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Sample records for nonclassical yellow nail

  1. Yellow nail syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Vignes, Stéphane; Baran, Robert

    2017-02-27

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS; OMIM 153300, ORPHA662) is a very rare disorder that almost always occurs after 50 years of age but a juvenile or familial form has also been observed. YNS is diagnosed based on a triad associating yellow nail discoloration, pulmonary manifestations (chronic cough, bronchiectasia, pleural effusion) and lower limb lymphedema. Chronic sinusitis is frequently associated with the triad. YNS etiology remains unknown but a role of lymphatic impairment is usually evoked. YNS is more frequently isolated but may be associated in rare cases with autoimmune diseases, other clinical manifestations implicating lymphatic functions or cancer and, hence, is also considered a paraneoplastic syndrome. YNS management is symptomatic and not codified. YNS can resolve spontaneously. Oral vitamin E alone or even better when associated with triazole antifungals may achieve partial or total disappearance of nail discoloration. Pleural effusion can be treated surgically, with decortication/pleurectomy or pleurodesis. Antibiotic prophylaxis is prescribed for bronchiectasia with chronic sputum production. Lymphedema treatment is based on low-stretch bandages and the wearing of elastic compression garments combined with skin care, exercises and, as needed, manual lymph drainage.

  2. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  3. Relapse of Yellow Nail Syndrome with Pulmonary Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kozo; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Yano, Ryozo; Sasaki, Yuka; Osawa, Takeshi; Kudoh, Shoji; Goto, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder characterized by the triad of yellow, thickened nails, lymphedema, and respiratory manifestations such as pleural effusions, bronchiectasis, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. We report a case of YNS showing pulmonary interlobular septal thickening on thoracic computed tomography, implying the presence of lymphatic edema. The patient showed both the remission and relapse of yellow nail with different lung treatments over a long clinical course.

  4. Yellow nail syndrome: does protein leakage play a role?

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Muzi, G; Monaco, A; Filiberto, S; Barboni, A; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by primary lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails. Although mechanical lymphatic obstruction is assumed to be the underlying pathology, it cannot explain the common finding of high albumin concentration in the pleural space. This paper describes a case of yellow nail syndrome presenting with the classical triad of lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails, associated with persistent hypoalbuminaemia and increased enteric loss of albumin. Based on the findings in this case and those in the literature, it is speculated that increased microvascular permeability may contribute to the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  5. Characteristics of patients with yellow nail syndrome and pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Luis; Huggins, John T; Gude, Francisco; Ferreiro, Lucía; Alvarez-Dobaño, José M; Golpe, Antonio; Toubes, María E; González-Barcala, Francisco J; José, Esther San; Sahn, Steven A

    2014-10-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) can be associated with a pleural effusion (PE) but the characteristics of these patients are not well defined. We performed a systematic review across four electronic databases for studies reporting clinical findings, PE characteristics, and most effective treatment of YNS. Case descriptions and retrospective studies were included, unrestricted by year of publication. We reviewed 112 studies (150 patients), spanning a period of nearly 50 years. The male/female ratio was 1.2/1. The median age was 60 years (range: 0-88). Seventy-eight percent were between 41-80 years old. All cases had lymphoedema and 85.6% had yellow nails. PEs were bilateral in 68.3%. The appearance of the fluid was serous in 75.3%, milky in 22.3% and purulent in 3.5%. The PE was an exudate in 94.7% with lymphocytic predominance in 96% with a low count of nucleated cells. In 61 of 66 (92.4%) of patients, pleural fluid protein values were >3 g/dL, and typically higher than pleural fluid LDH. Pleurodesis and decortication/pleurectomy were effective in 81.8% and 88.9% of cases, respectively, in the treatment of symptomatic PEs. The development of YNS and PE occurs between the fifth to eighth decade of life and is associated with lymphoedema. The PE is usually bilateral and behaves as a lymphocyte-predominant exudate. The most effective treatments appear to be pleurodesis and decortication/pleurectomy.

  6. Your Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the surface. Nails start in the nail root , hidden under the cuticle. When cells at the root of the nail grow, the new nail cells ... nail as it grows out from the nail root. The lunula (say: LOON-yuh-luh) — which comes ...

  7. Nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  8. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  9. Nail Fungus

    MedlinePlus

    ... nail polish daily for a year. Medicated nail cream. Your doctor may prescribe an antifungal cream, which you rub into your infected nails after soaking. These creams may work better if you first thin the ...

  10. Nail cosmetics in nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2007-03-01

    The clinical features of nail dystrophies depend on the part of the nail that has been damaged. Due to the important functions of fingernails and toenails, any abnormality of the nail causes impaired function of the hand or foot. Moreover, the aesthetic aspect of the nail may affect employability, self-esteem, and interaction with other people. Because the nails are often difficult to treat, cosmetology may be an effective support to medical treatment. Nail cosmetics may help the patient to cope with his or her nail dystrophy while waiting for treatment to show its efficacy. It may also be the only choice to hide nail dystrophy where the nail is irreversibly damaged. Nail cosmetics may also function at treatment for onychtillomania, nail biting, and nail ingrowing.

  11. Nail biology and nail science.

    PubMed

    de Berker, D A R; André, J; Baran, R

    2007-08-01

    The nail plate is the permanent product of the nail matrix. Its normal appearance and growth depend on the integrity of several components: the surrounding tissues or perionychium and the bony phalanx that are contributing to the nail apparatus or nail unit. The nail is inserted proximally in an invagination practically parallel to the upper surface of the skin and laterally in the lateral nail grooves. This pocket-like invagination has a roof, the proximal nail fold and a floor, the matrix from which the nail is derived. The germinal matrix forms the bulk of the nail plate. The proximal element forms the superficial third of the nail whereas the distal element provides its inferior two-thirds. The ventral surface of the proximal nail fold adheres closely to the nail for a short distance and forms a gradually desquamating tissue, the cuticle, made of the stratum corneum of both the dorsal and the ventral side of the proximal nail fold. The cuticle seals and therefore protects the ungual cul-de-sac. The nail plate is bordered by the proximal nail fold which is continuous with the similarly structured lateral nail fold on each side. The nail bed extends from the lunula to the hyponychium. It presents with parallel longitudinal rete ridges. This area, by contrast to the matrix has a firm attachment to the nail plate and nail avulsion produces a denudation of the nail bed. Colourless, but translucent, the highly vascular connective tissue containing glomus organs transmits a pink colour through the nail. Among its multiple functions, the nail provides counterpressure to the pulp that is essential to the tactile sensation involving the fingers and to the prevention of the hypertrophy of the distal wall tissue, produced after nail loss of the great toe nail.

  12. Your Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... luh) — which comes from the Latin word for "moon" — is that pale half circle just above the ... Problems Most of the time, your nails are pink and healthy, but sometimes nails have problems. Some ...

  13. Quiz: Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Quiz: Nails KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Nails Print A A A How much do ... about your nails? Find out by taking this quiz! About KidsHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  14. Nail anatomy.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2013-01-01

    The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent.

  15. Nail histopathology.

    PubMed

    Martin, B

    2013-09-01

    The structure of the nail unit is complex and many dermatologists and dermatopathologists have an incomplete understanding of it. Familiarity with the anatomy and histology of this unit, however, is a key factor in improving the diagnostic yield of nail biopsy. Inflammatory or infectious conditions that affect the nail can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life. A wide-ranging variety of tumors can also develop in this region and they may be life-threatening or require surgery that will result in functional defects. The author reviews the anatomy and histology of the nail unit as well as the basic histopathologic findings in the most common conditions affecting the nails.

  16. Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons.

  17. Matricectomy and nail ablation.

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert; Haneke, Eckart

    2002-11-01

    Matricectomy refers to the complete extirpation of the nail matrix, resulting in permanent nail loss. Usually however, matricectomy is only partial, restricted to one or both lateral horns of the matrix. Nail ablation is the definitive removal of the entire nail organ. The most important common denominator in the successful matricectomy is the total removal or destruction of the matrix tissue. Matricectomy may be indicated for the management of onychauxis, onychogryphosis, congenital nail dystrophies, and chronic painful nail, such as recalcitrant ingrown toenail or split within the medial or lateral one-third of the nail.

  18. [Nail diseases in cosmetology].

    PubMed

    Maleszka, Romuald; Ratajczak-Stefańska, Violetta; Boer, Magdalena; Kiedrowicz, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Clinical symptoms attributed to the nail apparatus and observed in cosmetology include atrophic or hypertrophic lesions, pathologic nail coloration, abnormalities of the nail surface, and disorders of the nail plate and bed junction. These symptoms may reflect pathologic processes limited to the nail apparatus or may be the consequence of a dermal or systemic disease. Even though the etiology of nail lesions is variegated, diseases of the nails are simply classified as infectious or non-infectious. The aim of this work was to present the most common diseases of the nail apparatus encountered in cosmetology. Often, nail diseases worsen the quality of life of the patient. In addition, the variegated symptomatology demonstrates that nail lesions should be viewed in a wider perspective because they often are important signs of pathologic processes taking place in the organism of the patient.

  19. Nailing Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Roman hihstorian Pliny the Younger noted that Mount Vesuvius blew its top and destroyed Pompeii in the early afternoon of August 24, 1,918 years ago. Now, a team of scientists, tempted by the certainty of that record, has confirmed the eruption to within 7 years. The team developed and used an improved radioactive argon-argon dating technique, which they say can reliably establish the age of rocks as old as the solar system or as recent as 1,000 years old.“We nailed the date to 5% on our first attempt, so we could probably get the error down to 1% or less,” says Paul Renne, adjunct associate professor of geology and geophysics at the University of California at Berkeley and director of the private Berkeley Geochronology Center. “Dating things that are really young has always been the Holy Grail of potassium-argon [an earlier method] and argonargon dating.”

  20. Update: nail unit dermatopathology.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Campbell L; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-01-01

    Nail unit dermatopathology is a growing field filled with many challenges. Many advances in this field have been made in the last 5 years. This review article provides an update on new information and studies published in that period of time. We divided these works into different sections, including clinical and pathologic challenges in diagnosis and treatment of nail disorders, nail unit biopsy and processing techniques, normal nail unit histology, nail plate structural and growth pathology, metabolic disease, inflammatory conditions, onychomycosis, benign growths, malignant growths, and dyschromias. Specific highlights include advances in the marking and orientation of nail unit biopsies for improved histologic interpretation, improved nail plate softening techniques, new methods for histologic evaluation of onychomycosis, descriptions of newly described benign growths unique to the nail unit, and the morphologic and immunohistochemical distinction between benign and malignant pigmented lesions of the nail unit.

  1. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the skin of the body or head ... fungal infection. Alternative Names Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Tinea unguium Images Nail infection, candidal Yeast and mold ...

  2. Nail Problems (Toenails)

    MedlinePlus

    ... perform a procedure to permanently excessive perspiration. prevent ingrown nails. The corner of the nail that ingrows, along with the matrix or root of Prevention that piece of nail, are removed by use of a ◆ Proper hygiene and regular inspec- chemical, a laser, or by other methods. tion of the feet ...

  3. Tumors of the nail unit. A review. Part I: acquired localized longitudinal melanonychia and erythronychia.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    The article aims to be a guide to the interpretation of tumors specific to the nail, that is, tumors presenting peculiar histological features linked specifically to the nail unit. Therefore, the classical epithelial, fibroepithelial, and fibrous skin tumors occurring in the nail region are not analyzed. The interpretation of nail biopsies requires the identification and integration of the 2 main clinical modes of presentation of nail tumors, the acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal (ALL) band pattern, and the "masked" nail tumor. The ALL band pattern often allows the recognition of a nail tumor in its early phase of progression, with a limited differential diagnosis. The masked nail tumor mimics an inflammatory nail process, as a clinically misleading reactive benign lesion, which delays diagnosis with the subsequent development of partial nail loss and a locally destructive evolution. ALL band pattern appears as a longitudinal band starting at the matrix and extending to the tip of the nail plate. The band is usually single, rarely bifid. This clinical pattern can divided into 2 presentations. The generic term of ALL maculonychia could be proposed to define the macular aspect of the colored band of the nail plate. It encompasses 3 syndromes: longitudinal melanonychia, longitudinal erythronychia, and longitudinal leukonychia. ALL pachyonychia is a rare presentation. Pachyonychia indicates a localized thickening of the nail plate specific to the matrical nail tumor. In this group, there is differentiation toward cells of the nail matrix. The prototype tumor is the onychomatricoma, which present classically with a yellow (xantholeukonychia) band pattern. Recently, a new clinical band pattern has been described as longitudinal pachymelanonychia with 2 etiologies: pigmented onychomatricoma and onychocytic matricoma. The first part of this review delineate, in the first section, the distinctive microanatomical features of the nail unit and the second is

  4. Nonclassical light in interferometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, N. A.; Difiore, L.; Romano, R.; Solimeno, S.; Zaccaria, F.; Manko, Margarita A.; Manko, Vladimir I.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the even and odd coherent light and other nonclassical states of light like superposition of coherent states with different phases may replace the squeezed light in an interferometric gravitational wave detector to increase its sensitivity.

  5. [Cosmetology and brittle nails].

    PubMed

    Abimelec, P

    2000-12-15

    The knowledge of manicure techniques and nail cosmetics compositions are a prerequisite to the understanding of their potential side effects. The brittle nail syndrome is a common problem that roughly affect 20% of women. We will review the etiologic hypothesis, describe the various presentations, and suggest a treatment for this perplexing problem.

  6. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are treatments usually effective?Are there any side effects of the treatment?If my treatment works, will my nail grow back normally?If I've had one fungal nail infection, am I likely to get another?What kinds of shoes should I wear?Should I wear gloves when ...

  7. Advanced Nail Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    Six techniques not yet widely known or used in the dermatologic surgery of the nails are briefly described. Small-to-medium-sized tumours of the proximal nail fold (PNF) can be excised and the defect repaired with advancement or rotation flaps. A superficial biopsy technique of the matrix for the diagnosis of longitudinal brown streaks in the nail, which allows rapid histological diagnosis of the melanocyte focus to be performed, is described here. Because the excision is very shallow and leaves the morphogenetic connective tissue of the matrix intact, the defect heals without scarring. Laterally positioned nail tumours can be excised in the manner of a wide lateral longitudinal nail biopsy. The defect repair is performed with a bipedicled flap from the lateral aspect of the distal phalanx. Malignant tumours of the nail organ often require its complete ablation. These defects can be covered by a full-thickness skin graft, reversed dermal graft, or cross-finger flap. The surgical correction of a split nail is often difficult. The cicatricial tissue of the matrix and PNF have to be excised and the re-attachment of these wounds prevented. The matrix defect has to be excised and sutured or covered with a free matrix graft taken either from the neighbouring area or from the big toe nail. PMID:22279381

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... better.” Let your doctor or nurse know if: l Your skin is itchy, dry, red, or hurts l Your nails are dark, yellow, or cracked For ... Be careful what you put on your skin. l Use only mild soaps that are gentle on ...

  9. Nail stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sellheyer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Our knowledge on stem cells of the hair follicle has increased exponentially after the bulge was characterized as the stem cell niche two decades ago. In contrast, little is known about stem cells in the nail unit. Whereas hair follicles are plentiful and easy to access, the human body has only twenty nails and they are rarely biopsied. Therefore, examining fetal material offers unique advantages. In the following mini-review, our current knowledge on nail stem cells is summarized and analogies to the hair follicle stem cells are drawn.

  10. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-09-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  11. Capillary nail refill test

    MedlinePlus

    ... may indicate: Dehydration Shock Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) Hypothermia Alternative Names Nail blanch test; Capillary refill time ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 79. Read More Dehydration Hypothermia Peripheral artery disease - legs Shock Review Date 4/ ...

  12. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  13. Nail Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acrylics") Artificial nails are composed primarily of acrylic polymers and are made by reacting together acrylic monomers, such as ethyl methacrylate monomer, with acrylic polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate. When the reaction is completed, ...

  14. Diagnostic applications of nail clippings.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Sasha; Tosti, Antonella; Rubin, Adam I

    2015-04-01

    "Nail clipping is a simple technique for diagnosis of several nail unit dermatoses. This article summarizes the practical approach, utility, and histologic findings of a nail clipping in evaluation of onychomycosis, nail unit psoriasis, onychomatricoma, subungual hematoma, melanonychia, and nail cosmetics, and the forensic applications of this easily obtained specimen. It reviews important considerations in optimizing specimen collection, processing methods, and efficacy of special stains in several clinical contexts. Readers will develop a greater understanding and ease of application of this indispensable procedure in assessing nail unit dermatoses."

  15. Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Engineer, L; Norton, L A; Ahmed, A R

    2000-09-01

    Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris is relatively rare. We describe a case of severe pemphigus involving both the skin and oral mucosa in which an acute exacerbation was preceded by the onset of nail involvement of all 4 extremities. Nail involvement occurred in the form of hemorrhagic paronychia of multiple digits. Oral, cutaneous, and nail manifestations of the disease were all well controlled by systemic therapy. A review of the literature on nail involvement in pemphigus reveals that this involvement may be manifested in multiple ways, with chronic paronychia and onychomadesis being the most common. Involvement of the nail occurs most frequently either as part of the initial presentation, or just before or concurrent with a flare of pre-existing disease. Nail involvement, when it occurs, is usually present when the disease is severe. Topical therapy is insufficient, and systemic therapy is warranted. In the majority of cases, nail recovery is complete, with no residual damage.

  16. Histopathology of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we review several inflammatory infectious and tumoral conditions of the nail unit. We emphasize the anatomic peculiarities of such pathologies of the nail unit and provide some required diagnostic criteria.

  17. Nails: diagnostic clue to genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Nails are cutaneous appendages mostly involved in mechanical functions. However, nails may reflect presence of various systemic disorders evidenced by alteration of their shape, size, color or texture. Genodermatoses are multisystem disorders with cutaneous involvement. Many of the genodermatoses present with nail changes and some of these may be the clinical pointers to the diagnosis. Diagnostic clues to various genodermatoses derived from nail findings have been discussed.

  18. Nonclassicality of local bipartite correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebaratnam, C.; Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2017-03-01

    Simulating quantum nonlocality and steering requires augmenting preshared randomness with nonvanishing communication cost. This prompts the question of how one may provide such an operational characterization for the quantumness of correlations due to even unentangled states. Here we show that for a certain class of states, such quantumness can be pointed out by superlocality, the requirement for a larger dimension of the preshared randomness to simulate the correlations than that of the quantum state that generates them. This provides an approach to define the nonclassicality of local multipartite correlations in convex operational theories.

  19. Nail care for newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Nail care for newborns URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  20. Polarization squeezing and nonclassical properties of light

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo; Korolkova, Natalia

    2006-10-15

    We formulate polarization uncertainty relations and polarization squeezing criteria in a SU(2) invariant manner. In this formulation the SU(2) coherent states are the only minimum uncertainty states. We show that polarization squeezing is a nonclassical property. We analyze the relation between polarization squeezing and other nonclassical properties such as entanglement and quadrature squeezing.

  1. Anatomy of the nail unit and the nail biopsy.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2015-06-01

    The nail unit is the largest and a rather complex skin appendage. It is located on the dorsal aspect of the tips of fingers and toes and has important protective and sensory functions. Development begins in utero between weeks 7 and 8 and is fully formed at birth. For its correct development, a great number of signals are necessary. Anatomically, it consists of 4 epithelial components: the matrix that forms the nail plate; the nail bed that firmly attaches the plate to the distal phalanx; the hyponychium that forms a natural barrier at the physiological point of separation of the nail from the bed; and the eponychium that represents the undersurface of the proximal nail fold which is responsible for the formation of the cuticle. The connective tissue components of the matrix and nail bed dermis are located between the corresponding epithelia and the bone of the distal phalanx. Characteristics of the connective tissue include: a morphogenetic potency for the regeneration of their epithelia; the lateral and proximal nail folds form a distally open frame for the growing nail; and the tip of the digit has rich sensible and sensory innervation. The blood supply is provided by the paired volar and dorsal digital arteries. Veins and lymphatic vessels are less well defined. The microscopic anatomy varies from nail subregion to subregion. Several different biopsy techniques are available for the histopathological evaluation of nail alterations.

  2. Morphopathological aspects of healthy nails and nails affected by onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zaikovska, Olga; Pilmane, Mara; Kisis, Janis

    2014-09-01

    Patients of onychomycosis are common in the dermatology practice. Contemporary morphology creates opportunities to study the functional units of the nail when such infections occur from morphopathological point of view. There were 22 nails biopsies from onychomycosis patients taken for the research of morphopathological changes in the thickened nail plate affected by onychomycosis. Samples of cadaverous' nails were used as a control material. The material was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical methods. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling reaction and periodic acid-Schiff reaction were also performed. We found patchy hypertrophy in the granulose layer of the epidermis, with focal acanthosis. In the horn layer, we identified nests of parakeratosis of various sizes, with incorporations of homogenous and eosinophil masses. We found high levels of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 positive cells in the nail bed and in the bloodstream. Interleukin 1, however, was not a part of any of the functional units of any of the nails. Significant amount of fibres containing human beta defensin-2 were found in the bed and plate of the nail. Therefore one can conclude that as regards the nails affected by onychomycosis, the most effective morphopathogenical processes include cytokine and defensin excretion occurrence in the nail bed.

  3. Nonclassicality Criteria in Multiport Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigovacca, L.; Di Franco, C.; Metcalf, B. J.; Walmsley, I. A.; Kim, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Interference lies at the heart of the behavior of classical and quantum light. It is thus crucial to understand the boundaries between which interference patterns can be explained by a classical electromagnetic description of light and which, on the other hand, can only be understood with a proper quantum mechanical approach. While the case of two-mode interference has received a lot of attention, the multimode case has not yet been fully explored. Here we study a general scenario of intensity interferometry: we derive a bound on the average correlations between pairs of output intensities for the classical wavelike model of light, and we show how it can be violated in a quantum framework. As a consequence, this violation acts as a nonclassicality witness, able to detect the presence of sources with sub-Poissonian photon-number statistics. We also develop a criterion that can certify the impossibility of dividing a given interferometer into two independent subblocks.

  4. Nonclassicality in the statistics of noncommuting observables: Nonclassical states are more compatible than classical states

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2011-07-15

    We study nonclassicality in the product of the probabilities of noncommuting observables. We show that within the quantum theory, nonclassical states can provide larger probability product than classical states, so that nonclassical states approach the nonfluctuating states of the classical theory more closely than classical states. This is particularized to relevant complementary observables such as conjugate quadratures, phase and number, quadrature and number, and orthogonal angular momentum components.

  5. Teleportation of nonclassical wave packets of light.

    PubMed

    Lee, Noriyuki; Benichi, Hugo; Takeno, Yuishi; Takeda, Shuntaro; Webb, James; Huntington, Elanor; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-04-15

    We report on the experimental quantum teleportation of strongly nonclassical wave packets of light. To perform this full quantum operation while preserving and retrieving the fragile nonclassicality of the input state, we have developed a broadband, zero-dispersion teleportation apparatus that works in conjunction with time-resolved state preparation equipment. Our approach brings within experimental reach a whole new set of hybrid protocols involving discrete- and continuous-variable techniques in quantum information processing for optical sciences.

  6. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... on symptoms, physical findings, laboratory testing, and travel history, including the possibility of exposure to infected mosquitoes. There is no specific treatment for yellow fever; care is based on symptoms. Steps to prevent yellow fever virus infection ... and ...

  7. Nail clipping in onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bertanha, Laura; Chiacchio, Nilton Di

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is the most prevalent onychopathy and it requires a correct early diagnosis. Currently, the diagnostic gold standard is the association of direct mycological test with culture; however, it shows variable sensitivity. The histopathological examination of the distal nail plate, called clipping, has shown to be an adjuvant in diagnosing onychomycosis. This is an easy-to-perform, relatively cheap examination that is little dependent of the examiner, rapidly provides results, has high sensitivity, and for patients it is painless and harmless. PMID:27828655

  8. Teaching Your Child Healthy Nail Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... aad", "size=300x250", "vpos=t", "hpos=r", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Teaching your child healthy nail care Nails take a ... by wearing flip-flops or shower sandals in public places, such as beaches, ... nails are usually healthy, but teaching them to check their nails at a young ...

  9. Nonclassicality versus entanglement in a noncommutative space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Fring, Andreas; Hussin, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Nonclassicality is an interesting property of light having applications in many different contexts of quantum optics, quantum information and computation. Nonclassical states produce substantial amount of reduced noise in optical communications. Furthermore, they often behave as sources of entangled quantum states, which are the most elementary requirement for quantum teleportation. We study various nonclassical properties of coherent states and Schrödinger cat states in a setting of noncommutative space resulting from the generalized uncertainty relation, first, in a complete analytical fashion and, later, by computing their entanglement entropies, which in turn provide supporting arguments behind our analytical results. By using standard theoretical frameworks, they are shown to produce considerably improved squeezing and nonclassicality and, hence, significantly higher amount of entanglement in comparison to the usual quantum mechanical models. Both the nonclassicality and the entanglement can be enhanced further by increasing the noncommutativity of the underlying space. In addition, we find as a by-product some rare explicit minimum uncertainty quadrature and number squeezed states, i.e., ideal squeezed states.

  10. Nonclassical gasdynamic region of selected fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardone, A.; Argrow, B. M.

    2005-11-01

    The nonclassical gasdynamic region of fluorinated substances belonging to the PP, FC, and E series is investigated using different thermodynamic models of increasing complexity. Thermodynamic models range from the simple van der Waals equation of state to the more complex Martin-Hou model and include the Redlich-Kwong, Clausius-II, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, and Peng-Robinson equations, under both the polytropic (constant isochoric specific heat in the dilute gas limit) and nonpolytropic approximations. The possibility of observing nonclassical gasdynamic behavior for a given fluid is confirmed to increase with the molecular weight of the substance times the specific heat at constant volume in the dilute gas limit and at the critical temperature, but to be almost insensitive to the nonpolytropic behavior of the fluid; the dependence on the compressibility at the critical point is also weak. A strong dependence on the acentric factor of the substance is revealed, which points to fluids made of nonpolar molecules with nearly spheroidal shapes as the most favorable to exhibit nonclassical gasdynamic behavior. In this respect, the fluorinated cyclic compounds of the PP series are singled out as the most promising candidates for the experimental verification of the existence of nonclassical phenomena in the vapor phase and for nonclassical gasdynamic applications.

  11. Pemphigus vulgaris affecting 19 nails.

    PubMed

    Patsatsi, A; Sotiriou, E; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Sotiriadis, D

    2009-03-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with painful erosions in the oral mucosa, pharynx, perineum and perianal area, and multiple plaques with thick adherent crusts on the scalp. Most (nine) of the patient's fingernails had alterations in colour, affecting more than half of the nail plate, and all the toenails had severe inflammation of the nail folds, haemorrhagic paronychia and subungual or intraungual haemorrhage. A diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) was made based on histology and on direct and indirect immunofluorescence findings. Groups of acantholytic cells were also observed in a Tzanck smear obtained from a subungual lesion. Onychomadesis in most of the fingernails and in all the toenails developed gradually. The patient was hospitalized and treated with oral corticosteroids. Complete recovery without residual damage to the nails and persistent remission was achieved. Nail involvement in PV is rarely described and is always of interest, as its presentation varies widely.

  12. Yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed.

  13. Strictly nonclassical behavior of a mesoscopic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiazhong; Vendeiro, Zachary; Chen, Wenlan; Zhang, Hao; McConnell, Robert; Sørensen, Anders S.; Vuletić, Vladan

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the strictly nonclassical behavior in a many-atom system using a recently derived criterion [E. Kot et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.233601] that explicitly does not make use of quantum mechanics. We thereby show that the magnetic-moment distribution measured by McConnell et al. [Nature (London) 519, 439 (2015), 10.1038/nature14293] in a system with a total mass of 2.6 ×105 atomic mass units is inconsistent with classical physics. Notably, the strictly nonclassical behavior affects an area in phase space 103 times larger than the Planck quantum ℏ .

  14. Entanglement and nonclassicality: A mutual impression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholipour, H.; Shahandeh, F.

    2016-06-01

    We find a sufficient condition to imprint the single-mode bosonic phase-space nonclassicality onto a bipartite state as modal entanglement and vice versa using an arbitrary beam splitter. Surprisingly, the entanglement produced or detected in this way depends only on the nonclassicality of the marginal input or output states, regardless of their purity and separability. In this way, our result provides a sufficient condition for generating entangled states of arbitrary high temperature and arbitrary large number of particles. We also study the evolution of the entanglement within a lossy Mach-Zehnder interferometer and show that unless both modes are totally lost, the entanglement does not diminish.

  15. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  16. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  17. Nonclassicality thresholds for multiqubit states: Numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gruca, Jacek; Zukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wieslaw; Kiesel, Nikolai; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald; Schmid, Christian

    2010-07-15

    States that strongly violate Bell's inequalities are required in many quantum-informational protocols as, for example, in cryptography, secret sharing, and the reduction of communication complexity. We investigate families of such states with a numerical method which allows us to reveal nonclassicality even without direct knowledge of Bell's inequalities for the given problem. An extensive set of numerical results is presented and discussed.

  18. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo

    2011-12-15

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  19. Process output nonclassicality and nonclassicality depth of quantum-optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabapathy, Krishna Kumar

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a quantum-optical notion of nonclassicality that we call the process output nonclassicality for multimode quantum channels. The motivation comes from an information-theoretic point of view and the emphasis is on the output states of a channel. We deem a channel to be "classical" if its outputs are always classical irrespective of the input, i.e., if the channel is nonclassicality breaking, and nonclassical otherwise. Our condition is stronger than the one considered by Rahimi-Keshari et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160401 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.160401 and we compare the two approaches. Using our framework we then quantify the nonclassicality of a quantum process by introducing a noise-robustness type of measure that we call the nonclassicality depth of a channel. It characterizes a certain threshold noise beyond which a given channel outputs only classical states. We achieve this by generalizing a prescription by Lee [Phys. Rev. A 44, R2775 (1991), 10.1103/PhysRevA.44.R2775] to multimode states and then by extension to multimode channels.

  20. Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?

    PubMed

    Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

    2014-10-16

    Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625-690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes.

  1. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

  2. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options.

  3. Nail fragility syndrome and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Schoon, D

    2004-07-01

    For reasons of clarity, definitions are offered for strength, hardness, flexibility, brittleness and toughness of the nails. Six clinical types of nail fragility are delineated: longitudinal furrows and splitting (onychorrhexis), single longitudinal splitting, multiple crenellated splitting, lamellar splitting (onychoschizia), transverse splitting and nail friability. Changes may be observed in the keratin structure of fragile nails. Nail brittleness is usually 'environmental' in origin, but sometimes may be part of a nail dystrophy. Household daily chores are particularly damaging. Among the acquired general causes, hypochromic anaemia and sideropaenia, arthritic deformities of the distal joints, peripheral vascular impairment and endocrinopathies are the best known. Useful therapeutic approaches are updated. They entail protection with plastic gloves worn over light cotton glove linings, the use of nail hardeners composed of two main types of products: a modified nail varnish that functions as a base coat or a hardener, such as dimethyl urea, which overcomes the objections related to formaldehyde; a systemic drug, biotine, is still useful.

  4. Understanding the formidable nail barrier: A review of the nail microstructure, composition and diseases.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir; Kasting, Gerald B; Li, S Kevin; Wickett, Randy; Adams, Brian; Eurich, Sean; Schamper, Ryan

    2017-05-01

    The topical treatment of nail fungal infections has been a focal point of nail research in the past few decades as it offers a much safer and focused alternative to conventional oral therapy. Although the current focus remains on exploring the ways of enhancing permeation through the formidable nail barrier, the understanding of the nail microstructure and composition is far from complete. This article reviews our current understanding of the nail microstructure, composition and diseases. A few of the parameters affecting the nail permeability and potential causes of the recurrence of fungal nail infection are also discussed.

  5. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  6. Yellow fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver, and kidney. Bleeding disorders, seizures, coma, and delirium may also occur. Symptoms may include: Fever, headache, ... tongue Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice) Decreased urination Delirium Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) Bleeding (may progress to hemorrhage) ...

  7. Non-Classical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoform-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamide-based compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to off-target inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamide-based compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also non-classical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of non-classical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoform-specific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828

  8. Consensus on melanonychia nail plate dermoscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Chiacchio, Nilton Di; de Farias, Débora Cadore; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Hirata, Sergio Henrique; Richert, Bertrand; Zaiac, Martin; Daniel, Ralph; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Andre, Josette; Ruben, Beth S; Fleckman, Philip; Rich, Phoebe; Haneke, Eckart; Chang, Patricia; Cherit, Judith Dominguez; Scher, Richard; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    This statement, focused on melanonychia and nail plate dermoscopy, is intended to guide medical professionals working with melanonychia and to assist choosing appropriate management for melanonychia patients. The International Study Group on Melanonychia was founded in 2007 and currently has 30 members, including nail experts and dermatopathologists with special expertise in nails. The need for common definitions of nail plate dermoscopy was addressed during the Second Meeting of this Group held in February 2008. Prior to this meeting and to date (2010) there have been no evidence-based guidelines on the use of dermoscopy in the management of nail pigmentation. PMID:23739699

  9. How to submit a nail specimen.

    PubMed

    Reinig, Erica; Rich, Phoebe; Thompson, Curtis T

    2015-04-01

    The scarcity of specific submission protocols for nail unit biopsies presents many challenges for appropriate specimen processing. Many nail biopsies are received fragmented or without orientation, often resulting in less-than-ideal tissue embedding and poor histologic sections, which are difficult to interpret. Methods are described for proper nail matrix/bed biopsy and plate submission that incorporate aspects of previous submission protocols and include inking the biopsy specimen along with submitting the tissue on a drawing of the nail. Also described is a technique for maintaining adherence of nail plate to glass slides, a chronic challenge in the laboratory.

  10. Maxwellian distribution in non-classical regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz; L. Helvey, Shannon; McCumber, Jeremy

    2002-12-01

    A molecular dynamics investigation shows that the assumption of molecular chaos remains valid in the non-classical regime. Consequently, the velocity distribution function of an extremely dense system of spinless particles relaxes into Maxwellian, even in the presence of arbitrary interactions between the particles of the system. Systems with densities exceeding 30 times solid densities are investigated using a soft Lennard-Jones interparticle potential energy function.

  11. Nail Psoriasis: The Journey So Far

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Alka; Arora, Amanjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 10-78% of psoriasis patients with 5-10% of patients having isolated nail psoriasis. However, it is often an overlooked feature in the management of nail psoriasis, despite the significant burden it places on the patients as a result of functional impairment of manual dexterity, pain, and psychological stress. Affected nail plates often thicken and crumble, and because they are very visible, patients tend to avoid normal day-to-day activities and social interactions. Importantly, 70-80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis have nail psoriasis. In this overview, we review the clinical manifestations of psoriasis affecting the nails, the common differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and the various diagnostic aids for diagnosing nail psoriasis especially, the cases with isolated nail involvement. We have also discussed the available treatment options, including the topical, physical, systemic, and biological modalities, in great detail in order to equip the present day dermatologist in dealing with a big clinical challenge, that is, management of nail psoriasis. PMID:25071247

  12. [The use of nails to diagnosis diseases].

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert

    2014-11-01

    For those interested in nails, a fairly good knowledge of the anatomy of the nail unit is indispensable. But nothing will replace a careful, clinical examination of the nail apparatus. The shape of the nail, surface abnormalities and coloration, with or without a magnifying glass, may well provide a medical diagnosis not only in dermatology but also for medicine in general. Pits on the surface of the nail plate may be enough to diagnose psoriasis on a limited area of scalp dandruff. Even partial detachment of the nail apparatus might lead to the suspicion of psoriatic arthritis. A triangular lunula is associated with the absence of patellas. Finally, no pulmonary examination of a smoker is complete without looking for clubbing. It is high time to pay tribute to the nail.

  13. Complex modes and solvability of nonclassical linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughey, T. K.; Ma, F.

    1993-03-01

    Some basic properties of nonclassical linear systems are examined to determine necessary and sufficient conditions under which nonclassical linear systems can be decoupled or become solvable in n-space. It was found that a necessary and sufficient condition under which a nonclassical system can be decoupled is for the coefficient matrices M, C, and K (where M is the mass matrix, C is the damping matrix, and K is the stiffness matrix) to be diagonalizable and pairwise commutative.

  14. Angular-momentum nonclassicality by breaking classical bounds on statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Angel

    2011-10-15

    We derive simple practical procedures revealing the quantum behavior of angular momentum variables by the violation of classical upper bounds on the statistics. Data analysis is minimum and definite conclusions are obtained without evaluation of moments, or any other more sophisticated procedures. These nonclassical tests are very general and independent of other typical quantum signatures of nonclassical behavior such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing, or oscillatory statistics, being insensitive to the nonclassical behavior displayed by other variables.

  15. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology.

  16. Drug reactions affecting the nail unit: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Iorizzo, Matilde

    2007-04-01

    Several drugs may be responsible for the development of nail abnormalities, but only a few classes are consistently associated with nail symptoms. Drug-induced nail abnormalities result from toxicity to the matrix, the nail bed, the periungual tissues, or the digit blood vessels. Pharmacologic agents that most frequently produce nail abnormalities include retinoids, indinavir, and cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  17. Immunohistochemical study of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in transverse sections of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Youn; Yang, Jun-Mo; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2011-05-01

    In the frozen longitudinal section of the nail unit, CD10 was previously found in nail mesenchymal cells beneath nail matrix, and we proposed calling the nail mesenchymal cells onychofibroblasts. In this study, to further characterize nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts, we examined the expression of several mesenchymal markers immunohistochemically in transverse paraffin sections of the nail unit. CD10 was strongly expressed in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts beneath the nail matrix. However, CD10 was not observed in dermal fibroblasts and surrounding extracellular matrix of the lateral nail fold (LNF), except around blood vessels and eccrine structures. In addition, versican was expressed diffusely in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in contrast to the dermis of LNF. Fibrillin, which is a major component of elastic fiber in the dermis, was expressed very weakly on the nail mesenchyme below the nail matrix but was expressed strongly in the dermis of LNF. These findings support the existence of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts that is distinguished from the dermis of LNF.

  18. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  19. Itraconazole penetrates the nail via the nail matrix and the nail bed--an investigation in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Matthieu, L; De Doncker, P; Cauwenbergh, G; Woestenborghs, R; van de Velde, V; Janssen, P A; Dockx, P

    1991-09-01

    Nail-matrix kinetics were studied in 21 patients (19 with onychomycosis, two with tinea corporis) as soon as taking itraconazole (Sporanox) 100 mg daily for up to 7 months. Itraconazole was detected in the distal nail as soon as 1 month after the start of therapy (42 ng/g in fingernails and 16 ng/g in toenails). During the course of treatment, this concentration rose and reached a mean of 160 ng/g in fingernail clippings and 197 ng/g in toenail clippings. Moreover, in fingernails of 12 out of 21 patients and in toenails of six out of 20 patients, itraconazole was detected in the distal nail clippings before full outgrowth of the fastest-growing nail. In most patients, itraconazole was detected in the distal nail clippings earlier than would be expected if the drug were incorporated only via the nail matrix, indicating that in addition to the nail matrix, a second route of penetration into the nail exists, i.e. the nail bed.

  20. Nonclassicality criteria: Quasiprobability distributions and correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2016-10-01

    We use the exact calculation of the quantum mechanical, temporal characteristic function χ (η ) and the degree of second-order coherence g(2 )(τ ) for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state, to study the different criteria for nonclassicality. In particular, we contrast criteria that involve only one-time functions of the dynamical system, for instance, the quasiprobability distribution P (β ) of the Glauber-Sudarshan coherent or P representation of the density of state and the Mandel QM(τ ) parameter, versus the criteria associated with the two-time correlation function g(2 )(τ ) .

  1. Weak measurements and nonClassical correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekshmi, S.; Shaji, N.; Shaji, Anil

    2017-01-01

    We extend the definition of quantum discord as a quantifier of nonClassical correlations in a quantum state to the case where weak measurements are performed on subsystem A of a bipartite system AB. The properties of weak discord are explored for several families of quantum states. We find that in many cases weak quantum discord is identical to normal discord and in general the values of the two are very close to each other. Weak quantum discord reduces to discord in the appropriate limits as well. We also discuss the implications of these observations on the interpretations of quantum discord.

  2. [Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis].

    PubMed

    Qadripur, S A; Schauder, S; Schwartz, P

    2001-07-01

    Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis were seen in a motor mechanic and in a petrol pump attendant. Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative bacillus that generates hydrogen sulfide. This compound reacts with traces of metals in the nail plate such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, tin, copper and lead. Metal sulfides blacken the nail plate. The protracted course of the discoloration over months corresponds to the slow reactions of metals with hydrogen sulfide. The disappearance of the blackening after topical treatment with chinosol, tincture of iodine and chloramphenicol solution supports the etiologic connection between black nails and Proteus mirabilis. Wet and dirty work encourages the colonisation of Proteus mirabilis between nail fold and nail plate.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder 10

    MedlinePlus

    ... congenital nail disorder 10 nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder 10 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder 10 is a condition that affects the fingernails and ...

  4. Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

  5. Functional analysis and treatment of nail biting.

    PubMed

    Dufrene, Brad A; Steuart Watson, T; Kazmerski, Jennifer S

    2008-11-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a simplified habit reversal package that was modified based on results of the functional analysis. Following treatment implementation, nail biting decreased as evidenced by consistent nail growth and participant self-recorded data. Results are discussed in terms of treatment utility of functional analysis methodology for novel populations and response topographies.

  6. Congenital onychoheterotopia involving multiple toe nails.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Savita; Khullar, Geeti; Dogra, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Onychoheterotopia is an uncommon condition in which nail tissue is found beyond the common nail unit of the digits of the hands and feet, most often on the fifth digit of the hand. It represents an extra and independent nail that can be present either congenitally, or more commonly, acquired following trauma. The exact pathogenesis of the congenital type is undetermined. We report a 25-year-old male with multiple congenital ectopic nails of the toes since birth, which has not been reported before.

  7. Nonlinearity as a resource for nonclassicality in anharmonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarelli, Francesco; Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-03-01

    Nonclassicality is a key ingredient for quantum enhanced technologies and experiments involving macroscopic quantum coherence. Considering various exactly solvable quantum-oscillator systems, we address the role played by the anharmonicity of their potential in the establishment of nonclassical features. Specifically, we show that a monotonic relation exists between the entropic nonlinearity of the considered potentials and their ground-state nonclassicality, as quantified by the negativity of the Wigner function. In addition, in order to clarify the role of squeezing, which is not captured by the negativity of the Wigner function, we focus on the Glauber-Sudarshan P function and address the nonclassicality-nonlinearity relation using the entanglement potential. Finally, we consider the case of a generic sixth-order potential confirming the idea that nonlinearity is a resource for the generation of nonclassicality and may serve as a guideline for the engineering of quantum oscillators.

  8. Classical and nonclassical randomness in quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farenick, Douglas; Plosker, Sarah; Smith, Jerrod

    2011-12-01

    The space POVM_H(X) of positive operator-valued probability measures on the Borel sets of a compact (or even locally compact) Hausdorff space X with values in B(H), the algebra of linear operators acting on a d-dimensional Hilbert space H, is studied from the perspectives of classical and nonclassical convexity through a transform Γ that associates any positive operator-valued measure ν with a certain completely positive linear map Γ(ν) of the homogeneous C*-algebra C(X)⊗ B(H) into B(H). This association is achieved by using an operator-valued integral in which nonclassical random variables (that is, operator-valued functions) are integrated with respect to positive operator-valued measures and which has the feature that the integral of a random quantum effect is itself a quantum effect. A left inverse Ω for Γ yields an integral representation, along the lines of the classical Riesz representation theorem for linear functionals on C(X), of certain (but not all) unital completely positive linear maps φ :C(X)⊗ B(H)rArr B(H). The extremal and C*-extremal points of POVM_H(X) are determined.

  9. Non-classical types of loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriondo, M. H.; Kröhling, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to describe the sequence of physical and chemical processes resulting in the sediment-type named loess, a fine-grained sediment deposit of universal occurrence. Owing to historical causes, loess has been (and still is) implicitly linked to glacial/periglacial environments among most naturalists. However it is known today that most eolian dust is deflated from tropical deserts. Hence, that sequence of processes is more comprehensive than the former narrow cold scenario. Six examples of different "non-classical" cases (from South America and Europe) that fit well to the loess definition are developed: 1) volcanic loess in Ecuador: pyroclastic eruptions/valley wind/mountain praire/silica structuring; 2) tropical loess in northeastern Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay: deflation of river and fan splays/savanna/iron sesquioxide structuring; 3) gypsum loess in northern Spain: destruction of anhydrite/gypsiferous layers in a dry climate/valley wind/Saharian shrub peridesert/gypsum structuring; 4) trade-wind deposits in Venezuela and Brazil: deflation in tidal flats/trade wind into the continent/savanna/iron hydroxide structuring; 5) anticyclonic gray loess in Argentina: continental anticyclone on plains/anti-clockwise winds and whirls/steppe/carbonate structuring. All these non-classical types conform to the accepted loess definitions and they also share the most important field characteristics of loess such as grain size, friability, vertical or sub-vertical slopes in outcrops, subfusion and others. Other cases can probably be recognized when systematically scrutinized.

  10. Vascular Features of Nail Psoriasis Using Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aldahan, Adam S.; Chen, Lucy L.; Fertig, Raymond M.; Holmes, Jon; Shah, Vidhi V.; Mlacker, Stephanie; Hsu, Vincent M.; Nouri, Keyvan; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Background Nail psoriasis is a painful and disfiguring nail disease that often leads to invasive biopsies. Dermoscopy of the hyponychium can be useful in the diagnosis showing twisted coiled vessels. Structural features of nail psoriasis have been described with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Objectives To investigate vascular features of nail psoriasis using dynamic OCT. Methods This was an observational, prospective, controlled study in which psoriasis patients with psoriatic nail changes and healthy control patients underwent OCT imaging of the distal nail plate and proximal nail fold. Vertical and horizontal OCT images were analyzed to describe structural and vascular features and to quantify blood flow at depth. Results Sixteen psoriatic nails and 16 control nails were included. Psoriatic nails had significantly increased blood flow in the proximal nail fold at depths of 0.72 mm (p = 0.035) and 0.76 mm (p = 0.027). Nail thickness was significantly greater in psoriatic nails compared to control nails (p = 0.0016). Compared to control nails, psoriatic nails had dilated, disorganized blood vessels superficially in the proximal nail fold. Limitations The main limitation of our study is the relatively small sample size. Conclusions OCT can identify structural and vascular features specific to nail psoriasis. PMID:28232916

  11. Influence of nail prominence and insertion point on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kai-Cheng; Yang, Shan-Wei; Tarng, Yih-Wen; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Renn, Jenn-Huei

    2014-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is the most common complication after tibial nail insertion. Its etiology remains unknown, and multifactorial sources have been suggested. The authors believe that nail prominence and the insertion point of the nail are important in the development of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the roles of the insertion point and nail prominence in anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing using a transtendinous approach and a common nail type. A total of 108 patients with tibial shaft fractures underwent reamed intramedullary nailing using a transtendinous approach between 2006 and 2009. Mean follow-up was 26.8±5.0 months. A visual analog scale (0-100) was used to estimate anterior knee pain severity while patients performed 7 activities retrospectively. Radiographic assessments, including nail prominence and insertion point, were performed. Sixty (55.6%) patients experienced knee pain (group P) and 48 (44.4%) did not (group N). Significant differences were not found between the groups with respect to demographics, nail diameters, or fracture classifications. Less superior and more anterior nail prominences in radiographic assessments were significantly associated with anterior knee pain. When the insertion point was over the bottom half of the anterior cortex, the influence of anterior nail prominence was more obvious. Nail removal resulted in diminished pain during the 7 assessed activities. Nail insertion should be over the bottom half of the anterior cortex, with minimal anterior nail prominence. If anterior knee pain occurs, removal of the nail should be considered.

