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Sample records for noncoding dna elements

  1. De novo DNA demethylation and noncoding transcription define active intergenic regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Felix; Smith, Andrew D; Gingeras, Thomas R; Hannon, Gregory J; Hodges, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Deep sequencing of mammalian DNA methylomes has uncovered a previously unpredicted number of discrete hypomethylated regions in intergenic space (iHMRs). Here, we combined whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data with extensive gene expression and chromatin-state data to define functional classes of iHMRs, and to reconstruct the dynamics of their establishment in a developmental setting. Comparing HMR profiles in embryonic stem and primary blood cells, we show that iHMRs mark an exclusive subset of active DNase hypersensitive sites (DHS), and that both developmentally constitutive and cell-type-specific iHMRs display chromatin states typical of distinct regulatory elements. We also observe that iHMR changes are more predictive of nearby gene activity than the promoter HMR itself, and that expression of noncoding RNAs within the iHMR accompanies full activation and complete demethylation of mature B cell enhancers. Conserved sequence features corresponding to iHMR transcript start sites, including a discernible TATA motif, suggest a conserved, functional role for transcription in these regions. Similarly, we explored both primate-specific and human population variation at iHMRs, finding that while enhancer iHMRs are more variable in sequence and methylation status than any other functional class, conservation of the TATA box is highly predictive of iHMR maintenance, reflecting the impact of sequence plasticity and transcriptional signals on iHMR establishment. Overall, our analysis allowed us to construct a three-step timeline in which (1) intergenic DHS are pre-established in the stem cell, (2) partial demethylation of blood-specific intergenic DHSs occurs in blood progenitors, and (3) complete iHMR formation and transcription coincide with enhancer activation in lymphoid-specified cells.

  2. Functional validation of mouse tyrosinase non-coding regulatory DNA elements by CRISPR–Cas9-mediated mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seruggia, Davide; Fernández, Almudena; Cantero, Marta; Pelczar, Pawel; Montoliu, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Newly developed genome-editing tools, such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–Cas9 system, allow simple and rapid genetic modification in most model organisms and human cell lines. Here, we report the production and analysis of mice carrying the inactivation via deletion of a genomic insulator, a key non-coding regulatory DNA element found 5′ upstream of the mouse tyrosinase (Tyr) gene. Targeting sequences flanking this boundary in mouse fertilized eggs resulted in the efficient deletion or inversion of large intervening DNA fragments delineated by the RNA guides. The resulting genome-edited mice showed a dramatic decrease in Tyr gene expression as inferred from the evident decrease of coat pigmentation, thus supporting the functionality of this boundary sequence in vivo, at the endogenous locus. Several potential off-targets bearing sequence similarity with each of the two RNA guides used were analyzed and found to be largely intact. This study reports how non-coding DNA elements, even if located in repeat-rich genomic sequences, can be efficiently and functionally evaluated in vivo and, furthermore, it illustrates how the regulatory elements described by the ENCODE and EPIGENOME projects, in the mouse and human genomes, can be systematically validated. PMID:25897126

  3. Scaling features of noncoding DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.

    1999-01-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene, and utilize this fact to build a Coding Sequence Finder Algorithm, which uses statistical ideas to locate the coding regions of an unknown DNA sequence. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work adapting to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function, and reporting that noncoding regions in eukaryotes display a larger redundancy than coding regions. Specifically, we consider the possibility that this result is solely a consequence of nucleotide concentration differences as first noted by Bonhoeffer and his collaborators. We find that cytosine-guanine (CG) concentration does have a strong "background" effect on redundancy. However, we find that for the purine-pyrimidine binary mapping rule, which is not affected by the difference in CG concentration, the Shannon redundancy for the set of analyzed sequences is larger for noncoding regions compared to coding regions.

  4. Transposable Elements and DNA Methylation Create in Embryonic Stem Cells Human-Specific Regulatory Sequences Associated with Distal Enhancers and Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2015-05-07

    Despite significant progress in the structural and functional characterization of the human genome, understanding of the mechanisms underlying the genetic basis of human phenotypic uniqueness remains limited. Here, I report that transposable element-derived sequences, most notably LTR7/HERV-H, LTR5_Hs, and L1HS, harbor 99.8% of the candidate human-specific regulatory loci (HSRL) with putative transcription factor-binding sites in the genome of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). A total of 4,094 candidate HSRL display selective and site-specific binding of critical regulators (NANOG [Nanog homeobox], POU5F1 [POU class 5 homeobox 1], CCCTC-binding factor [CTCF], Lamin B1), and are preferentially located within the matrix of transcriptionally active DNA segments that are hypermethylated in hESC. hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites are enriched near the protein-coding genes regulating brain size, pluripotency long noncoding RNAs, hESC enhancers, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-harboring regions immediately adjacent to binding sites. Sequences of only 4.3% of hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites are present in Neanderthals' genome, suggesting that a majority of these regulatory elements emerged in Modern Humans. Comparisons of estimated creation rates of novel TF-binding sites revealed that there was 49.7-fold acceleration of creation rates of NANOG-binding sites in genomes of Chimpanzees compared with the mouse genomes and further 5.7-fold acceleration in genomes of Modern Humans compared with the Chimpanzees genomes. Preliminary estimates suggest that emergence of one novel NANOG-binding site detectable in hESC required 466 years of evolution. Pathway analysis of coding genes that have hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites within gene bodies or near gene boundaries revealed their association with physiological development and functions of nervous and cardiovascular systems, embryonic development, behavior, as well as development of a diverse spectrum of pathological conditions

  5. Transposable Elements and DNA Methylation Create in Embryonic Stem Cells Human-Specific Regulatory Sequences Associated with Distal Enhancers and Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the structural and functional characterization of the human genome, understanding of the mechanisms underlying the genetic basis of human phenotypic uniqueness remains limited. Here, I report that transposable element-derived sequences, most notably LTR7/HERV-H, LTR5_Hs, and L1HS, harbor 99.8% of the candidate human-specific regulatory loci (HSRL) with putative transcription factor-binding sites in the genome of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). A total of 4,094 candidate HSRL display selective and site-specific binding of critical regulators (NANOG [Nanog homeobox], POU5F1 [POU class 5 homeobox 1], CCCTC-binding factor [CTCF], Lamin B1), and are preferentially located within the matrix of transcriptionally active DNA segments that are hypermethylated in hESC. hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites are enriched near the protein-coding genes regulating brain size, pluripotency long noncoding RNAs, hESC enhancers, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-harboring regions immediately adjacent to binding sites. Sequences of only 4.3% of hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites are present in Neanderthals’ genome, suggesting that a majority of these regulatory elements emerged in Modern Humans. Comparisons of estimated creation rates of novel TF-binding sites revealed that there was 49.7-fold acceleration of creation rates of NANOG-binding sites in genomes of Chimpanzees compared with the mouse genomes and further 5.7-fold acceleration in genomes of Modern Humans compared with the Chimpanzees genomes. Preliminary estimates suggest that emergence of one novel NANOG-binding site detectable in hESC required 466 years of evolution. Pathway analysis of coding genes that have hESC-specific NANOG-binding sites within gene bodies or near gene boundaries revealed their association with physiological development and functions of nervous and cardiovascular systems, embryonic development, behavior, as well as development of a diverse spectrum of pathological conditions

  6. Species independence of mutual information in coding and noncoding DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Ivo; Herzel, Hanspeter; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2000-05-01

    We explore if there exist universal statistical patterns that are different in coding and noncoding DNA and can be found in all living organisms, regardless of their phylogenetic origin. We find that (i) the mutual information function I has a significantly different functional form in coding and noncoding DNA. We further find that (ii) the probability distributions of the average mutual information I¯ are significantly different in coding and noncoding DNA, while (iii) they are almost the same for organisms of all taxonomic classes. Surprisingly, we find that I¯ is capable of predicting coding regions as accurately as organism-specific coding measures.

  7. Nonlinear Aspects of Coding and Noncoding DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-03-01

    One of the most remarkable features of human DNA is that 97 percent is not coding for proteins. Studying this noncoding DNA is important both for practical reasons (to distinguish it from the coding DNA as the human genome is sequenced), and for scientific reasons (why is the noncoding DNA present at all, if it appears to have little if any purpose?). In this talk we discuss new methods of analyzing coding and noncoding DNA in parallel, with a view to uncovering different statistical properties of the two kinds of DNA. We also speculate on possible roles of noncoding DNA. The work reported here was carried out primarily by P. Bernaola-Galvan, S. V. Buldyrev, P. Carpena, N. Dokholyan, A. L. Goldberger, I. Grosse, S. Havlin, H. Herzel, J. L. Oliver, C.-K. Peng, M. Simons, H. E. Stanley, R. H. R. Stanley, and G. M. Viswanathan. [1] For a brief overview in language that physicists can understand, see H. E. Stanley, S. V. Buldyrev, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, C.-K. Peng, and M. Simons, "Scaling Features of Noncoding DNA" [Proc. XII Max Born Symposium, Wroclaw], Physica A 273, 1-18 (1999). [2] I. Grosse, H. Herzel, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, "Species Independence of Mutual Information in Coding and Noncoding DNA," Phys. Rev. E 61, 5624-5629 (2000). [3] P. Bernaola-Galvan, I. Grosse, P. Carpena, J. L. Oliver, and H. E. Stanley, "Identification of DNA Coding Regions Using an Entropic Segmentation Method," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1342-1345 (2000). [4] N. Dokholyan, S. V. Buldyrev, S. Havlin, and H. E. Stanley, "Distributions of Dimeric Tandem Repeats in Non-coding and Coding DNA Sequences," J. Theor. Biol. 202, 273-282 (2000). [5] R. H. R. Stanley, N. V. Dokholyan, S. V. Buldyrev, S. Havlin, and H. E. Stanley, "Clumping of Identical Oligonucleotides in Coding and Noncoding DNA Sequences," J. Biomol. Structure and Design 17, 79-87 (1999). [6] N. Dokholyan, S. V. Buldyrev, S. Havlin, and H. E. Stanley, "Distribution of Base Pair Repeats in Coding and Noncoding DNA

  8. Noncoding RNAs in the regulation of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xin Quan; Lin, Haifan

    2014-08-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have crucial roles in epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional regulation. Recent studies have begun to reveal a role of ncRNAs in DNA replication. Here, we review the roles of ncRNAs in regulating different aspects of DNA replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. We speculate that ncRNAs might function to guide the origin recognition complex (ORC) to chromosomal DNA during replication initiation in higher eukaryotes.

  9. Non-coding RNAs in DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunhua; Lu, Xiongbin

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide studies have revealed that human and other mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed and produce thousands of regulatory non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including miRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Emerging evidences suggest that these ncRNAs also play a pivotal role in genome integrity and stability via the regulation of DNA damage response (DDR). In this review, we discuss the recent finding on the interplay of ncRNAs with the canonical DDR signaling pathway, with a particular emphasis on miRNAs and lncRNAs. While the expression of ncRNAs is regulated in the DDR, the DDR is also subjected to regulation by those DNA damage-responsive ncRNAs. In addition, the roles of those Dicer- and Drosha-dependent small RNAs produced in the vicinity of double-strand breaks sites are also described. PMID:23226613

  10. Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hui; Vincent, Kimberly; Pichler, Martin; Fodde, Riccardo; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Slack, Frank J.; Calin, George A

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their large number and biological significance. Many lncRNAs have been identified as mapping to regulatory elements including gene promoters and enhancers, ultraconserved regions, and intergenic regions of protein-coding genes. Yet, the biological function and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA in human diseases in general and cancer in particular remain largely unknown. Data from the literature suggest that lncRNA, often via interaction with proteins, functions in specific genomic loci or use their own transcription loci for regulatory activity. In this review, we summarize recent findings supporting the importance of DNA loci in lncRNA function, and the underlying molecular mechanisms via cis or trans regulation, and discuss their implications in cancer. In addition, we use the 8q24 genomic locus, a region containing interactive SNPs, DNA regulatory elements and lncRNAs, as an example to illustrate how single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within lncRNAs may be functionally associated with the individual’s susceptibility to cancer. PMID:25619839

  11. UCNEbase--a database of ultraconserved non-coding elements and genomic regulatory blocks.

    PubMed

    Dimitrieva, Slavica; Bucher, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    UCNEbase (http://ccg.vital-it.ch/UCNEbase) is a free, web-accessible information resource on the evolution and genomic organization of ultra-conserved non-coding elements (UCNEs). It currently covers 4351 such elements in 18 different species. The majority of UCNEs are supposed to be transcriptional regulators of key developmental genes. As most of them occur as clusters near potential target genes, the database is organized along two hierarchical levels: individual UCNEs and ultra-conserved genomic regulatory blocks (UGRBs). UCNEbase introduces a coherent nomenclature for UCNEs reflecting their respective associations with likely target genes. Orthologous and paralogous UCNEs share components of their names and are systematically cross-linked. Detailed synteny maps between the human and other genomes are provided for all UGRBs. UCNEbase is managed by a relational database system and can be accessed by a variety of web-based query pages. As it relies on the UCSC genome browser as visualization platform, a large part of its data content is also available as browser viewable custom track files. UCNEbase is potentially useful to any computational, experimental or evolutionary biologist interested in conserved non-coding DNA elements in vertebrates. PMID:23193254

  12. UCNEbase--a database of ultraconserved non-coding elements and genomic regulatory blocks.

    PubMed

    Dimitrieva, Slavica; Bucher, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    UCNEbase (http://ccg.vital-it.ch/UCNEbase) is a free, web-accessible information resource on the evolution and genomic organization of ultra-conserved non-coding elements (UCNEs). It currently covers 4351 such elements in 18 different species. The majority of UCNEs are supposed to be transcriptional regulators of key developmental genes. As most of them occur as clusters near potential target genes, the database is organized along two hierarchical levels: individual UCNEs and ultra-conserved genomic regulatory blocks (UGRBs). UCNEbase introduces a coherent nomenclature for UCNEs reflecting their respective associations with likely target genes. Orthologous and paralogous UCNEs share components of their names and are systematically cross-linked. Detailed synteny maps between the human and other genomes are provided for all UGRBs. UCNEbase is managed by a relational database system and can be accessed by a variety of web-based query pages. As it relies on the UCSC genome browser as visualization platform, a large part of its data content is also available as browser viewable custom track files. UCNEbase is potentially useful to any computational, experimental or evolutionary biologist interested in conserved non-coding DNA elements in vertebrates.

  13. Adaptive Evolution of Conserved Noncoding Elements in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeon; Pritchard, Jonathan K

    2007-01-01

    Conserved noncoding elements (CNCs) are an abundant feature of vertebrate genomes. Some CNCs have been shown to act as cis-regulatory modules, but the function of most CNCs remains unclear. To study the evolution of CNCs, we have developed a statistical method called the “shared rates test” to identify CNCs that show significant variation in substitution rates across branches of a phylogenetic tree. We report an application of this method to alignments of 98,910 CNCs from the human, chimpanzee, dog, mouse, and rat genomes. We find that ∼68% of CNCs evolve according to a null model where, for each CNC, a single parameter models the level of constraint acting throughout the phylogeny linking these five species. The remaining ∼32% of CNCs show departures from the basic model including speed-ups and slow-downs on particular branches and occasionally multiple rate changes on different branches. We find that a subset of the significant CNCs have evolved significantly faster than the local neutral rate on a particular branch, providing strong evidence for adaptive evolution in these CNCs. The distribution of these signals on the phylogeny suggests that adaptive evolution of CNCs occurs in occasional short bursts of evolution. Our analyses suggest a large set of promising targets for future functional studies of adaptation. PMID:17845075

  14. [Compulsive molecular hoarding enables the evolution of protein-coding DNA from non-coding DNA].

    PubMed

    Casane, Didier; Laurenti, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    It was thought until recently that a new gene could only evolve from a previously existing gene, from recombination of genes, or from horizontal gene transfer. Recently a series of genomic and transcriptomic studies have led to the identification of non-coding DNA as a significant source of protein coding genes. The mechanism, which is probably universal since it has been identified in a wide array of eukaryotes, implies that a gradient of proto-genes, probably established by a balance between selection and genetic drift, exists between coding DNA and non-coding DNA. Therefore genome dynamics could account for the progressive formation of genes "out of the blue" thanks to the interplay of mutation and natural selection.

  15. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; et al

    2015-03-23

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. In this paper, we use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% ofmore » the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Finally, our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.« less

  16. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Land, Miriam L.; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Webb, Eric A.

    2015-03-23

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. In this paper, we use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Finally, our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.

  17. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Land, Miriam L.; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Webb, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle. PMID:25831533

  18. Non-coding RNAs: an emerging player in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunzhi; Peng, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs play a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability which is essential for cell survival and preventing tumorigenesis. Through an extensive crosstalk between non-coding RNAs and the canonical DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathway, DDR-induced expression of non-coding RNAs can provide a regulatory mechanism to accurately control the expression of DNA damage responsive genes in a spatio-temporal manner. Mechanistically, DNA damage alters expression of a variety of non-coding RNAs at multiple levels including transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation, and RNA degradation. In parallel, non-coding RNAs can directly regulate cellular processes involved in DDR by altering expression of their targeting genes, with a particular emphasis on miRNAs and lncRNAs. MiRNAs are required for almost every aspect of cellular responses to DNA damage, including sensing DNA damage, transducing damage signals, repairing damaged DNA, activating cell cycle checkpoints, and inducing apoptosis. As for lncRNAs, they control transcription of DDR relevant gene by four different regulatory models, including signal, decoy, guide, and scaffold. In addition, we also highlight potential clinical applications of non-coding RNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for anti-cancer treatments using DNA-damaging agents including radiation and chemotherapy. Although tremendous advances have been made to elucidate the role of non-coding RANs in genome maintenance, many key questions remain to be answered including mechanistically how non-coding RNA pathway and DNA damage response pathway is coordinated in response to genotoxic stress.

  19. Applications of Statistical Physics to Understanding the Properties and Function of Noncoding DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-03-01

    One of the most remarkable features of human DNA is that 97 percent is not coding for proteins [1]. Studying this noncoding DNA is important both for practical reasons (to distinguish it from the coding DNA as the human genome is sequenced), and for scientific reasons (why is the noncoding DNA present at all, if it appears to have little if any purpose?). In this talk we discuss new methods of analyzing coding and noncoding DNA in parallel, with a view to uncovering different statistical properties of the two kinds of DNA. We also speculate on possible roles of noncoding DNA. The work reported here was carried out in collaboration with P. Bernaola-Galvan, S. V. Buldyrev, P. Carpena, N. Dokholyan, A. L. Goldberger, A. L. Goldberger, I. Grosse, S. Havlin, H. Herzel, R. N. Mantegna, C.-K. Peng, M. Simons, R. H. R. Stanley, and G. M. Viswanathan. [1] For a brief overview in language that physicists can understand, see H. E. Stanley, S. V. Buldyrev, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, C.-K. Peng, and M. Simons, "Scaling Features of Noncoding DNA" [Proc. XII Max Born Symposium, Wroclaw], Physica A 273, 1-18 (1999).

  20. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Nathan G.; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; Mincer, Tracy; Heidelberg, John F.; Fu, Feixue; Waterbury, John B.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L.; Woyke, Tanja; Hutchins, David A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Webb, Eric A.

    2015-04-07

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance due to its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20-25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and non-pathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the non-coding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and two fold higher than that found in the gene dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium ncRNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high fidelity replication allowed the unusual ‘inflation’ of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.

  1. The mammalian transcriptome and the function of non-coding DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Shabalina, Svetlana A; Spiridonov, Nikolay A

    2004-01-01

    For decades, researchers have focused most of their attention on protein-coding genes and proteins. With the completion of the human and mouse genomes and the accumulation of data on the mammalian transcriptome, the focus now shifts to non-coding DNA sequences, RNA-coding genes and their transcripts. Many non-coding transcribed sequences are proving to have important regulatory roles, but the functions of the majority remain mysterious. PMID:15059247

  2. In search of coding and non-coding regions of DNA sequences based on balanced estimation of diffusion entropy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of coding regions in DNA sequences remains challenging. Various methods have been proposed, but these are limited by species-dependence and the need for adequate training sets. The elements in DNA coding regions are known to be distributed in a quasi-random way, while those in non-coding regions have typical similar structures. For short sequences, these statistical characteristics cannot be extracted correctly and cannot even be detected. This paper introduces a new way to solve the problem: balanced estimation of diffusion entropy (BEDE).

  3. Statistical analysis of nucleotide runs in coding and noncoding DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sprizhitsky YuA; Nechipurenko YuD; Alexandrov, A A; Volkenstein, M V

    1988-10-01

    A statistical analysis of the occurrence of particular nucleotide runs in DNA sequences of different species has been carried out. There are considerable differences of run distributions in DNA sequences of procaryotes, invertebrates and vertebrates. There is an abundance of short runs (1-2 nucleotides long) in the coding sequences and there is a deficiency of such runs in the noncoding regions. However, some interesting exceptions from this rule exist for the run distribution of adenine in procaryotes and for the arrangement of purine-pyrimidine runs in eucaryotes. The similarity in the distributions of such runs in the coding and noncoding regions may be due to some structural features of the DNA molecule as a whole. Runs of guanine (or cytosine) of three to six nucleotides occur predominantly in noncoding DNA regions in eucaryotes, especially in vertebrates.

  4. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

  5. Natural Selection and Functional Potentials of Human Noncoding Elements Revealed by Analysis of Next Generation Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pankaj; Lu, Dongsheng; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding DNA sequences (NCS) have attracted much attention recently due to their functional potentials. Here we attempted to reveal the functional roles of noncoding sequences from the point of view of natural selection that typically indicates the functional potentials of certain genomic elements. We analyzed nearly 37 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Phase I data of the 1000 Genomes Project. We estimated a series of key parameters of population genetics and molecular evolution to characterize sequence variations of the noncoding genome within and between populations, and identified the natural selection footprints in NCS in worldwide human populations. Our results showed that purifying selection is prevalent and there is substantial constraint of variations in NCS, while positive selectionis more likely to be specific to some particular genomic regions and regional populations. Intriguingly, we observed larger fraction of non-conserved NCS variants with lower derived allele frequency in the genome, indicating possible functional gain of non-conserved NCS. Notably, NCS elements are enriched for potentially functional markers such as eQTLs, TF motif, and DNase I footprints in the genome. More interestingly, some NCS variants associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Type 1 diabetes, and immune-related bowel disorder (IBD) showed signatures of positive selection, although the majority of NCS variants, reported as risk alleles by genome-wide association studies, showed signatures of negative selection. Our analyses provided compelling evidence of natural selection forces on noncoding sequences in the human genome and advanced our understanding of their functional potentials that play important roles in disease etiology and human evolution.

  6. Systematic analysis of coding and noncoding DNA sequences using methods of statistical linguistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantegna, R. N.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We compare the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions in eukaryotic and viral DNA sequences by adapting two tests developed for the analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences. The data set comprises all 30 sequences of length above 50 000 base pairs in GenBank Release No. 81.0, as well as the recently published sequences of C. elegans chromosome III (2.2 Mbp) and yeast chromosome XI (661 Kbp). We find that for the three chromosomes we studied the statistical properties of noncoding regions appear to be closer to those observed in natural languages than those of coding regions. In particular, (i) a n-tuple Zipf analysis of noncoding regions reveals a regime close to power-law behavior while the coding regions show logarithmic behavior over a wide interval, while (ii) an n-gram entropy measurement shows that the noncoding regions have a lower n-gram entropy (and hence a larger "n-gram redundancy") than the coding regions. In contrast to the three chromosomes, we find that for vertebrates such as primates and rodents and for viral DNA, the difference between the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions is not pronounced and therefore the results of the analyses of the investigated sequences are less conclusive. After noting the intrinsic limitations of the n-gram redundancy analysis, we also briefly discuss the failure of the zeroth- and first-order Markovian models or simple nucleotide repeats to account fully for these "linguistic" features of DNA. Finally, we emphasize that our results by no means prove the existence of a "language" in noncoding DNA.

  7. Systematic analysis of coding and noncoding DNA sequences using methods of statistical linguistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, R. N.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C.-K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-09-01

    We compare the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions in eukaryotic and viral DNA sequences by adapting two tests developed for the analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences. The data set comprises all 30 sequences of length above 50 000 base pairs in GenBank Release No. 81.0, as well as the recently published sequences of C.elegans chromosome III (2.2 Mbp) and yeast chromosome XI (661 Kbp). We find that for the three chromosomes we studied the statistical properties of noncoding regions appear to be closer to those observed in natural languages than those of the coding regions. In particular, (i) an n-tuple Zipf analysis of noncoding regions reveals a regime close to power-law behavior while the coding regions show logarithmic behavior over a wide interval, while (ii) an n-gram entropy measurement shows that the noncoding regions have a lower n-gram entropy (and hence a larger ``n-gram redundancy'') than the coding regions. In contrast to the three chromosomes, we find that for vertebrates-such as primates and rodents-and for viral DNA, the difference between the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions is not pronounced and therefore the results of the analyses of the investigated sequences are less conclusive. After noting the intrinsic limitations of the n-gram redundancy analysis, we also briefly discuss the failure of zero- and first-order Markovian models or simple nucleotide repeats to account fully for these ``linguistic'' features of DNA. Finally, we emphasize that our results by no means prove the existence of a ``language'' in noncoding DNA.

  8. Single-primer PCR amplification of segments of the main noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Derenko, M.V.; Malyarchuk, B.A.

    1994-11-01

    A method for amplifying segments of the main noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA using a single-primer PCR is proposed. The method employs oligonucleotides that are homologous to this region of the human mitochondrial genome. Possible reaction mechanisms and the prospects for using the method in evolutionary and population genetic studies are discussed. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Conserved Noncoding Elements in the Most Distant Genera of Cephalochordates: The Goldilocks Principle.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Kozmikova, Iryna; Ono, Hiroki; Nossa, Carlos W; Kozmik, Zbynek; Putnam, Nicholas H; Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Linda Z

    2016-01-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120-160 million years ago. We found 113,070 noncoding elements conserved between the two species, amounting to 3.3% of the genome. The genomic distribution, target gene ontology, and enriched motifs of these CNEs all suggest that many of them are probably cis-regulatory elements. More than 90% of previously verified amphioxus regulatory elements were re-captured in this study. A search of the cephalochordate CNEs around 50 developmental genes in several vertebrate genomes revealed eight CNEs conserved between cephalochordates and vertebrates, indicating sequence conservation over >500 million years of divergence. The function of five CNEs was tested in reporter assays in zebrafish, and one was also tested in amphioxus. All five CNEs proved to be tissue-specific enhancers. Taken together, these findings indicate that even though Branchiostoma and Asymmetron are distantly related, as they are evolving slowly, comparisons between them are likely optimal for identifying most of their tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements laying the foundation for functional characterizations and a better understanding of the evolution of developmental regulation in cephalochordates. PMID:27412606

  10. Conserved Noncoding Elements in the Most Distant Genera of Cephalochordates: The Goldilocks Principle

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Kozmikova, Iryna; Ono, Hiroki; Nossa, Carlos W.; Kozmik, Zbynek; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Linda Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120–160 million years ago. We found 113,070 noncoding elements conserved between the two species, amounting to 3.3% of the genome. The genomic distribution, target gene ontology, and enriched motifs of these CNEs all suggest that many of them are probably cis-regulatory elements. More than 90% of previously verified amphioxus regulatory elements were re-captured in this study. A search of the cephalochordate CNEs around 50 developmental genes in several vertebrate genomes revealed eight CNEs conserved between cephalochordates and vertebrates, indicating sequence conservation over >500 million years of divergence. The function of five CNEs was tested in reporter assays in zebrafish, and one was also tested in amphioxus. All five CNEs proved to be tissue-specific enhancers. Taken together, these findings indicate that even though Branchiostoma and Asymmetron are distantly related, as they are evolving slowly, comparisons between them are likely optimal for identifying most of their tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements laying the foundation for functional characterizations and a better understanding of the evolution of developmental regulation in cephalochordates. PMID:27412606

  11. Polyomavirus origin for DNA replication comprises multiple genetic elements.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, W J; Mueller, C R; Mes, A M; Hassell, J A

    1983-01-01

    To define the minimal cis-acting sequences required for polyomavirus DNA replication (ori), we constructed a number of polyomavirus-plasmid recombinants and measured their replicative capacity after transfection of a permissive mouse cell line capable of providing polyomavirus large T antigen in trans (MOP cells). Recombinant plasmids containing a 251-base-pair fragment of noncoding viral DNA replicate efficiently in MOP cells. Mutational analyses of these viral sequences revealed that they can be physically separated into two genetic elements. One of these elements, termed the core, contains an adenine-thymine-rich area, a 32-base-pair guanine-cytosine-rich palindrome, and a large T antigen binding site, and likely includes the site from which bidirectional DNA replication initiates. The other, termed beta, is located adjacent to the core near the late region and is devoid of outstanding sequence features. Surprisingly, another sequence element named alpha, located adjacent to beta but outside the borders of the 251-base-pair fragment, can functionally substitute for beta. This sequence too contains no readily recognized sequence features and possesses no obvious homology to the beta element. The three elements together occupy a contiguous noncoding stretch of DNA no more than 345 base pairs in length in the order alpha, beta, and core. These results indicate that the polyomavirus origin for DNA replication comprises multiple genetic elements. Images PMID:6312083

  12. Random aggregation models for the formation and evolution of coding and non-coding DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provata, A.

    A random aggregation model with influx is proposed for the formation of the non-coding DNA regions via random co-aggregation and influx of biological macromolecules such as viruses, parasite DNA, and replication segments. The constant mixing (transpositions) and influx drives the system in an out-of-equilibrium steady state characterised by a power law size distribution. The model predicts the long range distributions found in the noncoding eucaryotic DNA and explains the observed correlations. For the formation of coding DNA a random closed aggregation model is proposed which predicts short range coding size distributions. The closed aggregation process drives the system in an almost “frozen” stable state which is robust to external perturbations and which is characterised by well defined space and time scales, as observed in coding sequences.

