Antonietta; Fasolato, Silvano; Angeli, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. Prevalence and outcomes of ACLF have recently been described in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. However, no data is currently available on the prevalence and the risk factors of ACLF in outpatients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence, predictors and outcomes of ACLF in a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis. A total of 466 patients with cirrhosis consecutively evaluated in the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital were included and followed up until death and/or liver transplantation for a mean of 45±44months. Data on development of hepatic and extrahepatic organ failures were collected during this period. ACLF was defined and graded according to the EASL-CLIF Consortium definition. During the follow-up, 118 patients (25%) developed ACLF: 57 grade-1, 33 grade-2 and 28 grade-3. The probability of developing ACLF was 14%, 29%, and 41% at 1year, 5years, and 10years, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, baseline mean arterial pressure (hazard ratio [HR] 0.96; p=0.012), ascites (HR 2.53; p=0.019), model of end-stage liver disease score (HR 1.26; p<0.001) and baseline hemoglobin (HR 0.07; p=0.012) were found to be independent predictors of the development of ACLF at one year. As expected, ACLF was associated with a poor prognosis, with a 3-month probability of transplant-free survival of 56%. Outpatients with cirrhosis have a high risk of developing ACLF. The degree of liver failure and circulatory dysfunction are associated with the development of ACLF, as well as low values of hemoglobin. These simple variables may help to identify patients at a high risk of developing ACLF and to plan a program of close surveillance and prevention in these patients. There is a need to identify predictors of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients with cirrhosis in order to identify patients at high risk of developing ACLF and to

  12. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: MR Imaging of Liver Proton Density Fat Fraction to Assess Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, An; Tan, Justin; Sun, Mark; Hamilton, Gavin; Bydder, Mark; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C.; Middleton, Michael; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Loomba, Rohit; Lavine, Joel E.; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for assessing hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using centrally scored histopathologic validation as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: This prospectively designed, cross-sectional, internal review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study was conducted in 77 patients who had NAFLD and liver biopsy. MR imaging–PDFF was estimated from magnitude-based low flip angle multiecho gradient-recalled echo images after T2* correction and multifrequency fat modeling. Histopathologic scoring was obtained by consensus of the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network Pathology Committee. Spearman correlation, additivity and variance stabilization for regression for exploring the effect of a number of potential confounders, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed. Results: Liver MR imaging–PDFF was systematically higher, with higher histologic steatosis grade (P < .001), and was significantly correlated with histologic steatosis grade (ρ = 0.69, P < .001). The correlation was not confounded by age, sex, lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, NASH diagnosis, fibrosis, or magnetic field strength (P = .65). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.989 (95% confidence interval: 0.968, 1.000) for distinguishing patients with steatosis grade 0 (n = 5) from those with grade 1 or higher (n = 72), 0.825 (95% confidence interval: 0.734, 0.915) to distinguish those with grade 1 or lower (n = 31) from those with grade 2 or higher (n = 46), and 0.893 (95% confidence interval: 0.809, 0.977) to distinguish those with grade 2 or lower (n = 58) from those with grade 3 (n = 19). Conclusion: MR imaging–PDFF showed promise for assessment of hepatic steatosis grade in patients with NAFLD. For validation, further studies with larger sample sizes are

  13. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: MR imaging of liver proton density fat fraction to assess hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Tan, Justin; Sun, Mark; Hamilton, Gavin; Bydder, Mark; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C; Middleton, Michael; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Loomba, Rohit; Lavine, Joel E; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Sirlin, Claude B

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for assessing hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using centrally scored histopathologic validation as the reference standard. This prospectively designed, cross-sectional, internal review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study was conducted in 77 patients who had NAFLD and liver biopsy. MR imaging-PDFF was estimated from magnitude-based low flip angle multiecho gradient-recalled echo images after T2* correction and multifrequency fat modeling. Histopathologic scoring was obtained by consensus of the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network Pathology Committee. Spearman correlation, additivity and variance stabilization for regression for exploring the effect of a number of potential confounders, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed. Liver MR imaging-PDFF was systematically higher, with higher histologic steatosis grade (P < .001), and was significantly correlated with histologic steatosis grade (ρ = 0.69, P < .001). The correlation was not confounded by age, sex, lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, NASH diagnosis, fibrosis, or magnetic field strength (P = .65). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.989 (95% confidence interval: 0.968, 1.000) for distinguishing patients with steatosis grade 0 (n = 5) from those with grade 1 or higher (n = 72), 0.825 (95% confidence interval: 0.734, 0.915) to distinguish those with grade 1 or lower (n = 31) from those with grade 2 or higher (n = 46), and 0.893 (95% confidence interval: 0.809, 0.977) to distinguish those with grade 2 or lower (n = 58) from those with grade 3 (n = 19). MR imaging-PDFF showed promise for assessment of hepatic steatosis grade in patients with NAFLD. For validation, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed. © RSNA, 2013.

  14. Distinct enzyme profiles in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis reflect heterogeneous causes with different outcomes after liver transplantation (OLT): a long-term documentation before and after OLT.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Neuhaus, Ruth; Klein, Reinhild; Leder, Korinna; Lobeck, Hartmut; Bechstein, Wolf-Otto; Müller, Andrea R; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Hopf, Uwe; Berg, Peter A; Neuhaus, Peter

    2002-09-27

    Sound information is lacking about the clinical presentation of cryptogenic cirrhosis and its outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Among 856 patients who have been transplanted at our center, 40 patients had no evidence of any known etiologies and were therefore defined as suffering from cryptogenic cirrhosis. Their median follow-up period before OLT was 78 months (range, 1-264), and after OLT 97 months (range, 1-132). Laboratory and histological data were evaluated according to features being compatible either with a toxic, hepatitic, or cholestatic condition. The clinical and histological findings differed specifically between these three groups. The toxic-like group (GGT 4-18 x upper limit of normal [ULN]) expressed significantly higher IgA levels, had histologically more often fatty liver changes, and risk factors for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis predominated (56% compared with 3% in the other groups, P=0.01). The hepatitic-like group (ALT 2-18 x ULN) showed histologically features of chronic hepatitis or hepatitic cirrhosis, and only among these patients a median International Autoimmune Hepatitis (IAH) score of 13 was found suggesting autoimmune hepatitis (AiH). In the cholestatic group (AP 2-8 x ULN) histology was compatible with a non-toxic inflammatory process but IAH score excluded AiH in all. After OLT, actuarial graft and patients survival was 90% at 5 years. Mild or moderate graft hepatitis occurred in 9 patients (23%) and was significantly associated with a pre-OLT IAH score >or= 10 (P =0.008). This study provides arguments that cryptogenic cirrhosis is a heterogeneous disease in which autoimmune mechanisms might be predominately involved and being responsible for recurrence of chronic liver disease observed in some instances after OLT.