  12. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  13. Nail tic disorders: Manifestations, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Daulatabad, Deepashree

    2017-01-01

    Nail tic disorders are classic examples of overlap between the domains of dermatology and psychiatry. They are examples of body-focused repetitive behaviors in which there is an irresistible urge or impulse to perform a certain behavior. The behavior is reinforced as it results in some degree of relief and pleasure. Nail tic disorders are common, yet poorly studied and understood. The literature on nail tic disorders is relatively scarce. Common nail tics include nail biting or onychophagia, onychotillomania and the habit tic deformity. Some uncommon and rare nail tic disorders are onychoteiromania, onychotemnomania, onychodaknomania and bidet nails. Onychophagia is chronic nail biting behavior which usually starts during childhood. It is often regarded as a tension reducing measure. Onychotillomania is recurrent picking and manicuring of the fingernails and/or toenails. In severe cases, it may lead to onychoatrophy due to irreversible scarring of the nail matrix. Very often, they occur in psychologically normal children but may sometimes be associated with anxiety. In severe cases, onychotillomania may be an expression of obsessive-compulsive disorders. Management of nail tic disorders is challenging. Frequent applications of distasteful topical preparations on the nail and periungual skin can discourage patients from biting and chewing their fingernails. Habit-tic deformity can be helped by bandaging the digit daily with permeable adhesive tape. Fluoxetine in high doses can be helpful in interrupting these compulsive disorders in adults. For a complete diagnosis and accurate management, it is imperative to assess the patient's mental health and simultaneously treat the underlying psychiatric comorbidity, if any.

  14. Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

  15. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  16. Mycobacteria in nail salon whirlpool footbaths, California.

    PubMed

    Vugia, Duc J; Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L; Desmond, Edward

    2005-04-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers.

  17. Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Desmond, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers. PMID:15829204

  18. Microstructure of Horseshoe Nails Using Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, D. J.; Studer, A. J.; Stachurski, Z. H.

    2010-04-01

    Neutron diffraction allows nondestructive testing of the bulk microstructure of mechanical components. The microstructures of horseshoe nails made through three different processes have been explored as a function of position along the nail. Despite all nails being made of similar plain low-carbon steel and being process annealed after manufacture, the microstructures are far from the same. Nails made from strip, using a cold forging stamping process, show narrower diffraction peaks indicating a narrower distribution of lattice parameters and also show diffraction peak intensity ratios closer to those expected for unstrained steel. Thus, the distribution of the orientation of grains in these nails is closer to that of undistorted steel compared to nails made through the other two processes considered—one a drawing from wire and the other a combination of rolling and cold forging. The blades of the drawn nails showed little preferred orientation but the converse was true in the heads. Differing patterns of preferred orientation suggest that the various manufacturing approaches result in substantially different mechanical advantages for the three types of nails, a result in accord with mechanical testing.

  19. Nonclassical Symmetry Analysis of Heated Two-Dimensional Flow Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Imran; Naz, Rehana; Khan, Muhammad Danish

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses the nonclassical symmetries and group invariant solution of boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flows. First, we derive the nonclassical symmetry determining equations with the aid of the computer package SADE. We solve these equations directly to obtain nonclassical symmetries. We follow standard procedure of computing nonclassical symmetries and consider two different scenarios, ξ1≠0 and ξ1=0, ξ2≠0. Several nonclassical symmetries are reported for both scenarios. Furthermore, numerous group invariant solutions for nonclassical symmetries are derived. The similarity variables associated with each nonclassical symmetry are computed. The similarity variables reduce the system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in terms of similarity variables. The reduced system of ODEs are solved to obtain group invariant solution for governing boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flow problems. We successfully formulate a physical problem of heat transfer analysis for fluid flow over a linearly stretching porous plat and, with suitable boundary conditions, we solve this problem.

  20. Nonclassical Patrolling Monocyte Function in the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Graham; Tacke, Robert; Hedrick, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Nonclassical patrolling monocytes are characterized by their unique ability to actively patrol the vascular endothelium under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Patrolling monocyte subsets (CX3CR1highLy6C− in mouse, and CX3CR1highCD14dimCD16+ in humans) are distinct from the classical monocyte subsets (CCR2highLy6C+ in mouse, and CCR2highCD14+CD16− in humans) and exhibit unique functions in the vasculature and inflammatory disease. Patrolling monocytes function in a number of disease settings to remove damaged cells and debris from the vasculature, and have been associated with wound healing and the resolution of inflammation in damaged tissues. This review highlights the unique functions of these patrolling monocytes in the vasculature and during inflammation. PMID:25838429

  1. Nonclassical photon pair generation in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhya, S. N.

    2007-07-15

    A scheme for the generation of nonclassical pairs of photons in atomic vapors is proposed. The scheme exploits the fact that the cross correlation of the emission of photons from the extreme transitions of a four-level cascade system shows antibunching, unlike the case of the three-level cascade emission, which shows bunching. The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which is the ratio of the cross-correlation to the autocorrelation function, in this case is estimated to be 10{sup 3}-10{sup 6} for controllable time delay, and is one to four orders of magnitude larger compared to previous experiments. The choice of Doppler-free geometry, in addition to the fact that at three-photon resonance the excitation and deexcitation processes occur in a very narrow frequency band, ensures cleaner signa0008.

  2. Multitime correlation functions in nonclassical stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, F.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

    2016-06-01

    A general method is introduced for verifying multitime quantum correlations through the characteristic function of the time-dependent P functional that generalizes the Glauber-Sudarshan P function. Quantum correlation criteria are derived which identify quantum effects for an arbitrary number of points in time. The Magnus expansion is used to visualize the impact of the required time ordering, which becomes crucial in situations when the interaction problem is explicitly time dependent. We show that the latter affects the multi-time-characteristic function and, therefore, the temporal evolution of the nonclassicality. As an example, we apply our technique to an optical parametric process with a frequency mismatch. The resulting two-time-characteristic function yields full insight into the two-time quantum correlation properties of such a system.

  3. Phonon-Mediated Nonclassical Interference in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Duncan G.; Fisher, Kent A. G.; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W.; Bustard, Philip J.; Heshami, Khabat; Resch, Kevin J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum interference of single photons is a fundamental aspect of many photonic quantum processing and communication protocols. Interference requires that the multiple pathways through an interferometer be temporally indistinguishable to within the coherence time of the photon. In this Letter, we use a diamond quantum memory to demonstrate interference between quantum pathways, initially temporally separated by many multiples of the optical coherence time. The quantum memory can be viewed as a light-matter beam splitter, mapping a THz-bandwidth single photon to a variable superposition of the output optical mode and stored phononic mode. Because the memory acts both as a beam splitter and as a buffer, the relevant coherence time for interference is not that of the photon, but rather that of the memory. We use this mechanism to demonstrate nonclassical single-photon and two-photon interference between quantum pathways initially separated by several picoseconds, even though the duration of the photons themselves is just ˜250 fs .

  4. The 2 clinical subbands of the distal nail unit and the nail isthmus. Anatomical explanation and new physiological observations in relation to the nail growth.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe

    2008-06-01

    The distal region of the nail unit, which marks the transition of the nail bed to the hyponychium, is known clinically as the onychodermal band (ODB). For several authors, the ODB is described as 2 subbands of tonal values: slightly milky and pink from proximal to distal. However, its 2 subbands show individual variation and are often scarcely visible. It has been stated that the proximal subband, that is, the white band of Pinkus, corresponds histologically to the attachment of the compact orthokeratotic layer of the hyponychium to the nail plate. In 2 studies, I have individualized a transitional zone between the nail bed and the hyponychium: the nail isthmus. In these previous studies, the ODB was not visible. The purpose of this article is to analyze the anatomo-clinical correlations between the nail isthmus and the ODB and to highlight some new physiological information concerning the nail growth. A case showing clearly the 2 clinical subbands of ODB was investigated. In addition, all the longitudinal sections of the 5 normal nail unit specimens, used in the 2 previous studies, were reviewed to analyze the ventral surface of the nail plate in longitudinal planes. The nail isthmus can be described synthetically by 2 features: (1) a stair-like appearance of the epithelium of the distal nail bed with a marked depression of the epithelium below the inferior surface of the nail plate (2) a specialized mode of attachment of its horny layer to nail plate via a horizontal mode of differentiation. The white band of Pinkus corresponded histologically to the nail isthmus. Its white color was caused by alteration in light diffraction in the thin compartment of pale parakeratotic corneocytes squeezed between the nail plate and the epithelium of the nail isthmus. The pink middle band corresponded to the 2 horny layers surmounting the epidermis of the hyponychium: the compact horny layer of the hyponychium and the thin pale "tongue-like" parakeratotic extension of the nail

  5. Adaptive methods, rolling contact, and nonclassical friction laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results and methods on three different areas of contemporary research are outlined. These include adaptive methods, the rolling contact problem for finite deformation of a hyperelastic or viscoelastic cylinder, and non-classical friction laws for modeling dynamic friction phenomena.

  6. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    PubMed

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research.

  7. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P < .05) with a permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative.

  8. Octyl-2-Cyanoacrylate adhesive for rapid nail plate restoration.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G; Lutz, D A

    2000-09-01

    Following nail bed repair, returning the nail plate as a conforming stent or splint is a common technique. Especially when split, the nail plate fragments can very readily be pieced together and bonded to the nail bed using the tissue adhesive Octyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. This new formulation can expedite this maneuver, and has shown no signs of histotoxicity or adverse effect on nail plate regeneration.

  9. Splitting of the Proximal Femur With a New Femoral Nail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    offset from the top of this particular nail to its long axis. Key Words: lateral entry, trochanteric nail , intramedullary nailing , femur, complication...trochanteric intramedullary femoral nailing . J Orthop Trauma. 2005;19:681–686. 8. McConnell T, Tornetta P III, Benson E, et al. Gluteus medius tendon injury...Germany: Stryker Trauma; 2006: 191–199. 11. Gerhard Küntscher. Practice of Intramedullary Nailing . Translated by Herman Rinne. Springfield, IL: Thomas

  10. Revealing nonclassicality beyond Gaussian states via a single marginal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiyong; Lu, Yao; Lee, Jaehak; Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Shuaining; Zubairy, Muhammad Suhail; Kim, Kihwan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2017-01-01

    A standard method to obtain information on a quantum state is to measure marginal distributions along many different axes in phase space, which forms a basis of quantum-state tomography. We theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a general framework to manifest nonclassicality by observing a single marginal distribution only, which provides a unique insight into nonclassicality and a practical applicability to various quantum systems. Our approach maps the 1D marginal distribution into a factorized 2D distribution by multiplying the measured distribution or the vacuum-state distribution along an orthogonal axis. The resulting fictitious Wigner function becomes unphysical only for a nonclassical state; thus the negativity of the corresponding density operator provides evidence of nonclassicality. Furthermore, the negativity measured this way yields a lower bound for entanglement potential—a measure of entanglement generated using a nonclassical state with a beam-splitter setting that is a prototypical model to produce continuous-variable (CV) entangled states. Our approach detects both Gaussian and non-Gaussian nonclassical states in a reliable and efficient manner. Remarkably, it works regardless of measurement axis for all non-Gaussian states in finite-dimensional Fock space of any size, also extending to infinite-dimensional states of experimental relevance for CV quantum informatics. We experimentally illustrate the power of our criterion for motional states of a trapped ion, confirming their nonclassicality in a measurement-axis–independent manner. We also address an extension of our approach combined with phase-shift operations, which leads to a stronger test of nonclassicality, that is, detection of genuine non-Gaussianity under a CV measurement.

  11. Revealing nonclassicality beyond Gaussian states via a single marginal distribution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyong; Lu, Yao; Lee, Jaehak; Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Shuaining; Zubairy, Muhammad Suhail; Kim, Kihwan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2017-01-01

    A standard method to obtain information on a quantum state is to measure marginal distributions along many different axes in phase space, which forms a basis of quantum-state tomography. We theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a general framework to manifest nonclassicality by observing a single marginal distribution only, which provides a unique insight into nonclassicality and a practical applicability to various quantum systems. Our approach maps the 1D marginal distribution into a factorized 2D distribution by multiplying the measured distribution or the vacuum-state distribution along an orthogonal axis. The resulting fictitious Wigner function becomes unphysical only for a nonclassical state; thus the negativity of the corresponding density operator provides evidence of nonclassicality. Furthermore, the negativity measured this way yields a lower bound for entanglement potential—a measure of entanglement generated using a nonclassical state with a beam-splitter setting that is a prototypical model to produce continuous-variable (CV) entangled states. Our approach detects both Gaussian and non-Gaussian nonclassical states in a reliable and efficient manner. Remarkably, it works regardless of measurement axis for all non-Gaussian states in finite-dimensional Fock space of any size, also extending to infinite-dimensional states of experimental relevance for CV quantum informatics. We experimentally illustrate the power of our criterion for motional states of a trapped ion, confirming their nonclassicality in a measurement-axis–independent manner. We also address an extension of our approach combined with phase-shift operations, which leads to a stronger test of nonclassicality, that is, detection of genuine non-Gaussianity under a CV measurement. PMID:28077456

  12. Effect of relativistic motion on witnessing nonclassicality of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checińska, Agata; Lorek, Krzysztof; Dragan, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    We show that the operational definition of nonclassicality of a quantum state depends on the motion of the observer. We use the relativistic Unruh-DeWitt detector model to witness nonclassicality of the probed field state. It turns out that the witness based on the properties of the P representation of the quantum state depends on the trajectory of the detector. Inertial and noninertial motion of the device have qualitatively different impact on the performance of the witness.

  13. Entanglement and nonclassicality for multimode radiation-field states

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan, J. Solomon; Chaturvedi, S.; Ercolessi, E.; Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.; Simon, R.

    2011-03-15

    Nonclassicality in the sense of quantum optics is a prerequisite for entanglement in multimode radiation states. In this work we bring out the possibilities of passing from the former to the latter, via action of classicality preserving systems like beam splitters, in a transparent manner. For single-mode states, a complete description of nonclassicality is available via the classical theory of moments, as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions on the photon number distribution. We show that when the mode is coupled to an ancilla in any coherent state, and the system is then acted upon by a beam splitter, these conditions turn exactly into signatures of negativity under partial transpose (NPT) entanglement of the output state. Since the classical moment problem does not generalize to two or more modes, we turn in these cases to other familiar sufficient but not necessary conditions for nonclassicality, namely the Mandel parameter criterion and its extensions. We generalize the Mandel matrix from one-mode states to the two-mode situation, leading to a natural classification of states with varying levels of nonclassicality. For two-mode states we present a single test that can, if successful, simultaneously show nonclassicality as well as NPT entanglement. We also develop a test for NPT entanglement after beam-splitter action on a nonclassical state, tracing carefully the way in which it goes beyond the Mandel nonclassicality test. The result of three-mode beam-splitter action after coupling to an ancilla in the ground state is treated in the same spirit. The concept of genuine tripartite entanglement, and scalar measures of nonclassicality at the Mandel level for two-mode systems, are discussed. Numerous examples illustrating all these concepts are presented.

  14. Mouse Spermatogenesis Requires Classical and Nonclassical Testosterone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Toocheck, Corey; Clister, Terri; Shupe, John; Crum, Chelsea; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Raj, Ganesh V; Sukhwani, Meena; Orwig, Kyle E; Walker, William H

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone acts though the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells to support germ cell development (spermatogenesis) and male fertility, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which testosterone acts are not well understood. Previously, we found that in addition to acting through androgen receptor to directly regulate gene expression (classical testosterone signaling pathway), testosterone acts through a nonclassical pathway via the androgen receptor to rapidly activate kinases that are known to regulate spermatogenesis. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nonclassical testosterone signaling occurs in vivo as the MAP kinase cascade is rapidly activated in Sertoli cells within the testis by increasing testosterone levels in the rat. We find that either classical or nonclassical signaling regulates testosterone-mediated Rhox5 gene expression in Sertoli cells within testis explants. The selective activation of classical or nonclassical signaling pathways in Sertoli cells within testis explants also resulted in the differential activation of the Zbtb16 and c-Kit genes in adjacent spermatogonia germ cells. Delivery of an inhibitor of either pathway to Sertoli cells of mouse testes disrupted the blood-testis barrier that is essential for spermatogenesis. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nonclassical testosterone signaling blocked meiosis in pubertal mice and caused the loss of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in adult mouse testes. An inhibitor of the classical pathway caused the premature release of immature germ cells. Collectively, these observations indicate that classical and nonclassical testosterone signaling regulate overlapping and distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  15. The 'PDA nail': traumatic nail dystrophy in habitual users of personal digital assistants.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Malgorzata; Wu, John Z; Slowinska, Monika; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    All-in-one devices with mobile phone, web browser, and organizer are now owned by over 6 million people and their popularity is increasing. These devices are often called personal digital assistants (PDAs) or 'BlackBerry(R)' devices, after a popular brand name of these appliances. The use of PDAs is associated with exposure of distal thumbs and nails to repeated pressure with a frequency of up to a few thousand times per hour and several tens of thousands of times per day. We describe two cases of traumatic thumb nail dystrophy associated with using a PDA keyboard for several hours per day. Both patients developed median nail plate dystrophy after 4-8 months of habitual PDA use. One patient also developed thumb nail psoriasis and paronychia. All symptoms resolved a few months after discontinuing PDA use. Analysis of nail biomechanics, performed by using a finite element fingertip model, showed that maximal stress reaches approximately 3 MPa and appears near the root on the internal surface of the nail, while it reaches approximately 2 MPa and appears around one-third from the root on the outside surface. In conclusion, biomechanical stress resulting from overuse of PDAs may result in various types of nail dystrophy. We suggest the general term 'PDA nails' for these nail abnormalities.

  16. Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. ... 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission.

  17. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cuhaci, Neslihan; Aydın, Cevdet; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH) if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH. PMID:26558116

  18. Fractal aircraft trajectories and nonclassical turbulent exponents.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, S; Schertzer, D; Tuck, A F

    2004-09-01

    The dimension (D) of aircraft trajectories is fundamental in interpreting airborne data. To estimate D, we studied data from 18 trajectories of stratospheric aircraft flights 1600 km long taken during a "Mach cruise" (near constant Mach number) autopilot flight mode of the ER-2 research aircraft. Mach cruise implies correlated temperature and wind fluctuations so that DeltaZ approximately Deltax (H(z) ) where Z is the (fluctuating) vertical and x the horizontal coordinate of the aircraft. Over the range approximately 3-300 km , we found H(z) approximately 0.58+/-0.02 close to the theoretical 5/9=0.56 and implying D=1+ H(z) =14/9 , i.e., the trajectories are fractal. For distances <3 km aircraft inertia smooths the trajectories, for distances >300 km , D=1 again because of a rise of 1 m/km due to fuel consumption. In the fractal regime, the horizontal velocity and temperature exponents are close to the nonclassical value 1/2 (rather than 1/3 ). We discuss implications for aircraft measurements as well as for the structure of the atmosphere.

  19. Nonclassical nucleation and growth of inorganic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jisoo; Yang, Jiwoong; Kwon, Soon Gu; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles with particular compositions and structures can lead to nanoparticles with notable physicochemical properties, thus promoting their use in various applications. In this area of nanoscience, the focus is shifting from size- and shape-uniform single-component nanoparticles to multicomponent nanoparticles with enhanced performance and/or multifunctionality. With the increasing complexity of synthetic reactions, an understanding of the formation mechanisms of the nanoparticles is needed to enable a systematic synthetic approach. This Review highlights mechanistic studies underlying the synthesis of nanoparticles, with an emphasis on nucleation and growth behaviours that are not expected from classical theories. We discuss the structural properties of nanoclusters that are of a size that bridges molecules and solids. We then describe the role of nanoclusters in the prenucleation process as well as in nonclassical nucleation models. The growth of nanoparticles via the assembly and merging of primary particles is also overviewed. Finally, we present the heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms behind the synthesis of multicomponent nanoparticles.

  20. Non-classical Phase-dependent Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Samir

    2000-06-01

    A simple two-level atom, radiating in free space, is a canonical system in quantum optics. Historically, resonance fluorescence provided the first experimental evidence for photon antibunching, sub-Poisson statistics, and quantum jumps. However, it is well known that observation of phase-dependent nonclassical effects in resonance fluorescence presents severe experimental challenges. In particular, the phenomenon of squeezing in resonance fluorescence, first predicted in 1981footnote D. F. Walls and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 709 (1981), long eluded observation despite receiving considerable attention. In this talk I will describe how we recently overcame these challenges to make the first measurements of single-atom squeezing spectra in the phase-dependent fluorescence of a beam of driven two-level atoms in free space(Z. H. Lu, S. Bali, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81), 3635 (1998). The experimental scheme permits a valid comparison of these measurements with our predictions, thus yielding a new and simple physical picture of phase-dependent resonance fluorescence. Results of a direct measurement of the two-time field correlation function will also be presented. Our measurements enable important insights into the basic atomic processes underlying squeezing, and help elucidate the role of quantum jumps in phase-dependent resonance fluorescence.

  1. Signatures of nonclassical effects in optical tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharmila, B.; Saumitran, K.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.

    2017-02-01

    Several nonclassical effects displayed by wave packets governed by nonlinear Hamiltonians can be identified and assessed directly from tomograms without attempting to reconstruct the Wigner function or the density matrix explicitly. We have demonstrated this for both single-mode and bipartite systems. We have shown that a wide spectrum of effects such as the revival phenomena, quadrature squeezing, and Hong–Mandel and Hillery type higher-order squeezing in a generic single-mode system and the double-well Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) can be obtained from appropriate tomograms in a straightforward manner. We have examined the manner in which decoherence affects the nature of the state of a generic single-mode system at specific instants during temporal evolution. We have investigated entropic squeezing of the subsystem state of a bipartite system as it evolves in time, solely from tomograms. The procedures that we have demonstrated can be readily adapted to multimode systems. Further, for the double-well BEC we have identified an indicator of entanglement between subsystems that can be obtained directly from the tomogram. This mirrors the qualitative behavior of the subsystem von Neumann entropy and the subsystem linear entropy.

  2. Phonon-Mediated Nonclassical Interference in Diamond.

    PubMed

    England, Duncan G; Fisher, Kent A G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Heshami, Khabat; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2016-08-12

    Quantum interference of single photons is a fundamental aspect of many photonic quantum processing and communication protocols. Interference requires that the multiple pathways through an interferometer be temporally indistinguishable to within the coherence time of the photon. In this Letter, we use a diamond quantum memory to demonstrate interference between quantum pathways, initially temporally separated by many multiples of the optical coherence time. The quantum memory can be viewed as a light-matter beam splitter, mapping a THz-bandwidth single photon to a variable superposition of the output optical mode and stored phononic mode. Because the memory acts both as a beam splitter and as a buffer, the relevant coherence time for interference is not that of the photon, but rather that of the memory. We use this mechanism to demonstrate nonclassical single-photon and two-photon interference between quantum pathways initially separated by several picoseconds, even though the duration of the photons themselves is just ∼250  fs.

  3. Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25–55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15–75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9–3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9–3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

  4. Utility of Gel Nails in Improving the Appearance of Cosmetically Disfigured Nails: Experience with 25 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Soni; Grover, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8); superficial pitting (n =6); onychorrhexis (n =4); superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3); Beau's lines (n =3) and pterygium (n =1) were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit®. Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10); Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement) and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years). A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient). Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10). The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases); good improvement (56% cases) and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc.) was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities. Further

  5. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  6. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  7. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  8. Transungual delivery of terbinafine by iontophoresis in onychomycotic nails.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2011-10-01

    Trans-nail permeability is limited due to the innate nature of the nail plate and the recent investigations indicated the potential of iontophoresis in enhancing the transungual drug delivery in normal nails. However, the onychomycotic nails differ from the normal nails with respect to the anatomical and biological features. The current study investigated the effect of iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm(2) for 1 h) on the transungual delivery of terbinafine in onychomycotic finger and toe nails. The presence of fungi in the onychomycotic nails was diagnosed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Passive and iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine across the infected nail was studied in Franz diffusion cell. Further, the release profile of terbinafine from the drug-loaded nails was investigated by agar diffusion method. KOH microscopy confirmed the presence of fungi in all the nails used. The amount of drug permeated across the nail plate was enhanced significantly during iontophoresis over passive delivery, that is, by 21-fold in case of finger and 37-fold in case of toe nails. Further, the total drug load in the onychomycotic nail was enhanced by ~12-fold (in both finger and toe nails) due to iontophoresis. Release of terbinafine from the iontophoresis-loaded nails into agar plates exhibited two phases, a rapid phase followed by a steady release, which extended >2 months. This study concluded that the drug delivery in onychomycotic nails did not differ significantly when compared with normal nails, although the extent of drug permeation and drug load differs between finger and toe nails.

  9. In vitro permeation of several drugs through the human nail plate: relationship between physicochemical properties and nail permeability of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoichi; Komatsu, Tsunehisa; Sumi, Machiko; Numajiri, Sachihiko; Miyamoto, Misao; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of the present study are to clarify the relationship between the physicochemical properties and the nail permeability of drugs through human nail plates. Homologous p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters were used to investigate the relationship between the octanol/water partition coefficient and the permeability coefficient of several drugs. The nail permeability was found to be independent of the lipophilicity of a penetrating drug. However, the nail permeability of several model drugs was found to markedly decrease as their molecular weights increased. The nail permeability of an ionic drug was found to be significantly lower than that of a non-ionic drug, and the nail permeability of these drugs markedly decreased as their molecular weights increased. The permeation of a model drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), through healthy nail plates was also determined and compared with that through nail plates with fungal infections. The drug permeation through a nail plate decreased with an increase in nail plate thickness. Nail plates with fungal infections exhibited approximately the same 5-FU permeation as healthy nail plates. We suggest that the permeability of a drug is mainly influenced by its molecular weight and permeability through nails with fungal infection can be estimated from data on healthy nail permeability.

  10. Nonclassical biological activities of quinolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abeer; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are considered as a big family of multi-faceted drugs; their chemical synthesis is flexible and can be easily adapted to prepare new congeners with rationally devised structures. This is shown by the description of many thousands of derivatives in the literature. Scientists could accurately describe their QSAR, which is essential for effective drug design. This also gave them the chance to discover new and unprecedented activities, which makes quinolones an endless source of hope and enables further development of new clinically useful drugs. Quinolones are among the most common frameworks present in the bioactive molecules that have dominated the market for more than four decades. Since 1962, 4(1H)-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives are widely used as antibacterial agents. Quinolones have a broad and potent spectrum of activity and are also used as second-line drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB). Recently, quinolones have been reported to display "nonclassical" biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-HIV-1 integrase, anti-HCV-NS3 helicase and -NS5B-polymerase activities. The present review focuses on the structural modifications responsible for the transformation of an antibacterial into an anticancer agent and/or an antiviral agent. Indeed, quinolones' antimicrobial action is distinguishable among antibacterial agents, because they target different type II topoisomerase enzymes. Many derivatives of this family show high activity against bacterial topoisomerases and eukaryotic topoisomerases, and are also toxic to cultured mammalian cells and in vivo tumor models. Moreover, quinolones have shown antiviral activity against HIV and HCV viruses. In this context the quinolones family of drugs seem to link three different biological activities (antibacterial, anticancer, and the antiviral profiles) and the review will also provide an insight into the different mechanisms responsible for these activities among different species.

  11. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold to target drugs to the nail matrix.

    PubMed

    Manda, Prashanth; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the plausibility of iontophoretic delivery of drugs to the nail matrix via proximal nail fold. The in vitro drug transport studies were performed in Franz diffusion cells across folded epidermis, which is used as a model for the proximal nail fold. The amount of drug transported into the receiver compartment following iontophoresis for 3 h at 0.5 mA/cm(2) was 150-fold higher than the control (0.008 ± 0.002 μg/cm(2)). The amount of drug present in the skin after iontophoresis (0.45 ± 0.12 μg/mg) was approximately fivefold higher as compared with that of the control (0.08 ± 0.01 μg/mg). Iontophoresis of terbinafine across the proximal nail fold was assessed using excised cadaver toe model as well. A custom-designed foam-pad-type patch system was used for iontophoresis in cadaver toes. The amount of the drug delivered into the nail matrix following iontophoresis for 3 h was significantly higher than the minimum inhibition concentration of terbinafine. However, on the contrary, passive delivery for about 24 h did not result in any detectable drug levels in the nail matrix. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold could be developed as a potential method to target drugs to nail matrix.

  12. Nail position has an influence on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Darabos, Nikica; Bajs, Ivana Dovzak; Rutić, Zeljko; Darabos, Anela; Poljak, Damir; Dobsa, Jasminka

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between anterior knee pain (AKP) and nail position marked as a distance from tip of nail to tibial plateau (NP) and to the tuberositas tibiae (NT). Nail position has an influence on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing. We evaluated postoperative outcome results of 50 patients in the last 3 years with healed fractures initially treated with intramedullary (IM) reamed nails with 2 or 3 interlocking screws on both parts of the nail and with the use of medial paratendinous incision for nail entry portal. Patients marked a point on the visual analog scale (VAS) that corresponded to the level of postoperative AKP felt. Two groups of patients were formed on the basis of AKP (pain level was neglected): groups A and B, with and without pain, respectively. The difference between the two groups concerning NP measurements was statistically significant (p < 0.05), but not concerning NT measurements at the p < 0.05 level. Patients were classified by pain with high accuracy (98%) according to a classification tree. Symptoms of AKP did not appear if the tip of the nail position was more than 6.0 mm from the NP and more than 2.6 mm from the NT. However, for better evaluation of these results it will be necessary to examine a larger number of postoperative patients with AKP.

  13. [Anatomy, biology, physiology and basic pathology of the nail organ].

    PubMed

    Haneke, E

    2014-04-01

    The nail is the largest skin appendage. It grows continuously through life in a non-cyclical manner; its growth is not hormone-dependent. The nail of the middle finger of the dominant hand grows fastest with approximately 0.1 mm/day, whereas the big toe nail grows only 0.03-0.05 mm/d. The nails' size and shape vary characteristically from finger to finger and from toe to toe, for which the size and shape of the bone of the terminal phalanx is responsible. The nail apparatus consists of both epithelial and connective tissue components. The matrix epithelium is responsible for the production of the nail plate whereas the nail bed epithelium mediates firm attachment. The hyponychium is a specialized structure sealing the subungual space and allowing the nail plate to physiologically detach from the nail bed. The proximal nail fold covers most of the matrix. Its free end forms the cuticle which seals the nail pocket or cul-de-sac. The dermis of the matrix and nail bed is specialized with a morphogenetic potency. The proximal and lateral nail folds form a frame on three sides giving the nail stability and allowing it to grow out. The nail protects the distal phalanx, is an extremely versatile tool for defense and dexterity and increases the sensitivity of the tip of the finger. Nail apparatus, finger tip, tendons and ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint form a functional unit and cannot be seen independently. The nail organ has only a certain number of reaction patterns that differ in many respects from hairy and palmoplantar skin.

  14. Drug delivery to the nail following topical application.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2002-04-02

    The absorption of drugs into the nail unit, following topical application to the nail plate, is highly desirable to treat nail disorders, such as onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail). Nail permeability is however quite low and limits topical therapy to early/mild disease states. In this paper, the recent research into ungual drug delivery is reviewed. The nail unit and the two most common diseases affecting the nail--onychomycosis and nail psoriasis--are briefly described to set the scene and to give an overview of the nature and scope of the problem. The factors, which affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail plate such as solute molecular size, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, charge, and the nature of the vehicle, are then discussed, followed by ways of enhancing drug transport into and through the nail plate. Finally, drug-containing nail lacquers which, like cosmetic varnish, are brushed onto the nail plates to form a film, and from which drug is released and penetrates into the nail, are reviewed.

  15. Continuous sampling of the squeezed-state nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.; Köhnke, S.; Mraz, M.; Hage, B.

    2015-09-01

    We report the direct continuous-in-phase sampling of a regularized P function, the so-called nonclassicality quasiprobability, for squeezed light. Through their negativities, the resulting phase-space representation uncovers the quantum character of the state. In contrast to discrete phase-locked measurements, our approach allows an unconditional verification of nonclassicality by getting rid of interpolation errors due to fixed phases. To realize the equal phase distribution of measured quadratures, a data selection is implemented with quantum random numbers created by measuring the vacuum noise. The continuously measured squeezed field was generated in an optical parametric amplifier. Suitable pattern functions for obtaining the regularized P function are investigated. The significance of detecting negativities in our application is determined. The sampling of nonclassicality quasiprobabilities is shown to be a powerful and universal method to visualize quantum effects within arbitrary quantum states.

  16. Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Wakui, Kentaro; Eto, Yujiro; Benichi, Hugo; Izumi, Shuro; Yanagida, Tetsufumi; Ema, Kazuhiro; Numata, Takayuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Broadband light sources play essential roles in diverse fields, such as high-capacity optical communications, optical coherence tomography, optical spectroscopy, and spectrograph calibration. Although a nonclassical state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion may serve as a quantum counterpart, its detection and characterization have been a challenging task. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of photon numbers of an ultrabroadband (110 nm FWHM) squeezed state in the telecom band centred at 1535 nm wavelength, using a superconducting transition-edge sensor. The observed photon-number distributions violate Klyshko's criterion for the nonclassicality. From the observed photon-number distribution, we evaluate the second- and third-order correlation functions, and characterize a multimode structure, which implies that several tens of orthonormal modes of squeezing exist in the single optical pulse. Our results and techniques open up a new possibility to generate and characterize frequency-multiplexed nonclassical light sources for quantum info-communications technology. PMID:24694515

  17. Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Kentaro; Eto, Yujiro; Benichi, Hugo; Izumi, Shuro; Yanagida, Tetsufumi; Ema, Kazuhiro; Numata, Takayuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2014-04-03

    Broadband light sources play essential roles in diverse fields, such as high-capacity optical communications, optical coherence tomography, optical spectroscopy, and spectrograph calibration. Although a nonclassical state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion may serve as a quantum counterpart, its detection and characterization have been a challenging task. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of photon numbers of an ultrabroadband (110 nm FWHM) squeezed state in the telecom band centred at 1535 nm wavelength, using a superconducting transition-edge sensor. The observed photon-number distributions violate Klyshko's criterion for the nonclassicality. From the observed photon-number distribution, we evaluate the second- and third-order correlation functions, and characterize a multimode structure, which implies that several tens of orthonormal modes of squeezing exist in the single optical pulse. Our results and techniques open up a new possibility to generate and characterize frequency-multiplexed nonclassical light sources for quantum info-communications technology.

  18. Characterization of Classical and Nonclassical Fabry Disease: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Arends, Maarten; Wanner, Christoph; Hughes, Derralynn; Mehta, Atul; Oder, Daniel; Watkinson, Oliver T; Elliott, Perry M; Linthorst, Gabor E; Wijburg, Frits A; Biegstraaten, Marieke; Hollak, Carla E

    2016-12-15

    Fabry disease leads to renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular manifestations. Phenotypic differences between classically and nonclassically affected patients are evident, but there are few data on the natural course of classical and nonclassical disease in men and women. To describe the natural course of Fabry disease stratified by sex and phenotype, we retrospectively assessed event-free survival from birth to the first clinical visit (before enzyme replacement therapy) in 499 adult patients (mean age 43 years old; 41% men; 57% with the classical phenotype) from three international centers of excellence. We classified patients by phenotype on the basis of characteristic symptoms and enzyme activity. Men and women with classical Fabry disease had higher event rate than did those with nonclassical disease (hazard ratio for men, 5.63, 95% confidence interval, 3.17 to 10.00; P<0.001; hazard ratio for women, 2.88, 95% confidence interval, 1.54 to 5.40; P<0.001). Furthermore, men with classical Fabry disease had lower eGFR, higher left ventricular mass, and higher plasma globotriaosylsphingosine concentrations than men with nonclassical Fabry disease or women with either phenotype (P<0.001). In conclusion, before treatment with enzyme replacement therapy, men with classical Fabry disease had a history of more events than men with nonclassical disease or women with either phenotype; women with classical Fabry disease were more likely to develop complications than women with nonclassical disease. These data may support the development of new guidelines for the monitoring and treatment of Fabry disease and studies on the effects of intervention in subgroups of patients.

  19. Routes of drug delivery into the nail apparatus: Implications for the efficacy of topical nail solutions in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

    2016-01-01

    The route of antifungal drug entry into the nail plate and the underlying nail bed plays an important role in determining the efficacy of therapy. Oral antifungal agents reach the nail bed and nail plate by being ingested and achieving antifungal levels in the blood stream that are well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The reticular circulation at the distal end of the digit enables the drug to reach the nail bed, the proximal matrix and the lateral nail folds. The drug then diffuses into the proximal, ventral and lateral nail plate. The primary route of drug delivery for topical lacquers is transungual, with drug applied to the dorsal aspect of the nail plate and penetrating to the underlying nail bed. The new topical agents approved in the US for the treatment of onychomycosis are solutions with lower viscosity and increased nail penetration characteristics; therefore, these agents penetrate through the transungual route, but also through the space between the nail plate and the nail bed. This subungual route is an important method of drug delivery and is able to in part circumvent the thickness of the nail plate.

  20. Nail psoriasis - what a rheumatologist should know about.

    PubMed

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease with prevalence of 1-3%. Nail psoriasis affects 10-90% of patients with plaque psoriasis. The aim of the article is to review the literature for the correlation between nail psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) to provide rheumatologists a short review on features of nail psoriasis, methods of their assessment and possible clinical repercussions. The PubMed database was searched using the key words 'nail psoriasis' and 'psoriatic arthritis'. Psoriasis involving the nail matrix shows up as changes such as pitting, Beau lines, leukonychia, red spots in the lunula, or nail plate crumbling. Nail bed psoriasis manifests as onycholysis, oil drops (or salmon patches), dyschromia, splinter hemorrhages, or subungual hyperkeratosis. Nail psoriasis and psoriatic lesions in the gluteal cleft and on the scalp usually accompany PsA, especially in adult men.

  1. 42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN AND TEMPER THE NAILS; WEST TUBES IN FOREGRPUND AND DRAWBACK TUBE IN THE CENTER - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  2. Transonychial water loss in healthy and diseased nails.

    PubMed

    Krönauer, C; Gfesser, M; Ring, J; Abeck, D

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the transonychial water loss (TOWL) in both healthy and affected nails in different diseases and to compare it with the transepidermal water loss (TEWL). TOWL was measured by a new evaporimetric method: Plasticine was used to fix the protection cover of the evaporimeter probe to the nails. The TOWL behaved contrary to the TEWL. Affected nails in patients with atopic eczema (p <0.01), psoriasis (p<0.05) and onychomycosis (p<0.001) showed a significantly lower TOWL than did nails of healthy test subjects. The decrease in TOWL in diseased nails in comparison to healthy nails could be due to the formation of a stratum granulosum in atopic, psoriatic or fungus-affected nails, as this layer is normally absent in healthy nails.

  3. Nail psoriasis – what a rheumatologist should know about

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease with prevalence of 1–3%. Nail psoriasis affects 10–90% of patients with plaque psoriasis. The aim of the article is to review the literature for the correlation between nail psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) to provide rheumatologists a short review on features of nail psoriasis, methods of their assessment and possible clinical repercussions. The PubMed database was searched using the key words ‘nail psoriasis’ and ‘psoriatic arthritis’. Psoriasis involving the nail matrix shows up as changes such as pitting, Beau lines, leukonychia, red spots in the lunula, or nail plate crumbling. Nail bed psoriasis manifests as onycholysis, oil drops (or salmon patches), dyschromia, splinter hemorrhages, or subungual hyperkeratosis. Nail psoriasis and psoriatic lesions in the gluteal cleft and on the scalp usually accompany PsA, especially in adult men. PMID:28386142

  4. Nail disorders as signs of pediatric systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kara N; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-09-01

    Herein, we describe some of the more common changes in the nail unit that can be seen in systemic diseases in children. Changes that can be seen are not limited to those discussed in the following pages. The presence of changes on multiple nails is suggestive of a systemic cause in an ill child. However, multiple nails can also be affected in primary inflammatory disorders and infections of the nail unit. When evaluating a pediatric patient with a nail disorder, it is important to perform a complete physical examination of the skin and oral mucosa, as other clues to the diagnosis of the nail problem may be found. A comprehensive family history is also important to uncover possible syndromic associations with nail disease or diseases that can manifest with nail changes.

  5. The spatial behavior of nonclassical light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, Mikhail I.

    1999-10-01

    Nonclassical effects such as squeezing, antibunching, and sub-Poissonian statistics of photons have been attracting attention in quantum optics over the last decade. Up to now most theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out exclusively in the time domain while neglecting the spatial aspects by considering only one spatial mode of the electromagnetic field. In many situations such an approximation is well justified. There are, however, problems that do not allow in principle a single-mode consideration. This is the case when one wants to investigate the quantum fluctuations of light at different spatial points in the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Such an investigation requires a complete description of quantum fluctuations of light in both time and space and cannot be done within a single-mode theory. This space-time description brings about a natural generalization into the spatial domain of such notions as the standard quantum limit, squeezing, antibunching, etc. It predicts, for example, the possibility of generating a light beam with sub-Poissonian statistics of photons not only in time but also in the beam's transverse plane. Of particular relevance to the applications is a situation in which the cross section of the light beam contains several nonoverlapping areas with sub-Poissonian statistics of photons in each. Photodetection of such a beam produces several sub-shot-noise photocurrents depending on the number of independent areas with sub-Poissonian statistics. This is in marked contrast to the case of a single-mode sub-Poissonian light beam in which any attempt to collect light from only a part of the beam deteriorates the degree of shot-noise reduction. This property of multimode squeezed light opens a range of interesting new applications in optical imaging, optical parallel processing of information, parallel computing, and many other areas in which it is desirable to have a light beam with

  6. Non-Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Hatipoğlu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is classified as classical CAH and non-classical CAH (NCCAH). In the classical type, the most severe form comprises both salt-wasting and simple virilizing forms. In the non-classical form, diagnosis can be more confusing because the patient may remain asymptomatic or the condition may be associated with signs of androgen excess in the postnatal period or in the later stages of life. This review paper will include information on clinical findings, symptoms, diagnostic approaches, and treatment modules of NCCAH. PMID:27354284

  7. Nonclassicality Invariant of General Two-Mode Gaussian States

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina Jr., Jan; Svozilík, Jiří; Miranowicz, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new quantity for describing nonclassicality of an arbitrary optical two-mode Gaussian state which remains invariant under any global photon-number preserving unitary transformation of the covariance matrix of the state. The invariant naturally splits into an entanglement monotone and local-nonclassicality quantifiers applied to the reduced states. This shows how entanglement can be converted into local squeezing and vice versa. Twin beams and their transformations at a beam splitter are analyzed as an example providing squeezed light. An extension of this approach to pure three-mode Gaussian states is given. PMID:27210547

  8. Equilibration and nonclassicality of a double-well potential

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Steve; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    A double well loaded with bosonic atoms represents an ideal candidate to simulate some of the most interesting aspects in the phenomenology of thermalisation and equilibration. Here we report an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics and steady state properties of such a system locally in contact with different temperature reservoirs. We show that thermalisation only occurs ‘accidentally’. We further examine the nonclassical features and energy fluxes implied by the dynamics of the double-well system, thus exploring its finite-time thermodynamics in relation to the settlement of nonclassical correlations between the wells. PMID:26823097

  9. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing

    PubMed Central

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-01-01

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  10. Guidance on maintaining personal hygiene in nail care.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Bridget; Berridge, Pat

    Nail care is important in the maintenance of personal hygiene and is an essential aspect of patient care. Confusion about who should perform nail care for patients has resulted in poor practice and cycles of non-activity. This article provides guidance for nurses on performing routine nail care.

  11. 78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... contained in USITC Publication 4442 (December 2013), entitled Steel Nails from China: Investigation No....

  12. Portable x-ray fluorescence for the analysis of chromium in nail and nail clippings.

    PubMed

    Fleming, David E B; Ware, Chris S

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of chromium content in human nail or nail clippings could serve as an effective biomarker of chromium status. The feasibility of a new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) approach to chromium measurement was investigated through analysis of nail and nail clipping phantoms. Five measurements of 180s (real time) duration were first performed on six whole nail phantoms having chromium concentrations of 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20µg/g. Using nail clippers, these phantoms were then converted to nail clippings, and assembled into different mass groups of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg for additional measurements. The amplitude of the chromium Kα characteristic x-ray energy peak was examined as a function of phantom concentration for all measurement conditions to create a series of calibration lines. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for chromium was also calculated for each case. The chromium MDL determined from the whole nail intact phantoms was 0.88±0.03µg/g. For the clipping phantoms, the MDL ranged from 1.2 to 3.3µg/g, depending on the mass group analyzed. For the 40mg clipping group, the MDL was 1.2±0.1µg/g, and higher mass collections did not improve upon this result. This MDL is comparable to chromium concentration levels seen in various studies involving human nail clippings. Further improvements to the portable XRF technique would be required to detect chromium levels expected from the lower end of a typical population.

  13. [Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].

    PubMed

    Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated.

  14. Are biologics useful for nail psoriasis?

    PubMed

    Antúnez-Lay, Andrea; Cabrolier, Jorge; Andino-Navarrete, Romina

    2016-01-11

    Apart from involving skin, psoriasis can compromise the nails and adjacent structures. Even though there are multiple therapeutic alternatives, there is great interest in biological therapy, but no consensus on its role exists. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews including three randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether biological therapy is superior to placebo in the treatment of nail psoriasis because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  15. Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

  16. Basal cell carcinoma of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Forman, Seth B; Ferringer, Tammie C; Garrett, Algin B

    2007-05-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old white male with a basal cell carcinoma of the left thumb nail unit. Excision of the tumor via Mohs micrographic surgery was completed in 2 stages. The defect was repaired with a full thickness skin graft. Five months later the nail unit healed without complications. Prior to this report, 21 cases of basal cell carcinoma have been reported in the world literature. This case, as well as the prior reports, are reviewed with a focus on time to diagnosis, location, excisional technique, and method of repair.

  17. Pullback attractors for nonclassical diffusion equations with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kaixuan; Sun, Chunyou

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of pullback attractors in C H0 1 ( Ω ) for a nonclassical diffusion equation with delay term g(t, ut) which contains some hereditary characteristics. We consider two types of nonlinearity f: one is the case of critical growth and the other one is the polynomial growth of arbitrary order p - 1(p ≥ 2).

  18. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R C

    2014-04-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder.

  19. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder. PMID:24891708

  20. Multiphoton catalysis with coherent state input: nonclassicality and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li-Yun; Wu, Jia-Ni; Liao, Zeyang; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-09-01

    We propose a scheme to generate a new kind of non-Gaussian state—the Laguerre polynomial excited coherent state (LPECS)—by using multiphoton catalysis with coherent state input. The nonclassical properties of the LPECS are studied in terms of nonclassical depth, Mandel’s parameter, second-order correlation, quadrature squeezing, and the negativity of the Wigner function (WF). It is found that the LPECS is highly nonclassical and its nonclassicality depends on the amplitude of the coherent state, the catalysis photon number, and the parameters of the unbalanced beam splitter (BS). In particular, the maximum degree of squeezing can be enhanced by increasing the catalysis photon number. In addition, we examine the effect of decoherence using the WF, which shows that the negative region, the characteristic time of decoherence, and the structure of the WF are affected by catalysis photon number and the parameters of the unbalanced BS. Our work provides general analysis on how to prepare polynomial quantum states, which may be useful in the fields of quantum information and quantum computation.

  1. A simple procedure with nail preservation for ingrowing toe-nails.

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, J H; Ranger, I

    1985-01-01

    The numerous methods used for treating ingrowing toe-nails are testimony to the lack of a generally acceptable procedure with a low failure rate. A simple procedure with nail preservation is described, and the results of treatment assessed. The procedure consists of making a transposition flap of the nail wall after preliminary curettage of the granulation tissue in the nail groove. A total of 82 patients were treated by this method over a 3-year period, and the results in 63 patients were assessed between 18 months and 3 years after surgery. A total of 120 operations were carried out and 110 (92%) were successful. The treatment is effective, well tolerated, not technically difficult, and should be considered as an alternative to current methods of treatment. Images Fig. 3 PMID:4052211

  2. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on pulse oximetry reading using the Lifebox oximeter in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Desalu, I; Diakparomre, O I; Salami, A O; Abiola, A O

    2013-12-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES - Pulse oximetry is mandatory during anaesthesia, sedation and transfer of critically ill patients. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on the accuracy of saturation reading is inconsistent. The Lifebox pulse oximeter is reliable and recommended for low and middle income countries. We investigated its accuracy in the presence of 4 nail colours and acrylic nails SUBJECTS AND METHODS Fifty non-smoking volunteers had their fingers numbered from right to left (little finger of right hand =1 and little finger of left hand =10). Alternate fingers were nails painted with clear, red, brown and black nail polish and the 5th finger had acrylic nail applied. The corresponding finger on the other hand acted as control. The oxygen saturation was determined using the Lifebox pulse oximeter. Results All fingers (100%) with clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails recorded a saturation value. Each of the mean saturation value for clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails was not significantly different from the control mean (p= 0.378, 0.427 and 0.921). Only 12% and 64% of nails polished black and brown respectively recorded a saturation value. The mean SpO- for black and brown polish were significantly different from their control mean (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Black and brown polish resulted in a significant decrease in SpO with the Lifebox oximeter. Dark coloured nail polish should be removed prior to SpO2 determination to ensure that accurate readings can be obtained.