  13. Elements and machinery of non-coding RNAs: toward their taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Tetsuro; Mishima, Yuichiro; Tomari, Yukihide

    2014-01-01

    Although recent transcriptome analyses have uncovered numerous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), their functions remain largely unknown. ncRNAs assemble with proteins and operate as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) machineries, formation of which is thought to be determined by specific fundamental elements embedded in the primary RNA transcripts. Knowledge about the relationships between RNA elements, RNP machinery, and molecular and physiological functions is critical for understanding the diverse roles of ncRNAs and may eventually allow their systematic classification or “taxonomy.” In this review, we catalog and discuss representative small and long non-coding RNA classes, focusing on their currently known (and unknown) RNA elements and RNP machineries. PMID:24731943

  14. Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and Non-Coding RNAs in the Neisseria Species

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sabrina B.; Spencer-Smith, Russell; Shah, Mahwish; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Cook, Richard T.; Snyder, Lori A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Neisseria meningitidis is a closely related pathogen that shares many of the same genomic features and virulence factors, but causes the life threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. The importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation has become increasingly evident having been demonstrated to be involved in regulons responsible for iron acquisition, antigenic variation, and virulence. Neisseria spp. contain an IS-like element, the Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the genomes or to have been in the past. This repeat, present in over 100 copies in the genome, has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in several ways. We reveal here that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements tend to be near non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria spp., especially N. gonorrhoeae. These results suggest that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements may have disrupted ancestral regulatory networks not just through their influence on regulatory proteins but also for non-coding RNAs. PMID:27681925

  15. Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and Non-Coding RNAs in the Neisseria Species.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sabrina B; Spencer-Smith, Russell; Shah, Mahwish; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Cook, Richard T; Snyder, Lori A S

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Neisseria meningitidis is a closely related pathogen that shares many of the same genomic features and virulence factors, but causes the life threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. The importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation has become increasingly evident having been demonstrated to be involved in regulons responsible for iron acquisition, antigenic variation, and virulence. Neisseria spp. contain an IS-like element, the Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the genomes or to have been in the past. This repeat, present in over 100 copies in the genome, has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in several ways. We reveal here that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements tend to be near non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria spp., especially N. gonorrhoeae. These results suggest that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements may have disrupted ancestral regulatory networks not just through their influence on regulatory proteins but also for non-coding RNAs. PMID:27681925

  16. Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and Non-Coding RNAs in the Neisseria Species.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sabrina B; Spencer-Smith, Russell; Shah, Mahwish; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Cook, Richard T; Snyder, Lori A S

    2016-08-25

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Neisseria meningitidis is a closely related pathogen that shares many of the same genomic features and virulence factors, but causes the life threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. The importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation has become increasingly evident having been demonstrated to be involved in regulons responsible for iron acquisition, antigenic variation, and virulence. Neisseria spp. contain an IS-like element, the Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the genomes or to have been in the past. This repeat, present in over 100 copies in the genome, has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in several ways. We reveal here that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements tend to be near non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria spp., especially N. gonorrhoeae. These results suggest that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements may have disrupted ancestral regulatory networks not just through their influence on regulatory proteins but also for non-coding RNAs.

  17. Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements and Non-Coding RNAs in the Neisseria Species

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sabrina B.; Spencer-Smith, Russell; Shah, Mahwish; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Cook, Richard T.; Snyder, Lori A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. Neisseria meningitidis is a closely related pathogen that shares many of the same genomic features and virulence factors, but causes the life threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. The importance of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation has become increasingly evident having been demonstrated to be involved in regulons responsible for iron acquisition, antigenic variation, and virulence. Neisseria spp. contain an IS-like element, the Correia Repeat Enclosed Element, which has been predicted to be mobile within the genomes or to have been in the past. This repeat, present in over 100 copies in the genome, has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in several ways. We reveal here that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements tend to be near non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria spp., especially N. gonorrhoeae. These results suggest that Correia Repeat Enclosed Elements may have disrupted ancestral regulatory networks not just through their influence on regulatory proteins but also for non-coding RNAs.

  18. Genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids in eukaryotes by non-coding DNA occurs through CRISPR-like mechanisms in the cytosol and the bodyguard protection in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the protective function of the abundant non-coding DNA in the eukaryotic genome is discussed from the perspective of genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids. Peripheral non-coding DNA has been proposed to act as a bodyguard that protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In the proposed mechanism of protection, the radicals generated by water radiolysis in the cytosol and IR energy are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin; then, the DNA damage sites in the heterochromatin are removed and expelled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes, most likely through the formation of extrachromosomal circular DNA. To strengthen this hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of non-coding DNA against exogenous nucleic acids. Based on these data, I hypothesize herein about the presence of an additional line of defense formed by small RNAs in the cytosol in addition to their bodyguard protection mechanism in the nucleus. Therefore, exogenous nucleic acids may be initially inactivated in the cytosol by small RNAs generated from non-coding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. Exogenous nucleic acids may enter the nucleus, where some are absorbed and/or blocked by heterochromatin and others integrate into chromosomes. The integrated fragments and the sites of DNA damage are removed by repetitive non-coding DNA elements in the heterochromatin and excluded from the nucleus. Therefore, the normal eukaryotic genome and the central protein-coding sequences are triply protected by non-coding DNA against invasion by exogenous nucleic acids. This review provides evidence supporting the protective role of non-coding DNA in genome defense.

  19. Long-range correlation properties of coding and noncoding DNA sequences: GenBank analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Matsa, M. E.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    An open question in computational molecular biology is whether long-range correlations are present in both coding and noncoding DNA or only in the latter. To answer this question, we consider all 33301 coding and all 29453 noncoding eukaryotic sequences--each of length larger than 512 base pairs (bp)--in the present release of the GenBank to dtermine whether there is any statistically significant distinction in their long-range correlation properties. Standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis indicates that coding sequences have practically no correlations in the range from 10 bp to 100 bp (spectral exponent beta=0.00 +/- 0.04, where the uncertainty is two standard deviations). In contrast, for noncoding sequences, the average value of the spectral exponent beta is positive (0.16 +/- 0.05) which unambiguously shows the presence of long-range correlations. We also separately analyze the 874 coding and the 1157 noncoding sequences that have more than 4096 bp and find a larger region of power-law behavior. We calculate the probability that these two data sets (coding and noncoding) were drawn from the same distribution and we find that it is less than 10(-10). We obtain independent confirmation of these findings using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is designed to treat sequences with statistical heterogeneity, such as DNA's known mosaic structure ("patchiness") arising from the nonstationarity of nucleotide concentration. The near-perfect agreement between the two independent analysis methods, FFT and DFA, increases the confidence in the reliability of our conclusion.

  20. Comparative genomics and evolution of conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Hooman K; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent advances in the accumulation of genetic mapping and DNA sequence information from several salmonid species support the long standing view of an autopolyploid origin of these fishes (i.e., 4R). However, the paralogy relationships of the chromosomal segments descendent from earlier polyploidization events (i.e., 2R/3R) largely remain unknown, mainly due to an unbalanced pseudogenization of paralogous genes that were once resident on the ancient duplicated segments. Inter-specific conserved noncoding elements (CNE) might hold the key in identifying these regions, if they are associated with arrays of genes that have been highly conserved in syntenic blocks through evolution. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the chromosomal positions of subset of CNE in the rainbow trout genome using a comparative genomic framework. Results Through a genome wide analysis, we selected 41 pairs of adjacent CNE located on various chromosomes in zebrafish and obtained their intervening, less conserved, sequence information from rainbow trout. We identified 56 distinct fragments corresponding to about 150 Kbp of sequence data that were localized to 67 different chromosomal regions in the rainbow trout genome. The genomic positions of many duplicated CNE provided additional support for some previously suggested homeologies in this species. Additionally, we now propose 40 new potential paralogous affinities by analyzing the variation in the segregation patterns of some multi-copy CNE along with the synteny association comparison using several model vertebrates. Some of these regions appear to carry signatures of the 1R, 2R or 3R duplications. A subset of these CNE markers also demonstrated high utility in identifying homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr. Conclusion CNE seem to be more efficacious than coding sequences in providing insights into the ancient paralogous affinities within the vertebrate genomes. Such a

  1. Non-coding RNAs mediate the rearrangements of genomic DNA in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

    2013-10-01

    Most eukaryotes employ a variety of mechanisms to defend the integrity of their genome by recognizing and silencing parasitic mobile nucleic acids. However, recent studies have shown that genomic DNA undergoes extensive rearrangements, including DNA elimination, fragmentation, and unscrambling, during the sexual reproduction of ciliated protozoa. Non-coding RNAs have been identified to program and regulate genome rearrangement events. In Paramecium and Tetrahymena, scan RNAs (scnRNAs) are produced from micronuclei and transported to vegetative macronuclei, in which scnRNA elicits the elimination of cognate genomic DNA. In contrast, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in Oxytricha enable the retention of genomic DNA that exhibits sequence complementarity in macronuclei. An RNA interference (RNAi)-like mechanism has been found to direct these genomic rearrangements. Furthermore, in Oxytricha, maternal RNA templates can guide the unscrambling process of genomic DNA. The non-coding RNA-directed genome rearrangements may have profound evolutionary implications, for example, eliciting the multigenerational inheritance of acquired adaptive traits. PMID:24008384

  2. Meiotic Recombination, Noncoding DNA and Genomic Organization in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, T. M.; Kohara, Y.; Coulson, A.; Hekimi, S.

    1995-01-01

    The genetic map of each Caenorhabditis elegans chromosome has a central gene cluster (less pronounced on the X chromosome) that contains most of the mutationally defined genes. Many linkage group termini also have clusters, though involving fewer loci. We examine the factors shaping the genetic map by analyzing the rate of recombination and gene density across the genome using the positions of cloned genes and random cDNA clones from the physical map. Each chromosome has a central gene-dense region (more diffuse on the X) with discrete boundaries, flanked by gene-poor regions. Only autosomes have reduced rates of recombination in these gene-dense regions. Cluster boundaries appear discrete also by recombination rate, and the boundaries defined by recombination rate and gene density mostly, but not always, coincide. Terminal clusters have greater gene densities than the adjoining arm but similar recombination rates. Thus, unlike in other species, most exchange in C. elegans occurs in gene-poor regions. The recombination rate across each cluster is constant and similar; and cluster size and gene number per chromosome are independent of the physical size of chromosomes. We propose a model of how this genome organization arose. PMID:8536965

  3. Conservation of a triple-helix-forming RNA stability element in noncoding and genomic RNAs of diverse viruses.

    PubMed

    Tycowski, Kazimierz T; Shu, Mei-Di; Borah, Sumit; Shi, Mary; Steitz, Joan A

    2012-07-26

    Abundant expression of the long noncoding (lnc) PAN (polyadenylated nuclear) RNA by the human oncogenic gammaherpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) depends on a cis-element called the expression and nuclear retention element (ENE). The ENE upregulates PAN RNA by inhibiting its rapid nuclear decay through triple-helix formation with the poly(A) tail. Using structure-based bioinformatics, we identified six ENE-like elements in evolutionarily diverse viral genomes. Five are in double-stranded DNA viruses, including mammalian herpesviruses, insect polydnaviruses, and a protist mimivirus. One is in an insect picorna-like positive-strand RNA virus, suggesting that the ENE can counteract cytoplasmic as well as nuclear RNA decay pathways. Functionality of four of the ENEs was demonstrated by increased accumulation of an intronless polyadenylated reporter transcript in human cells. Identification of these ENEs enabled the discovery of PAN RNA homologs in two additional gammaherpesviruses, RRV and EHV2. Our findings demonstrate that searching for structural elements can lead to rapid identification of lncRNAs.

  4. Fractality and entropic scaling in the chromosomal distribution of conserved noncoding elements in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Polychronopoulos, Dimitris; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Almirantis, Yannis

    2016-06-15

    Conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) are defined using various degrees of sequence identity and thresholds of minimal length. Their conservation frequently exceeds the one observed for protein-coding sequences. We explored the chromosomal distribution of different classes of CNEs in the human genome. We employed two methodologies: the scaling of block entropy and box-counting, with the aim to assess fractal characteristics of different CNE datasets. Both approaches converged to the conclusion that well-developed fractality is characteristic of elements that are either extremely conserved between species or are of ancient origin, i.e. conserved between distant organisms across evolution. Given that CNEs are often clustered around genes, we verified by appropriate gene masking that fractal-like patterns emerge even when elements found in proximity or inside genes are excluded. An evolutionary scenario is proposed, involving genomic events that might account for fractal distribution of CNEs in the human genome as indicated through numerical simulations.

  5. Rapid Degeneration of Noncoding DNA Regions Surrounding SlAP3X/Y After Recombination Suppression in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Nishiyama, Rie; Shibata, Fukashi; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes. Previous studies of sex chromosome–linked genes have suggested a gradual divergence between the X-linked and the Y-linked genes in proportion to the distance from the pseudoautosomal region. However, such a comparison has yet to be made for the noncoding regions. To better characterize the nonrecombining region of the X and Y chromosomes, we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing the sex chromosome–linked paralogs SlAP3X and SlAP3Y, including 115 kb and 73 kb of sequences, respectively, flanking these genes. The synonymous nucleotide divergence between SlAP3X and SlAP3Y indicated that recombination stopped approximately 3.4 million years ago. Sequence homology analysis revealed the presence of six long terminal repeat retrotransposon-like elements. Using the nucleotide divergence calculated between left and right long terminal repeat sequences, insertion dates were estimated to be 0.083–1.6 million years ago, implying that all elements detected were inserted after recombination stopped. A reciprocal sequence homology search facilitated the identification of four homologous noncoding DNA regions between the X and Y chromosomes, spanning 6.7% and 10.6% of the X chromosome–derived and Y chromosome–derived sequences, respectively, investigated. Genomic Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the noncoding DNA flanking SlAP3X/Y has homology to many regions throughout the genome, regardless of whether they were homologous between the X and Y chromosomes. This finding suggests that most noncoding DNA regions rapidly lose their counterparts because of the introduction of transposable elements and indels (insertion–deletions) after recombination has stopped. PMID:24122056

  6. Dynamic expression of long noncoding RNAs and repeat elements in synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Maag, Jesper L. V.; Panja, Debabrata; Sporild, Ida; Patil, Sudarshan; Kaczorowski, Dominik C.; Bramham, Clive R.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Wibrand, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is recognized as a cellular mechanism for learning and memory storage. Although de novo gene transcription is known to be required in the formation of stable LTP, the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity remain elusive. Noncoding RNAs have emerged as major regulatory molecules that are abundantly and specifically expressed in the mammalian brain. By combining RNA-seq analysis with LTP induction in the dentate gyrus of live rats, we provide the first global transcriptomic analysis of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Expression profiles of mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were obtained at 30 min, 2 and 5 h after high-frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway. The temporal analysis revealed dynamic expression profiles of lncRNAs with many positively, and highly, correlated to protein-coding genes with known roles in synaptic plasticity, suggesting their possible involvement in LTP. In light of observations suggesting a role for retrotransposons in brain function, we examined the expression of various classes of repeat elements. Our analysis identifies dynamic regulation of LINE1 and SINE retrotransposons, and extensive regulation of tRNA. These experiments reveal a hitherto unknown complexity of gene expression in long-term synaptic plasticity involving the dynamic regulation of lncRNAs and repeat elements. These findings provide a broader foundation for elucidating the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of synaptic plasticity in both the healthy brain and in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26483626

  7. Dual regulatory effects of non-coding GC-rich elements on the expression of virulence genes in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guiying; Zhao, Yuemeng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Pan, Weiqing

    2015-12-01

    As the primary virulence factor of falciparum malaria, var genes harboring mutually exclusive expression pattern lead to antigenic variation and immune evasion of this pathogen in human host. Although various mechanisms contribute to silence of var genes, little is known of transcriptional activation pathways of a single var gene and maintenance of its active state with other silent var loci. Here, we report a monoallelic expression pattern of the non-coding GC-elements flanking chromosomal internal var genes, and transcript from the active one was required for activation of the var gene in the same array. Meanwhile, GFP reporter assays revealed a repressive effect on the adjacent gene induced by DNA motifs of the insulator-like GC-element, which was linked to heterochromatin subnuclear localization. Taken together, these data for the first time provide experimental evidence of the dual cis- and trans-acting regulatory functions of the GC-elements in both silence and activation of var genes, which would advance our understanding of the complex regulatory network of the virulence gene family in P. falciparum.

  8. Long noncoding RNA LINP1 regulates double strand DNA break repair in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youyou; He, Qun; Hu, Zhongyi; Feng, Yi; Fan, Lingling; Tang, Zhaoqing; Yuan, Jiao; Shan, Weiwei; Li, Chunsheng; Hu, Xiaowen; Tanyi, Janos L; Fan, Yi; Huang, Qihong; Montone, Kathleen; Dang, Chi V; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are transcripts that are larger than 200 nucleotides but do not appear to have protein-coding potential, play critical roles during tumorigenesis by functioning as scaffolds to regulate protein-protein, protein-DNA or protein-RNA interactions. Using a clinically guided genetic screening approach, we identified (lncRNA in Non-homologous end joining [NHEJ] pathway 1) as a lncRNA that is overexpressed in human triple-negative breast cancer. We found that LINP1 enhances double-strand DNA break repair by serving as a scaffold that links Ku80 and DNA-PKcs, thereby coordinating the NHEJ pathway. Importantly, blocking LINP1, which is regulated by the p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, increases sensitivity of tumor cell response to radiotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27111890

  9. Non-Coding RNA: Sequence-Specific Guide for Chromatin Modification and DNA Damage Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports show their involvement in DDR. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair. PMID:26617633

  10. The domain structure and distribution of Alu elements in long noncoding RNAs and mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene Z; Wespiser, Adam R; Caffrey, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 75% of the human genome is transcribed and many of these spliced transcripts contain primate-specific Alu elements, the most abundant mobile element in the human genome. The majority of exonized Alu elements are located in long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and the untranslated regions of mRNA, with some performing molecular functions. To further assess the potential for Alu elements to be repurposed as functional RNA domains, we investigated the distribution and evolution of Alu elements in spliced transcripts. Our analysis revealed that Alu elements are underrepresented in mRNAs and lncRNAs, suggesting that most exonized Alu elements arising in the population are rare or deleterious to RNA function. When mRNAs and lncRNAs retain exonized Alu elements, they have a clear preference for Alu dimers, left monomers, and right monomers. mRNAs often acquire Alu elements when their genes are duplicated within Alu-rich regions. In lncRNAs, reverse-oriented Alu elements are significantly enriched and are not restricted to the 3' and 5' ends. Both lncRNAs and mRNAs primarily contain the Alu J and S subfamilies that were amplified relatively early in primate evolution. Alu J subfamilies are typically overrepresented in lncRNAs, whereas the Alu S dimer is overrepresented in mRNAs. The sequences of Alu dimers tend to be constrained in both lncRNAs and mRNAs, whereas the left and right monomers are constrained within particular Alu subfamilies and classes of RNA. Collectively, these findings suggest that Alu-containing RNAs are capable of forming stable structures and that some of these Alu domains might have novel biological functions.

  11. The tortoise and the hare II: relative utility of 21 noncoding chloroplast DNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joey; Lickey, Edgar B; Beck, John T; Farmer, Susan B; Liu, Wusheng; Miller, Jermey; Siripun, Kunsiri C; Winder, Charles T; Schilling, Edward E; Small, Randall L

    2005-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences are a primary source of data for plant molecular systematic studies. A few key papers have provided the molecular systematics community with universal primer pairs for noncoding regions that have dominated the field, namely trnL-trnF and trnK/matK. These two regions have provided adequate information to resolve species relationships in some taxa, but often provide little resolution at low taxonomic levels. To obtain better phylogenetic resolution, sequence data from these regions are often coupled with other sequence data. Choosing an appropriate cpDNA region for phylogenetic investigation is difficult because of the scarcity of information about the tempo of evolutionary rates among different noncoding cpDNA regions. The focus of this investigation was to determine whether there is any predictable rate heterogeneity among 21 noncoding cpDNA regions identified as phylogenetically useful at low levels. To test for rate heterogeneity among the different cpDNA regions, we used three species from each of 10 groups representing eight major phylogenetic lineages of phanerogams. The results of this study clearly show that a survey using as few as three representative taxa can be predictive of the amount of phylogenetic information offered by a cpDNA region and that rate heterogeneity exists among noncoding cpDNA regions.

  12. The tortoise and the hare II: relative utility of 21 noncoding chloroplast DNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joey; Lickey, Edgar B; Beck, John T; Farmer, Susan B; Liu, Wusheng; Miller, Jermey; Siripun, Kunsiri C; Winder, Charles T; Schilling, Edward E; Small, Randall L

    2005-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences are a primary source of data for plant molecular systematic studies. A few key papers have provided the molecular systematics community with universal primer pairs for noncoding regions that have dominated the field, namely trnL-trnF and trnK/matK. These two regions have provided adequate information to resolve species relationships in some taxa, but often provide little resolution at low taxonomic levels. To obtain better phylogenetic resolution, sequence data from these regions are often coupled with other sequence data. Choosing an appropriate cpDNA region for phylogenetic investigation is difficult because of the scarcity of information about the tempo of evolutionary rates among different noncoding cpDNA regions. The focus of this investigation was to determine whether there is any predictable rate heterogeneity among 21 noncoding cpDNA regions identified as phylogenetically useful at low levels. To test for rate heterogeneity among the different cpDNA regions, we used three species from each of 10 groups representing eight major phylogenetic lineages of phanerogams. The results of this study clearly show that a survey using as few as three representative taxa can be predictive of the amount of phylogenetic information offered by a cpDNA region and that rate heterogeneity exists among noncoding cpDNA regions. PMID:21652394

  13. Role of Conserved Non-Coding Regulatory Elements in LMW Glutenin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, Angéla; Makai, Szabolcs; Sebestyén, Endre; Tamás, László; Balázs, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of LMW glutenin genes were investigated in-silico, using publicly available gene sequences and expression data. Genes were grouped into different LMW glutenin types and their promoter profiles were determined using cis-acting regulatory elements databases and published results. The various cis-acting elements belong to some conserved non-coding regulatory regions (CREs) and might act in two different ways. There are elements, such as GCN4 motifs found in the long endosperm box that could serve as key factors in tissue-specific expression. Some other elements, such as the AACA/TA motifs or the individual prolamin box variants, might modulate the level of expression. Based on the promoter sequences and expression characteristic LMW glutenin genes might be transcribed following two different mechanisms. Most of the s- and i-type genes show a continuously increasing expression pattern. The m-type genes, however, demonstrate normal distribution in their expression profiles. Differences observed in their expression could be related to the differences found in their promoter sequences. Polymorphisms in the number and combination of cis-acting elements in their promoter regions can be of crucial importance in the diverse levels of production of single LMW glutenin gene types. PMID:22242127

  14. ICR noncoding RNA expression controls imprinting and DNA replication at the Dlk1-Dio3 domain.

    PubMed

    Kota, Satya K; Llères, David; Bouschet, Tristan; Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Marchand, Alice; Begon-Pescia, Christina; Sanli, Ildem; Arnaud, Philippe; Journot, Laurent; Girardot, Michael; Feil, Robert

    2014-10-13

    Imprinted genes play essential roles in development, and their allelic expression is mediated by imprinting control regions (ICRs). The Dlk1-Dio3 locus is among the few imprinted domains controlled by a paternally methylated ICR. The unmethylated maternal copy activates imprinted expression early in development through an unknown mechanism. We find that in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in blastocysts, this function is linked to maternal, bidirectional expression of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the ICR. Disruption of ICR ncRNA expression in ESCs affected gene expression in cis, led to acquisition of aberrant histone and DNA methylation, delayed replication timing along the domain on the maternal chromosome, and changed its subnuclear localization. The epigenetic alterations persisted during differentiation and affected the neurogenic potential of the stem cells. Our data indicate that monoallelic expression at an ICR of enhancer RNA-like ncRNAs controls imprinted gene expression, epigenetic maintenance processes, and DNA replication in embryonic cells.

  15. MEG3 long noncoding RNA regulates the TGF-β pathway genes through formation of RNA–DNA triplex structures

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Tanmoy; Subhash, Santhilal; Vaid, Roshan; Enroth, Stefan; Uday, Sireesha; Reinius, Björn; Mitra, Sanhita; Mohammed, Arif; James, Alva Rani; Hoberg, Emily; Moustakas, Aristidis; Gyllensten, Ulf; Jones, Steven J.M.; Gustafsson, Claes M; Sims, Andrew H; Westerlund, Fredrik; Gorab, Eduardo; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression by association with chromatin, but how they target chromatin remains poorly understood. We have used chromatin RNA immunoprecipitation-coupled high-throughput sequencing to identify 276 lncRNAs enriched in repressive chromatin from breast cancer cells. Using one of the chromatin-interacting lncRNAs, MEG3, we explore the mechanisms by which lncRNAs target chromatin. Here we show that MEG3 and EZH2 share common target genes, including the TGF-β pathway genes. Genome-wide mapping of MEG3 binding sites reveals that MEG3 modulates the activity of TGF-β genes by binding to distal regulatory elements. MEG3 binding sites have GA-rich sequences, which guide MEG3 to the chromatin through RNA–DNA triplex formation. We have found that RNA–DNA triplex structures are widespread and are present over the MEG3 binding sites associated with the TGF-β pathway genes. Our findings suggest that RNA–DNA triplex formation could be a general characteristic of target gene recognition by the chromatin-interacting lncRNAs. PMID:26205790

  16. An Abundant Class of Non-coding DNA Can Prevent Stochastic Gene Silencing in the C. elegans Germline.

    PubMed

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Jain, Nimit; Hansen, Loren; Davis, M Wayne; Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Rebora, Karine; Millet, Jonathan R M; Liu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K; Dupuy, Denis; Jorgensen, Erik M; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-07-14

    Cells benefit from silencing foreign genetic elements but must simultaneously avoid inactivating endogenous genes. Although chromatin modifications and RNAs contribute to maintenance of silenced states, the establishment of silenced regions will inevitably reflect underlying DNA sequence and/or structure. Here, we demonstrate that a pervasive non-coding DNA feature in Caenorhabditis elegans, characterized by 10-base pair periodic An/Tn-clusters (PATCs), can license transgenes for germline expression within repressive chromatin domains. Transgenes containing natural or synthetic PATCs are resistant to position effect variegation and stochastic silencing in the germline. Among endogenous genes, intron length and PATC-character undergo dramatic changes as orthologs move from active to repressive chromatin over evolutionary time, indicating a dynamic character to the An/Tn periodicity. We propose that PATCs form the basis of a cellular immune system, identifying certain endogenous genes in heterochromatic contexts as privileged while foreign DNA can be suppressed with no requirement for a cellular memory of prior exposure. PMID:27374334

  17. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences through chaos-game representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mayukha; Satish, B.; Srinivas, K.; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new approach combining the chaos game representation and the two dimensional multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis methods to examine multifractal behavior in power law cross correlation between any pair of nucleotide sequences of unequal lengths. In this work, we analyzed the characteristic behavior of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of eight prokaryotes. The results show the presence of strong multifractal nature between coding and non-coding sequences of all data sets. We found that this integrative approach helps us to consider complete DNA sequences for characterization, and further it may be useful for classification, clustering, identification of class affiliation of nucleotide sequences etc. with high precision.

  18. Transposable elements: from DNA parasites to architects of metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Piskurek, Oliver; Jackson, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    One of the most unexpected insights that followed from the completion of the human genome a decade ago was that more than half of our DNA is derived from transposable elements (TEs). Due to advances in high throughput sequencing technologies it is now clear that TEs comprise the largest molecular class within most metazoan genomes. TEs, once categorised as "junk DNA", are now known to influence genomic structure and function by increasing the coding and non-coding genetic repertoire of the host. In this way TEs are key elements that stimulate the evolution of metazoan genomes. This review highlights several lines of TE research including the horizontal transfer of TEs through host-parasite interactions, the vertical maintenance of TEs over long periods of evolutionary time, and the direct role that TEs have played in generating morphological novelty.

  19. Non-extensive trends in the size distribution of coding and non-coding DNA sequences in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Th.; Provata, A.

    2006-03-01

    We study the primary DNA structure of four of the most completely sequenced human chromosomes (including chromosome 19 which is the most dense in coding), using non-extensive statistics. We show that the exponents governing the spatial decay of the coding size distributions vary between 5.2 ≤r ≤5.7 for the short scales and 1.45 ≤q ≤1.50 for the large scales. On the contrary, the exponents governing the spatial decay of the non-coding size distributions in these four chromosomes, take the values 2.4 ≤r ≤3.2 for the short scales and 1.50 ≤q ≤1.72 for the large scales. These results, in particular the values of the tail exponent q, indicate the existence of correlations in the coding and non-coding size distributions with tendency for higher correlations in the non-coding DNA.

  20. Small Open Reading Frames, Non-Coding RNAs and Repetitive Elements in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Julia; Tsoy, Olga V.; Thalmann, Sebastian; Čuklina, Jelena; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    Small open reading frames (sORFs) and genes for non-coding RNAs are poorly investigated components of most genomes. Our analysis of 1391 ORFs recently annotated in the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 revealed that 78% of them contain less than 80 codons. Twenty-one of these sORFs are conserved in or outside Alphaproteobacteria and most of them are similar to genes found in transposable elements, in line with their broad distribution. Stabilizing selection was demonstrated for sORFs with proteomic evidence and bll1319_ISGA which is conserved at the nucleotide level in 16 alphaproteobacterial species, 79 species from other taxa and 49 other Proteobacteria. Further we used Northern blot hybridization to validate ten small RNAs (BjsR1 to BjsR10) belonging to new RNA families. We found that BjsR1 and BjsR3 have homologs outside the genus Bradyrhizobium, and BjsR5, BjsR6, BjsR7, and BjsR10 have up to four imperfect copies in Bradyrhizobium genomes. BjsR8, BjsR9, and BjsR10 are present exclusively in nodules, while the other sRNAs are also expressed in liquid cultures. We also found that the level of BjsR4 decreases after exposure to tellurite and iron, and this down-regulation contributes to survival under high iron conditions. Analysis of additional small RNAs overlapping with 3’-UTRs revealed two new repetitive elements named Br-REP1 and Br-REP2. These REP elements may play roles in the genomic plasticity and gene regulation and could be useful for strain identification by PCR-fingerprinting. Furthermore, we studied two potential toxin genes in the symbiotic island and confirmed toxicity of the yhaV homolog bll1687 but not of the newly annotated higB homolog blr0229_ISGA in E. coli. Finally, we revealed transcription interference resulting in an antisense RNA complementary to blr1853, a gene induced in symbiosis. The presented results expand our knowledge on sORFs, non-coding RNAs and repetitive elements in B. japonicum and related bacteria. PMID

  1. The dark matter of the cancer genome: aberrations in regulatory elements, untranslated regions, splice sites, non-coding RNA and synonymous mutations.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Sven; Bartsch, Lorenz; Berkmann, Julia C; Fröse, Karin; Heitmann, Jana; Hoppe, Caroline; Iggena, Deetje; Jazmati, Danny; Karschnia, Philipp; Linsenmeier, Miriam; Maulhardt, Thomas; Möhrmann, Lino; Morstein, Johannes; Paffenholz, Stella V; Röpenack, Paula; Rückert, Timo; Sandig, Ludger; Schell, Maximilian; Steinmann, Anna; Voss, Gjendine; Wasmuth, Jacqueline; Weinberger, Maria E; Wullenkord, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of the genome caused by oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inhibition. Deep sequencing studies including large consortia such as TCGA and ICGC identified numerous tumor-specific mutations not only in protein-coding sequences but also in non-coding sequences. Although 98% of the genome is not translated into proteins, most studies have neglected the information hidden in this "dark matter" of the genome. Malignancy-driving mutations can occur in all genetic elements outside the coding region, namely in enhancer, silencer, insulator, and promoter as well as in 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR Intron or splice site mutations can alter the splicing pattern. Moreover, cancer genomes contain mutations within non-coding RNA, such as microRNA, lncRNA, and lincRNA A synonymous mutation changes the coding region in the DNA and RNA but not the protein sequence. Importantly, oncogenes such as TERT or miR-21 as well as tumor suppressor genes such as TP53/p53, APC, BRCA1, or RB1 can be affected by these alterations. In summary, coding-independent mutations can affect gene regulation from transcription, splicing, mRNA stability to translation, and hence, this largely neglected area needs functional studies to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. This review will focus on the important role and novel mechanisms of these non-coding or allegedly silent mutations in tumorigenesis.