  15. Assessment of liver function in primary biliary cirrhosis using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Henrik; Blomqvist, Lennart; Douglas, Lena; Nordell, Anders; Jonas, Eduard

    2010-10-01

    Gd-EOB-DTPA (gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a gadolinium-based hepatocyte-specific contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to determine whether the hepatic uptake and excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA differ between patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and healthy controls, and whether differences could be quantified. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI was performed in 20 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with PBC. The uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA was assessed using traditional semi-quantitative parameters (C(max) , T(max) and T(1/2) ), as well as model-free parameters derived after deconvolutional analysis (hepatic extraction fraction [HEF], input-relative blood flow [irBF] and mean transit time [MTT]). In each individual, all parameters were calculated for each liver segment and the median of the segmental values was used to define a global liver median (GLM). Although the PBC patients had relatively mild disease according to their Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD), Child-Pugh and Mayo risk scores, they had significantly lower HEF and shorter MTT values compared with the healthy controls. These differences significantly increased with increasing MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI (DHCE-MRI) has a potential role as an imaging-based liver function test. The high spatial resolution of MRI enables hepatic function to be assessed on segmental and sub-segmental levels. © 2010 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  16. A disease-specific quality of life instrument for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: CLDQ-NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Stepanova, Maria; Henry, Linda; Racila, Andrei; Lam, Brian; Pham, Huong T; Hunt, Sharon

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are the most common causes of chronic liver disease with known negative impact on patients' health-related quality of life. Our aim was to validate a disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument useful for efficacy trials involving patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. From a long item selection questionnaire, we selected relevant items which, by factor analysis, were grouped into domains constituting Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease version. The developed instrument was subjected to internal validity, test-retest reliability and construct validity assessment using standard methods. For development of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease version instrument, a 75-item-long item selection questionnaire was administered to 25 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. After item reduction, factor analysis found that 98.7% of variance in the remaining items would be explained by six factors. Thus, the resulting Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease version instrument had 36 items grouped into six domains: Abdominal Symptoms, Activity, Emotional, Fatigue, Systemic Symptoms, and Worry. The independent validation group included another 104 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The Cronbach's alphas of 0.74-0.90 suggested good to excellent internal consistency of the domains. Furthermore, the presence of obesity and history of depression were discriminated best by Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease version scores (P<.05). The domains' correlations with the most relevant domains of Short Form-36 exceeded 0.70. Test-retest reliability in a subgroup of patients (N=27) demonstrated no significant within-patient variability with multiple administrations (all median differences were zero, all P>.15

  17. Esophagectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asti, E; Sozzi, M; Bonitta, G; Bernardi, D; Bonavina, L

    2018-04-10

    Patients with esophageal carcinoma and concomitant liver cirrhosis carry a high operative risk and may be denied esophagectomy. We performed a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis to investigate postoperative outcomes in these patients. Studies reporting outcomes after esophagectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis were searched in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus until June 2017, matching the terms "liver cirrhosis", "esophageal neoplasm" and/or "esophageal surgery". Extracted data included study characteristics, demographic and clinical patient characteristics, type of surgical procedure, and postoperative outcomes. A systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis were performed. Five observational, retrospective and single-arm studies with a total of 157 patients were included. The main cause of death was liver failure followed by pneumonia/sepsis and anastomotic leak. Ascites and pleural effusion were the most frequent postoperative complications (pooled rates 36% and 34%, respectively). The pooled morbidity rate was 74% (95% HPD=46-81%) while the pooled mortality was 18% (95% HPD=17-27%). Study heterogeneity (τ2) was low, ranging from 0.046 to 0.080. An incidental diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was reported in 15.6% of patients in one series. Five-year survival was similar between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients but was statistically significantly higher in patients with MELD score<10. Sound scientific evidence with regard to efficacy and outcomes of esophagectomy in patients with concomitant liver cirrhosis is lacking. There is a need to properly select these frail patients to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of Xiaozheng Rongmu powder for the treatment of liver cirrhosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Mu, Yong-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2010-10-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of Xiaozheng Rongmu Powder (XRP) for the treatment of progressive CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Rat liver cirrhosis model was established by subcutaneous injection of 50% CCl4-olive oil 2 mL/kg twice a week for 12 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into the control group treated by saline and the two treatment groups, treated with XRP and Xiaochaihu Decoction, respectively, with the treatment starting from the 9th week of modeling. Rats were sacrificed at the terminal of experiment, the death rate, character of ascites, liver histological changes, liver function, mRNA expression of hepatocyte mitosis and the liver fibrosis associated markers in rats were observed. At the end of the 8th week of modeling, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBil were increased, and Alb decreased significantly in rats (P < 0.01), cirrhosis formation with ascites could be seen in all rats. Meantime, levels of vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin, transforming growth factor-beta1, collagen I A2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, tissue inhibitor of melalloproteinase-1 mRNA increased, while matrix melalloproteinase-13 mRNA were decreased significantly (P < 0.01), with visible liver proliferation to some extents. Further changes of above-mentioned abnormalities and clear suppression of hepatocytes mitosis were found in the modeled rats at the end of the 12th week. As compared to those occurred in the control group, changes in the XRP treated group were significantly milder at the corresponding duration, and clearly active hepatocytes mitosis was shown. XRP, a Chinese drug with the effect of dissolving phlegm, removing stasis and supplementing qi, could reverse the progress of cirrhosis formation induced by CCl4, and it brings potential new hope for the treatment of advanced cirrhosis by Chinese medicine.

  19. An extended fatty liver index to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kantartzis, K; Rettig, I; Staiger, H; Machann, J; Schick, F; Scheja, L; Gastaldelli, A; Bugianesi, E; Peter, A; Schulze, M B; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2017-06-01

    In clinical practice, there is a strong interest in non-invasive markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our hypothesis was that the fold-change in plasma triglycerides (TG) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (fold-change TG OGTT ) in concert with blood glucose and lipid parameters, and the rs738409 C>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PNPLA3 might improve the power of the widely used fatty liver index (FLI) to predict NAFLD. The liver fat content of 330 subjects was quantified by 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Blood parameters were measured during fasting and after a 2-h OGTT. A subgroup of 213 subjects underwent these measurements before and after 9 months of a lifestyle intervention. The fold-change TG OGTT was closely associated with liver fat content (r=0.51, P<0.0001), but had less power to predict NAFLD (AUROC=0.75) than the FLI (AUROC=0.79). Not only was the fold-change TG OGTT independently associated with liver fat content and NAFLD, but so also were the 2-h blood glucose level and rs738409 C>G SNP in PNPLA3. In fact, a novel index (extended FLI) generated from these and the usual FLI parameters considerably increased its power to predict NAFLD (AUROC=0.79-0.86). The extended FLI also increased the power to predict changes in liver fat content with a lifestyle intervention (n=213; standardized beta coefficient: 0.23-0.29). This study has provided novel data confirming that the OGTT-derived fold-change TG OGTT and 2-h glucose level, together with the rs738409 C>G SNP in PNPLA3, allow calculation of an extended FLI that considerably improves its power to predict NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. NHE1 deficiency in liver: Implications for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciT

    Prasad, Vikram, E-mail: prasadvm@ucmail.uc.edu; Chirra, Shivani; Kohli, Rohit

    Highlights: • FXR, PGC1α and PPARγ levels are upregulated in NHE1 deficient livers. • NHE1 deficiency downregulates expression of pro-lipogenic genes in liver. • Chronic exposure to high-fat diet upregulates hepatic NHE1 expression. • Loss of NHE1 better preserves hepatic insulin signaling in high-fat diet-fed mice. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is closely associated with the dysregulation of lipid homeostasis. Diet-induced hepatic steatosis, which can initiate NAFLD progression, has been shown to be dramatically reduced in mice lacking the electroneutral Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE1 (Slc9a1). In this study, we investigated if NHE1 deficiency had effects in livermore » that could contribute to the apparent protection against aberrant lipid accumulation. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses of wild-type and NHE1-null livers revealed an expression profile that strongly suggested attenuation of both de novo lipogenesis and hepatic stellate cell activation, which is implicated in liver fibrosis. This included upregulation of the farnesoid X receptor FXR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ, its co-activator PGC1α, and sestrin 2, an antioxidant protein involved in hepatic metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, expression levels of the pro-lipogenic liver X receptor LXRα, and acetyl CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 were downregulated. These changes were associated with evidence of reduced cellular stress, which persisted even upon exposure to a high-fat diet, and the better preservation of insulin signaling, as evidenced by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation (Ser473). These results indicate that NHE1 deficiency may protect against NAFLD pathogenesis, which is significant given the availability of highly specific NHE1 inhibitors.« less

  1. The impact of weight changes on nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in adult men with normal weight.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ji-Young; Chung, Tae-Heum; Lim, Kyoung-Mo; Park, Hee-Jin; Jang, Jung-Mi

    2014-09-01

    Although it is known that losing weight has an effect on the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the studies that show how losing weight affects the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for the normal weight male adults are limited so far. In this study, we set body mass index as criteria and investigated how the weight changes for 4 years makes an impact on the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for the male adults who have the normal body mass index. From January to December of 2004, among the normal weight male adults who had general check-up at the Health Promotion Center of Ulsan University Hospital, 180 people (average age, 47.4 ± 4.61 years) who were diagnosed with fatty liver through abdominal ultrasonography were included in this study and were observed according to the variety of data and ultrasonography after 4 years (2008). People who had a history of drinking more than 140 g of alcohol per week or who had a past medical history were excluded from the analysis. The weight change of subjects was calculated using the formula 'weight change = weight of 2008 (kg) - weight of 2004 (kg)' and classified into three groups, loss group (≤-3.0 kg), stable group (-2.9 to 2.9 kg), and gain group (≥3.0 kg). The odds for disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in those three different groups were compared. Among 180 subjects, compared with stable group (67.2%, 121 subjects), loss group (11.7%, 21 subjects) showed 18.37-fold increase in the odds of disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.34 to 77.80) and gain group (21.1%, 38 subjects) showed 0.28-fold decrease in the odds of disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.83). Even for the normal weight people, losing weight has an effect on the improvement of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  2. Microbiota and the gut-liver axis: Bacterial translocation, inflammation and infection in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, Valerio; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Iebba, Valerio; Giusto, Michela; Schippa, Serena; Merli, Manuela; Thalheimer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is associated with qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal microbiota. In cirrhotic patients the alteration in gut microbiota is characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (i.e., gram negative species) and a decrease in autochthonous familiae. Here we summarize the available literature on the risk of gut dysbiosis in liver cirrhosis and its clinical consequences. We therefore described the features of the complex interaction between gut microbiota and cirrhotic host, the so called “gut-liver axis”, with a particular attention to the acquired risk of bacterial translocation, systemic inflammation and the relationship with systemic infections in the cirrhotic patient. Such knowledge might help to develop novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of gut dysbiosis and its complication in liver cirrhosis. PMID:25492994

  3. Hyponatremia in liver cirrhosis: pathophysiological principles of management.

    PubMed

    Castello, L; Pirisi, M; Sainaghi, P P; Bartoli, E

    2005-02-01

    Hyponatremia is common in cirrhosis, where it impairs encephalopathy. It could be either due to excess water, or reduced Na, or a combination of both. The diagnosis can be established with clinical skills aided by simple data like weight, blood pressure and plasma electrolytes. The quantitative estimates of the water surfeit or solute deficit, easily performed with simple formulas and measurements, guide accurate and programmed treatment procedures, avoiding the occurrence of the ominous central pontine myelinolysis.

  4. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: association with Child-Pugh score in liver cirrhosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungkar, T.; Zain, L. H.; Siregar, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy (PHG) occurs as a complication of cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. The association between the severity of portal hypertensive gastropathy and the hepatic function, as assessed by the Child-Pugh score in patients with liver cirrhosis are poorly defined. We evaluated association between PHG and Child-Pugh score in patients with liver cirrhosis. Adults liver cirrhosis patients admitted at Adam Malik Hospital Medan during January 2016-December 2016, were included in this study. Endoscopic PHG grade, Child-Pugh score were assessed. A total of 49 patients were enrolled. Majority of cases of liver cirrhosis are due to chronic viral hepatitis B infections (65.3 %). Portal hypertensive gastropathy were observed in 46 cases; twenty-five patients (51%) showed severe portal hypertensive gastropathy. The overall prevalence of PHG and the proportion of patients with severe PHG differ about the Child-Pugh classification. PHG was present in 66.7 % of patients from Child-Pugh class A, 96 % of patients with class B, and 95.2 % of those from class C, and severe forms were present in 0 %, 36 %, and 76.2 %, respectively (P< 0.000). In conclusions, the present data suggest that the severity of portal hypertensive gastropathy is related to Child-Pugh score.