  3. In vitro human nail penetration and kinetics of panthenol.

    PubMed

    Hui, X; Hornby, S B; Wester, R C; Barbadillo, S; Appa, Y; Maibach, H

    2007-08-01

    The in vitro absorption of panthenol into and through the human nail was examined in this study. Panthenol, the alcohol form of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), is believed to act as a humectant and improve the flexibility and strength of nails. A liquid nail treatment formulated with panthenol (2%) was compared to a solution of panthenol (2%) in water. Fingernail specimens were dosed daily for 7 days with either the nail treatment (non-lacquer film forming) formulation or aqueous solution with sampling performed every 24 h. Panthenol concentrations were determined in the dorsal surface, interior (by drilling and removal) and in the supporting bed under the human nail. Panthenol levels in the dorsal nail (R(2) = 0.87; P < 0.001), nail interior (R(2) = 0.94; P < 0.001) and nail supporting bed (R(2) = 0.79; P < 0.003) showed a significant linear increase with each day of dosing. Significantly more panthenol was delivered into the interior nail and supporting bed by a nail treatment formulation than from an aqueous solution. The film acts not only as a reservoir of panthenol, but also acts to increase the hydration of the nail and the thermodynamic activity of panthenol as well, thereby enhancing diffusion.

  4. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted.

  5. Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hemlata; Pathak, Kamla

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis constitutes the most common fungal infection of the nail (skin beneath the nail bed) that affects the finger as well as toe nails. It is an infection that is initiated by yeasts, dermatophytes, and nondermatophyte molds. Nail lacquers are topical solutions intended only for use on fingernails as well as toenails and have been found to be useful in the treatment of onychomycosis. Thus, in the present review an attempt has been made to focus on the treatment aspects of onychomycosis and the ungual delivery of antifungals via nail lacquer. Several patents issued on nail lacquer till date have also been discussed. Penetration efficiency was assessed by several researchers across the human nail plate to investigate the potentiality of nail lacquer based formulations. Various clinical trials have also been conducted in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nail lacquers in delivering antifungal agents. Thus, it can be concluded that nail lacquer based preparations are efficacious and stable formulations. These possess tremendous potential for clinical topical application to the nail bed in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:27123362

  6. Matrix based system of isotretinoin as nail lacquer to enhance transungal delivery across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Monika; Sharma, Vijay; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-15

    The project was aimed at development of isotretinoin nail lacquer and assessment of its penetration efficiency across human nail plate. Preliminary studies (hydration enhancement factor and SEM) aided the selection of thioglycolic acid as permeation and eugenol was selected as local anesthetic in the formulation. The nail lacquer was optimized by 3(2) factorial design and a total of nine formulations were prepared and screened. In vitro adhesion and ex vivo permeation (cumulative drug permeation per unit area (CDP/A) = 6.61 ± 0.57 mg/cm(2)) across bovine hoof guided the selection of F3 as optimized formulation that was improvised. Viscosity adjustments to improve handling characteristics were affected by incorporation of ethyl cellulose (6%; F3M1) that scaled the viscosity to 312.681 cp and insignificantly (p > 0.05) affected CDP/A (6.32 ± 0.45 mg/cm(2)). In comparison to marketed preparation (Retino-A cream) F3M1 afforded two fold increase in CDP/A. The permeation characteristics were defined by Higuchi model (r(2) = 0.964) and flux value of 176 μg/cm(2)/h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, after 72 h of nail lacquer application, revealed extensive distribution of the fluorescent tracer across the human nail plate in comparison to control that was confined to the top layer. Conclusively, an efficacious and stable nail lacquer of isotretinoin was developed for potential clinical topical use to target the drug to nail bed in treatment of nail psoriasis.

  7. Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search. PMID:23762032

  8. Twenty-Nail Dystrophy and Darier's (Darier-White) Disease.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Chaudhuri, Anita; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old married man presented with progressive distortion of all the nails of the hands and toes for the past 30 years. Initially, his parents noticed yellowish discoloration and roughness of the thumb nail at the age of 5 years. Since then, the changes have been insidious to involve the other nails. Currently, the nails are lusterless, rough, ridged, and difficult to trim. In addition, the patient has had dark, dirty-looking raised eruptions over the skin, attended by generalized itching, corresponding to the onset of the nail lesions. His mother experienced similar disease. Examination of the nails was marked by alternating elevation and depression (ridging) and/or pitting, lack of luster, roughening, sandpaper texture, and splitting, along with muddy, grayish white discoloration. Dystrophy of the nails was prominent. The changes were bilateral and symmetrical, affecting all 10 fingers and 10 toes (Figure 1).

  9. Non-Melanoma-Associated Dyschromia of the Proximal Nail Fold

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Subungual melanoma with pigmentation beneath the nail that extends to involve the proximal nail fold is referred to as Hutchinson’s sign. Black or brown subungual discoloration involving the proximal nail fold secondary to other etiologies has been referred to as pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign. Three patients with nail discoloration and concurrent dyschromia of the proximal nail fold are described: a female with a chronic subungual hematoma and pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign, a male with culture-confirmed Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) of the nail with green discoloration involving the proximal nail fold, and a male with an acute subungual hematoma with red-purple subungual discoloration affecting the proximal nail fold. PubMed was searched for the following: black, brown, chloronychia, discoloration, dyschromia, green, hematoma, Hutchinson’s sign, nail, nail fold, proximal, pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign, red, subungual melanoma, syndrome. The papers were reviewed and appropriate references evaluated. In conclusion, melanoma-associated black proximal nail fold pigmentation is referred to as Hutchinson’s sign, and non-melanoma-associated black pigmentation has been designated as pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign. Subungual nail plate discoloration extending to involve the proximal nail fold may be black, green, or red-purple in patients with melanocytic and non-melanocytic lesions, bacterial infection (Pseudomonas), and acute subungual hematoma, respectively. Instead of creating a new terminology, we suggest that non-black subungual discoloration (green or red-purple) extending to involve the proximal nail fold be referred to as pseudo pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign. PMID:28090415

  10. A Clinical Study of 35 Cases of Pincer Nails

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae In; Lee, Young Bok; Oh, Shin Tack; Cho, Baik Kee

    2011-01-01

    Background Pincer nail is a nail deformity characterized by transverse overcurvature of the nail plate. Pincer nail can affect a patient's quality of life due to its chronic, recurrent course; however, there have been no clinical studies on the pincer nail condition in Korean patients. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical findings and treatment of pincer nail. In addition, possible etiological factors were considered, and treatment efficacy was evaluated. Methods The medical records and clinical photographs of 35 patients (12 males, 23 females) who were diagnosed with pincer nail between August 1, 2005 and July 31, 2009 were studied. Results Patient age ranged from 10 to 77 (52.09±17.26) years, and there was a predominance of female (23 out of 35 patients, F:M=2:1). The mean duration of the disorder was 7.45 years (range 0.25~40); 85% had pincer nail for at least 1 year. In addition, 40% had a history of previous treatment and recurrence. There were 82.8% patients with the common type of pincer nails. The most commonly involved nails were both great toenails. Among 35 patients, nail grinding was started in 30 patients, and 25 patients showed clinical improvement with nail grinding. The width index increased and the height index decreased after treatment. The mean follow up period was 8.42 months (range 1~27), and 7 patients showed recurrence after 8.8 months (range 2~20). Among 35 patients, 5 patients were treated with nail extraction with matricectomy, and the symptoms resolved immediately. The mean follow up period was 7.6 months (range 0~19), and recurrence was not observed. Onychomycosis was also present in 37.1% of patients, and itraconazole pulse therapy for 3 months was added. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the clinical features of pincer nail in Korean patients. The findings show that the common type of pincer nail was most common, and nail grinding as a conservative treatment greatly improved pincer nails

  11. Short-term isotretinoin-induced elkonyxis and median nail dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Alli, Nuran; Dogan, Sibel

    2016-03-01

    Elkonyxis and median nail distrophy are very rare nail fold disorders due to the damage in nail matrix and proximal nail fold. Herein, we report a patient with both elkonyxis and median nail distrophy occured two months into a treatment course of isotretinoin that is to our knowledge for the first time.

  12. Evolution of nonclassical MHC-dependent invariant T cells.

    PubMed

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2014-12-01

    TCR-mediated specific recognition of antigenic peptides in the context of classical MHC molecules is a cornerstone of adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrate. Ancillary to these interactions, the T cell repertoire also includes unconventional T cells that recognize endogenous and/or exogenous antigens in a classical MHC-unrestricted manner. Among these, the mammalian nonclassical MHC class I-restricted invariant T cell (iT) subsets, such as iNKT and MAIT cells, are now believed to be integral to immune response initiation as well as in orchestrating subsequent adaptive immunity. Until recently the evolutionary origins of these cells were unknown. Here we review our current understanding of a nonclassical MHC class I-restricted iT cell population in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Parallels with the mammalian iNKT and MAIT cells underline the crucial biological roles of these evolutionarily ancient immune subsets.

  13. Evolution of nonclassical MHC-dependent invariant T cells

    PubMed Central

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    TCR-mediated specific recognition of antigenic peptides in the context of classical MHC molecules is a cornerstone of adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrate. Ancillary to these interactions, the T cell repertoire also includes unconventional T cells that recognize endogenous and/or exogenous antigens in a classical MHC-unrestricted manner. Among these, the mammalian nonclassical MHC class I-restricted invariant T cell (iT) subsets, such as iNKT and MAIT cells, are now believed to be integral to immune response initiation as well as in orchestrating subsequent adaptive immunity. Until recently the evolutionary origins of these cells were unknown. Here we review our current understanding of a nonclassical MHC class I-restricted iT cell population in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Parallels with the mammalian iNKT and MAIT cells underline the crucial biological roles of these evolutionarily ancient immune subsets. PMID:25117267

  14. Two-Mode Excited Entangled Coherent State: Nonclassicality and Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao-Liang; Wu, Jia-Ni; Liu, Cun-Jin; Hu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Li-Yun

    2017-03-01

    Two-mode excited entangled coherent states (TME-ECSs) are introduced by operating repeatedly the photon-excited operator on the ECSs. It is shown that the normalization constant is related to the product of two Laguerre polynomials. The influence of the operation on nonclassical behaviour of the ECSs is investigated in terms of cross-correlation function, anti-bunching effect and the negativity of Wigner function, which show that nonclassical properties can be enhanced. In addition, inseparability properties of the TME-ECSs are discussed by using Bell inequality and concurrence. It is found that the degree of quantum entanglement of even ECSs increases with the increase of the total excited photon number, and the violation of Bell inequality can be present for both even and odd case only when the total excited photon numbers are even and odd, respectively.

  15. The Essence of Nonclassicality: Non-Vanishing Signal Deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nonclassical properties of correlations- like unpredictability, no-cloning and uncertainty- are known to follow from two assumptions: nonlocality and no-signaling. For two-input-two-output correlations, we derive these properties from a single, unified assumption: namely, the excess of the communication cost over the signaling in the correlation. This is relevant to quantum temporal correlations, resources to simulate quantum correlations and extensions of quantum mechanics. We generalize in the context of such correlations the nonclassicality result for nonlocal-nonsignaling correlations (Masanes et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 012112 (2006)) and the uncertainty bound on nonlocality (Oppenheim and Wehner, Science 330(6007), 1072 (2010)), when the no-signaling condition is relaxed.

  16. Even and odd Wigner negative binomial states: Nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.

    2015-10-01

    By using Wigner-Heisenberg algebra (WHA) and its Fock representation, even and odd Wigner negative binomial states (WNBSs) |M,ξ,ν>±W (ν = 0 corresponds to the ordinary even and odd negative binomial states (NBSs)) are introduced. These states can be reduced to the Wigner cat states in special limit. We establish the resolution of identity property for them through a positive definite measure on the unit disc. Some of their nonclassical properties, such as Mandel’s parameter and quadrature squeezing have been investigated numerically. We show that in contrast with the even NBSs, even WNBSs may exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics. Also squeezing in the field quadratures appears for both even and odd WNBSs. It is found that the deformation parameter ν plays an essential role in displaying highly nonclassical behaviors.

  17. Nonclassicality tests and entanglement witnesses for macroscopic mechanical superposition states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittsovich, Oleg; Moroder, Tobias; Asadian, Ali; Gühne, Otfried; Rabl, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We describe a set of measurement protocols for performing nonclassicality tests and the verification of entangled superposition states of macroscopic continuous variable systems, such as nanomechanical resonators. Following earlier works, we first consider a setup where a two-level system is used to indirectly probe the motion of the mechanical system via Ramsey measurements and discuss the application of this method for detecting nonclassical mechanical states. We then show that the generalization of this technique to multiple resonator modes allows the conditioned preparation and the detection of entangled mechanical superposition states. The proposed measurement protocols can be implemented in various qubit-resonator systems that are currently under experimental investigation and find applications in future tests of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic scale.

  18. Beyond iron: non-classical biological functions of bacterial siderophores.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2015-04-14

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination chemistry studies, have provided insight into the crucial role that siderophores play in bacterial iron homeostasis. The importance of understanding the fundamental chemistry underlying bacterial life has been highlighted evermore in recent years because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the need to prevent the global rise of these superbugs. Increasing reports of siderophores functioning in capacities other than iron transport have appeared recently, but reports of "non-classical" siderophore functions have long paralleled those of iron transport. One particular non-classical function of these iron chelators, namely antibiotic activity, was documented before the role of siderophores in iron transport was established. In this Perspective, we present an exposition of past and current work into non-classical functions of siderophores and highlight the directions in which we anticipate that this research is headed. Examples include the ability of siderophores to function as zincophores, chalkophores, and metallophores for a variety of other metals, sequester heavy metal toxins, transport boron, act as signalling molecules, regulate oxidative stress, and provide antibacterial activity.

  19. Nonclassicality and decoherence of photon-subtracted squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2007-03-01

    Single-photon subtracted squeezed vacuum states are equivalent to Schrodinger kitten states and show non-Gaussian nature in phase space. Such states are useful in entanglement distillation, loophole-free test of Bell's inequality, and quantum computing. We discuss nonclassical properties of these states in terms of the sub-Poissonian statistics and the negativity of the Wigner function. We derive a compact expression for the Wigner function from which we find the region of phase space where Wigner function is negative. We find an upper bound on the squeezing parameter for the state to exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics. We then study the effect of decoherence on the single-photon subtracted squeezed states. We present results for two different models of decoherence, viz. amplitude decay model and the phase diffusion model. In each case we give analytical results for the time evolution of the state. We discuss the loss of nonclassicality as a result of decoherence. We show through the study of their phase-space properties how these states decay to vacuum due to the decay of photons. We show that phase damping leads to very slow decoherence than the photon-number decay and the state remains nonclassical at long times.

  20. [Three cases of removal of intrabronchial metal nails].

    PubMed

    Nohara, Jun; Lee, Synnum; Noguchi, Tetsuo; Sakaguchi, Yasuto; Kono, Tomoya; Terada, Yasuji

    2009-12-01

    We describe the successful extraction from an airway of foreign bodies metal nails in three cases. They were all carpenters, and often held nails between their lips. Case 1: a 72-year-old man had aspirated a nail three months earlier, but did not seek medical assistance at the time. A chest X-ray film and CT examination revealed a nail in the peripheral S7 region of the right lower lobe. The nail could not be extracted with forceps via bronchoscopy, so video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed. During surgery, the nail moved to the truncus intermedius, then it was extracted using bronchoscopy forceps. The extracted nail was rust-proof, and no rust was observed. Case 2 : a 76-year-old man visited our hospital with a history bloody sputum with a slightly dry cough for two months. A chest X-ray film showed a nail in the right hilum. Bronchoscopy revealed the nail covered with mucinous secretion in the right B7, and it was extracted by forceps. It was a rust-proof type nail, and no granulation tissue was observed in the bronchus. Case 3: a 74-year-old man visited our hospital because of dry cough for two months. A chest X-ray revealed a nail in the right hilus and bronchoscopy showed the nail was buried in reactive granulation tissue in the right middle lobe bronchus and could not be observed from the surface. Tranilast (n-[3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl] anthranilic acid) at 300 mg/day and Methylprednisolone at 250 mg/day were prescribed for 4 days, followed by a reduction of the corticosteroid to 40 mg/day for 3 days. Seven days later, the granulation tissue and mucosal edema had diminished, and the nail was successfully extracted. The extracted nail was not rust-proof and had swollen with rust. These nails were found a few months after aspiration. The reason why these were not defected was possibly that the long and narrow shape did not obstruct the segmental bronchus and the symptoms can be less severe compared with other foreign bodies. The rust-proof nails were

  1. [Biomechanical analysis of the medullary bone nail and its locking].

    PubMed

    Teubner, E

    1985-07-01

    By mechanical definition an intramedullary nail is not a nail but rather a bendable feather, subject to longitudinal tension and to a lesser degree to transverse pressure. Reaming the medullary canal is necessary for centralization of the nail as well as to increase the area of contact with the bone. However, this procedure is detrimental to the bone metabolism and reduces its elasticity against torsional forces. The dynamic locking nail-system is more biologic than conventional nailing and it reduces rotatory instability with the help of additional components, such as transverse screws. Only static locking allows true static weight bearing with crutches, but not dynamic mobilisation. Nails with conventional strength and in leaf of trefoil formation are superior to other designs. However, an improved angle in the proximal locking is suggested, as this would allow for a three to four times greater weight bearing.

  2. New developments in magnetic resonance imaging of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Ernesto; Sirignano, Cesare; Catalano, Onofrio; Atteno, Mariangela; Costa, Luisa; Caso, Francesco; Peluso, Rosario; Bruner, Vincenzo; Aquino, Maria Maddalena; Del Puente, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Scarpa, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) musculoskeletal equipment allows new sequences and better images of the nail unit. The use of MRI has modified the imaging strategies used in treating inflammatory arthritis. In the case of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the MRI study of the nail unit identifies nail involvement, which appears as an initial lesion for the induction of distal phalanx damage and consequently of distal interphalangeal joint arthritis. All patients with psoriasis, even in the absence of a clinically evident onychopathy, show characteristic MRI changes in the nail. This evidence could have a practical diagnostic value, because MRI study of the nail could document diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies who have a barely evident psoriasis. We discuss the advantages and problems related to the use of low-field and high-field MRI in the study of the nail unit of patients with PsA.

  3. Computational comparison of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Benito, María José; Fornells, Pere; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Seral, Belén; Seral-Iñnigo, Fernando; Doblaré, Manuel

    2007-02-01

    We compared, via a computational model, the biomechanical performance of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails to treat fractures in three different locations: proximal, mid-diaphyseal, and distal. Two finite element models were analyzed for the two nail types and the three kinds of fractures. Several biomechanical variables were determined: interfragmentary strains in the fracture site, von Mises stresses in nails and bolts, and strain distributions in the tibia and fibula. Although good mechanical stabilization was achieved in all the simulated fractures, the best results were obtained in the proximal fracture for the unreamed nail and in the mid-diaphyseal and distal fractures for the reamed nail. The interlocking bolts, in general, were subjected to higher stresses in the unreamed tibial nail than in the reamed one; thus the former stabilization technique is more likely to fail due to fatigue.

  4. Msx2 and Foxn1 regulate nail homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Ma, Liang

    2011-06-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions underlie the foundation for ectodermal appendage formation. Signal molecules such as BMPs and WNTs mediate crosstalk between the two tissue layers and coordinate both the induction and morphogenesis of ectodermal appendages. Here, we analyzed the function of two BMP downstream transcription factors, Msx2 and Foxn1, in nail differentiation. First, we show that Msx2 function is required during onychocyte (nail cell) terminal differentiation. Second, the Msx2/Foxn1/hair keratin pathway controlling hair differentiation is also conserved during onychocyte differentiation. Finally, the Msx2-/-; Foxn1-/- double-mutant nails exhibit a more severe phenotype than either single mutant including nail bed hyperplasia. Together, our data implicate important functions for Msx2 and Foxn1 in regulating differentiation of the keratogenous zone, proliferation of distal nail matrix cells, and organization of the nail bed.

  5. Interplay of nonclassicality and entanglement of two-mode Gaussian fields generated in optical parametric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina, Jan; Peřina, Jan; Miranowicz, Adam

    2016-07-01

    The behavior of general nonclassical two-mode Gaussian states at a beam splitter is investigated. Single-mode nonclassicality as well as two-mode entanglement of both input and output states are analyzed suggesting their suitable quantifiers. These quantifiers are derived from local and global invariants of linear unitary two-mode transformations such that the sum of input (or output) local nonclassicality measures and entanglement measure gives a global invariant. This invariant quantifies the global nonclassicality resource. Mutual transformations of local nonclassicalities and entanglement induced by the beam splitter are analyzed considering incident noisy twin beams, single-mode noisy squeezed vacuum states, and states encompassing both squeezed states and twin beams. A rich tapestry of interesting nonclassical output states is predicted.

  6. Retrograde tibial nail: anatomical implantation and surgical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, S; Appelmann, P; Pairon, P; Gruszka, D; Rommens, P M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The treatment of distal tibial fractures requires a stable fixation while minimizing the secondary trauma to the soft tissues by the surgical approach and implant. The experimental Retrograde Tibial Nail is currently investigated as a minimally invasive alternative to plating and antegrade nailing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical feasibility in a cadaver model for all distal tibial fracture types generally considered treatable by nailing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five different fracture types (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3 and 43-C1/C2) were created on separate cadaveric limbs. In simple fractures (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3) primary nailing was performed. In intraarticular fractures (AO/OTA 43-C1/2) reduction of the articular block and lag screw fixation was performed before nailing. Intraoperative complications, quality of reduction, fluoroscopy duration and operative time were evaluated. RESULTS Retrograde intramedullary nailing is feasible in simple fracture types by closed manual reduction and percutaneous reduction forceps. Retrograde nailing is possible in fractures with simple intraarticular involvement after primary lag screw fixation. The duration of surgery averaged 51.8 minutes (range 40-62 min). No major complications occurred during nailing. CONCLUSIONS The minimally invasive retrograde nail combines a minimally invasive local osteosynthesis with the ability to adequately fix extraarticular and simple intraarticular distal tibial fractures. The results suggests that retrograde tibia nailing is a promising new concept for the treatment of distal tibia fractures. Key words: minimally invasive surgery, tibia, metaphyseal fractures, intramedullary nailing, retrograde nailing.

  7. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy dos

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants. PMID:27004183

  8. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy Dos

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants.

  9. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing in monostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ozturk, Cagatay; Ozturan, Kutay; Sanisoglu, Yavuz S; Cicek, Ilker E; Erler, Kaan

    2008-06-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is an enigma with no known cure. Treatment currently consists of curettage and bone-grafting in an attempt to eradicate the lesion and to prevent progressive deformity. This study presents the results of prophylactic intramedullary nailing in 10 patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia, pain increasing with movement, and scintigraphically established activity. Ten patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia in their upper or lower extremities treated between 2001 and 2003 were included in the study. Seven patients were male and 3 were female; their mean age was 26.9 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months. Closed intramedullary nail without reaming was used in all cases. Bone grafting was not performed. Patients were allowed full weight bearing on the affected extremities on the second postoperative day. Mean VAS for functional pain was 5.33 +/- 0.65 preoperatively and 2.26 +/- 0.57 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). Radiographs showed no changes in lesion size, and the intramedullary fixation appeared to be stable. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing appeared to be beneficial in monostotic fibrous dysplasia with scintigraphically proven activity and functional pain. It also avoids problems that may occur following pathological fracture.

  10. Interlocking Intramedullary Nails in Fracture Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiao; Wang, Jing Rong; Hong, Shi Dong; Xin, Feng; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate interlocking intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 68 adult patients (for a total of 95 fractures) with isolated long-bone fractures who were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails between January 2010 and January 2012. The patients were followed for 18 months to observe the healing of the fracture, time, and the occurrence of complications in the shoulder, knee, and hip joint functions. After about a follow-up period of 26.2 months (range 18-39 months), all cases obtained bony union. The mean time to fracture union was 5.2 months. Cases of knees and hip joint functions of the femoral or tibial fracture and shoulder functions of the humeral fractures were observed. The interlocking intramedullary nails may be considered as an alternative method for isolated diaphyseal fractures of the extremities. The advantages of this method include small operative scars, reliable fixations, better fracture healings, and fewer complications.

  11. Radiographic findings in the nail-patella syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome is a rare disorder characterized classically by the tetrad of nail hypoplasia or aplasia, aplastic or hypoplastic patellae, elbow dysplasia, and the presence of iliac horns. Iliac horns are considered pathognomonic, and the presence of hypoplastic or aplastic patellae in conjunction with nail abnormalities is a cardinal feature of diagnosis. Elbow dysplasia is present in most cases and can exhibit features typical of the syndrome. Herein we present the radiographic findings of the elbows, knees, and pelvis of a woman with nail-patella syndrome. PMID:26130880

  12. Optimization of intramedullary nailing by numerical simulation of fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Tim; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Simon, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Due to the annular gap between intramedullary (IM) nails and the endosteal surface, high interfragmentary movement can occur under loading. This could prolong the healing time, particularly for thin IM nails that are often used for unreamed IM nailing. The aims of our study were to determine the influence of the nail diameter on the healing time of human tibial shaft fractures and to investigate whether the healing time could be shortened by increasing the stiffness of the implant material. Therefore, a corroborated numerical model for simulating the fracture healing process in humans was used to simulate the healing process of human tibial fractures treated with IM nails. The calculated healing time (up to 71 weeks) was longest for transverse fractures treated with thin IM nails made of titanium. That the healing time was disproportionately long depended on the nail diameter, and could be greatly reduced by using a thicker nail or using steel instead of titanium. To avoid a prolonged healing time, the nail should be thick, and the annular gap should be as narrow as possible. Alternatively, using steel instead of titanium may also help to avoid a prolonged healing time.

  13. Insights into drug delivery across the nail plate barrier.

    PubMed

    Saner, Manish V; Kulkarni, Abhijeet D; Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V

    2014-11-01

    Topical therapy is at the forefront in treating nail ailments (especially onychomycosis and nail psoriasis) due to its local effects, which circumvents systemic adverse events, improves patient compliance and reduces treatment cost. However, the success of topical therapy has been hindered due to poor penetration of topical therapeutics across densely keratinized nail plate barrier. For effective topical therapy across nail plate, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. Present review is designed to provide an insight into prime aspects of transungual drug delivery viz. nail structure and physiology, various onychopathies, techniques of nail permeation enhancement and in vitro models for trans-nail drug permeation studies. Updated list of drug molecules studied across the nail plate and key commercial products have been furnished with sufficient depth. Patents pertinent to, and current clinical status of transungual drug delivery have also been comprehensively reviewed. This is the first systematic critique encompassing the detailed aspects of transungual drug delivery. In our opinion, transungual drug delivery is a promising avenue for researchers to develop novel formulations, augmenting pharmaceutical industries to commercialize the products for nail disorders.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting.

  15. Drugs in nails: physiology, pharmacokinetics and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, A; Pichini, S; Pacifici, R; Zuccaro, P; Lopez, A

    2000-02-01

    In recent years, drug analysis in keratinised matrices, such as hair and nails, has received considerable attention because of several advantages over drug testing methodologies employing body fluids, such as urine or serum. For example, keratinic matrices, such as finger- and toenails, can accumulate drugs during long term exposure. Drugs are incorporated into nails by a double mechanism: (i) deposition into the root of the growing nail via the blood flow in the nail matrix; and (ii) incorporation via the nail bed during growth from the lunula to the beginning of the free margin. Together, these account for a wide retrospective window of drug detection. Nails can provide a good forensic matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. Indeed, the international literature has reported the use of nail analysis in postmortem detection of drugs of abuse, drug testing in the workplace and drug screening to detect prenatal exposure, even though further studies are needed for correct interpretation of the data obtained. Another application of drug analysis in nails consists of the possibility of detecting the presence of an antimycotic at the site of action during antifungal therapy for patients with onychomycosis. When available, this evidence has permitted drug treatment of a shorter duration and reduced toxicity. However, so far the potential of drug monitoring in nails still lacks harmonisation and validation of analytical methodologies and a better comprehension of the possible correlation between drug concentrations in the matrix and period of exposure.

  16. Ingrown nails: a comparison of the nail matrix phenolization method with the elevation of the nail bed-periosteal flap procedure.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Umeda, T; Nishioka, K; Iida, H; Aoki, K; Yokoyama, A

    1998-01-01

    Seventy-five procedures were performed on 62 patients with ingrown nails from 1992 to 1996. Those consisted of 51 nail matrix phenolization methods (NMP) and 24 elevation of the nail bed-periosteal flap procedures (ENF). Ingrown nails were classified into type A (normal nail plate) and type B (incurved nail plate). The duration and intensity of postoperative pain were assessed, and the recurrence rate was monitered. The recurrence rate was 3.9% in the NMP group and 4.1% in the ENF group. Concerning the recurrence rate, there was no statistical significance between ENF and NMP in both types. Postoperative pain intensity was less in the NMP group than in the ENF group in both types (P < 0.01). The same tendency was seen in postoperative pain duration. However, the NMP group had longer duration of wound healing compared with the ENF group in type A (P < 0.01). We conclude that NMP is a recommendable treatment for most ingrown nails.

  17. Nonclassicality in phase by breaking classical bounds on statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Daniel; Luis, Alfredo

    2010-09-15

    We derive upper bounds on the statistics of phase and phase difference that are satisfied by all classical states. They are obtained by finding the maximum projection of classical states on phase states. For a single-mode phase, meaningful bounds are obtained conditioned to a fixed mean number of photons. We also derive classical bounds for the projection on phase-coherent states, discussing their relation with phase-state bounds within the context of analytic representations. We find states with nonclassical phase properties disclosed by the violation of these classical bounds. These are quadrature and SU(2) squeezed states and phase-coherent states.

  18. Quantum teleportation of nonclassical wave packets: An effective multimode theory

    SciTech Connect

    Benichi, Hugo; Takeda, Shuntaro; Lee, Noriyuki; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-07-15

    We develop a simple and efficient theoretical model to understand the quantum properties of broadband continuous variable quantum teleportation. We show that, if stated properly, the problem of multimode teleportation can be simplified to teleportation of a single effective mode that describes the input state temporal characteristic. Using that model, we show how the finite bandwidth of squeezing and external noise in the classical channel affect the output teleported quantum field. We choose an approach that is especially relevant for the case of non-Gaussian nonclassical quantum states and we finally back-test our model with recent experimental results.

  19. Observation of Nonclassical Radiation Pressure Forces on a Mechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jeremy; Lecocq, Florent; Simmonds, Raymond; Aumentado, Jose; Teufel, John

    Squeezed states of light are known to be useful for enhancing mechanical displacement sensing since they can be tailored to reduce the ``photon counting noise'' that limits the measurement's noise floor. On the other hand, recent experiments in cavity optomechanics have reached measurement regimes where an interrogating light field exerts radiation pressure noise on a mechanical oscillator. One outstanding challenge has been to explore the intersection between such experiments. I will present data obtained using a superconducting cavity optomechanical system wherein a mechanical oscillator is driven by nonclassical radiation pressure imparted by squeezed microwave fields. JBC acknowledges the NRC for financial support.

  20. Recovery of nail dystrophy potential new therapeutic indication of tofacitinib.

    PubMed

    Jaller, Jose A; Jaller, Juan J; Jaller, Antonio M; Jaller-Char, Juan J; Ferreira, Sineida Berbert; Ferreira, Rachel; Scheinberg, Morton

    2017-04-01

    Nail dystrophy is a heterogeneous skin condition and in some subtypes, is associated with autoimmune diseases in particular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. In this report, we show that tofacitinib, a novel therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, appears to be beneficial in patients with nail disease refractory to other conventional modes of therapy.

  1. Development of ciclopirox nail lacquer with enhanced permeation and retention.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Choi, Ju Yeon; Go, Toe Gyung; Kang, Min Hyung; Han, Sang Duk; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Mi Won; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a prevailing disease caused by fungal infection of nails that mostly affects athletes and the elderly. Ciclopirox is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. However, the desired penetration of ciclopirox into the nail bed has not been achieved via topical application for efficient treatment. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to enhance ciclopirox permeation and retention in nail by the development of a new nail lacquer formulation. We screened the effects of different solvents, alkalizing agents, and permeation enhancers on the permeation of bovine hooves by ciclopirox and its retention in human nail clippings. The results suggest that isopropyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide, and urea as the solvent, alkalizing agent, and permeation enhancer, respectively, improved the permeation of the ciclopirox nail lacquer formulation the most with high flux rates. Comparison of the final formulation and marketed product revealed enhanced retention of ciclopirox from our developed formulation in human nail clippings. Therefore, our newly developed nail lacquer may be a potentially effective formulation for the treatment of onychomycosis in humans.

  2. Iontophoretically enhanced ciclopirox delivery into and across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jinsong; Smith, Kelly A; Li, S Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Transungual delivery of antifungal drugs is hindered by the low permeability of human nail plates, and as such, repeated dosing over a long period of time is necessary for effective treatment. The objectives of this study were to explore the possibilities of (a) enhancing the delivery of ciclopirox (CIC) across human nail plates and (b) sustaining CIC delivery from the larger resultant drug depot in the nail plates with constant voltage iontophoresis. In vitro passive and 9 V cathodal iontophoretic transport experiments of CIC across human nails were performed. Transungual CIC delivery with Penlac was the control. The amounts of CIC released from and deposited in the nails were determined in drug release and extraction experiments, respectively. Iontophoresis increased the flux of CIC permeated across the nail approximately 10 times compared to passive delivery from the same formulation or from Penlac. A significant amount of CIC was loaded into and released from the nails; the CIC concentrations were estimated to be above the minimum inhibitory concentrations of CIC for dermatophytic molds. The apparent transport lag time decreased in iontophoretic transport. The results demonstrate that iontophoresis was able to deliver an effective amount of CIC into and across the nails, and this suggests the feasibility of a constant voltage battery-powered transungual iontophoretic device.

  3. Do fungi play a role in psoriatic nails?

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Salomon, Joanna

    2007-11-01

    Onychomycosis is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about a half of all nail abnormalities. Some factors like increasing age, male sex, repeated nail damage, genetic predispositions and underlying conditions, such as diabetes, immunodeficiency or peripheral arterial disease may predispose to develop onychomycosis. It is also suggested that abnormalities in nail morphology are the predisposing factors to onychomycosis. Psoriasis is one of the most common reasons of disturbed nail morphology and the spectrum of nail changes in psoriasis is very wide. Thus, there were suggestions that dystrophic nails in psoriatic patients lose their natural preventing barrier and therefore are more predisposed to fungal infection. This paper summarizes the knowledge about prevalence of onychomycosis among psoriatic patients and contains a literature review concerning this problem. Most authors report that the prevalence of onychomycosis in psoriatic patients is not higher than that in control population. However, especially yeasts and maybe moulds, probably as concomitant pathogens, are more often isolated from psoriatic patients than from non-psoriatic population. In reasonable cases, the mycological examination is required, especially when the clinical picture of the nails suggests the presence of fungal infection. In these cases, antifungal treatment may be beneficial for psoriatic patients.

  4. An unusual foreign body in urethra: nail clippers.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Namik; Yucel, Mehmet; Hatipoglu, Nebahat; Yentur, Serhat; Semercioz, Attila

    2011-01-01

    A 37-year-old mentally retarded male patient complained of voiding difficulties. Physical examination revealed a foreign body in the urethra. The foreign body was found to be nail clippers and was removed with open surgery. This case of self-inserted nail clippers in the urethra by the patient is the first published report to our knowledge.

  5. Did You Know Biting Your Nails Can Make You Sick?

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of an infection called paronychia include a red, swollen area around the nail. If the infection is bacterial, you may develop pus-filled blisters. Nail biting is bad for your smile. The habit can cause your teeth to shift out of place or cause them to chip ...

  6. Evaluating a county-based Healthy nail Salon Recognition Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine whether nail solons that participate in the SF recognition program have reduced measured levels of toluene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)as compared to nail salons that do not participate. We also evaluated changes in worker ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... to-human) transmission occurring. There are 3 transmission cycles for yellow fever: sylvatic (jungle), intermediate (savannah), and urban. The sylvatic (jungle) cycle involves transmission of the virus between nonhuman primates ...

  8. Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wing Sin; Belsey, Natalie A; Garrett, Natalie L; Moger, Julian; Price, Gareth J; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H

    2015-12-28

    This study demonstrates the potential of polymeric nanoparticles as drug reservoirs for sustained topical drug delivery into microneedle-treated human nail. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to image the delivery of a fluorescent model compound from nanoparticles into the nail. A label-free imaging technique, stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, was applied, in conjunction with two-photon fluorescence imaging, to probe the disposition of nanoparticles and an associated lipophilic 'active' in a microneedle-porated nail. The results provide clear evidence that the nanoparticles function as immobile reservoirs, sequestered on the nail surface and in the microneedle-generated pores, from which the active payload can be released and diffuse laterally into the nail over an extended period of time.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of nail unit in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Ernesto; Scarpa, Raffaele; Cimmino, Marco Amedeo; Atteno, Mariangela; Peluso, Rosario; Sirignano, Cesare; Costa, Luisa; Iervolino, Salvatore; Caso, Francesco; Del Puente, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Soricelli, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has modified the imaging strategies of inflammatory arthritides. In psoriatic arthritis (PsA), MRI study of the nail unit identifies nail involvement that appears as the initial lesion for induction of distal phalanx damage and consequently of distal interphalangeal joint arthritis. All psoriatic patients, also in the absence of a clinically evident onychopathy, show characteristic MRI changes of the nail. This evidence could have practical diagnostic value because MRI study of the nail could document diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies who have barely evident psoriasis. We discuss the advantages and problems related to the use of low- and high-field MRI in the study of the nail unit of patients with PsA.

  10. Expandable intramedullary nails for fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Ghafil, Dior; Ackerman, Pieter; Baillon, Renaud; Verdonk, Rene; Delince, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Interlocking intramedullary nailing is currently the preferred treatment for most tibial fractures requiring operative treatment, with good results and a relatively low complication rate as reported in large clinical series. However, vascular and neurological complications caused by interlocking screws have been reported. In addition, insertion of distal interlocking screws can be technically demanding and may entail substantial exposure. We present the results with an expandable self-locking nail in the management of 52 AO type A and B tibial shaft fractures. The mean time to union was 15.8 weeks and the rate of union was 98%. The average surgical time was 60 minutes. Complications were those usually seen in diaphysis nailing and no complication was noted during nail expansion. Interlocking screws are not necessary, which reduces the risk of iatrogenic lesions. The expandable nail allows effective management of AO type A and B diaphyseal fractures of the tibia, a lower radiation exposure and shorter operative time.

  11. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  12. Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

    2012-01-01

    Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.

  13. [Distribution of Luliconazole in Nail Plate by In Vitro Permeation and Efficacy by Zone of Inhibition Test after Treatment of Luliconazole Nail Solution].

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Miyamae, Akiko; Arai, Masakazu; Minemura, Aya; Nozawa, Akira; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the character of luliconazole nail solution we have developed, we investigated luliconazole distribution and antifungal activity in nail plate. An in vitro permeation study which measured luliconazole concentration of sliced nail in the transverse direction after treatment of luliconazole nail solution was conducted to investigate for concentration dependency and the influences of nail thickness and treatment duration. When 0.2, 1, 3, 5, and 7.5% luliconazole nail solutions were used, luliconazole was detected in the all the layers of nail and there was a concentration gradient from the dorsal side to deep nail layers. The luliconazole concentration was almost same after 14-day treatment with 5% luliconazole nail solution when using nails of different thicknesses. And we confirmed that concentration of luliconazole into the nail was increased depending on the treatment duration. In zone of inhibition test after 14-day treatment, 5% luliconazole nail solution showed statistically high formation rate of zones of inhibition compared to 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Above all, these data suggested that 5% luliconazole nail solution has the potential to show high therapeutic effect for onychomycosis.

  14. Nail DNA and Possible Biomarkers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joshua; Liang, Debbie; Kim, Jung Woo; Luo, Yongjun; Huang, Taesheng; Kim, Soo-Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Nail has been a substitute DNA source for genotyping. To investigate the integrity and consistency of nail DNA amplification for biomarker study, nail clippings from 12 subjects were collected at monthly intervals. The possibility of longer amplification and existence of GAPDH RNA/protein, were also investigated with three nail samples. Methods Three primer sets were designed for quantitative amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial genes and analysis of their consistency. The mean threshold cycles in amplification of the target genes were compared to test the consistency of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performance among individual factors including age groups, sex, family, the nail source, and by the size of the amplification segments. Results The amplification of the target genes from nail DNA showed similar integrity and consistency between the nail sources, and among the serial collections. However, nail DNA from those in their forties showed earlier threshold cycles in amplification than those in their teens or seventies. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed better DNA integrity and consistency in amplification of all three targets than did nuclear DNA (nucDNA). Over 9 kb of mtDNA was successfully amplified, and nested quantitative PCR showed reliable copy numbers (%) between the two loci. Reverse transcription PCR for mRNA and immunoblotting for GAPDH protein successfully reflected their corresponding amounts. Regarding the existence of RNA and protein in nails, more effective extraction and detection methods need to be set up to validate the feasibility in biomarker study. Conclusions Nail DNA might be a feasible intra-individual monitoring biomarker. Considering integrity and consistency in target amplification, mtDNA would be a better target for biomarker research than nucDNA. PMID:22880155

  15. The uncertainty principle enables non-classical dynamics in an interferometer.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Garner, Andrew J P; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-08-08

    The quantum uncertainty principle stipulates that when one observable is predictable there must be some other observables that are unpredictable. The principle is viewed as holding the key to many quantum phenomena and understanding it deeper is of great interest in the study of the foundations of quantum theory. Here we show that apart from being restrictive, the principle also plays a positive role as the enabler of non-classical dynamics in an interferometer. First we note that instantaneous action at a distance should not be possible. We show that for general probabilistic theories this heavily curtails the non-classical dynamics. We prove that there is a trade-off with the uncertainty principle that allows theories to evade this restriction. On one extreme, non-classical theories with maximal certainty have their non-classical dynamics absolutely restricted to only the identity operation. On the other extreme, quantum theory minimizes certainty in return for maximal non-classical dynamics.

  16. Conservation relation of nonclassicality and entanglement for Gaussian states in a beam splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenchao; Tasgin, Mehmet Emre; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2015-11-01

    We study the relation between single-mode nonclassicality and two-mode entanglement in a beam splitter. We show that single-mode nonclassicality (the entanglement potential) of incident light cannot be transformed into two-mode entanglement completely after a single beam splitter. Some of the entanglement potential remains as single-mode nonclassicality in the two entangled output modes. Two-mode entanglement generated in the process can be equivalently quantified as an increase in the minimum uncertainty widths (or decrease in the squeezing) of the output states compared to the input states. We use the nonclassical depth and logarithmic negativity as single-mode nonclassicality and entanglement measures, respectively. We realize that a conservation relation between the two quantities can be adopted for Gaussian states, if one works in terms of uncertainty width. This conservation relation is extended to many sets of beam splitters.

  17. Beyond Iron: Non-Classical Biological Functions of Bacterial Siderophores

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination chemistry studies, have provided insight into the crucial role that siderophores play in bacterial iron homeostasis. The importance of understanding the fundamental chemistry underlying bacterial life has been highlighted evermore in recent years because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the need to prevent the global rise of these superbugs. Increasing reports of siderophores functioning in capacities other than iron transport have appeared recently, but reports of “non-classical” siderophore functions have long paralleled those of iron transport. One particular non-classical function of these iron chelators, namely antibiotic activity, was even documented before the role of siderophores in iron transport was established. In this Perspective, we present an exposition of past and current work into non-classical functions of siderophores and highlight the directions in which we anticipate that this research is headed. Examples include the ability of siderophores to function as zincophores, chalkophores, and metallophores for a variety of other metals, sequester heavy metal toxins, transport boron, act as signalling molecules, regulate oxidative stress, and provide antibacterial activity. PMID:25764171

  18. Nonclassical mechanical states in an optomechanical micromaser analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nation, P. D.

    2013-11-01

    Here we show that quantum states of a mechanical oscillator can be generated in an optomechanical analog of the micromaser in the absence of any atomlike subsystem, thus exhibiting single-atom masing effects in a system composed solely of oscillator components. In the regime where the single-photon coupling strength is on the order of the cavity decay rate, a cavity mode with at most a single-excitation present gives rise to sub-Poissonian oscillator limit-cycles that generate quantum features in the steady state just above the renormalized cavity resonance frequency and mechanical sidebands. The merger of multiple stable limit-cycles markedly reduces these nonclassical signatures. Varying the cavity-resonator coupling strength, corresponding to the micromaser pump parameter, reveals transitions for the oscillator phonon number that are the hallmark of a micromaser. The connection to the micromaser allows for a physical understanding of how nonclassical states arise in this system and how best to maximize these signatures for experimental observation.

  19. Higher-order nonclassical effects in fluctuating-loss channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Sperling, J.; Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-01-01

    We study the evolution of higher-order nonclassicality and entanglement criteria in atmospheric fluctuating-loss channels. By formulating input-output relations for the matrix of moments, we investigate the influence of such channels on the corresponding quantumness criteria. This generalization of our previous work on Gaussian entanglement [M. Bohmann et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 010302(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.010302] not only exploits second-order-based scenarios, but it also provides a detailed investigation of nonclassicality and entanglement in non-Gaussian and multimode radiation fields undergoing a fluctuating attenuation. That is, various examples of criteria and states are studied in detail, unexpected effects, e.g., the dependency of the squeezing transfer on the coherent displacement, are discovered, and it is demonstrated that non-Gaussian entanglement can be more robust against atmospheric losses than Gaussian one. Additionally, we propose a detection scheme for measuring the considered moments after propagation through the atmosphere. Therefore, our results may help to develop, improve, and optimize non-Gaussian sources of quantum light for applications in free-space quantum communication.

  20. Testing Nonclassicality and Non-Gaussianity in Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiyong; Zhang, Junhua; Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Um, Mark; Lv, Dingshun; Kim, Kihwan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a nonclassicality test of a single-mode field in phase space, which has an analogy with the nonlocality test proposed by Banaszek and Wódkiewicz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2009 (1999)]. Our approach to deriving the classical bound draws on the fact that the Wigner function of a coherent state is a product of two independent distributions as if the orthogonal quadratures (position and momentum) in phase space behave as local realistic variables. Our method detects every pure nonclassical Gaussian state, which can also be extended to mixed states. Furthermore, it sets a bound for all Gaussian states and their mixtures, thereby providing a criterion to detect a genuine quantum non-Gaussian state. Remarkably, our phase-space approach with invariance under Gaussian unitary operations leads to an optimized test for a given non-Gaussian state. We experimentally show how this enhanced method can manifest quantum non-Gaussianity of a state by simply choosing phase-space points appropriately, which is essentially equivalent to implementing a squeezing operation on a given state.

  1. Superposition states for quantum nanoelectronic circuits and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2016-09-01

    Quantum properties of a superposition state for a series RLC nanoelectronic circuit are investigated. Two displaced number states of the same amplitude but with opposite phases are considered as components of the superposition state. We have assumed that the capacitance of the system varies with time and a time-dependent power source is exerted on the system. The effects of displacement and a sinusoidal power source on the characteristics of the state are addressed in detail. Depending on the magnitude of the sinusoidal power source, the wave packets that propagate in charge(q)-space are more or less distorted. Provided that the displacement is sufficiently high, distinct interference structures appear in the plot of the time behavior of the probability density whenever the two components of the wave packet meet together. This is strong evidence for the advent of nonclassical properties in the system, that cannot be interpretable by the classical theory. Nonclassicality of a quantum system is not only a beneficial topic for academic interest in itself, but its results can be useful resources for quantum information and computation as well.

  2. Is there a bone-nail specific entry point? Automated fit quantification of tibial nail designs during the insertion for six different nail entry points.

    PubMed

    Amarathunga, J P; Schuetz, M A; Yarlagadda, K V D; Schmutz, B

    2015-04-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard fixation method for displaced diaphyseal fractures of tibia. Selection of the correct nail insertion point is important for axial alignment of bone fragments and to avoid iatrogenic fractures. However, the standard entry point (SEP) may not always optimise the bone-nail fit due to geometric variations of bones. This study aimed to investigate the optimal entry for a given bone-nail pair using the fit quantification software tool previously developed by the authors. The misfit was quantified for 20 bones with two nail designs (ETN and ETN-Proximal Bend) related to the SEP and 5 entry points which were 5 mm and 10 mm away from the SEP. The SEP was the optimal entry point for 50% of the bones used. For the remaining bones, the optimal entry point was located 5 mm away from the SEP, which improved the overall fit by 40% on average. However, entry points 10 mm away from the SEP doubled the misfit. The optimised bone-nail fit can be achieved through the SEP and within the range of a 5 mm radius, except posteriorly. The study results suggest that the optimal entry point should be selected by considering the fit during insertion and not only at the final position.