  2. The dark matter of the cancer genome: aberrations in regulatory elements, untranslated regions, splice sites, non-coding RNA and synonymous mutations.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Sven; Bartsch, Lorenz; Berkmann, Julia C; Fröse, Karin; Heitmann, Jana; Hoppe, Caroline; Iggena, Deetje; Jazmati, Danny; Karschnia, Philipp; Linsenmeier, Miriam; Maulhardt, Thomas; Möhrmann, Lino; Morstein, Johannes; Paffenholz, Stella V; Röpenack, Paula; Rückert, Timo; Sandig, Ludger; Schell, Maximilian; Steinmann, Anna; Voss, Gjendine; Wasmuth, Jacqueline; Weinberger, Maria E; Wullenkord, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of the genome caused by oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inhibition. Deep sequencing studies including large consortia such as TCGA and ICGC identified numerous tumor-specific mutations not only in protein-coding sequences but also in non-coding sequences. Although 98% of the genome is not translated into proteins, most studies have neglected the information hidden in this "dark matter" of the genome. Malignancy-driving mutations can occur in all genetic elements outside the coding region, namely in enhancer, silencer, insulator, and promoter as well as in 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR Intron or splice site mutations can alter the splicing pattern. Moreover, cancer genomes contain mutations within non-coding RNA, such as microRNA, lncRNA, and lincRNA A synonymous mutation changes the coding region in the DNA and RNA but not the protein sequence. Importantly, oncogenes such as TERT or miR-21 as well as tumor suppressor genes such as TP53/p53, APC, BRCA1, or RB1 can be affected by these alterations. In summary, coding-independent mutations can affect gene regulation from transcription, splicing, mRNA stability to translation, and hence, this largely neglected area needs functional studies to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. This review will focus on the important role and novel mechanisms of these non-coding or allegedly silent mutations in tumorigenesis. PMID:26992833

  3. Ancora: a web resource for exploring highly conserved noncoding elements and their association with developmental regulatory genes

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Pär G; Fredman, David; Lenhard, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Metazoan genomes contain arrays of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs) that span developmental regulatory genes and define regulatory domains. We describe Ancora , a web resource that provides data and tools for exploring genomic organization of HCNEs for multiple genomes. Ancora includes a genome browser that shows HCNE locations and features novel HCNE density plots as a powerful tool to discover developmental regulatory genes and distinguish their regulatory elements and domains. PMID:18279518

  4. Genetic evidence for conserved non-coding element function across species–the ears have it

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Eric E.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of genomic sequences from diverse vertebrate species has revealed numerous highly conserved regions that do not appear to encode proteins or functional RNAs. Often these “conserved non-coding elements,” or CNEs, can direct gene expression to specific tissues in transgenic models, demonstrating they have regulatory function. CNEs are frequently found near “developmental” genes, particularly transcription factors, implying that these elements have essential regulatory roles in development. However, actual examples demonstrating CNE regulatory functions across species have been few, and recent loss-of-function studies of several CNEs in mice have shown relatively minor effects. In this Perspectives article, we discuss new findings in “fancy” rats and Highland cattle demonstrating that function of a CNE near the Hmx1 gene is crucial for normal external ear development and when disrupted can mimic loss-of function Hmx1 coding mutations in mice and humans. These findings provide important support for conserved developmental roles of CNEs in divergent species, and reinforce the concept that CNEs should be examined systematically in the ongoing search for genetic causes of human developmental disorders in the era of genome-scale sequencing. PMID:24478720

  5. Genetic evidence for conserved non-coding element function across species-the ears have it.

    PubMed

    Turner, Eric E; Cox, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of genomic sequences from diverse vertebrate species has revealed numerous highly conserved regions that do not appear to encode proteins or functional RNAs. Often these "conserved non-coding elements," or CNEs, can direct gene expression to specific tissues in transgenic models, demonstrating they have regulatory function. CNEs are frequently found near "developmental" genes, particularly transcription factors, implying that these elements have essential regulatory roles in development. However, actual examples demonstrating CNE regulatory functions across species have been few, and recent loss-of-function studies of several CNEs in mice have shown relatively minor effects. In this Perspectives article, we discuss new findings in "fancy" rats and Highland cattle demonstrating that function of a CNE near the Hmx1 gene is crucial for normal external ear development and when disrupted can mimic loss-of function Hmx1 coding mutations in mice and humans. These findings provide important support for conserved developmental roles of CNEs in divergent species, and reinforce the concept that CNEs should be examined systematically in the ongoing search for genetic causes of human developmental disorders in the era of genome-scale sequencing. PMID:24478720

  6. DNA methylation patterns of protein coding genes and long noncoding RNAs in female schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qi; Wang, Yunliang; Cheng, Jia; Dai, Dongjun; Zhou, Xingyu; Zhang, Yuzheng; Gao, Shugui; Duan, Shiwei

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder contributed by both genetic and epigenetic factors. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was recently found playing an important regulatory role in mental disorders. However, little was known about the DNA methylation of lncRNAs, although numerous SCZ studies have been performed on genetic polymorphisms or epigenetic marks in protein coding genes. We presented a comprehensive genome wide DNA methylation study of both protein coding genes and lncRNAs in female patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ. Using the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-seq), 8,163 and 764 peaks were identified in paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively (p < 1 × 10-5). Gene ontology analysis showed that the hypermethylated regions were enriched in the genes related to neuron system and brain for both paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ (p < 0.05). Among these peaks, 121 peaks were located in gene promoter regions that might affect gene expression and influence the SCZ related pathways. Interestingly, DNA methylation of 136 and 23 known lncRNAs in Refseq database were identified in paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively. In addition, ∼20% of intergenic peaks annotated based on Refseq genes were overlapped with lncRNAs in UCSC and gencode databases. In order to show the results well for most biological researchers, we created an online database to display and visualize the information of DNA methyation peaks in both types of SCZ (http://www.bioinfo.org/scz/scz.htm). Our results showed that the aberrant DNA methylation of lncRNAs might be another important epigenetic factor for SCZ.

  7. Worldwide DNA sequence variation in a 10-kilobase noncoding region on human chromosome 22.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Jin, L; Fu, Y X; Ramsay, M; Jenkins, T; Leskinen, E; Pamilo, P; Trexler, M; Patthy, L; Jorde, L B; Ramos-Onsins, S; Yu, N; Li, W H

    2000-10-10

    Human DNA sequence variation data are useful for studying the origin, evolution, and demographic history of modern humans and the mechanisms of maintenance of genetic variability in human populations, and for detecting linkage association of disease. Here, we report worldwide variation data from a approximately 10-kilobase noncoding autosomal region. We identified 75 variant sites in 64 humans (128 sequences) and 463 variant sites among the human, chimpanzee, and orangutan sequences. Statistical tests suggested that the region is selectively neutral. The average nucleotide diversity (pi) across the region was 0.088% among all of the human sequences obtained, 0.085% among African sequences, and 0.082% among non-African sequences, supporting the view of a low nucleotide diversity ( approximately 0.1%) in humans. The comparable pi value in non-Africans to that in Africans indicates no severe bottleneck during the evolution of modern non-Africans; however, the possibility of a mild bottleneck cannot be excluded because non-Africans showed considerably fewer variants than Africans. The present and two previous large data sets all show a strong excess of low frequency variants in comparison to that expected from an equilibrium population, indicating a relatively recent population expansion. The mutation rate was estimated to be 1.15 x 10(-9) per nucleotide per year. Estimates of the long-term effective population size N(e) by various statistical methods were similar to those in other studies. The age of the most recent common ancestor was estimated to be approximately 1.29 million years ago among all of the sequences obtained and approximately 634,000 years ago among the non-African sequences, providing the first evidence from a noncoding autosomal region for ancient human histories, even among non-Africans.

  8. Ancient vertebrate conserved noncoding elements have been evolving rapidly in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison P; Kerk, Sze Yen; Tan, Yue Ying; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2011-03-01

    Vertebrate genomes contain thousands of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) that often function as tissue-specific enhancers. In this study, we have identified CNEs in human, dog, chicken, Xenopus, and four teleost fishes (zebrafish, stickleback, medaka, and fugu) using elephant shark, a cartilaginous vertebrate, as the base genome and investigated the evolution of these ancient vertebrate CNEs (aCNEs) in bony vertebrate lineages. Our analysis shows that aCNEs have been evolving at different rates in different bony vertebrate lineages. Although 78-83% of CNEs have diverged beyond recognition ("lost") in different teleost fishes, only 24% and 40% have been lost in the chicken and mammalian lineages, respectively. Relative rate tests of substitution rates in CNEs revealed that the teleost fish CNEs have been evolving at a significantly higher rate than those in other bony vertebrates. In the ray-finned fish lineage, 68% of aCNEs were lost before the divergence of the four teleosts. This implicates the "fish-specific" whole-genome duplication in the accelerated evolution and the loss of a large number of both copies of duplicated CNEs in teleost fishes. The aCNEs are rich in tissue-specific enhancers and thus many of them are likely to be evolutionarily constrained cis-regulatory elements. The rapid evolution of aCNEs might have affected the expression patterns driven by them. Transgenic zebrafish assay of some human CNE enhancers that have been lost in teleosts has indicated instances of conservation or changes in trans-acting factors between mammals and fishes. PMID:21081479

  9. Structure-aided prediction of mammalian transcription factor complexes in conserved non-coding elements.

    PubMed

    Guturu, Harendra; Doxey, Andrew C; Wenger, Aaron M; Bejerano, Gill

    2013-12-19

    Mapping the DNA-binding preferences of transcription factor (TF) complexes is critical for deciphering the functions of cis-regulatory elements. Here, we developed a computational method that compares co-occurring motif spacings in conserved versus unconserved regions of the human genome to detect evolutionarily constrained binding sites of rigid TF complexes. Structural data were used to estimate TF complex physical plausibility, explore overlapping motif arrangements seldom tackled by non-structure-aware methods, and generate and analyse three-dimensional models of the predicted complexes bound to DNA. Using this approach, we predicted 422 physically realistic TF complex motifs at 18% false discovery rate, the majority of which (326, 77%) contain some sequence overlap between binding sites. The set of mostly novel complexes is enriched in known composite motifs, predictive of binding site configurations in TF-TF-DNA crystal structures, and supported by ChIP-seq datasets. Structural modelling revealed three cooperativity mechanisms: direct protein-protein interactions, potentially indirect interactions and 'through-DNA' interactions. Indeed, 38% of the predicted complexes were found to contain four or more bases in which TF pairs appear to synergize through overlapping binding to the same DNA base pairs in opposite grooves or strands. Our TF complex and associated binding site predictions are available as a web resource at http://bejerano.stanford.edu/complex.

  10. Promiscuity of enhancer, coding and non-coding transcription functions in ultraconserved elements

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultraconserved elements (UCEs) are highly constrained elements of mammalian genomes, whose functional role has not been completely elucidated yet. Previous studies have shown that some of them act as enhancers in mouse, while some others are expressed in both normal and cancer-derived human tissues. Only one UCE element so far was shown to present these two functions concomitantly, as had been observed in other isolated instances of single, non ultraconserved enhancer elements. Results We used a custom microarray to assess the levels of UCE transcription during mouse development and integrated these data with published microarray and next-generation sequencing datasets as well as with newly produced PCR validation experiments. We show that a large fraction of non-exonic UCEs is transcribed across all developmental stages examined from only one DNA strand. Although the nature of these transcripts remains a mistery, our meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets indicates that they are unlikely to be short RNAs and that some of them might encode nuclear transcripts. In the majority of cases this function overlaps with the already established enhancer function of these elements during mouse development. Utilizing several next-generation sequencing datasets, we were further able to show that the level of expression observed in non-exonic UCEs is significantly higher than in random regions of the genome and that this is also seen in other regions which act as enhancers. Conclusion Our data shows that the concurrent presence of enhancer and transcript function in non-exonic UCE elements is more widespread than previously shown. Moreover through our own experiments as well as the use of next-generation sequencing datasets, we were able to show that the RNAs encoded by non-exonic UCEs are likely to be long RNAs transcribed from only one DNA strand. PMID:20202189

  11. Coding and non-coding DNA thermal stability differences in eukaryotes studied by melting simulation, base shuffling and DNA nearest neighbor frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Long, Dang D; Grosse, Ivo; Marx, Kenneth A

    2004-07-01

    The melting of the coding and non-coding classes of natural DNA sequences was investigated using a program, MELTSIM, which simulates DNA melting based upon an empirically parameterized nearest neighbor thermodynamic model. We calculated T(m) results of 8144 natural sequences from 28 eukaryotic organisms of varying F(GC) (mole fraction of G and C) and of 3775 coding and 3297 non-coding sequences derived from those natural sequences. These data demonstrated that the T(m) vs. F(GC) relationships in coding and non-coding DNAs are both linear but have a statistically significant difference (6.6%) in their slopes. These relationships are significantly different from the T(m) vs. F(GC) relationship embodied in the classical Marmur-Schildkraut-Doty (MSD) equation for the intact long natural sequences. By analyzing the simulation results from various base shufflings of the original DNAs and the average nearest neighbor frequencies of those natural sequences across the F(GC) range, we showed that these differences in the T(m) vs. F(GC) relationships are largely a direct result of systematic F(GC)-dependent biases in nearest neighbor frequencies for those two different DNA classes. Those differences in the T(m) vs. F(GC) relationships and biases in nearest neighbor frequencies also appear between the sequences from multicellular and unicellular organisms in the same coding or non-coding classes, albeit of smaller but significant magnitudes.

  12. Coding and non-coding DNA thermal stability differences in eukaryotes studied by melting simulation, base shuffling and DNA nearest neighbor frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Long, Dang D; Grosse, Ivo; Marx, Kenneth A

    2004-07-01

    The melting of the coding and non-coding classes of natural DNA sequences was investigated using a program, MELTSIM, which simulates DNA melting based upon an empirically parameterized nearest neighbor thermodynamic model. We calculated T(m) results of 8144 natural sequences from 28 eukaryotic organisms of varying F(GC) (mole fraction of G and C) and of 3775 coding and 3297 non-coding sequences derived from those natural sequences. These data demonstrated that the T(m) vs. F(GC) relationships in coding and non-coding DNAs are both linear but have a statistically significant difference (6.6%) in their slopes. These relationships are significantly different from the T(m) vs. F(GC) relationship embodied in the classical Marmur-Schildkraut-Doty (MSD) equation for the intact long natural sequences. By analyzing the simulation results from various base shufflings of the original DNAs and the average nearest neighbor frequencies of those natural sequences across the F(GC) range, we showed that these differences in the T(m) vs. F(GC) relationships are largely a direct result of systematic F(GC)-dependent biases in nearest neighbor frequencies for those two different DNA classes. Those differences in the T(m) vs. F(GC) relationships and biases in nearest neighbor frequencies also appear between the sequences from multicellular and unicellular organisms in the same coding or non-coding classes, albeit of smaller but significant magnitudes. PMID:15223141

  13. Translating the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements Project findings to the clinic: ENCODE's implications for eye disease.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10 years after the Human Genome Project unravelled the sequence of our DNA, the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project sought to interpret it. Data from the recently completed project have shed new light on the proportion of biologically active human DNA, assigning a biochemical role to much of the sequence previously considered to be 'junk'. Many of these newly catalogued functional elements represent epigenetic mechanisms involved in regulation of gene expression. Analogous to an Ishihara plate, a gene-coding region of DNA (target dots) only comes into context when the non-coding DNA (surrounding dots) is appreciated. In this review we provide an overview of the ENCODE project, discussing the significance of these data for ophthalmic research and eye disease. The novel insights afforded by the ENCODE project will in time allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies in the management of common blinding disorders.

  14. BioCode: Two biologically compatible Algorithms for embedding data in non-coding and coding regions of DNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent times, the application of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has diversified with the emergence of fields such as DNA computing and DNA data embedding. DNA data embedding, also known as DNA watermarking or DNA steganography, aims to develop robust algorithms for encoding non-genetic information in DNA. Inherently DNA is a digital medium whereby the nucleotide bases act as digital symbols, a fact which underpins all bioinformatics techniques, and which also makes trivial information encoding using DNA straightforward. However, the situation is more complex in methods which aim at embedding information in the genomes of living organisms. DNA is susceptible to mutations, which act as a noisy channel from the point of view of information encoded using DNA. This means that the DNA data embedding field is closely related to digital communications. Moreover it is a particularly unique digital communications area, because important biological constraints must be observed by all methods. Many DNA data embedding algorithms have been presented to date, all of which operate in one of two regions: non-coding DNA (ncDNA) or protein-coding DNA (pcDNA). Results This paper proposes two novel DNA data embedding algorithms jointly called BioCode, which operate in ncDNA and pcDNA, respectively, and which comply fully with stricter biological restrictions. Existing methods comply with some elementary biological constraints, such as preserving protein translation in pcDNA. However there exist further biological restrictions which no DNA data embedding methods to date account for. Observing these constraints is key to increasing the biocompatibility and in turn, the robustness of information encoded in DNA. Conclusion The algorithms encode information in near optimal ways from a coding point of view, as we demonstrate by means of theoretical and empirical (in silico) analyses. Also, they are shown to encode information in a robust way, such that mutations have isolated

  15. Profiling of conserved non-coding elements upstream of SHOX and functional characterisation of the SHOX cis-regulatory landscape

    PubMed Central

    Verdin, Hannah; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Janssens, Sandra; Callewaert, Bert; Waele, Kathleen De; Schepper, Jean De; François, Inge; Menten, Björn; Heath, Karen E.; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Baere, Elfride De

    2015-01-01

    Genetic defects such as copy number variations (CNVs) in non-coding regions containing conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) outside the transcription unit of their target gene, can underlie genetic disease. An example of this is the short stature homeobox (SHOX) gene, regulated by seven CNEs located downstream and upstream of SHOX, with proven enhancer capacity in chicken limbs. CNVs of the downstream CNEs have been reported in many idiopathic short stature (ISS) cases, however, only recently have a few CNVs of the upstream enhancers been identified. Here, we set out to provide insight into: (i) the cis-regulatory role of these upstream CNEs in human cells, (ii) the prevalence of upstream CNVs in ISS, and (iii) the chromatin architecture of the SHOX cis-regulatory landscape in chicken and human cells. Firstly, luciferase assays in human U2OS cells, and 4C-seq both in chicken limb buds and human U2OS cells, demonstrated cis-regulatory enhancer capacities of the upstream CNEs. Secondly, CNVs of these upstream CNEs were found in three of 501 ISS patients. Finally, our 4C-seq interaction map of the SHOX region reveals a cis-regulatory domain spanning more than 1 Mb and harbouring putative new cis-regulatory elements. PMID:26631348

  16. Double hairpin elements and tandem repeats in the non-coding region of Adenoides eludens chloroplast gene minicircles.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha J; Green, Beverley R

    2005-09-26

    Dinoflagellate plastid genomes are unique in having a reduced number of genes, most of which are found on unigenic minicircles of 2-3 kb. Although the dinoflagellate Adenoides eludens has larger minicircles of about 5 kb, they still carry only one gene. In addition, digenic circles of about 10 kb were detected and mapped by PCR. The non-coding regions of both unigenic and digenic circles share a number of common features including a pair of conserved cores in opposite orientation, four large families of tandem repeats and a number of double hairpin elements (DHEs). They most closely resemble the non-coding regions of the Symbiodinium psbA minicircles, but are much longer, less conserved and have an even greater variety of DHEs and tandem repeats. The presence of so many recombinogenic elements suggests models for the origin of minicircles from a multigenic ancestral chloroplast genome, and raises the possibility of recombination-directed replication rather than defined replication origins in the minicircles.

  17. DNA methylation patterns of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs in males with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qi; Wang, Yunliang; Cheng, Jia; Dai, Dongjun; Zhou, Xingyu; Zhang, Yuzheng; Li, Jinfeng; Yin, Honglei; Gao, Shugui; Duan, Shiwei

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is one of the most complex mental illnesses affecting ~1% of the population worldwide. SCZ pathogenesis is considered to be a result of genetic as well as epigenetic alterations. Previous studies have aimed to identify the causative genes of SCZ. However, DNA methylation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in SCZ has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was conducted using samples from two male patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing was used. In the two patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, 1,397 and 1,437 peaks were identified, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that peaks were enriched in protein-coding genes, which exhibited nervous system and brain functions. A number of these peaks in gene promoter regions may affect gene expression and, therefore, influence SCZ-associated pathways. Furthermore, 7 and 20 lncRNAs, respectively, in the Refseq database were hypermethylated. According to the lncRNA dataset in the NONCODE database, ~30% of intergenic peaks overlapped with novel lncRNA loci. The results of the present study demonstrated that aberrant hypermethylation of lncRNA genes may be an important epigenetic factor associated with SCZ. However, further studies using larger sample sizes are required.

  18. The ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) Project.

    PubMed

    2004-10-22

    The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The pilot phase of the Project is focused on a specified 30 megabases (approximately 1%) of the human genome sequence and is organized as an international consortium of computational and laboratory-based scientists working to develop and apply high-throughput approaches for detecting all sequence elements that confer biological function. The results of this pilot phase will guide future efforts to analyze the entire human genome.

  19. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  20. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity. PMID:26472689

  1. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-16

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  2. Differential DNA methylation profiles of coding and non-coding genes define hippocampal sclerosis in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Delaney, Suzanne F.C.; Bryan, Kenneth; Das, Sudipto; McKiernan, Ross C.; Bray, Isabella M.; Reynolds, James P.; Gwinn, Ryder; Stallings, Raymond L.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with large-scale, wide-ranging changes in gene expression in the hippocampus. Epigenetic changes to DNA are attractive mechanisms to explain the sustained hyperexcitability of chronic epilepsy. Here, through methylation analysis of all annotated C-phosphate-G islands and promoter regions in the human genome, we report a pilot study of the methylation profiles of temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis. Furthermore, by comparative analysis of expression and promoter methylation, we identify methylation sensitive non-coding RNA in human temporal lobe epilepsy. A total of 146 protein-coding genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in temporal lobe epilepsy hippocampus (n = 9) when compared to control (n = 5), with 81.5% of the promoters of these genes displaying hypermethylation. Unique methylation profiles were evident in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis, in addition to a common methylation profile regardless of pathology grade. Gene ontology terms associated with development, neuron remodelling and neuron maturation were over-represented in the methylation profile of Watson Grade 1 samples (mild hippocampal sclerosis). In addition to genes associated with neuronal, neurotransmitter/synaptic transmission and cell death functions, differential hypermethylation of genes associated with transcriptional regulation was evident in temporal lobe epilepsy, but overall few genes previously associated with epilepsy were among the differentially methylated. Finally, a panel of 13, methylation-sensitive microRNA were identified in temporal lobe epilepsy including MIR27A, miR-193a-5p (MIR193A) and miR-876-3p (MIR876), and the differential methylation of long non-coding RNA documented for the first time. The present study therefore reports select, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in human temporal lobe epilepsy that may contribute to the molecular architecture of the epileptic brain. PMID

  3. A novel non-coding RNA lncRNA-JADE connects DNA damage signalling to histone H4 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guohui; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yunhua; Han, Cecil; Sood, Anil K; Calin, George A; Zhang, Xinna; Lu, Xiongbin

    2013-10-30

    A prompt and efficient DNA damage response (DDR) eliminates the detrimental effects of DNA lesions in eukaryotic cells. Basic and preclinical studies suggest that the DDR is one of the primary anti-cancer barriers during tumorigenesis. The DDR involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage, in which long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new class of regulatory RNAs, may play an important role. In the current study, we identified a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-JADE, that is induced after DNA damage in an ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner. LncRNA-JADE transcriptionally activates Jade1, a key component in the HBO1 (human acetylase binding to ORC1) histone acetylation complex. Consequently, lncRNA-JADE induces histone H4 acetylation in the DDR. Markedly higher levels of lncRNA-JADE were observed in human breast tumours in comparison with normal breast tissues. Knockdown of lncRNA-JADE significantly inhibited breast tumour growth in vivo. On the basis of these results, we propose that lncRNA-JADE is a key functional link that connects the DDR to histone H4 acetylation, and that dysregulation of lncRNA-JADE may contribute to breast tumorigenesis.

  4. A novel non-coding RNA lncRNA-JADE connects DNA damage signalling to histone H4 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guohui; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yunhua; Han, Cecil; Sood, Anil K; Calin, George A; Zhang, Xinna; Lu, Xiongbin

    2013-01-01

    A prompt and efficient DNA damage response (DDR) eliminates the detrimental effects of DNA lesions in eukaryotic cells. Basic and preclinical studies suggest that the DDR is one of the primary anti-cancer barriers during tumorigenesis. The DDR involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage, in which long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new class of regulatory RNAs, may play an important role. In the current study, we identified a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-JADE, that is induced after DNA damage in an ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner. LncRNA-JADE transcriptionally activates Jade1, a key component in the HBO1 (human acetylase binding to ORC1) histone acetylation complex. Consequently, lncRNA-JADE induces histone H4 acetylation in the DDR. Markedly higher levels of lncRNA-JADE were observed in human breast tumours in comparison with normal breast tissues. Knockdown of lncRNA-JADE significantly inhibited breast tumour growth in vivo. On the basis of these results, we propose that lncRNA-JADE is a key functional link that connects the DDR to histone H4 acetylation, and that dysregulation of lncRNA-JADE may contribute to breast tumorigenesis. PMID:24097061

  5. Role for piRNAs and Noncoding RNA in de Novo DNA Methylation of the Imprinted Mouse Rasgrf1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Tomizawa, Shin-ichi; Mitsuya, Kohzoh; Totoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Iida, Naoko; Hoki, Yuko; Murphy, Patrick J.; Toyoda, Atsushi; Gotoh, Kengo; Hiura, Hitoshi; Arima, Takahiro; Fujiyama, Asao; Sado, Takashi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakano, Toru; Lin, Haifan; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Soloway, Paul D.; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Genomic imprinting causes parental origin–specific monoallelic gene expression through differential DNA methylation established in the parental germ line. However, the mechanisms underlying how specific sequences are selectively methylated are not fully understood. We have found that the components of the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway are required for de novo methylation of the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the imprinted mouse Rasgrf1 locus, but not other paternally imprinted loci. A retrotransposon sequence within a noncoding RNA spanning the DMR was targeted by piRNAs generated from a different locus. A direct repeat in the DMR, which is required for the methylation and imprinting of Rasgrf1, served as a promoter for this RNA. We propose a model in which piRNAs and a target RNA direct the sequence-specific methylation of Rasgrf1. PMID:21566194

  6. A strand-specific switch in noncoding transcription switches the function of a Polycomb/Trithorax response element

    PubMed Central

    Trupke, Johanna; Okulski, Helena; Altmutter, Christina; Ruge, Frank; Boidol, Bernd; Kubicek, Stefan; Schmauss, Gerald; Aumayr, Karin; Ruf, Marius; Pospisilik, Andrew; Dimond, Andrew; Senergin, Hasene Basak; Vargas, Marcus L.; Simon, Jeffrey A.; Ringrose, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb/Trithorax response elements (PRE/TREs) can switch their function reversibly between silencing and activation, by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we show that a switch in forward and reverse noncoding transcription from the Drosophila vestigial (vg) PRE/TRE switches the status of the element between silencing (induced by the forward strand) and activation (induced by the reverse strand). In vitro, both ncRNAs inhibit PRC2 histone methyltransferase activity, but in vivo only the reverse strand binds PRC2. Over-expression of the reverse strand evicts PRC2 from chromatin and inhibits its enzymatic activity. We propose that interactions of RNAs with PRC2 are differentially regulated in vivo, allowing regulated inhibition of local PRC2 activity. Genome-wide analysis shows that strand switching of ncRNAs occurs at several hundred PcG binding sites in fly and vertebrate genomes. This work identifies a novel and potentially widespread class of PRE/TREs that switch function by switching the direction of ncRNA transcription. PMID:25108384

  7. RAPDs and noncoding chloroplast DNA reveal a single origin of the cultivated Allium fistulosum from A. altaicum (Alliaceae).

    PubMed

    Friesen, N; Pollner, S; Bachmann, K; Blattner, F R

    1999-04-01

    The origin of the crop species Allium fistulosum (bunching onion) and its relation to its wild relative A. altaicum were surveyed with a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of five noncoding cpDNA regions and with a random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPD) analysis of nuclear DNA. Sixteen accessions of A. altaicum, 14 accessions of A. fistulosum, representing the morphological variability of the species, and five additional outgroup species from Allium section Cepa were included in this study. The RFLP analysis detected 14 phylogenetically informative character transformations, whereas RAPD revealed 126 polymorphic fragments. Generalized parsimony, neighbor-joining analysis of genetic distances, and a principal co-ordinate analysis were able to distinguish the two species, but only RAPD data allowed clarification of the interrelationship of the two taxa. The main results of this investigation were: (1) A. fistulosum is of monophyletic origin, and (2) A. fistulosum originated from an A. altaicum progenitor, making A. altaicum a paraphyletic species. Compared with A. altaicum the cultivated accessions of the bunching onion show less genetic variability, a phenomenon that often occurs in crop species due to the severe genetic bottleneck of domestication. Allium altaicum and A. fistulosum easily hybridize when grown together, and most garden-grown material is of recent hybrid origin. PMID:10205076

  8. Biological function of Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) represses host translation machinery, blocks protein secretion, and cleaves cellular proteins associated with signal transduction and the innate immune response to infection. Non-structural proteins (NSPs) and non-coding elements (NCEs) of FMDV play a critical role in these biological processes. The FMDV virion consists of capsid and nucleic acid. The virus genome is a positive single stranded RNA and encodes a single long open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a long structured 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and a short 3'-UTR. The ORF is translated into a polypeptide chain and processed into four structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), 10 NSPs (L(pro), 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B1-3, 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)), and some cleavage intermediates. In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have begun to focus on the molecular pathogenesis of FMDV NSPs and NCEs. This review collected recent research progress on the biological functions of these NSPs and NCEs on the replication and host cellular regulation of FMDV to understand the molecular mechanism of host-FMDV interactions and provide perspectives for antiviral strategy and development of novel vaccines. PMID:27334704

  9. Natural selection on coding and noncoding DNA sequences is associated with virulence genes in a plant pathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Rech, Gabriel E; Sanz-Martín, José M; Anisimova, Maria; Sukno, Serenella A; Thon, Michael R

    2014-09-04

    Natural selection leaves imprints on DNA, offering the opportunity to identify functionally important regions of the genome. Identifying the genomic regions affected by natural selection within pathogens can aid in the pursuit of effective strategies to control diseases. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide patterns of selection acting on different classes of sequences in a worldwide sample of eight strains of the model plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. We found evidence of selective sweeps, balancing selection, and positive selection affecting both protein-coding and noncoding DNA of pathogenicity-related sequences. Genes encoding putative effector proteins and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes show evidence of positive selection acting on the coding sequence, consistent with an Arms Race model of evolution. The 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of genes coding for effector proteins and genes upregulated during infection show an excess of high-frequency polymorphisms likely the consequence of balancing selection and consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis of evolution acting on these putative regulatory sequences. Based on the findings of this work, we propose that even though adaptive substitutions on coding sequences are important for proteins that interact directly with the host, polymorphisms in the regulatory sequences may confer flexibility of gene expression in the virulence processes of this important plant pathogen.