  5. Association of serum retinoic acid with hepatic steatosis and liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hongen; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol), has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in animal models. However, the relation between RA and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown. This study aimed at examining the association of RA with NAFLD and NASH in Chinese subjects. Serum RA concentration was determined by ELISA in 41 control subjects, 45 patients with NAFLD, and 38 patients with NASH. The associations of RA with adiposity, serum glucose, lipid profiles, and markers of liver damage were studied. Moreover, both mRNA and protein levels of retinoic X receptor α (RXRα) in the liver were analyzed in subjects with different degrees of hepatic steatosis. Serum RA concentrations in patients with NAFLD (1.42 ± 0.47 ng/mL) and NASH (1.14 ± 0.26 ng/mL) were significantly lower than those in control subjects (2.70 ± 0.52 ng/mL) (P < 0.01). Furthermore, serum RA concentrations were significantly different between subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with type 2 diabetes in control [2.87 ± 0.52 (n = 28) vs. 2.32 ± 0.44 ng/mL (n = 13)], NAFLD [1.61 ± 0.37 (n = 29) vs. 1.28 ± 0.41 ng/mL (n = 16)], and NASH [1.35 ± 0.34 (n = 24) vs. 1.07 ± 0.29 ng/mL (n = 14)] groups. In human liver tissue, RXRα mRNA expression was inversely correlated with the exacerbation of hepatic steatosis. Both serum RA concentrations and RXRα mRNA levels were inversely correlated with intrahepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.700, P < 0.001, and r = -0.611, P = 0.002, respectively). Compared with grade 0 severity, the concentration of RXRα protein was lower in more severe grades in patients with NAFLD. These results show that circulating RA concentrations were lower in subjects with NAFLD and were associated with hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01940263. © 2015

  6. The impact of alcohol taxation on liver cirrhosis mortality.

    PubMed

    Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of distilled spirits, wine, and beer taxes on cirrhosis mortality using a large-panel data set and statistical models that control for various other factors that may affect that mortality. The analyses were performed on a panel of 30 U.S. license states during the period 1971-1998 (N = 840 state-by-year observations). Exogenous measures included current and lagged versions of beverage taxes and income, as well as controls for states' age distribution, religion, race, health care availability, urbanity, tourism, and local bans on alcohol sales. Regression analyses were performed using random-effects models with corrections for serial autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity among states. Cirrhosis rates were found to be significantly related to taxes on distilled spirits but not to taxation of wine and beer. Consistent results were found using different statistical models and model specifications. Consistent with prior research, cirrhosis mortality in the United States appears more closely linked to consumption of distilled spirits than to that of other alcoholic beverages.

  7. Type 2 Diabetes in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatitis C Virus Infection—Liver: The “Musketeer” in the Spotlight

    PubMed Central

    Ballestri, Stefano; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Romagnoli, Dante; Baldelli, Enrica; Targher, Giovanni; Lonardo, Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) involves chronic hyperinsulinemia due to systemic and hepatic insulin resistance (IR), which if uncorrected, will lead to progressive pancreatic beta cell failure in predisposed individuals. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of fatty (simple steatosis and steatohepatitis) and non-fatty liver changes (NASH-cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) that are commonly observed among individuals with multiple metabolic derangements, notably including visceral obesity, IR and T2D. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is also often associated with both hepatic steatosis and features of a specific HCV-associated dysmetabolic syndrome. In recent years, the key role of the steatotic liver in the development of IR and T2D has been increasingly recognized. Thus, in this comprehensive review we summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that links T2D with NAFLD and HCV infection. For each of these two liver diseases with systemic manifestations, we discuss the epidemiological burden, the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the clinical implications. To date, substantial evidence suggests that NAFLD and HCV play a key role in T2D development and that the interaction of T2D with liver disease may result in a “vicious circle”, eventually leading to an increased risk of all-cause mortality and liver-related and cardiovascular complications. Preliminary evidence also suggests that improvement of NAFLD is associated with a decreased incidence of T2D. Similarly, the prevention of T2D following HCV eradication in the era of direct-acting antiviral agents is a biologically plausible result. However, additional studies are required for further clarification of mechanisms involved. PMID:27005620

  8. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gang; Pan, Shangha; Li, Jie; Dong, Xuesong; Kang, Kai; Zhao, Mingyan; Jiang, Xian; Kanwar, Jagat R; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. Impaired production of H(2)S contributes to the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic livers. The study aimed to investigate the roles of H(2)S in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H(2)S, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG), an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), were applied to the rats to investigate the effects of H(2)S on CCl(4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension by measuring serum levels of H(2)S, hepatic H(2)S producing activity and CSE expression, liver function, activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, oxidative and inflammatory parameters, liver fibrosis and portal pressure. CCl(4) significantly reduced serum levels of H(2)S, hepatic H(2)S production and CSE expression. NaHS attenuated CCl(4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity by supplementing exogenous H(2)S, which displayed anti-oxidative activities and inhibited the CYP2E1 activity. NaHS protected liver function, attenuated liver fibrosis, inhibited inflammation, and reduced the portal pressure, evidenced by the alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), albumin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, liver histology, hepatic hydroxyproline content and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression. PAG showed opposing effects to NaHS on most of the above parameters. Exogenous H(2)S attenuates CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension by its multiple functions including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, cytoprotection and anti-fibrosis, indicating that targeting H(2)S may present a promising approach, particularly for its prophylactic effects, against liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hispanic youth with dysglycemia: Risk for subclinical atherosclerosis?

    Obese Hispanic adolescents (OHAs) with dysglycemia have increased cardiovascular disease risk burden. To investigate if nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers added risk for endothelial dysfunction in these youth. Cross-sectional study. Academic institution. Thirty-six OHAs (15.360.4 years...

  10. Effects of D-002, a mixture of high molecular weight beeswax alcohols, on patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Illnait, José; Rodríguez, Iván; Mendoza, Sarahí; Fernández, Yolanda; Mas, Rosa; Miranda, Mirtha; Piñera, Jesús; Fernández, Julio César; Mesa, Meilis; Fernández, Lilia; Carbajal, Daisy; Gámez, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is intimately related to insulin resistance and ranges from a benign course to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD management mainly involves dietary modification and weight loss. Although no fully successful pharmacological intervention is available, alternative therapies to treat NAFLD have shown promising results. Experimental studies have shown that D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols with antioxidant effects, is hepatoprotective. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of D-002 in patients with NALFD. Fifty patients with NAFLD were randomized to receive a placebo or D-002 (100 mg/day) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was a significant ultrasonography-detected reduction of liver fat infiltration versus a placebo. Secondary endpoints were decreases in the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, insulin levels, serum liver enzymes, increases in plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and improved clinical symptoms versus the placebo recipients. At randomization, all indicators were comparable in both groups. At study completion, seven (28.0%) D-002-patients, but none of the placebo recipients, exhibited a normal liver echo pattern on ultrasonography (p < 0.01). Also, D-002 significantly reduced (p < 0.01 vs. baseline and placebo) the HOMA index and insulin levels and increased the TAS, but did not affect other parameters. The proportion of D-002-patients (12/25, 48.0%) showing symptom improvement was higher (p < 0.001) than that of the placebo group (1/25, 4.0%). The treatment was safe and well tolerated. Three patients in each group withdrew from the study. D-002 (100 mg/day) improved ultrasonographic findings, indicators of insulin resistance, plasma TAS and clinical evolution on NAFLD patients. Further studies, however, are needed to confirm these results.