  3. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Nail biting (NB) is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols. PMID:23358880

  4. Enhancing the nail permeability of topically applied drugs.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2008-11-01

    The topical therapy of nail diseases, especially of onychomycosis, and to a smaller extent, of nail psoriasis, is desirable to avoid the side effects associated with their systemic therapy, to increase patient compliance and reduce the cost of treatment. Systemic therapy is however the mainstay of treatment due to the poor permeability of the nail plate to topically applied drugs. For effective topical therapy, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. This can be achieved by disrupting the nail plate using physical techniques or chemical agents. Alternatively, drug permeation into the intact nail plate may be encouraged, for example, by iontophoresis or by formulating the drug within a vehicle which enables high drug partition out of the vehicle and into the nail plate. The physical techniques (manual and electrical nail abrasion, acid etching, ablation by lasers, microporation, application of low-frequency ultrasound and electric currents) and chemicals (thiols, sulphites, hydrogen peroxide, urea, water, enzymes) that have shown ungual enhancer activity are discussed in this review. Optimal drug formulation, while crucial to ungual drug delivery, is only briefly reviewed due to the limited literature.

  5. A Technical Note for Extracting an Incarcerated Femoral Kuntscher Nail

    PubMed Central

    Marí, R; Vilamala, D Valverde; García, A León; Guirro, P; López, F Marqués

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the Kuntscher nail has been the most important advancement in trauma surgery. One of the problems is the difficulty to remove it. A new extraction technique is described in the present case report. Case Report: A 46-year-old man was referred for hip osteoarthritis. He had an acetabulum fracture and a femoral shaft fracture treated 30 years ago with a reamed Kuntscher femoral nail. Lateral hip approach was performed and after attempting to remove the nail with the specific tools being unsuccessful we decided to be more aggressive. Firstly, we performed a simple unicortical osteotomy on the lateral side from the proximal part to below the callus in order to decompress the femoral canal without success. Secondly, a trench in the greater trochanter around the proximal hole was performed to hit the nail from below which was still insufficient and furthermore, the hole broke when hitting the nail so we needed to drill a new hole distally. Finally, the Kuntscher nail was removed. Several cerclages closed the osteotomy and a bone graft was used to close the trench. The patient had a good evolution at one year of follow-up. Conclusion: With this case report, we present a new salvage technique to remove an incarcerated Kuntscher nail when all the described methods have failed. PMID:28116256

  6. Ultrasound anatomy of normal nails unit with 18 mhz linear transducer.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Andrea; Montella, Andrea; Ena, Pasquale; Meloni, Giovanni Battista; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Interest is growing in non-invasive diagnostic methods for nails in dermatological pathology. Currently, nail disease diagnosis is based mostly on clinical evaluation; instrumental examination, traditionally, has been performed by magnetic resonance. Ultrasound (US) can be proposed as an easier and more available method for the study of the nail apparatus. In this study, the nail unit normal ultrasound anatomy was investigated to obtain data on adult normal parameters. On 35 healthy volunteers (20 women and 15 men--average age of 27 years) we performed an ultrasonographic study on the nail plate (dorsal and ventral), nail matrix and nail bed of all fingers of the hands using a 18 MHz linear transducer with Esaote Mylab 50. A thick gel layer allowed for appropriate transmission of ultrasound without any additional device. Macroscopic nail features were studied by clinical examination and photographic analysis. The following ultrasound parameters were investigated: nail thickness; nail bed thickness; matrix lenght; matrix-bone distance. Blood flow was studied with the use of colour and power colour Doppler. The nail apparatus echographic anatomy consists in: (a) nail plate, represented by two hyperechoic bands (dorsal and ventral) with an hypoechoic or anechoic space between them; (b) nail bed, represented by an area of dys-homogeneous hypo-echogeneity; (c) nail matrix, represented by a markedly hypoechoic area corresponding to the region under the nail sulcus; (d) ligaments, sometimes well detectable and formed by a specialized connective tissue; and (e) vessels, well evaluable through doppler examination.

  7. Multimer recognition and secretion by the non-classical secretion pathway in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liuqun; Chen, Jingqi; Sun, Jibin; Zhang, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    Non-classical protein secretion in bacteria is a common phenomenon. However, the selection principle for non-classical secretion pathways remains unclear. Here, our experimental data, to our knowledge, are the first to show that folded multimeric proteins can be recognized and excreted by a non-classical secretion pathway in Bacillus subtilis. We explored the secretion pattern of a typical cytoplasmic protein D-psicose 3-epimerase from Ruminococcus sp. 5_1_39BFAA (RDPE), and showed that its non-classical secretion is not simply due to cell lysis. Analysis of truncation variants revealed that the C- and N-terminus, and two hydrophobic domains, are required for structural stability and non-classical secretion of RDPE. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the hydrophobic segments of RDPE revealed that hydrophobic residues mediated the equilibrium between its folded and unfolded forms. Reporter mCherry and GFP fusions with RDPE regions show that its secretion requires an intact tetrameric protein complex. Using cross-linked tetramers, we show that folded tetrameric RDPE can be secreted as a single unit. Finally, we provide evidence that the non-classical secretion pathway has a strong preference for multimeric substrates, which accumulate at the poles and septum region. Altogether, these data show that a multimer recognition mechanism is likely applicable across the non-classical secretion pathway. PMID:28276482

  8. Antifungal activity, experimental infections and nail permeation of an innovative ciclopirox nail lacquer based on a water-soluble biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico

    2010-05-01

    P-3051 is an innovative 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, based on hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) as a film-forming agent. The authors' aim was to investigate P-3051's in vitro antifungal activity, as well as its in vitro and in vivo nail permeation. The dilution susceptibility tests performed for Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of P-3051, as percent of ciclopirox, was for both fungi < or = 0.0015% (equivalent to a concentration of 15.6 mg/ ml). In the biological assay of in vitro nail permeation and fungal inhibition, the authors observed that P-3051 permeated well through bovine hoof membranes and produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on dermatophyte, yeast and mold strains. Moreover, the inhibition effects were higher than those obtained by equal amounts of the ciclopirox reference nail lacquer. P-3051 and the reference showed the same protective activity in experimental infections with strains of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples. The amount of ciclopirox remained in cut fingernails washed six hours after in vivo application of P-3051 ranged between 18 and 35% of the applied dose. After in vitro application to cut human nails, 40-50% of the applied ciclopirox penetrated during the first six hours, independent of nails being infected or uninfected, intact or filed. In both experiments, the concentration of ciclopirox is largely higher (three to four orders of magnitude) than the MICs for nail pathogens.

  9. Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

    2014-02-01

    One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens.

  10. Engineering of nonclassical motional states in optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-xi

    2013-12-01

    We propose to synthesize arbitrary nonclassical motional states in optomechanical systems by using sideband excitations and photon blockade. We first demonstrate that the Hamiltonian of the optomechanical systems can be reduced, in the strong single-photon optomechanical coupling regime when the photon blockade occurs, to one describing the interaction between a driven two-level trapped ion and the vibrating modes, and then show a method to generate target states by using a series of classical pulses with desired frequencies, phases, and durations. We further analyze the effect of the photon leakage, due to small anharmonicity, on the fidelity of the expected motional state, and study environment induced decoherence. Moreover, we also discuss the experimental feasibility and provide operational parameters using the possible experimental data.

  11. Estimation of nonclassical independent Gaussian processes by classical interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, László; Filip, Radim

    2017-01-01

    We propose classical interferometry with low-intensity thermal radiation for the estimation of nonclassical independent Gaussian processes in material samples. We generally determine the mean square error of the phase-independent parameters of an unknown Gaussian process, considering a noisy source of radiation the phase of which is not locked to the pump of the process. We verify the sufficiency of passive optical elements in the interferometer, active optical elements do not improve the quality of the estimation. We also prove the robustness of the method against the noise and loss in both interferometric channels and the sample. The proposed method is suitable even for the case when a source of radiation sufficient for homodyne detection is not available. PMID:28051094

  12. Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states

    SciTech Connect

    Volkoff, T. J.

    2015-11-15

    We motivate and introduce a class of “hierarchical” quantum superposition states of N coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schrödinger-cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schrödinger-cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical states, we consider their usefulness for highprecision quantum metrology of nonlinear optical Hamiltonians and quantify their mode entanglement. We propose two methods for generating hierarchical superpositions in N = 2 coupled microwave cavities, exploiting currently existing quantum optical technology for generating entanglement between spatially separated electromagnetic field modes.

  13. q -deformed noncommutative cat states and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib

    2015-02-01

    We study several classical-like properties of q -deformed nonlinear coherent states as well as nonclassical behaviors of q -deformed version of the Schrödinger cat states in noncommutative space. Coherent states in q -deformed space are found to be minimum uncertainty states together with the squeezed photon distributions unlike the ordinary systems, where the photon distributions are always Poissonian. Several advantages of utilizing cat states in noncommutative space over the standard quantum mechanical spaces have been reported here. For instance, the q -deformed parameter has been utilized to improve the squeezing of the quadrature beyond the ordinary case. Most importantly, the parameter provides an extra degree of freedom by which we achieve both quadrature squeezed and number squeezed cat states at the same time in a single system, which is impossible to achieve from ordinary cat states.

  14. Propagation of nonclassical correlations across a quantum spin chain

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Di Franco, C.; Banchi, L.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Plastina, F.; Paternostro, M.

    2011-11-15

    We study the transport of quantum correlations across a chain of interacting spin-1/2 particles. As a quantitative figure of merit, we choose a symmetric version of quantum discord and compare it with the transported entanglement, addressing various operating regimes of the spin medium. Discord turns out to be better transported for a wide range of working points and initial conditions of the system. We relate this behavior to the efficiency of propagation of a single excitation across the spin chain. Moreover, we point out the role played by a magnetic field in the dynamics of discord in the effective channel embodied by the chain. Our analysis can be interestingly extended to transport processes in more complex networks and the study of nonclassical correlations under general quantum channels.

  15. Inducing nonclassical lasing via periodic drivings in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; García-Ripoll, Juan José; Porras, Diego

    2014-11-07

    We show how a pair of superconducting qubits coupled to a microwave cavity mode can be used to engineer a single-atom laser that emits light into a nonclassical state. Our scheme relies on the dressing of the qubit-field coupling by periodic modulations of the qubit energy. In the dressed basis, the radiative decay of the first qubit becomes an effective incoherent pumping mechanism that injects energy into the system, hence turning dissipation to our advantage. A second, auxiliary qubit is used to shape the decay within the cavity, in such a way that lasing occurs in a squeezed basis of the cavity mode. We characterize the system both by mean-field theory and exact calculations. Our work may find applications in the generation of squeezing and entanglement in circuit QED, as well as in the study of dissipative few- and many-body phase transitions.

  16. Nonclassical devices in SOI: Genuine or copyright from III V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luryi, S.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2007-02-01

    The combination of semiconductor-on-insulator (SOI) substrates with ultrathin Si (or Ge) channel and gate insulator layers opens new opportunities for nonclassical CMOS-compatible devices and possibly optical sources. Unlike their III-V counterparts, which often came first, SOI-based devices have the crucial advantage of potential integrability with dominant silicon technology. We discuss the examples of lateral and vertical tunneling transistors, as well as a tunneling-based SOI intersubband laser. None of these devices has progressed beyond either proof-of-concept demonstrations or, in the case of the intersubband laser, a purely theoretical concept. Still, the unique characteristics deriving from quantum mechanical tunneling make such devices an interesting playground for innovative device research, especially as standard Si CMOS heads towards the rapidly approaching end of scaling.

  17. Investigation of non-classical states of atoms and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmich, Alexander M.

    2000-08-01

    This dissertation deals with theoretical and experimental research on nonclassical, or entangled, states of atoms and photons. In the first part, I describe two approaches to the preparation of entangled states of a large number of atoms. The first approach is based on the transfer of quantum correlations from non-classical light to the atomic spins. I consider three different situations: (a)the atoms are placed in a loss-free cavity and no relaxation of any kind is present; (b)the atoms are placed in a cavity with input and output for the electromagnetic field and the atoms spontaneously decay from the upper state; (c)there is no cavity around the atoms and spontaneous emission is present. I show that in all three situations with judicious choice of parameters, entangled samples of atoms can be produced. The second approach is based on quantum-nondemolition (QND) measurements of collective atomic operators. I describe experiments with pulsed and cw light as the probe, that result in squeezed spin states of atoms. When a rf magnetic field is applied to the atomic sample, sub- shot noise performance of an atomic spin interferometer is demonstrated. In the second part of the thesis I describe investigations of phase properties of two-photon and single-photon states. These experiments make use of spontaneous type-II down-conversion in a nonlinear crystal. First, interferometric measurement of a phase shift at the Heisenberg limit for a two-photon state is described. Next, a violation of Bell-type inequalities in phase space is demonstrated for the quantum optical version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state. Finally, some recent work directed toward homodyning a single photon against a strong local oscillator field is described.

  18. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  19. Nail Biting: Does It Cause Long-Term Damage?

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy ways, such as physical activity, to manage stress and anxiety Keeping your nails neatly trimmed or manicured Occupying your hands or mouth with alternate activities, such as playing a musical ...

  20. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus*

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe Junior, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face. PMID:28300883

  1. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  2. 14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and glass display cases now located in the second floor meeting room; looking southeast. - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  3. Fingernails: Do's and Don'ts for Healthy Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... under your fingernails. Repeated or prolonged contact with water can contribute to split fingernails. Wear cotton-lined rubber gloves when washing dishes, cleaning or using harsh chemicals. Practice good nail hygiene. ...

  4. Development of a locking femur nail for mice.

    PubMed

    Holstein, J H; Menger, M D; Culemann, U; Meier, C; Pohlemann, T

    2007-01-01

    We herein report on a novel locking intramedullary nail system in a murine closed femur fracture model. The nail system consists of a modified 24-gauge injection needle and a 0.1-mm-diameter tungsten guide wire. Rotation stability was accomplished by flattening the proximal and distal end of the needle. Torsional mechanical testing of the implants in osteotomized cadaveric femora revealed a superiority of the locking nail (3.9+/-1.0 degrees rotation at a torque of 0.9 Nmm, n=10) compared to the unmodified injection needle (conventional nail; 52.4+/-3.2 degrees, n=10, p<0.05). None of the implants, however, achieved the rotation stability of unfractured femora (0.3+/-0.5 degrees, n=10). In a second step, we tested the feasibility of the in vivo application of the locking nail to stabilize a closed femoral midshaft fracture in C57BL/6 mice. Of interest, none of the 10 animals showed a dislocation of the locking nail over a 5-week period, while 3 of 4 animals with conventional nail fracture stabilization showed a significant pin dislocation within the first 3 days (p<0.05). Mechanical testing after 5-weeks stabilization with the locking nail revealed an appropriate bone healing with a torque at failure of 71.6+/-3.4% and a peak rotation before failure of 68.4+/-5.3% relative to the unfractured contralateral femur. With the advantage that closed fractures can be fixed with rotation stability, the herein introduced model may represent an ideal tool to study bone healing in transgenic and knockout mice.

  5. Nail surgery: best way to obtain effective anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Nathaniel J; Vélez, Nicole F

    2015-04-01

    Nail procedures require an effective and reliable approach to anesthesia of the distal digit. Several techniques have been described in the literature. Herein, the relevant anatomy of the nail unit, pain pathways, anesthetic options, and several injection approaches to achieve complete anesthesia are reviewed. Also considered are the potential pitfalls and complications and their management. Ultimately, the physician's approach must be individualized to the patient, procedure, and setting.

  6. White Nail Radio Transmitter: Billion Dollar Savings through Energy Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    energy consumption ashore by 50 percent CNO, Navy Energy Vision, P 10 White Nail Vision Your Cell Phone Cell ...Greenhouse Gas Power 4 1 Energy Navy Use 7.3 Billion kWh White Nail Cell Phone Savings 11 Billion kWh One and a half times!!! Saves the output of four of...Estimated Total Number of transmitters 3,000,000 Estimated total power saved Watt 1,250,000,000 Cell Phone Transmitter Efficiency 1.25 Gigawatts

  7. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration.

  8. Nail polish as a source of exposure to triphenyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Emma; Hagopian, Audrey; Hoffman, Kate; Butt, Craig M; Lorenzo, Amelia; Congleton, Johanna; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is primarily used as either a flame retardant or plasticizer, and is listed as an ingredient in nail polishes. However, the concentration of TPHP in nail polish and the extent of human exposure following applications have not been previously studied. We measured TPHP in ten different nail polish samples purchased from department stores and pharmacies in 2013-2014. Concentrations up to 1.68% TPHP by weight were detected in eight samples, including two that did not list TPHP as an ingredient. Two cohorts (n=26 participants) were recruited to assess fingernail painting as a pathway of TPHP exposure. Participants provided urine samples before and after applying one brand of polish containing 0.97% TPHP by weight. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), a TPHP metabolite, was then measured in urine samples (n=411) and found to increase nearly seven-fold 10-14h after fingernail painting (p<0.001). To determine relative contributions of inhalation and dermal exposure, ten participants also painted their nails and painted synthetic nails adhered to gloves on two separate occasions, and collected urine for 24h following applications. Urinary DPHP was significantly diminished when wearing gloves, suggesting that the primary exposure route is dermal. Our results indicate that nail polish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed.

  9. Nail Polish as a Source of Exposure to Triphenyl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Emma; Hagopian, Audrey; Hoffman, Kate; Butt, Craig M.; Lorenzo, Amelia; Congleton, Johanna; Webster, Thomas F.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is primarily used as either a flame retardant or plasticizer, and is listed as an ingredient in nail polishes. However, the concentration of TPHP in nail polish and the extent of human exposure following applications have not been previously studied. We measured TPHP in ten different nail polish samples purchased from department stores and pharmacies in 2013–2014. Concentrations up to 1.68% TPHP by weight were detected in eight samples, including two that did not list TPHP as an ingredient. Two cohorts (n=26 participants) were recruited to assess fingernail painting as a pathway of TPHP exposure. Participants provided urine samples before and after applying one brand of polish containing 0.97% TPHP by weight. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), a TPHP metabolite, was then measured in urine samples (n=411) and found to increase nearly seven-fold 10–14 hours after fingernail painting (p<0.001). To determine relative contributions of inhalation and dermal exposure, ten participants also painted their nails and painted synthetic nails adhered to gloves on two separate occasions, and collected urine for 24 hours following applications. Urinary DPHP was significantly diminished when wearing gloves, suggesting that the primary exposure route is dermal. Our results indicate that nail polish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed. PMID:26485058

  10. Prevalence and nature of nail alterations in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, A; Tamayo, L; Sosa-de-Martínez, C; Durán-McKinster, C; Orozco-Covarrubias, L; Ruiz-Maldonado, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the frequency and nature of ungual alterations in patients of a pediatric dermatology department at a third-level pediatric hospital. The first 20 patients with nail alterations seen each year during a 5-year period from 1992 through 1996 were included, totaling 100 patients. The rate of nail alterations was 11% (1/9) in pediatric dermatology patients. There were 5 infants, 19 preschoolers (2- to 5-year-olds), 38 school children (6- to 11-year-olds), and 38 adolescents (12- to 17-year-olds). The most frequent diagnoses were onychomycosis (23), nail alterations in a genodermatosis (23), nail alterations associated with dermatoses (16), onychocryptosis (11), and paronychia (10). Toenails were involved in 54 patients, fingernails in 25, and both in 21 patients. Twenty nails were involved in 21 patients. A high prevalence of nail alterations was found in pediatric dermatology patients, some of which were nonspecific, while others provided important diagnostic clues.

  11. A study of dermoscopic features of nail psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Artuz, Ferda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dermoscopy is a non-invasive imaging method that enables the evaluation of pigmented and non-pigmented skin lesions. More recently, dermoscopy has been recognized as an effective tool in the diagnosis of nail diseases. Aim To evaluate the dermoscopic features of nail psoriasis and to assess the relationship between these features and disease severity. Material and methods A total of 67 patients with clinically evident nail psoriasis (14 women, 53 men) were prospectively enrolled. Following a thorough clinical examination, patients were graded according to the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and physician’s global assessment score. A dermoscopic examination of all fingernails and toenails was performed using a videodermatoscope. Mann-Whitney U and χ2 tests were used for statistical analysis, with a significance threshold of p < 0.05. Results The most frequently observed dermoscopic features were splinter haemorrhage (73.1%), pitting (58.2%), distal onycholysis (55.2%), dilated hyponychial capillaries (35.8%) and the pseudo-fiber sign (34.3%). The pseudo-fiber sign, dilated hyponychial capillaries, nail plate thickening and crumbling, subungual hyperkeratosis, transverse grooves, trachyonychia, pitting and salmon patches were positively associated with disease severity. Conclusions The pseudo-fiber sign described in this study appears to be a novel dermoscopic feature of nail psoriasis. We have demonstrated positive associations between a number of dermoscopic manifestations and disease severity. Further studies are required to support the present findings. PMID:28286468

  12. Nonclassical-state generation in macroscopic systems via hybrid discrete-continuous quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milburn, T. J.; Kim, M. S.; Vanner, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Nonclassical-state generation is an important component throughout experimental quantum science for quantum information applications and probing the fundamentals of physics. Here, we investigate permutations of quantum nondemolition quadrature measurements and single quanta addition or subtraction to prepare quantum superposition states in bosonic systems. The performance of each permutation is quantified and compared using several different nonclassicality criteria including Wigner negativity, nonclassical depth, and optimal fidelity with a coherent-state superposition. We also compare the performance of our protocol using squeezing instead of a quadrature measurement and find that the purification provided by the quadrature measurement can significantly increase the nonclassicality generated. Our approach is ideally suited for implementation in light-matter systems such as quantum optomechanics and atomic spin ensembles, and offers considerable robustness to initial thermal occupation.

  13. Protein-Phospholipid Interactions in Nonclassical Protein Secretion: Problem and Methods of Study

    PubMed Central

    Prudovsky, Igor; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh; Sterling, Sarah; Neivandt, David

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular proteins devoid of signal peptides use nonclassical secretion mechanisms for their export. These mechanisms are independent of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Some nonclassically released proteins, particularly fibroblast growth factors (FGF) 1 and 2, are exported as a result of their direct translocation through the cell membrane. This process requires specific interactions of released proteins with membrane phospholipids. In this review written by a cell biologist, a structural biologist and two membrane engineers, we discuss the following subjects: (i) Phenomenon of nonclassical protein release and its biological significance; (ii) Composition of the FGF1 multiprotein release complex (MRC); (iii) The relationship between FGF1 export and acidic phospholipid externalization; (iv) Interactions of FGF1 MRC components with acidic phospholipids; (v) Methods to study the transmembrane translocation of proteins; (vi) Membrane models to study nonclassical protein release. PMID:23396106

  14. Nail apparatus melanoma initially diagnosed as nail matrix blue nevus: a case report with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Bengu Nisa; Heper, Aylin Okcu; Thomas, Luc; Balme, Brigitte; Clark, Simon; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of nail apparatus melanoma in a 50-year-old woman presenting as new and changing longitudinal melanonychia of the right thumb. Very heavy melanin pigmentation involving both the epidermis and dermis interfered with dermatopathological assessment, which initially leads to a diagnosis of nail matrix blue nevus. After consultation with a specialist multidisciplinary clinic the diagnosis was revised to invasive melanoma, a diagnosis consistent with the clinical and dermatoscopic assessment. PMID:28243499

  15. Fixator-assisted nailing and consecutive lengthening over an intramedullary nail for the correction of tibial deformity.

    PubMed

    Bilen, F E; Kocaoglu, M; Eralp, L; Balci, H I

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of using a combination of fixator-assisted nailing with lengthening over an intramedullary nail in patients with tibial deformity and shortening. Between 1997 and 2007, 13 tibiae in nine patients with a mean age of 25.4 years (17 to 34) were treated with a unilateral external fixator for acute correction of deformity, followed by lengthening over an intramedullary nail with a circular external fixator applied at the same operating session. At the end of the distraction period locking screws were inserted through the intramedullary nail and the external fixator was removed. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.9 cm (2 to 8). The mean time of external fixation was 90 days (38 to 265). The mean external fixation index was 15.8 days/cm (8.9 to 33.1) and the mean bone healing index was 38 days/cm (30 to 60). One patient developed an equinus deformity which responded to stretching and bracing. Another developed a drop foot due to a compartment syndrome, which was treated by fasciotomy. It recovered in three months. Two patients required bone grafting for poor callus formation. We conclude that the combination of fixator-assisted nailing with lengthening over an intramedullary nail can reduce the overall external fixation time and prevent fractures and deformity of the regenerated bone.

  16. About the nonclassicality of states defined by nonpositivity of the P-quasiprobability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsche, Alfred

    2004-02-01

    The definition of nonclassical states in quantum optics by the nonpositivity of their Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability P(\\alpha,\\alpha^*)\\leftrightarrow P(q,p) is investigated and it is shown that it hides some serious problems. It leads to a subdivision of squeezed thermal states into classical and nonclassical states which is difficult to interpret physically by some qualitatively different behaviour of the states. Nonclassical states are found in arbitrarily small neighbourhoods of every classical state that is illustrated by a very artificial modified thermal state. The observability of the criterion in comparison to that for nonclassicality of states determined by the nearest Hilbert-Schmidt distance to a class of reference states is discussed. The behaviour of the nonclassicality of states in models of phase-insensitive processes of damping and amplification is investigated and it is found that every nonclassical state eventually makes a transition to a classical state. However, this is not specific for the negativities or singularities of the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability and is found in similar form for other quasiprobabilities, for example, for the Wigner quasiprobability. We discuss in quite general form some defects of the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability if compared with classical distribution functions over the phase space, in particular the failure of an earlier advertised superposition formula.

  17. Quantitative Characterization of Non-Classic Polarization of Cations on Clay Aggregate Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation–surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  18. Nonclassicality breaking is the same as entanglement breaking for bosonic Gaussian channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, J. Solomon; Sabapathy, Krishna Kumar; Simon, R.

    2013-09-01

    Nonclassicality and entanglement are notions fundamental to quantum-information processes involving continuous variable systems. That these two notions are intimately related has been intuitively appreciated for quite some time. An aspect of considerable interest is the behavior of these attributes of a state under the action of a noisy channel. Inspired by the notion of entanglement-breaking channels, we define the concept of nonclassicality-breaking channels in a natural manner. We show that the notion of nonclassicality breaking is essentially equivalent—in a clearly defined sense of the term “essentially”—to the notion of entanglement breaking, as far as bosonic Gaussian channels are concerned. This is notwithstanding the fact that the very notion of entanglement breaking requires reference to a bipartite system, whereas the definition of nonclassicality breaking makes no such reference. Our analysis rests on our classification of channels into nonclassicality-based, as against entanglement-based, types of canonical forms. Our result takes ones intuitive understanding of the close relationship between nonclassicality and entanglement a step closer.

  19. Nonclassicality and Entanglement in multimode radiation fields under the action of classicality preserving devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, S.

    2011-09-23

    In this work we examine the possibilities of converting quantum optical nonclassicality into entanglement in multimode under the action of classicality preserving devices such as beamsplitters. While the single mode case is amenable to a complete analysis, non availability of certain crucial results in the classical theory of moments in the multimode situations forces us to treat these cases with lesser degree of generality by taking recourse to the familiar Mandel matrix and its extensions. We generalize the Mandel matrix from one-mode states to the two-mode situation, leading to a natural classification of states with varying levels of nonclassicality. For two-mode states we present a single test which, if successful, simultaneouly witnesses nonclassicality as well as NPT entanglement. We develop a test for NPT entanglement after beamsplitter action on a nonclassical state, designed in such a way that it remains 'close' to that for nonclassicality. In the same spirit we analyse the result of three-mode 'beamsplitter' action after coupling to an ancilla in the Fock ground state. The concept of genuine tripartite entanglement and scalar measures of nonclassicality at the Mandel level for two mode systems are discussed and illustrated with the help of several examples.

  20. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability.

  1. Reconstruction of large area defect of the nail bed by cross finger fascial flap combined with split-thickness toe nail bed graft: A new surgical method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianyun; Wang, Tao; Yu, Cong; Gu, Yudong; Jia, Xiaotian

    2017-02-01

    Fingertip injury commonly results in avulsion of the nail bed. For large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure, methods for reconstruction of soft tissue defects are scarcely mentioned in the literature.From May 2014 to January 2016, 6 patients with large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure were enrolled. A new surgical method, cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft, was applied in all patients.All the 6 patients were followed-up at least 3 months. Good blood supply and no infections were observed. The lengths of the thumb or fingers were preserved. Acceptable appearance and nail bed growth were noted. The donor sites showed no dysfunction or deformity.Cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft is a new and rewarding surgical method to reconstruct large area defect of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure.

  2. Reconstruction of large area defect of the nail bed by cross finger fascial flap combined with split-thickness toe nail bed graft

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianyun; Wang, Tao; Yu, Cong; Gu, Yudong; Jia, Xiaotian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fingertip injury commonly results in avulsion of the nail bed. For large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure, methods for reconstruction of soft tissue defects are scarcely mentioned in the literature. From May 2014 to January 2016, 6 patients with large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure were enrolled. A new surgical method, cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft, was applied in all patients. All the 6 patients were followed-up at least 3 months. Good blood supply and no infections were observed. The lengths of the thumb or fingers were preserved. Acceptable appearance and nail bed growth were noted. The donor sites showed no dysfunction or deformity. Cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft is a new and rewarding surgical method to reconstruct large area defect of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure. PMID:28178151

  3. Exploring the biology of the nail: An intriguing but less-investigated skin appendage.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masataka; Ohyama, Manabu; Amagai, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    The nail is a highly keratinized structure covering the tip of the digit, and considered to have several important functions in our daily life. In recent years, as biological aspects of the nail organ have been characterized, we realize that the nail unit and the hair follicle share various biological and immunological features. In particular, development and homeostasis of the nail unit also requires intimate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that involve signaling pathways such as Wnt. There is also a striking immunological resemblance between both appendages, since the nail matrix, like the anagen hair bulb and the bulge, was shown to present unique characteristics of an immune privileged site. On the other hand, considerable progress in identifying nail stem cells has succeeded in locating putative stem cell niches in the nail unit. In this context, it is intriguing that nail stem cells residing in the nail matrix were recently shown to possess the ability to organize the process leading to digit regeneration. Further elucidation of signaling pathways governing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the nail unit seems to be a key to develop a novel therapeutic tool to treat amputees using nail epithelium. However, it is at least certain that the nail unit has a promising potential for the future of regenerative medicine. This review explores the biology of the nail organ by focusing on intriguing knowledge gained from recent studies.

  4. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... www. immunize. org/ vis 1 What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the ... serious cases) 2 How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow ...

  5. Improving the precision of weak measurement by nonclassical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shengshi; Brun, Todd A.

    Weak value amplification is a useful protocol to amplify tiny physical effects by postselecting the system in a weak measurement. However, there has been controversy over its precision advantage in parameter estimation recently, since it discards unselected results of the postselection measurement on the system, which may take away useful information. While it is now clear that retaining failed postselections can yield more Fisher information than discarding them, the advantage of postselection measurement itself still remains to be clarified. If a weak measurement with postselection measurement cannot not produce higher precision than without postselection measurement, it would be meaningless to discuss the use of postselection results. In this work, we address this problem by studying the optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of postselected weak measurement. We find a surprising result that when the probe is initially prepared in a proper squeezed coherent state, the postselected weak measurement can give a higher SNR than the standard weak measurement, while such an advantage vanishes when the probe is prepared in a normal coherent state. This suggests that raising the precision of weak measurement by postselection calls for the presence of ``nonclassicality'' in the probe state.

  6. Superbunching and Nonclassicality as new Hallmarks of Superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Daniel; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2015-12-01

    Superradiance, i.e., spontaneous emission of coherent radiation by an ensemble of two-level atoms in collective states introduced by Dicke in 1954, is one of the enigmatic problems of quantum optics. The startling gist is that even though the atoms have no dipole moment they radiate with increased intensity in particular directions. Following the advances in our understanding of superradiant emission by atoms in entangled W-states we examine the quantum statistical properties of superradiance. Such investigations require the system to have at least two excitations in order to explore the photon-photon correlations of the radiation emitted by such states. We present specifically results for the spatially resolved photon-photon correlations of systems prepared in doubly excited W-states and give conditions when the atomic system emits nonclassial light. Equally, we derive the conditions for the occurrence of bunching and even of superbunching, a rare phenomenon otherwise known only from nonclassical states of light like the squeezed vacuum. We finally investigate the photon-photon cross correlations of the spontaneously scattered light and highlight the nonclassicalty of such correlations. The theoretical findings can be implemented with current technology, e.g., using ions in a linear rf-trap, atoms in an optical lattice or quantum dots in a cavity.

  7. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vineet V; Pritti, Kumari; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH.

  8. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vineet V.; Pritti, Kumari; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH. PMID:26751945

  9. Non-classical method of modelling of vibrating mechatronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białas, K.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents non-classical method of modelling of mechatronic systems by using polar graphs. The use of such a method enables the analysis and synthesis of mechatronic systems irrespective of the type and number of the elements of such a system. The method id connected with algebra of structural numbers. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechatronic system which is the reverse task of dynamics. The result of synthesis is obtaining system meeting the defined requirements. This approach is understood as design of mechatronic systems. The synthesis may also be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. The system was consisted from mechanical and electrical elements. Electrical elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. The majority of vibration occurring in devices and machines is harmful and has a disadvantageous effect on their condition. Harmful impact of vibration is caused by the occurrence of increased stresses and the loss of energy, which results in faster wear machinery. Vibration, particularly low-frequency vibration, also has a negative influence on the human organism. For this reason many scientists in various research centres conduct research aimed at the reduction or total elimination of vibration.

  10. Multi-crack imaging using nonclassical nonlinear acoustic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lue; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2014-10-01

    Solid materials with cracks exhibit the nonclassical nonlinear acoustical behavior. The micro-defects in solid materials can be detected by nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) method with a time-reversal (TR) mirror. While defects lie in viscoelastic solid material with different distances from one another, the nonlinear and hysteretic stress—strain relation is established with Preisach—Mayergoyz (PM) model in crack zone. Pulse inversion (PI) and TR methods are used in numerical simulation and defect locations can be determined from images obtained by the maximum value. Since false-positive defects might appear and degrade the imaging when the defects are located quite closely, the maximum value imaging with a time window is introduced to analyze how defects affect each other and how the fake one occurs. Furthermore, NEWS-TR-NEWS method is put forward to improve NEWS-TR scheme, with another forward propagation (NEWS) added to the existing phases (NEWS and TR). In the added phase, scanner locations are determined by locations of all defects imaged in previous phases, so that whether an imaged defect is real can be deduced. NEWS-TR-NEWS method is proved to be effective to distinguish real defects from the false-positive ones. Moreover, it is also helpful to detect the crack that is weaker than others during imaging procedure.

  11. Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

  12. Computed modeling of humeral mid-shaft fracture treated by bundle nailing.

    PubMed

    Obruba, Petr; Capek, Lukas; Henys, Petr; Kopp, Lubomir

    2016-10-01

    Elastic bundle nailing is a method for simple humeral mid-shaft fracture osteosynthesis. The aim of our subsequent numerical simulations was to find out torsional and bending stiffness of an elastic bundle nailed humerus. Parametrical 3D numerical model was developed. The diameter of nails was the varying parameter of 1.8, 2.5, 3 and 4 mm. From our results can be seen that the bending stiffness in bundle nailing technique does not depend on nail diameter. On the contrary the torsional stiffness does highly depend on nail diameter. The dependency of the maximal stress on a nail diameter during bending and torsion of the humerus is non-linear. It can be seen that the higher diameter is used the higher stress occurs. Achieved results allow us for the recommendation of optimal nail diameter for this method, which lies between 2 and 3 mm.

  13. Enhancing transungual delivery and spreading of efinaconazole under the nail plate through a unique formulation approach.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycosis is a very common nail disorder seen in dermatological practice. It is difficult to treat successfully for a multitude of reasons, and although topical antifungal therapy might be considered ideal for mild to moderate onychomycosis, efficacy has been limited by poor nail penetration of active ingredient through the nail plate into the nail bed and nail matrix to the site of infection. The intrinsic properties of an antifungal and its vehicle formulation are both considered important contributors to effective treatment. Here we review the formulation approach to efinaconazole topical solution, 10% an effective and well-tolerated treatment for onychomycosis. We demonstrate that the low surface tension formulation affords better penetration of efinaconazole through the nail plate, and also to the site of infection by spreading into the space between the nail and nail bed.

  14. 76 FR 23559 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... steel nails from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) filed in proper form by Mid Continent Nail Corporation... petitioner made adjustments for foreign inland freight, foreign port expenses, ocean freight, U.S....

  15. Limb Lengthening Using the PRECICETM Nail System: Complications and Results

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Ulrich; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Kenawey, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Three types of telescopic nails are mainly used for intramedullary limb lengthening nowadays. Despite some important advantages of this new technology (e.g. controlled distraction rate, not restricted availability, possibility to perform accordion maneuvers), few articles exist on clinical results and complications after lengthening with the PRECICETM nail (Ellipse, USA). Objectives The aim of the current study was to describe and analyze the complications associated with lengthening with the PRECICETM nail. Are the problems preventable when using the PRECICE, related to the distraction rate control, the lengthening goals and technique and handling? Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 9 patients operated between 2012 and 2013 with a PRECICETM nail for a leg length discrepancy (LLD). The mean age of the patients was 32 years (range, 17 - 48 years). There were 5 femoral and 4 tibial procedures. The causes of LLD were posttraumatic (n = 5) and congenital (n = 4). The mean LLD was 36.4 ± 11.4 mm. The minimum follow-ups were 2 months (average, 5 months; range, 2 - 9 months). Results The mean distraction rate was 0.5 ± 0.1 mm/day. We observed in 7 patients differences in achieving the lengthening goals (average, 1.6 mm; range, -20.0 - 5.0 mm). Average lengthening was 34.7 ± 10.7 mm. All patients reached normal alignment and normal joint orientation. An unintentional loss of the achieved length during the consolidation phase was noticed in patients with delayed bone healing in two cases. In the first case (loss of 20mm distraction) the nail could be redistracted and the goal length was achieved. In the second case (loss of 10mm distraction) the nail broke shortly after the diagnosis and the nail was exchanged. Conclusions We report of loss of achieved length after lengthening with a telescopic nail. Weight bearing before complete consolidation of the regenerate might be a risk factor for that. Thorough examination of the limb length and careful

  16. Patterns of clinical nail appearances in patients with cutaneous psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    MARINA, ELENA MIHAELA; BOTAR-JID, CAROLINA; BOLBOACA, SORANA DANIELA; ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; SENILA, CORINA SIMONA; MIHU, CARMEN MIHAELA; TATARU, DUMITRU ALEXANDRU

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Nail manifestations are often an overlooked aspect in psoriatic disease, cutaneous and joint involvement being far more often reported and investigated. The reported prevalence of nail changes varies in literature, specific fingernail clinical features having different degrees of occurrence. The aim of this study was to describe specific clinical patterns of fingernail alterations in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis in a university hospital in the North-West of Romania. Methods Clinical data of 35 patients with fingernail psoriasis were collected and analyzed. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) scores were used to quantify disease extension in each patient. Results PASI score proved linearly correlated with NAPSI score (p<0.05). The age of onset of fingernail psoriasis was positively correlated with age of onset cutaneous psoriasis (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the duration of cutaneous involvement and NAPSI proved significantly related (p<0.05). The third fingernail in the right hand and first fingernail in the left hand were in most of the cases severely affected. The most common observed nail pattern was pitting, followed by salmon patches and subungual hyperkeratosis. Conclusion Important nail changes appear even in moderate forms of cutaneous psoriasis. Particular localization of specific fingernail psoriasis pattern enables the possibility of detecting early stage disease. PMID:28246493

  17. Comparative study of nail sampling techniques in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Avner; Davidovici, Batya; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Trau, Henri; Amichai, Boaz

    2009-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common problem. Obtaining accurate laboratory test results before treatment is important in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare results of curettage and drilling techniques of nail sampling in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and to establish the best technique and location of sampling. We evaluated 60 patients suffering from distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis and lateral subungual onychomycosis using curettage and vertical and horizontal drilling sampling techniques from three different sites of the infected nail. KOH examination and fungal culture were used for detection and identification of fungal infection. At each sample site, the horizontal drilling technique has a better culture sensitivity than curettage. Trichophyton rubrum was by far the most common pathogen detected by both techniques from all sampling sites. The drilling technique was found to be statistically better than curettage at each site of sampling, furthermore vertical drilling from the proximal part of the affected nail was found to be the best procedure for nail sampling. With each technique we found that the culture sensitivity improved as the location of the sample was more proximal. More types of pathogens were detected in samples taken by both methods from proximal parts of the affected nails.

  18. Frizzled6 deficiency disrupts the differentiation process of nail development

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Klar, Joakim; Georgii-Heming, Patrik; Fröjmark, Anne-Sophie; Baig, Shahid M.; Schlessinger, David; Dahl’, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Nails protect the soft tissue of the tips of digits. The molecular mechanism of nail (and claw) development is largely unknown, but we have recently identified a Wnt receptor gene, Frizzled6 (Fzd6) that is mutated in a human autosomal-recessive nail dysplasia. To investigate the action of Fzd6 in claw development at the molecular level, we compared gene expression profiles of digit tips of wild-type and Fzd6−/− mice, and show that Fzd6 regulates the transcription of a striking number of epidermal differentiation-related genes. Sixty-three genes encoding keratins, keratin associated proteins, and transglutaminases and their substrates were significantly down-regulated in the knockout mice. Among them, four hard keratins, Krt86, Krt81, Krt34 and Krt31; two epithelial keratins, Krt6a and Krt6b; and transglutaminase1 were already known to be involved in nail abnormalities when dysregulated. Immunohistochemical studies revealed decreased expression of Krt86, Krt6b and involucrin in the epidermal portion of the claw field in the knockout embryos. We further showed that Dkk4, a Wnt antagonist, was significantly down-regulated in Fzd6−/− mice along with Wnt, Bmp and Hh family genes; and Dkk4 transgenic mice showed a subtly but appreciably modified claw phenotype. Thus, Fzd6-mediated Wnt signaling likely regulates the overall differentiation process of nail/claw formation. PMID:23439395

  19. Diffusion of uncharged solutes through human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-01-01

    Passive diffusion data for uncharged solutes in hydrated human nail plate are collected and compared to the predictions of two theories for diffusion of uncharged solutes in dense keratin matrices. Quantitative agreement between the experimental data and the theories examined is poor. Concerns with both the experiments and the theories are identified and discussed. It is evident from the analysis that magnitude of the experimental nail permeability data may be questioned, as may the extrapolation procedures used to estimate the properties of dense fiber arrays from more dilute systems. Despite these caveats, it can be inferred that the microstructure of the nail plate is more complex than that assumed in the described models. The influence of residual lipids is implicated. More rigorous experiments and theoretical analysis of mass transport in the nail plate system are warranted. Successful completion of these tasks could lead not only to better predictions of transungual drug delivery, but also to better models of skin permeability, if hydrated nail plate can indeed serve as a model for the corneocyte phase of (partially hydrated) stratum corneum.

  20. A practical method to detect mycoses of the nails.

    PubMed

    Goihman-Yahr, Mauricio; Franco-Arcia, Francisco; Maldonado, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a method that allows for reliable identification of fungal structures in nails with suspected colonization by fungi. The method is based on the well-known technique of heating nail fragments in 20% potassium hydroxide, but its details allow for reliable and quick processing of samples, when convenient. The method requires simple equipment and is designed for individual practices but might be employed as is or with minor technical improvements by a dermatology department. Minor changes will make it feasible to simultaneously process several samples. The results that were obtained show that while experienced clinicians achieve positive clinical diagnoses in the majority of instances, inaccuracies occur in a sizable proportion of cases. In addition, the varied combination of yeasts and hyphae that were found, bolster the view that microscopic examination is necessary to justify and optimize systemic treatment of mycoses of the nails. Our technique permits the processing and observation of the totality of samples obtained from a single nail or several nails.

  1. Nail psoriasis successfully treated with intralesional methotrexate: case report.

    PubMed

    Sarıcaoglu, Hayriye; Oz, Arife; Turan, Hakan

    2011-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic disease which affects nearly 3% of the population. The lifetime incidence of nail involvement increases up to 80-90% for psoriatic patients. Nail psoriasis is considered a significant social problem. Many topical agents have been used for psoriatic nails with various side effects and some benefits; management is currently inconclusive. Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid analog, which irreversibly binds to dehydrofolate reductase and blocks deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. It is considered a potential treatment option for rapidly growing cells and has an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of the polyamine pathway in autoimmune diseases. Intralesional MTX has been used successfully for various indications. We present a case successfully treated with low-dose intralesional MTX with no observed side effects in a 26-year-old female psoriatic patient suffering from nail dystrophy. In contrast, conventional topical and systemic therapies have various side effects, which limit their use. We conclude that intralesional MTX injection seems to be a safe and effective treatment option for nail psoriasis; however, large controlled studies are needed.

  2. Pigmented lesions of the nail unit: clinical and histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Beth S

    2010-09-01

    Probably the most common reason to perform biopsy of the nail unit is for the evaluation of irregular pigmentation, especially longitudinal melanonychia or pigmented bands. When narrow and solitary, these are usually the product of melanocytic activation/hypermelanosis, lentigines, or melanocytic nevi. Multiple pigmented bands are generally a benign finding, the result of melanocytic activation, as seen in racial pigmentation in darker-skinned patients, for example. In the context of an irregular, broad, heterogeneous or "streaky" band, the chief concern is the exclusion of subungual melanoma. Before assessing the histologic features of any such entities, it is important to understand the normal nail anatomy and melanocytic density of nail unit epithelium, as well as the type of specimen submitted, and whether it is adequate to undertake a proper histologic evaluation. The criteria for diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma of the nail unit are still evolving, and a variety of factors must be weighed in the balance to make a correct diagnosis. The importance of the clinical context cannot be overemphasized. There are also nonmelanocytic conditions to be considered that may produce worrisome nail discoloration, such as subungual hemorrhage, squamous cell carcinoma, and pigmented onychomycosis.

  3. Deep intramedullary infection in tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Ju; Cielo Balce, Gracia; Huh, Young-Jae; Song, Sang-Yoon; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Seung-Ju

    2011-08-01

    Tibial lengthening over an intramedullary (IM) device is associated with a risk of deep intramedullary infection; there is so far no guideline for decision making between early removal and delayed removal of the nail. Tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail/Rush pin was performed in 118 limb segments (63 patients) from 2004 to 2008 in our institution. Fifty five patients had bilateral tibial lengthening. Ninety nine of the 118 segments went on to healing without infection, while 13 segments developed superficial infection and 6 segments developed deep infection. Among 6 patients with deep infection, 4 patients underwent early removal of the nail when deep infection signs and symptoms occurred and 2 patients underwent delayed removal of the nail at 11 months. The 6 segments with deep infection differed significantly with respect t to the callus pattern (p < 0.05) and density (p = 0.0001) from those without infection and with superficial infection. In this small sugroup, removal of the nail was delayed in two patients as there was visible callus bridging at more than one cortex, and deep infection subsided after local drainage.

  4. 78 FR 40172 - Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to... duty order on imports of steel nails from China (73 FR 44961). The Commission is conducting a review...

  5. 77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55, 7317.00.65, and 7317.00.75 of the Harmonized... that imports of certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates were being sold at LTFV within...

  6. 76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55, 7317... steel nails from the United Arab Emirates. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  7. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  8. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2016-01-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents. PMID:27672416

  9. The Chinese Nail Murders: forensic medicine in Imperial China.

    PubMed

    Summers, W C

    1999-01-01

    Robert van Gulik was a respected Dutch sinologist and author who first translated a collection of traditional Chinese detective stories into English and then created additional fictional stories based on the same characters and setting in the Tang dynasty. One of these stories, The Chinese Nail Murders, draws on van Gulik's professional interest in law and his knowledge of early Chinese works on forensic medicine. This novel develops a common theme in Chinese detective fiction, murder by a nail wound to the head. The difficulty in detection of this mode of violence posed a particular problem for the examining magistrate because postmortem examination was mostly limited to external observations. This essay compares the development of Chinese and Western forensic medicine in the context of the nail murder motif.