  10. Natural Selection on Coding and Noncoding DNA Sequences Is Associated with Virulence Genes in a Plant Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Gabriel E.; Sanz-Martín, José M.; Anisimova, Maria; Sukno, Serenella A.; Thon, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection leaves imprints on DNA, offering the opportunity to identify functionally important regions of the genome. Identifying the genomic regions affected by natural selection within pathogens can aid in the pursuit of effective strategies to control diseases. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide patterns of selection acting on different classes of sequences in a worldwide sample of eight strains of the model plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. We found evidence of selective sweeps, balancing selection, and positive selection affecting both protein-coding and noncoding DNA of pathogenicity-related sequences. Genes encoding putative effector proteins and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes show evidence of positive selection acting on the coding sequence, consistent with an Arms Race model of evolution. The 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of genes coding for effector proteins and genes upregulated during infection show an excess of high-frequency polymorphisms likely the consequence of balancing selection and consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis of evolution acting on these putative regulatory sequences. Based on the findings of this work, we propose that even though adaptive substitutions on coding sequences are important for proteins that interact directly with the host, polymorphisms in the regulatory sequences may confer flexibility of gene expression in the virulence processes of this important plant pathogen. PMID:25193312

  11. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-bing; Feng, Jie; Ward, Robert D; Wan, Ping; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Wei-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF) to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish) and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae). Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40%) for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37%) for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  12. A pathogenic non-coding RNA induces changes in dynamic DNA methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in host plants

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, German; Castellano, Mayte; Tortosa, Maria; Pallas, Vicente; Gomez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Viroids are plant-pathogenic non-coding RNAs able to interfere with as yet poorly known host-regulatory pathways and to cause alterations recognized as diseases. The way in which these RNAs coerce the host to express symptoms remains to be totally deciphered. In recent years, diverse studies have proposed a close interplay between viroid-induced pathogenesis and RNA silencing, supporting the belief that viroid-derived small RNAs mediate the post-transcriptional cleavage of endogenous mRNAs by acting as elicitors of symptoms expression. Although the evidence supporting the role of viroid-derived small RNAs in pathogenesis is robust, the possibility that this phenomenon can be a more complex process, also involving viroid-induced alterations in plant gene expression at transcriptional levels, has been considered. Here we show that plants infected with the ‘Hop stunt viroid’ accumulate high levels of sRNAs derived from ribosomal transcripts. This effect was correlated with an increase in the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursors during infection. We observed that the transcriptional reactivation of rRNA genes correlates with a modification of DNA methylation in their promoter region and revealed that some rRNA genes are demethylated and transcriptionally reactivated during infection. This study reports a previously unknown mechanism associated with viroid (or any other pathogenic RNA) infection in plants providing new insights into aspects of host alterations induced by the viroid infectious cycle. PMID:24178032

  13. A non-coding plastid DNA phylogeny of Asian Begonia (Begoniaceae): evidence for morphological homoplasy and sectional polyphyly.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D C; Hughes, M; Phutthai, T; Rajbhandary, S; Rubite, R; Ardi, W H; Richardson, J E

    2011-09-01

    Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of non-coding plastid DNA sequence data based on a broad sampling of all major Asian Begonia sections (ndhA intron, ndhF-rpl32 spacer, rpl32-trnL spacer, 3977 aligned characters, 84 species) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Asian Begonia and to test the monophyly of major Asian Begonia sections. Ovary and fruit characters which are crucial in current sectional circumscriptions were mapped on the phylogeny to assess their utility in infrageneric classifications. The results indicate that the strong systematic emphasis placed on single, homoplasious characters such as undivided placenta lamellae (section Reichenheimia) and fleshy pericarps (section Sphenanthera), and the recognition of sections primarily based on a suite of plesiomorphic characters including three-locular ovaries with axillary, bilamellate placentae and dry, dehiscent pericarps (section Diploclinium), has resulted in the circumscription of several polyphyletic sections. Moreover, sections Platycentrum and Petermannia were recovered as paraphyletic. Because of the homoplasy of systematically important characters, current classifications have a certain diagnostic, but only poor predictive value. The presented phylogeny provides for the first time a reasonably resolved and supported phylogenetic framework for Asian Begonia which has the power to inform future taxonomic, biogeographic and evolutionary studies.

  14. Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA).

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel E; Patel, Zubin H; Lu, Xiaoming; Lynch, Arthur T; Weirauch, Matthew T; Kottyan, Leah C

    2016-01-01

    Population and family-based genetic studies typically result in the identification of genetic variants that are statistically associated with a clinical disease or phenotype. For many diseases and traits, most variants are non-coding, and are thus likely to act by impacting subtle, comparatively hard to predict mechanisms controlling gene expression. Here, we describe a general strategic approach to prioritize non-coding variants, and screen them for their function. This approach involves computational prioritization using functional genomic databases followed by experimental analysis of differential binding of transcription factors (TFs) to risk and non-risk alleles. For both electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNA affinity precipitation assay (DAPA) analysis of genetic variants, a synthetic DNA oligonucleotide (oligo) is used to identify factors in the nuclear lysate of disease or phenotype-relevant cells. For EMSA, the oligonucleotides with or without bound nuclear factors (often TFs) are analyzed by non-denaturing electrophoresis on a tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) polyacrylamide gel. For DAPA, the oligonucleotides are bound to a magnetic column and the nuclear factors that specifically bind the DNA sequence are eluted and analyzed through mass spectrometry or with a reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blot analysis. This general approach can be widely used to study the function of non-coding genetic variants associated with any disease, trait, or phenotype. PMID:27585267

  15. A genomic screen for long noncoding RNA genes epigenetically silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumegawa, Kohei; Maruyama, Reo; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Ashida, Masami; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Tsuyada, Akihiro; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Yamano, Hiro-o; Sugai, Tamotsu; Tokino, Takashi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key components in multiple cellular processes, although their physiological and pathological functions are not fully understood. To identify cancer-related lncRNAs, we screened for those that are epigenetically silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). Through a genome-wide analysis of histone modifications in CRC cells, we found that the transcription start sites (TSSs) of 1,027 lncRNA genes acquired trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) after DNA demethylation. Integrative analysis of chromatin signatures and the DNA methylome revealed that the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 66 lncRNA genes contained cancer-specific methylation. By validating the expression and methylation of lncRNA genes in CRC cells, we ultimately identified 20 lncRNAs, including ZNF582-AS1, as targets of epigenetic silencing in CRC. ZNF582-AS1 is frequently methylated in CRC cell lines (87.5%), primary CRCs (77.2%), colorectal adenomas (44.7%) and advanced adenomas (87.8%), suggesting that this methylation is an early event during colorectal tumorigenesis. Methylation of ZNF582-AS1 is associated with poor survival of CRC patients, and ectopic expression of ZNF582-AS1 suppressed colony formation by CRC cells. Our findings offer insight into the association between epigenetic alterations and lncRNA dysregulation in cancer and suggest that ZNF582-AS1 may be a novel tumor-suppressive lncRNA. PMID:27215978

  16. Analysis of Five Gene Sets in Chimpanzees Suggests Decoupling between the Action of Selection on Protein-Coding and on Noncoding Elements

    PubMed Central

    Santpere, Gabriel; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Petit, Natalia; Serra, François; Hvilsom, Christina; Rambla, Jordi; Heredia-Genestar, Jose Maria; Halligan, Daniel L.; Dopazo, Hernan; Navarro, Arcadi; Bosch, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We set out to investigate potential differences and similarities between the selective forces acting upon the coding and noncoding regions of five different sets of genes defined according to functional and evolutionary criteria: 1) two reference gene sets presenting accelerated and slow rates of protein evolution (the Complement and Actin pathways); 2) a set of genes with evidence of accelerated evolution in at least one of their introns; and 3) two gene sets related to neurological function (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases). To that effect, we combine human–chimpanzee divergence patterns with polymorphism data obtained from target resequencing 20 central chimpanzees, our closest relatives with largest long-term effective population size. By using the distribution of fitness effect-alpha extension of the McDonald–Kreitman test, we reproduce inferences of rates of evolution previously based only on divergence data on both coding and intronic sequences and also obtain inferences for other classes of genomic elements (untranslated regions, promoters, and conserved noncoding sequences). Our results suggest that 1) the distribution of fitness effect-alpha method successfully helps distinguishing different scenarios of accelerated divergence (adaptation or relaxed selective constraints) and 2) the adaptive history of coding and noncoding sequences within the gene sets analyzed is decoupled. PMID:25977458

  17. Analysis of Five Gene Sets in Chimpanzees Suggests Decoupling between the Action of Selection on Protein-Coding and on Noncoding Elements.

    PubMed

    Santpere, Gabriel; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Petit, Natalia; Serra, François; Hvilsom, Christina; Rambla, Jordi; Heredia-Genestar, Jose Maria; Halligan, Daniel L; Dopazo, Hernan; Navarro, Arcadi; Bosch, Elena

    2015-05-14

    We set out to investigate potential differences and similarities between the selective forces acting upon the coding and noncoding regions of five different sets of genes defined according to functional and evolutionary criteria: 1) two reference gene sets presenting accelerated and slow rates of protein evolution (the Complement and Actin pathways); 2) a set of genes with evidence of accelerated evolution in at least one of their introns; and 3) two gene sets related to neurological function (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). To that effect, we combine human-chimpanzee divergence patterns with polymorphism data obtained from target resequencing 20 central chimpanzees, our closest relatives with largest long-term effective population size. By using the distribution of fitness effect-alpha extension of the McDonald-Kreitman test, we reproduce inferences of rates of evolution previously based only on divergence data on both coding and intronic sequences and also obtain inferences for other classes of genomic elements (untranslated regions, promoters, and conserved noncoding sequences). Our results suggest that 1) the distribution of fitness effect-alpha method successfully helps distinguishing different scenarios of accelerated divergence (adaptation or relaxed selective constraints) and 2) the adaptive history of coding and noncoding sequences within the gene sets analyzed is decoupled.

  18. Genome Sequencing of Autism-Affected Families Reveals Disruption of Putative Noncoding Regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Tychele N.; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Duyzend, Michael H.; McClymont, Sarah A.; Hook, Paul W.; Iossifov, Ivan; Raja, Archana; Baker, Carl; Hoekzema, Kendra; Stessman, Holly A.; Zody, Michael C.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Huddleston, John; Sandstrom, Richard; Smith, Joshua D.; Hanna, David; Swanson, James M.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Nickerson, Deborah A.; McCallion, Andrew S.; Darnell, Robert; Eichler, Evan E.

    2016-01-01

    We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 208 genomes from 53 families affected by simplex autism. For the majority of these families, no copy-number variant (CNV) or candidate de novo gene-disruptive single-nucleotide variant (SNV) had been detected by microarray or whole-exome sequencing (WES). We integrated multiple CNV and SNV analyses and extensive experimental validation to identify additional candidate mutations in eight families. We report that compared to control individuals, probands showed a significant (p = 0.03) enrichment of de novo and private disruptive mutations within fetal CNS DNase I hypersensitive sites (i.e., putative regulatory regions). This effect was only observed within 50 kb of genes that have been previously associated with autism risk, including genes where dosage sensitivity has already been established by recurrent disruptive de novo protein-coding mutations (ARID1B, SCN2A, NR3C2, PRKCA, and DSCAM). In addition, we provide evidence of gene-disruptive CNVs (in DISC1, WNT7A, RBFOX1, and MBD5), as well as smaller de novo CNVs and exon-specific SNVs missed by exome sequencing in neurodevelopmental genes (e.g., CANX, SAE1, and PIK3CA). Our results suggest that the detection of smaller, often multiple CNVs affecting putative regulatory elements might help explain additional risk of simplex autism. PMID:26749308

  19. Base pair opening in three DNA-unwinding elements.

    PubMed

    Coman, Daniel; Russu, Irina M

    2005-05-27

    DNA-unwinding elements are specific base sequences that are located in the origin of DNA replication where they provide the start point for strand separation and unwinding of the DNA double helix. In the present work we have obtained the first characterization of the opening of individual base pairs in DNA-unwinding elements. The three DNA molecules investigated reproduce the 13-mer DNA-unwinding elements present in the Escherichia coli chromosome. The base sequences of the three 13-mers are conserved in the origins of replication of enteric bacterial chromosomes. The exchange of imino protons with solvent protons was measured for each DNA as a function of the concentration of exchange catalyst using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The exchange rates provided the rates and the equilibrium constants for opening of individual base pairs in each DNA at 20 degrees C. The results reveal that the kinetics and energetics of the opening reactions for AT/TA base pairs are different in the three DNA-unwinding elements due to long range effects of the base sequence. These differences encompass the AT/TA base pairs that are conserved in various bacterial genomes. Furthermore, a qualitative correlation is observed between the kinetics and energetics of opening of AT/TA base pairs and the location of the corresponding DNA-unwinding element in the origin of DNA replication. PMID:15784615

  20. Evaluation of IRX Genes and Conserved Noncoding Elements in a Region on 5p13.3 Linked to Families with Familial Idiopathic Scoliosis and Kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Cristina M.; Bishop, Kevin; Carrington, Blake; Mullikin, Jim C.; Swindle, Kandice; Marosy, Beth; Sood, Raman; Miller, Nancy H.; Wilson, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    Because of genetic heterogeneity present in idiopathic scoliosis, we previously defined clinical subsets (a priori) from a sample of families with idiopathic scoliosis to find genes involved with spinal curvature. Previous genome-wide linkage analysis of seven families with at least two individuals with kyphoscoliosis found linkage (P-value = 0.002) in a 3.5-Mb region on 5p13.3 containing only three known genes, IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4. In this study, the exons of IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4, the conserved noncoding elements in the region, and the exons of a nonprotein coding RNA, LOC285577, were sequenced. No functional sequence variants were identified. An intrafamilial test of association found several associated noncoding single nucleotide variants. The strongest association was with rs12517904 (P = 0.00004), located 6.5 kb downstream from IRX1. In one family, the genotypes of nine variants differed from the reference allele in all individuals with kyphoscoliosis, and two of three individuals with scoliosis, but did not differ from the reference allele in all other genotyped individuals. One of these variants, rs117273909, was located in a conserved noncoding region that functions as an enhancer in mice. To test whether the variant allele at rs117273909 had an effect on enhancer activity, zebrafish transgenesis was performed with overlapping fragments of 198 and 687 bp containing either the wild type or the variant allele. Our data suggests that this region acts as a regulatory element; however, its size and target gene(s) need to be identified to determine its role in idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27172222

  1. Automated protein-DNA interaction screening of Drosophila regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Hens, Korneel; Feuz, Jean-Daniel; Isakova, Alina; Iagovitina, Antonina; Massouras, Andreas; Bryois, Julien; Callaerts, Patrick; Celniker, Susan E; Deplancke, Bart

    2011-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has one of the best characterized metazoan genomes in terms of functionally annotated regulatory elements. To explore how these elements contribute to gene regulation, we need convenient tools to identify the proteins that bind to them. Here we describe the development and validation of a high-throughput yeast one-hybrid platform, which enables screening of DNA elements versus an array of full-length, sequence-verified clones containing over 85% of predicted Drosophila transcription factors. Using six well-characterized regulatory elements, we identified 33 transcription factor-DNA interactions of which 27 were previously unidentified. To simultaneously validate these interactions and locate the binding sites of involved transcription factors, we implemented a powerful microfluidics-based approach that enabled us to retrieve DNA-occupancy data for each transcription factor throughout the respective target DNA elements. Finally, we biologically validated several interactions and identified two new regulators of sine oculis gene expression and hence eye development.

  2. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    PubMed

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  3. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) - Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed. PMID:26925037

  4. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) – Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P.; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem–loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem–loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed. PMID:26925037

  5. A study of the phylogeny of Brassica rapa, B. nigra, Raphanus sativus, and their related genera using noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yau-Wen; Tai, Pon-Yean; Chen, Ying; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2002-05-01

    There are two evolutionary lineages in the genus Brassica: the rapa/oleracea lineage and the nigra lineage. Using nuclear DNA sequences such as the intergenic spacer between 5S rRNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer between 18S and 25S rRNA genes, we and others had previously demonstrated that Raphanus sativus is closely related to the nigra lineage. In the present study, we sequenced the chloroplast noncoding region between trnT and trnF and that between trnD and trnT in seven species and showed that R. sativus is more closely related to the rapa/oleracea lineage than to the nigra lineage. The conflicting results from nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA support the hypothesis that Raphanus was derived from a hybridization between the rapa/oleracea and the nigra lineages. We estimated the date of this hybridization event to be 60% of the divergence time between the two Brassica lineages. In addition, the pattern and rate of nucleotide substitution were studied. There were more transversions than transitions in these noncoding regions, which have a high AT content. Furthermore, the proportion of transversions among the substitutions at a site increases with increasing A + T content of its two adjacent nucleotides. An influence of immediate 5(') pyrimidine on substitution pattern is also observed when both adjacent bases in the two DNA strands are A or T. The rate of nucleotide substitution in the trnL group I intron is only about one third of the rate in the nearby intergenic spacers in the trnT-trnF fragment. The rate of nucleotide substitution in the rapa/oleracea lineage is at least 1.5 times that in the nigra lineage.

  6. Nuclear Noncoding RNAs and Genome Stability.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, Jasbeer S; Calvo, Isabel A; Joh, Richard I; Hill, Ian T; Motamedi, Mo

    2016-07-01

    In modern molecular biology, RNA has emerged as a versatile macromolecule capable of mediating an astonishing number of biological functions beyond its role as a transient messenger of genetic information. The recent discovery and functional analyses of new classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have revealed their widespread use in many pathways, including several in the nucleus. This Review focuses on the mechanisms by which nuclear ncRNAs directly contribute to the maintenance of genome stability. We discuss how ncRNAs inhibit spurious recombination among repetitive DNA elements, repress mobilization of transposable elements (TEs), template or bridge DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during repair, and direct developmentally regulated genome rearrangements in some ciliates. These studies reveal an unexpected repertoire of mechanisms by which ncRNAs contribute to genome stability and even potentially fuel evolution by acting as templates for genome modification. PMID:27392145

  7. The bacterial DnaA-trio replication origin element specifies single-stranded DNA initiator binding.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Tomas T; Harran, Omar; Murray, Heath

    2016-06-16

    DNA replication is tightly controlled to ensure accurate inheritance of genetic information. In all organisms, initiator proteins possessing AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) domains bind replication origins to license new rounds of DNA synthesis. In bacteria the master initiator protein, DnaA, is highly conserved and has two crucial DNA binding activities. DnaA monomers recognize the replication origin (oriC) by binding double-stranded DNA sequences (DnaA-boxes); subsequently, DnaA filaments assemble and promote duplex unwinding by engaging and stretching a single DNA strand. While the specificity for duplex DnaA-boxes by DnaA has been appreciated for over 30 years, the sequence specificity for single-strand DNA binding has remained unknown. Here we identify a new indispensable bacterial replication origin element composed of a repeating trinucleotide motif that we term the DnaA-trio. We show that the function of the DnaA-trio is to stabilize DnaA filaments on a single DNA strand, thus providing essential precision to this binding mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis detects DnaA-trios in replication origins throughout the bacterial kingdom, indicating that this element is part of the core oriC structure. The discovery and characterization of the novel DnaA-trio extends our fundamental understanding of bacterial DNA replication initiation, and because of the conserved structure of AAA+ initiator proteins these findings raise the possibility of specific recognition motifs within replication origins of higher organisms. PMID:27281207

  8. Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera.

    PubMed

    Campo, Daniel; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The 5S rDNA is organized in the genome as tandemly repeated copies of a structural unit composed of a coding sequence plus a nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The coding region is highly conserved in the evolution, whereas the NTS vary in both length and sequence. It has been proposed that 5S rRNA genes are members of a gene family that have arisen through concerted evolution. In this study, we describe the molecular organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in the genera Lepidorhombus and Scophthalmus (Scophthalmidae) and compared it with already known 5S rDNA of the very different genera Merluccius (Merluccidae) and Salmo (Salmoninae), to identify common structural elements or patterns for understanding 5S rDNA evolution in fish. High intra- and interspecific diversity within the 5S rDNA family in all the genera can be explained by a combination of duplications, deletions, and transposition events. Sequence blocks with high similarity in all the 5S rDNA members across species were identified for the four studied genera, with evidences of intense gene conversion within noncoding regions. We propose a model to explain the evolution of the 5S rDNA, in which the evolutionary units are blocks of nucleotides rather than the entire sequences or single nucleotides. This model implies a "two-speed" evolution: slow within blocks (homogenized by recombination) and fast within the gene family (diversified by duplications and deletions).

  9. DEG 10, an update of the database of essential genes that includes both protein-coding genes and noncoding genomic elements.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hao; Lin, Yan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Zhang, Ren

    2014-01-01

    The combination of high-density transposon-mediated mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing has led to significant advancements in research on essential genes, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of identified prokaryotic essential genes under diverse conditions and a revised essential-gene concept that includes all essential genomic elements, rather than focusing on protein-coding genes only. DEG 10, a new release of the Database of Essential Genes (available at http://www.essentialgene.org), has been developed to accommodate these quantitative and qualitative advancements. In addition to increasing the number of bacterial and archaeal essential genes determined by genome-wide gene essentiality screens, DEG 10 also harbors essential noncoding RNAs, promoters, regulatory sequences and replication origins. These essential genomic elements are determined not only in vitro, but also in vivo, under diverse conditions including those for survival, pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. We have developed customizable BLAST tools that allow users to perform species- and experiment-specific BLAST searches for a single gene, a list of genes, annotated or unannotated genomes. Therefore, DEG 10 includes essential genomic elements under different conditions in three domains of life, with customizable BLAST tools.

  10. Replication of a pathogenic non-coding RNA increases DNA methylation in plants associated with a bromodomain-containing viroid-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Dian-Qiu; Liu, Shang-Wu; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Bang-Jun; Wang, Shao-Peng; Guo, Hui-Shan; Fang, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Viroids are plant-pathogenic molecules made up of single-stranded circular non-coding RNAs. How replicating viroids interfere with host silencing remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of a nuclear-replicating Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) on interference with plant RNA silencing. Using transient induction of silencing in GFP transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants (line 16c), we found that PSTVd replication accelerated GFP silencing and increased Virp1 mRNA, which encodes bromodomain-containing viroid-binding protein 1 and is required for PSTVd replication. DNA methylation was increased in the GFP transgene promoter of PSTVd-replicating plants, indicating involvement of transcriptional gene silencing. Consistently, accelerated GFP silencing and increased DNA methylation in the of GFP transgene promoter were detected in plants transiently expressing Virp1. Virp1 mRNA was also increased upon PSTVd infection in natural host potato plants. Reduced transcript levels of certain endogenous genes were also consistent with increases in DNA methylation in related gene promoters in PSTVd-infected potato plants. Together, our data demonstrate that PSTVd replication interferes with the nuclear silencing pathway in that host plant, and this is at least partially attributable to Virp1. This study provides new insights into the plant-viroid interaction on viroid pathogenicity by subverting the plant cell silencing machinery. PMID:27767195

  11. A survey of ancient conserved non-coding elements in the PAX6 locus reveals a landscape of interdigitated cis-regulatory archipelagos.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Shipra; Monahan, Jack; Ravi, Vydianathan; Gautier, Philippe; Murdoch, Emma; Brenner, Sydney; van Heyningen, Veronica; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Kleinjan, Dirk A

    2014-03-15

    Biological differences between cell types and developmental processes are characterised by differences in gene expression profiles. Gene-distal enhancers are key components of the regulatory networks that specify the tissue-specific expression patterns driving embryonic development and cell fate decisions, and variations in their sequences are a major contributor to genetic disease and disease susceptibility. Despite advances in the methods for discovery of putative cis-regulatory sequences, characterisation of their spatio-temporal enhancer activities in a mammalian model system remains a major bottle-neck. We employed a strategy that combines gnathostome sequence conservation with transgenic mouse and zebrafish reporter assays to survey the genomic locus of the developmental control gene PAX6 for the presence of novel cis-regulatory elements. Sequence comparison between human and the cartilaginous elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) revealed several ancient gnathostome conserved non-coding elements (agCNEs) dispersed widely throughout the PAX6 locus, extending the range of the known PAX6 cis-regulatory landscape to contain the full upstream PAX6-RCN1 intergenic region. Our data indicates that ancient conserved regulatory sequences can be tested effectively in transgenic zebrafish even when not conserved in zebrafish themselves. The strategy also allows efficient dissection of compound regulatory regions previously assessed in transgenic mice. Remarkable overlap in expression patterns driven by sets of agCNEs indicates that PAX6 resides in a landscape of multiple tissue-specific regulatory archipelagos. PMID:24440152

  12. Putative regulatory elements within the non-coding regions of Chrysomelidae Diapause Associated Transcript-1 (DAT-1) orthologs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a more comprehensive understanding of diapause within Chrysomelidae, we are employing phylogenetic foot-printing to isolate and characterize the regulatory elements associated with the diapause-associated gene, DAT-1. Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle, CPB) DAT-1 has been ...

  13. Genome-wide DNA methylome analysis reveals epigenetically dysregulated non-coding RNAs in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Juan; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yixue; Xu, Juan; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing appreciation of the importance of epigenetics in breast cancer, our understanding of epigenetic alterations of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in breast cancer remains limited. Here, we explored the epigenetic patterns of ncRNAs in breast cancers using published sequencing-based methylome data, primarily focusing on the two most commonly studied ncRNA biotypes, long ncRNAs and miRNAs. We observed widely aberrant methylation in the promoters of ncRNAs, and this abnormal methylation was more frequent than that in protein-coding genes. Specifically, intergenic ncRNAs were observed to comprise a majority (51.45% of the lncRNAs and 51.57% of the miRNAs) of the aberrantly methylated ncRNA promoters. Moreover, we summarized five patterns of aberrant ncRNA promoter methylation in the context of genomic CpG islands (CGIs), in which aberrant methylation occurred not only on CGIs, but also in regions flanking CGI and in CGI-lacking promoters. Integration with transcriptional datasets enabled us to determine that the ncRNA promoter methylation events were associated with transcriptional changes. Furthermore, a panel of ncRNAs were identified as biomarkers that discriminated between disease phenotypes. Finally, the potential functions of aberrantly methylated ncRNAs were predicted, suggestiong that ncRNAs and coding genes cooperatively mediate pathway dysregulation during the development and progression of breast cancer. PMID:25739977

  14. Fast turnover of genome transcription across evolutionary time exposes entire non-coding DNA to de novo gene emergence

    PubMed Central

    Neme, Rafik; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing analyses have shown that a large fraction of genomes is transcribed, but the significance of this transcription is much debated. Here, we characterize the phylogenetic turnover of poly-adenylated transcripts in a comprehensive sampling of taxa of the mouse (genus Mus), spanning a phylogenetic distance of 10 Myr. Using deep RNA sequencing we find that at a given sequencing depth transcriptome coverage becomes saturated within a taxon, but keeps extending when compared between taxa, even at this very shallow phylogenetic level. Our data show a high turnover of transcriptional states between taxa and that no major transcript-free islands exist across evolutionary time. This suggests that the entire genome can be transcribed into poly-adenylated RNA when viewed at an evolutionary time scale. We conclude that any part of the non-coding genome can potentially become subject to evolutionary functionalization via de novo gene evolution within relatively short evolutionary time spans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09977.001 PMID:26836309

  15. A user's guide to the encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE).

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome.

  16. DNA sequence of the maize transposable element Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Döring, H P; Tillmann, E; Starlinger, P

    The DNA sequence of the terminal 4.2 kilobases (kb) of the 30-kb insertion in the endosperm sucrose synthase gene of maize mutant sh-m5933 shows that it comprises two identical 2,040-base pair (bp) segments, one inserted in the reverse direction into the other. We suggest that the 2,040-bp sequence is an example of the transposable element Dissociation described by Barbara McClintock. PMID:6318121

  17. DNA sequence of the maize transposable element Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Döring, H P; Tillmann, E; Starlinger, P

    The DNA sequence of the terminal 4.2 kilobases (kb) of the 30-kb insertion in the endosperm sucrose synthase gene of maize mutant sh-m5933 shows that it comprises two identical 2,040-base pair (bp) segments, one inserted in the reverse direction into the other. We suggest that the 2,040-bp sequence is an example of the transposable element Dissociation described by Barbara McClintock.

  18. Riboactivators: transcription activation by noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Aseem Z

    2009-01-01

    The paradigm of gene regulation was forever changed by the discovery that short RNA duplexes could directly regulate gene expression. Most regulatory roles attributed to noncoding RNA were often repressive. Recent observations are beginning to reveal that duplex RNA molecules can stimulate gene transcription. These RNA activators employ a wide array of mechanisms to up-regulate transcription of target genes, including functioning as DNA-tethered activation domains, as coactivators and modulators of general transcriptional machinery, and as regulators of other noncoding transcripts. The discoveries over the past few years defy "Moore's law" in the breath-taking rapidity with which new roles for noncoding RNA in gene expression are being revealed. As gene regulatory networks are reconstructed to accommodate the influence of noncoding RNAs, their importance in maintenance of cellular health will become increasingly apparent. In fact, a new generation of therapeutic agents will focus on modulating the function of noncoding RNA.

  19. Mobile DNA Elements: The Seeds of Organic Complexity on Earth.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Laleh; Pedram, Mehrdad; AmirPhirozy, Akbar; Bonyadi, Khadijeh

    2015-10-01

    Mobile DNA or transposable elements (TEs) are genomic sequences capable of moving themselves independently into different parts of the genome. Viral invasion of eukaryotic genomes is assumed to be the main source of TEs. Selfish transposition of these elements could be a serious threat to the host cell, as they can insert themselves into the middle of coding genes and/or induce genomic instability. In response, through millions of years of evolution, cells have come up with various mechanisms such as genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, heterochromatin formation, and RNA interference to deactivate them. Interestingly, these processes have also greatly contributed to important cellular functions involved in cell differentiation, development, and differential gene expression. Propagation of TE copies during the course of evolution have resulted in increasing the genome size and providing proper space and flexibility in shaping the genome by creating new genes and establishing essential cellular structures such as heterochromatin, centromere, and telomeres. Yet, these elements are mostly labeled for playing a role in pathogenesis of human diseases. Here, we attempt to introduce TEs as factors necessary for making us human rather than just selfish sequences or obligatory guests invading our DNA.

  20. Transposable DNA elements and life history traits: II. Transposition of P DNA elements in somatic cells reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N; Barker, J S; Huai, H

    1999-01-01

    Some transposable DNA elements in higher organisms are active in somatic cells, as well as in germinal cells. What effect does the movement of DNA elements in somatic cells have on life history traits? It has previously been reported that somatically active P and mariner elements in Drosophila induce genetic damage and significantly reduce lifespan. In this study, we report that the movement of P elements in somatic cells also significantly reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. If other elements cause similar changes in life history traits, it is doubtful if transposable DNA elements remain active for long in somatic cells in natural populations.

  1. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research.