  11. Analysis of Serum Haptoglobin Fucosylation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Liver Cirrhosis of Different Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We have developed herein a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach to analyze the etiology-related alterations in fucosylation degree of serum haptoglobin in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The three most common etiologies, including infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and heavy alcohol consumption (ALC), were investigated. Only 10 μL of serum was used in this assay in which haptoglobin was immunoprecipitated using a monoclonal antibody. The N-glycans of haptoglobin were released with PNGase F, desialylated, and permethylated prior to MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis. In total, N-glycan profiles derived from 104 individual patient samples were quantified (14 healthy controls, 40 cirrhosis, and 50 HCCs). A unique pattern of bifucosylated tetra-antennary glycan, with both core and antennary fucosylation, was identified in HCC patients. Quantitative analysis indicated that the increased fucosylation degree was highly associated with HBV- and ALC-related HCC patients compared to that of the corresponding cirrhosis patients. Notably, the bifucosylation degree was distinctly increased in HCC patients versus that in cirrhosis of all etiologies. The elevated bifucosylation degree of haptoglobin can discriminate early stage HCC patients from cirrhosis in each etiologic category, which may be used to provide a potential marker for early detection and to predict HCC in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24807840

  12. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 alleviates liver cirrhosis via improvement of the dysfunctional gut-liver axis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wen, Shi-Lei; Tong, Huan; Wang, Chun-Hui; Yang, Wen-Juan; Tang, Shi-Hang; Yan, Zhao-Ping; Tai, Yang; Ye, Cheng; Liu, Rui; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Ying-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory transport through the gut-liver axis may facilitate liver cirrhosis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been considered as one of the important molecules that regulates intestinal epithelial barrier function. This study was aimed to test the hypothesis that inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib might alleviate liver cirrhosis via reduction of intestinal inflammatory transport in thiacetamide (TAA) rat model. COX-2/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/EP-2/p-ERK integrated signal pathways regulated the expressions of intestinal zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and E-cadherin, which maintain the function of intestinal epithelial barrier. Celecoxib not only decreased the intestinal permeability to a 4-kDa FITC-dextran but also significantly increased expressions of ZO-1 and E-cadherin. When celecoxib greatly decreased intestinal levels of LPS, TNF-α, and IL-6, it significantly enhanced T cell subsets reduced by TAA. As a result, liver fibrosis induced by TAA was significantly alleviated in the celecoxib group. These data indicated that celecoxib improved the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier, blocked inflammatory transport through the dysfunctional gut-liver axis, and ameliorated the progress of liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Thermoneutral housing exacerbates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and allows for sex-independent disease modeling

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Daniel A; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E; Stankiewicz, Traci E; Graspeuntner, Simon; Cappelletti, Monica; Wu, David; Mukherjee, Rajib; Chan, Calvin C; Lawson, Matthew J; Klarquist, Jared; Sünderhauf, Annika; Softic, Samir; Kahn, C Ronald; Stemmer, Kerstin; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Aronow, Bruce J; Karns, Rebekah; Steinbrecher, Kris A; Karp, Christopher L; Sheridan, Rachel; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K; Reynaud, Damien; Haslam, David B; Sina, Christian; Rupp, Jan; Hogan, Simon P; Divanovic, Senad

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common prelude to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Defining the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NAFLD has been hampered by a lack of animal models that closely recapitulate the severe end of the human disease spectrum, including bridging hepatic fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate that a novel experimental model employing thermoneutral housing, as opposed to standard housing, resulted in lower stress-driven production of corticosterone, augmented mouse proinflammatory immune responses and markedly exacerbated high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD pathogenesis. Disease exacerbation at thermoneutrality was conserved across multiple mouse strains and was associated with augmented intestinal permeability, an altered microbiome and activation of inflammatory pathways associated with human disease. Depletion of Gram-negative microbiota, hematopoietic cell deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inactivation of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) axis resulted in altered immune responsiveness and protection from thermoneutral housing-driven NAFLD amplification. Finally, female mice, typically resistant to HFD-induced obesity and NAFLD, develop full-blown disease at thermoneutrality. Thus, thermoneutral housing provides a sex-independent model of exacerbated NAFLD in mice and represents a novel approach for interrogation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis. PMID:28604704

  14. Hepatic AMP Kinase as a Potential Target for Treating Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Evidence from Studies of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Huang, Kaixun; Zhou, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease, is the leading cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis and has consistently been implicated in related metabolic disorders, such as dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains to be elucidated, and no established therapeutic regimens for treating NAFLD exist. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the main cellular energy sensor, has been implicated as a key regulator of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Recently, emerging evidence indicates that many plant-derived natural products are capable of ameliorating NAFLD by targeting AMPK. The published literature in PubMed relating to this topic was searched through June 2016. Significant advances have been made with respect to understanding the protective effects of plant-derived natural products against NAFLD. A variety of natural products, including alkaloids (berberine, demethyleneberberine, nicotine, caffeine, etc.), polyphenols (resveratrol, puerarin, curcumin, caffeic acid, etc.) and other compounds (β- caryophyllene, gastrodin, compound K, betulinic acid, etc.), have demonstrated promising results in preclinical studies. Mechanistic studies of these compounds have focused on their activation of AMPK and its downstream effectors involved in lipid metabolism. The findings of this review confirm that plant-derived natural products capable of activating the AMPK signaling pathway are potential therapeutic agents for NAFLD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Metabolic markers and ALT cutoff level for diagnosing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Hirooka, Masashi; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Furukawa, Shinya; Ueda, Teruhisa; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Hiasa, Yoichi; Matsuura, Bunzo; Onji, Morikazu

    2012-06-01

    Untreated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may progress to liver cirrhosis or failure and is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It is therefore essential to diagnose and treat NAFLD at an early stage. To assist in this effort, this retrospective study explored the risk factors for NAFLD, and derived new surrogates, a revised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) cutoff level and a novel NAFLD index, to identify previously undiagnosed cases of NAFLD. Using a community-based, cross-sectional design, the records of 6,370 Japanese subjects who had undergone at least 1 annual health check-up were reviewed for the identification of subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria for NAFLD and the variables associated with NAFLD for the estimation of ideal ALT cutoff levels. The results of multivariate analysis of the 1,346 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria for NAFLD confirmed that metabolic disease markers and a novel NAFLD index, using the variables derived from multivariate analysis, were also markers of NAFLD. The ALT cutoff levels for NAFLD diagnosis were estimated at 25 U/L for males and 17 U/L for females. ALT level and the novel NAFLD index were confirmed to be surrogate markers for NAFLD in addition to metabolic disease markers. The ALT cutoff level used in NAFLD diagnosis should be revised downward to identify subjects at risk of NAFLD to prevent NAFLD progression and the development of associated diseases.