  10. Surgical treatment of nail bed subungual exostosis

    PubMed Central

    Malkoc, Melih; Korkmaz, Ozgur; Keskinbora, Mert; Seker, Ali; Oltulu, Ismail; Bulbul, Ahmet Murat; Say, Ferhat; Cakir, Aslı

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A subungual exostosis (SE) is a bony overgrowth that is permanently attached to the tip of the distal phalanx. Its pathology differs from osteocartilaginous exostoses in that it mainly involves the overgrowth of normal bone, which may present beneath the toenail or on the sides of the toe. This retrospective study aimed to report the results of surgical treatment when the diagnosis of SE was delayed; the condition was initially considered to be another pathology affecting a different nail or the terminal toe. METHODS A total of 17 patients (12 female, five male) were included in the study. All surgical resections were performed by the same surgeon using the same surgical technique, with the patient under digital anaesthesia. The patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively (on Weeks 1 and 6, the first year, and the last follow-up visit) using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society questionnaire and the Visual Analogue Scale score. RESULTS The patients underwent surgery for SE removal between December 2009 and October 2012. Their mean age was 21.3 ± 4.4 (range 14–29) years and the mean follow-up period was 27.1 ± 7.8 (range 18–45) months. Clinical or radiological recurrence was not observed in any of the patients during the follow-up period. Four patients had superficial infections, which were treated using appropriate antibiotic therapies. CONCLUSION As SE is an uncommon benign lesion, its diagnosis may be delayed. Radiography may be useful in obtaining a differential diagnosis. PMID:26778465

  11. The human nail--barrier characterisation and permeation enhancement.

    PubMed

    Walters, Kenneth A; Abdalghafor, Haydar M; Lane, Majella E

    2012-10-01

    The human nail remains one of the most challenging membranes for formulation scientists to target and for clinicians to heal. Its formidable barrier properties are the primary reason that oral therapy remains the primary approach to manage ungual infections. This article considers the major structural properties underlying the excellent barrier function of the nail, with particular emphasis on the role of biophysical methods in advancing our knowledge of this appendage. Formulations currently available for management of ungual disease are discussed and their therapeutic efficacy is assessed. Finally, experimental strategies to enhance ungual permeation are reviewed and prospects for future developments in the field are considered.

  12. Management of gamma nail breakage with bipolar hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wee, J L H; Sathappan, S S; Yeo, M S W; Low, Y P

    2009-01-01

    Gamma nail breakage is an uncommon occurrence that often arises from fatigue failure of the implant, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.2 to 5.7 percent. We report a 73-year-old woman with a three-part intertrochanteric fracture and who presented two years postoperatively with gamma nail failure secondary to fracture non-union. This patient underwent a revision long-stem bipolar hemi-arthroplasty and has been followed-up for 24 months, with good functional and radiological results.

  13. A biomechanical comparison of the antegrade inserted universal femoral nail with the retrograde inserted universal tibial nail for use in femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Frankle, M; Cordey, J; Sanders, R W; Koval, K; Perren, S M

    1999-01-01

    Femoral shaft fractures with and without bony contact were simulated in cadaver specimens fixed with one of two different types of intramedullary locked nail systems; conventional antegrade nail fixation of the femur with the universal AO femoral nail or retrograde insertion in the femur with the universal tibial nail (a smaller diameter slotted nail) were utilized. Mechanical testing simulated one leg stance, and resultant deformation was measured in bending, torsion, and shortening. In stable fractures, fracture stability was similar to both devices, while in unstable fractures, the larger femoral nail was more stable. Furthermore, the simulation of single leg stance led to a coupled deformation of varus bending, axial shortening, and external rotation, which was dependent on bone geometry.

  14. 76 FR 23279 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Works/Stanley Fastening Systems LP, and an unaffiliated wire drawing subcontractor are collectively..., nails made of round wire and nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction or... such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel nails subject to this proceeding are...

  15. 77 FR 24462 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final... the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``steel nails'') from the People's Republic of... Department's final margin calculations. \\1\\ See Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of...

  16. Vascularized nail transfer from non-replantable digit: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zemirline, Ahmed; Taleb, Chihab; Goukodadja, Oswald; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a traumatic amputation by circular saw of the ring and small fingers, associated with middle finger nail matrix loss and tendon, bone and joint exposure. The replantation was not attempted with patient's consent. Since the nail unit from the ring finger was intact, we decided to harvest the ring finger nail unit for major finger reconstruction. Although the principle of vascularized transfer from a severely damaged finger is widely recognized and the vascularized nail transfer from toe is a relatively common procedure, there is no description of a vascularized nail transfer from a non-replantable digit in the literature.

  17. Generating non-classical states from spin coherent states via interaction with ancillary spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Shane; Joo, Jaewoo; Proctor, Timothy; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-02-01

    The generation of non-classical states of large quantum systems has attracted much interest from a foundational perspective, but also because of the significant potential of such states in emerging quantum technologies. In this paper we consider the possibility of generating non-classical states of a system of spins by interaction with an ancillary system, starting from an easily prepared initial state. We extend previous results for an ancillary system comprising a single spin to bigger ancillary systems and the interaction strength is enhanced by a factor of the number of ancillary spins. Depending on initial conditions, we find - by a combination of approximation and numerics - that the system of spins can evolve to spin cat states, spin squeezed states or to multiple cat states. We also discuss some candidate systems for implementation of the Hamiltonian necessary to generate these non-classical states.

  18. Treatment of ingrown nail with a special device composed of shape-memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Won; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hee; Lee, Dong-Youn; Lee, Joo-Heung; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2014-04-01

    Ingrown nail is a common nail problem resulting in pain and disability in daily life. Recently, a new treatment modality for an ingrown nail was reported that used a device composed of shape-memory alloy, K-D. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy, recurrence rate and complications of K-D. Between June 2010 and September 2012, 24 patients (31 nails) underwent treatment of symptomatic incurved nails with a K-D. Patients were evaluated at pretreatment and during every visit. The mean age of the patients involved was 43.4 years. The mean period of follow up was 161 days. The mean maintenance period was 41 days. The right first toenail was the most common site. Almost ingrown nails healed and the nail deformity was corrected after the procedure. Among the 31 nails, seven of the ingrown nails recurred during follow up (22.6% recurrence rate). The recurrence rate of the patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 ingrown nails was 22.2%, 33.3% and 14.2%, respectively. The majority of patients were very satisfied. There were no side-effects in most patients except loss of nail in one patient. K-D has some advantages such as simple application steps, no deformity after the procedure, high patient satisfaction and obvious effect compared to other non-invasive and invasive methods.

  19. Influence of type of medullary nail on the development of local infection. An experimental study of solid and slotted nails in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Melcher, G A; Claudi, B; Schlegel, U; Perren, S M; Printzen, G; Munzinger, J

    1994-11-01

    Any operation involving the implantation of a foreign body increases the risk of infection. The implant material and its surface, the dead space, and any necrosis or vascular changes play a significant role in susceptibility to infection. We investigated the effect of the dead space in an intramedullary nail on the rate of local infection. We inoculated the intramedullary cavities of rabbit tibiae with various concentrations of a human pathogen, of Staphylococcus aureus strain, and then inserted either a solid or a hollow slotted stainless-steel nail. We found a significantly higher rate of infection after use of the slotted nail (59%) than after the solid nail (27%) (p < 0.05).

  20. Lichen nitidus presenting with nail changes--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tay, Evelyn Yuxin; Ho, Madeline Sheun Ling; Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Heng, Yee Kiat

    2015-01-01

    Lichen nitidus of the nail is rare and can precede the onset of skin lesions. Delayed diagnosis is common. We present an unusual case of lichen nitidus-associated nail changes that preceded the onset of skin lesions in a 4-year-old Indian girl. We also conduct a review of six other cases of lichen nitidus with nail involvement from the English-language literature. Clues to the diagnosis of lichen nitidus include violaceous or pigmentary changes of the nail fold and subtle lichenoid papules on the affected digits. Lichen nitidus of the nails appears to be less severe than nail changes of lichen planus and is generally self-limiting. Understanding the natural history of lichen nitidus of the nails will help physicians better counsel patients and their families.

  1. In Vitro penetration of a novel oxaborole antifungal (AN2690) into the human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoying; Baker, Stephen J; Wester, Ronald C; Barbadillo, Sherry; Cashmore, Anne K; Sanders, Virginia; Hold, Karin M; Akama, Tsutomu; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Plattner, Jacob J; Maibach, Howard I

    2007-10-01

    Onychomycosis is a challenging fungal infection to treat topically, likely due to the unique properties of the nail plate. This seemingly impenetrable barrier has high resistance to the passage of antifungal drugs in sufficient concentrations to kill the causative fungi deep in the nail bed. Recently, a new class of antifungal agent was described, termed oxaboroles, which have broad-spectrum activity. These oxaboroles were designed with properties believed to be required to allow for easier transit through the nail plate. Herein, we report (i) the nail penetration results of four oxaboroles that led to the selection of AN2690, (ii) the results of the nail penetration of AN2690 from four vehicles, and (iii) the nail penetration of AN2690 in its chosen vehicle compared to a commercial control, ciclopirox. AN2690 has superior penetration compared to ciclopirox, and achieves levels within and under the nail plate that suggest it has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis.

  2. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  3. Removal of a bent tibial intramedullary nail: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aggerwal, Sameer; Soni, Ashwani; Saini, Uttam-C; Gahlot, Nitesh

    2011-04-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is a gold standard for treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Bending of a nail secondary to trauma is a rare complication, which may be encountered in healed or unhealed tibial shaft fractures. Removal of such bent nail is always a challenge. We reported this case to discuss various techniques for removal of bent nails and to share our experience in removing a bent tibial intramedullary nail in a 30-year-old man, who was admitted in our department with re-fracture of the right tibial shaft due to a roadside accident two years after the initial surgical treatment. The intramedullary nail, bent by 30 degrees and visible on anterioposterior as well as on lateral radiographs, was firstly weakened by partially cutting the convex wall, then straightened by applying external force, and finally removed by using the standard nail removal method.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of nonclassical ions and their complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Boo, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes an infrared spectroscopic study on the structures and dynamics of the nonclassical ions and their complexes, using ion trap vibrational predissociation spectroscopy. Chapter One provides an introduction to the experimental apparatus used in this work. Chapter Two describes the previous theoretical and experimental works on the carbonium ion CH{sub 5}{sup +} and infrared spectroscopic and theoretical works on CH{sub 5}{sup +}. CH{sub 5}{sup +} was predicted to scramble constantly without possessing a stable structure. In Chapter Three, the infrared spectroscopy for the molecular hydrogen solvated carbonium ions CH{sub 5}{sup +}(H{sub 2}){sub n} (n=1-6) in the frequency region of 2700-4200 cm{sup {minus}1} are presented and compared with the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on CH{sub 5}{sup +}(H{sub 2}){sub n} (n=0-3). The results suggested that the scrambling of CH{sub 5}{sup +} slowed down considerably by the stabilization effects of the solvent H{sub 2} molecules, and it was completely frozen out when the first three H{sub 2} molecules were bound to the core CH{sub 5}{sup +}. Chapter Four presents the complete infrared spectra for the solvated carbonium ions, CH{sub 5}{sup +}(A){sub x}(B){sub y} (A,B=H{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4};x,y=0-5) in the frequency region of 2500-3200 cm{sup {minus}1}. As the binding affinities of the solvent molecules and the number of the solvent molecules in the clusters increased, the scrambling of CH{sub 5}{sup +} slowed down substantially. The structures of the solvated carbonium ions and the evidence for rapid proton transfer in CH{sub 5}{sup +}(CH{sub 4}) were also presented. Chapter Five presents the vib-rotational spectrum for the H-H stretching mode of the silanium ion SiH{sub 5}{sup +}. The results suggested that SiH{sub 5}{sup +} can be described as a complex of SiH{sub 3}{sup +} and a freely internally rotating H{sub 2}, analogous to, but distinct from CH{sub 5}{sup +}.

  5. Multimode nonclassical light generation through the optical-parametric-oscillator threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Chalopin, B.; Scazza, F.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.

    2010-06-15

    We show that an optical parametric oscillator which is simultaneously resonant for several modes, either spatial or temporal, generates both below and above threshold a multimode nonclassical state of light consisting of squeezed vacuum states in all the nonoscillating modes. We confirm this prediction by an experiment dealing with the degenerate TEM{sub 01} and TEM{sub 10} modes. We show the conservation of nonclassical properties when the threshold is crossed. The experiment is made possible by the implementation of a new method to lock the relative phase of the pump and the injected beam.

  6. The isolation of Botryodiplodia theobromae from a nail lesion.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, A; Arango, M; Velez, H; Uribe, L

    1976-03-01

    Botryodiplodia theobromae not known to produce onychomycosis was repeatedly recovered from a healthy woman with evident lesions in a toe nail. Mycelial fragments were observed in the scales and the fungus was isolated in cycloheximide-free culture media. The report indicates that many fungi, hitherto considered non-pathogens, may still be able to colonize a vaiety of human tissues.

  7. Osteosynthesis of the proximal femur anchorage of a cervical nail.

    PubMed

    el Banna, S; Burny, F; Bourgois, R; Donkerwolcke, M; Moulart, F

    1994-01-01

    One of the factors determining the stability of osteosynthesis is the mechanical strength of the bone fragments required for the anchorage of the implant. The aim is to study the driving of a Thornton nail in the proximal epiphysis of a human femur as a way to measure the strength of the trabecular bone and to predict the stability of the implanted system.

  8. The SIGN nail for knee fusion: technique and clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Duane Ray; Anderson, Lucas Aaron; Haller, Justin M.; Feyissa, Abebe Chala

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of using the SIGN nail for instrumented knee fusion. Methods: Six consecutive patients (seven knees, three males) with an average age of 30.5 years (range, 18–50 years) underwent a knee arthrodesis with SIGN nail (mean follow-up 10.7 months; range, 8–14 months). Diagnoses included tuberculosis (two knees), congenital knee dislocation in two knees (one patient), bacterial septic arthritis (one knee), malunited spontaneous fusion (one knee), and severe gout with 90° flexion contracture (one knee). The nail was inserted through an anteromedial entry point on the femur and full weightbearing was permitted immediately. Results: All knees had clinical and radiographic evidence of fusion at final follow-up and none required further surgery. Four of six patients ambulated without assistive device, and all patients reported improved overall physical function. There were no post-operative complications. Conclusion: The technique described utilizing the SIGN nail is both safe and effective for knee arthrodesis and useful for austere environments with limited fluoroscopy and implant options. PMID:27163095

  9. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  10. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure.

  11. Early experience with titanium elastic nails in a trauma unit.

    PubMed

    Shah, M H; Heffernan, G; McGuinness, A J

    2003-01-01

    The Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN) offers a number of potential advantages over traditional ways of treating long bone fractures particularly in the paediatric population. These advantages include earlier mobilisation and shorter hospital stay and less risk of loss of fracture position. These advantages are most apparent and significant when treating femoral fractures in children where the length of hospital stay is reduced from several weeks to a typical period of 5 to 8 days. We have reviewed our early experience of using these implants over the past 2 years. Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. 13 patients were treated using the TEN during this period. There were 2 femoral fractures, 4 humeral fractures, 1 tibial and 6 forearm fractures treated using the Titanium Elastic Nail. All fractures united during the study period. However 1 humeral fracture required a secondary bone grafting and plating for delayed union and 1 fracture lost position during follow-up. Insertion point pain was a problem in 4 patients but this resolved after nail removal in all. There was 1 superficial wound infection which resolved with antibiotics and 1 superficial wound infection of an open fracture wound which resolved following nail removal and antibiotics. There were no cases of deep infection. There were no limb length discrepancy or rotational or angular malalignment problems. Biomechanical principles and technical aspects of this type of fixation are discussed.

  12. Comparative microscopic analysis of nail clippings from patients with cutaneous psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Gabriela Poglia; Werner, Betina; Seidel, Gabriela; Staub, Henrique Luiz

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nail involvement in psoriasis is related to psoriatic arthritis and may represent a predictor of the disease. OBJECTIVES To analyze, through nail clipping, clinically normal and dystrophic nails of patients with cutaneous psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS This is a cross-sectional multicenter study, conducted between August 2011 and March 2012. Patients were divided into four groups: patients with cutaneous psoriasis and onychodystrophy, patients with cutaneous psoriasis and clinically normal nails, patients with psoriatic arthritis and onychodystrophy and patients with psoriatic arthritis and clinically normal nails. We calculated NAPSI (Nail Psoriasis Severity Index) of the nail with more clinically noticeable change. After collection and preparation of the nail clipping, the following microscopic parameters were evaluated: thickness of the nail plate and subungual region, presence or absence of parakeratosis, serous lakes, blood, and fungi. RESULTS There were more layers of parakeratosis (p=0.001) and a greater thickness of the subungual region in patients with cutaneous psoriasis and onychodystrophy (p=0.002). Serous lakes were also more present in the same group (p=0.008) and in patients with psoriatic arthritis and normal nails (p=0.047). The other microscopic parameters showed no significant difference between normal and dystrophic nails or between patients with psoriatic arthritis or cutaneous psoriasis. STUDY LIMITATIONS Small sample size and use of medications. CONCLUSIONS Nail clipping is a simple and quick method to assess the nails of patients with nail psoriasis although does not demonstrate difference between those with joint changes or exclusively cutaneous psoriasis. PMID:28225951

  13. Drug permeation through the three layers of the human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Miyamoto, M; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    1999-03-01

    The in-vitro permeation characteristics of a water soluble model drug, 5-fluorouracil, and a poorly water soluble model drug, flurbiprofen, were investigated through three layers of the human nail plate (namely, the dorsal, intermediate and ventral nail plates), using a modified side-by-side diffusion cell. The dorsal-filed nail plate, the ventral-filed nail plate and the dorsal-and-ventral-filed nail plate were prepared to known thicknesses and then used with the full-thickness nail plate to investigate the permeation characteristics of each single layer. Most of the lipids in the human nail plate were found in the dorsal and ventral layers. The rank orders of the permeation fluxes for 5-fluorouracil and flurbiprofen were both: dorsal-and-ventral-filed nail plate > dorsal-filed nail plate > ventral-filed nail plate > full-thickness nail plate. With respect to 5-fluorouracil permeation through each single layer, the permeability coefficient of the intermediate layer was higher than those of other single layers. However in the case of flurbiprofen, the permeability coefficient of the ventral layer was higher than other single layers. The diffusion coefficients of 5-fluorouracil and flurbiprofen in the dorsal layer were the lowest of any single layer. The drug concentration in each layer was estimated using each respective permeation parameter. The drug concentration in the nail plate was observed to be dependent on the solubility and the flux of the drug. From these findings, we suggest that the human nail plate behaves like a hydrophilic gel membrane rather than a lipophilic partition membrane and that the upper layer functions as the main nail barrier to drug permeation through its low diffusivity against the drugs.

  14. Detection of Drugs in Nails: Three Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Shu, Irene; Jones, Joseph; Jones, Mary; Lewis, Douglas; Negrusz, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Nails (fingernails and toenails) are made of keratin. As the nail grows, substances incorporate into the keratin fibers where they can be detected 3-6 months after use. Samples are collected by clipping of 2-3 mm of nail from all fingers (100 mg). We present drug testing results from 10,349 nail samples collected from high-risk cases during a 3-year period of time. Samples were analyzed by validated analytical methods. The initial testing was performed mostly using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) as well. Presumptive positive samples were subjected to confirmatory testing with sample preparation procedures including washing, pulverizing, digestion and extraction optimized for each drug class. The total of 7,799 samples was analyzed for amphetamines. The concentrations ranged from 40 to 572,865 pg/mg (median, 100-3,687) for all amphetamine analytes. Amphetamine and methamphetamine were present in 14% of the samples, 22 samples were positive for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (0.3%), 7 for methylenedioxyamphetamine (0.09%) and 4 for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (0.05%). Cocaine and related analytes were found in 5% samples (7,787 total), and the concentration range was 20-265,063 pg/mg (median 84-1,768). Opioids overall ranged from 40 to 118,229 pg/mg (median 123-830). The most prevalent opioid was oxycodone (15.1%) and hydrocodone (11.4%) compared with 1.0-3.6% for the others, including morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and oxymorphone. Carboxy-Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol positivity rate was 18.1% (0.04-262 pg/mg, median 6.41). Out of 3,039 samples, 756 were positive (24.9%) for ethyl glucuronide (20-3,754 pg/mg, median 88). Other drugs found in nails included barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ketamine, meperidine, tramadol, zolpidem, propoxyphene, naltrexone and buprenorphine. Nail analyses have become a reliable way of determining

  15. Anti-infective efficacy of antiseptic-coated intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Darouiche, R O; Farmer, J; Chaput, C; Mansouri, M; Saleh, G; Landon, G C

    1998-09-01

    The coating of medical devices with antimicrobial agents has recently emerged as a potentially effective method for the prevention of device-related infections. We examined the anti-infective efficacy of intramedullary nails coated with an antiseptic combination of chlorhexidine and chloroxylenol in a rabbit model of device-related infection after fixation of an open tibial fracture. The rabbits were randomized to receive 2.8-by-100-millimeter stainless-steel tibial intramedullary nails that either were uncoated or were coated with antiseptic. After administration of anesthesia and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, a tibial fracture was created and then reduced with insertion of the intramedullary nail. A bacterial inoculum of 10(6) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus was injected into the intramedullary canal, and the wound was sutured. Radiographs of the tibiae were made postoperatively, and the rabbits were monitored daily. They were killed at six weeks, or earlier if there was dehiscence of the wound, the fracture became grossly unstable, or the rabbit failed to thrive. The use of the antiseptic-coated nails was associated with a significantly lower rate of device-related osteomyelitis (two of twenty-two; 9 per cent) than the use of the uncoated nails (thirteen of twenty-one; 62 per cent) (p = 0.0003). The radiographic and histopathological findings were generally similar in the two groups of rabbits. Antiseptic agents were not detected in serum. The results suggest that antiseptic-coated fracture-fixation devices provide significant local protection against Staphylococcus aureus, which is the most common cause of infections related to orthopaedic devices.

  16. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures with antegrade intramedullary locking nail.

    PubMed

    Tsourvakas, Stefanos; Alexandropoulos, Christos; Papachristos, Ioannis; Tsakoumis, Grigorios; Ameridis, Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Antegrade interlocked humeral nailing for stabilization of humeral fractures was introduced many years ago, and studies on this method in the orthopedic literature have shown mixed results. The purpose of this investigation was to document the clinical outcome and complications associated with the use of an antegrade intramedullary nail (T2, Stryker) for the humeral fractures. Between 2005 and 2008, 52 fractures of the humeral shaft were treated operatively with this intramedullary nail in our department. Eight patients were polytraumatized, and four patients had an open fracture. The mean age of patients was 51.7 years. Forty-eight patients had an adequate duration of clinical follow-up (a mean of 18 months) for analysis. Complications were recorded, and the time to union was measured. Shoulder and elbow functions were assessed using the Constant Score and the Morrey Score, respectively. Forty-six fractures healed, with a mean time to clinical union of 10.3 weeks. Two patients developed pseudarthroses. There were four adverse events: two proximal screws backed out, one superficial infection at the insertion point, and one fracture at the distal end of the nail. Ninety-one percentage of patients had an excellent or good shoulder function. Five further operations were necessary: two for treatment of pseudarthroses, two for removal the backed out proximal screws, and one wound debridement for superficial infection. Antegrade humeral nailing is a valid therapeutic option for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures. By strictly adhering to the operation technique, the number and the severity of complications can be reduced. When good fracture alignment and stability are obtained, uneventful bone healing with good functional results is the rule.

  17. Clinical Evidence for the Relationship between Nail Configuration and Mechanical Forces

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Mechanobiology is an emerging field of science that focuses on the way physical forces and changes in cell or tissue mechanics contribute to development, physiology, and disease. As nails are always exposed to physical stimulation, mechanical forces may have a particularly pronounced effect on nail configuration and could be involved in the development of nail deformities. However, the role of mechanobiology in nail configuration and deformities has rarely been assessed. This review describes what is currently understood regarding the effect of mechanical force on nail configuration and deformities. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that nails have an automatic curvature function that allows them to adapt to the daily upward mechanical forces. Under normal conditions, the upward daily mechanical force and the automatic curvature force are well balanced. However, an imbalance between these 2 forces may cause nail deformation. For example, pincer nails may be caused by the absence of upward mechanical forces or a genetic propensity increase in the automatic curvature force, whereas koilonychias may occur when the upward mechanical force exceeds the automatic curvature force, thereby causing the nail to curve outward. This hypothesis is a new concept that could aid the development of innovative methods to prevent and treat nail deformities. PMID:25289309

  18. Common nail changes and disorders in older people: Diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Lina; Abbas, Ossama

    2011-02-01

    Objective To present family physicians with common nail alterations and disorders occurring in the elderly population and their management options. Quality of evidence The evidence relating to different nail conditions is mostly derived from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and review articles. However, given the scarcity of evidence on some conditions, articles with weaker levels of evidence were also included in our review. Main message Given the growing elderly population and the associated demographic changes and longer lifespans, geriatric care is becoming more of a complicated and multidisciplinary effort in which the role of the family physician is increasingly important. Although common among the elderly, nail changes are often not brought to the attention of primary caregivers and are thus overlooked. These nail changes can affect various components of the nail unit and might represent normal age-related nail alterations or nail abnormalities that require immediate intervention. Knowledge and familiarity with these common nail abnormalities and their underlying causes is important for the family practitioner in order to effectively reach an accurate diagnosis and provide better care of this large and growing elderly population. Conclusion Nail changes are common in the elderly, and family physicians are best placed to diagnose and treat these common problems. It is important that family physicians also recognize less common but more serious nail problems that require immediate treatment.

  19. Automated fit quantification of tibial nail designs during the insertion using computer three-dimensional modelling.

    PubMed

    Amarathunga, Jayani P; Schuetz, Michael A; Yarlagadda, Prasad Kvd; Schmutz, Beat

    2014-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard fixation method for displaced diaphyseal fractures of the tibia. An optimal nail design should both facilitate insertion and anatomically fit the bone geometry at its final position in order to reduce the risk of stress fractures and malalignments. Due to the nonexistence of suitable commercial software, we developed a software tool for the automated fit assessment of nail designs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that an optimised nail, which fits better at the final position, is also easier to insert. Three-dimensional models of two nail designs and 20 tibiae were used. The fitting was quantified in terms of surface area, maximum distance, sum of surface areas and sum of maximum distances by which the nail was protruding into the cortex. The software was programmed to insert the nail into the bone model and to quantify the fit at defined increment levels. On average, the misfit during the insertion in terms of the four fitting parameters was smaller for the Expert Tibial Nail Proximal bend (476.3 mm(2), 1.5 mm, 2029.8 mm(2), 6.5 mm) than the Expert Tibial Nail (736.7 mm(2), 2.2 mm, 2491.4 mm(2), 8.0 mm). The differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The software could be used by nail implant manufacturers for the purpose of implant design validation.

  20. An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient’s nail plates

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, W.J.; Jones, S.A.; Traynor, M.J.; Guesné, S.; Murdan, S.; Brown, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis remains problematic even though there are several potent antifungal agents available for patient use. The aim of this investigation was to understand whether the structural modifications that arise when a patient’s nail become infected plates influences the permeation of drugs into the nail following topical application. It was hoped that through improving understanding of the nail barrier in the diseased state, the development of more effective topical treatments for onychomycosis could be facilitated. The permeation of three compounds with differing hydrophobicities, caffeine, terbinafine and amorolfine (clog D at pH 7.4 of −0.55, 3.72 and 4.49 respectively), was assessed across both healthy and onychomycosis infected, full thickness, human nail plate sections. Transonychial water loss (TOWL) measurements performed on the healthy and diseased nails supported previous observations that the nail behaves like a porous barrier given the lack of correlation between TOWL values with the thicker, diseased nails. The flux of the more hydrophilic caffeine was twofold greater across diseased in comparison with the healthy nails, whilst the hydrophobic molecules terbinafine and amorolfine showed no statistically significant change in their nail penetration rates. Caffeine flux across the nail was found to correlate with the TOWL measurements, though no correlation existed for the more hydrophobic drugs. These data supported the notion that the nail pores, opened up by the infection, facilitated the passage of hydrophilic molecules, whilst the keratin binding of hydrophobic molecules meant that their transport through the nail plate was unchanged. Therefore, in order to exploit the structural changes induced by nail fungal infection it would be beneficial to develop a small molecular weight, hydrophilic antifungal agent, which exhibits low levels of keratin binding. PMID:26969264

  1. An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient's nail plates.

    PubMed

    McAuley, W J; Jones, S A; Traynor, M J; Guesné, S; Murdan, S; Brown, M B

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis remains problematic even though there are several potent antifungal agents available for patient use. The aim of this investigation was to understand whether the structural modifications that arise when a patient's nail become infected plates influences the permeation of drugs into the nail following topical application. It was hoped that through improving understanding of the nail barrier in the diseased state, the development of more effective topical treatments for onychomycosis could be facilitated. The permeation of three compounds with differing hydrophobicities, caffeine, terbinafine and amorolfine (clogD at pH 7.4 of -0.55, 3.72 and 4.49 respectively), was assessed across both healthy and onychomycosis infected, full thickness, human nail plate sections. Transonychial water loss (TOWL) measurements performed on the healthy and diseased nails supported previous observations that the nail behaves like a porous barrier given the lack of correlation between TOWL values with the thicker, diseased nails. The flux of the more hydrophilic caffeine was twofold greater across diseased in comparison with the healthy nails, whilst the hydrophobic molecules terbinafine and amorolfine showed no statistically significant change in their nail penetration rates. Caffeine flux across the nail was found to correlate with the TOWL measurements, though no correlation existed for the more hydrophobic drugs. These data supported the notion that the nail pores, opened up by the infection, facilitated the passage of hydrophilic molecules, whilst the keratin binding of hydrophobic molecules meant that their transport through the nail plate was unchanged. Therefore, in order to exploit the structural changes induced by nail fungal infection it would be beneficial to develop a small molecular weight, hydrophilic antifungal agent, which exhibits low levels of keratin binding.

  2. Biomechanical investigation of titanium elastic nail prebending for treating diaphyseal long bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Nien; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Wei; Ho, Yi-Hung; Peng, Yao-Te; Chang, Chih-Han; Li, Chun-Ting

    2016-12-02

    This study numerically investigated the deformation of titanium elastic nails prebent at various degrees during implantation into the intramedullary canal of fractured bones and the mechanism by which this prebending influenced the stability of the fractured bone. Three degrees of prebending the implanted portions of the nails were used: equal to, two times, and three times the diameter of the intramedullary canal. Furthermore, a simulated diaphyseal fracture with a 5-mm gap was created in the middle shaft portion of the bone fixed with two elastic nails in a double C-type configuration. End caps were simulated using a constraint equation. To confirm that the simulation process is able to present the mechanical response of the nail inside the intramedullary, an experiment was conducted by using sawbone for validation. The results indicated that increasing the degrees of nail prebending facilitated straightening the nails against the inner aspect of canal after implantation, with increase in stability under torsion. Furthermore, reducing nail prebending caused a larger portion of the nails to move closer to the loading site and center of bone after implantation; the use of end caps prevented the nail tips from collapsing and increased axial stability. End cap use was critical for preventing the nail tips from collapsing and for increasing the stability of the nails prebent at a degree equal to the diameter of the canal with insufficient frictional force between the nail and canal. Therefore, titanium elastic nail prebending in a double C-type configuration with a degree three times the diameter of the canal represents a superior solution for treating transverse fractures without a gap, whereas that with a degree equal to the diameter of the intramedullary canal and combined with end cap use represents an advanced solution for treating comminuted fractures in a diaphyseal long bone fracture.

  3. Onychomatricoma in the light of the microanatomy of the normal nail unit.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe; Langbein, Lutz; Schweizer, Jürgen; Cannata, Giuseppe Emilio; Balaguer, Thierry; Chignon-Sicart, Bérangère; Garzon, Jean-Marc; Benchetrit, Maxime; Michiels, Jean-François

    2011-04-01

    Onychomatricoma (OM) is an uncommon benign tumor of the nail thought to exhibit differentiation limited toward the nail matrix. Four recent articles from our laboratory have shown, in some respect, a morphological and immunohistochemical homology between the nail unit and the hair follicle at the level of the matrix and isthmus. The purposes of this article are as follows: to investigate whether the sequential pattern of hair keratin expression in the normal nail matrix is maintained in OM, to compare and contrast follicular tumors with matrix differentiation in OM, and to furnish morphological and immunohistochemical markers of the onychogenic capacity of OM. Formalin-fixed paraffin sections from 6 OM were examined using specific keratin (K) antibodies for the matrix, nail bed, and nail isthmus. Hair keratins were expressed in a sequential pattern similar to normal nail matrix. In 3 cases where the cavities were completely lined by the fibroepithelial projections, the morphological aspect and the pattern of expression of K5, K17, K6, K16, and K75 suggested a differentiation toward the nail bed and the nail isthmus. This study shows for the first time that OM can recapitulate the entire nail unit with differentiation toward the nail bed and the nail isthmus. We have identified new histopathological and immunohistochemical features in OM, and we have abridged the diversity of its histological presentation in 2 main patterns: a lobulated or foliated pattern, observed principally on transverse section, and a "glove-finger" mono- or multidigitate pattern, observed mainly on longitudinal section. We have also concluded that OM is not a nail variant of trichoblastoma, pilomatricoma, or other pilar tumors. The concept of epithelial onychogenic tumor with onychogenic mesenchyme could shed more light about the true nature of this peculiar mixed tumor. However, the term OM is short and sanctioned by usage, which justifies keeping it.

  4. Influences on the Talent Development Process of Non-Classical Musicians: Psychological, Social and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Sara; Richards, Hugh; Collins, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Twelve professional, non-classical musicians were interviewed about the impact of internal and external factors on their development as musicians. The data were qualitatively analyzed, and observations concerning psychological characteristics of developing excellence (PCDEs), social and environmental influences are reported. The insights of the…

  5. Nonclassical aryl radicals: Intermediates or transition states for the hydrogen shift reactions?

    SciTech Connect

    Cioslowski, J.; Liu, G.; Moncrieff, D.

    1996-06-14

    Electronic properties of aryl radicals obtained by removing single hydrogen atoms from the sterically congested regions of benzo[c]phenanthrene, biphenyl, triphenylene, phenanthrene, and perylene are studied at the UBLYP/6-311G** level of theory. Two structures are considered by each radical, the classical one involving a C-H{hor_ellipsis}C arrangement of atoms and the nonclassical one possessing a three-center C-H-C linkage. The five nonclassical radicals under study are found to be transition states for degenerate 1,4- and 1,5-hydrogen shift reactions that interconvert the classical species. However, the results of the present calculations indicate that the nonclassical structures with the C-H distances in the C-H-C linkages shorter than 1.34 {angstrom} should be energy minima representing potentially observable chemical systems. The predicted energy barrier to the 1,5-hydrogen shift in the 1-benzo[c]phenanthrenyl radical is only 9.3 kcal/mol with the zero-point energies included, making the hydrogen migration in this system facile at relatively low temperatures. Rigorous analysis of the computed electronic wave functions provides a clear-cut picture of bonding in both the classical and nonclassical aryl radicals. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Nonclassical states of the second optical harmonic in the presence of self-action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirkin, A. S.; Korolkova, N. V.

    1993-01-01

    The quantum theory of coherent radiation frequency doubling in crystals with quadratic and cubic optical nonlinearities is developed. The possibility of producing the quadrature-squeezed state of the second harmonic (SH) field is shown. The nonclassical SH states arise due to self-action effect.

  7. Analytical Study of Nonclassical Behaviour for a Disturbed Non-Degenerated Parameter Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Qian-Jun

    2007-04-01

    We analytically discuss the nonclassical behaviour for a disturbed non-degenerated parameter amplifier. The thermal Glauber-Sudarshan diagonal presentation (GSP) function for the system is derived. The detailed analysis on the threshold temperatures of both the individual photon subsystem and the complete photon-photon complex is presented. The effect of the photon-photon interaction on the threshold temperature is observed.

  8. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  9. Non-classicality of the molecular vibrations assisting exciton energy transfer at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Edward J.; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Advancing the debate on quantum effects in light-initiated reactions in biology requires clear identification of non-classical features that these processes can exhibit and utilize. Here we show that in prototype dimers present in a variety of photosynthetic antennae, efficient vibration-assisted energy transfer in the sub-picosecond timescale and at room temperature can manifest and benefit from non-classical fluctuations of collective pigment motions. Non-classicality of initially thermalized vibrations is induced via coherent exciton–vibration interactions and is unambiguously indicated by negativities in the phase–space quasi-probability distribution of the effective collective mode coupled to the electronic dynamics. These quantum effects can be prompted upon incoherent input of excitation. Our results therefore suggest that investigation of the non-classical properties of vibrational motions assisting excitation and charge transport, photoreception and chemical sensing processes could be a touchstone for revealing a role for non-trivial quantum phenomena in biology. PMID:24402469

  10. Nonclassicality tests by classical bounds on the statistics of multiple outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2010-08-15

    We derive simple practical tests revealing the quantum nature of states by the violation of classical upper bounds on the statistics of multiple outcomes of an observable. These criteria can be expressed in terms of the Kullback-Leibler divergence (or relative entropy). Nonclassicality tests for multiple outcomes can be satisfied by states that do not fulfill the corresponding single-outcome criteria.

  11. Elementary test for nonclassicality based on measurements of position and momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresta, Luca; Borregaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2015-12-01

    We generalize a nonclassicality test described by Kot et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.233601], which can be used to rule out any classical description of a physical system. The test is based on measurements of quadrature operators and works by proving a contradiction with the classical description in terms of a probability distribution in phase space. As opposed to the previous work, we generalize the test to include states without rotational symmetry in phase space. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the nonclassicality test with classical tomography methods based on the inverse Radon transform, which can also be used to establish the quantum nature of a physical system. In particular, we consider a nonclassicality test based on the so-called filtered back-projection formula. We show that the general nonclassicality test is conceptually simpler, requires less assumptions on the system, and is statistically more reliable than the tests based on the filtered back-projection formula. As a specific example, we derive the optimal test for quadrature squeezed single-photon states and show that the efficiency of the test does not change with the degree of squeezing.

  12. Investigating the non-classical boundary conditions relevant to strain gradient theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Akbar; Ezzati, Meysam

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, two classes of non-classical constitutive equations consisting of the first and the second order strain gradients theories (FSG and SSG) were applied in order to develop the governing equations of static and free vibrational behavior of beam structures. The governing equations in orders of six and eight were constructed for FSG and SSG theories, respectively. Therefore, higher order or in other words non-classical boundary conditions (HOBCs or NCBCs) came into play in addition to the classical ones (CBCs). Some explanations were presented about the concept of the non-classical boundary conditions. Analytical and finite element (FE) approaches were employed to solve the governing equations. The analytical solutions were utilized in validation and convergence study of FE results. Comparisons were made with the relevant data reported in the open literature; however, to the best of the authors' knowledge, few references have been published on SSG theory and HOBCs. In the numerical studies, the effects of applying different combinations of CBCs and HOBCs to the static and free vibration behaviors of the beam were investigated. Moreover, the impacts of non-classical elastic constants and the beam size on its behavior were also studied.

  13. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  14. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  15. Habit tic nail deformity - a rare presentation in an 8 year old boy.

    PubMed

    El-Heis, S; Abadie, Al

    2016-11-15

    Habit tic nail deformity is a nail dystrophy resulting from habitual, repetitive trauma to the nail. It is usually acquired in adulthood, however, we report a case of habit tic nail deformity in an 8 year old boy. The diagnosis was made clinically with further history revealing that the boy repeatedly rubbed his thumbnails and pushed the cuticles. Emollient cream (Balneum®) was recommended twice daily and both the patient and his mother were educated on the behavioral nature of this condition. There was marked improvement at 6 months of treatment and further improvement at 12 months.We note that habit tic nail deformity is not exclusive to adults. Diagnosis can be made clinically. History and physical examination provide valuable clues and psychosocial links must be explored and addressed. Management is challenging and compliance with treatment is variable. Patient education, barrier methods, and behavioral therapy can be helpful in preventing further trauma to the nails.

  16. Post-Traumatic Ectopic Nail: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Rout, Bikram; Sharma, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic nail or Onychoheterotopia is an uncommon clinical entity. They are usually congenital; the acquired variety is very rare. The exact pathogenesis of the disease is not clear. They present as a nail like outgrowth, distinct from the classic nail units which is usually asymptomatic. The dorsal aspect of fingers and toes are mostly affected. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with post-traumatic ectopic nail of right middle finger. Complete surgical excision of the ectopic nail was done with its germinal matrix. The patient didn’t have any evidence of recurrence after one year of follow-up, with satisfactory cosmetic outcome. This article highlights the classic presentation of a case of ectopic nail with its surgical management and brief review of literature. PMID:28050430

  17. Artificial nails: are they putting patients at risk? A review of the research.

    PubMed

    Toles, Angela

    2002-01-01

    The use of artificial nails has become a popular fashion trend, and many health care workers are following this trend. There is debate whether artificial nails are putting patients at risk of nosocomial infections. Researchers have shown that the colony counts on artificial nails are greater than the colony counts on native nails. Artificial nails have also been linked to poor hand washing practices and more tears in gloves. These factors lead to an increased risk of transmitting bacteria to patients. This transmission could greatly affect patients because the hospitalized patient's risk of nosocomial infection is high. The purpose of this article is to review the data related to the bacterial and fungal contamination of artificial nails and their implications for health care workers. Most of the review describes findings of studies of surgical patients and health care workers who work in surgery departments, but the research applies to any area where there is a risk of transferring potential pathogens to immunocompromised patients.

  18. Full thickness burns caused by cyanoacrylate nail glue: A case series.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Noemi; Karagergou, Eleni; Jones, Sarah L; Morritt, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Artificial (acrylic) nails are popular cosmetic enhancements that provide the user with the appearance of manicured nails, do not chip or crack, and are generally considered very safe to apply. We report three cases where full thickness thermal burns were sustained from nail glue adhesive (cyanoacrylate) during the application of artificial nails. All three cases underwent surgical debridement and split skin graft reconstruction. We carried out an experiment to characterize the exothermic reaction between nail glue and cotton leggings. The average high temperature produced was 68°C which was sustained for 12.2s which is more than sufficient to cause full thickness burns on skin. We report these cases to increase both professional and public awareness of this serious potential complication associated with the application of artificial nails.

  19. Nonclassicality Generated by Applying Hermite-Polynomials Photon-Added Operator on the Even/Odd Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Gang; Du, Jian-ming; Zhang, Wen-hai; Yu, Hai-jun

    2017-02-01

    We examine nonclassical properties of the quantum state generated by applying Hermite polynomials photon-added operator on the even/odd coherent state (HPECS/HPOCS). Explicit expressions for its nonclassical properties, such as quantum statistical properties and squeezing phenomenon, are obtained. It is interesting to find that the HPECS/HPOCS exhibits sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effects and negative values of the Wigner function. Thus, we confirm the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a new nonclassical state. Finally, we reveal that the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a novel intelligent state by its squeezing effects in position distribution and quadrature squeezing.

  20. Intramedullary Tibial Nail Fixation of Simple Intraarticular Distal Tibia Fractures.

    PubMed

    Scolaro, John A; Broghammer, Francis H; Donegan, Derek J

    2016-11-01

    The optimal treatment strategy for distal tibia fractures, especially those with intraarticular extension, remains controversial. Although open reduction and internal fixation with a plate and screw device is commonly performed for these injuries, the risk of soft tissue complications using this approach is significant. Staged treatment protocols and alternative means of fixation have been proposed to address these undesired events. Although potentially more technically demanding than fixation of diaphyseal or extraarticular tibial fractures, intramedullary nail (IMN) fixation of simple intraarticular distal tibia fractures is a viable treatment alternative with unique advantages. This article presents a review of the literature and rationale for intramedullary tibial nail fixation of simple intraarticular distal tibia fractures and a surgical approach commonly utilized for successful implementation.

  1. Nail Sarcoidosis with and without Systemic Involvement: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro; Criado, Paulo; Gabbi, Tatiana; Avancini, João; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2015-09-01

    The most commonly seen nail change in sarcoidosis, often associated with chronic systemic disease, is onychodystrophy. Imaging of hands, feet and chest is of paramount importance when nail sarcoidosis is suspected, for evaluation of bone cysts and pulmonary involvement, respectively. We report 2 cases of sarcoidosis that developed nail involvement - one with pulmonary disease, and the other without any evidence of systemic involvement, which is very rare.

  2. Nail Sarcoidosis with and without Systemic Involvement: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro; Criado, Paulo; Gabbi, Tatiana; Avancini, João; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly seen nail change in sarcoidosis, often associated with chronic systemic disease, is onychodystrophy. Imaging of hands, feet and chest is of paramount importance when nail sarcoidosis is suspected, for evaluation of bone cysts and pulmonary involvement, respectively. We report 2 cases of sarcoidosis that developed nail involvement – one with pulmonary disease, and the other without any evidence of systemic involvement, which is very rare. PMID:27170939

  3. Dermoscopy of the nail bed and matrix to assess melanonychia striata.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Sergio H; Yamada, Sergio; Almeida, Fernando A; Tomomori-Yamashita, Jane; Enokihara, Mauro Y; Paschoal, Francisco M; Enokihara, Milvia M; Outi, Cinthia M; Michalany, Nilceo S

    2005-11-01

    Melanonychia striata represents a diagnostic dilemma for dermatologists. The use of dermoscopy to assess the nail has advantages over clinical examination. However, when compared to skin lesions, it gives fewer details. We describe two cases of melanonychia striata submitted to dermoscopic examination of the nail bed and matrix. This is a new procedure that enables observing dermoscopic characteristics that are not visualized in the nail plate, thus, providing additional information.

  4. Estimating uptake of phthalate ester metabolites into the human nail plate using pharmacokinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thuy T; Alves, Andreia; Palm-Cousins, Anna; Voorspoels, Stefan; Covaci, Adrian; Cousins, Ian T

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding uptake of phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals into the human nail plate and thus, clarity concerning the suitability of human nails as a valid alternative matrix for monitoring long-term exposure. In particular, the relative importance of internal uptake of phthalate metabolites (from e.g. blood) compared to external uptake pathways is unknown. This study provides first insights into the partitioning of phthalate-metabolites between blood and nail using pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling and biomonitoring data from a Norwegian cohort. A previously published PK model (Lorber PK model) was used in combination with measured urine data to predict serum concentrations of DEHP and DnBP/DiBP metabolites at steady state. Then, partitioning between blood and nail was assessed assuming equilibrium conditions and treating the nail plate as a tissue, assuming a fixed lipid and water content. Although calculated as a worst-case scenario at equilibrium, the predicted nail concentrations of metabolites were lower than the biomonitoring data by factors of 44 to 1300 depending on the metabolite. It is therefore concluded that internal uptake of phthalate metabolites from blood into nail is a negligible pathway and does not explain the observed nail concentrations. Instead, external uptake pathways are more likely to dominate, possibly through deposition of phthalates onto the skin/nail and subsequent metabolism. Modelling gaseous diffusive uptake of PEs from air to nail revealed that this pathway is unlikely to be important. Experimental quantification of internal and external uptake pathways of phthalates and their metabolites into the human nail plate is needed to verify these modelling results. However, based on this model, human nails are not a good indicator of internal human exposure for the phthalate esters studied.

  5. Two synchronous periungual BCC treated with Mohs surgery. Nail polish related?

    PubMed

    Dika, Emi; Patrizi, Annalisa; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Alessandrini, Aurora; Sorci, Rita; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Vaccari, Sabina; Misciali, Cosimo; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent malignant skin tumor observed in Caucasian adults, especially males, occurs mainly in sun-exposed areas of the body. BCC in the periungual tissues, such as proximal nail fold, nail matrix, nail bed and hyponychium, is rarely reported. We report a patient with two synchronous BCC of the periungual tissue localized in the IV and V fingernail, effectively treated with Mohs micrographic surgery.