  2. An Integrated Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure, and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research. PMID:22955616

  3. Rheostatic Regulation of the SERCA/Phospholamban Membrane Protein Complex Using Non-Coding RNA and Single-Stranded DNA oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Kailey J.; Verardi, Raffaello; Jing, Meng; Abrol, Neha; Yang, Jing; Walsh, Naomi; Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Robia, Seth L.; Bowser, Michael T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The membrane protein complex between sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and phospholamban (PLN) is a prime therapeutic target for reversing cardiac contractile dysfunctions caused by calcium mishandling. So far, however, efforts to develop drugs specific for this protein complex have failed. Here, we show that non-coding RNAs and single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) interact with and regulate the function of the SERCA/PLN complex in a tunable manner. Both in HEK cells expressing the SERCA/PLN complex, as well as in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum preparations, these short oligonucleotides bind and reverse PLN’s inhibitory effects on SERCA, increasing the ATPase’s apparent Ca2+ affinity. Solid-state NMR experiments revealed that ssDNA interacts with PLN specifically, shifting the conformational equilibrium of the SERCA/PLN complex from an inhibitory to a non-inhibitory state. Importantly, we achieved rheostatic control of SERCA function by modulating the length of ssDNAs. Since restoration of Ca2+ flux to physiological levels represents a viable therapeutic avenue for cardiomyopathies, our results suggest that oligonucleotide-based drugs could be used to fine-tune SERCA function to counterbalance the extent of the pathological insults. PMID:26292938

  4. Association between hypermethylation of DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell DNA and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Neale, Rachel E; Clark, Paul J; Fawcett, Jonathan; Fritschi, Lin; Nagler, Belinda N; Risch, Harvey A; Walters, Rhiannon J; Crawford, William J; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Methylation of DNA may influence risk or be a marker of early disease. The aim of this study was to measure the association between methylation of three DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell (WBC) DNA and pancreatic cancer. DNA from WBCs of pancreatic cancer cases (n=559) and healthy unrelated controls (n=603) were tested for methylation of the LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 DNA repetitive elements using MethyLight quantitative PCR assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) between both continuous measures of percent of methylated sample compared to a reference (PMR) or quintiles of PMR and pancreatic cancer, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI, alcohol and higher education, were estimated. The PMR for each of the three markers was higher in cases than in controls, although only LINE-1 was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (OR per log unit=1.37, 95%CI=1.16-1.63). The marker methylation score for all three markers combined was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (p-trend=0.0006). There were no associations between measures of PMR and either presence of metastases, or timing of blood collection in relation to diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy or death (all p>0.1). We observed an association between methylation of LINE-1 in WBC DNA and risk of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm this association.

  5. Non-coding genome functions in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cebola, Inês; Pasquali, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the genetic variation associated with diabetes, through genome-wide association studies, does not reside in protein-coding regions, making the identification of functional variants and their eventual translation to the clinic challenging. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing-based methods have enabled genome-scale high-resolution epigenomic profiling in a variety of human tissues, allowing the exploration of the human genome outside of the well-studied coding regions. These experiments unmasked tens of thousands of regulatory elements across several cell types, including diabetes-relevant tissues, providing new insights into their mechanisms of gene regulation. Regulatory landscapes are highly dynamic and cell-type specific and, being sensitive to DNA sequence variation, can vary with individual genomes. The scientific community is now in place to exploit the regulatory maps of tissues central to diabetes etiology, such as pancreatic progenitors and adult islets. This giant leap forward in the understanding of pancreatic gene regulation is revolutionizing our capacity to discriminate between functional and non-functional non-coding variants, opening opportunities to uncover regulatory links between sequence variation and diabetes susceptibility. In this review, we focus on the non-coding regulatory landscape of the pancreatic endocrine cells and provide an overview of the recent developments in this field. PMID:26438568

  6. Stalled RNAP-II molecules bound to non-coding rDNA spacers are required for normal nucleolus architecture.

    PubMed

    Freire-Picos, M A; Landeira-Ameijeiras, V; Mayán, María D

    2013-07-01

    The correct distribution of nuclear domains is critical for the maintenance of normal cellular processes such as transcription and replication, which are regulated depending on their location and surroundings. The most well-characterized nuclear domain, the nucleolus, is essential for cell survival and metabolism. Alterations in nucleolar structure affect nuclear dynamics; however, how the nucleolus and the rest of the nuclear domains are interconnected is largely unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that RNAP-II is vital for the maintenance of the typical crescent-shaped structure of the nucleolar rDNA repeats and rRNA transcription. When stalled RNAP-II molecules are not bound to the chromatin, the nucleolus loses its typical crescent-shaped structure. However, the RNAP-II interaction with Seh1p, or cryptic transcription by RNAP-II, is not critical for morphological changes.

  7. Disease-Associated SNPs From non-Coding Regions in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Are Located Within or Adjacent to Functional Genomic Elements of Human Neutrophils and CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kaiyu; Zhu, Lisha; Buck, Michael J.; Chen, Yanmin; Carrier, Bradley; Liu, Tao; Jarvis, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is considered a complex trait in which the environment interacts with inherited genes to produce a phenotype that shows broad inter-individual variance. A recently completed genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 24 regions of genetic risk for JIA, for example. However, as is typical for GWAS, most of the regions of genetic risk for JIA (22 of 24) were in non-coding regions of the genome. The studies reported here were undertaken to identify functional elements (other than genes) that might be located within the regions of genetic risk. Methods We used paired end RNA sequencing to identify non-coding RNAs located within 5 kb of the disease-associated SNPs. In addition, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to identify epigenetic marks associated with enhancer function (H3K4me1 and H3K27ac) in human neutrophils to determine whether there was enrichment of enhancer-associated histone marks in linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks that encompassed the 22 GWAS SNPs from the non-coding genome. Results In human neutrophils, we identified H3K4me1 and/or H3K27ac marks in 15 of the 22 regions previously as identified as risk loci for JIA. In CD4+ T cells, 18 regions demonstrate H3K4me1 and/or H3K27ac marks. In addition, we identified non-coding RNA transcripts at the rs4705862 and rs6894249 loci in human neutrophils. Conclusion Much of the genetic risk for JIA lies within or adjacent to regions of neutrophil and CD4+ T cell genomes that carry epigenetic marks associated with enhancer function and/or ncRNA transcripts. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that JIA is fundamentally a disorder of gene regulation that includes both the innate and adaptive immune system. Elucidating the specific roles of these non-coding elements within leukocyte genomes in JIA pathogenesis will be critical to our understanding disease pathogenesis. PMID:25833190

  8. A Transposable Element within the Non-canonical Telomerase RNA of Arabidopsis thaliana Modulates Telomerase in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengyi; Nelson, Andrew D. L.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical factors in many biological processes, but little is known about how their regulatory functions evolved. One of the best-studied lncRNAs is TER, the essential RNA template for telomerase reverse transcriptase. We previously showed that Arabidopsis thaliana harbors three TER isoforms: TER1, TER2 and TER2S. TER1 serves as a canonical telomere template, while TER2 is a novel negative regulator of telomerase activity, induced in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs). TER2 contains a 529 nt intervening sequence that is removed along with 36 nt at the RNA 3’ terminus to generate TER2S, an RNA of unknown function. Here we investigate how A. thaliana TER2 acquired its regulatory function. Using data from the 1,001 Arabidopsis genomes project, we report that the intervening sequence within TER2 is derived from a transposable element termed DSB responsive element (DRE). DRE is found in the TER2 loci of most but not all A. thaliana accessions. By analyzing accessions with (TER2) and without DRE (TER2Δ) we demonstrate that this element is responsible for many of the unique properties of TER2, including its enhanced binding to TERT and telomerase inhibitory function. We show that DRE destabilizes TER2, and further that TER2 induction by DNA damage reflects increased RNA stability and not increased transcription. DRE-mediated changes in TER2 stability thus provide a rapid and sensitive switch to fine-tune telomerase enzyme activity. Altogether, our data shows that invasion of the TER2 locus by a small transposon converted this lncRNA into a DNA damage sensor that modulates telomerase enzyme activity in response to genome assault. PMID:26075395

  9. Molecular cloning of amyloid cDNA derived from mRNA of the Alzheimer disease brain: coding and noncoding regions of the fetal precursor mRNA are expressed in the cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Zain, S.B.; Salim, M.; Chou, W.G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.M.; Majocha, R.E.; Marotta, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    To gain insight into factors associated with the excessive accumulation of ..beta..-amyloid in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain, the present studies were initiated to distinguish between a unique primary structure of the AD-specific amyloid precursor mRNA vis a vis other determinants that may affect amyloid levels. Previous molecular cloning experiments focused on amyloid derived from sources other than AD cases. In the present work, the authors cloned and characterized amyloid cDNA derived directly from AD brain mRNA. Poly(A)/sup +/ RNA from AD cortices was used for the preparation of lambdagt11 recombinant cDNA libraries. An insert of 1564 nucleotides was isolated that included the ..beta..-amyloid domain and corresponded to 75% of the coding region and approx. = 70% of the 3'-noncoding region of the fetal precursor amyloid cDNA reported by others. On RNA blots, the AD amyloid mRNA consisted of a doublet of 3.2 and 3.4 kilobases. In control and AD cases, the amyloid mRNA levels were nonuniform and were independent of glial-specific mRNA levels. Based on the sequence analysis data, they conclude that a segment of the amyloid gene is expressed in the AD cortex as a high molecular weight precursor mRNA with major coding and 3'-noncoding regions that are identical to the fetal brain gene product.

  10. Molecular cloning of amyloid cDNA derived from mRNA of the Alzheimer disease brain: coding and noncoding regions of the fetal precursor mRNA are expressed in the cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Zain, S B; Salim, M; Chou, W G; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E M; Majocha, R E; Marotta, C A

    1988-01-01

    To gain insight into factors associated with the excessive accumulation of beta-amyloid in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain, the present studies were initiated to distinguish between a unique primary structure of the AD-specific amyloid precursor mRNA vis a vis other determinants that may affect amyloid levels. Previous molecular cloning experiments focused on amyloid derived from sources other than AD cases. In the present work, we cloned and characterized amyloid cDNA derived directly from AD brain mRNA. Poly(A)+ RNA from AD cortices was used for the preparation of lambda gt11 recombinant cDNA libraries. An insert of 1564 nucleotides was isolated that included the beta-amyloid domain and corresponded to 75% of the coding region and approximately equal to 70% of the 3'-noncoding region of the fetal precursor amyloid cDNA reported by others. On RNA blots, the AD amyloid mRNA consisted of a doublet of 3.2 and 3.4 kilobases. In control and AD cases, the amyloid mRNA levels were nonuniform and were independent of glial-specific mRNA levels. Based on the sequence analysis data, we conclude that a segment of the amyloid gene is expressed in the AD cortex as a high molecular weight precursor mRNA with major coding and 3'-noncoding regions that are identical to the fetal brain gene product. Images PMID:2893379

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Noncoding Regions of Rad51C Do Not Change the Risk of Unselected Breast Cancer but They Modulate the Level of Oxidative Stress and the DNA Damage Characteristics: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Stepnik, Maciej; Zambrano Quispe, Oscar; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC). We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05). Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference). Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development. PMID:25343521

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in noncoding regions of Rad51C do not change the risk of unselected breast cancer but they modulate the level of oxidative stress and the DNA damage characteristics: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Stepnik, Maciej; Zambrano Quispe, Oscar; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC). We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05). Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference). Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in noncoding regions of Rad51C do not change the risk of unselected breast cancer but they modulate the level of oxidative stress and the DNA damage characteristics: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Stepnik, Maciej; Zambrano Quispe, Oscar; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC). We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05). Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference). Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development. PMID:25343521

  14. Regulatory non-coding RNAs: revolutionizing the RNA world.

    PubMed

    Huang, Biao; Zhang, Rongxin

    2014-06-01

    The majority of the genomic DNA sequence in mammalian and other higher organisms can be transcribed into abundant functional RNA transcripts, especially regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are expressed in a developmentally and species-specific regulated manner. Here, we review various regulatory non-coding RNAs, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and summarize two and eight kinds of distinct modes of action for sncRNAs and lncRNAs respectively, by which functional ncRNAs mediate the regulation of intracellular events.

  15. The dichotomy of p53 regulation by noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qipan; Becker, Lindsey; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhong, Xiaoming; Young, Ken; Ramos, Kenneth; Li, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. Significant progress has been made to discern the importance of p53 in coordinating cellular responses to DNA damage, oncogene activation, and other stresses. Noncoding RNAs are RNA molecules functioning without being translated into proteins. In this work, we discuss the dichotomy of p53 regulation by noncoding RNAs with four unconventional questions. First, is overexpression of microRNAs responsible for p53 inactivation in the absence of p53 mutation? Second, are there somatic mutations in the noncoding regions of the p53 gene? Third, is there a germline mutant in the noncoding regions of the p53 gene that predisposes carriers to cancer? Fourth, can p53 activation mediated by a noncoding RNA mutation cause cancer? This work highlights the prominence of noncoding RNAs in p53 dysregulation and tumorigenesis. PMID:24706938

  16. Viral noncoding RNAs: more surprises

    PubMed Central

    Tycowski, Kazimierz T.; Guo, Yang Eric; Lee, Nara; Moss, Walter N.; Vallery, Tenaya K.; Xie, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells produce several classes of long and small noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Many DNA and RNA viruses synthesize their own ncRNAs. Like their host counterparts, viral ncRNAs associate with proteins that are essential for their stability, function, or both. Diverse biological roles—including the regulation of viral replication, viral persistence, host immune evasion, and cellular transformation—have been ascribed to viral ncRNAs. In this review, we focus on the multitude of functions played by ncRNAs produced by animal viruses. We also discuss their biogenesis and mechanisms of action. PMID:25792595

  17. Movable Genetic Elements: Detection of Changes in Maize DNA at the Shrunken Locus Due to the Intervention of Ds Elements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.A.

    1980-05-28

    This report describes our initial attempts at the molecular characterization of a maize controlling element. We have prepared a cDNA probe and used it to detect changes at a locus where Ds elements are found. Evidence of their presence are indicated by changes in the restriction patterns, but there is as yet no information on the physical nature of the controlling elements nor on the kinds of rearrangements they cause.

  18. Movable genetic elements: detection of changes in maize DNA at the Shrunken locus due to the intervention of Ds elements

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.A.

    1980-05-28

    This report describes our initial attempts at the molecular characterization of a maize controlling element. We have prepared a cDNA probe and used it to detect changes at a locus where Ds elements are found. Evidence of their presence are indicated by changes in the restriction patterns, but there is as yet no information on the physical nature of the controlling elements nor on the kinds of rearrangements they cause.

  19. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA from a vulvar carcinoma in situ is present as head-to-tail dimeric episomes with a deletion in the non-coding region.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, I M; Simpson, S; Macnab, J C; Clements, J B

    1987-02-01

    A number of genital cancer biopsy samples were screened for the presence of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA sequences. One of these samples (a vulvar carcinoma in situ) was found to contain more than 100 copies of HPV-16 DNA sequences per cell. Using this tumour DNA, a genomic library was constructed in bacteriophage lambda and the library was screened for recombinant phage containing HPV-16 sequences. Five recombinant phage clones were isolated and their DNA was analysed by restriction endonuclease digestion and blot hybridization. All five recombinants contained two copies of the HPV-16 genome present in a head-to-tail arrangement. The data are consistent with the presence of HPV-16 sequences in the tumour DNA arranged as genomic dimers in a circular episomal configuration. The HPV-16 genomes contained a deletion within the non-coding region, a region which includes the viral origin of DNA replication and transcriptional control sequences. Possible consequences of this deletion for viral replication and transcription are discussed. PMID:3029284

  20. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements.

    PubMed

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Pathak, Rupak; Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R; Allen, Antiño R; Raber, Jacob; Tackett, Alan J; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Koturbash, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5'-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR.

  1. A Distinct Group of Hepacivirus/Pestivirus-Like Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites in Members of Diverse Picornavirus Genera: Evidence for Modular Exchange of Functional Noncoding RNA Elements by Recombination▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hellen, Christopher U. T.; de Breyne, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    The 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5′ UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5′ UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently. PMID:17392358

  2. In Vivo Enhancer Analysis Chromosome 16 Conserved NoncodingSequences

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Ahituv, Nadav; Moses, Alan M.; Nobrega,Marcelo; Prabhakar, Shyam; Shoukry, Malak; Minovitsky, Simon; Visel,Axel; Dubchak, Inna; Holt, Amy; Lewis, Keith D.; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Akiyama, Jennifer; De Val, Sarah; Afzal, Veena; Black, Brian L.; Couronne, Olivier; Eisen, Michael B.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2006-02-01

    The identification of enhancers with predicted specificitiesin vertebrate genomes remains a significant challenge that is hampered bya lack of experimentally validated training sets. In this study, weleveraged extreme evolutionary sequence conservation as a filter toidentify putative gene regulatory elements and characterized the in vivoenhancer activity of human-fish conserved and ultraconserved1 noncodingelements on human chromosome 16 as well as such elements from elsewherein the genome. We initially tested 165 of these extremely conservedsequences in a transgenic mouse enhancer assay and observed that 48percent (79/165) functioned reproducibly as tissue-specific enhancers ofgene expression at embryonic day 11.5. While driving expression in abroad range of anatomical structures in the embryo, the majority of the79 enhancers drove expression in various regions of the developingnervous system. Studying a set of DNA elements that specifically droveforebrain expression, we identified DNA signatures specifically enrichedin these elements and used these parameters to rank all ~;3,400human-fugu conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. The testingof the top predictions in transgenic mice resulted in a three-foldenrichment for sequences with forebrain enhancer activity. These datadramatically expand the catalogue of in vivo-characterized human geneenhancers and illustrate the future utility of such training sets for avariety of iological applications including decoding the regulatoryvocabulary of the human genome.

  3. Variation in conserved non-coding sequences on chromosome 5q andsusceptibility to asthma and atopy

    SciTech Connect

    Donfack, Joseph; Schneider, Daniel H.; Tan, Zheng; Kurz,Thorsten; Dubchak, Inna; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ober, Carole

    2005-09-10

    Background: Evolutionarily conserved sequences likely havebiological function. Methods: To determine whether variation in conservedsequences in non-coding DNA contributes to risk for human disease, westudied six conserved non-coding elements in the Th2 cytokine cluster onhuman chromosome 5q31 in a large Hutterite pedigree and in samples ofoutbred European American and African American asthma cases and controls.Results: Among six conserved non-coding elements (>100 bp,>70percent identity; human-mouse comparison), we identified one singlenucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in each of two conserved elements and sixSNPs in the flanking regions of three conserved elements. We genotypedour samples for four of these SNPs and an additional three SNPs each inthe IL13 and IL4 genes. While there was only modest evidence forassociation with single SNPs in the Hutterite and European Americansamples (P<0.05), there were highly significant associations inEuropean Americans between asthma and haplotypes comprised of SNPs in theIL4 gene (P<0.001), including a SNP in a conserved non-codingelement. Furthermore, variation in the IL13 gene was strongly associatedwith total IgE (P = 0.00022) and allergic sensitization to mold allergens(P = 0.00076) in the Hutterites, and more modestly associated withsensitization to molds in the European Americans and African Americans (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that there is overalllittle variation in the conserved non-coding elements on 5q31, butvariation in IL4 and IL13, including possibly one SNP in a conservedelement, influence asthma and atopic phenotypes in diversepopulations.

  4. Four p53 DNA-binding domain peptides bind natural p53-response elements and bend the DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Balagurumoorthy, P; Sakamoto, H; Lewis, M S; Zambrano, N; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M; Appella, E; Harrington, R E

    1995-01-01

    Recent structural studies of the minimal core DNA-binding domain of p53 (p53DBD) complexed to a single consensus pentamer sequence and of the isolated p53 tetramerization domain have provided valuable insights into their functions, but many questions about their interacting roles and synergism remain unanswered. To better understand these relationships, we have examined the binding of the p53DBD to two biologically important full-response elements (the WAF1 and ribosomal gene cluster sites) by using DNA circularization and analytical ultracentrifugation. We show that the p53DBD binds DNA strongly and cooperatively with p53DBD to DNA binding stoichiometries of 4:1. For the WAF1 element, the mean apparent Kd is (8.3 +/- 1.4) x 10(-8) M, and no intermediate species of lower stoichiometries can be detected. We show further that complex formation induces an axial bend of at least 60 degrees in both response elements. These results, taken collectively, demonstrate that p53DBD possesses the ability to direct the formation of a tight nucleoprotein complex having the same 4:1 DNA-binding stoichiometry as wild-type p53 which is accompanied by a substantial conformational change in the response-element DNA. This suggests that the p53DBD may play a role in the tetramerization function of p53. A possible role in this regard is proposed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7567980

  5. Non-coding RNA repertoires in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Leah; Finn, Stephen P; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. There are limited treatment options, with no second line standard of care for those who fail first line chemotherapy. Recent advances have been made to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma, in the hope of providing new targets for therapy. With the discovery that non-coding regions of our DNA are more than mere junk, the field of research into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has exploded in recent years. Non-coding RNAs have diverse and important roles in a variety of cellular processes, but are also implicated in malignancy. In the following review, we discuss two types of non-coding RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs, in terms of their role in the pathogenesis of MPM and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26791801

  6. Non-coding RNA repertoires in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Leah; Finn, Stephen P; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. There are limited treatment options, with no second line standard of care for those who fail first line chemotherapy. Recent advances have been made to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma, in the hope of providing new targets for therapy. With the discovery that non-coding regions of our DNA are more than mere junk, the field of research into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has exploded in recent years. Non-coding RNAs have diverse and important roles in a variety of cellular processes, but are also implicated in malignancy. In the following review, we discuss two types of non-coding RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs, in terms of their role in the pathogenesis of MPM and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in this disease.

  7. Magnetic particle-based sandwich sensor with DNA-modified carbon nanotubes as recognition elements for detection of DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Po; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Yuan Fang; Ling, Jian; Liu, Yu Ling; Fei, Liang Run; Xie, Jian Ping

    2008-03-01

    In this contribution, we design a visual sensor for DNA hybridization with DNA probe-modified magnetic particles (MPs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) without involving a visual recognition element such as fluorescent/chemiluminescent reagents. It was found that DNA probe-modified MWNTs, which could be dispersed in aqueous medium and have strong light scattering signals under the excitation of a light beam in the UV-vis region, could connect with DNA probe-modified MPs together in the presence of perfectly complementary target DNA and form a sandwich structure. In a magnetic field, the formed MP-MWNT species can easily be removed from the solution, resulting in a decrease of light scattering signals. Thus, a magnetic particle-based sandwich sensor could be developed to detect DNA hybridization by measuring the light scattering signals with DNA-modified MWNTs as recognition elements. Experiments showed that the DNA-modified MPs sensor could be reused at least 17 times and was stable for more than 6 months.

  8. Identification of a conserved sequence in the non-coding regions of many human genes.

    PubMed Central

    Donehower, L A; Slagle, B L; Wilde, M; Darlington, G; Butel, J S

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed a sequence of approximately 70 base pairs (bp) that shows a high degree of similarity to sequences present in the non-coding regions of a number of human and other mammalian genes. The sequence was discovered in a fragment of human genomic DNA adjacent to an integrated hepatitis B virus genome in cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue. When one of the viral flanking sequences was compared to nucleotide sequences in GenBank, more than thirty human genes were identified that contained a similar sequence in their non-coding regions. The sequence element was usually found once or twice in a gene, either in an intron or in the 5' or 3' flanking regions. It did not share any similarities with known short interspersed nucleotide elements (SINEs) or presently known gene regulatory elements. This element was highly conserved at the same position within the corresponding human and mouse genes for myoglobin and N-myc, indicating evolutionary conservation and possible functional importance. Preliminary DNase I footprinting data suggested that the element or its adjacent sequences may bind nuclear factors to generate specific DNase I hypersensitive sites. The size, structure, and evolutionary conservation of this sequence indicates that it is distinct from other types of short interspersed repetitive elements. It is possible that the element may have a cis-acting functional role in the genome. Images PMID:2536922

  9. Capture of flanking DNA by a P element in Drosophila melanogaster: Creation of a transposable element

    SciTech Connect

    Tsubota, Stuart, I.; Huong Dangvu )

    1991-02-01

    A 6.1-kilobase nsertion into the rudimentary (r) gene was cloned and partially sequenced. The insertion consists of a 703-base-pair (bp) P element next to a 5.4-kilobase single-copy sequence. The normal positon of the single-copy sequence is near the tip of the X chromosome. Upon insertion into the r gene, this chimeric element generated an 8-bp target-site duplication, characteristic of P elements. At the non-P-element end of the insertion, the first 8 bp are identical to the first 8 bp of the inverted terminal repeats of the P element. Thus, this element has inverted terminal repeats of 8 bp. This large element can excise from the r gene under conditions of hybrid dysgenesis, which indicates that it behaves like a normal P element. These data support the conclusion that a normally stable single-copy sequence has now become unstable and duplicated within the genome.

  10. Noncoding RNAs and epigenetic mechanisms during X-chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Anne-Valerie; Heard, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the process of X-chromosome inactivation ensures equivalent levels of X-linked gene expression between males and females through the silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells. The process is established early in development and is initiated by a unique locus, which produces a long noncoding RNA, Xist. The Xist transcript triggers gene silencing in cis by coating the future inactive X chromosome. It also induces a cascade of chromatin changes, including posttranslational histone modifications and DNA methylation, and leads to the stable repression of all X-linked genes throughout development and adult life. We review here recent progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of Xist expression, the propagation of the Xist RNA along the chromosome, and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors involved in the maintenance of the repressed state. We also describe the diverse strategies used by nonplacental mammals for X-chromosome dosage compensation and highlight the common features and differences between eutherians and metatherians, in particular regarding the involvement of long noncoding RNAs.

  11. Structure of a Thyroid Hormone Receptor DNA-Binding Domain Homodimer Bound to an Inverted Palindrome DNA Response Element

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Young, Matthew A.

    2010-10-22

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), as a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, can recognize and bind different classes of DNA response element targets as either a monomer, a homooligomer, or a heterooligomer. We report here the first crystal structure of a homodimer TR DNA-binding domain (DBD) in complex with an inverted repeat class of thyroid response element (TRE). The structure shows a nearly symmetric structure of the TR DBD assembled on the F2 TRE where the base recognition contacts in the homodimer DNA complex are conserved relative to the previously published structure of a TR-9-cis-retinoic acid receptor heterodimer DNA complex. The new structure also reveals that the T-box region of the DBD can function as a structural hinge that enables a large degree of flexibility in the position of the C-terminal extension helix that connects the DBD to the ligand-binding domain. Although the isolated TR DBDs exist as monomers in solution, we have measured highly cooperative binding of the two TR DBD subunits onto the inverted repeat DNA sequence. This suggests that elements of the DBD can influence the specific TR oligomerization at target genes, and it is not just interactions between the ligand-binding domains that are responsible for TR oligomerization at target genes. Mutational analysis shows that intersubunit contacts at the DBD C terminus account for some, but not all, of the cooperative homodimer TR binding to the inverted repeat class TRE.

  12. Modular structural elements in the replication origin region of Tetrahymena rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Du, C; Sanzgiri, R P; Shaiu, W L; Choi, J K; Hou, Z; Benbow, R M; Dobbs, D L

    1995-01-01

    Computer analyses of the DNA replication origin region in the amplified rRNA genes of Tetrahymena thermophila identified a potential initiation zone in the 5'NTS [Dobbs, Shaiu and Benbow (1994), Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 2479-2489]. This region consists of a putative DNA unwinding element (DUE) aligned with predicted bent DNA segments, nuclear matrix or scaffold associated region (MAR/SAR) consensus sequences, and other common modular sequence elements previously shown to be clustered in eukaryotic chromosomal origin regions. In this study, two mung bean nuclease-hypersensitive sites in super-coiled plasmid DNA were localized within the major DUE-like element predicted by thermodynamic analyses. Three restriction fragments of the 5'NTS region predicted to contain bent DNA segments exhibited anomalous migration characteristic of bent DNA during electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. Restriction fragments containing the 5'NTS region bound Tetrahymena nuclear matrices in an in vitro binding assay, consistent with an association of the replication origin region with the nuclear matrix in vivo. The direct demonstration in a protozoan origin region of elements previously identified in Drosophila, chick and mammalian origin regions suggests that clusters of modular structural elements may be a conserved feature of eukaryotic chromosomal origins of replication. Images PMID:7784181

  13. Non-coding RNAs: An Introduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jennifer X; Rastetter, Raphael H; Wilhelm, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    For many years the main role of RNA, it addition to the housekeeping functions of for example tRNAs and rRNAs, was believed to be a messenger between the genes encoded on the DNA and the functional units of the cell, the proteins. This changed drastically with the identification of the first small non-coding RNA, termed microRNA, some 20 years ago. This discovery opened the field of regulatory RNAs with no or little protein-coding potential. Since then many new classes of regulatory non-coding RNAs, including endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs, have been identified and we have made amazing progress in elucidating their expression, biogenesis, mechanisms and mode of action, and function in many, if not all, biological processes. In this chapter we provide an introduction about the current knowledge of the main classes of non-coding RNAs, what is know about their biogenesis and mechanism of function.

  14. Stressing out over long noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Audas, Timothy E; Lee, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have revealed that humans possess far fewer protein-encoding genes than originally predicted. These over-estimates were drawn from the inherent developmental and stimuli-responsive complexity found in humans and other mammals, when compared to lower eukaryotic organisms. This left a conceptual void in many cellular networks, as a new class of functional molecules was necessary for "fine-tuning" the basic proteomic machinery. Transcriptomics analyses have determined that the vast majority of the genetic material is transcribed as noncoding RNA, suggesting that these molecules could provide the functional diversity initially sought from proteins. Indeed, as discussed in this review, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), the largest family of noncoding transcripts, have emerged as common regulators of many cellular stressors; including heat shock, metabolic deprivation and DNA damage. These stimuli, while divergent in nature, share some common stress-responsive pathways, notably inhibition of cell proliferation. This role intrinsically makes stress-responsive lncRNA regulators potential tumor suppressor or proto-oncogenic genes. As the list of functional RNA molecules continues to rapidly expand it is becoming increasingly clear that the significance and functionality of this family may someday rival that of proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. PMID:26142536

  15. Noncoding Transcriptional Landscape in Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marina C; Leitão, Ana Lúcia; Enguita, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a universal phenomenon in metazoans, characterized by a general decline of the organism physiology associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Aging of an organism correlates with a decline in function of its cells, as shown for muscle, immune, and neuronal cells. As the DNA content of most cells within an organism remains largely identical throughout the life span, age-associated transcriptional changes must be achieved by epigenetic mechanisms. However, how aging may impact on the epigenetic state of cells is only beginning to be understood. In light of a growing number of studies demonstrating that noncoding RNAs can provide molecular signals that regulate expression of protein-coding genes and define epigenetic states of cells, we hypothesize that noncoding RNAs could play a direct role in inducing age-associated profiles of gene expression. In this context, the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as regulators of gene expression might be important for the overall transcriptional landscape observed in aged human cells. The possible functions of lncRNAs and other noncoding RNAs, and their roles in the regulation of aging-related cellular pathways will be analyzed.

  16. Post-GWAS methodologies for localisation of functional non-coding variants: ANGPTL3

    PubMed Central

    Oldoni, Federico; Palmen, Jutta; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Howard, Philip; Drenos, Fotios; Plagnol, Vincent; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Smith, Andrew J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the involvement of non-coding angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) gene variants with coronary artery disease, levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and ANGPTL3 mRNA transcript. Extensive linkage disequilibrium at the locus, however, has hindered efforts to identify the potential functional variants. Using regulatory annotations from ENCODE, combined with functional in vivo assays such as allele-specific formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements, statistical approaches including eQTL/lipid colocalisation, and traditional in vitro methodologies including electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assays, variants affecting the ANGPTL3 regulome were examined. From 253 variants associated with ANGPTL3 mRNA expression, and/or lipid traits, 46 were located within liver regulatory elements and potentially functional. One variant, rs10889352, demonstrated allele-specific effects on DNA-protein interactions, reporter gene expression and chromatin accessibility, in line with effects on LDL-C levels and expression of ANGPTL3 mRNA. The ANGPTL3 gene lies within DOCK7, although the variant is within non-coding regions outside of ANGPTL3, within DOCK7, suggesting complex long-range regulatory effects on gene expression. This study illustrates the power of combining multiple genome-wide datasets with laboratory data to localise functional non-coding variation and provides a model for analysis of regulatory variants from GWAS. PMID:26800306

  17. A role for noncoding variation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Panos; Mitchell, Amanda C; Voloudakis, Georgios; Fullard, John F; Pothula, Venu M; Tsang, Jonathan; Stahl, Eli A; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Charney, Alexander; Okada, Yukinori; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Plenge, Robert M; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Fromer, Menachem; Purcell, Shaun M; Brennand, Kristen J; Robakis, Nikolaos K; Schadt, Eric E; Akbarian, Schahram; Sklar, Pamela

    2014-11-20

    A large portion of common variant loci associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia reside within noncoding sequence of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate promoter and enhancer enrichment in schizophrenia variants associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). The enrichment is greater when functional annotations derived from the human brain are used relative to peripheral tissues. Regulatory trait concordance analysis ranked genes within schizophrenia genome-wide significant loci for a potential functional role, based on colocalization of a risk SNP, eQTL, and regulatory element sequence. We identified potential physical interactions of noncontiguous proximal and distal regulatory elements. This was verified in prefrontal cortex and -induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons for the L-type calcium channel (CACNA1C) risk locus. Our findings point to a functional link between schizophrenia-associated noncoding SNPs and 3D genome architecture associated with chromosomal loopings and transcriptional regulation in the brain.