  16. Ultrasound imaging in an experimental model of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestic dogs and cats are very well known to develop chronic hepatic diseases, including hepatic lipidosis and cirrhosis. Ultrasonographic examination is extensively used to detect them. However, there are still few reports on the use of the ultrasound B-mode scan in correlation with histological findings to evaluate diffuse hepatic changes in rodents, which represent the most important animal group used in experimental models of liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of ultrasound findings in the assessment of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis when compared to histological results in Wistar rats by following up a murine model of chronic hepatic disease. Results Forty Wistar rats (30 treated, 10 controls) were included. Liver injury was induced by dual exposure to CCl4 and ethanol for 4, 8 and 15 weeks. Liver echogenicity, its correlation to the right renal cortex echogenicity, measurement of portal vein diameter (PVD) and the presence of ascites were evaluated and compared to histological findings of hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis. Liver echogenicity correlated to hepatic steatosis when it was greater or equal to the right renal cortex echogenicity, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 76.9% respectively, and accuracy of 92.5%. Findings of heterogeneous liver echogenicity and irregular surface correlated to liver cirrhosis with a sensitivity of 70.6%, specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 82.1% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%. PVD was significantly increased in both steatotic and cirrhotic rats; however, the later had greater diameters. PVD cut-off point separating steatosis from cirrhosis was 2.1 mm (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90.5%). One third of cirrhotic rats presented with ascites. Conclusion The use of ultrasound imaging in the follow-up of murine diffuse liver disease models is feasible and

  17. Gut-liver axis and probiotics: Their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a “low bacterial richness” may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier (“leaky gut”), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

  18. Association between nocturnal hypoxia and liver injury in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qi-Chang; Chen, Li-Da; Chen, Gong-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Ming; Chen, Xiao; Huang, Jie-Feng; Wu, Li-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is suggested as a potential risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanism is still far from clear. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the influence of OSA-related hypoxia on severity of liver injury in patients with NAFLD. Consecutive patients with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD who underwent standard polysomnography were enrolled. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all patients for biological profile measurements, and demographic data were collected. Subjects were divided into control, moderate, and severe groups. A total of 85 subjects with 73 males and 12 females were included (mean age, 44.67 ± 1.28 years; mean body mass index, 27.28 ± 0.33 kg/m(2)). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT/AST, gamma glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting glucose, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly increased with the aggravation of OSA. In multivariate analysis, oxygen desaturation index was the major contributing factor for elevated ALT (β = 0.435, p = 0.000), average O2 saturation was the major independent predictor of elevated AST (β = -0.269, p = 0.020). OSA-related hypoxia was independently associated with the biochemical evidence of liver injury in the presence of NAFLD.

  19. Elevated renin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Mahmoud; El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed M; El-Kady, Ibrahim; Talaat, Ayman

    2010-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common consequence of chronic liver injury of any etiology, disrupting the normal architecture,and causing hepatocellular dysfunction and portal hypertension. Since the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be involved in chronic liver diseases, in the present study we assayed renin levels using ELISA in groups of Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis (N=32) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (N=67), for comparison with twenty five healthy controls. The results showed significant differences between the control and liver cirrhosis patients (P<0.001) and also the controls and HCC patients (P<0.001), without significant variation between the patient groups. Furthermore, in HCC patients, it was found that the renin levels negatively correlated with serum albumin and prothrombin time (P=0.003 for each) and positively with α-fetoprotein (P=0.04). Thus, it is concluded that renin levels are elevated in patients with liver cirrhosis and HCC and suitable medical intervention should be placed for management of such alteration. Moreover, further studies are warranted to explore its prognostic significance.

  20. Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of liver volume and total liver fat burden in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, An; Chen, Joshua; Le, Thuy-Anh; Changchien, Christopher; Hamilton, Gavin; Middleton, Michael S.; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between fractional liver fat content, liver volume, and total liver fat burden. Methods In 43 adults with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis participating in a clinical trial, liver volume was estimated by segmentation of magnitude-based low-flip-angle multiecho GRE images. The liver mean proton density fat fraction (PDFF) was calculated. The total liver fat index (TLFI) was estimated as the product of liver mean PDFF and liver volume. Linear regression analyses were performed. Results Cross-sectional analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between TLFI and liver mean PDFF (R2 = 0.740 baseline/0.791 follow-up, P < 0.001 baseline/P < 0.001 follow-up), and between TLFI and liver volume (R2 = 0.352/0.452, P < 0.001/< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between liver volume change and liver mean PDFF change (R2 = 0.556, P < 0.001), between TLFI change and liver mean PDFF change (R2 = 0.920, P < 0.001), and between TLFI change and liver volume change (R2 = 0.735, P < 0.001). Conclusion Liver segmentation in combination with MRI-based PDFF estimation may be used to monitor liver volume, liver mean PDFF, and TLFI in a clinical trial. PMID:25015398

  1. Correlation of serum liver fibrosis markers with severity of liver dysfunction in liver cirrhosis: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cuihong; Qi, Xingshun; Li, Hongyu; Peng, Ying; Dai, Junna; Chen, Jiang; Xia, Chunlian; Hou, Yue; Zhang, Wenwen; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III pro-collagen (PIIINP), and collagen IV (CIV) are four major serum markers of liver fibrosis. This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the correlations of the four serum markers with the severity of liver dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. Between January 2013 and June 2014, a total of 228 patients with a clinical diagnosis with liver cirrhosis and without malignancy underwent the tests of HA, LN, PIIINP, and CIV levels. Laboratory data were collected. Child-Pugh and model for the end-stage of liver diseases (MELD) scores were calculated. Of them, 32%, 40%, and 18% had Child-Pugh class A, B, and C, respectively. MELD score was 7.58±0.50. HA (coefficient r: 0.1612, P=0.0203), LN (coefficient r: 0.2445, P=0.0004), and CIV (coefficient r: 0.2361, P=0.0006) levels significantly correlated with Child-Pugh score, but not PIIINP level. Additionally, LN (coefficient r: 0.2588, P=0.0002) and CIV (coefficient r: 0.1795, P=0.0108) levels significantly correlated with MELD score, but not HA or PIIINP level. In conclusions, HA, LN, and CIV levels might be positively associated with the severity of liver dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. However, given a relatively weak correlation between them, our findings should be cautiously interpreted and further validated. PMID:26131195