  6. When all you have is a dermatoscope- start looking at the nails.

    PubMed

    Haenssle, Holger A; Blum, Andreas; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Kreusch, Juergen; Stolz, Wilhelm; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Brehmer, Franziska

    2014-10-01

    Pigmented and non-pigmented nail alterations are a frequent challenge for dermatologists. A profound knowledge of clinical and dermatoscopic features of nail disorders is crucial because a range of differential diagnoses and even potentially life-threatening diseases are possible underlying causes. Nail matrix melanocytes of unaffected individuals are in a dormant state, and, therefore, fingernails and toenails physiologically are non-pigmented. The formation of continuous, longitudinal pigmented streaks (longitudinal melanonychia) may either be caused by a benign activation of matrix melanocytes (e.g., as a result of trauma, inflammation, or adverse drug reactions) or by a true melanocytic proliferation (e.g., in a nevus or melanoma). In general, non-continuous nail alterations, affecting only limited parts of the nail apparatus, are most frequently of non-melanocytic origin. Important and common differential diagnoses in these cases are subungual hemorrhage or onychomycosis. In addition, foreign bodies, bacterial infections, traumatic injuries, or artificial discolorations of the nail unit may less frequently cause non-continuous nail alterations. Many systemic diseases that may also show involvement of the nails (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, alopecia areata) tend to induce alterations in numerous if not all nails of the hands and feet. A similar extensive and generalized alteration of nails has been reported after treatment with a number of systemic drugs, especially antibiotics and cytostatics. Benign or malignant neoplasms that may also affect the nail unit include glomus tumor, Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and rare collision tumors. This review aims to assist clinicians in correctly evaluating and diagnosing nail disorders with the help of dermatoscopy.

  7. Biomechanical effects of angular stable locking in intramedullary nails for the fixation of distal tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Augat, Peter; Hoegel, Florian; Stephan, Daniel; Hoffmann, Stephanie; Buehren, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of distal tibia shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing requires stable fixation of the distal fragment to prevent malunion. Angular stable locking for intramedullary nails pledge to provide increased mechanical stability. This study tested the hypothesis that intramedullary nails with angular stable interlocking screws would have increased construct stiffness, reduced fracture gap movement and enhanced fatigue failure compared to nails with conventional locking having the same diameter. Biomechanical experiments were performed on 24 human cadaveric tibiae which obtained a distal fracture and were fixed by three different techniques: conventional locking with 8- and 10-mm-diameter nails and angular stable locking with 8-mm nails. Stiffness of the implant-bone construct and movement of the fragments were tested under axial loading and torsion. The constructs were tested to failure under cyclic fatigue loading. Analysis of variance and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used for statistical assessment. Axial stiffness of the 10-mm nail was about 50% larger compared to both 8-mm nail constructs independent of the type of locking mode (p < 0.01). No differences were found in axial performance between angular stable and conventional locking neither under static nor under cyclic testing conditions (p > 0.5). Angular stability significantly decreased the clearance under torsional load by more than 50% compared to both conventionally locked constructs (p = 0.03). However, due to the larger nail diameter, the total interfragmentary motion was still smallest for the 10-mm nail construct (p < 0.01). Although the 10-mm nail constructs survived slightly longer, differences between groups were minor and not statistically significant (p = 0.4). Our hypothesis that angular stable interlocking of intramedullary nails would improve mechanical performance of distal tibia fracture fixation was not confirmed in a physiologically realistic loading

  8. Intramedullary Nailing for Pathological Fractures of the Proximal Humerus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Han, Ilkyu; Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, In Woong; Park, Jong Woong

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoprosthetic reconstruction is widely applied for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus; however, functional impairment is usually unsatisfactory. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the reliability of interlocking intramedullary (IM) nailing with cement augmentation as a fixation method in proximal humeral lesions and to assess functional outcomes. Methods We reviewed 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus who underwent interlocking IM nailing and cement augmentation. Functional scores and pain relief were assessed as outcomes. Results The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score and Karnofsky performance status scale score were 27.7 and 75.6, respectively. Improvement of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale was 6.2 on average. Thirty-one patients (97%) experienced no pain after surgery. The mean ranges of forward flexion and abduction were 115° and 112.6°, respectively. All patients achieved stability and had no local recurrence without failure of fixation until the last follow-up. Conclusions Proximal interlocking IM nailing with cement augmentation appears to be a reliable treatment option for pathological or impending fractures of the proximal humerus in selected patients with metastatic tumors, even with extensive bone destruction. PMID:27904730

  9. Radiation exposure to the surgeon during closed interlocking intramedullary nailing

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, P.E.; Schoen, R.W. Jr.; Browner, B.D.

    1987-06-01

    During interlocking intramedullary nailing of twenty-five femoral and five tibial fractures, the primary surgeon wore both a universal film badge on the collar of the lead apron and a thermoluminescent dosimeter ring on the dominant hand to quantify the radiation that he or she received. When distal interlocking was performed, the first ring was removed and a second ring was used so that a separate recording could be made for this portion of the procedure. At the conclusion of the study, all of the recorded doses of radiation were averaged. The average amount of radiation to the head and neck during the entire procedure was 7.0 millirems of deep exposure and 8.0 millirems of shallow exposure. The average dose of radiation to the dominant hand during insertion of the intramedullary nail and the proximal interlocking screw was 13.0 millirems, while the average amount during insertion of the distal interlocking nail was 12.0 millirems. Both of these averages are well within the government guidelines for allowable exposure to radiation during one-quarter (three months) of a year. Precautions that are to be observed during this procedure are recommended.

  10. Trachyonychia and Twenty-Nail Dystrophy: A Comprehensive Review and Discussion of Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Audrey A.; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The term trachyonychia, also known as twenty-nail dystrophy, is used to describe thin, brittle nails with excessive longitudinal ridging. The term twenty-nail dystrophy has been incorrectly applied to other conditions that can affect all twenty nails. Therefore, we have conducted a comprehensive review of the clinical features of trachyonychia and have included a discussion regarding the diagnostic accuracy of this condition in the literature. Methods In November and December 2015, we conducted a thorough literature search using the following search terms: ‘trachyonychia', ‘twenty nail dystrophy’, and ‘sandpaper nails’. Articles that reported the epidemiology, disease associations, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment options for trachyonychia were included. Particular attention was given to case reports to identify misdiagnosed cases of twenty-nail dystrophy. Results Our preliminary search yielded 184 results with 72 unique articles ultimately selected for review. Excluded articles included 27 articles in languages other than English, 18 commentaries or reviews, and 67 irrelevant articles. Twelve additional articles described nail abnormalities clinically different from trachyonychia. Conclusion Many other conditions can cause widespread nail dystrophy. The specific characteristics of trachyonychia need to be considered to make the diagnosis of twenty-nail dystrophy. PMID:27843915

  11. Effects of organic solvents on the barrier properties of human nail.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly A; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S Kevin

    2011-10-01

    The effects of organic solvent systems on nail hydration and permeability have not been well studied. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of binary aqueous organic solvent systems of ethanol (EtOH), propylene glycol (PPG), and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) on the barrier properties of nail plates. (3) H-water, (14) C-urea, and (14) C-tetraethylammonium ions were the probes in the nail uptake and transport experiments to study the effect(s) of organic solvents on nail hydration and permeability. Gravimetric studies were also performed as a secondary method to study nail hydration and the reversibility of the nail after organic solvent treatments. Both ungual uptake and transport were directly related to the concentration of the organic solvent in the binary systems. Partitioning of the probes into and transport across the nail decreased with an increase in the organic solvent concentration. These changes corresponded to the changes in solution viscosity and the barrier properties of the nail. In general, the effects for PPG and PEG were more pronounced than those for EtOH. Practically, these results suggest that organic solvents in formulations can increase nail barrier resistivity.

  12. Incidence of dermatophytes and cyclohexamide resistant fungi on healthy children hairs and nails in nurseries.

    PubMed

    Maghazy, S M

    2002-01-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of dermatophytes and other fungi on healthy children hairs and nails, 92 hair samples and 85 nail samples (groups of 10 finger nails from each child) were collected from 5 nurseries (children aged 9 months up to 4 years) in Assiut city. From hair samples 22 species were collected, Trichophyton (2 species) and Microsporum (2 species) were the only recovered dermatophytes in addition to well known keratinophilic genus Chrysosporium (4 species). From nail samples, 18 species were identified, Trichophyton was represented by 4 species, Microsporum, 2 species and Chrysosporium, 4 species. Also, several other saprophytes and cycloheximide resistant fungi were isolated.

  13. Habit Reversal versus Object Manipulation Training for Treating Nail Biting: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Bazrafshan, Amir; Dehbozorgi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Objective This is a parallel, three group, randomized, controlled clinical trial, with outcomes evaluated up to three months after randomization for children and adolescents with chronic nail biting. The current study investigates the efficacy of habit reversal training (HRT) and compares its effect with object manipulation training (OMT) considering the limitations of the current literature. Method Ninety one children and adolescents with nail biting were randomly allocated to one of the three groups. The three groups were HRT (n = 30), OMT (n = 30), and wait-list or control group (n = 31). The mean length of nail was considered as the main outcome. Results The mean length of the nails after one month in HRT and OMT groups increased compared to the waiting list group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). In long term, both OMT and HRT increased the mean length of nails (P < 0.01), but HRT was more effective than OMT (P < 0.021). The parent-reported frequency of nail biting did show similar results as to the mean length of nails assessment in long term. The number of children who completely stopped nail biting in HRT and OMT groups during three months was 8 and 7, respectively. This number was zero during one month for the wait-list group. Conclusion This trial showed that HRT is more effective than wait-list and OMT in increasing the mean length of nails of children and adolescents in long terms. PMID:24130603

  14. Lengthening over nails using the double plate system ONAS-DPS

    PubMed Central

    Antolič, Vane

    2016-01-01

    Stable insertion of large Schanz screws behind an intramedullary (IM) nail when lengthening over nails (LON) may be difficult due to the limited bone stock. Additionally, the highly probable contact between the screws and IM nail (which is difficult to avoid) increases the likelihood of infection spreading from the skin via Schanz screws directly to the IM nail. A new device for LON has been developed. Instead of inserting Schanz screws from the external fixator beside the IM nail (as in standard LON), a system of two overlaying plates was constructed. Schanz screws can be fixed to the plates without entering the bone. The plates are fixed to the bone using four angle stability screws. The holes in the plates offer stabile fixation for a chosen angle under which the screw is positioned through the cortical bone. Using the new system there is no need to place Schanz screws behind the IM nail. Instead, Schanz screws pass to the plate and not through the bone. The new system for elongation over IM nail is called “Over Nail Angle Stability-Double Plate System” (ONAS-DPS) [Antolič V (2013) Modular side device with an intramedullary nail for guiding a bone during its lengthening. World Intellectual Property Organization. International Publication number: WO 2013/176632 A1]. PMID:27163094

  15. Insertion of intramedullary nails from the suprapatellar pouch for proximal tibial shaft fractures. A technical note.

    PubMed

    Jakma, Tijs; Reynders-Frederix, Peter; Rajmohan, Rai

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing of proximal tibial fractures can be difficult when using the standard entry portal. We evaluated the suprapatellar portal, using a midline quadriceps tendon incision, to perform intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Seven patients were treated with this adaptation of the standard intramedullary nailing procedure. An arthroscopy was done before and after the nailing procedure. No special equipment was used to perform the intramedullary nailing. We evaluated the handling and necessary modifications of the standard intramedullary technique to introduce the locked tibial nail through the suprapatellar approach. We found this technique not necessarily more difficult than the standard intramedullary nailing of the tibia through the infrapatellar entry portal. Although the patients did not complain of patellofemoral discomfort after the suprapatellar nailing, definitive scuffing of the cartilage in the lower part of the femoral trochlea was visible. Introduction of a locked tibial nail via the suprapatellar approach was found to be possible and even advantageous for some complex upper tibial shaft fractures in compromised limbs. Some possible downsides of this approach need to be taken into account but, in some cases, they can be outweighed by the benefits.

  16. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  17. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  18. Histopathological analysis of the progression pattern of subungual melanoma: late tendency of dermal invasion in the nail matrix area.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Tae; Jang, Kee-Taek; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Youn; Lee, Jason B

    2014-11-01

    Subungual melanoma is a rare subtype of melanoma that usually originates and spreads from the nail matrix. Because of its poor prognosis and short matrix-to-bone distance, amputation has been traditionally performed. Recently, conservative surgery has been attempted for early subungual melanoma, but the evidence supporting this practice is sparse. As little is known about the progression pattern of subungual melanoma, further advances on the subject may provide better guidance on the optimal surgical approach. Histopathology slides, clinical records, and photographs of 23 cases of subungual melanoma were reviewed. For all cases, each area of the nail unit-proximal nail fold, nail matrix, nail bed, and/or hyponychium-in longitudinal sections was available for histological examination. Growth pattern, dermal invasion, and thickness were assessed in each area of the nail unit. There were five cases of melanoma in situ. Eighteen cases showed dermal invasion in at least one area of the nail unit. There were no cases showing dermal invasion in the nail matrix area only. In four cases, dermal invasion involved areas of the nail unit other than the nail matrix. In 14 cases, dermal invasion involved the nail matrix area as well as other areas of the nail unit. Except for one case, the nail matrix area showed thinner dermal invasion compared with dermal invasion in other areas of the nail unit. In conclusion, dermal invasion of subungual melanoma in the nail matrix area tends to occur later than other areas of the nail unit. Longitudinal incisional biopsy is necessary to accurately evaluate melanoma invasion. The findings of this study suggest that conservative surgical treatment for early subungual melanoma may be justified as the nail matrix area, an area of thin dermis and close proximity to the underlying bone, appears to be more resistant to invasion.

  19. Alteration of the diffusional barrier property of the nail leads to greater terbinafine drug loading and permeation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Kim, Hyun D; Chakraborty, Bireswar; Friden, Phillip M; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2009-06-22

    The diffusional barrier property of biological systems varies with ultrastructural organization of the tissues and/or cells, and often plays an important role in drug delivery. The nail plate is a thick, hard and impermeable membrane which makes topical nail drug delivery challenging. The current study investigated the effect of physical and chemical alteration of the nail on the trans-ungual drug delivery of terbinafine hydrochloride (TH) under both passive and iontophoretic conditions. Physical alterations were carried out by dorsal or ventral nail layer abrasion, while chemical alterations were performed by defatting or keratolysis or ionto-keratolysis of the nails. Terbinafine permeation into and across the nail plate following various nail treatments showed similar trends in both passive and iontophoretic delivery, although the extent of drug delivery varied with treatment. Application of iontophoresis to the abraded nails significantly improved (P<0.05) TH permeation and loading compared to abraded nails without iontophoresis or normal nails with iontophoresis. Drug permeation was not enhanced when the nail plate was defatted. Keratolysis moderately enhanced the permeation but not the drug load. Ionto-keratolysis enhanced TH permeation and drug load significantly (P<0.05) during passive and iontophoretic delivery as compared to untreated nails. Ionto-keratolysis may be more efficient in permeabilization of nail plates than long term exposure to keratolysing agents.

  20. Iontophoresis for drug delivery into the nail apparatus: exploring hyponychium as the site of delivery.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Avadhesh; Shivakumar, H N; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2016-10-01

    In present studies, a hyponychium pathway (from ventral side of the nail plate) was investigated as a potential route of drug delivery into the nail apparatus using iontophoresis as an active physical method. In vitro transport studies were performed across the human nail plate using sodium fluorescein as a marker substrate for 24 h. After transport studies, the amount of sodium fluorescein extracted from an active diffusion area of the nail plate in case of iontophoresis was found to be ∼54-folds more to that of passive. The amount of sodium fluorescein retained in the peripheral area of the nail plate after application of iontophoresis was found to be ∼30-folds more relative to passive. Ex vivo transport studies were performed on excised human cadaver toe using terbinafine hydrochloride as a model drug for three days (8 h/day). The amount of terbinafine retained in the nail plate after application of iontophoresis (3.43 ± 1.34 µg/mg) was ∼20-folds more when compared with passive (0.17 ± 0.10 µg/mg). The amount of drug extracted from the nail bed and nail matrix was 1.73 ± 0.12 µg/mg and 0.55 ± 0.22 µg/mg, respectively. On the other hand, there was no detectable amount of terbinafine found in the nail bed and nail matrix in case of control (passive delivery). These studies show that the iontophoretic drug delivery through hyponychium region to other parts of the nail apparatus could be a potential way of onychomycosis treatment.

  1. Evaluation of the SMALL nail: Drive technology and behavior in situ.

    PubMed

    Dünnweber, L H; Rödl, R; Gosheger, G; Schiedel, F M

    2016-12-01

    Although clear advances have been made during the last 5 years, practical difficulties persist for patients and surgeons in procedures for intramedullary lengthening of long bones. In particular, precise adjustment of the desired amount of lengthening and technically reliable checking of the length actually achieved are problematic. An intramedullary nail with a new type of drive that exploits the shape memory effect has been constructed. The drive technology and the behavior of the intramedullary nail in situ were evaluated in a cadaver experiment. Three shape memory alloy limb lengthening (SMALL) nails were implanted in a body donor. The SMALL nail contains a spring coupled to a shape memory element consisting of a nickel-titanium alloy. This shape memory element "remembers" its initial state before the lengthening through the spring and can return to it when it is warmed. A cartridge heater inside the lengthening nail is warmed using transcutaneous induction with high-frequency energy via a subcutaneously implanted coil. For evaluation, two SMALL nails were implanted into the femora (antegrade on the left and retrograde on the right) and one SMALL nail was implanted into the left tibia. Lengthening by 50mm was attempted using repeated activation of the drive mechanism. At the same time, test parameters for temperature increases and cooling periods were continually monitored and the data were subsequently analyzed. The nail's mechanism worked in principle, but was inadequate in view of success rates (number of lengthening steps attempted versus number of lengthening steps achieved) of 21% for the SMALL nail in the tibia and left femur and 14% for the nail in the right femur. The temperature values measured during the distraction experiments show that high-frequency energy induction in the SMALL nail gives no cause for concern for patients.

  2. Creation and transfer of nonclassical states of motion using Rydberg dressing of atoms in a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, L. F.; Mølmer, K.; Petrosyan, D.

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the motional states of trapped ground-state atoms using Rydberg dressing via nonresonant laser fields. The forces resulting from Rydberg state interaction between dressed neighboring atoms in an array of microtraps or an optical lattice can strongly couple their motion. We show that intensity modulation of the dressing field allows us to squeeze the relative motion of a pair of atoms and generate nonclassical mechanical states. Extending this pairwise scheme to one-dimensional chains provides flexible control over the mechanical degrees of freedom of the whole system. We illustrate our findings with protocols to manipulate all motional degrees of freedom of a pair of atoms and create entangled states. We also present a method to transfer nonclassical correlations along an atomic chain of nontrivial length. The long-lived nature of motional states, together with the high tunability of Rydberg dressing, makes our proposal feasible for current experimental setups.

  3. Non-classical effects in photon-statistics of atomic optical bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erenso, Daniel; Vyas, Reeta; Singh, Surendra

    2000-10-01

    Homodyne statistics of light generated by an atomic system exhibiting optical bistability are analyzed. The dynamical equations for the homodyne field are derived using the results for a single-atom optical bistability in the good cavity limit [Wang and Vyas, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4453 (1996)]. We use positive-P representation to map operator quantum dynamics onto a set of c-number stochastic equations. It is shown that field radiated by the atomic system can be described in terms of two independent real Gaussian stochastic processes and a coherent component. By making Karhunen-Loeve expansion of the field variables we derive the generating function for the photoelectron statistics. From this generating function photoelectron counting distribution, factorial moments, and waiting time distribution are obtained analytically. These quantities are directly measurable in photon counting experiments. We show that the homodyne field can exhibit many interesting nonclassical features including novel nonclassical effects in higher order factorial moments.

  4. Nonclassical properties of electronic states of aperiodic chains in a homogeneous electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spisak, B. J.; Wołoszyn, M.

    2009-07-01

    The electronic energy levels of one-dimensional aperiodic systems driven by a homogeneous electric field are studied by means of a phase-space description based on the Wigner distribution function. The formulation provides physical insight into the quantum nature of the electronic states for the aperiodic systems generated by the Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences. The nonclassical parameter for electronic states is studied as a function of the magnitude of homogeneous electric field to achieve the main result of this work, which is to prove that the nonclassical properties of the electronic states in the aperiodic systems determine the transition probability between electronic states in the region of anticrossings. The localization properties of electronic states and the uncertainty product of momentum and position variables are also calculated as functions of the electric field.

  5. Characterisation of non-classical MHC class I genes in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial that is under threat of extinction due to an unusual transmissible disease called Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD). Previous studies on the classical MHC genes have provided important insights into immune responses in this endangered species; however, so far, very little is known about the non-classical MHC genes of this species, which can also play significant roles in the immune system. Here, we report characterisation of five non-classical class I genes in the Tasmanian devil, including Saha-UD, -UK, -UM, -MR1 and -CD1. Saha-UD has been isolated previously and is known to have low genetic polymorphism, though its categorisation as classical or non-classical gene has remained undetermined. In this study, we observed tissue-specific expression of Saha-UD, suggesting that it is more characteristic of a non-classical gene. Restricted tissue expression patterns were also observed for other genes, with an exception of Saha-MR1 being ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues. Saha-UK, -UM and -MR1 were found to be genetically monomorphic, while four alleles were found at Saha-CD1 with signs of positive selection detected within the α1 domain. Among the four Saha-CD1 alleles, one predominant allele (Saha-CD1*01) showed a high allele frequency of 0.906 in the Tasmanian devil population, resulting in a low heterozygosity (0.188) at this locus. Alternative splicing takes place in Saha-CD1, giving rise to a full-length transcript and a splice variant lacking intact antigen-binding, β2m-binding, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains.

  6. Study of higher order non-classical properties of squeezed Kerr state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Devendra Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Recently, Prakash and Mishra [J. Phys. B: at. Mol. Opt. Phys., 39, 2291(2006); 40, 2531(2007)] have studied higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistic conditions for non-classicality in the form of general inequalities for expectation values of products of arbitrary powers of photon number and of photon-number fluctuation. It is, therefore, vital to study the generation of these higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics (phase-insensitive behavior) in a physically realizable medium and their relations to higher order squeezing (phase-sensitive behavior). In the present paper, we study higher order non-classical properties, such as Hong and Mandel squeezing, amplitude-squared squeezing and higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics, of squeezed Kerr state which is generated by squeezing the output of a Kerr medium whose input is coherent light. Such states can be realized if laser light is sent through an optical fiber and then into a degenerate parametric amplifier. It is established that the squeezed Kerr state can exhibit higher order non-classical properties.

  7. Molecular characterization of classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes from the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q-Q; Zhong, G-H; He, K; Sun, D-D; Wan, Q-H

    2016-02-01

    Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allelic polymorphism is essential for competent antigen presentation. To improve the genotyping efforts in the golden pheasant, it is necessary to differentiate more accurately between classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In our study, all MHC class I genes were isolated from one golden pheasant based on two overlapping PCR amplifications. In total, six full-length class I nucleotide sequences (A-F) were identified, and four were novel. Two (A and C) belonged to the IA1 gene, two (B and D) were alleles derived from the IA2 gene through transgene amplification, and two (E and F) comprised a third novel locus, IA3 that was excluded from the core region of the golden pheasant MHC-B. IA1 and IA2 exhibited the broad expression profiles characteristic of classical loci, while IA3 showed no expression in multiple tissues and was therefore defined as a nonclassical gene. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three IA genes in the golden pheasant share a much closer evolutionary relationship than the corresponding sequences in other galliform species. This observation was consistent with high sequence similarity among them, which likely arises from the homogenizing effect of recombination. Our careful distinction between the classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes in the golden pheasant lays the foundation for developing locus-specific genotyping and establishing a good molecular marker system of classical MHC I loci.

  8. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    PubMed

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  9. Seismic analysis of nailed vertical excavation using pseudo-dynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Piyush; Ghosh, Priyanka

    2016-12-01

    An attempt has been made to study the behavior of nailed vertical excavations in medium dense to dense cohesionless soil under seismic conditions using a pseudo-dynamic approach. The effect of several parameters such as angle of internal friction of soil ( ϕ), horizontal ( k h) and vertical ( k v) earthquake acceleration coefficients, amplification factor ( f a), length of nails ( L), angle of nail inclination ( α) and vertical spacing of nails ( S v) on the stability of nailed vertical excavations has been explored. The limit equilibrium method along with a planar failure surface is used to derive the formulation involved with the pseudo-dynamic approach, considering axial pullout of the installed nails. A comparison of the pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic approaches has been established in order to explore the effectiveness of the pseudo-dynamic approach over pseudo-static analysis, since most of the seismic stability studies on nailed vertical excavations are based on the latter. The results are expressed in terms of the global factor of safety (FOS). Seismic stability, i.e., the FOS of nailed vertical excavations is found to decrease with increase in the horizontal and vertical earthquake forces. The present values of FOS are compared with those available in the literature.

  10. Size and Charge Dependence of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; LaCount, Terri D; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-03-01

    The electrical properties of human nail plate are poorly characterized yet are a key determinate of the potential to treat nail diseases, such as onychomycosis, using iontophoresis. To address this deficiency, molar conductivities of 17 electrolytes comprising 12 ionic species were determined in hydrated human nail plate in vitro. Cation transport numbers across the nail for 11 of these electrolytes were determined by the electromotive force method. Effective ionic mobilities and diffusivities at infinite dilution for all ionic species were determined by regression analysis. The ratios of diffusivities in nail to those in solution were found to correlate inversely with the hydrodynamic radii of the ions according to a power law relationship having an exponent of -1.75 ± 0.27, a substantially steeper size dependence than observed for similar experiments in skin. Effective diffusivities of cations in nail were 3-fold higher than those of comparably sized anions. These results reflect the strong size and charge selectivity of the nail plate for ionic conduction and diffusion. The analysis implies that efficient transungual iontophoretic delivery of ionized drugs having radii upward of 5 Å (molecular weight, ca. ≥ 340 Da) will require chemical or mechanical alteration of the nail plate.

  11. Size and Charge Dependence of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate

    PubMed Central

    Baswan, Sudhir M.; Li, S. Kevin; LaCount, Terri D.; Kasting, Gerald B.

    2016-01-01

    The electrical properties of human nail plate are poorly characterized, yet are a key determinate of the potential to treat nail diseases such as onychomycosis using iontophoresis. In order to address this deficiency, molar conductivities of 17 electrolytes comprising 12 ionic species were determined in hydrated human nail plate in vitro. Cation transport numbers across the nail for 11 of these electrolytes were determined by the electromotive force method. Effective ionic mobilities and diffusivities at infinite dilution for all ionic species were determined by regression analysis. The ratios of diffusivities in nail to those in solution were found to correlate inversely with the hydrodynamic radii of the ions according to a power law relationship having an exponent of −1.75 ± 0.27, a substantially steeper size dependence than observed for similar experiments in skin. Effective diffusivities of cations in nail were three-fold higher than those of comparably sized anions. These results reflect the strong size and charge selectivity of the nail plate for ionic conduction and diffusion. The analysis implies that efficient transungual iontophoretic delivery of ionized drugs having radii upwards of 5 Å (approximately MW ≥ 340 Da) will require chemical or mechanical alteration of the nail plate. PMID:26886342

  12. 76 FR 19124 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates AGENCY: United States International Trade... from The United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55,...

  13. New Polyurethane Nail Lacquers for the Delivery of Terbinafine: Formulation and Antifungal Activity Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gregorí Valdes, Barbara S; Serro, Ana Paula; Gordo, Paulo M; Silva, Alexandra; Gonçalves, Lídia; Salgado, Ana; Marto, Joana; Baltazar, Diogo; Dos Santos, Rui Galhano; Bordado, João Moura; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2017-03-03

    Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection. The development of new topical antifungal agents for the treatment of onychomycosis has focused on formulation enhancements that optimize the pharmacological characteristics required for its effective treatment. Polyurethanes (PUs) have never been used in therapeutic nail lacquers. The aim of this work has been the development of new PU-based nail lacquers with antifungal activity containing 1.0% (wt/wt) of terbinafine hydrochloride. The biocompatibility, wettability, and the prediction of the free volume in the polymeric matrix were assessed using a human keratinocytes cell line, contact angle, and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy determinations, respectively. The morphology of the films obtained was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, while the nail lacquers' bioadhesion to nails was determined by mechanical tests. Viscosity, in vitro release profiles, and antifungal activity were also assessed. This study demonstrated that PU-terbinafine-based nail lacquers have good keratinocyte compatibility, good wettability properties, and adequate free volume. They formed a homogenous film after application, with suitable adhesion to the nail plate. Furthermore, the antifungal test results demonstrated that the terbinafine released from the nail lacquer Formulation A PU 19 showed activity against dermatophytes, namely Trichophyton rubrum.

  14. Background values for essential and toxic elements in children's nails and correlation with hair levels.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Batista, Bruno Lemos; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Barbosa, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Human nails are an attractive matrix for assessing environmental exposures to toxic elements as well as the deficiency of essential elements since it is noninvasively collected and can be stored at room temperature. However, reference or baseline levels in nonexposed and healthy populations are not yet established. Then, the aims of this study were (a) to estimate background values for essential and toxic elements in nails from a healthy young population in southern Brazil and (b) to evaluate possible correlations between essential and toxic elements in nails. Furthermore, this report took part of a recent study of background values in the hair of a young population. Thus, correlations between chemical elements in nails and hair were also evaluated. Nails were collected from healthy children (n = 126), and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study provides new and reliable reference concentrations for toxic and essential elements in children's nails. The results can be used as reference values for epidemiological or clinical investigations based on trace elements in nails. Additionally, we also showed weak to strong correlations between Cu, Mg, Mn, Se, and Zn levels in nails and hair.

  15. Deformation monitoring of long GFRP bar soil nails using distributed optical fiber sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Cheng-Yu; Yin, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a new measurement technology characterized by the use of distributed optical fiber sensor (OFSs) for monitoring the strain and temperature distribution of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bar soil nails. Laboratory tension tests were used to verify the performance of the OFSs for strain and elongation monitoring of GFRP bars. The measured strain data from the OFSs agree fairly well with the data from strain gauges in calibration tests. In field monitoring tests, two GFRP bar soil nails were installed with OFSs and pure strain data were used to evaluate the performance of GFRP bar soil nails after installation in a practical slope. Both the strain and temperature distributions measured by the OFSs show symmetric features. A Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) measurement unit was used to collect temperature and strain data from the OFSs. The monitoring data show that the accumulative elongations of the soil nails present a continuous but limited increase with time in the field. The achieved maximum elongations of soil nails were less than 0.4 mm. The measured axial elongations of the soil nails were also validated using corresponding data predicted by a theoretical model. The test results from the present study prove that BOTDA based sensors are useful for the investigation of the average strain distributions (or elongation) of long soil nails and these data are useful for the estimation of the potential sliding surface of the entire soil nailing system.

  16. Application of soil nails to the stability of mine waste slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tant, C.R.; Drumm, E.C.; Mauldon, M.; Berry, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    The traditional soil nailed structure incorporates grouted or driven nails, and a wire mesh reinforced shotcrete facing to increase the stability of a slope or wall. This paper describes the construction and monitoring of a full-scale demonstration of nailing to stabilize coal mine spoil. The purpose of the investigation is to evaluate the performance of nailed slopes in mine spoil using methods proven for the stabilization of soil walls and slopes. The site in eastern Tennessee is a 12 meter high slope of dumped fill, composed of weathered shale chips, sandstone, and coal. The slope was formed by {open_quotes}pre-regulatory{close_quotes} contour surface mining operations and served as a work bench during mining. The material varies in size from silt to boulders, and has a small amount of cohesion. Portions of the mine spoil slope have experienced slope instability and erosion which have hampered subsequent reclamation activities. Three different nail spacings and three different nail lengths were used in the design. The 12 meter high structure is instrumented to permit measurement of nail strain, and vertical inclinometer readings and survey measurements will be used for the detection of ground movement. The results of this study will aid in the development of design recommendations and construction guidelines for the application of soil nailing to stabilize mine spoil.

  17. The spotted lunula. A neglected nail sign associated with alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Shelley, W B

    1980-05-01

    Three patients with alopecia areata were observed to have spotty absence of t4e whiteness of the lunulae of their nails. This was ascribed to defects in the tongue of matrical epithelium which lies under the nail plate and accounts for the lunula. An analogy is drawn with Wickham's striae.

  18. Understanding Habits: A Preliminary Investigation of Nail Biting Function in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Douglas W.; Fuqua, R. Wayne; Siah, Adelene; Murray, Laura K.; Welch, Matthew; Blackman, Edward; Seif, Tory

    2001-01-01

    Traditional functional analysis procedures were combined with a functional assessment interview and etiological theories to evaluate functions of nail biting in six children. Environmental restriction in combination with other variables appeared to control nail biting. A habit reversal intervention was generally effective but was less effective…

  19. 76 FR 47146 - Certain Steel Nails From the Peoples' Republic of China: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the Peoples' Republic of China: Notice of Extension... review on the antidumping order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for..., the Department initiated the first antidumping duty administrative review on certain steel nails...

  20. 75 FR 17125 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time... order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') was published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2008. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Steel Nails From the...

  1. 78 FR 68472 - Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Steel Nails From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... revocation of the antidumping duty order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  2. Witkop tooth and nail syndrome: a report of three cases in a family.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Shafiei, Fereshteh

    2011-01-01

    Witkop tooth and nail syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia manifested by hypodontia and nail dysplasia. Tooth shape may vary, and conical and narrow crowns are common. Mandibular incisors, second molars, and maxillary canines are the most frequently missing teeth. Nail dysplasia affects the fingernails and especially the toenails and is often more severe in childhood. Nails may be spoon-shaped, ridged, slow-growing, and easily broken. We examined an Eastern Mediterranean family in which three siblings (two girls, one boy) had this syndrome. The severity of finger and toenail anomalies varied. The children's mother had no Witkop-related abnormalities, but their father was reported to have dental and nail anomalies. Early intervention is recommended to manage orofacial disfigurement and avoid negative social consequences for these children.

  3. Self-inflicted Cardiac Injury with Nail Gun Without Hemodynamic Compromise: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Simon; Feranec, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Pneumatically powered nail guns have been used in construction since 1959. Penetrating injuries to the heart with nail guns have a wide range of presentations from asymptomatic to cardiac tamponade and exsanguination. Mortality related to cardiac nail gun injuries is similar to knife injuries, estimated at 25%. Surgical exploration is the treatment of choice. We describe a case of self-inflicted nail gun injury to the chest without hemodynamic compromise in a 51-year-old man. Computed tomography (CT) imaging confirmed nail penetrating the right ventricle, with the tip adjacent to but not violating the abdominal aorta. The patient was successfully treated with thoracotomy and foreign body removal. PMID:28191375

  4. Preliminary studies of the use of nail as a material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Kaakedjian, G

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the biocompatibility and stability of implanted nail as a preliminary step in the assessment of its potential as a material for small scale reconstructive or cosmetic surgery. Rat nails were placed subcutaneously in the back of 12 Lewis rats, which were then sacrificed in groups of 4 at 4, 8, and 12 months for macroscopic and microscopic examination of the implants. A layer of strongly adherent connective tissue, containing inflammatory cells, had formed around the nails at 4 months, but by 8 to 12 months this reaction had subsided, leaving the nails imbedded in connective tissue adhering to the dermal wall, with no evidence of implant rejection, granuloma formation, or degradation. The results suggest that nail merits further study as a surgical implant material, because of its staying power and lack of immunogenicity.

  5. In vitro nail invasion by pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Baudraz-Rosselet, F; Frenk, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the literature suggest that the nutritional environment can modify major metabolic functions of fungi and possibly their aggressivity towards keratinous structures. Trichophyton rubrum (TR), Microsporum canis (MC), Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (SB), Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and Penicillium spec. (P) were inoculated on media of different nutritional value, in presence of nail fragments. The activity of the fungi was evaluated at two and four weeks for intensity and depth of invasion of nail samples. Nail invasion was most pronounced by MC, especially when grown on rice agar or peptone agar. Nail invasion by the other fungi tested was less important, Sabourand glucose and rice agar were most favorable. Our results indicate that nutritional factors can, at least in some fungus species, alter their rate of nail invasion.

  6. Antegrade versus retrograde nailing techniques and trochanteric versus piriformis intramedullary nailing entry points for femoral shaft fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nasir; Hussain, Farrah Naz; Sermer, Corey; Kamdar, Hera; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Sternheim, Amir; Kuzyk, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background There are several different techniques commonly used to perform intramedullary (IM) nailing of the femur to fix femoral fractures. We sought to identify significant differences in outcomes of studies comparing 1) trochanteric and piriformis entry and 2) antegrade and retrograde entry in IM nailing of the femur. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases and the Orthopaedic Trauma Association and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons websites for comparative studies published from inception to November 2015. Criteria used to select articles for detailed review included use of antegrade and retrograde entry point or use of trochanteric and piriformis entry point for IM nailing of the femur in adult patients. Functional and technical outcomes were extracted from accepted studies. Results We identified 483 potential studies, of which 52 were eligible. Of these, we included 13 publications and 2 abstracts (2 level I, 7 level II and 6 level III studies). Trochanteric entry significantly reduced operative duration by 14 min compared with piriformis entry (p = 0.030). Retrograde nailing had a greater risk of postoperative knee pain than antegrade nailing (p = 0.05). On the other hand, antegrade nailing had significantly more postoperative hip pain (p = 0.003) and heterotopic ossification (p < 0.001) than retrograde nailing. No significant differences in functional outcomes were observed. Conclusion Although some significant differences were found, the varying quality of studies made recommendation difficult. Our meta-analysis did not confirm superiority of either antegrade over retrograde or trochanteric over piriformis entry for IM nailing of the femur. Level of evidence Level III therapeutic. PMID:28234586

  7. Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N; Alexander, N; Stephens, R B; MacPhee, A G; Hey, D; Pape, S L; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Offermann, D; Link, A; Chowdhury, E; Van-Woerkom, L D; Freeman, R R

    2007-12-18

    The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.

  8. Fatigue load of current tibial intramedullary nail designs: a simulated study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark; Liu, Qi; Ellis, Thomas J

    2011-06-14

    Comminuted tibial shaft fractures are traditionally treated with statically locked intramedullary nailing and protected weight bearing until fracture callous is evident. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that a simulation of immediate full weight bearing following intramedullary nailing of these fractures does not result in implant failure.A comminuted fracture model was created using 2 pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. Ten-millimeter-diameter tibial nails (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania; Styker, Mahwah, New Jersey; Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) were inserted within the PVC pipe and secured proximally and distally with 2 or 3 locking bolts. The constructs were cycled in axial compression for 500,000 cycles or until implant failure. The tests were conducted using a modified staircase method (200 N per step), and the fatigue strength was identified for each of the tibial nail designs. When 2 interlocking bolts were placed proximally and distally, the fatigue strength was between 900 and 1100 N for the Stryker nail, 1100 and 1300 N for the Zimmer nail, 1200 and 1400 N for the Synthes nail, and 1400 and 1600 N for the Smith & Nephew nail. Adding a third interlocking bolt proximally and distally to the Smith & Nephew nail increased the fatigue strength by 13% to between 1700 and 1900 N. In all cases, implant failures occurred through the proximal or distal interlocking bolts.Biomechanical tests suggest that current tibial nail designs may permit immediate full weight bearing of comminuted tibial shaft fractures with minimal risk of implant failure. This may facilitate mobilization in the early postoperative period, especially in the multiply injured patient.

  9. Enhanced econazole penetration into human nail by 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoying; Chan, Thomas C K; Barbadillo, Sherry; Lee, Christine; Maibach, Howard I; Wester, Ronald C

    2003-01-01

    This study determines the enhancing effects of 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane on the penetration of econazole, an antifungal drug, into the deeper layers of the human nail where fungal infection resides. Aliquots (10 microL) of Econail lacquer formulation containing 0.45 mg of [(14)C]-econazole with 18% 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane (test group) or without 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane (control group) were applied twice daily for 14 days to human nails that had been washed with ethanol before each morning's application. The hydration of the nail sample was well controlled to simulate normal physiological conditions. After 14 days of dosing, the inner ventral section of the nail plate was assayed for absorbed drug content, using a micrometer-controlled drilling and nail powder removal system. The mass balance values of [(14)C]-econazole in this study were 90.8 and 96.4% for the test and control groups, respectively. The weight-normalized econazole content in the ventral/intermediate nail plate center in the test group was 6-fold greater than that in the control (p = 0.008). The total econazole absorbed into the supporting bed cotton ball in the test group was nearly 200-fold greater than that in the control group (p = 0.008) over the 14-day period. The amount of econazole after dosing in the inner part of the human nail (potential diseased area) was 11.1 +/- 2.6 (SD) microg/mg of nail powder with 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane in the lacquer and 1.78 +/- 0.32 microg/mg without 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane (p = 0.008). The surface nail contained more econazole (p = 0.004), that is, nonabsorbed drug, where 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane was not part of the dosing solution. Econazole in the support bed under the nail (the total absorbed dose) was 47.5 +/- 22.0 mg in the lacquer with 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane and 0.2 +/- 0.1 mg in the lacquer without 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane (p = 0.008). Moreover the concentration in the deep nail layer in the test group is 14,000 times higher than minimum inhibitory

  10. Linkage analysis of the Nail-patella syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, E.; Watkins, D.; Rouleau, G.A.; Babul, R.; Der Kaloustian, V.M.; Buchanan, J.A.; Meschino, W.

    1995-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysplasia of nails and patella, decreased mobility of the elbow, iliac horns, and, in some cases, nephropathy. The disorder has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9, but the precise localization and identity of the NPS gene are unknown. Linkage analysis in three NPS families, using highly informative dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms on 9q33-q34, confirmed linkage of NPS to this chromosome. Recombinations were detected, by two-point linkage analysis, between NPS and the centromeric markers D9S60 and the gelsolin gene and the telomeric markers D9S64 and D9S66, in one of the families. Haplotype analysis suggested an additional recombination between NPS and the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene. These results localize the NPS gene to an interval on 9q34.1, distal to D9S60 an proximal to ASS, comprising a genetic distance of {approximately}9 cM. This represents a significant refinement in the localization of the NPS gene. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Analysis of human nails by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2011-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to analyze human fingernails using nanosecond laser pulses. Measurements on 45 nail samples are carried out and 14 key species are identified. The elements detected with the present system are: Al, C, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, N, Na, O, Si, Sr, Ti as well as CN molecule. Sixty three emission lines have been identified in the spectrum that are dominated by calcium lines. A discriminant function analysis is used to discriminate among different genders and age groups. This analysis demonstrates efficient discrimination among these groups. The mean concentration of each element is compared between different groups. Correlation between concentrations of elements in fingernails is calculated. A strong correlation is found between sodium and potassium while calcium and magnesium levels are inversely correlated. A case report on high levels of sodium and potassium in patients with hyperthyroidism is presented. It is shown that LIBS could be a promising technique for the analysis of nails and therefore identification of health problems.

  12. Yellow fever in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S; Moss, Sandra W; Kahn, Richard J

    2004-06-01

    Dutch slave traders brought yellow fever to the Americas from Africa during the mid-seventeenth century. For the next two and a half centuries, the disease terrorized seaports throughout the Americas. Proof of the mosquito hypothesis was delayed because of two aspects of the disease: patients are viremic only during the first several days of clinical illness, and most mosquitoes require about 2 weeks of viral incubation before becoming infectious. Control of Aedes aegypti in urban centers failed to eliminate the disease because of its transmission by tree-hole-breeding mosquitoes that spend their winged lives mainly in forest canopies. Yellow fever continues to be a significant public health problem in parts of South America and Africa.

  13. Nail Damage (Severe Onychodystrophy) Induced by Acrylate Glue: Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Pinteala, Tudor; Chiriac, Anca Eduard; Rosca, Irina; Larese Filon, Francesca; Pinteala, Mariana; Chiriac, Anca; Podoleanu, Cristian; Stolnicu, Simona; Coros, Marius Florin; Coroaba, Adina

    2017-01-01

    Background Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques have been used in various fields of medical research, including different pathologies of the nails; however, no studies have focused on obtaining high-resolution microscopic images and elemental analysis of disorders caused by synthetic nails and acrylic adhesives. Methods Damaged/injured fingernails caused by the use of acrylate glue and synthetic nails were investigated using SEM and EDX methods. Results SEM and EDX proved that synthetic nails, acrylic glue, and nails damaged by contact with acrylate glue have a different morphology and different composition compared to healthy human nails. Conclusions SEM and EDX analysis can give useful information about the aspects of topography (surface sample), morphology (shape and size), hardness or reflectivity, and the elemental composition of nails. PMID:28232921

  14. Infection resistance of unreamed solid, hollow slotted and cannulated intramedullary nails: an in-vivo experimental comparison.

    PubMed

    Horn, J; Schlegel, U; Krettek, C; Ito, K

    2005-07-01

    Infection continues to be a problematic complication of fracture treatment, particularly in severe open fractures. The implant design and material as well as implantation technique play an important role in the pathogenesis of local infection. The aim of our study was to determine if the local resistance to infection of a cannulated IM nail is less than that of a solid nail and more similar to that of a hollow nail. In 65 female White Zealand rabbits, the intramedullary cavity was inoculated with matching concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, and one of the three nails was inserted. The solid nail had a greater than twofold higher resistance to infection (23%) compared to that of the other two nails (hollow, 65%; cannulated, 61%) which was statistically significant (p<0.02). No difference in infection resistance was detected between the hollow slotted and cannulated nail designs (p=1). Although these experimental results may be clinically considered, direct extrapolation to clinical infection rates is ill advised.

  15. Non-classical nuclei and growth kinetics of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys during ageing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xin

    2014-01-10

    In this manuscript, we quantitatively calculated the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys. The concentration profiles of the critical nuclei and nucleation energy barriers were predicted by the constrained shrinking dimer dynamics (CSDD) method. It is found that Cr concentration distribution in the critical nuclei strongly depend on the overall Cr concentration as well as temperature. The critical nuclei are non-classical because the concentration in the nuclei is smaller than the thermodynamic equilibrium value. These results are in agreement with atomic probe observation. The growth kinetics of both classical and non-classical nuclei was investigated by the phase field approach. The simulations of critical nucleus evolution showed a number of interesting phenomena: 1) a critical classical nucleus first shrinks toward its non-classical nucleus and then grows; 2) a non-classical nucleus has much slower growth kinetics at its earlier growth stage compared to the diffusion-controlled growth kinetics. 3) a critical classical nucleus grows faster at the earlier growth stage than the non-classical nucleus. All of these results demonstrate that it is critical to introduce the correct critical nuclei in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation.

  16. CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical" monocytes are associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, Karol; Ludew, Dominik; Filip, Grzegorz; Filip, Magdalena; Sagan, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Piotr; Grudzien, Grzegorz; Sadowski, Jerzy; Jasiewicz-Honkisz, Barbara; Sliwa, Tomasz; Kapelak, Boguslaw; McGinnigle, Eilidh; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2017-02-23

    Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are key mechanisms of vascular disease. We hypothesised that heterogeneity of monocyte subpopulations may be related to the development of vascular dysfunction in coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we examined the relationships between monocyte subsets (CD14(++)CD16(-) "classical - Mon1", CD14(++)CD16(+) "intermediate - Mon2" and CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical - Mon3"), endothelial function and risk factor profiles in 130 patients with CAD undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. This allowed for direct nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability assessment using isometric tension studies ex vivo (acetylcholine; ACh- and sodium-nitropruside; SNP-dependent) in segments of internal mammary arteries. The expression of CD14 and CD16 antigens and activation markers were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry. Patients with high CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical" and low CD14(++)CD16(-) "classical" monocytes presented impaired endothelial function. High frequency of CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical" monocytes was associated with increased vascular superoxide production. Furthermore, endothelial dysfunction was associated with higher expression of activation marker CD11c selectively on CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes. Nonclassical and classical monocyte frequencies remained independent predictors of endothelial dysfunction when major risk factors for atherosclerosis were taken into account (β=0.18 p=0.04 and β=-0.19 p=0.03, respectively). In summary, our data indicate that CD14(+)CD16(++) "nonclassical" monocytes are associated with more advanced vascular dysfunction measured as NO- bioavailability and vascular reactive oxygen species production.