  18. Surveying DNA Elements within Functional Genes of Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Jason A.; Meeks, John C.; Zehr, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Some cyanobacteria are capable of differentiating a variety of cell types in response to environmental factors. For instance, in low nitrogen conditions, some cyanobacteria form heterocysts, which are specialized for N2 fixation. Many heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria have DNA elements interrupting key N2 fixation genes, elements that are excised during heterocyst differentiation. While the mechanism for the excision of the element has been well-studied, many questions remain regarding the introduction of the elements into the cyanobacterial lineage and whether they have been retained ever since or have been lost and reintroduced. To examine the evolutionary relationships and possible function of DNA sequences that interrupt genes of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, we identified and compared 101 interruption element sequences within genes from 38 heterocyst-forming cyanobacterial genomes. The interruption element lengths ranged from about 1 kb (the minimum able to encode the recombinase responsible for element excision), up to nearly 1 Mb. The recombinase gene sequences served as genetic markers that were common across the interruption elements and were used to track element evolution. Elements were found that interrupted 22 different orthologs, only five of which had been previously observed to be interrupted by an element. Most of the newly identified interrupted orthologs encode proteins that have been shown to have heterocyst-specific activity. However, the presence of interruption elements within genes with no known role in N2 fixation, as well as in three non-heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, indicates that the processes that trigger the excision of elements may not be limited to heterocyst development or that the elements move randomly within genomes. This comprehensive analysis provides the framework to study the history and behavior of these unique sequences, and offers new insight regarding the frequency and persistence of interruption elements in

  19. Surveying DNA Elements within Functional Genes of Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Jason A; Meeks, John C; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Some cyanobacteria are capable of differentiating a variety of cell types in response to environmental factors. For instance, in low nitrogen conditions, some cyanobacteria form heterocysts, which are specialized for N2 fixation. Many heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria have DNA elements interrupting key N2 fixation genes, elements that are excised during heterocyst differentiation. While the mechanism for the excision of the element has been well-studied, many questions remain regarding the introduction of the elements into the cyanobacterial lineage and whether they have been retained ever since or have been lost and reintroduced. To examine the evolutionary relationships and possible function of DNA sequences that interrupt genes of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, we identified and compared 101 interruption element sequences within genes from 38 heterocyst-forming cyanobacterial genomes. The interruption element lengths ranged from about 1 kb (the minimum able to encode the recombinase responsible for element excision), up to nearly 1 Mb. The recombinase gene sequences served as genetic markers that were common across the interruption elements and were used to track element evolution. Elements were found that interrupted 22 different orthologs, only five of which had been previously observed to be interrupted by an element. Most of the newly identified interrupted orthologs encode proteins that have been shown to have heterocyst-specific activity. However, the presence of interruption elements within genes with no known role in N2 fixation, as well as in three non-heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, indicates that the processes that trigger the excision of elements may not be limited to heterocyst development or that the elements move randomly within genomes. This comprehensive analysis provides the framework to study the history and behavior of these unique sequences, and offers new insight regarding the frequency and persistence of interruption elements in

  20. Assessment of Changes in Global DNA Methylation Levels by Pyrosequencing® of Repetitive Elements.

    PubMed

    Tabish, Ali M; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Godderis, Lode; Barrow, Timothy M; Hoet, Peter; Byun, Hyang-Min

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TE) comprise half of the human genome. LINE-1 and ALU are the most common TE, and they have been used to assess changes in the DNA methylation of repetitive elements in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cellular events. Pyrosequencing(®) is a real-time sequencing technology that enables quantitative assessment of TE methylation at single-base resolution. In Pyrosequencing, a region of interest is first amplified from bisulfite-converted DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), before PCR amplicons are rendered single stranded and annealed with the Pyrosequencing primer prior to sequencing. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the analysis of repetitive element DNA methylation by bisulfite Pyrosequencing, and we describe a protocol that can be used for such purposes.

  1. TFIIIC Bound DNA Elements in Nuclear Organization and Insulation

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Jacob G.; Raab, Jesse R.

    2012-01-01

    tRNA genes (tDNAs) have been known to have barrier insulator function in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for over a decade. tDNAs also play a role in genome organization by clustering at sites in the nucleus and both of these functions are dependent on the transcription factor TFIIIC. More recently TFIIIC bound sites devoid of pol III, termed Extra-TFIIIC sites (ETC) have been identified in budding yeast and these sites also function as insulators and affect genome organization. Subsequent studies in Schizosaccharomyces pombe showed that TFIIIC bound sites were insulators and also functioned as Chromosome Organization Clamps (COC); tethering the sites to the nuclear periphery. Very recently studies have moved to mammalian systems where pol III genes and their associated factors have been investigated in both mouse and human cells. Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) that bind TFIIIC, function as insulator elements and tDNAs can also function as both enhancer -blocking and barrier insulators in these organisms. It was also recently shown that tDNAs cluster with other tDNAs and with ETCs but not with pol II transcribed genes. Intriguingly, TFIIIC is often found near pol II transcription start sites and it remains unclear what the consequences of TFIIIC based genomic organization are and what influence pol III factors have on pol II transcribed genes and vise versa. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the known data on pol III factors in insulation and genome organization and identify the many open questions that require further investigation. \\ PMID:23000638

  2. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element Specific for Bromacil

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ryan M.; Kulick, Amanda R.; Yedlapalli, Srilakshmi; Battistella, Louisa; Hajiran, Cyrus J.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2014-01-01

    Bromacil is a widely used herbicide that is known to contaminate environmental systems. Due to the hazards it presents and inefficient detection methods, it is necessary to create a rapid and efficient sensing device. Towards this end, we have utilized a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE) specific for bromacil. We have identified one MRE with high affinity (Kd = 9.6 nM) and specificity for bromacil compared to negative targets of selection and other pesticides. The selected ssDNA MRE will be useful as the sensing element in a field-deployable bromacil detection device. PMID:25400940

  3. DNA capture elements for rapid detection and identification of biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Parker, Jill E.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Vivekananda, Jeeva

    2004-08-01

    DNA capture elements (DCEs; aptamers) are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. Reporter molecules were attached to the finished sequences. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. These DCEs have demonstrated specificity and sensitivity equal to or better than antibody.

  4. p53-dependent non-coding RNA networks in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Blume, C J; Hotz-Wagenblatt, A; Hüllein, J; Sellner, L; Jethwa, A; Stolz, T; Slabicki, M; Lee, K; Sharathchandra, A; Benner, A; Dietrich, S; Oakes, C C; Dreger, P; te Raa, D; Kater, A P; Jauch, A; Merkel, O; Oren, M; Hielscher, T; Zenz, T

    2015-10-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 lead to chemotherapy resistance and a dismal prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Whereas p53 targets are used to identify patient subgroups with impaired p53 function, a comprehensive assessment of non-coding RNA targets of p53 in CLL is missing. We exploited the impaired transcriptional activity of mutant p53 to map out p53 targets in CLL by small RNA sequencing. We describe the landscape of p53-dependent microRNA/non-coding RNA induced in response to DNA damage in CLL. Besides the key p53 target miR-34a, we identify a set of p53-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-182-5p, miR-7-5p and miR-320c/d). In addition to miRNAs, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) and long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) are induced in response to DNA damage in the presence of functional p53 but not in CLL with p53 mutation. Induction of NEAT1 and lincRNA-p21 are closely correlated to the induction of cell death after DNA damage. We used isogenic lymphoma cell line models to prove p53 dependence of NEAT1 and lincRNA-p21. The current work describes the p53-dependent miRNome and identifies lncRNAs NEAT1 and lincRNA-p21 as novel elements of the p53-dependent DNA damage response machinery in CLL and lymphoma.

  5. Radiation-induced changes in DNA methylation of repetitive elements in the mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Skinner, Charles M; Melnyk, Stepan B; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism, needed for proper control over the expression of genetic information and silencing of repetitive elements. Exposure to ionizing radiation, aside from its strong genotoxic potential, may also affect the methylation of DNA, within the repetitive elements, in particular. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6J male mice to low absorbed mean doses of two types of space radiation-proton (0.1 Gy, 150 MeV, dose rate 0.53 ± 0.08 Gy/min), and heavy iron ions ((56)Fe) (0.5 Gy, 600 MeV/n, dose rate 0.38 ± 0.06 Gy/min). Radiation-induced changes in cardiac DNA methylation associated with repetitive elements were detected. Specifically, modest hypomethylation of retrotransposon LINE-1 was observed at day 7 after irradiation with either protons or (56)Fe. This was followed by LINE-1, and other retrotransposons, ERV2 and SINE B1, as well as major satellite DNA hypermethylation at day 90 after irradiation with (56)Fe. These changes in DNA methylation were accompanied by alterations in the expression of DNA methylation machinery and affected the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Furthermore, loss of transposable elements expression was detected in the cardiac tissue at the 90-day time-point, paralleled by substantial accumulation of mRNA transcripts, associated with major satellites. Given that the one-carbon metabolism pathway can be modulated by dietary modifications, these findings suggest a potential strategy for the mitigation and, possibly, prevention of the negative effects exerted by ionizing radiation on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, we show that the methylation status and expression of repetitive elements may serve as early biomarkers of exposure to space radiation.

  6. Sequence analysis of Vicia faba repeated DNA, the FokI repeat element.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, A; Yakura, K; Tanifuji, S

    1984-01-01

    A type of highly repeated DNA sequences present in the genome of Vicia faba was detected by digestion its nuclear DNA with FokI endonuclease and fractionating the digests on polyacrylamide gels. Four fragments of 59, 108, 177 and 246 bp of the FokI repeated sequences were collected from the gels and their primary structures were determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. These repeated DNA sequences were shown to be a multiple tandem array of a 59 bp sequence element. And its nucleotide sequence was almost completely conserved among all the sequence members of each the size class and also among these classes. This sequence element consists of a duplet of an about the duplet has an incomplete dyad symmetrical structure. Images PMID:6089113

  7. Nonconsensus Protein Binding to Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Significantly Affects Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Gordân, Raluca; Lukatsky, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide experiments in different eukaryotic genomes provide an unprecedented view of transcription factor (TF) binding locations and of nucleosome occupancy. These experiments revealed that a large fraction of TF binding events occur in regions where only a small number of specific TF binding sites (TFBSs) have been detected. Furthermore, in vitro protein-DNA binding measurements performed for hundreds of TFs indicate that TFs are bound with wide range of affinities to different DNA sequences that lack known consensus motifs. These observations have thus challenged the classical picture of specific protein-DNA binding and strongly suggest the existence of additional recognition mechanisms that affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We have previously demonstrated that repetitive DNA sequence elements characterized by certain symmetries statistically affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We call this binding mechanism nonconsensus protein-DNA binding in order to emphasize the point that specific consensus TFBSs do not contribute to this effect. In this paper, using the simple statistical mechanics model developed previously, we calculate the nonconsensus protein-DNA binding free energy for the entire C. elegans and D. melanogaster genomes. Using the available chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) results on TF-DNA binding preferences for ~100 TFs, we show that DNA sequences characterized by low predicted free energy of nonconsensus binding have statistically higher experimental TF occupancy and lower nucleosome occupancy than sequences characterized by high free energy of nonconsensus binding. This is in agreement with our previous analysis performed for the yeast genome. We suggest therefore that nonconsensus protein-DNA binding assists the formation of nucleosome-free regions, as TFs outcompete nucleosomes at genomic locations with enhanced nonconsensus binding. In addition, here we perform a new, large-scale analysis using

  8. A DNA-binding protein factor recognizes two binding domains within the octopine synthase enhancer element.

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhisa, J G; Singh, K; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    1990-01-01

    A protein that binds to the enhancing element of the octopine synthase gene has been identified in nuclear extracts from maize cell suspension cultures. Two protein-DNA complexes are distinguishable by electrophoretic mobility in gel retardation assays. Footprint analyses of these low and high molecular weight complexes show, respectively, half and complete protection of the ocs-element DNA from cleavage by methidiumpropyl-EDTA.FE(II). Two lines of evidence indicate that the element has two recognition sites, each of which can bind identical protein units. Elements that are mutated in one or the other half and form only the low molecular weight complex interfere with the formation of both the low and high molecular weight complexes by the wild-type element. Protein isolated from a complex with only one binding site occupied can bind to the wild-type ocs-element and generate complexes with protein occupying one or both binding sites. Occupation of both sites of the ocs-element is a prerequisite for transcriptional enhancement. PMID:2152113

  9. Identification of a cis-acting DNA antisilencer element which modulates vimentin gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Stover, D M; Zehner, Z E

    1992-01-01

    Vimentin is a tissue-specific, developmentally regulated member of the intermediate filament protein family normally expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin. Transcription factors which recognize specific cis-acting elements of the chicken gene include Sp-1 and the 95-kDa silencer protein which binds to a 40-bp silencer element at -608 (F. X. Farrell, C. M. Sax, and Z. E. Zehner, Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:2349-2358, 1990). In this study, we have identified a region upstream of the silencer element which restores gene activity. This region has been further delineated into two functional subelements of 75 and 260 bp. In transient transfection assays, the 75-bp element overrides the silencer effect of pStkCAT by 100%, while the 260-bp element is about half as active. Neither element affects gene activity when the silencer element is absent. Therefore, these elements do not function as enhancers, but they may serve only to override the silencer element and therefore can be viewed as antisilencers. In addition, the 75-bp element binds a specific 140-kDa protein, as determined by gel mobility shift assays and Southwestern (DNA-protein) blots, the binding site of which has been delineated to a 10- to 17-bp element by DNase I protection experiments. During myogenesis, a direct correlation can be made between the binding efficiency of the 140-kDa protein, the silencer protein, and gene activity in vivo. Genes known to contain a functional silencer element also contain at least one antisilencer element, as determined by sequence identity. Therefore, we have identified an antisilencer element and protein important in the developmental regulation of vimentin gene expression which may be involved in the regulation of other genes. Images PMID:1569950

  10. Long non-coding RNA produced by RNA polymerase V determines boundaries of heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Böhmdorfer, Gudrun; Sethuraman, Shriya; Rowley, M Jordan; Krzyszton, Michal; Rothi, M Hafiz; Bouzit, Lilia; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T

    2016-01-01

    RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing is a conserved process where small RNAs target transposons and other sequences for repression by establishing chromatin modifications. A central element of this process are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), which in Arabidopsis thaliana are produced by a specialized RNA polymerase known as Pol V. Here we show that non-coding transcription by Pol V is controlled by preexisting chromatin modifications located within the transcribed regions. Most Pol V transcripts are associated with AGO4 but are not sliced by AGO4. Pol V-dependent DNA methylation is established on both strands of DNA and is tightly restricted to Pol V-transcribed regions. This indicates that chromatin modifications are established in close proximity to Pol V. Finally, Pol V transcription is preferentially enriched on edges of silenced transposable elements, where Pol V transcribes into TEs. We propose that Pol V may play an important role in the determination of heterochromatin boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19092.001 PMID:27779094

  11. Satellite DNA-like elements associated with genes within euchromatin of the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Brajković, Josip; Feliciello, Isidoro; Bruvo-Mađarić, Branka; Ugarković, Durđica

    2012-08-01

    In the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum the major TCAST satellite DNA accounts for 35% of the genome and encompasses the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes. Because of the presence of transcriptional regulatory elements and transcriptional activity in these sequences, TCAST satellite DNAs also have been proposed to be modulators of gene expression within euchromatin. Here, we analyze the distribution of TCAST homologous repeats in T. castaneum euchromatin and study their association with genes as well as their potential gene regulatory role. We identified 68 arrays composed of TCAST-like elements distributed on all chromosomes. Based on sequence characteristics the arrays were composed of two types of TCAST-like elements. The first type consists of TCAST satellite-like elements in the form of partial monomers or tandemly arranged monomers, up to tetramers, whereas the second type consists of TCAST-like elements embedded with a complex unit that resembles a DNA transposon. TCAST-like elements were also found in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the CR1-3_TCa retrotransposon, and therefore retrotransposition may have contributed to their dispersion throughout the genome. No significant difference in the homogenization of dispersed TCAST-like elements was found either at the level of local arrays or chromosomes nor among different chromosomes. Of 68 TCAST-like elements, 29 were located within introns, with the remaining elements flanked by genes within a 262 to 404,270 nt range. TCAST-like elements are statistically overrepresented near genes with immunoglobulin-like domains attesting to their nonrandom distribution and a possible gene regulatory role. PMID:22908042

  12. Satellite DNA-Like Elements Associated With Genes Within Euchromatin of the Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Brajković, Josip; Feliciello, Isidoro; Bruvo-Mađarić, Branka; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2012-01-01

    In the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum the major TCAST satellite DNA accounts for 35% of the genome and encompasses the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes. Because of the presence of transcriptional regulatory elements and transcriptional activity in these sequences, TCAST satellite DNAs also have been proposed to be modulators of gene expression within euchromatin. Here, we analyze the distribution of TCAST homologous repeats in T. castaneum euchromatin and study their association with genes as well as their potential gene regulatory role. We identified 68 arrays composed of TCAST-like elements distributed on all chromosomes. Based on sequence characteristics the arrays were composed of two types of TCAST-like elements. The first type consists of TCAST satellite-like elements in the form of partial monomers or tandemly arranged monomers, up to tetramers, whereas the second type consists of TCAST-like elements embedded with a complex unit that resembles a DNA transposon. TCAST-like elements were also found in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the CR1-3_TCa retrotransposon, and therefore retrotransposition may have contributed to their dispersion throughout the genome. No significant difference in the homogenization of dispersed TCAST-like elements was found either at the level of local arrays or chromosomes nor among different chromosomes. Of 68 TCAST-like elements, 29 were located within introns, with the remaining elements flanked by genes within a 262 to 404,270 nt range. TCAST-like elements are statistically overrepresented near genes with immunoglobulin-like domains attesting to their nonrandom distribution and a possible gene regulatory role. PMID:22908042

  13. Non-coding RNAs in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ricciuti, Biagio; Mecca, Carmen; Crinò, Lucio; Baglivo, Sara; Cenci, Matteo; Metro, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that protein-coding genes represent less than 2% of all human genome, and the evidence that more than 90% of it is actively transcribed, changed the classical point of view of the central dogma of molecular biology, which was always based on the assumption that RNA functions mainly as an intermediate bridge between DNA sequences and protein synthesis machinery. Accumulating data indicates that non-coding RNAs are involved in different physiological processes, providing for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They are important regulators of gene expression, cellular differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stem cell maintenance. Alterations and disruptions of their expression or activity have increasingly been associated with pathological changes of cancer cells, this evidence and the prospect of using these molecules as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, make currently non-coding RNAs among the most relevant molecules in cancer research. In this paper we will provide an overview of non-coding RNA function and disruption in lung cancer biology, also focusing on their potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.

  14. Functional roles of non-coding Y RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Madzia P; Krude, Torsten

    2015-09-01

    Non-coding RNAs are involved in a multitude of cellular processes but the biochemical function of many small non-coding RNAs remains unclear. The family of small non-coding Y RNAs is conserved in vertebrates and related RNAs are present in some prokaryotic species. Y RNAs are also homologous to the newly identified family of non-coding stem-bulge RNAs (sbRNAs) in nematodes, for which potential physiological functions are only now emerging. Y RNAs are essential for the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in vertebrates and, when bound to the Ro60 protein, they are involved in RNA stability and cellular responses to stress in several eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. Additionally, short fragments of Y RNAs have recently been identified as abundant components in the blood and tissues of humans and other mammals, with potential diagnostic value. While the number of functional roles of Y RNAs is growing, it is becoming increasingly clear that the conserved structural domains of Y RNAs are essential for distinct cellular functions. Here, we review the biochemical functions associated with these structural RNA domains, as well as the functional conservation of Y RNAs in different species. The existing biochemical and structural evidence supports a domain model for these small non-coding RNAs that has direct implications for the modular evolution of functional non-coding RNAs.

  15. Functional roles of non-coding Y RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Madzia P.; Krude, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs are involved in a multitude of cellular processes but the biochemical function of many small non-coding RNAs remains unclear. The family of small non-coding Y RNAs is conserved in vertebrates and related RNAs are present in some prokaryotic species. Y RNAs are also homologous to the newly identified family of non-coding stem-bulge RNAs (sbRNAs) in nematodes, for which potential physiological functions are only now emerging. Y RNAs are essential for the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in vertebrates and, when bound to the Ro60 protein, they are involved in RNA stability and cellular responses to stress in several eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. Additionally, short fragments of Y RNAs have recently been identified as abundant components in the blood and tissues of humans and other mammals, with potential diagnostic value. While the number of functional roles of Y RNAs is growing, it is becoming increasingly clear that the conserved structural domains of Y RNAs are essential for distinct cellular functions. Here, we review the biochemical functions associated with these structural RNA domains, as well as the functional conservation of Y RNAs in different species. The existing biochemical and structural evidence supports a domain model for these small non-coding RNAs that has direct implications for the modular evolution of functional non-coding RNAs. PMID:26159929

  16. Prebending the estrogen response element destabilizes binding of the estrogen receptor DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; de Haan, G; Nardulli, A M; Shapiro, D J

    1997-01-01

    Binding of many eukaryotic transcription regulatory proteins to their DNA recognition sequences results in conformational changes in DNA. To test the effect of altering DNA topology by prebending a transcription factor binding site, we examined the interaction of the estrogen receptor (ER) DNA binding domain (DBD) with prebent estrogen response elements (EREs). When the ERE in minicircle DNA was prebent toward the major groove, which is in the same direction as the ER-induced DNA bend, there was no significant effect on ER DBD binding relative to the linear counterparts. However, when the ERE was bent toward the minor groove, in a direction that opposes the ER-induced DNA bend, there was a four- to eightfold reduction in ER DBD binding. Since reduced binding was also observed with the ERE in nicked circles, the reduction in binding was not due to torsional force induced by binding of ER DBD to the prebent ERE in covalently closed minicircles. To determine the mechanism responsible for reduced binding to the prebent ERE, we examined the effect of prebending the ERE on the association and dissociation of the ER DBD. Binding of the ER DBD to ERE-containing minicircles was rapid when the EREs were prebent toward either the major or minor groove of the DNA (k(on) of 9.9 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). Prebending the ERE toward the minor groove resulted in an increase in k(off) of four- to fivefold. Increased dissociation of the ER DBD from the ERE is, therefore, the major factor responsible for reduced binding of the ER DBD to an ERE prebent toward the minor groove. These data provide the first direct demonstration that the interaction of a eukaryotic transcription factor with its recognition sequence can be strongly influenced by altering DNA topology through prebending the DNA. PMID:9154816

  17. Mavericks, a novel class of giant transposable elements widespread in eukaryotes and related to DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Pritham, Ellen J; Putliwala, Tasneem; Feschotte, Cédric

    2007-04-01

    We previously identified a group of atypical mobile elements designated Mavericks from the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae and the zebrafish Danio rerio. Here we present the results of comprehensive database searches of the genome sequences available, which reveal that Mavericks are widespread in invertebrates and non-mammalian vertebrates but show a patchy distribution in non-animal species, being present in the fungi Glomus intraradices and Phakopsora pachyrhizi and in several single-celled eukaryotes such as the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, the stramenopile Phytophthora infestans and the trichomonad Trichomonas vaginalis, but not detectable in plants. This distribution, together with comparative and phylogenetic analyses of Maverick-encoded proteins, is suggestive of an ancient origin of these elements in eukaryotes followed by lineage-specific losses and/or recurrent episodes of horizontal transmission. In addition, we report that Maverick elements have amplified recently to high copy numbers in T. vaginalis where they now occupy as much as 30% of the genome. Sequence analysis confirms that most Mavericks encode a retroviral-like integrase, but lack other open reading frames typically found in retroelements. Nevertheless, the length and conservation of the target site duplication created upon Maverick insertion (5- or 6-bp) is consistent with a role of the integrase-like protein in the integration of a double-stranded DNA transposition intermediate. Mavericks also display long terminal-inverted repeats but do not contain ORFs similar to proteins encoded by DNA transposons. Instead, Mavericks encode a conserved set of 5 to 9 genes (in addition to the integrase) that are predicted to encode proteins with homology to replication and packaging proteins of some bacteriophages and diverse eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses, including a DNA polymerase B homolog and putative capsid proteins. Based on these and other structural similarities, we

  18. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH) ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Results We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH) region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. Conclusions The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead. PMID:20047671

  19. A brief review on the Human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hongzhu; Fang, Xiangdong

    2013-06-01

    The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project is an international research consortium that aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The second phase of the project comprised 1640 datasets from 147 different cell types, yielding a set of 30 publications across several journals. These data revealed that 80.4% of the human genome displays some functionality in at least one cell type. Many of these regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and further form a network or three-dimensional conformation to affect gene expression. These elements are also related to sequence variants associated with diseases or traits. All these findings provide us new insights into the organization and regulation of genes and genome, and serve as an expansive resource for understanding human health and disease.

  20. A Land Plant-Specific Transcription Factor Directly Enhances Transcription of a Pathogenic Noncoding RNA Template by DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Qu, Jie; Ji, Shaoyi; Wallace, Andrew J; Wu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gopalan, Venkat; Ding, Biao

    2016-05-01

    Some DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs) possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity, as was first discovered in the replication of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Recent studies revealed that this activity in bacteria and mammals is important for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. Here, we used PSTVd as a model to uncover auxiliary factors essential for RNA-templated transcription by DdRP PSTVd replication in the nucleoplasm generates (-)-PSTVd intermediates and (+)-PSTVd copies. We found that the Nicotiana benthamiana canonical 9-zinc finger (ZF) Transcription Factor IIIA (TFIIIA-9ZF) as well as its variant TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (+)-PSTVd, but only TFIIIA-7ZF interacted with (-)-PSTVd. Suppression of TFIIIA-7ZF reduced PSTVd replication, and overexpression of TFIIIA-7ZF enhanced PSTVd replication in planta. Consistent with the locale of PSTVd replication, TFIIIA-7ZF was found in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, in contrast to the strictly nucleolar localization of TFIIIA-9ZF. Footprinting assays revealed that only TFIIIA-7ZF bound to a region of PSTVd critical for initiating transcription. Furthermore, TFIIIA-7ZF strongly enhanced the in vitro transcription of circular (+)-PSTVd by partially purified Pol II. Together, our results identify TFIIIA-7ZF as a dedicated cellular transcription factor that acts in DdRP-catalyzed RNA-templated transcription, highlighting both the extraordinary evolutionary adaptation of viroids and the potential of DdRPs for a broader role in cellular processes. PMID:27113774

  1. Structural basis of VDR–DNA interactions on direct repeat response elements

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Paul L.; Gewirth, Daniel T.

    2002-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) forms homo- or heterodimers on response elements composed of two hexameric half-sites separated by 3 bp of spacer DNA. We describe here the crystal structures at 2.7–2.8 Å resolution of the VDR DNA-binding region (DBD) in complex with response elements from three different promoters: osteopontin (SPP), canonical DR3 and osteocalcin (OC). These structures reveal the chemical basis for the increased affinity of VDR for the SPP response element, and for the poor stability of the VDR–OC complex, relative to the canonical DR3 response element. The homodimeric protein–protein interface is stabilized by van der Waals interactions and is predominantly non-polar. An extensive α-helix at the C-terminal end of the VDR DBD resembles that found in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), and suggests a mechanism by which VDR and TR discriminate among response elements. Selective structure-based mutations in the asymmetric homodimeric interface result in a VDR DBD protein that is defective in homodimerization but now forms heterodimers with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) DBD. PMID:11980721

  2. Chilean Pitavia more closely related to Oceania and Old World Rutaceae than to Neotropical groups: evidence from two cpDNA non-coding regions, with a new subfamilial classification of the family

    PubMed Central

    Groppo, Milton; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Pirani, José Rubens; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The position of the plant genus Pitavia within an infrafamilial phylogeny of Rutaceae (rue, or orange family) was investigated with the use of two non-coding regions from cpDNA, the trnL-trnF region and the rps16 intron. The only species of the genus, Pitavia punctata Molina, is restricted to the temperate forests of the Coastal Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile and threatened by loss of habitat. The genus traditionally has been treated as part of tribe Zanthoxyleae (subfamily Rutoideae) where it constitutes the monogeneric tribe Pitaviinae. This tribe and genus are characterized by fruits of 1 to 4 fleshy drupelets, unlike the dehiscent fruits typical of the subfamily. Fifty-five taxa of Rutaceae, representing 53 genera (nearly one-third of those in the family) and all subfamilies, tribes, and almost all subtribes of the family were included. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny; six taxa of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae, all members of Sapindales, were also used as out-groups. Results from both analyses were congruent and showed Pitavia as sister to Flindersia and Lunasia, both genera with species scattered through Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Malayan region, and phylogenetically far from other Neotropical Rutaceae, such as the Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutoideae) and Pteleinae (Toddalieae, former Toddalioideae). Additionally, a new circumscription of the subfamilies of Rutaceae is presented and discussed. Only two subfamilies (both monophyletic) are recognized: Cneoroideae (including Dictyolomatoideae, Spathelioideae, Cneoraceae, and Ptaeroxylaceae) and Rutoideae (including not only traditional Rutoideae but also Aurantioideae, Flindersioideae, and Toddalioideae). As a consequence, Aurantioideae (Citrus and allies) is reduced to tribal rank as Aurantieae. PMID:23717188

  3. Modular sequence elements associated with origin regions in eukaryotic chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, D L; Shaiu, W L; Benbow, R M

    1994-01-01

    We have postulated that chromosomal replication origin regions in eukaryotes have in common clusters of certain modular sequence elements (Benbow, Zhao, and Larson, BioEssays 14, 661-670, 1992). In this study, computer analyses of DNA sequences from six origin regions showed that each contained one or more potential initiation regions consisting of a putative DUE (DNA unwinding element) aligned with clusters of SAR (scaffold associated region), and ARS (autonomously replicating sequence) consensus sequences, and pyrimidine tracts. The replication origins analyzed were from the following loci: Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear rDNA gene, Chinese hamster ovary dihydrofolate reductase amplicon, human c-myc proto-oncogene, chicken histone H5 gene, Drosophila melanogaster chorion gene cluster on the third chromosome, and Chinese hamster ovary rhodopsin gene. The locations of putative initiation regions identified by the computer analyses were compared with published data obtained using diverse methods to map initiation sites. For at least four loci, the potential initiation regions identified by sequence analysis aligned with previously mapped initiation events. A consensus DNA sequence, WAWTTDDWWWDHWGWHMAWTT, was found within the potential initiation regions in every case. An additional 35 kb of combined flanking sequences from the six loci were also analyzed, but no additional copies of this consensus sequence were found. Images PMID:8041609

  4. Nanoparticle-labeled DNA capture elements for detection and identification of biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Parker, Jill E.; Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Franz, Veronica

    2004-12-01

    Aptamers, synthetic DNA capture elements (DCEs), can be made chemically or in genetically engineered bacteria. DNA capture elements are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare or terrorism agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. The probes can then be conjugated to Quantum Dots and super paramagnetic nanoparticles. The former provide intense, bleach-resistant fluorescent detection of bioagent and the latter provide a means to collect the bioagents with a magnet. The fluorescence can be detected in a flow cytometer, in a fluorescence plate reader, or with a fluorescence microscope. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. DCEs can easily distinguish Bacillus anthracis from its nearest relatives, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Development of a high through-put process is currently being investigated.