  2. Cell-Free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy for Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Koichi; IInuma, Masahiro; Takagi, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Takanori; Sanpei, Takaya; Terunuma, Yusuke; Yatabe, Yoshiharu; Akano, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) is expected to improve symptoms associated with refractory ascites of the decompensated liver cirrhosis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the CART system performed on the decompensated liver cirrhosis patients. In this retrospective observational study, we evaluated 24 CART processes performed on 11 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. We evaluated the effectiveness and adverse events during CART procedures. The amounts of collected and concentrated ascites were 4491.7 ± 2222.8 mL (mean ± SD), respectively, and the concentration ratio was 22.4 ± 15.3 times, respectively. The amount of collected protein in ascites was 2.3 ± 0.5 g/dL, and concentration ratio of protein was 8.2 ± 9.4 times. Serum protein level was not significantly different between before and after CART sessions. Thus, CART allowed for the reduction of doses of albumin preparations (Alb) to be administered. CART has been reported to cause two adverse reactions: elevation of body temperature and decrease in blood pressure. In our study, decreased blood pressure was not observed even in patients with > 5 L of ascites drained. Although a transient elevation in body temperature was seen in only one patient, this febrile patient immediately returned to normal body temperature with the use of NSAIDs. In patients with refractory ascites of decompensated liver cirrhosis in whom complete cure cannot be expected, CART improves their QOL and, in terms of medical economy, allows for the reduction of doses of Alb. CART can be effectively applied as a palliative procedure for refractory ascites of decompensated liver cirrhosis patients. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  3. Carvedilol use is associated with improved survival in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rohit; Lockman, Khalida A; Mallawaarachchi, Nethmee; Robertson, Marcus; Plevris, John N; Hayes, Peter C

    2017-07-01

    Carvedilol, a non-selective beta-blocker (NSBB) with additional anti-alpha 1 receptor activity, is a potent portal hypotensive agent and has been used as prophylaxis against variceal bleeding. However, its safety in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites is still disputed. In this study, we examined whether long-term use of carvedilol in patients with ascites is a risk factor for mortality. A single-centre retrospective analysis of 325 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites presenting to our Liver Unit between 1st of January 2009 to 31st August 2012 was carried out. The primary outcome was all-cause and liver-specific mortality in patients receiving or not receiving carvedilol as prophylaxis against variceal bleeding. The final cohort after propensity score matching comprised 264 patients. Baseline ascites severity and UK end-stage liver disease (UKELD) score between carvedilol (n=132) and non-carvedilol (n=132) treated patient groups were comparable. Median follow-up time was 2.3years. Survival at the end of the follow-up was 24% and 2% for the carvedilol and the non-carvedilol groups respectively (log-rank p<0.0001). The long-term survival was significantly better in carvedilol than non-carvedilol group (log-rank p<0.001). The survival difference remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, ascites severity, aetiology of cirrhosis, previous variceal bleed, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis prophylaxis, serum albumin and UKELD with hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44, 0.80; p=0.001), suggesting a 41% reduction in mortality risk. When stratified by the severity of ascites, carvedilol therapy resulted in hazard ratio of 0.47 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.77; p=0.003) in those with mild ascites. Even with moderate or severe ascites, carvedilol use was not associated with increased mortality risk. Long-term carvedilol therapy is not harmful in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites. The safety of carvedilol

  4. Single non-invasive model to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    PubMed

    Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Estep, Michael J; Hossain, Nayeem; Younossi, Elena; Frost, Spencer; Henry, Linda; Hunt, Sharon; Fang, Yun; Goodman, Zachary; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-12-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A liver biopsy is considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing/staging NASH. Identification of NAFLD/NASH using non-invasive tools is important for intervention. The study aims were to: develop/validate the predictive performance of a non-invasive model (index of NASH [ION]); assess the performance of a recognized non-invasive model (fatty liver index [FLI]) compared with ION for NAFLD diagnosis; determine which non-invasive model (FLI, ION, or NAFLD fibrosis score [NFS]) performed best in predicting age-adjusted mortality. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database, anthropometric, clinical, ultrasound, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained (n = 4458; n = 861 [19.3%] NAFLD by ultrasound) and used to develop the ION model, and then to compare the ION and FLI models for NAFLD diagnosis. For validation and diagnosis of NASH, liver biopsy data were used (n = 152). Age-adjusted Cox proportional hazard modeling estimated the association among the three non-invasive tests (FLI, ION, and NFS) and mortality. FLI's threshold score > 60 and ION's threshold score > 22 had similar specificity (FLI = 80% vs ION = 82%) for NAFLD diagnosis; FLI < 30 (80% sensitivity) and ION < 11 (81% sensitivity) excluded NAFLD. An ION score > 50 predicted histological NASH (92% specificity); the FLI model did not predict NASH or mortality. The ION model was best in predicting cardiovascular/diabetes-related mortality; NFS predicted overall or diabetes-related mortality. The ION model was superior in predicting NASH and mortality compared with the FLI model. Studies are needed to validate ION. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - histological scoring systems: a large cohort single-center, evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archana; Shasthry, Saggere Muralikrishna; Agarwal, Ayushi; Bihari, Chhagan; Jain, Priyanka; Jindal, Ankur; Sarin, Shiv

    2017-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common cause of chronic liver disease. Till date, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for identification and quantification of the wide histological spectra of NAFLD. Histological scorings are very useful and widely applied for the diagnosis and management in clinical trials and follow-up studies of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, in view of scarce published literature, there is a need to evaluate them in large cohort of NAFLD. This study was aimed to evaluate the two histological scoring systems (NAS-CRN, SAF) in the diagnosis of NAFLD and to assess the role of histological characteristics as injury markers in NAFLD. Retrospective histological study of liver biopsies of 1000 patients diagnosed as NAFLD, between 2010 and 2016, was conducted. Histopathologic evaluation and semiquantiative scoring based on NAS-CRN and SAF algorithm and their correlation with serum aminotransferase and fibrosis were performed. Liver biopsies were classified according to the NAS-CRN scoring, as NAS <3 (not NASH) in 72 (7.2%), NAS 3-4 (borderline NASH) in 310 (31%), and NAS ≥5 (definite NASH) in 618 (61.8%), and SAF classified 117 (11.7%) not NASH and 883 (88.3%) definite NASH. There was excellent concordance for definite NASH and not NASH; however, 88.06% of borderline NASH was classified as NASH by SAF. 76.39% by NAS and 78.63% by SAF algorithm who were diagnosed as not NASH showed the presence of fibrosis; however, higher stages of fibrosis were significantly more prevalent in definite NASH, excluding burnt-out cirrhosis. Serum ALT was significantly associated with increasing stages of fibrosis (p < 0.001) and the three categories (not NASH, borderline NASH, and definite NASH) when classified as with/without fibrosis (p < 0.001). Steatosis of higher grades, more ballooned cells, and more foci of Lobular Inflammation were found in significantly higher proportion of patients with NASH (p < 0

  6. Use of Statins in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis: Current Views and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose Ignacio; Arrese, Marco; Shah, Vijay H; Arab, Juan Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the current evidence regarding the use of statins in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Chronic liver disease (CLD), cirrhosis, and its complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are significant public health problems. The use of statins in patients with CLD has been a matter of concern, and physicians are often reluctant to its prescription in these patients. This mainly relates to the potential occurrence of drug-induced liver injury. However, newer evidence from pre-clinical and clinical research has shown that statins are drugs with a potentially beneficial impact on the natural history of cirrhosis, on portal hypertension, and in HCC prevention. In this review, we summarize current evidence regarding the influence of statins in endothelial dysfunction in CLD, their ability to modulate hepatic fibrogenesis, and their vasoprotective effects in portal hypertension; we also focus on existing data about the impact of statins in cirrhosis development, progression, and complications and critically assess the current concerns about its use in patients with CLD.