  17. Lgr6 marks nail stem cells and is required for digit tip regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lehoczky, Jessica A.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    The tips of the digits of some mammals, including human infants and mice, are capable of complete regeneration after injury. This process is reliant on the presence of the overlaying nail organ and is mediated by a proliferative blastema. Epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to be necessary for mouse digit tip regeneration. Here, we report on Lgr5 and Lgr6 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 and 6), two important agonists of the Wnt pathway that are known to be markers of several epithelial stem cell populations. We find that Lgr5 is expressed in a dermal population of cells adjacent to the specialized epithelia surrounding the keratinized nail plate. Moreover, Lgr5-expressing cells contribute to this dermis, but not the blastema, during digit tip regeneration. In contrast, we find that Lgr6 is expressed within cells of the nail matrix portion of the nail epithelium, as well as in a subset of cells in the bone and eccrine sweat glands. Genetic lineage analysis reveals that Lgr6-expressing cells give rise to the nail during homeostatic growth, demonstrating that Lgr6 is a marker of nail stem cells. Moreover, Lgr6-expressing cells contribute to the blastema, suggesting a potential direct role for Lgr6-expressing cells during digit tip regeneration. This role is confirmed by analysis of Lgr6-deficient mice, which have both a nail and bone regeneration defect. PMID:26460010

  18. Lgr6 marks nail stem cells and is required for digit tip regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, Jessica A; Tabin, Clifford J

    2015-10-27

    The tips of the digits of some mammals, including human infants and mice, are capable of complete regeneration after injury. This process is reliant on the presence of the overlaying nail organ and is mediated by a proliferative blastema. Epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to be necessary for mouse digit tip regeneration. Here, we report on Lgr5 and Lgr6 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 and 6), two important agonists of the Wnt pathway that are known to be markers of several epithelial stem cell populations. We find that Lgr5 is expressed in a dermal population of cells adjacent to the specialized epithelia surrounding the keratinized nail plate. Moreover, Lgr5-expressing cells contribute to this dermis, but not the blastema, during digit tip regeneration. In contrast, we find that Lgr6 is expressed within cells of the nail matrix portion of the nail epithelium, as well as in a subset of cells in the bone and eccrine sweat glands. Genetic lineage analysis reveals that Lgr6-expressing cells give rise to the nail during homeostatic growth, demonstrating that Lgr6 is a marker of nail stem cells. Moreover, Lgr6-expressing cells contribute to the blastema, suggesting a potential direct role for Lgr6-expressing cells during digit tip regeneration. This role is confirmed by analysis of Lgr6-deficient mice, which have both a nail and bone regeneration defect.

  19. Oral carriage of enterobacteriaceae among school children with chronic nail-biting habit

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sushma; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Jeevan, MB

    2013-01-01

    Context: Onychophagia or habitual nail-biting is widespread among children and adolescents, between 10 and 18 years. Prevalence estimates range from 30% during childhood to 45% in adolescence. Nail-biting habit can result in autoinoculation of pathogens and transmission of infection between body parts. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the differences in prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli and Enterobacter spp) in saliva samples from subjects with and without chronic nail-biting habit. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two subjects with chronic nail-biting habit and 122 subjects with no oral habit were enrolled in the study. All subjects were aged 11-15 years. The saliva samples were collected by oral rinse technique, samples were studied microbiologically. Statistical Analysis Used: Two-tailed Student's t-test and Chi-square/Fisher's exact test were used to find the significance of study parameters between the groups. Results: Enterobacteriaceae were detected in the saliva samples of 80 of the 122 nail-biting subjects, whereas Enterobacteriaceae were detected in the saliva samples of only 10 of the 122 subjects who were not nail-biters. This difference in prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest a higher carriage of Enterobacteriaceae in the individuals having nail-biting habits when compared to individuals with no habits. Further studies need to be done to know the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae species in different age groups. PMID:24250072

  20. A Novel Vehicle for Enhanced Drug Delivery Across the Human Nail for the Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rob; Weaver, Sean; Caserta, Francesco; Brown, Marc B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use in vitro nail models to investigate the potential of a novel base formulation (Recura) containing either fluconazole or miconazole for the treatment of onychomycosis in comparison to two commercial comparators (Jublia and a Penlac generic). Initially, a modified Franz cell was used, where sections of human nail served as the barrier through which drug penetrated into an agar-filled chamber infected with dermatophytes. A second study was performed using a novel infected nail model where dermatophytes grew into human nail and adenosine triphosphate levels were used as biological marker for antimicrobial activity. The novel enhancing system Recura increased the permeation of both existing drugs through human nail sections mounted in a modified Franz cell. Furthermore, the infected nail model also confirmed that the system also enhanced the permeation through infected nail resulting in a decrease in adenosine triphosphate levels superior (P ≤ 0.05) to Penlac generic and equivalent (P > 0.05) to the commercial comparator Jublia. This study demonstrated that with the use of a novel permeation-enhancing formulation base, Recura enhances delivery of miconazole and fluconazole when applied ungually such that the efficacy was equivalent or superior to commercial comparators. Such a topically applied system has the possibility of overcoming the systemic side effects of antifungals when taken orally.

  1. Hydration of nail plate: a novel screening model for transungual drug permeation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, P; Saini, T R

    2012-10-15

    Drug delivery by topical route for the treatment of onychomycosis, a nail fungal infection, is challenging due to the unique barrier properties of the nail plate which imparts high resistance to the passage of antifungal drugs. Permeation enhancers are used in transungual formulations to improve the drug flux across the nail plate. Selection of the effective permeation enhancer among the available large pool of permeation enhancers is a difficult task. Screening the large number of permeation enhancers using conventional Franz diffusion cells is laborious and expensive. The objective of present study was to evolve a simple, accurate and rapid method for screening of transungual drug permeation enhancers based on the principle of hydration of nail plate. The permeation enhancer which affects the structural or physicochemical properties of nail plate would also affect their hydration capacity. Two screening procedures namely primary and secondary screenings were evolved wherein hydration and uptake of ciclopirox olamine by nail plates were measured. Hydration enhancement factor, HEF(24) and drug uptake enhancement factor, UEF(24) were determined for screening of 23 typical permeation enhancers. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between HEF(24) and UEF(24) was determined. A good agreement between the HEF(24) and UEF(24) data proved the validity of the proposed nail plate hydration model as a screening technique for permeation enhancers.

  2. In Vitro Nail Penetration and Antifungal Activity of Tavaborole, a Boron-Based Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Dina; Merchant, Tejal; Chanda, Sanjay; Zane, Lee T

    2015-06-01

    An effective topical antifungal medication must penetrate through the nail plate at sufficient concentrations to eradicate the fungal infection. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% is a novel boron-based pharmaceutical approved for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum or T mentagrophytes. Four in vitro studies assessed the antifungal activity and nail penetration of tavaborole. In Study 1, tavaborole demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25-2 μg/mL against all fungi tested; addition of 5% keratin powder did not affect the MIC against T rubrum. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values for tavaborole against T rubrum and T mentagrophytes were 8 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. In Study 2, tavaborole effectively penetrated through the nail plate; mean concentrations in the ventral/intermediate nail layer were significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 3, mean cumulative tavaborole penetration through ex vivo human nails was significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 4, tavaborole demonstrated superior nail penetration and fungicidal activity, as measured by zones of inhibition. These studies demonstrated the superior penetration of tavaborole through the nail plate vs ciclopirox. Tavaborole demonstrated robust antifungal activity, with low MIC and MFC values, even in the presence of keratin.

  3. Comparing the Intramedullary Nailing Method Versus Dynamic Hip Screw in Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Ali; Taghavi, Roozbeh; Moghtadaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Hip Screw fixation is currently considered as a standard treatment for pre-trochanteric fractures; however, due to the long-term hospitalization and some other complications, some researchers have proposed intramedullary nailing as the alternative surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to compare and examine the consequences of the using intramedullary nailing method versus Dynamic Hip Screw. Methods: In this study 114 patients with unstable Intertrochanteric fracture refer to Rasoul Akram hospital during 2011 to 2013 has been selected. After reduction, fixation surgery with PFN nail (60 patients) and Dynamic Hip Screw (54 patients) has been performed. All patients were screen during surgery and six months after surgery and some parameters like, bleeding, union, as well as complications such as collapse, varus and medialization of the distal fragment were record and patients. Results: About some parameters like cutting length, surgery duration, bleeding there were significant differences between two groups. In six months follow up period 2 patinas from nail and 8 patients from DHS group had non-union. Also from the point of radiologic and clinical parameters, like anterior thigh pain, cut out, medialization of the distal fragment, collapse of the neck, walking recovery and daily activities were significant between two groups. Conclusion: Due to the reduced hospital stay in intramedullary nailing method and the necessity of doing repeated surgery and applying intramedullary nailing when the patients are not treated with external fixation, the researchers recommend intramedullary nailing as the first option in treating such patients. PMID:26980933

  4. Onychopharmacokinetics of terbinafine hydrochloride penetration from a novel topical formulation into the human nail in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lindahl, Åke; Lamel, Sonia; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-09-01

    This study determined the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, distribution, and penetration of [¹⁴C]-terbinafine HCl in a new topical formulation into/through the human finger nail using the in vitro finite dose model. This study determined the penetration rate of terbinafine HCl from multiple doses of topical formulation applied daily for 14 days. Results showed that the total dose recovery (mass balance) was almost 100%. The concentration of terbinafine HCl in the deeper nail plate (ventral/intermediate layers) and the cotton-pad nail bed samples after the 14-day treatment were 613 ± 145 and (±S.D.) and 27 ± 1.2 µg/cm³ (or 1.9 ± 0.6 µg/cm³ daily) on average, respectively. In comparison with nail concentration data from the literature for other topical terbinatine formulations, our results show that higher amounts of terbinafine HCl reached the deep nail plate and/or the nail bed after a 14-day topical treatment with this topical formulation in vitro.

  5. Breakage of a Third Generation Gamma Nail: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Takashi; Lee, Sang Yang; Nishida, Kotaro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    The use of intramedullary nails to treat trochanteric fractures of the femur has increased with the increasing size of the elderly population. The third generation Gamma nail is currently one of the most popular devices for the treatment of trochanteric fractures. Nail breakage is a rare complication, possibly resulting from fatigue fracture of the implant. We present the first reported case of breakage of a third generation Gamma nail that was not used to treat a pathological fracture. An 83-year-old woman with an unstable trochanteric fracture of the femur was treated using a third generation Gamma nail. She was referred to our hospital 14 months postoperatively with nail breakage at the opening for the lag screw. The breakage was secondary to nonunion, which was thought to be mainly due to insufficient reduction of the fracture. The broken nail was removed, and the patient underwent cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty. At followup 18 months later, she was mobile with a walker and asymptomatic with no complications. This case shows that inadequate operation such as insufficient reduction of the trochanteric fracture may result in nonunion and implant breakage, even when using a high-strength, well-designed implant. PMID:23762698

  6. Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture with an Interlocking Humeral Nail in Older Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Rigid interlocking nailing for femoral shaft fracture is ideal for use in adolescents in terms of stability of the fracture and convenience for the patient. However, numerous authors have reported that rigid interlocking nailing has some limitations in this age group due to the risk of complications. We evaluated the results of intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures with an interlocking humeral nail in older children and adolescents. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with an interlocking humeral nail. Radiographs were examined for proximal femoral change and evidence of osteonecrosis. Outcomes were assessed by major or minor complications that occurred after operative treatment. Results Twenty-four femoral shaft fractures in 23 patients were enrolled. The mean age at the time of operation was 12 years and 8 months and the mean follow-up period was 21 months. Bony union was achieved in all patients without any complications related to the procedure such as infection, nonunion, malalignment and limb length discrepancy. All fractures were clinically and radiographically united within an average eight weeks. No patients developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head and coxa valga. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing through the greater trochanter using a rigid interlocking humeral nail is effective and safe for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in older children and adolescents. PMID:22318831

  7. Effects of human hair and nail proteins and their films on rat mast cells.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Murai, Shinya; Ohkawa, Kousaku; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2008-06-01

    Human hair and nail are valuable materials for producing individual corresponding biocompatible materials. A rapid and convenient protein extraction method (Shindai method) and novel procedures for preparing their protein films from their extracts have been developed using human hair and nail. The effects of the human hair and nail proteins and their films on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells were investigated. Both protein solutions and their films, mainly consisting of keratins and matrix proteins, did not induce histamine release from the mast cells. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed that the mast cells were only slightly affected by adding the human hair and nail proteins or by incubating on their protein films. The IgE-dependent histamine release was inhibited by the hair and nail proteins and their films. Incubation of the mast cells with the hair and nail proteins prior to the addition of the IgE serum resulted in a high inhibition (50%) of the histamine release, while the inhibition was approximately 10% when the protein solutions were mixed with the mast cells after incubation with the IgE serum. These results suggest that the human hair and nail proteins and their films will be useful materials for antiallergic actions.

  8. Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wing Sin; Belsey, Natalie A; Garrett, Natalie L; Moger, Julian; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H

    2015-06-23

    The effective treatment of diseases of the nail remains an important unmet medical need, primarily because of poor drug delivery. To address this challenge, the diffusion, in real time, of topically applied chemicals into the human nail has been visualized and characterized using stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. Deuterated water (D2O), propylene glycol (PG-d8), and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO-d6) were separately applied to the dorsal surface of human nail samples. SRS microscopy was used to image D2O, PG-d8/DMSO-d6, and the nail through the O-D, -CD2, and -CH2 bond stretching Raman signals, respectively. Signal intensities obtained were measured as functions of time and of depth into the nail. It was observed that the diffusion of D2O was more than an order of magnitude faster than that of PG-d8 and DMSO-d6. Normalization of the Raman signals, to correct in part for scattering and absorption, permitted semiquantitative analysis of the permeation profiles and strongly suggested that solvent diffusion diverged from classical behavior and that derived diffusivities may be concentration dependent. It appeared that the uptake of solvent progressively undermined the integrity of the nail. This previously unreported application of SRS has permitted, therefore, direct visualization and semiquantitation of solvent penetration into the human nail. The kinetics of uptake of the three chemicals studied demonstrated that each altered its own diffusion in the nail in an apparently concentration-dependent fashion. The scale of the unexpected behavior observed may prove beneficial in the design and optimization of drug formulations to treat recalcitrant nail disease.

  9. Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wing Sin; Belsey, Natalie A.; Garrett, Natalie L.; Moger, Julian; Delgado-Charro, M. Begoña; Guy, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    The effective treatment of diseases of the nail remains an important unmet medical need, primarily because of poor drug delivery. To address this challenge, the diffusion, in real time, of topically applied chemicals into the human nail has been visualized and characterized using stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. Deuterated water (D2O), propylene glycol (PG-d8), and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO-d6) were separately applied to the dorsal surface of human nail samples. SRS microscopy was used to image D2O, PG-d8/DMSO-d6, and the nail through the O-D, -CD2, and -CH2 bond stretching Raman signals, respectively. Signal intensities obtained were measured as functions of time and of depth into the nail. It was observed that the diffusion of D2O was more than an order of magnitude faster than that of PG-d8 and DMSO-d6. Normalization of the Raman signals, to correct in part for scattering and absorption, permitted semiquantitative analysis of the permeation profiles and strongly suggested that solvent diffusion diverged from classical behavior and that derived diffusivities may be concentration dependent. It appeared that the uptake of solvent progressively undermined the integrity of the nail. This previously unreported application of SRS has permitted, therefore, direct visualization and semiquantitation of solvent penetration into the human nail. The kinetics of uptake of the three chemicals studied demonstrated that each altered its own diffusion in the nail in an apparently concentration-dependent fashion. The scale of the unexpected behavior observed may prove beneficial in the design and optimization of drug formulations to treat recalcitrant nail disease. PMID:26056283

  10. [Infections of finger and toe nails due to fungi and bacteria].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Paasch, U; Handrick, W

    2014-04-01

    Infections of the finger and the toe nails are most frequently caused by fungi, primarily dermatophytes. Causative agents of tinea unguium are mostly anthropophilic dermatophytes. Both in Germany, and worldwide, Trichophyton rubrum represents the main important causative agent of onychomycoses. Yeasts are isolated from fungal nail infections, both paronychia and onychomycosis far more often than generally expected. This can represent either saprophytic colonization as well as acute or chronic infection of the nail organ. The main yeasts causing nail infections are Candida parapsilosis, and Candida guilliermondii; Candida albicans is only in third place. Onychomycosis due to molds, or so called non-dermatophyte molds (NDM), are being increasingly detected. Molds as cause of an onychomycosis are considered as emerging pathogens. Fusarium species are the most common cause of NDM onychomycosis; however, rare molds like Onychocola canadensis may be found. Bacterial infections of the nails are caused by gram negative bacteria, usually Pseudomonas aeruginosa (recognizable because of green or black coloration of the nails) but also Klebsiella spp. and gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of onychomycosis includes application of topical antifungal agents (amorolfine, ciclopirox). If more than 50 % of the nail plate is affected or if more than three out of ten nails are affected by the fungal infection, oral treatment using terbinafine (in case of dermatophyte infection), fluconazole (for yeast infections), or alternatively itraconazole are recommended. Bacterial infections are treated topically with antiseptic agents (octenidine), and in some cases with topical antibiotics (nadifloxacin, gentamicin). Pseudomonas infections of the nail organ are treated by ciprofloxacin; other bacteria are treated according to the results of culture and sensitivity testing.

  11. External lead contamination of women's nails by surma in Pakistan: Is the biomarker reliable?

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Akihiko; Takagi, Mai; Fatmi, Zafar; Kobayashi, Yayoi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Cui, Xiaoyi; Mise, Nathan; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sahito, Ambreen; Khoso, Aneeta; Kayama, Fujio

    2016-11-01

    Adverse health effects of heavy metals are a public health concern, especially lead may cause negative health impacts to human fetal and infantile development. The lead concentrations in Pakistani pregnant women's nails, used as a biomarker, were measured to estimate the lead exposure. Thirteen nail samples out of 84 nails analyzed contained lead higher than the concentration (13.6 μg/g) of the fatal lead poisoning case, raising the possibility of an external contamination. Eye cosmetics such as surma are recognized as one of the important sources of lead exposure in Pakistan. We collected in Pakistan 30 eye cosmetics made in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and western countries. As the metal composition analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that some surma samples contained lead more than 96%, the surma might contaminate the nail specimen. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that lead-containing surma consists of fine particle of galena (ore of lead sulfide) in respirable dust range (less than 10 μm). In addition, relative in vitro bioavailability of lead in the surma was determined as 5.2%. Thus, lead-containing surma consists of inhalable and bioavailable particles, and it contributes an increased risk of lead exposure. Moreover, the relationship between the surma and the lead-contaminated nails by lead isotope ratios analysis indicated the potential of lead contamination in nails by surma. These results suggest that lead in the nails was derived both from body burden of lead and external contamination by lead-containing surma. Therefore, nail is not suited as a biomarker for lead exposure in the countries where surma used, because we may overestimate lead exposure by surface lead contamination in the nail by surma.

  12. Permeation studies of novel terbinafine formulations containing hydrophobins through human nails in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vejnovic, Ivana; Huonder, Cornelia; Betz, Gabriele

    2010-09-15

    Existing treatments of onychomycosis are not satisfactory. Oral therapies have many side effects and topical formulations are not able to penetrate into the human nail plate and deliver therapeutical concentrations of active agent in situ. The purpose of the present study was to determine the amount of terbinafine, which permeates through the human nail plate, from liquid formulations containing enhancers, namely hydrophobins A-C in the concentration of 0.1% (w/v). The used reference solution contained 10% (w/v) of terbinafine in 60% (v/v) ethanol/water without enhancer. Permeability studies have been performed on cadaver nails using Franz diffusion cells modified to mount nail plates and filled with 60% (v/v) ethanol/water in the acceptor chamber. Terbinafine was quantitatively determined by HPLC. The amount of terbinafine remaining in the nail was extracted by 96% ethanol from pulverized nail material after permeation experiment and presented as percentage of the dry nail weight before the milling test. Permeability coefficient (PC) of terbinafine from reference solution was determined to be 1.52E-10 cm/s. Addition of hydrophobins improved PC in the range of 3E-10 to 2E-9 cm/s. Remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail from reference solution was 0.83% (n=2). An increase of remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail was observed in two out of three tested formulations containing hydrophobins compared to the reference. In all cases, known minimum inhibitory concentration of terbinafine for dermatophytes (0.003 microg/ml) has been exceeded in the acceptor chamber of the diffusion cells. All tested proteins (hydrophobins) facilitated terbinafine permeation after 10 days of permeation experiment, however one of them achieved an outstanding enhancement factor of 13.05 compared to the reference. Therefore, hydrophobins can be included in the list of potential enhancers for treatment of onychomycosis.

  13. Flexible intramedullary nailing in paediatric femoral fractures. A report of 73 cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flexible intramedullary nailing has emerged as an accepted procedure for paediatric femoral fractures. Present indications include all patients with femoral shaft fractures and open physis. Despite its excellent reported results, orthopaedic surgeons remain divided in opinion regarding its usefulness and the best material used for nails. We thus undertook a retrospective study of paediatric femoral fractures treated with titanium or stainless steel flexible nails at our institute with a minimum of 5 years follow up. Material and methods We included 73 femoral shaft fractures in 69 patients treated with retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing with a minimum follow up of 5 years. Final limb length discrepancy and any angular or rotational deformities were determined. Results Mean age at final follow up was 15.5 years (10-21 years). Mean follow up was 7.16 years (5.0-8.6 years). Titanium and stainless steel nails were used in 43 and 30 cases respectively. There were 51 midshaft, 17 proximal, and 5 distal fractures. All fractures united at an average of 11 weeks but asymptomatic malalignment and LLD were seen in 19% and 58% fractures respectively. LLD ranged from -3 cm to 1.5 cm. Other complications included superficial infection(2), proximal migration of nail(3), irritation at nail insertion site(5) and penetration of femoral neck with nail tip(1). There were 59 excellent, 10 satisfactory and 4 poor results. Conclusion Flexible intramedullary nailing is reliable and safe for treating paediatric femoral shaft fractures. It is relatively free of serious complications despite asymptomatic malalignment and LLD in significant percentage of fractures. PMID:22192682

  14. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Nonclassical State of a Massive Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, F.; Clark, J. B.; Simmonds, R. W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    By coupling a macroscopic mechanical oscillator to two microwave cavities, we simultaneously prepare and monitor a nonclassical steady state of mechanical motion. In each cavity, correlated radiation pressure forces induced by two coherent drives engineer the coupling between the quadratures of light and motion. We, first, demonstrate the ability to perform a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of a single mechanical quadrature at a rate that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rate, while avoiding measurement backaction by more than 13 dB. Second, we apply this measurement technique to independently verify the preparation of a squeezed state in the mechanical oscillator, resolving quadrature fluctuations 20% below the quantum noise.

  15. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  16. Heat control in opto-mechanical system using quantum non-classicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sushamana; Senwar, Subash

    2016-05-01

    Cooling of matter to the quantum ground state is a primary directive of quantum control. In other words, to extract entropy from a quantum system, efficient indirect quantum measurements may be implemented. The main objective is the cooling of the oscillator either to its motional ground state or to non-classical states, such as low-number Fock states, squeezed states or entangled states. It is shown that the use of quantum control procedure is better choice for even experimental realizations because it leads to a squeezed steady state with less than one phonon on average. The steady state of system corresponds to cooling of the system.

  17. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Nonclassical State of a Massive Object

    PubMed Central

    Lecocq, F.; Clark, J. B.; Simmonds, R.W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    By coupling a macroscopic mechanical oscillator to two microwave cavities, we simultaneously prepare and monitor a nonclassical steady state of mechanical motion. In each cavity, correlated radiation pressure forces induced by two coherent drives engineer the coupling between the quadratures of light and motion. We, first, demonstrate the ability to perform a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of a single mechanical quadrature at a rate that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rate, while avoiding measurement backaction by more than 13 dB. Second, we apply this measurement technique to independently verify the preparation of a squeezed state in the mechanical oscillator, resolving quadrature fluctuations 20% below the quantum noise. PMID:27057422

  18. Programs for computing abscissas and weights for classical and nonclassical Gaussian quadrature formulas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for computing Gaussian quadrature abscissas and weights are described. For the classical case the programs use Laguerre iteration to compute abscissas as zeros of orthogonal polynomials. The polynomials are evaluated from known recursion coefficients. The nonclassical case is handled similarly except that the recursion coefficients are computed by numerical integration. A sample problem, with input and output, is presented to illustrate the use of the programs. It computes the quadrature abscissas and weights associated with the weight function over the interval (0,1) for quadrature orders from 16 to 96 in increments of 8.

  19. Partial-measurement backaction and nonclassical weak values in a superconducting circuit.

    PubMed

    Groen, J P; Ristè, D; Tornberg, L; Cramer, J; de Groot, P C; Picot, T; Johansson, G; DiCarlo, L

    2013-08-30

    We realize indirect partial measurement of a transmon qubit in circuit quantum electrodynamics by interaction with an ancilla qubit and projective ancilla measurement with a dedicated readout resonator. Accurate control of the interaction and ancilla measurement basis allows tailoring the measurement strength and operator. The tradeoff between measurement strength and qubit backaction is characterized through the distortion of a qubit Rabi oscillation imposed by ancilla measurement in different bases. Combining partial and projective qubit measurements, we provide the solid-state demonstration of the correspondence between a nonclassical weak value and the violation of a Leggett-Garg inequality.

  20. Quantum nondemolition measurement of a nonclassical state of a massive object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Florent; Clark, Jeremy; Simmonds, Raymond; Aumentado, Jose; Teufel, John

    By coupling a macroscopic mechanical oscillator to two microwave cavities, we simultaneously prepare and monitor a nonclassical steady state of mechanical motion. In each cavity, correlated radiation pressure forces induced by two coherent drives engineer the coupling between the quadratures of light and motion. We first demonstrate the ability to perform a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of a single mechanical quadrature at a rate that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rate, while avoiding measurement backaction by more than 13dB. Second, we apply this measurement technique to independently verify the preparation of a squeezed state in the mechanical oscillator, resolving quadrature fluctuations 20% below the quantum noise.

  1. Nonclassical correlations between terahertz-bandwidth photons mediated by rotational quanta in hydrogen molecules.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Philip J; Erskine, Jennifer; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Hockett, Paul; Lausten, Rune; Spanner, Michael; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2015-03-15

    Quantum photonics offers much promise for the development of new technologies. The ability to control the interaction of light and matter at the level of single quantum excitations is a prerequisite for the construction of potentially powerful devices. Here we use the rotational levels of a room temperature ensemble of hydrogen molecules to couple two distinct optical modes at the single photon level using femtosecond pulses with 2 THz bandwidth. We observe photon correlations that violate a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, thereby verifying the creation of a nonclassical state. This work demonstrates the rich potential of molecules for use in ultrafast quantum photonic devices.

  2. Comparison of human hair and nail low-sulfur protein compositions on two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dekio, S; Jidoi, J

    1989-08-01

    Compositions of human normal hair and nail low-sulfur proteins were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis of their S-carboxymethylated (SCM) derivatives. Six SCM low-sulfur protein components with molecular weights (MWs) of 76,000, 73,000, 72,000, 64,000, 61,000 and 55,000 were common to the hair and nail. One component with a MW of 61,000 was specific to hair, and two components, both with a MW of 50,000, were specific to nail.

  3. Self-administered behavior modification to reduce nail biting: incorporating simple technology to ensure treatment integrity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Habitual behaviors, such as problematic nail biting, are a common target for self-managed behavior-modification programs. The current self-experiment used self-monitoring in conjunction with a self-managed differential-reinforcement procedure for the treatment of problematic nail biting. A simple picture-comparison procedure allowed an independent observer to assist in monitoring treatment progress and outcomes and to ensure treatment integrity. Results provide support that the overall treatment package was successful in decreasing the occurrence of nail biting. Moreover, the treatment-integrity procedure enabled full-day monitoring to take place with limited requirement of a secondary observer.

  4. Randomized Trial of Reamed and Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background: There remains a compelling biological rationale for both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Previous small trials have left the evidence for either approach inconclusive. We compared reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing with regard to the rates of reoperations and complications in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, blinded randomized trial of 1319 adults in whom a tibial shaft fracture was treated with either reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing. Perioperative care was standardized, and reoperations for nonunion before six months were disallowed. The primary composite outcome measured at twelve months postoperatively included bone-grafting, implant exchange, and dynamization in patients with a fracture gap of <1 cm. Infection and fasciotomy were considered as part of the composite outcome, irrespective of the postoperative gap. Results: One thousand two hundred and twenty-six participants (93%) completed one year of follow-up. Of these, 622 patients were randomized to reamed nailing and 604 patients were randomized to unreamed nailing. Among all patients, fifty-seven (4.6%) required implant exchange or bone-grafting because of nonunion. Among all patients, 105 in the reamed nailing group and 114 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary outcome event (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.15). In patients with closed fractures, forty-five (11%) of 416 in the reamed nailing group and sixty-eight (17%) of 410 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.96; p = 0.03). This difference was largely due to differences in dynamization. In patients with open fractures, sixty of 206 in the reamed nailing group and forty-six of 194 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.78; p = 0

  5. Minimizing the complications of intramedullary nailing for distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yaligod, Vishwanath; Rudrappa, Girish H.; Nagendra, Srinivas; Shivanna, Umesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The complications of intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures have a direct impact on ankle and hind foot function. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients. Unreamed nail was negotiated across the well reduced fracture till subchondral bone and fixed with 2 to 3 distal locking screws in different planes. Results Fracture union rate was 85%. Three out of 28 patients had malalignment. Mean ankle, hindfoot functional score was 85. Conclusion Complications can be minimized by impacting the unreamed nail till the subchondral bone while maintaining the fracture well reduced and by using multiple distal locking screws in different planes. PMID:24719527

  6. Biomechanical analysis of the cephalomedullary nail versus the trochanteric stabilizing plate for unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, David; Nicayenzi, Bruce; Kuzyk, Paul Rt; Machin, Alan; Bougherara, Habiba; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan

    2016-10-26

    Unstable intertrochanteric fractures are commonly treated with a cephalomedullary nail due to high failure rates with a sliding hip screw. The Omega3 Trochanteric Stabilizing Plate is a relatively new device that functions like a modified sliding hip screw with a proximal extension; however, its mechanical properties have not been evaluated. This study biomechanically compared a cephalomedullary nail, that is, Gamma3 Nail against the Omega3 plate. Unstable intertrochanteric fractures were created in 24 artificial femurs. Experimental groups were as follows: Nail (i.e. Gamma3 Nail) (n = 8), Plate A (i.e. Omega3 plate with four distal non-locking screws and no proximal locking screws) (n = 8), Plate B (i.e. Plate A plus five proximal locking screws) (n = 8), Plate C (i.e. Omega3 plate with three distal locking screws and no proximal locking screws) (n = 8), and Plate D (i.e. Plate C plus five proximal locking screws) (n = 8). All specimens were stiffness tested, while the Nail and Plate D groups were also strength tested. For lateral bending, Plate B was less stiff than the Nail (p = 0.001) and Plate A (p = 0.009). For torsion, Plate A was less stiff than Plate D (p = 0.020). For axial compression, the Nail was less stiff than Plate A (p = 0.036) and Plate B (p = 0.008). Axial strength for the Nail (5014 ± 308 N) was 66% higher than the Plate D construct (2940 ± 411 N) (p < 0.001). All Nails failed by partial or complete cutout through the femoral head and neck, but Plate D failed by varus collapse and deformation of the lag screw. When the cephalomedullary nail is clinically contra-indicated, this study supports the use of the Omega3 plate, since it had similar stiffness in three test modes to the Gamma3 Nail, but had lower strength. Stability of Omega3 plate constructs was not improved with locked fixation proximally or distally.

  7. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Moeller, Steffen; Suganthan, P.N.; Martinetz, Thomas

    2010-01-15

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  8. Spatial-Temporal Expression of Non-classical MHC Class I Molecules in the C57 Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiane; Shen, Yuqing; Li, Mingli; Lv, Dan; Zhang, Aifeng; Peng, Yaqin; Miao, Fengqin; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies clearly demonstrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression in the brain plays an important functional role in neural development and plasticity. A previous study from our laboratory demonstrated the temporal and spatial expression patterns of classical MHC class I molecules in the brain of C57 mice. Studies regarding non-classical MHC class I molecules remain limited. Here we examine the expression of non-classical MHC class I molecules in mouse central nervous system (CNS) during embryonic and postnatal developmental stages using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence. We find non-classical MHC class I molecules, M3/T22/Q1, are expressed in the cerebral cortex, neuroepithelium of the lateral ventricle, neuroepithelium of aquaeductus and developing cerebellum during embryonic developmental stages. During the postnatal period from P0 to adult, non-classical MHC class I mRNAs are detected in olfactory bulb, hippocampus, cerebellum and some nerve nuclei. Overall, the expression patterns of non-classical MHC class I molecules are similar to those of classical MHC class I molecules in the developing mouse brain. In addition, non-classical MHC class I molecules are present in the H2-K(b) and H2-D(b) double knock-out mice where their expression levels are greatly increased within the same locations as compared to wild type mice. The elucidation and discovery of the expression profile of MHC class I molecules during development is important for supporting an enhanced understanding of their physiological and potential pathological roles within the CNS.

  9. A locked hip screw-intramedullary nail (cephalomedullary nail) for the treatment of fractures of the proximal part of the femur combined with fractures of the femoral shaft.

    PubMed

    Alho, A; Ekeland, A; Grøgaard, B; Dokke, J R

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with complex femoral fractures (combined shaft and proximal femoral fractures) were treated with a modified Grosse-Kempf slotted locking nail (cephalomedullary nail), wherein two screws were inserted in the hip. Four types of complex, multifocal femoral fractures were represented in the series. Eleven of the femoral shaft fractures were secondary to a previous, internally fixed, not yet united hip fracture (type I). Ten comminuted peritrochanteric fractures occurred in normal bone (type II). Three similar fractures were pathologic because of metastasis. Two patients had an ipsilateral fracture of the femoral shaft and the trochanteric area (type III), and one of the shaft and the femoral neck (type IV). Locking was made static in 24 cases. Additional cerclage wiring was used in three type II fractures. Five complications were as follows: one cutting out of a screw in the femoral head, two fractures of the nail, one deep venous thrombosis, and one wound hematoma. Reoperations were two salvage operations using a new nail and one evacuation of hematoma. One patient with multiple injuries and four elderly patients died within 2 months. Eighteen patients with fractures in normal bone were followed for a median of 20 (6 to 37) months. All fractures united. Two nails were removed. The end result was excellent in ten patients, good in seven, and fair in one (2-cm shortening and 20-degree external rotation). We conclude that a locked intramedullary construct with locking screws in femoral neck and distal femur controls a complex fracture situation well.

  10. Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class 1 proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins can be expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins. To investigate whether bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins are expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins, and to assess the reactivity pattern of monoclonal antibodies with non-class...

  11. Generation of non-classical correlated photon pairs via a ladder-type atomic configuration: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-05-07

    We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~10(7)/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R = 48 ± 12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, the powers of pumps. We also make a theoretical analysis in detail and the theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with our experimental results.

  12. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  13. Isolation of yellow catfish β-actin promoter and generation of transgenic yellow catfish expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jiachun; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Song, Wei; Bao, Jie; Liang, Dong; Li, Junbo; Li, Kui; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Muzi; Cai, Yongxiang; Yang, Jiaxin; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2012-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) is one of the most important freshwater farmed species in China. However, its small size and slow growth rate limit its commercial value. Because genetic engineering has been a powerful tool to develop and improve fish traits for aquaculture, we performed transgenic research on yellow catfish in order to increase its size and growth rate. Performing PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned a genomic fragment comprising 5'-flanking sequence upstream of the initiation codon of β-actin gene in yellow catfish. The sequence is 1,017 bp long, containing the core sequence of proximal promoter including CAAT box, CArG motif and TATA box. Microinjecting the transgene construct Tg(beta-actin:eYFP) of the proximal promoter fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene into zebrafish and yellow catfish embryos, we found the promoter could drive the reporter to express transiently in both embryos at early development. Screening the offspring of five transgenic zebrafish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry) or 19 yellow catfish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(beta-actin:eYFP), we obtained three lines of transgenic zebrafish and one transgenic yellow catfish, respectively. Analyzing the expression patterns of the reporter genes in transgenic zebrafish (Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry)nju8/+) and transgenic yellow catfish (Tg(beta-actin:eYFP)nju11/+), we found the reporters were broadly expressed in both animals. In summary, we have established a platform to make transgenic yellow catfish using the proximal promoter of its own β-actin gene. The results will help us to create transgenic yellow catfish using "all yellow catfish" transgene constructs.

  14. Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Guillermondii: Emerging Pathogens in Nail Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fich, Felix; Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Pérez, Mario; Nauhm, Yalile; León, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails). Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%). Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%). While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%), those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%), those of spp. were 20 (4.3%) and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%). Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1%) were men and 331 (70,9%) were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of the

  15. On a General Formalism of Nonlinear Charge Coherent States, Their Quantum Statistics and Nonclassical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, F.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    In this paper, we will present a general formalism for constructing the nonlinear charge coherent states which in special case lead to the standard charge coherent states. The suQ(1, 1) algebra as a nonlinear deformed algebra realization of the introduced states is established. In addition, the corresponding even and odd nonlinear charge coherent states have also been introduced. The formalism has the potentiality to be applied to systems either with known "nonlinearity function" f(n) or solvable quantum system with known "discrete nondegenerate spectrum" en. As some physical appearances, a few known physical systems in the two mentioned categories have been considered. Finally, since the construction of nonclassical states is a central topic of quantum optics, nonclassical features and quantum statistical properties of the introduced states have been investigated by evaluating single- and two-mode squeezing, su(1, 1)-squeezing, Mandel parameter and antibunching effect (via g-correlation function) as well as some of their generalized forms we have introduced in the present paper.

  16. Inability of the entropy vector method to certify nonclassicality in linelike causal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, Mirjam; Colbeck, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Bell's theorem shows that our intuitive understanding of causation must be overturned in light of quantum correlations. Nevertheless, quantum mechanics does not permit signaling and hence a notion of cause remains. Understanding this notion is not only important at a fundamental level, but also for technological applications such as key distribution and randomness expansion. It has recently been shown that a useful way to decide which classical causal structures could give rise to a given set of correlations is to use entropy vectors. These are vectors whose components are the entropies of all subsets of the observed variables in the causal structure. The entropy vector method employs causal relationships among the variables to restrict the set of possible entropy vectors. Here, we consider whether the same approach can lead to useful certificates of nonclassicality within a given causal structure. Surprisingly, we find that for a family of causal structures that includes the usual bipartite Bell structure they do not. For all members of this family, no function of the entropies of the observed variables gives such a certificate, in spite of the existence of nonclassical correlations. It is therefore necessary to look beyond entropy vectors to understand cause from a quantum perspective.

  17. Non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons from a mechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, Ralf; Hong, Sungkun; Norte, Richard A.; Slater, Joshua A.; Shang, Juying; Krause, Alexander G.; Anant, Vikas; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Gröblacher, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Interfacing a single photon with another quantum system is a key capability in modern quantum information science. It allows quantum states of matter, such as spin states of atoms, atomic ensembles or solids, to be prepared and manipulated by photon counting and, in particular, to be distributed over long distances. Such light-matter interfaces have become crucial to fundamental tests of quantum physics and realizations of quantum networks. Here we report non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons—the quanta of mechanical motion—from a nanomechanical resonator. We implement a full quantum protocol involving initialization of the resonator in its quantum ground state of motion and subsequent generation and read-out of correlated photon-phonon pairs. The observed violation of a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is clear evidence for the non-classical nature of the mechanical state generated. Our results demonstrate the availability of on-chip solid-state mechanical resonators as light-matter quantum interfaces. The performance we achieved will enable studies of macroscopic quantum phenomena as well as applications in quantum communication, as quantum memories and as quantum transducers.

  18. Immunomodulation of classical and non-classical HLA molecules by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2016-05-01

    Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/down-regulation of cell surface molecules. Additionally, ionizing radiation may induce the release of "danger signals" which may, in turn lead to cellular and molecular responses by the immune system. This immunomodulatory action of ionizing radiation highlights the importance of the combined use (radiotherapy plus immunotherapy) for cancer healing. Major histocompatibility complex antigens (also called Human Leukocyte Antigens, HLA in humans) are one of those molecules whose expression is modulated after irradiation. This review summarizes the modulatory properties of ionizing radiation on the expression of HLA class I (classical and non-classical) and class II molecules, with special emphasis in non-classical HLA-I molecules.

  19. "Nonclassical" secretion of annexin A2 to the lumenal side of the enterocyte brush border membrane.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; van Deurs, Bo; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-12-16

    Annexin A2 is a member of the annexin family of Ca(2+)-dependent lipid binding proteins and believed to be engaged in membrane transport processes in a number of cell types. In small intestinal enterocytes, we localized annexin A2 to the brush border region, where it was found mainly on the lumenal side of the microvilli, showing an apical secretion by a "nonclassical" mechanism. In addition, annexin A2 was associated with surface-connected, deep apical tubules in the apical terminal web region and with an underlying pleiomorphic, tubulo-vesicular compartment (subapical compartment/multivesicular bodies). By subcellular fractionation, the 36 kDa full-length form of annexin A2 was approximately equally distributed between the Mg(2+)-precipitated fraction (containing intracellular and basolateral membranes) and the microvillar membrane fraction. In addition, a 33 kDa molecular form of annexin A2 was seen in the latter fraction that could be generated from the full-length annexin A2 by digestion with trypsin. Taken together, the results suggest that annexin A2 acts in exocytic apical membrane trafficking and is proteolytically cleaved in situ by pancreatic proteinases once it has become externalized to the lumenal side of the brush border membrane. On the basis of its well-known membrane fusogenic properties, we propose a model for the nonclassical membrane translocation of annexin A2.

  20. Non-classical amine recognition evolved in a large clade of olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Tachie-Baffour, Yaw; Liu, Zhikai; Baldwin, Maude W; Kruse, Andrew C; Liberles, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic amines are important signaling molecules, and the structural basis for their recognition by G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) is well understood. Amines are also potent odors, with some activating olfactory trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Here, we report that teleost TAARs evolved a new way to recognize amines in a non-classical orientation. Chemical screens de-orphaned eleven zebrafish TAARs, with agonists including serotonin, histamine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, and agmatine. Receptors from different clades contact ligands through aspartates on transmembrane α-helices III (canonical Asp3.32) or V (non-canonical Asp5.42), and diamine receptors contain both aspartates. Non-classical monoamine recognition evolved in two steps: an ancestral TAAR acquired Asp5.42, gaining diamine sensitivity, and subsequently lost Asp3.32. Through this transformation, the fish olfactory system dramatically expanded its capacity to detect amines, ecologically significant aquatic odors. The evolution of a second, alternative solution for amine detection by olfactory receptors highlights the tremendous structural versatility intrinsic to GPCRs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10441.001 PMID:26519734

  1. New fundamental evidence of non-classical structure in the combination of natural concepts.

    PubMed

    Aerts, D; Sozzo, S; Veloz, T

    2016-01-13

    We recently performed cognitive experiments on conjunctions and negations of two concepts with the aim of investigating the combination problem of concepts. Our experiments confirmed the deviations (conceptual vagueness, underextension, overextension etc.) from the rules of classical (fuzzy) logic and probability theory observed by several scholars in concept theory, while our data were successfully modelled in a quantum-theoretic framework developed by ourselves. In this paper, we isolate a new, very stable and systematic pattern of violation of classicality that occurs in concept combinations. In addition, the strength and regularity of this non-classical effect leads us to believe that it occurs at a more fundamental level than the deviations observed up to now. It is our opinion that we have identified a deep non-classical mechanism determining not only how concepts are combined but, rather, how they are formed. We show that this effect can be faithfully modelled in a two-sector Fock space structure, and that it can be exactly explained by assuming that human thought is the superposition of two processes, a 'logical reasoning', guided by 'logic', and a 'conceptual reasoning', guided by 'emergence', and that the latter generally prevails over the former. All these findings provide new fundamental support to our quantum-theoretic approach to human cognition.

  2. Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia of hair, teeth, and nails: case reports and review.

    PubMed Central

    Chitty, L S; Dennis, N; Baraitser, M

    1996-01-01

    We report two families with the Witkop "tooth and nail syndrome". This term is a misnomer, as the hair was mildly involved in the original case reports and in the families reported here. Images PMID:8863167

  3. Different physicochemical properties of antimycotic agents are relevant for penetration into and through human nails.

    PubMed

    Neubert, R H H; Gensbügel, C; Jäckel, A; Wartewig, S

    2006-07-01

    This article reports the characterization of the physicochemical properties of two important antifungal topical drugs, amorolfine and ciclopirox. Furthermore, the release of the drugs from commercial lacquer formulations for treatment of onychomycosis was studied using the online FTIR-ATR technique. Based on the physicochemical background of these two drugs and their release from commercial lacquer formulations for treatment of onychomycosis, the suitability of these drugs for optimized local antifungal therapy to human nails is discussed. Amorolfine appears to be more suitable for drug delivery to human nails because it penetrates into the nails via the hydrophilic pathway. Furthermore amorolfine penetrates very well into fungal cells, due to the pH value of the nail, as well as the pKa value of this antimycotic agent and the lipophilic properties of its base form.

  4. Medically important fungi found in hallux nails of university students from Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María Inés; Caicedo, Luz Dary

    2007-06-01

    The presence of medically important fungi was studied in hallux nails scrapings obtained from 504 students (204 males, 300 females) of three universities in Cali. Specimens were examined by direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. Medically important fungi were found in 49 (9.7%) students, 24 (4.8%) had onychomycosis while the rest did not have nail lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly isolated fungi in students with lesions, where as T. mentagrophytes predominated in healthy nails. Most of the students with fungi were males. The prevalence of fungi was higher in individuals between 26 and 35 years. No association was observed between fungi and practicing sports or undergoing pedicures. These results suggest that dermatophytes can be found in healthy hallux nails, which can be reservoirs of pathogenic fungi.

  5. Comparison between lengthening over nail and conventional Ilizarov lengthening: a prospective randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, Timour F; Ghaly, Nabil A M; Mahran, Mahmoud A; Al Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed; Emara, Khaled M

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare lengthening over an intramedullary nail to the conventional Ilizarov method with regard to percentage length increase, external fixation index, consolidation index and incidence of complications. This is a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty-one limbs in 28 patients were included in the study; 15 were lengthened over an intramedullary nail, and 16 limbs were lengthened conventionally. The mean duration of external fixation in the lengthening over nail group was 52.2 days compared to 180.4 days in the conventional group. There was higher incidence of complications in the conventional method group. In comparison with conventional Ilizarov lengthening, lengthening over an intramedullary nail offers a shorter period of external fixation and fewer complications overall, but there is a high incidence of deep intramedullary infection which is serious.

  6. Refractures of the paediatric forearm with the intramedullary nail in situ

    PubMed Central

    van Egmond, Pim W; van der Sluijs, Hans A; van Royen, Barend J; Saouti, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Forearm fractures in children are common. When conservative treatment fails, internal fixation with Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing (ESIN) become the first choice in the operative treatment of diaphyseal forearm shaft fractures. Refractures with the intramedullary nail in situ are known to occur but formal guidelines to guide management in such fractures are lacking. We present a well-documented case of a radius midshaft refracture in a 12-year-old boy with the intramedullary nail in situ, managed by closed reduction. Literature is reviewed for this type of complication, the treatment of 30 similar cases is discussed and a treatment strategy is defined. The refracture of the paediatric forearm fracture with the intramedullary nail in situ is a rare, but probably under recognised complication which is observed in approximately 2.3% of the study population. Closed reduction may be considered in these cases. PMID:24068378

  7. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  8. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  9. A Biomechanical Assessment of Hand/Arm Force with Pneumatic Nail Gun Actuation Systems.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Brian D; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen D

    2014-09-01

    A biomechanical model is presented, and combined with measurements of tip press force, to estimate total user hand force associated with two pneumatic nail gun trigger systems. The contact actuation trigger (CAT) can fire a nail when the user holds the trigger depressed first and then "bumps" the nail gun tip against the workpiece. With a full sequential actuation trigger (SAT) the user must press the tip against the workpiece prior to activating the trigger. The SAT is demonstrably safer in reducing traumatic injury risk, but increases the duration (and magnitude) of tip force exertion. Time integrated (cumulative) hand force was calculated for a single user from measurements of the tip contact force with the workpiece and transfer time between nails as inputs to a static model of the nail gun and workpiece in two nailing task orientations. The model shows the hand force dependence upon the orientation of the workpiece in addition to the trigger system. Based on standard time allowances from work measurement systems (i.e. Methods-Time Measurement - 1) it is proposed that efficient application of hand force with the SAT in maintaining tip contact can reduce force exertion attributable to the sequential actuation trigger to 2-8% (horizontal nailing) and 9-20% (vertical nailing) of the total hand/arm force. The present model is useful for considering differences in cumulative hand/arm force exposure between the SAT and CAT systems and may explain the appeal of the CAT trigger in reducing the user's perception of muscular effort.