  5. Discover regulatory DNA elements using chromatin signatures and artificial neural network

    PubMed Central

    Firpi, Hiram A.; Ucar, Duygu; Tan, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Recent large-scale chromatin states mapping efforts have revealed characteristic chromatin modification signatures for various types of functional DNA elements. Given the important influence of chromatin states on gene regulation and the rapid accumulation of genome-wide chromatin modification data, there is a pressing need for computational methods to analyze these data in order to identify functional DNA elements. However, existing computational tools do not exploit data transformation and feature extraction as a means to achieve a more accurate prediction. Results: We introduce a new computational framework for identifying functional DNA elements using chromatin signatures. The framework consists of a data transformation and a feature extraction step followed by a classification step using time-delay neural network. We implemented our framework in a software tool CSI-ANN (chromatin signature identification by artificial neural network). When applied to predict transcriptional enhancers in the ENCODE region, CSI-ANN achieved a 65.5% sensitivity and 66.3% positive predictive value, a 5.9% and 11.6% improvement, respectively, over the previously best approach. Availability and Implementation: CSI-ANN is implemented in Matlab. The source code is freely available at http://www.medicine.uiowa.edu/Labs/tan/CSIANNsoft.zip Contact: kai-tan@uiowa.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary Materials are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20453004

  6. The Contribution of Alu Elements to Mutagenic DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Streva, Vincent A.; DeFreece, Cecily B.; Hedges, Dale J.; Deininger, Prescott L.

    2015-01-01

    Alu elements make up the largest family of human mobile elements, numbering 1.1 million copies and comprising 11% of the human genome. As a consequence of evolution and genetic drift, Alu elements of various sequence divergence exist throughout the human genome. Alu/Alu recombination has been shown to cause approximately 0.5% of new human genetic diseases and contribute to extensive genomic structural variation. To begin understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to these rearrangements in mammalian cells, we constructed Alu/Alu recombination reporter cell lines containing Alu elements ranging in sequence divergence from 0%-30% that allow detection of both Alu/Alu recombination and large non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) deletions that range from 1.0 to 1.9 kb in size. Introduction of as little as 0.7% sequence divergence between Alu elements resulted in a significant reduction in recombination, which indicates even small degrees of sequence divergence reduce the efficiency of homology-directed DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Further reduction in recombination was observed in a sequence divergence-dependent manner for diverged Alu/Alu recombination constructs with up to 10% sequence divergence. With greater levels of sequence divergence (15%-30%), we observed a significant increase in DSB repair due to a shift from Alu/Alu recombination to variable-length NHEJ which removes sequence between the two Alu elements. This increase in NHEJ deletions depends on the presence of Alu sequence homeology (similar but not identical sequences). Analysis of recombination products revealed that Alu/Alu recombination junctions occur more frequently in the first 100 bp of the Alu element within our reporter assay, just as they do in genomic Alu/Alu recombination events. This is the first extensive study characterizing the influence of Alu element sequence divergence on DNA repair, which will inform predictions regarding the effect of Alu element sequence divergence on both

  7. Long noncoding RNAs in hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Hu, Wenqian

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian development is under tight control to ensure precise gene expression. Recent studies reveal a new layer of regulation of gene expression mediated by long noncoding RNAs. These transcripts are longer than 200nt that do not have functional protein coding capacity. Interestingly, many of these long noncoding RNAs are expressed with high specificity in different types of cells, tissues, and developmental stages in mammals, suggesting that they may have functional roles in diverse biological processes. Here, we summarize recent findings of long noncoding RNAs in hematopoiesis, which is one of the best-characterized mammalian cell differentiation processes. Then we provide our own perspectives on future studies of long noncoding RNAs in this field. PMID:27508063

  8. Progress and prospects of long noncoding RNAs in lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel group of universally present, non-coding RNAs (>200 nt) that are increasingly recognized as key regulators of many physiological and pathological processes. Scope of review Recent publications have shown that lncRNAs influence lipid homeostasis by controlling lipid metabolism in the liver and by regulating adipogenesis. lncRNAs control lipid metabolism-related gene expression by either base-pairing with RNA and DNA or by binding to proteins. Major conclusions The recent advances and future prospects in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in lipid homeostasis are discussed. PMID:26977388

  9. Noncoding RNAs and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Binod; Rotllan, Noemi; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that typically do not code for proteins. Emerging data suggest that ncRNAs play an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. The best-characterized ncRNAs are the microRNAs which are small, approximately 22-nucleotide sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through transcript degradation or translational repression. MicroRNAs control several aspects of atherosclerosis, including endothelial cell, vascular smooth cell, and macrophage functions as well as lipoprotein metabolism. Apart from microRNAs, recently ncRNAs, especially long ncRNAs, have emerged as important potential regulators of the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism of their regulation and function as well as the significance of other ncRNAs such as small nucleolar RNAs during atherogenesis is largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field, highlighting the importance of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis and discuss their potential use as therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24623179

  10. LINE-1 retrotransposable element DNA accumulates in HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, R Brad; Song, Haihan; Xu, Yang; Garrison, Keith E; Buzdin, Anton A; Anwar, Naveed; Hunter, Diana V; Mujib, Shariq; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Martin, Eric; Lee, Erika; Kuciak, Monika; Raposo, Rui André Saraiva; Bozorgzad, Ardalan; Meiklejohn, Duncan A; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Nixon, Douglas F; Ostrowski, Mario A

    2013-12-01

    Type 1 long-interspersed nuclear elements (L1s) are autonomous retrotransposable elements that retain the potential for activity in the human genome but are suppressed by host factors. Retrotransposition of L1s into chromosomal DNA can lead to genomic instability, whereas reverse transcription of L1 in the cytosol has the potential to activate innate immune sensors. We hypothesized that HIV-1 infection would compromise cellular control of L1 elements, resulting in the induction of retrotransposition events. Here, we show that HIV-1 infection enhances L1 retrotransposition in Jurkat cells in a Vif- and Vpr-dependent manner. In primary CD4(+) cells, HIV-1 infection results in the accumulation of L1 DNA, at least the majority of which is extrachromosomal. These data expose an unrecognized interaction between HIV-1 and endogenous retrotransposable elements, which may have implications for the innate immune response to HIV-1 infection, as well as for HIV-1-induced genomic instability and cytopathicity.

  11. Ethylene-inducible DNA binding proteins that interact with an ethylene-responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Ohme-Takagi, M; Shinshi, H

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrated that the GCC box, which is an 11-bp sequence (TAAGAGCCGCC) conserved in the 5' upstream region of ethylene-inducible pathogenesis-related protein genes in Nicotiana spp and in some other plants, is the sequence that is essential for ethylene responsiveness when incorporated into a heterologous promoter. Competitive gel retardation assays showed DNA binding activities to be specific to the GCC box sequence in tobacco nuclear extracts. Four different cDNAs encoding DNA binding proteins specific for the GCC box sequence were isolated, and their products were designated ethylene-responsive element binding proteins (EREBPs). The deduced amino acid sequences of EREBPs exhibited no homology with those of known DNA binding proteins or transcription factors; neither did the deduced proteins contain a basic leucine zipper or zinc finger motif. The DNA binding domain was identified within a region of 59 amino acid residues that was common to all four deduced EREBPs. Regions highly homologous to the DNA binding domain of EREBPs were found in proteins deduced from the cDNAs of various plants, suggesting that this domain is evolutionarily conserved in plants. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that accumulation of mRNAs for EREBPs was induced by ethylene, but individual EREBPs exhibited different patterns of expression. PMID:7756828

  12. Effects of trace elements and pesticides on dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA added to soils

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberger, W.T. Jr.; Johanson, J.B.; Lund L.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of 14 trace elements, 12 herbicides, and two fungicides on dephosphorylation of yeast ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) added to soils (Xerollic Calciorthids and Typic Haploxeralfs). The cumulative amount of ortho phosphate (Pi) released from nucleic acids increased linearly with time of incubation (up to 72 h), decreased with profile depth, and was highly influenced by soil pH. When trace elements were applied and compared by using 2.5 mmol kg/sup -1/ of soil, the average inhibition in dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA in two soils ranged from 17% with Co(II) to 52% with Cu(II). The most effective inhibitors of nucleic acid dephosphorylation were Ag(I), Cu(I), Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) (avg inhibition greater than or equal to 35%). Other elements that inhibited dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA added to soils included Ba(II), Co(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), Ti(IV), V(IV), and W(VI). When the pesticides were compared by using 5 mg of active ingredient kg/sup -1/ of soil, the average inhibition in nucleic acid dephosphorylation ranged from 14% with butylate to 39% with chloramben. The most effective inhibitors (> 25%) were atrazine, naptalam, chloramben, dicamba, trifluralin, and maneb. Other pesticides that inhibited RNA and DNA dephosphorylation in soils included cyanazine, 2,4-D, dinitroamine, EPTC plus R-25788, alachlor, paraquat, butylate, and captan.

  13. Accelerated Evolution of Conserved Noncoding Sequences in theHuman Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Prambhakar, Shyam; Noonan, James P.; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, EdwardM.

    2006-07-06

    Genomic comparisons between human and distant, non-primatemammals are commonly used to identify cis-regulatory elements based onconstrained sequence evolution. However, these methods fail to detect"cryptic" functional elements, which are too weakly conserved amongmammals to distinguish from nonfunctional DNA. To address this problem,we explored the potential of deep intra-primate sequence comparisons. Wesequenced the orthologs of 558 kb of human genomic sequence, coveringmultiple loci involved in cholesterol homeostasis, in 6 nonhumanprimates. Our analysis identified 6 noncoding DNA elements displayingsignificant conservation among primates, but undetectable in more distantcomparisons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that at least three ofthese 6 elements have regulatory function. Notably, the mouse orthologsof these three functional human sequences had regulatory activity despitetheir lack of significant sequence conservation, indicating that they arecryptic ancestral cis-regulatory elements. These regulatory elementscould still be detected in a smaller set of three primate speciesincluding human, rhesus and marmoset. Since the human and rhesus genomesequences are already available, and the marmoset genome is activelybeing sequenced, the primate-specific conservation analysis describedhere can be applied in the near future on a whole-genome scale, tocomplement the annotation provided by more distant speciescomparisons.

  14. A tobacco DNA binding protein that interacts with a light-responsive box II element.

    PubMed Central

    Perisic, O; Lam, E

    1992-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon fixation in higher plants. The small subunit of this chloroplast enzyme (rbcS), encoded by a family of nuclear genes, is regulated at the transcriptional level by light. Promoter analyses have previously identified the box II sequence as a cis element critical for the light-regulated expression of rbcS genes. Nuclear factor GT-1 binds specifically to this element and is one of the plant nuclear factors that has been detected and studied in great detail. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a tobacco cDNA encoding a protein, designated B2F (Box II Factor), with similar binding specificity and mobility in gel retardation assays as nuclear GT-1. Steady state levels of mRNA encoding B2F do not appear to be regulated by light; this is consistent with the previous observation that nuclear GT-1 activity is present in extracts from both light-grown and dark-adapted plants. Sequence comparison with another plant trans-acting factor, GT-2, which binds to a GT-like element in the rice phytochrome promoter, shows striking homology in three putative alpha-helices that may be involved in DNA binding. PMID:1392597

  15. Fast and reliable prediction of noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Washietl, Stefan; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    We report an efficient method for detecting functional RNAs. The approach, which combines comparative sequence analysis and structure prediction, already has yielded excellent results for a small number of aligned sequences and is suitable for large-scale genomic screens. It consists of two basic components: (i) a measure for RNA secondary structure conservation based on computing a consensus secondary structure, and (ii) a measure for thermodynamic stability, which, in the spirit of a z score, is normalized with respect to both sequence length and base composition but can be calculated without sampling from shuffled sequences. Functional RNA secondary structures can be identified in multiple sequence alignments with high sensitivity and high specificity. We demonstrate that this approach is not only much more accurate than previous methods but also significantly faster. The method is implemented in the program rnaz, which can be downloaded from www.tbi.univie.ac.at/~wash/RNAz. We screened all alignments of length n ≥ 50 in the Comparative Regulatory Genomics database, which compiles conserved noncoding elements in upstream regions of orthologous genes from human, mouse, rat, Fugu, and zebrafish. We recovered all of the known noncoding RNAs and cis-acting elements with high significance and found compelling evidence for many other conserved RNA secondary structures not described so far to our knowledge. PMID:15665081

  16. A Long Noncoding RNA Regulates Sister Chromatid Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Francesco P; Grossi, Elena; Marín-Béjar, Oskar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Raimondi, Ivan; González, Jovanna; Martínez-Herrera, Dannys Jorge; Athie, Alejandro; Amadoz, Alicia; Brosh, Robert M; Huarte, Maite

    2016-08-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in diverse cellular processes through multiple mechanisms. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized human lncRNA, CONCR (cohesion regulator noncoding RNA), that is transcriptionally activated by MYC and is upregulated in multiple cancer types. The expression of CONCR is cell cycle regulated, and it is required for cell-cycle progression and DNA replication. Moreover, cells depleted of CONCR show severe defects in sister chromatid cohesion, suggesting an essential role for CONCR in cohesion establishment during cell division. CONCR interacts with and regulates the activity of DDX11, a DNA-dependent ATPase and helicase involved in DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion. These findings unveil a direct role for an lncRNA in the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion by modulating DDX11 enzymatic activity. PMID:27477908

  17. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element against Atrazine

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ryan M.; Crihfield, Cassandra L.; Gattu, Srikanth; Holland, Lisa A.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine, has led to serious environmental and human health consequences. Current methods of detecting atrazine contamination are neither rapid nor cost-effective. In this work, atrazine-specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecular recognition elements (MRE) were isolated. We utilized a stringent Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) methodology that placed the greatest emphasis on what the MRE should not bind to. After twelve rounds of SELEX, an atrazine-specific MRE with high affinity was obtained. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the ssDNA sequence is 0.62 ± 0.21 nM. It also has significant selectivity for atrazine over atrazine metabolites and other pesticides found in environmentally similar locations and concentrations. Furthermore, we have detected environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations in river water using this MRE. The strong affinity and selectivity of the selected atrazine-specific ssDNA validated the stringent SELEX methodology and identified a MRE that will be useful for rapid atrazine detection in environmental samples. PMID:25196435

  18. In vitro selection of a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element against atrazine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ryan M; Crihfield, Cassandra L; Gattu, Srikanth; Holland, Lisa A; Sooter, Letha J

    2014-08-18

    Widespread use of the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine, has led to serious environmental and human health consequences. Current methods of detecting atrazine contamination are neither rapid nor cost-effective. In this work, atrazine-specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecular recognition elements (MRE) were isolated. We utilized a stringent Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) methodology that placed the greatest emphasis on what the MRE should not bind to. After twelve rounds of SELEX, an atrazine-specific MRE with high affinity was obtained. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the ssDNA sequence is 0.62 ± 0.21 nM. It also has significant selectivity for atrazine over atrazine metabolites and other pesticides found in environmentally similar locations and concentrations. Furthermore, we have detected environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations in river water using this MRE. The strong affinity and selectivity of the selected atrazine-specific ssDNA validated the stringent SELEX methodology and identified a MRE that will be useful for rapid atrazine detection in environmental samples.

  19. Uniformity of nucleosome preservation pattern in Mammalian sperm and its connection to repetitive DNA elements.

    PubMed

    Samans, Birgit; Yang, Yang; Krebs, Stefan; Sarode, Gaurav Vilas; Blum, Helmut; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Steger, Klaus; Dansranjavin, Temuujin; Schagdarsurengin, Undraga

    2014-07-14

    Nucleosome-to-protamine exchange during mammalian spermiogenesis is essential for compaction and protection of paternal DNA. It is interesting that, depending on the species, 1% to 15% of nucleosomes are retained, but the generalizability and biological function of this retention are unknown. Here, we show concordantly in human and bovine that nucleosomes remained in sperm chromatin predominantly within distal intergenic regions and introns and associated with centromere repeats and retrotransposons (LINE1 and SINEs). In contrast, nucleosome depletion concerned particularly exons, 5'-UTR, 3'-UTR, TSS, and TTS and was associated with simple and low-complexity repeats. Overlap of human and bovine genes exhibiting nucleosome preservation in the promoter and gene body revealed a significant enrichment of signal transduction and RNA- and protein-processing factors. Our study demonstrates the genome-wide uniformity of the nucleosome preservation pattern in mammalian sperm and its connection to repetitive DNA elements and suggests a function in preimplantation processes for paternally derived nucleosomes.

  20. [Evolution of non-coding nucleotide sequences in Newcastle disease virus genomes ].

    PubMed

    Xu, Huaiying; Qin, Zhuoming; Qi, Lihong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Youling; Liu, Jinhua

    2014-09-01

    [OBJECTIVE] Although much is done in the coding genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) , limited papers can be found with non-coding sequences. In this paper, the evolution tendency of non-coding sequences was studied. [METHODS] NDV strain LC12 isolated from duck with egg drop syndrome in 2012, and others 35 strains genome cDNA of different NDV genotype were sought and obtained from GenBank. Analytical approaches including nucleotide homology, nucleotide alignment and phylogenetic tree were associated with the leading sequences, trailer sequences, intergenic sequences (IGS), and coding gene between 5 'and 3' UTR nucleotide, respectively. [RESULTS] The location and the length of the non-coding sequences highly conserve, and the variation trend of non-coding sequences is synchronous with the entire genomes and coding genes. [ CONCLUSION] The molecular variation of the coding gene was indistinguishable with the non-coding gene in view of the NDV genome. PMID:25522596

  1. DANIO-CODE: Toward an Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish has emerged as a model organism for genomics studies. The symposium “Toward an encyclopedia of DNA elements in zebrafish” held in London in December 2014, was coorganized by Ferenc Müller and Fiona Wardle. This meeting is a follow-up of a similar previous workshop held 2 years earlier and represents a push toward the formalization of a community effort to annotate functional elements in the zebrafish genome. The meeting brought together zebrafish researchers, bioinformaticians, as well as members of established consortia, to exchange scientific findings and experience, as well as to discuss the initial steps toward the formation of a DANIO-CODE consortium. In this study, we provide the latest updates on the current progress of the consortium's efforts, opening up a broad invitation to researchers to join in and contribute to DANIO-CODE. PMID:26671609

  2. DANIO-CODE: Toward an Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haihan; Onichtchouk, Daria; Winata, Cecilia

    2016-02-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a model organism for genomics studies. The symposium "Toward an encyclopedia of DNA elements in zebrafish" held in London in December 2014, was coorganized by Ferenc Müller and Fiona Wardle. This meeting is a follow-up of a similar previous workshop held 2 years earlier and represents a push toward the formalization of a community effort to annotate functional elements in the zebrafish genome. The meeting brought together zebrafish researchers, bioinformaticians, as well as members of established consortia, to exchange scientific findings and experience, as well as to discuss the initial steps toward the formation of a DANIO-CODE consortium. In this study, we provide the latest updates on the current progress of the consortium's efforts, opening up a broad invitation to researchers to join in and contribute to DANIO-CODE.

  3. Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Immunology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunology is the study of interaction between cancer cells and immune system by the application of immunology principle and theory. With the recent approval of several new drugs targeting immune checkpoints in cancer, cancer immunology has become a very attractive field of research and is thought to be the new hope to conquer cancer. This chapter introduces the aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, in tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and their significance in tumor immunity. It also illustrates how noncoding RNAs are shuttled between tumor cells and immune cells in tumor microenvironments via exosomes or other microvesicles to modulate tumor immunity. PMID:27376738

  4. Using FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) to isolate active regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jeremy M.; Giresi, Paul G.; Davis, Ian J.; Lieb, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Eviction or destabilization of nucleosomes from chromatin is a hallmark of functional regulatory elements of the eukaryotic genome. Historically identified by nuclease hypersensitivity, these regulatory elements are typically bound by transcription factors or other regulatory proteins. FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) is an alternative approach to identify these genomic regions and has proven successful in a multitude of eukaryotic cell and tissue types. Cells or dissociated tissues are crosslinked briefly with formaldehyde, lysed, and sonicated. Sheared chromatin is subjected to phenol-chloroform extraction and the isolated DNA, typically encompassing 1–3% of the human genome, is purified. We provide guidelines for quantitative analysis by PCR, microarrays, or next-generation sequencing. Regulatory elements enriched by FAIRE display high concordance with those identified by nuclease hypersensitivity or ChIP, and the entire procedure can be completed in three days. FAIRE exhibits low technical variability, which allows its use in large-scale studies of chromatin from normal or diseased tissues. PMID:22262007

  5. Chemical Elemental Distribution and Soil DNA Fingerprints Provide the Critical Evidence in Murder Case Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Concheri, Giuseppe; Bertoldi, Daniela; Polone, Elisa; Otto, Stefan; Larcher, Roberto; Squartini, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background The scientific contribution to the solution of crime cases, or throughout the consequent forensic trials, is a crucial aspect of the justice system. The possibility to extract meaningful information from trace amounts of samples, and to match and validate evidences with robust and unambiguous statistical tests, are the key points of such process. The present report is the authorized disclosure of an investigation, carried out by Attorney General appointment, on a murder case in northern Italy, which yielded the critical supporting evidence for the judicial trial. Methodology/Principal Findings The proportional distribution of 54 chemical elements and the bacterial community DNA fingerprints were used as signature markers to prove the similarity of two soil samples. The first soil was collected on the crime scene, along a corn field, while the second was found in trace amounts on the carpet of a car impounded from the main suspect in a distant location. The matching similarity of the two soils was proven by crossing the results of two independent techniques: a) elemental analysis via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) approaches, and b) amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis by gel electrophoresis (ARDRA). Conclusions Besides introducing the novel application of these methods to forensic disciplines, the highly accurate level of resolution observed, opens new possibilities also in the fields of soil typing and tracking, historical analyses, geochemical surveys and global land mapping. PMID:21674041

  6. Population genetics and molecular evolution of DNA sequences in transposable elements. I. A simulation framework.

    PubMed

    Kijima, T E; Innan, Hideki

    2013-11-01

    A population genetic simulation framework is developed to understand the behavior and molecular evolution of DNA sequences of transposable elements. Our model incorporates random transposition and excision of transposable element (TE) copies, two modes of selection against TEs, and degeneration of transpositional activity by point mutations. We first investigated the relationships between the behavior of the copy number of TEs and these parameters. Our results show that when selection is weak, the genome can maintain a relatively large number of TEs, but most of them are less active. In contrast, with strong selection, the genome can maintain only a limited number of TEs but the proportion of active copies is large. In such a case, there could be substantial fluctuations of the copy number over generations. We also explored how DNA sequences of TEs evolve through the simulations. In general, active copies form clusters around the original sequence, while less active copies have long branches specific to themselves, exhibiting a star-shaped phylogeny. It is demonstrated that the phylogeny of TE sequences could be informative to understand the dynamics of TE evolution.

  7. An ARS element inhibits DNA replication through a SIR2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Amber; Chang, FuJung; Pappas, Donald L; Frisch, Ryan L; Weinreich, Michael

    2008-04-25

    During G1 phase, a prereplicative complex (pre-RC) that determines where DNA synthesis initiates forms at origins. The Sir2p histone deacetylase inhibits pre-RC assembly at a subset of origins, suggesting that Sir2p inhibits DNA replication through a unique aspect of origin structure. Here, we identified five SIR2-sensitive origins on chromosomes III and VI. Linker scan analysis of two origins indicated that they share a common organization, including an inhibitory sequence positioned 3' to the sites of origin recognition complex (ORC) binding and pre-RC assembly. This inhibitory sequence (I(S)) required SIR2 for its activity, suggesting that SIR2 inhibits origins through this sequence. Furthermore, I(S) elements occurred within positioned nucleosomes, and Abf1p-mediated exclusion of nucleosomes from the origin abrogated the inhibition. These data suggest that Sir2p and I(S) elements inhibit origin activity by promoting an unfavorable chromatin structure for pre-RC assembly. PMID:18439895

  8. Characterization of a gene encoding a DNA binding protein with specificity for a light-responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, P M; Memelink, J; Hiratsuka, K; Kay, S A; Chua, N H

    1992-01-01

    The sequence element of box II (GTGTGGTTAATATG) is a regulatory component of a light-responsive element present within the upstream region of pea rbcS-3A. The nuclear protein GT-1 was defined previously as a DNA binding activity that interacts with box II. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA sequences that encode a DNA binding protein with specificity for this element. The recombinant protein, tobacco GT-1a, shows similar sequence requirements for DNA binding to nuclear GT-1, as assayed by its ability to interact with previously defined 2-bp scanning mutations of box II, and is shown to be immunologically related to nuclear GT-1. The predicted structure of the 43-kD protein derived from the cDNA sequence suggests the presence of a novel helix-helix-turn-helix (HHTH) motif. Comparison between the predicted protein sequence encoded by the tobacco GT-1a cDNA and that of another GT binding protein, rice GT-2, reveals strong amino acid conservation over the HHTH region; this motif appears to be involved in the interaction between the recombinant protein and box II. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of a small gene family of related sequences within the tobacco nuclear genome. RNA gel blot analysis of tobacco mRNA using the isolated cDNA as a probe showed that transcripts are present in several tissues, including both light-grown and dark-adapted leaves. PMID:1392598

  9. Altered Response Hierarchy and Increased T-Cell Breadth upon HIV-1 Conserved Element DNA Vaccination in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Viraj; Valentin, Antonio; Rosati, Margherita; Alicea, Candido; Singh, Ashish K.; Jalah, Rashmi; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Mothe, Beatriz; Brander, Christian; Rolland, Morgane; Mullins, James I.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2014-01-01

    HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24gag elements (CE) induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55gag increased both magnitude of CE responses and breadth of Gag immunity, demonstrating alteration of the hierarchy of epitope recognition in the presence of pre-existing CE-specific responses. Inclusion of a conserved element immunogen provides a novel and effective strategy to broaden responses against highly diverse pathogens by avoiding decoy epitopes, while focusing responses to critical viral elements for which few escape pathways exist. PMID:24465991

  10. Widespread noncoding circular RNAs in plants.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Chen, Li; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-10-01

    A large number of noncoding circular RNAs (circRNAs) with regulatory potency have been identified in animals, but little attention has been given to plant circRNAs. We performed genome-wide identification of circRNAs in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana using publically available RNA-Seq data, analyzed and compared features of plant and animal circRNAs. circRNAs (12037 and 6012) were identified in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, with 56% (10/18) of the sampled rice exonic circRNAs validated experimentally. Parent genes of over 700 exonic circRNAs were orthologues between rice and Arabidopsis, suggesting conservation of circRNAs in plants. The introns flanking plant circRNAs were much longer than introns from linear genes, and possessed less repetitive elements and reverse complementary sequences than the flanking introns of animal circRNAs. Plant circRNAs showed diverse expression patterns, and 27 rice exonic circRNAs were found to be differentially expressed under phosphate-sufficient and -starvation conditions. A significantly positive correlation was observed for the expression profiles of some circRNAs and their parent genes. Our results demonstrated that circRNAs are widespread in plants, revealed the common and distinct features of circRNAs between plants and animals, and suggested that circRNAs could be a critical class of noncoding regulators in plants.

  11. Characterisation of a DNA sequence element that directs Dictyostelium stalk cell-specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, A; Zhukovskaya, N; Kawata, T; Bozzaro, S; Williams, J

    2000-12-01

    The ecmB gene of Dictyostelium is expressed at culmination both in the prestalk cells that enter the stalk tube and in ancillary stalk cell structures such as the basal disc. Stalk tube-specific expression is regulated by sequence elements within the cap-site proximal part of the promoter, the stalk tube (ST) promoter region. Dd-STATa, a member of the STAT transcription factor family, binds to elements present in the ST promoter-region and represses transcription prior to entry into the stalk tube. We have characterised an activatory DNA sequence element, that lies distal to the repressor elements and that is both necessary and sufficient for expression within the stalk tube. We have mapped this activator to a 28 nucleotide region (the 28-mer) within which we have identified a GA-containing sequence element that is required for efficient gene transcription. The Dd-STATa protein binds to the 28-mer in an in vitro binding assay, and binding is dependent upon the GA-containing sequence. However, the ecmB gene is expressed in a Dd-STATa null mutant, therefore Dd-STATa cannot be responsible for activating the 28-mer in vivo. Instead, we identified a distinct 28-mer binding activity in nuclear extracts from the Dd-STATa null mutant, the activity of this GA binding activity being largely masked in wild type extracts by the high affinity binding of the Dd-STATa protein. We suggest, that in addition to the long range repression exerted by binding to the two known repressor sites, Dd-STATa inhibits transcription by direct competition with this putative activator for binding to the GA sequence.

  12. Noncoding RNAs Regulating p53 and c-Myc Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yide; Wu, Mian

    2016-01-01

    p53 is one of the most important tumor suppressors and is known to play critical roles in the process of tumor development. Similarly, as an important proto-oncogenes, c-Myc is activated in over half of human cancers. Both p53 and c-Myc participate in almost every crucial decision of almost every cell. Therefore, it is utmost important to gain a better understanding of how they affect multiple cellular processes. The physiological and pathologic patterns of p53 and c-Myc regulations are modulated by a large number of cis-elements and transfactors (RNAs and proteins). These elements and factors are composed of a complicated network of intracellular and extracellular pathways. How the noncoding RNAs are involved in their regulations has not been comprehensively reviewed. In this chapter, we will list and describe recently published important noncoding RNAs including microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, which act as effectors and regulators for both p53 and c-Myc regulation. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a recent progress of noncoding RNA in the regulation of p53 and c-Myc on network of cellular signaling and its potential implications in both basic science and clinical application. PMID:27376742

  13. Long noncoding RNA in hematopoiesis and immunity.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Ansuman T; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-05-19

    Dynamic gene expression during cellular differentiation is tightly coordinated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. An emerging theme is the central role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of this specificity. Recent advances demonstrate that lncRNAs are expressed in a lineage-specific manner and control the development of several cell types in the hematopoietic system. Moreover, specific lncRNAs are induced to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. lncRNAs can function via RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein target interactions. As a result, they affect several stages of gene regulation, including chromatin modification, mRNA biogenesis, and protein signaling. We discuss recent advances, future prospects, and challenges in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in immunity and immune-mediated diseases.