  7. Prognosis elements in surgical treatment of complicated umbilical hernia in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Banu, P; Popa, F; Constantin, V D; Bălălău, C; Nistor, M

    2013-09-15

    The surgical treatment of umbilical hernia in cirrhosis patients raises special management challenges. The attitude upon the repair of these hernias varies from expectancy or elective treatment in early stages of the disease to the surgical treatment only if complications occur. We have assessed 22 consecutive cases of cirrhosis patients treated for complicated umbilical hernia in the Surgical Department of "Sf. Pantelimon" Emergency Hospital in Bucharest between January 2008 and December 2012. The patients' stratification was done in stages of liver disease based upon Child-Pugh classification. Complications that required emergency repair were the following: strangulation, incarceration and hernia rupture. The postoperative complications were ordered in five grades of severity based upon Clavien classification. The severity of the complications was higher in advanced stages of liver cirrhosis, Child B and C. There were 5 deaths representing 22,7%, four of them in patients with Child C disease stage. The incidence of morbidity and mortality after umbilical hernia repair in emergencies increases in advanced stages of liver cirrhosis. It is advisable to prevent complications occurrence and perform surgical repair of umbilical hernia in elective condition.

  8. Increased accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in female GSTA4/PPAR alpha double knockout mice enhance steatosis and inflammation in a model of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Hepatocellular injury resulting from increased lipid peroxidation products and oxidative stress is considered a potential mechanism driving the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitsis (NASH). To test the significance of lipid peroxidation and protein...

  9. Serum Liver Fibrosis Markers for Predicting the Presence of Gastroesophageal Varices in Liver Cirrhosis: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jiang; Xia, Chunlian; Peng, Ying; Dai, Junna; Hou, Yue; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the role of hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and collagen IV (CIV) in predicting the presence of gastroesophageal varices (GEVs) in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods. We enrolled 118 patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent the tests for the four serum liver fibrosis markers and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the same admissions. The predictive values of the four serum liver fibrosis markers were evaluated by the areas under the receiving operator characteristics curves (AUROCs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. The prevalence of GEVs was 88% (104/118). The AUROCs for HA, LN, PIIINP, and CIV levels in predicting the presence of GEVs were 0.553 (95% CI: 0.458 to 0.644, P = 0.5668), 0.490 (95% CI: 0.397 to 0.584, P = 0.9065), 0.622 (95% CI: 0.528 to 0.710, P = 0.1099), and 0.560 (95% CI: 0.466 to 0.652, P = 0.4909). The PIIINP level at a cut-off value of 31.25 had a sensitivity of 73.1% and a specificity of 57.1%. Conclusions. The present study did not recommend HA, LN, PIIINP, and CIV levels to evaluate the presence of GEVs in liver cirrhosis. PMID:26770190

  10. Waist-to-height ratio is a useful index for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: a secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Tsai-Hui; Guo, Su-Er; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Chiang, Ming-Shin; Huang, Tung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2017-10-30

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global problem and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically. Early NAFLD might progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or liver cirrhosis and significantly increase liver disease-related mortality. We looked for NAFLD predictors in children and adolescents. This community-based, cross-sectional study ran from December 2012 to September 2013 in southwestern Taiwan. Children <10 and >19 years old, with detected hepatic diseases, or who drank alcohol were excluded. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasound: age, sex, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory data were evaluated for associated risks by using logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine cutoff values. We enrolled one thousand, two hundred and ten children (594 males; 616 females; mean age: 15.5 ± 2.8 years). Age, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory data were significantly higher in children with NAFLD. The association between NAFLD and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was significant (adjusted odds ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.909-3.549; P < 0.001). It indicated highly suspicion of NAFLD (sensitivity: 70.1%; specificity 76.9%) when the WHtR for children and adolescents is above the cutoff value of 0.469. The WHtR might be a powerful index of the severity of pediatric NAFLD.

  11. Effects of thalidomide on the expression of adhesion molecules in rat liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peng; Paul, Shelley Chireyath; Xiao, Yanjv; Liu, Shiquan; Luo, Hesheng

    2006-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of thalidomide on expression of adhesion molecules in liver cirrhosis. The cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4), and thalidomide (10 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day) was given by intragastric administration for 8 weeks. Liver histopathology and immunohistochemistry were significantly improved and the expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein were decreased significantly in rats treated with a high dose of thalidomide. Close positive correlation was observed in the expression of the TNF-alpha mRNA and that of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin mRNA, respectively. These results indicate that thalidomide exerts its effect on the downregulation of adhesion molecules via TNF-alpha signaling pathway to inhibit liver fibrosis.

  12. Effects of Thalidomide on the Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Rat Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Peng; Paul, Shelley Chireyath; Xiao, Yanjv; Liu, Shiquan; Luo, Hesheng

    2006-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of thalidomide on expression of adhesion molecules in liver cirrhosis. The cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4, and thalidomide (10 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day) was given by intragastric administration for 8 weeks. Liver histopathology and immunohistochemistry were significantly improved and the expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and TNF-α mRNA and protein were decreased significantly in rats treated with a high dose of thalidomide. Close positive correlation was observed in the expression of the TNF-α mRNA and that of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin mRNA, respectively. These results indicate that thalidomide exerts its effect on the downregulation of adhesion molecules via TNF-α signaling pathway to inhibit liver fibrosis. PMID:17047296

  13. Training sample selection based on self-training for liver cirrhosis classification using ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a popular and non-invasive tool used in the diagnoses of liver disease. Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease and it can advance to liver cancer. Early detection and appropriate treatment are crucial to prevent liver cancer. However, ultrasound image analysis is very challenging, because of the low signal-to-noise ratio of ultrasound images. To achieve the higher classification performance, selection of training regions of interest (ROIs) is very important that effect to classification accuracy. The purpose of our study is cirrhosis detection with high accuracy using liver ultrasound images. In our previous works, training ROI selection by MILBoost and multiple-ROI classification based on the product rule had been proposed, to achieve high classification performance. In this article, we propose self-training method to select training ROIs effectively. Evaluation experiments were performed to evaluate effect of self-training, using manually selected ROIs and also automatically selected ROIs. Experimental results show that self-training for manually selected ROIs achieved higher classification performance than other approaches, including our conventional methods. The manually ROI definition and sample selection are important to improve classification accuracy in cirrhosis detection using