  10. Permanent antibiotic impregnated intramedullary nail in diabetic limb salvage: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jason B; Lowery, Nicholas J; Burns, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    Managing complications after attempted hind foot and ankle arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation is a challenge. This situation becomes more problematic in the patient with diabetes mellitus and multiple comorbidities. Infection and subsequent osteomyelitis can be a devastating, limb threatening complication associated with these procedures. The surgeon must manage both the infectious process and the skeletal instability concurrently. This article provides a literature review and detailed management strategies for a modified technique of employing antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate-coated intramedullary nailing.

  11. A Biomechanical Assessment of Hand/Arm Force with Pneumatic Nail Gun Actuation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian D.; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    A biomechanical model is presented, and combined with measurements of tip press force, to estimate total user hand force associated with two pneumatic nail gun trigger systems. The contact actuation trigger (CAT) can fire a nail when the user holds the trigger depressed first and then “bumps” the nail gun tip against the workpiece. With a full sequential actuation trigger (SAT) the user must press the tip against the workpiece prior to activating the trigger. The SAT is demonstrably safer in reducing traumatic injury risk, but increases the duration (and magnitude) of tip force exertion. Time integrated (cumulative) hand force was calculated for a single user from measurements of the tip contact force with the workpiece and transfer time between nails as inputs to a static model of the nail gun and workpiece in two nailing task orientations. The model shows the hand force dependence upon the orientation of the workpiece in addition to the trigger system. Based on standard time allowances from work measurement systems (i.e. Methods-Time Measurement - 1) it is proposed that efficient application of hand force with the SAT in maintaining tip contact can reduce force exertion attributable to the sequential actuation trigger to 2–8% (horizontal nailing) and 9–20% (vertical nailing) of the total hand/arm force. The present model is useful for considering differences in cumulative hand/arm force exposure between the SAT and CAT systems and may explain the appeal of the CAT trigger in reducing the user’s perception of muscular effort. PMID:26321780

  12. Pregnancy-associated acquired arteriovenous malformation of the nail unit: a novel cause of localized erythronychia.

    PubMed

    Rutnin, Suthinee; Nguyen, Jennifer V; Miller, Christopher J; DeHoratius, Danielle; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-11-01

    Localized longitudinal erythronychia describes a solitary red streak limited to a single nail unit. Localized longitudinal erythronychia can be caused by both benign and malignant entities. Most commonly, the cause is a benign process, such as an onychopapilloma. We report a case of an acquired subungual arteriovenous malformation that presented as localized longitudinal erythronychia during pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of localized longitudinal erythronychia arising from a pregnancy-associated arteriovenous malformation of the nail unit.

  13. Nonclassical acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kentzer, C. P.

    1976-01-01

    A statistical approach to sound propagation is considered in situations where, due to the presence of large gradients of properties of the medium, the classical (deterministic) treatment of wave motion is inadequate. Mathematical methods for wave motions not restricted to small wavelengths (analogous to known methods of quantum mechanics) are used to formulate a wave theory of sound in nonuniform flows. Nonlinear transport equations for field probabilities are derived for the limiting case of noninteracting sound waves and it is postulated that such transport equations, appropriately generalized, may be used to predict the statistical behavior of sound in arbitrary flows.

  14. In-vitro permeability of the human nail and of a keratin membrane from bovine hooves: penetration of chloramphenicol from lipophilic vehicles and a nail lacquer.

    PubMed

    Mertin, D; Lippold, B C

    1997-03-01

    Lipophilic vehicles and especially nail lacquers are more appropriate for topical application on the nail than aqueous systems because of their better adhesion. This work has, therefore, studied the penetration through the human nail plate of the model compound chloramphenicol from the lipophilic vehicles medium chain triglycerides and n-octanol and from a lacquer based on quaternary poly(methyl methacrylates) (Eudragit RL). The results were compared with data obtained with a keratin membrane from bovine hooves. If the swelling of the nail plate or the hoof membrane is not altered by use of lipophilic vehicles, the maximum flux of the drug is independent of its solubility in the vehicle and is the same as that from a saturated aqueous solution. These vehicles are not able to enter the hydrophilic keratin membrane because of their non-polar character and so cannot change the solubility of the penetrating substance in the barrier. If the concentration of the drug in the nail lacquer is sufficiently high, the maximum flux through both barriers equals that from aqueous vehicles or even exceeds it because of the formation of a supersaturated system. Penetration through the nail plate follows first order kinetics after a lag-time of 400 h. The course of penetration through the hoof membrane is initially membrane-controlled and later becomes a matrix-controlled process because of the membrane's greater permeability. Chloramphenicol is dissolved in the lacquer up to a concentration of 31%. The relative release rates from these solution matrices are independent of the drug concentration but they decrease on changing to a suspension matrix. These results show that drug flux is independent of the character of the vehicle and that penetration of the drug is initially membrane-controlled and changes to being matrix-controlled as the drug content of the lacquer decreases.

  15. Evaluation of Laser-Assisted Trans-Nail Drug Delivery with Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Tsai, Ting-Yen; Shen, Su-Chin; Ng, Chau Yee; Lee, Ya-Ju; Lee, Jiann-Der; Yang, Chih-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The nail provides a functional protection to the fingertips and surrounding tissue from external injuries. The nail plate consists of three layers including dorsal, intermediate, and ventral layers. The dorsal layer consists of compact, hard keratins, limiting topical drug delivery through the nail. In this study, we investigate the application of fractional CO2 laser that produces arrays of microthermal ablation zones (MAZs) to facilitate drug delivery in the nails. We utilized optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time monitoring of the laser–skin tissue interaction, sparing the patient from an invasive surgical sampling procedure. The time-dependent OCT intensity variance was used to observe drug diffusion through an induced MAZ array. Subsequently, nails were treated with cream and liquid topical drugs to investigate the feasibility and diffusion efficacy of laser-assisted drug delivery. Our results show that fractional CO2 laser improves the effectiveness of topical drug delivery in the nail plate and that OCT could potentially be used for in vivo monitoring of the depth of laser penetration as well as real-time observations of drug delivery. PMID:27973451

  16. Backout of the helical blade of proximal femoral nail antirotation and accompanying fracture nonunion.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Takahiro; Lee, Sang Yang; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fukui, Tomoaki; Kawakami, Yohei; Akisue, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2012-08-01

    This article describes a case of backout of the helical blade, a rare complication of proximal femoral nail antirotation. A 31-year-old man had sustained a trochanteric fracture of his right femur. Fracture fixation using proximal femoral nail antirotation and autologous bone grafting 7 months later were performed at another hospital. However, bony union was not obtained, and the patient's pain and limp persisted. Therefore, he presented to the current authors. A radiograph taken at presentation revealed backout of the helical blade and fracture nonunion. A radiograph taken 1 month later showed a more advanced backout of the helical blade. The authors performed exchange nailing supplemented with transplantation of peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and autologous bone grafting. The proximal femoral nail antirotation was revised to a long gamma 3 nail, and a U-lag screw was used to obtain better stability. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient regained ambulation without pain or support at 12 weeks postoperatively. Radiographic bony union was completed 9 months postoperatively. At 1-year follow-up, he could run and stand on the previously injured leg and had returned to work. Backout of the helical blade should be considered as a possible complication of proximal femoral nail antirotation. Incomplete fixation of the helical blade is the possible reason for backout. The use of a helical blade in young patients may cause difficulty in insertion and result in incomplete fixation.

  17. An innovative polysaccharide nanobased nail formulation for improvement of onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernanda C; Rosso, Roberta S; Cruz, Letícia; Beck, Ruy C R; Silva, Cristiane B

    2017-03-30

    Tioconazole-loaded nanocapsule suspensions and its coating with a cationic polymer were developed for nail drug delivery. The colloidal systems presented a nanometric size around 155nm for uncoated nanoparticles and 162nm for those with the cationic coating, with negative and positive zeta potential values, respectively. Both nanosuspensions showed drug content close to theoretical values (1mgmL(-1)), association efficiency close to 100% (HPLC) and were able to control tioconazol release. The developed formulations showed in vitro antifungal activity (agar diffusion method) against C. albicans. The cationic nanocapsules were considered bioadhesive, showed higher viscosity and were chosen to be incorporated into an ungueal formulation. Pullulan nanobased nail formulation showed adequate viscosity for nail application and drug content close to the theoretical values. It was equivalent to the commercial formulation Trosid(®) in preventing nail infection by T. rubrum in an in vitro onychomycosis model. The nanocapsule suspensions and Pullulan nanobased nail formulation showed lower irritant potential than the commercial formulation and than free drug in an in vitro evaluation. Pullulan nanobased nail formulation is promising for the treatment of onychomycosis.

  18. Investigation of different formulations for drug delivery through the nail plate.

    PubMed

    Vejnovic, Ivana; Simmler, Linda; Betz, Gabriele

    2010-02-15

    Topical therapies for nail diseases are limited by keratinized cells in the human nail plate. An optimal permeation enhancer would not only improve drug delivery through the nail plate, but would also open new possibilities for treating neighboring target sites if systemic circulation is reached. The aim of the present work was to identify permeation enhancers and to improve the understanding of physicochemical parameters that influence drug permeation. Caffeine served as the model drug, and formulations were prepared in water and 20% (v/v) ethanol/water solutions. Tested enhancers were urea, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), docusate sodium salt (DSS), boric acid, and fungal proteins, such as hydrophobins. Permeability studies employed cadaver nails in modified Franz-type diffusion cells. The permeability coefficient of caffeine in ethanol/water was determined to be 1.56 E-08 cm/s and was improved to 2.27 E-08 cm/s by the addition of NAC. Formulations containing either methanol or DMSO showed the highest permeability coefficients in the range of 5-7.5 E-08 cm/s. Enhancers could be classified according to their permeation enhancement: methanol>class II hydrophobins>DMSO>followed by class I hydrophobins and urea. Ethanol at a concentration of 20% (v/v) in water did not influence swelling of nail samples. Hydrophobins are suggested to be efficient in drug delivery through the nail plate.

  19. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  20. Retrograde intramedullary nails with distal screws locked to the nail have higher fatigue strength than locking plates in the treatment of supracondylar femoral fractures: A cadaver-based laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, M; McDonald, E; Buckley, J; Kandemir, U

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a new intramedullary locking nail that allows the distal interlocking screws to be locked to the nail. We compared fixation using this new implant with fixation using either a conventional nail or a locking plate in a laboratory simulation of an osteoporotic fracture of the distal femur. A total of 15 human cadaver femora were used to simulate an AO 33-A3 fracture pattern. Paired specimens compared fixation using either a locking or non-locking retrograde nail, and using either a locking retrograde nail or a locking plate. The constructs underwent cyclical loading to simulate single-leg stance up to 125,000 cycles. Axial and torsional stiffness and displacement, cycles to failure and modes of failure were recorded for each specimen. When compared with locking plate constructs, locking nail constructs had significantly longer mean fatigue life (75,800 cycles (SD 33,900) vs 12,800 cycles (SD 6100); p = 0.007) and mean axial stiffness (220 N/mm (SD 80) vs 70 N/mm (SD 18); p = 0.005), but lower mean torsional stiffness (2.5 Nm/° (SD 0.9) vs 5.1 Nm/° (SD 1.5); p = 0.008). In addition, in the nail group the mode of failure was either cut-out of the distal screws or breakage of nails, and in the locking plate group breakage of the plate was always the mode of failure. Locking nail constructs had significantly longer mean fatigue life than non-locking nail constructs (78,900 cycles (SD 25,600) vs 52,400 cycles (SD 22,500); p = 0.04). The new locking retrograde femoral nail showed better stiffness and fatigue life than locking plates, and superior fatigue life to non-locking nails, which may be advantageous in elderly patients.

  1. Low-Velocity Nail-Gun Injuries to the Interventricular Septum: Report of Two Cases, One in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Kara L.; Iguidbashian, John P.; Kyser, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-gun injury to the heart is rare. Nail-gun injury to the interventricular septum is rarer: we could find only 5 reported cases, and none involving a child. We report 2 additional cases, in which nails penetrated the interventricular septum without causing acute pericardial tamponade, heart block, or shunt across the septum. Transesophageal echocardiography provides a dynamic way to evaluate the patient preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. In the cases reported here, both the adult with multiple interventricular nails and the child with a single nail underwent foreign-object removal via median sternotomy. The child needed cardiopulmonary bypass for removal of the nail. There were no short-term or long-term sequelae from these interventricular septal injuries. PMID:26413027

  2. Removal of a femoral nail with osseous overgrowth at the end-cap: A navigated and cannulated minimally invasive technique.

    PubMed

    Marintschev, Ivan; Rausch, Sascha; Fujak, Albert; Klos, Kajetan; Hofmann, Gunther O; Gras, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Intramedullary nail removal can be demanding, especially in cases of implant breakage or bony overgrowth at the end-cap, if the exact insertion depth of the nail is neglected in the index surgery. In the presented case, two challenging nail removals were necessary. The first was performed in a re-nailing procedure due to a pseudarthrosis with implant breakage, and the second was performed during hardware removal after fracture healing in a situation where there was deep intramedullary placement of the exchange nail. For the second implant removal a minimally invasive approach based on instrument placements over a navigated guide-wire was used to reduce the iatrogenic morbidity associated with an extensive open approach to the nail and to decrease the radiation exposure for the patient and the operating team.

  3. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  4. Pigmented Onychomatricoma: A Rare Pigmented Nail Unit Tumor Presenting as Longitudinal Melanonychia That Has Potential for Misdiagnosis as Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wynes, Jacob; Wanat, Karolyn A; Huen, Auris; Mlodzienski, Alan J; Rubin, Adam I

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented onychomatricoma is a rare nail unit tumor that can clinically mimic nail unit melanoma. We report the case of a 63-year-old male with new-onset longitudinal melanonychia involving his right second toe. An excisional biopsy was performed and demonstrated pigmented onychomatricoma. We present this case to alert clinicians of this rare nail unit tumor and the importance of clinicopathologic correlation to avoid misdiagnosis.

  5. Ranking Gene Ontology terms for predicting non-classical secretory proteins in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Lin

    2012-11-07

    Protein secretion is an important biological process for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several sequence-based methods mainly rely on utilizing various types of complementary features to design accurate classifiers for predicting non-classical secretory proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) terms are increasing informative in predicting protein functions. However, the number of used GO terms is often very large. For example, there are 60,020 GO terms used in the prediction method Euk-mPLoc 2.0 for subcellular localization. This study proposes a novel approach to identify a small set of m top-ranked GO terms served as the only type of input features to design a support vector machine (SVM) based method Sec-GO to predict non-classical secretory proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To evaluate the Sec-GO method, two existing methods and their used datasets are adopted for performance comparisons. The Sec-GO method using m=436 GO terms yields an independent test accuracy of 96.7% on mammalian proteins, much better than the existing method SPRED (82.2%) which uses frequencies of tri-peptides and short peptides, secondary structure, and physicochemical properties as input features of a random forest classifier. Furthermore, when applying to Gram-positive bacterial proteins, the Sec-GO with m=158 GO terms has a test accuracy of 94.5%, superior to NClassG+ (90.0%) which uses SVM with several feature types, comprising amino acid composition, di-peptides, physicochemical properties and the position specific weighting matrix. Analysis of the distribution of secretory proteins in a GO database indicates the percentage of the non-classical secretory proteins annotated by GO is larger than that of classical secretory proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Of the m top-ranked GO features, the top-four GO terms are all annotated by such subcellular locations as GO:0005576 (Extracellular region). Additionally, the method Sec-GO is easily implemented and its web tool of

  6. Reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, A-Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jiang; Guo, Wei-Jun; Wang, Xin-Hua; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhao, You-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Intramedullary nailing is commonly used for treating femoral shaft fractures, one of the most common long bone fractures in adults. The reamed intramedullary nail is considered the standard implant for femoral fractures. This meta-analysis was performed to verify the superiority of reamed intramedullary nailing over unreamed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the femoral shaft in adults. Subgroup analysis of implant failure and secondary procedure was also performed. Methods: Electronic literature databases were used to identify relevant publications and included MEDLINE (Ovid interface), EMBASE (Ovid interface), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Wiley Online Library). The versions available on January 30, 2016, were utilized. Only human studies, which were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials, were included. Two authors independently evaluated the quality of original research publications and extracted data from the studies that met the criteria. Results: Around 8 randomized controlled trials involving 1078 patients were included. Reamed intramedullary nailing was associated with shorter time to consolidation of the fracture (SMD = –0.62, 95% CI = –0.89 to –0.35, P < 0.00001), lower secondary procedure rate (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.62, P = 0.003), lower nonunion rate (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05–0.40, P < 0.01), and lower delayed-union rate (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.07–0.49, P < 0.01) compared to unreamed intramedullary nailing. The 2 groups showed no significant differences in risk of implant failure (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.14–1.74, P = 0.27), mortality risk (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.19–4.68, P = 0.94), risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; OR = 1.55, 95% CI 0.36–6.57, P = 0.55), or blood loss (SMD = 0.57, 95% CI = –0.22 to 1.36, P = 0.15). Conclusion: Reamed intramedullary nailing

  7. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  8. Genotype, phenotype and hormonal levels correlation in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Einaudi, S; Napolitano, E; Restivo, F; Motta, G; Baldi, M; Tuli, G; Grosso, E; Migone, N; Menegatti, E; Manieri, C

    2011-10-01

    Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is a morbid condition sustained by the reduced function of one of the enzymes involved in the adrenal steroid biosynthesis pathway, mainly the 21-hydroxylase. Different degrees of enzyme activity impairment determine different clinical pictures, with childhood or post-pubertal onset. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between genotype, phenotype, and adrenal hormonal levels in a group of 66 patients affected by NCAH attending outpatient pediatric or endocrinological Clinics. Our findings show that age at pubarche/menarche was significantly younger, height SD score) and Δ bone age-chronological age were significantly higher in patients with a more severe enzyme activity impairment, while cutaneous androgenization and menstrual irregularities in post-pubertal girls were not related to the grading of genotype.

  9. Contemporary commercial music (CCM) survey: who's teaching what in nonclassical music.

    PubMed

    LoVetri, Jeannette L; Weekly, Edrie Means

    2003-06-01

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in and demand for training in a wide variety of nonclassical music--contemporary commercial music (CCM)--and most particularly for music theater. A survey of singing teachers was completed to elucidate their training, education, and experience with and methods of teaching CCM. Teachers were at colleges, universities, and conservatories as well as in private studios, both nationally and in several foreign countries. A substantial percentage of those teaching CCM had neither formal education in teaching it nor professional experience. Many of the respondents indicated conflict between classical and CCM styles. Respondents were generally familiar with voice science and voice medicine as well as certain CCM terminology. Teachers expressed an interest in obtaining more information, with an emphasis on healthy vocal production. These results are discussed, as well as implications for the singing teacher who desires specific training to teach CCM.

  10. Signatures of nonlinear optomechanics and engineering of nonclassical mechanical steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkje, Kjetil

    2013-03-01

    Motivated by recent improvements in coupling strength between light and mechanical motion, we study the strong coupling regime of cavity optomechanics theoretically. We focus on the regime where the optomechanical coupling rate is still small compared to the mechanical resonance frequency, but where the mechanically induced Kerr nonlinearity is significant. The response of the system to an optical drive is characterized. The average photon number in the cavity as a function of drive detuning can feature several peaks due to multi-photon transitions. Furthermore, we show that by optically driving the system at multiple frequencies, multi-photon transitions can facilitate the engineering of nonclassical steady states of the mechanical oscillator. The author acknowledges financial support from The Danish Council for Independent Research under the Sapere Aude program.

  11. Synaptic and Network Mechanisms of Sparse and Reliable Visual Cortical Activity during Nonclassical Receptive Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Bilal; Krause, Matthew R.; Duque, Alvaro; Yu, Yuguo; Touryan, Jonathan; Mazer, James A.; McCormick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY During natural vision, the entire visual field is stimulated by images rich in spatiotemporal structure. Although many visual system studies restrict stimuli to the classical receptive field (CRF), it is known that costimulation of the CRF and the surrounding nonclassical receptive field (nCRF) increases neuronal response sparseness. The cellular and network mechanisms underlying increased response sparseness remain largely unexplored. Here we show that combined CRF + nCRF stimulation increases the sparseness, reliability, and precision of spiking and membrane potential responses in classical regular spiking (RSC) pyramidal neurons of cat primary visual cortex. Conversely, fast-spiking interneurons exhibit increased activity and decreased selectivity during CRF + nCRF stimulation. The increased sparseness and reliability of RSC neuron spiking is associated with increased inhibitory barrages and narrower visually evoked synaptic potentials. Our experimental observations were replicated with a simple computational model, suggesting that network interactions among neuronal subtypes ultimately sharpen recurrent excitation, producing specific and reliable visual responses. PMID:20152117

  12. Model Condensation for Non-Classically Damped SYSTEMS—PART i: Static Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Z.-Q.; Jung, Y.; Selvam, R. P.

    2003-09-01

    Three condensation methods for the model reduction of non-classically damped systems are presented. One is defined in the displacement space and the other two are defined in the state space. Since the damping and inertia forces on all degrees of freedom of the full model are ignored, these algorithms are considered as the static condensation. One advantage of these condensation methods is that the explicit forms of the reduced stiffness, mass, and damping matrices can be directly obtained from the reduced model. These explicit reduced system matrices are very useful in further dynamic analyses. These approaches are compared from the assumptions, condensation matrices, computational work and the reduced system matrices. With the introduction of the generalised inverse of matrix, the method defined in the displacement space is extended and one variant is derived. Numerical examples, one three-degree-of-freedom discrete system and one floating raft isolation system, are applied to demonstrate the features of these methods.

  13. Interferometry with non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    van Frank, S; Negretti, A; Berrada, T; Bücker, R; Montangero, S; Schaff, J-F; Schumm, T; Calarco, T; Schmiedmayer, J

    2014-05-30

    The Ramsey interferometer is a prime example of precise control at the quantum level. It is usually implemented using internal states of atoms, molecules or ions, for which powerful manipulation procedures are now available. Whether it is possible to control external degrees of freedom of more complex, interacting many-body systems at this level remained an open question. Here we demonstrate a two-pulse Ramsey-type interferometer for non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap. The control sequences used to manipulate the condensate wavefunction are obtained from optimal control theory and are directly optimized to maximize the interferometric contrast. They permit a fast manipulation of the atomic ensemble compared to the intrinsic decay processes and many-body dephasing effects. This allows us to reach an interferometric contrast of 92% in the experimental implementation.

  14. Entanglement swapping of noisy states: A kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Brukner, Caslav; Buzek, Vladimir; Zukowski, Marek

    2005-10-15

    We address the question as to whether an entangled state that satisfies local realism will give a violation of the same after entanglement swapping in a suitable scenario. We consider such a possibility as a kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality. Importantly, it will indicate that checking for violation of local realism, in the state obtained after entanglement swapping, can be a method for detecting entanglement in the input state of the swapping procedure. We investigate various entanglement swapping schemes, which involve mixed initial states. The strength of violation of local realism by the state obtained after entanglement swapping is compared with the one for the input states. We obtain a kind of superadditivity of violation of local realism for Werner states, consequent upon entanglement swapping involving Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-state measurements. We also discuss whether entanglement swapping of specific states may be used in quantum repeaters with a substantially reduced need to perform the entanglement distillation step.

  15. Non-classical crystallization of silicon thin films during hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Soo; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Da-Seul; Kim, Kun-Su; Park, Soon-Won; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The deposition behavior of silicon films by hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) was approached by non-classical crystallization, where the building block of deposition is a nanoparticle generated in the gas phase of the reactor. The puzzling phenomenon of the formation of an amorphous incubation layer on glass could be explained by the liquid-like property of small charged nanoparticles (CNPs), which are generated in the initial stage of the HWCVD process. Using the liquid-like property of small CNPs, homo-epitaxial growth as thick as 150 nm could be successfully grown on a silicon wafer at 600 °C under the processing condition where CNPs as small as possible could be supplied steadily by a cyclic process which periodically resets the process. The size of CNPs turned out to be an important parameter in the microstructure evolution of thin films.

  16. Interferometry with non-classical motional states of a Bose–Einstein condensate

    PubMed Central

    van Frank, S.; Negretti, A.; Berrada, T.; Bücker, R.; Montangero, S.; Schaff, J.-F.; Schumm, T.; Calarco, T.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Ramsey interferometer is a prime example of precise control at the quantum level. It is usually implemented using internal states of atoms, molecules or ions, for which powerful manipulation procedures are now available. Whether it is possible to control external degrees of freedom of more complex, interacting many-body systems at this level remained an open question. Here we demonstrate a two-pulse Ramsey-type interferometer for non-classical motional states of a Bose–Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap. The control sequences used to manipulate the condensate wavefunction are obtained from optimal control theory and are directly optimized to maximize the interferometric contrast. They permit a fast manipulation of the atomic ensemble compared to the intrinsic decay processes and many-body dephasing effects. This allows us to reach an interferometric contrast of 92% in the experimental implementation. PMID:24874019

  17. Interferometry with non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Frank, S.; Negretti, A.; Berrada, T.; Bücker, R.; Montangero, S.; Schaff, J.-F.; Schumm, T.; Calarco, T.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2014-05-01

    The Ramsey interferometer is a prime example of precise control at the quantum level. It is usually implemented using internal states of atoms, molecules or ions, for which powerful manipulation procedures are now available. Whether it is possible to control external degrees of freedom of more complex, interacting many-body systems at this level remained an open question. Here we demonstrate a two-pulse Ramsey-type interferometer for non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap. The control sequences used to manipulate the condensate wavefunction are obtained from optimal control theory and are directly optimized to maximize the interferometric contrast. They permit a fast manipulation of the atomic ensemble compared to the intrinsic decay processes and many-body dephasing effects. This allows us to reach an interferometric contrast of 92% in the experimental implementation.

  18. On study of nonclassical problems of fracture and failure mechanics and related mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Nonclassical problems of fracture and failure mechanics that have been analyzed by the author and his collaborators at the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics (Kiev, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) during the past forty years are considered in brief. The results of the analysis are presented in a form that would be quite informative for the majority of experts interested in various fundamental and applied aspects of fracture and failure problems including the identification of related mechanisms. This paper was prepared on invitation of the Editorial Board of the journal "Annals. The European Academy of Sciences" and may be considered as an Extended Pascal Medal Lecture (The 2007 Blaise Pascal Medal in Materials Sciences of the EAS)

  19. Use of Protective Gloves in Nail Salons in Manhattan, New York City

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Nail salon owners in New York City (NYC) are required to provide their workers with gloves and it is their responsibility to maintain healthy, safe working spaces for their employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which nail salon workers wear protective gloves. Methods: A Freedom of Information Law request was submitted to New York Department of State’s Division of Licensing Services for a full list of nail salons in Manhattan, NYC. A sample population of 800 nail salons was identified and a simple random sample (without replacement) of 30% (n=240) was selected using a random number generator. Researchers visited each nail salon from October to December of 2015, posing as a potential customer to determine if nail salon workers were wearing gloves. Results: Among the 169 salons in which one or more workers was observed providing services, a total of 562 workers were observed. For 149 salons, in which one or more worker was observed providing services, none of the workers were wearing gloves. In contrast, in six of the salons observed, in which one or more workers was providing services, all of the workers (1 in 2 sites, 2 in 1 site, 3 in 2 sites, and 4 in 1 site) were wearing gloves. Almost three-quarters of the total number of workers observed (n=415, 73.8%) were not wearing gloves. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that, despite recent media attention and legislation, the majority of nail salon workers we observed were not wearing protective gloves when providing services. PMID:27499167

  20. An Effective Approach for Optimization of a Composite Intramedullary Nail for Treating Femoral Shaft Fractures.

    PubMed

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    The high stiffness of conventional intramedullary (IM) nails may result in stress shielding and subsequent bone loss following healing in long bone fractures. It can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. This paper introduces a new approach for the optimization of a fiber-reinforced composite nail made of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy based on a combination of the classical laminate theory, beam theory, finite-element (FE) method, and bone remodeling model using irreversible thermodynamics. The optimization began by altering the composite stacking sequence and thickness to minimize axial stiffness, while maximizing torsional stiffness for a given range of bending stiffnesses. The selected candidates for the seven intervals of bending stiffness were then examined in an experimentally validated FE model to evaluate their mechanical performance in transverse and oblique femoral shaft fractures. It was found that the composite nail having an axial stiffness of 3.70 MN and bending and torsional stiffnesses of 70.3 and 70.9 N⋅m², respectively, showed an overall superiority compared to the other configurations. It increased compression at the fracture site by 344.9 N (31%) on average, while maintaining fracture stability through an average increase of only 0.6 mm (49%) in fracture shear movement in transverse and oblique fractures when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. The long-term results obtained from the bone remodeling model suggest that the proposed composite IM nail reduces bone loss in the femoral shaft from 7.9% to 3.5% when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. This study proposes a number of practical guidelines for the design of composite IM nails.

  1. Nail involvement in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis: prevalence and clinical features*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of worldwide distribution with a prevalence of 1 to 3%. Nail psoriasis is estimated in 50% of patients with psoriasis, and in the presence of joint involvement, it can reach 80%. OBJECTIVE: To study the nail changes - and their clinical implications - presented by patients with psoriasis vulgaris under surveillance in a university hospital from the south of Brazil. METHODS: his cross-sectional study evaluated 65 adult patients from January 2012 to March 2013. Cutaneous severity was assessed according to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) was used to evaluate patient's nails. The diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis was established according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR). RESULTS: The prevalence of NP was 46.1%. These patients had a median [interquartilic range (IQR)] NAPSI of 1 (0-15). A total of 63.3% of patients reported aesthetic discomfort or functional impairment related to their nails. Onycholysis was the most common feature (80%). When compared with patients without nail involvement, patients with NP had lower mean age at psoriasis onset [21 (18-41) vs. 43 (30-56) years, p=0,001]; longer disease duration [15.5 (10-24) vs. 6 (2-12) years, p=0.001]; higher PASI [9.2 (5-17) vs. 3.7 (2-10), p=0.044], higher frequency of psoriatic arthritis (43.3 vs. 3.7, p = 0.002) and more often reported family history of psoriasis (40% vs. 7.4%, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Onycholysis was the most frequent finding and most patients feel uncomfortable with the psoriatic nail changes that they experience. PMID:26131859

  2. Drug delivery to the nail: therapeutic options and challenges for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Hetal K; Mehta, Dharmik M; Shelat, Pragna K

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. It affects 10-30% of the world population and is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, molds, and yeasts. Present treatment methods of onychomycosis include oral therapy, topical therapy, and a combination of both; they have mild-to-moderate efficacy, with a relapse and reinfection rate of 20-25%. For oral therapy, newer antifungal compounds (azole class and allylamine class) are being investigated to increase efficacy and minimize side effects. Oral therapy with antifungal agents have severe side effects, with lesser bioavailability and longer duration of treatment. By contrast, topical therapy of onychomycosis is associated with greater patient compliance and fewer systemic side effects and drug interactions. Current topical treatment options of onychomycosis are nail lacquers, ointments, lotions, solutions, and gels, but these formulations have been unsuccessful due to poor penetration and distribution of drugs at the infected site. Therefore, novel therapeutic options are constantly being researched to improve the efficacy of onychomycosis treatment by enhancing the permeation of the drug across the nail to reach the infected site. Various physical and chemical enhancement methods have been studied to increase the permeation of drugs across the nail plate to the nail bed. Device-based therapeutic options have also been investigated to increase the antifungal drug concentration and its effects in the onychomycotic nail. Randomized clinical trials of these novel therapies have demonstrated better efficacy. The present review discusses the anatomy of the human nail, onychomycosis and its types, onycholysis, and conventional and novel therapies. We also review patents granted as well as design challenges facing optimal drug formulation for onychomycosis treatment.

  3. Epitestosterone and testosterone have similar nonclassical actions on membrane of Sertoli cells in whole seminiferous tubules.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A L; Cavalari, F C; Diello, M V; Fracasso, B M; Loss, E S

    2013-01-01

    Epitestosterone is the 17α-epimer of testosterone. This steroid possesses antiandrogenic activities. The mechanism of action of epitestosterone has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the nonclassical effect of epitestosterone on the membrane of Sertoli cells in proliferative phase (rats aged 15 days) and in nonproliferative phase (rats aged 21 and 35 days). The membrane potential of Sertoli cells was recorded using a standard single microelectrode technique. Epitestosterone (0.5, 1, and 2 μM) or testosterone (1 μM) was administered alone and after infusion with flutamide (1 μM), verapamil (100 μM), or U-73122 (2 μM). The testes of rats aged 12-15 days were preincubated with 45Ca2+ with or without flutamide (1 μM) and incubated with epitestosterone (1 μM) or testosterone (1 μM). Epitestosterone and testosterone produced a depolarization in the membrane potential and increased the membrane input resistance on Sertoli cells from rats of all 3 ages. The effect of epitestosterone did not change after perfusion with flutamide. Epitestosterone increased 45Ca2+ uptake within 5 min and this effect was not inhibited by flutamide. The absence of an effect by flutamide suggests that epitestosterone acts independently of the intracellular androgen receptor. The depolarizing effect was inhibited by verapamil, a voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker, and by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. These results indicate that epitestosterone acts on the membrane via a nonclassical signaling pathway; the effect was similar to the testosterone action on membrane of Sertoli cells in whole seminiferous tubules from rat testes.

  4. The Non-Classical Renin-Angiotensin System and Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) constitutes one of the most important hormonal systems in the physiological regulation of blood pressure through renal and non-renal mechanisms. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS is considered a major factor in the development of cardiovascular pathologies including kidney injury and blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or blockade of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) by selective antagonists constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS within the kidney and other tissues that the system is actually composed of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, water intake, sodium retention and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increase oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the non-classical RAS composed primarily of the AngII/Ang III–AT2R pathway and the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-AT7R axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and a reduced oxidative stress. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that these non-classical RAS components contribute to the therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury, as well as contribute to normal renal function. PMID:23720263

  5. Trichophyton onychocola sp. nov. isolated from human nail.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Cmokova, Adela; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mikula, Peter; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-04-01

    A previously undescribed Trichophyton species was isolated from the nail of a 33-year-old man with a history of probable distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (without confirmation by mycological examination). The infection occurred for the first time five years earlier (in 2006) and affected the right great toenail, with complete clinical remission after treatment with ciclopirox olamine. This undescribed species was isolated during probable relapse in 2011, but its etiological significance was not confirmed, that is, direct microscopy was negative and additional clinical samples were not collected. The species is probably geophilic based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] rDNA) and is most closely related to the anamorphic T. thuringiense, homothallic Arthroderma ciferrii (anamorph T. georgiae), and heterothallic A. melis. The new species is characterized by yellowish colonies, red reverse on several media, positive urease test, negative hair-perforation test, absence of growth at 34°C, absence of macroconidia, formation of one-celled clavate microconidia, and spiral hyphae. The species grows well on sterilized human hairs placed on agar medium without any additional nutrients and forms gymnothecium-like structures covered by peridial hyphae. The combination of unique micro- and macromorphological features and physiological and sequence data from four unlinked loci (ITS, benA, RPB2, and act1 gene) justified the proposal of a new species T. onychocola sp. nov.

  6. Radiation-free drill guidance in interlocking of intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Diotte, Benoit; Fallavollita, Pascal; Wang, Lejing; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing is a technically demanding procedure which involves an excessive amount of x-ray acquisitions; one study lists as many as 48 to successfully complete the procedure. In this work, a novel low cost radiation-free drilling guide is designed to assist surgeons in completing the distal locking procedure without any x-ray acquisitions. Using an augmented reality fluoroscope that coregisters optical and x-ray images, we exploit solely the optical images to detect the drilling guide in order to estimate the tip position in real-time in x-ray. We tested over 200 random drill guide poses showing a mean tip-estimation error of 1.72 +/- 0.7mm which is significantly robust and accurate for the interlocking. In a preclinical study on dry bone phantom, three expert surgeons successfully completed the interlocking 56 out of 60 trials with no x-ray acquisition for guidance and an average time of 2 min.

  7. A meta-analysis of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of closed tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Liheng; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Yongtao; Mei, Gang; Jin, Dan

    2014-04-01

    Controversy exists regarding the clinical outcomes of reamed vs unreamed intramedullary nailing in the treatment of closed tibial fractures. This study assessed the effects of reamed vs unreamed intramedullary nailing for closed tibial fractures. The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials from January 1980 to June 2012 comparing reamed with unreamed intramedullary nailing for closed tibial fracture in adults. Primary outcomes were nonunion, delayed union, malunion, secondary procedure, failure of implants, compartment syndrome, infection, and knee pain. Eight randomized and 1 quasi-randomized clinical trials (1229 fractures) were included. No statistically significant differences were found between reamed and unreamed nailing groups in delayed union (P=.20), malunion (P=.28), infection (P=.36), compartment syndrome (P=.36), and knee pain (P=.93). The unreamed group had a higher rate of fracture nonunion than the reamed group (P=.02). The subgroup analysis of implant failures (broken screws vs broken nails) indicated that reamed nailing significantly reduced the risk of screw breakage (P<.001); however, there was no significant difference between reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing in nail breakage (P=.94). The subgroup analysis of a secondary procedure showed that the reamed intramedullary nailing resulted in significantly lower risks of implant exchange (P=.01) and dynamization (P=.04); however, there was no significant difference in bone grafting rate (P=.73). Evidence comparing reamed with unreamed intramedullary nailing for closed tibial fractures indicates that reamed intramedullary nailing may lead to significantly lower risks of nonunion, screw failure, implant exchange, and dynamization without increasing operative complications.

  8. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  9. Clara Maass, yellow fever and human experimentation.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Carballo, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba.

  10. A Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cynatine HNS on Hair and Nail Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Veghte, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n = 25) received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500 mg) plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n = 25) received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. Results. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Conclusion. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22. PMID:25386609

  11. The potential application of functionally graded material for proximal femoral nail antirotation device.

    PubMed

    Gong, He; Wang, Lizhen; Zheng, Dong; Fan, Yubo

    2012-09-01

    Proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) device is an intramedullary nail system designing for the treatment of trochanteric fractures. It is composed of a helical neck blade, a nail and a distal locking bolt. There were some reports of femoral shaft fractures even after the fractures were healed. The stress shielding effects of the PFNA device made of stiff titanium alloy on the bone-remodeling behavior of the host femur and the uneven distribution of interface shear stress may contribute to this complication. Recently, a new class of composite called functionally graded material (FGM) was developed, that consisted a gradual pattern of material composition and/or microstructures, and was introduced in dental implant and cementless hip stem. Accordingly, in this paper, we hypothesized that FGM might be used as the material of the nail in PFNA device with the material composition of the nail gradually shifting from more stiff at the proximal side of the femur to more flexible 'iso-elastic' towards the distal side. This hypothesis can be evaluated from the long-term remodeling behavior of host femur and the stress distributions in the PFNA device and bone.

  12. Ingenious method of external fixator use to maintain alignment for nailing a proximal tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Kumar, Vishal; Kumar Meena, Umesh; Saibaba, Balaji

    2015-09-01

    Fractures of the tibia are one of the most commonly seen orthopedic injuries. Most of them result from a high velocity trauma. While intramedullary nailing of tibial diaphyseal fractures is considered as the golden standard form of treatment for such cases, many metaphyseal and metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction fractures can also be managed by nailing. Maintenance of alignment of such fractures during surgical procedure is often challenging as the pull of patellar tendon tends to extend the proximal fragment as soon as one flexes the knee for the surgical procedure. Numerous technical modifications have been described in the literature for successfully nailing such fractures including semi extended nailing, use of medial plates and external fixators among others. In this study, it was aimed to report two cases in which we used our ingenious method of applying external fixator for maintaining alignment of the fracture and aiding in the entire process of closed intramedullary nailing of metaphyseal tibial fractures by the conventional method. We were able to get good alignment during and after the closed surgery as observed on post-operative radiographs and believe that further evaluation of this technique may be of help to surgeons who want to avoid other techniques.

  13. [Flexible metallic intramedullary nail, an ideal osteosynthesis material for femoral fractions].

    PubMed

    Firică, A; Mucichescu, D; Troianescu, O; Răzuş, M

    1977-01-01

    The authors have used modified Ender nails for the treatment of femural fractures. Nails of different sizes are used in different arrangements, depending on the site of the lesion. Thus, for fractures of the femural neck 3 metallic nails, with a diameter of 4 mm are used, introduced through the internal supra-condylian aspect in paralel arcs; two nails, 5 mm in diameter, are introduced in the same way for the correction of the fractures involving the trochanterian massif; for fractures sited under the trochanterian massif (diaphysis, supracondylian, and supra- and inter-condylian), 5 mm diameter nails are used, placed on the internal and external aspects of the condyl in metalic arcs. This type of intervention was demonstrated to be stable, rapid, non-haemorrhagic and with low risk of shock. Supported walking is started in the first week after surgery--in cases with fractures of the trochanterian massif and of the diaphysis--provided these are stable fractures, in the first month when unstable fractures occur at the same level, and after 3--4 months in cases of fractures of the cervical neck. The authors' experience in the treatment of 250 cases is presented.

  14. Antegrade Unreamed Locked Intramedullary Nailing in Open Fractures of Shaft of Humerus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasbir; Lal, Mukand; Chandel, Desh Raj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Open fractures of shaft of humerus have been treated conservatively as well as operatively. Plate osteosynthesis has been considered as the gold standard treatment. Intramedullary nailing also has same success rate in closed fractures. The results of 30 open fractures of shaft humerus fixed with locked unreamed antegrade intramedullary nailing were evaluated. Aim The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of locked intramedullary nailing in open fractures of shaft humerus in terms of bone union, secondary procedure required, complication, shoulder dysfunction and infection. Materials and Methods Of consecutive 365 humeral shaft fractures, 63 fractures were open. Thirty-two patients were operated with plate osteosynthesis, while 31 patients who were treated with locked unreamed intramedullary nails fulfilling the inclusion criteria entered the study. Results Twenty eight of thirty patients united in mean duration of 10.5 weeks. There were two non-unions both of them united with bone grafting and plate osteosynthesis. Seven patients had superficial infection which healed with antibiotic course, while two patients had deep infection, which healed with repeat debridement. Eleven patients had preoperative radial nerve palsy, nine of which healed completely in average of six months. Twenty eight patients had excellent functional outcome at final follow-up while two patients had good outcome. Conclusion Antegrade nailing is associated with good union rates and low infection rates and is a good option in open fractures and in polytrauma patients. PMID:27790533

  15. Correlation of Trochanter-Shaft Angle in Selection of Entry Site in Antegrade Intramedullary Femoral Nail

    PubMed Central

    Lakhwani, O. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Selection of entry point for nail insertion is controversial and lack firm anatomical basis. The study is done to analyze the proximal anthropometry of femur and measure the Trochanter-Shaft Angle to find its relation and significance in selection of entry point for antegrade uniplanar femoral nail. Materials and Methods. Study involves the measurement of trochanter-shaft angle and other anthropometric measurements on 50 dry femora and on digital radiogram. Results. Trochanter-Shaft angle ranges between 5–17 degrees in anthropometric study and 4–14 degrees in radiological study. Over all in 27 cases (54%), exit points of reamur fall in the middle quadrant in sagittal and coronal plane, which corresponds to the T-S angle of 6–12 degrees. Discussion and Conclusion. Proximal femoral Anthropometry and Trochanter-shaft angle is variable; hence it is difficult to fix any anatomical point as a universal entry point for antegrade femoral nail insertion. Trochanter shaft angle (TSA) can be well accessed radiologically and serve as a guide for selection of proper entry point.for safe nail insertion. Clinical Relevance. Individual variations in the proximal femur anatomy for safe nail insertion can be correlated with Trochanter shaft angle to serve safe entry site. PMID:24977077

  16. Overcoming the nail barrier: A systematic investigation of ungual chemical penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; Khengar, R H; Turner, R B; Forbes, B; Traynor, M J; Evans, C R G; Jones, S A

    2009-03-31

    This study investigated the in vitro nail permeability of penetrants of varying lipophilicity-caffeine (CF, logP -0.07), methylparaben (MP, logP 1.96) and terbinafine (TBF, logP 3.3) and the effect of 2 novel penetration enhancers (PEs), thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) on their permeation. Studies were conducted using full thickness human nail clippings and ChubTur((R)) diffusion cells and penetrants were applied as saturated solutions. The rank order of steady-state penetrant flux through nails without PE application (MP>CF>TBF) suggested a greater sensitivity to penetrant molecular weight rather than logP. TA increased the flux of CF and MP approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, whilst urea H(2)O(2) proved ineffective at enhancing permeability. The sequential application of TA followed by urea H(2)O(2) increased TBF and CF flux ( approximately 19- and approximately 4-fold, respectively) but reversing the application order of the PEs was only mildly effective at increasing just MP flux ( approximately 2-fold). Both nail PEs are likely to function via disruption of keratin disulphide bonds and the associated formation of pores that provide more 'open' drug transport channels. Effects of the PEs were penetrant specific, but the use of a reducing agent (TA) followed by an oxidising agent (urea H(2)O(2)) dramatically improved human nail penetration.

  17. Investigation of nail permeation enhancement by chemical modification using water as a probe.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Gouri G; Zatz, Joel L

    2002-02-01

    Our objective was to screen molecules that could interact with keratin in the human nail and thereby improve the topical penetration of actives into and through the nail plate. We used specialized Franz-type diffusion cells for our permeation experiments and water as a marker molecule. Aqueous/hydroalcoholic gels containing the enhancers were spiked with tritiated water and compared with a control (without enhancer). We computed the normalized water flux (defined as a product of flux and nail thickness) for each gel. We defined an enhancement factor for water as the ratio of the normalized water flux from a gel containing enhancer to that of the control. Our results indicate that the chemical structure of the modifier is most important in determining its ability to enhance penetration. The best enhancement effect was obtained using N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine, a mercaptan derivative of an amino acid, in combination with urea. The concentration of each chemical modifier was linearly related to normalized water flux and mercaptan levels were more important that urea levels in penetration enhancement. Barrier integrity of nails was compromised after treatment with effective chemical modifiers. Thus, we have developed a suitable technique to screen nail penetration enhancers using water as a probe.

  18. UNSTABLE FEMORAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH TITANIUM ELASTIC INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS, IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jamil Faissal; Schelle, Gisele; Valenza, Weverley; Pavelec, Anna Carolina; Souza, Camila Deneka Arantes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the indications, epidemiology, associated lesions, complications and prognosis among children with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who were treated with titanium elastic intramedullary nails. Method: This was a retrospective analysis on 24 patients aged 5-12 years with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who underwent surgical treatment with elastic titanium intramedullary nails at the Cajuru University Hospital, Curitiba-PR, between April 2002 and March 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. The epidemiological data, angular deviations, leg shortening and bone consolidation were evaluated. Results: The medical files of 113 cases operated between April 2002 and March 2008 were reassessed. From these, 24 cases of unstable femoral diaphysis fractures treated with elastic titanium intramedullary nails with retrograde insertion were included in the study. There were two bilateral fractures and two exposed fractures. Seven patients were female and 17 were male, and the mean age was 8.3 years. The following were presented at the end of the study: shortening, varus or valgus displacement, final retrocurvatum or antecurvatum of zero, and absence of delayed consolidation or pseudarthrosis. Conclusions: The elastic titanium intramedullary nails were easily placed and removed. We believe that using elastic titanium intramedullary nails is a good option for fixation of unstable femoral fractures in children. PMID:27047868

  19. Effects of Ionic Strength on Passive and Iontophoretic Transport of Cationic Permeant Across Human Nail

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kelly A.; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S. Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Transport across the human nail under hydration can be modeled as hindered transport across aqueous pore pathways. As such, nail permselectivity to charged species can be manipulated by changing the ionic strength of the system in transungual delivery to treat nail diseases. The present study investigated the effects of ionic strength upon transungual passive and iontophoretic transport. Methods Transungual passive and anodal iontophoretic transport experiments of tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) were conducted under symmetric conditions in which the donor and receiver had the same ionic strength in vitro. Experiments under asymmetric conditions were performed to mimic the in vivo conditions. Prior to the transport studies, TEA uptake studies were performed to assess the partitioning of TEA into the nail. Results Permselectivity towards TEA was inversely related to ionic strength in both passive and iontophoretic transport. The permeability and transference number of TEA were higher at lower ionic strengths under the symmetric conditions due to increased partitioning of TEA into the nail. Transference numbers were smaller under the asymmetric conditions compared with their symmetric counterparts. Conclusions The results demonstrate significant ionic strength effects upon the partitioning and transport of a cationic permeant in transungual transport, which may be instrumental in the development of transungual delivery systems. PMID:19267187

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern.

    PubMed

    Maio, Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Santos, Raquel; Cardoso, Jorge

    2012-01-02

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.