  14. Regulation of Transcription by Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Bonasio, Roberto; Shiekhattar, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a greater understanding of genomic complexity in eukaryotes ushered in by the immense technological advances in high-throughput sequencing of DNA and its corresponding RNA transcripts. This has resulted in the realization that beyond protein-coding genes, there are a large number of transcripts that do not encode for proteins and, therefore, may perform their function through RNA sequences and/or through secondary and tertiary structural determinants. This review is focused on the latest findings on a class of noncoding RNAs that are relatively large (>200 nucleotides), display nuclear localization, and use different strategies to regulate transcription. These are exciting times for discovering the biological scope and the mechanism of action for these RNA molecules, which have roles in dosage compensation, imprinting, enhancer function, and transcriptional regulation, with a great impact on development and disease. PMID:25251851

  15. Long noncoding RNAs in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in immune cell development and immune responses through different mechanisms, such as dosage compensation, imprinting, enhancer function, and transcriptional regulation. Although the functions of most lncRNAs are unclear, some lncRNAs have been found to control transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses via new methods of protein–protein interactions or pairing with DNA and RNA. Interestingly, increasing evidence has elucidated the importance of lncRNAs in the interaction between hosts and pathogens. In this review, an overview of the lncRNAs modes of action, as well as the important and diversified roles of lncRNAs in immunity, are provided, and an emerging paradigm of lncRNAs in regulating innate immune responses is highlighted. PMID:26277893

  16. Detection of small non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Dalmay, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated at several levels in plants, and one of the most recently discovered regulatory layers involve short RNAs. Short RNAs are produced through several pathways and target either mRNAs or genomic DNA. Different classes of short RNAs have slightly different sizes and detection of their accumulation is an important step in validating and studying non-coding short RNAs. Northern blotting is routinely used to detect short RNAs because it gives information about both the amount and size of the analysed short RNAs. Choice of the right RNA extraction protocol is crucial when short RNAs are being studied, because several routinely used commercial RNA extraction kits do not yield any short RNAs. This chapter describes optimised RNA extraction methods, which give good yields of short RNAs, and separation, transfer and hybridisation protocols to study the accumulation of short RNAs.

  17. Visualizing Long Noncoding RNAs on Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Hinten, Michael; Maclary, Emily; Gayen, Srimonta; Harris, Clair; Kalantry, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enables the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences within single cells. For example, RNA FISH provides information on both the expression level and localization of RNA transcripts and, when combined with detection of associated proteins and chromatin modifications, can lend essential insights into long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) function. Epigenetic effects have been postulated for many lncRNAs, but shown for only a few. Advances in in situ techniques and microscopy, however, now allow for visualization of lncRNAs that are expressed at very low levels or are not very stable. FISH-based detections of RNA and DNA coupled with immunological staining of proteins/histone modifications offer the possibility to connect lncRNAs to epigenetic effects. Here, we describe an integrated set of protocols to detect, individually or in combination, specific RNAs, DNAs, proteins, and histone modifications in single cells at a high level of sensitivity using conventional fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26721489

  18. Comparative study and prediction of DNA fragments associated with various elements of the nuclear matrix.

    PubMed

    Glazko, G V; Rogozin, I B; Glazkov, M V

    2001-02-16

    Scaffold/matrix-associated region (S/MAR) sequences are DNA regions that are attached to the nuclear matrix, and participate in many cellular processes. The nuclear matrix is a complex structure consisting of various elements. In this paper we compared frequencies of simple nucleotide motifs in S/MAR sequences and in sequences extracted directly from various nuclear matrix elements, such as nuclear lamina, cores of rosette-like structures, synaptonemal complex. Multivariate linear discriminant analysis revealed significant differences between these sequences. Based on this result we have developed a program, ChrClass (Win/NT version, ftp.bionet.nsc.ru/pub/biology/chrclass/chrclass.zip), for the prediction of the regions associated with various elements of the nuclear matrix in a query sequence. Subsequently, several test samples were analyzed by using two S/MAR prediction programs (a ChrClass and MAR-Finder) and a simple MRS criterion (S/MAR recognition signature) indicating the presence of S/MARs. Some overlap between the predictions of all MAR prediction tools has been found. Simultaneous use of the ChrClass, MRS criterion and MAR-Finder programs may help to obtain a more clearcut picture of S/MAR distribution in a query sequence. In general, our results suggest that the proportion of missed S/MARs is lower for ChrClass, whereas the proportion of wrong S/MARs is lower for MAR-Finder and MRS.

  19. GAGA factor binding to DNA via a single trinucleotide sequence element.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, R C; Lis, J T

    1998-01-01

    GAGA transcription factor (GAF) is an essential protein in Drosophila , important for the transcriptional regulation of numerous genes. GAF binds to GA repeats in the promoters of these genes via a DNA-binding domain containing a single zinc finger. While GAF binding sites are typically composed of 3.5 GA repeats, the Drosophila hsp70 gene contains much smaller elements, some of which are as little as three bases (GAG) in length. Interestingly, the binding of GAF to more distant trinucleotide elements is relatively strong and not appreciably affected by the removal of larger GA arrays in the promoter. Moreover, a simple synthetic GAG sequence is sufficient to bind GAF in vitro . Here we directly compare the affinity of GAF for different sequence elements by immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift analysis. Furthermore, our measures of the concentration of GAF in vivo indicate that it is a highly abundant nuclear protein, prevalent enough to occupy a sizable fraction of correspondingly abundant trinucleotide sites. PMID:9592153

  20. Crystal structure of a DNA aptamer bound to PvLDH elucidates novel single-stranded DNA structural elements for folding and recognition

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Ban, Changill

    2016-01-01

    Structural elements are key elements for understanding single-stranded nucleic acid folding. Although various RNA structural elements have been documented, structural elements of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) have rarely been reported. Herein, we determined a crystal structure of PvLDH in complex with a DNA aptamer called pL1. This aptamer folds into a hairpin-bulge contact by adopting three novel structural elements, viz, DNA T-loop-like motif, base–phosphate zipper, and DNA G·G metal ion zipper. Moreover, the pL1:PvLDH complex shows unique properties compared with other protein:nucleic acid complexes. Generally, extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonds occur between unpaired nucleotides and proteins for specific recognitions. Although most protein-interacting nucleotides of pL1 are unpaired nucleotides, pL1 recognizes PvLDH by predominant shape complementarity with many bridging water molecules owing to the combination of three novel structural elements making protein-binding unpaired nucleotides stable. Moreover, the additional set of Plasmodium LDH residues which were shown to form extensive hydrogen bonds with unpaired nucleotides of 2008s does not participate in the recognition of pL1. Superimposition of the pL1:PvLDH complex with hLDH reveals steric clashes between pL1 and hLDH in contrast with no steric clashes between 2008s and hLDH. Therefore, specific protein recognition mode of pL1 is totally different from that of 2008s. PMID:27725738

  1. Noncoding RNA Gas5 Is a Growth Arrest and Starvation-Associated Repressor of the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Tomoshige; Hurt, Darrell E.; Ichijo, Takamasa; Nader, Nancy; Chrousos, George P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of nutrients influences cellular growth and survival by affecting gene transcription. Glucocorticoids also influence gene transcription and have diverse activities on cell growth, energy expenditure, and survival. We found that the growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5) noncoding RNA, which is abundant in cells whose growth has been arrested due to lack of nutrients or growth factors, sensitized cells to apoptosis by suppressing glucocorticoid-mediated induction of several responsive genes, including the one encoding cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2. Gas5 bound to the DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by acting as a decoy “glucocorticoid response element (GRE)”, thus, competing with DNA GREs for binding to the GR. We conclude that Gas5 is a ribo-repressor of the GR, influencing cell survival and metabolic activities during starvation by modulating the transcriptional activity of the GR. PMID:20124551

  2. Repetitive genomic elements and overall DNA methylation changes in acute myeloid and childhood B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Bujko, Mateusz; Musialik, Ewa; Olbromski, Rafał; Przestrzelska, Marta; Libura, Marta; Pastwińska, Anna; Juszczyński, Przemysław; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Baranowski, Paweł; Siedlecki, Janusz Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    Aberrant epigenetic regulation is a hallmark of neoplastic cells. Increased DNA methylation of individual genes' promoter regions and decreases in overall DNA methylation level are both generally observed in cancer. In solid tumors, this global DNA hypomethylation is related to reduced methylation of repeated DNA elements (REs) and contributes to genome instability. The aim of the present study was to assess methylation level of LINE-1 and ALU REs and total 5-methylcytosine (5metC) content in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n = 58), childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n = 32), as the most frequent acute leukemias in two age categories and in normal adult bone marrow and children's blood samples. DNA pyrosequencing and ELISA assays were used, respectively. Global DNA hypomethylation was not observed in leukemia patients. Results revealed higher DNA methylation of LINE-1 in AML and ALL samples compared to corresponding normal controls. Elevated methylation of ALU and overall 5metC level were also observed in B-cell ALL patients. Differences of REs and global DNA methylation between AML cytogenetic-risk groups were observed, with the lowest methylation levels in intermediate-risk/cytogenetically normal patients. B-cell ALL is characterized by the highest DNA methylation level compared to AML and controls and overall DNA methylation is correlated with leukocyte count.

  3. Relaxase DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing that involve different sequence elements of the nic site.

    PubMed

    Lucas, María; González-Pérez, Blanca; Cabezas, Matilde; Moncalian, Gabriel; Rivas, Germán; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-03-19

    TrwC, the relaxase of plasmid R388, catalyzes a series of concerted DNA cleavage and strand transfer reactions on a specific site (nic) of its origin of transfer (oriT). nic contains the cleavage site and an adjacent inverted repeat (IR(2)). Mutation analysis in the nic region indicated that recognition of the IR(2) proximal arm and the nucleotides located between IR(2) and the cleavage site were essential for supercoiled DNA processing, as judged either by in vitro nic cleavage or by mobilization of a plasmid containing oriT. Formation of the IR(2) cruciform and recognition of the distal IR(2) arm and loop were not necessary for these reactions to take place. On the other hand, IR(2) was not involved in TrwC single-stranded DNA processing in vitro. For single-stranded DNA nic cleavage, TrwC recognized a sequence embracing six nucleotides upstream of the cleavage site and two nucleotides downstream. This suggests that TrwC DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing and that different sequence elements are recognized by TrwC in each step. IR(2)-proximal arm recognition was crucial for the initial supercoiled DNA binding. Subsequent recognition of the adjacent single-stranded DNA binding site was required to position the cleavage site in the active center of the protein so that the nic cleavage reaction could take place.

  4. Deciphering Noncoding RNA and Chromatin Interactions: Multiplex Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (mChIA-PET).

    PubMed

    Choy, Jocelyn; Fullwood, Melissa J

    2017-01-01

    Genomic DNA is dynamically associated with protein factors and folded to form chromatin fibers. The 3-dimensional (3D) configuration of the chromatin will enable the distal genetic elements to come into close proximity, allowing transcriptional regulation. Noncoding RNA can mediate the 3D structure of chromatin. Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET) is a valuable and powerful technique in molecular biology which allows the study of unbiased, genome-wide de novo chromatin interactions with paired-end tags. Here, we describe the standard version of ChIA-PET and a Multiplex ChIA-PET version. PMID:27662871

  5. Proteins bound at adjacent DNA elements act synergistically to regulate human proenkephalin cAMP inducible transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Comb, M; Mermod, N; Hyman, S E; Pearlberg, J; Ross, M E; Goodman, H M

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis of the endogenous opioid precursor, proenkephalin, is regulated by neurotransmitters and membrane depolarization. These events act through second messenger dependent signal transduction pathways via a short inducible DNA enhancer to regulate transcription of the proenkephalin gene. Two DNA elements located within this enhancer are essential for the transcriptional response to cAMP and phorbol ester. Inactivation of either element by mutation or by alteration of their stereospecific alignment eliminates inducible enhancer activity. The promoter distal element, ENKCRE-1, in the absence of a functional adjacent ENKCRE-2 element, has no inherent capacity to activate transcription. However, in the presence of a functional ENKCRE-2 element, this element synergistically augments cAMP and phorbol ester inducible transcription. The promoter proximal element, ENKCRE-2, is essential for both basal and regulated enhancer function. Four different protein factors found in HeLa cell nuclear extracts bind in vitro to the enhancer region. ENKTF-1, a novel enhancer binding protein, binds to the DNA region encompassing ENKCRE-1. The transcription factors AP-1 and AP-4 bind to overlapping sites spanning ENKCRE-2, and a fourth transcription factor, AP-2, binds to a site immediately downstream of ENKCRE-2. The binding of ENKTF-1 to mutant ENKCRE-1 sequences in vitro correlates with the in vivo inducibility of the mutant elements suggesting that ENKTF-1 acts in combination with factors that recognize the ENKCRE-2 domain to regulate cAMP inducible transcription. Together, the two DNA elements, ENKCRE-1 and ENKCRE-2 and the protein factors with which they interact, play a critical role in the transduction and reception of signals transmitted from cell surface receptors to the proenkephalin nuclear transcription complex. Images PMID:2850173

  6. Spontaneous germline excision of Tol1, a DNA-based transposable element naturally occurring in the medaka fish genome.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koga, Hajime; Nakamura, Kodai; Fujita, Akiko; Hattori, Akimasa; Matsuda, Masaru; Koga, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    DNA-based transposable elements are ubiquitous constituents of eukaryotic genomes. Vertebrates are, however, exceptional in that most of their DNA-based elements appear to be inactivated. The Tol1 element of the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, is one of the few elements for which copies containing an undamaged gene have been found. Spontaneous transposition of this element in somatic cells has previously been demonstrated, but there is only indirect evidence for its germline transposition. Here, we show direct evidence of spontaneous excision in the germline. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. In an albino laboratory strain of medaka fish, which is homozygous for a mutant tyrosinase gene in which a Tol1 copy is inserted, we identified de novo reversion mutations related to melanin pigmentation. The gamete-based reversion rate was as high as 0.4%. The revertant fish carried the tyrosinase gene from which the Tol1 copy had been excised. We previously reported the germline transposition of Tol2, another DNA-based element that is thought to be a recent invader of the medaka fish genome. Tol1 is an ancient resident of the genome. Our results indicate that even an old element can contribute to genetic variation in the host genome as a natural mutator.

  7. A Collection of Conserved Noncoding Sequences to Study Gene Regulation in Flowering Plants.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Jan; Van Bel, Michiel; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2016-08-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding cis-regulatory elements, of which the identification remains an ongoing challenge owing to the prevalence of large numbers of nonfunctional TF binding sites. Powerful comparative genomics methods, such as phylogenetic footprinting, can be used for the detection of conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), which are functionally constrained and can greatly help in reducing the number of false-positive elements. In this study, we applied a phylogenetic footprinting approach for the identification of CNSs in 10 dicot plants, yielding 1,032,291 CNSs associated with 243,187 genes. To annotate CNSs with TF binding sites, we made use of binding site information for 642 TFs originating from 35 TF families in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In three species, the identified CNSs were evaluated using TF chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data, resulting in significant overlap for the majority of data sets. To identify ultraconserved CNSs, we included genomes of additional plant families and identified 715 binding sites for 501 genes conserved in dicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. Additionally, we found that genes that are part of conserved mini-regulons have a higher coherence in their expression profile than other divergent gene pairs. All identified CNSs were integrated in the PLAZA 3.0 Dicots comparative genomics platform (http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/versions/plaza_v3_dicots/) together with new functionalities facilitating the exploration of conserved cis-regulatory elements and their associated genes. The availability of this data set in a user-friendly platform enables the exploration of functional noncoding DNA to study gene regulation in a variety of plant species, including crops. PMID:27261064

  8. A Collection of Conserved Noncoding Sequences to Study Gene Regulation in Flowering Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding cis-regulatory elements, of which the identification remains an ongoing challenge owing to the prevalence of large numbers of nonfunctional TF binding sites. Powerful comparative genomics methods, such as phylogenetic footprinting, can be used for the detection of conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), which are functionally constrained and can greatly help in reducing the number of false-positive elements. In this study, we applied a phylogenetic footprinting approach for the identification of CNSs in 10 dicot plants, yielding 1,032,291 CNSs associated with 243,187 genes. To annotate CNSs with TF binding sites, we made use of binding site information for 642 TFs originating from 35 TF families in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In three species, the identified CNSs were evaluated using TF chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data, resulting in significant overlap for the majority of data sets. To identify ultraconserved CNSs, we included genomes of additional plant families and identified 715 binding sites for 501 genes conserved in dicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. Additionally, we found that genes that are part of conserved mini-regulons have a higher coherence in their expression profile than other divergent gene pairs. All identified CNSs were integrated in the PLAZA 3.0 Dicots comparative genomics platform (http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/versions/plaza_v3_dicots/) together with new functionalities facilitating the exploration of conserved cis-regulatory elements and their associated genes. The availability of this data set in a user-friendly platform enables the exploration of functional noncoding DNA to study gene regulation in a variety of plant species, including crops. PMID:27261064

  9. Noncoding RNAs in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Xipeng; Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhou, Qun

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian transcriptome has recently been revealed to encompass a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the best studied of the short noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), have been extensively characterized with regard to their biogenesis, function and importance in tumorigenesis. Another class of sncRNAs called piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) has also gained attention recently in cancer research owing to their critical role in stem cell regulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of >200 nucleotides in length have recently emerged as key regulators of developmental processes, including mammary gland development. lncRNA dysregulation has also been implicated in the development of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this review, we describe and discuss the roles of sncRNAs (including miRNAs and piRNAs) and lncRNAs in the initiation and progression of breast tumorigenesis, with a focus on outlining the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic and tumor-suppressor ncRNAs. Moreover, the current and potential future applications of ncRNAs to clinical breast cancer research are also discussed, with an emphasis on ncRNA-based diagnosis, prognosis and future therapeutics.

  10. A Molecular Chipper technology for CRISPR sgRNA library generation and functional mapping of noncoding regions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jijun; Roden, Christine A; Pan, Wen; Zhu, Shu; Baccei, Anna; Pan, Xinghua; Jiang, Tingting; Kluger, Yuval; Weissman, Sherman M; Guo, Shangqin; Flavell, Richard A; Ding, Ye; Lu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Clustered regularly-interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genetic screens using single-guide-RNA (sgRNA) libraries have proven powerful to identify genetic regulators. Applying CRISPR screens to interrogate functional elements in noncoding regions requires generating sgRNA libraries that are densely covering, and ideally inexpensive, easy to implement and flexible for customization. Here we present a Molecular Chipper technology for generating dense sgRNA libraries for genomic regions of interest, and a proof-of-principle screen that identifies novel cis-regulatory domains for miR-142 biogenesis. The Molecular Chipper approach utilizes a combination of random fragmentation and a type III restriction enzyme to derive a densely covering sgRNA library from input DNA. Applying this approach to 17 microRNAs and their flanking regions and with a reporter for miR-142 activity, we identify both the pre-miR-142 region and two previously unrecognized cis-domains important for miR-142 biogenesis, with the latter regulating miR-142 processing. This strategy will be useful for identifying functional noncoding elements in mammalian genomes. PMID:27025950

  11. A Molecular Chipper technology for CRISPR sgRNA library generation and functional mapping of noncoding regions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jijun; Roden, Christine A; Pan, Wen; Zhu, Shu; Baccei, Anna; Pan, Xinghua; Jiang, Tingting; Kluger, Yuval; Weissman, Sherman M; Guo, Shangqin; Flavell, Richard A; Ding, Ye; Lu, Jun

    2016-03-30

    Clustered regularly-interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genetic screens using single-guide-RNA (sgRNA) libraries have proven powerful to identify genetic regulators. Applying CRISPR screens to interrogate functional elements in noncoding regions requires generating sgRNA libraries that are densely covering, and ideally inexpensive, easy to implement and flexible for customization. Here we present a Molecular Chipper technology for generating dense sgRNA libraries for genomic regions of interest, and a proof-of-principle screen that identifies novel cis-regulatory domains for miR-142 biogenesis. The Molecular Chipper approach utilizes a combination of random fragmentation and a type III restriction enzyme to derive a densely covering sgRNA library from input DNA. Applying this approach to 17 microRNAs and their flanking regions and with a reporter for miR-142 activity, we identify both the pre-miR-142 region and two previously unrecognized cis-domains important for miR-142 biogenesis, with the latter regulating miR-142 processing. This strategy will be useful for identifying functional noncoding elements in mammalian genomes.

  12. A Molecular Chipper technology for CRISPR sgRNA library generation and functional mapping of noncoding regions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jijun; Roden, Christine A.; Pan, Wen; Zhu, Shu; Baccei, Anna; Pan, Xinghua; Jiang, Tingting; Kluger, Yuval; Weissman, Sherman M.; Guo, Shangqin; Flavell, Richard A.; Ding, Ye; Lu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Clustered regularly-interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genetic screens using single-guide-RNA (sgRNA) libraries have proven powerful to identify genetic regulators. Applying CRISPR screens to interrogate functional elements in noncoding regions requires generating sgRNA libraries that are densely covering, and ideally inexpensive, easy to implement and flexible for customization. Here we present a Molecular Chipper technology for generating dense sgRNA libraries for genomic regions of interest, and a proof-of-principle screen that identifies novel cis-regulatory domains for miR-142 biogenesis. The Molecular Chipper approach utilizes a combination of random fragmentation and a type III restriction enzyme to derive a densely covering sgRNA library from input DNA. Applying this approach to 17 microRNAs and their flanking regions and with a reporter for miR-142 activity, we identify both the pre-miR-142 region and two previously unrecognized cis-domains important for miR-142 biogenesis, with the latter regulating miR-142 processing. This strategy will be useful for identifying functional noncoding elements in mammalian genomes. PMID:27025950

  13. Control of chromatin structure by long noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Böhmdorfer, Gudrun; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T.

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a pivotal factor regulating various aspects of genome activity. Genome regulation via DNA methylation and posttranslational histone modifications is a well-documented function of lncRNA in plants, fungi, and animals. Here, we summarize evidence showing that lncRNA also controls chromatin structure including nucleosome positioning and chromosome looping. We focus on data from plant experimental systems, discussed in the context of other eukaryotes. We explain the mechanisms of lncRNA-controlled chromatin remodeling and the implications of the functional interplay between noncoding transcription and several different chromatin remodelers. We propose that the unique properties of RNA make it suitable for controlling chromatin modifications and structure. PMID:26410408

  14. Capicua DNA-binding sites are general response elements for RTK signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ajuria, Leiore; Nieva, Claudia; Winkler, Clint; Kuo, Dennis; Samper, Núria; Andreu, María José; Helman, Aharon; González-Crespo, Sergio; Paroush, Ze'ev; Courey, Albert J; Jiménez, Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling pathways play key functions in metazoan development, but how they control expression of downstream genes is not well understood. In Drosophila, it is generally assumed that most transcriptional responses to RTK signal activation depend on binding of Ets-family proteins to specific cis-acting sites in target enhancers. Here, we show that several Drosophila RTK pathways control expression of downstream genes through common octameric elements that are binding sites for the HMG-box factor Capicua, a transcriptional repressor that is downregulated by RTK signaling in different contexts. We show that Torso RTK-dependent regulation of terminal gap gene expression in the early embryo critically depends on Capicua octameric sites, and that binding of Capicua to these sites is essential for recruitment of the Groucho co-repressor to the huckebein enhancer in vivo. We then show that subsequent activation of the EGFR RTK pathway in the neuroectodermal region of the embryo controls dorsal-ventral gene expression by downregulating the Capicua protein, and that this control also depends on Capicua octameric motifs. Thus, a similar mechanism of RTK regulation operates during subdivision of the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral embryonic axes. We also find that identical DNA octamers mediate Capicua-dependent regulation of another EGFR target in the developing wing. Remarkably, a simple combination of activator-binding sites and Capicua motifs is sufficient to establish complex patterns of gene expression in response to both Torso and EGFR activation in different tissues. We conclude that Capicua octamers are general response elements for RTK signaling in Drosophila.

  15. RNA exosome-regulated long non-coding RNA transcription controls super-enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Wang, Jiguang; Rothschild, Gerson; Lim, Junghyun; Kazadi, David; Sun, Jianbo; Federation, Alexander; Chao, Jaime; Elliott, Oliver; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Economides, Aris N; Bradner, James E; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-05-01

    We have ablated the cellular RNA degradation machinery in differentiated B cells and pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by conditional mutagenesis of core (Exosc3) and nuclear RNase (Exosc10) components of RNA exosome and identified a vast number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) with emergent functionality. Unexpectedly, eRNA-expressing regions accumulate R-loop structures upon RNA exosome ablation, thus demonstrating the role of RNA exosome in resolving deleterious DNA/RNA hybrids arising from active enhancers. We have uncovered a distal divergent eRNA-expressing element (lncRNA-CSR) engaged in long-range DNA interactions and regulating IgH 3' regulatory region super-enhancer function. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated ablation of lncRNA-CSR transcription decreases its chromosomal looping-mediated association with the IgH 3' regulatory region super-enhancer and leads to decreased class switch recombination efficiency. We propose that the RNA exosome protects divergently transcribed lncRNA expressing enhancers by resolving deleterious transcription-coupled secondary DNA structures, while also regulating long-range super-enhancer chromosomal interactions important for cellular function.

  16. Efficient inversions and duplications of mammalian regulatory DNA elements and gene clusters by CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhuan; Shou, Jia; Guo, Ya; Tang, Yuanxiao; Wu, Yonghu; Jia, Zhilian; Zhai, Yanan; Chen, Zhifeng; Xu, Quan; Wu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains millions of DNA regulatory elements and a large number of gene clusters, most of which have not been tested experimentally. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) programed with a synthetic single-guide RNA (sgRNA) emerges as a method for genome editing in virtually any organisms. Here we report that targeted DNA fragment inversions and duplications could easily be achieved in human and mouse genomes by CRISPR with two sgRNAs. Specifically, we found that, in cultured human cells and mice, efficient precise inversions of DNA fragments ranging in size from a few tens of bp to hundreds of kb could be generated. In addition, DNA fragment duplications and deletions could also be generated by CRISPR through trans-allelic recombination between the Cas9-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) on two homologous chromosomes (chromatids). Moreover, junctions of combinatorial inversions and duplications of the protocadherin (Pcdh) gene clusters induced by Cas9 with four sgRNAs could be detected. In mice, we obtained founders with alleles of precise inversions, duplications, and deletions of DNA fragments of variable sizes by CRISPR. Interestingly, we found that very efficient inversions were mediated by microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) through short inverted repeats. We showed for the first time that DNA fragment inversions could be transmitted through germlines in mice. Finally, we applied this CRISPR method to a regulatory element of the Pcdhα cluster and found a new role in the regulation of members of the Pcdhγ cluster. This simple and efficient method should be useful in manipulating mammalian genomes to study millions of regulatory DNA elements as well as vast numbers of gene clusters. PMID:25757625

  17. An active DNA transposon nDart causing leaf variegation and mutable dwarfism and its related elements in rice.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Kazuo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Takagi, Kyoko; Takahara, Hiroyuki; Qian, Qian; Eun, Chang-Ho; Iida, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    While characterized mutable alleles caused by DNA transposons have been abundant in maize since the discovery of Dissociation conferring variegation by Barbara McClintock, only a few mutable alleles have been described in rice even though the rice genome contains various transposons. Here, we show that a spontaneous mutable virescent allele, pyl-v, is caused by the disruption of the nuclear-coded essential chloroplast protease gene, OsClpP5, due to insertion of a 607-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, non-autonomous DNA-based active rice transposon one (nDart1), belonging to the hAT superfamily. The transposition of nDart1 can be induced by crossing with a line containing an autonomous element, aDart, and stabilized by segregating out of aDart. We also identified a novel mutable dwarf allele thl-m caused by an insertion of nDart1. The japonica cultivar Nipponbare carries no aDart, although it contains epigenetically silenced Dart element(s), which can be activated by 5-azacytidine. Nipponbare bears four subgroups of about 3.6-kb Dart-like sequences, three of which contain potential transposase genes, and around 3.6-kb elements without an apparent transposase gene, as well as three subgroups of about 0.6-kb nDart1-related elements that are all internal deletions of the Dart-like sequences. Both nDart1 and 3.6-kb Dart-like elements were also present in indica varieties 93-11 and Kasalath. nDart1 appears to be the most active mutagen among nDart1-related elements contributing to generating natural variations. A candidate for an autonomous element, aDart, and a possible application of nDart1 for transposon tagging are discussed. PMID:16367953

  18. An active DNA transposon nDart causing leaf variegation and mutable dwarfism and its related elements in rice.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Kazuo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Takagi, Kyoko; Takahara, Hiroyuki; Qian, Qian; Eun, Chang-Ho; Iida, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    While characterized mutable alleles caused by DNA transposons have been abundant in maize since the discovery of Dissociation conferring variegation by Barbara McClintock, only a few mutable alleles have been described in rice even though the rice genome contains various transposons. Here, we show that a spontaneous mutable virescent allele, pyl-v, is caused by the disruption of the nuclear-coded essential chloroplast protease gene, OsClpP5, due to insertion of a 607-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, non-autonomous DNA-based active rice transposon one (nDart1), belonging to the hAT superfamily. The transposition of nDart1 can be induced by crossing with a line containing an autonomous element, aDart, and stabilized by segregating out of aDart. We also identified a novel mutable dwarf allele thl-m caused by an insertion of nDart1. The japonica cultivar Nipponbare carries no aDart, although it contains epigenetically silenced Dart element(s), which can be activated by 5-azacytidine. Nipponbare bears four subgroups of about 3.6-kb Dart-like sequences, three of which contain potential transposase genes, and around 3.6-kb elements without an apparent transposase gene, as well as three subgroups of about 0.6-kb nDart1-related elements that are all internal deletions of the Dart-like sequences. Both nDart1 and 3.6-kb Dart-like elements were also present in indica varieties 93-11 and Kasalath. nDart1 appears to be the most active mutagen among nDart1-related elements contributing to generating natural variations. A candidate for an autonomous element, aDart, and a possible application of nDart1 for transposon tagging are discussed.

  19. Hundreds of Circular Novel Plasmids and DNA Elements Identified in a Rat Cecum Metamobilome

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Tue Sparholt; Xu, Zhuofei; Hansen, Martin Asser; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches are widespread in microbiological research, but so far, the knowledge on extrachromosomal DNA diversity and composition has largely remained dependant on cultivating host organisms. Even with the emergence of metagenomics, complete circular sequences are rarely identified, and have required manual curation. We propose a robust in silico procedure for identifying complete small plasmids in metagenomic datasets from whole genome shotgun sequencing. From one very pure and exhaustively sequenced metamobilome from rat cecum, we identified a total of 616 circular sequences, 160 of which were carrying a gene with plasmid replication domain. Further homology analyses indicated that the majority of these plasmid sequences are novel. We confirmed the circularity of the complete plasmid candidates using an inverse-type PCR approach on a subset of sequences with 95% success, confirming the existence and length of discrete sequences. The implication of these findings is a broadened understanding of the traits of circular elements in nature and the possibility of massive data mining in existing metagenomic datasets to discover novel pools of complete plasmids thus vastly expanding the current plasmid database. PMID:24503942

  20. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  1. A novel cis-acting element required for DNA damage-inducible expression of yeast DIN7

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitani, Ayako; Yoshida, Minoru; Ling Feng

    2008-01-04

    Din7 is a DNA damage-inducible mitochondrial nuclease that modulates the stability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. How DIN7 gene expression is regulated, however, has remained largely unclear. Using promoter sequence alignment, we found a highly conserved 19-bp sequence in the promoter regions of DIN7 and NTG1, which encodes an oxidative stress-inducible base-excision-repair enzyme. Deletion of the 19-bp sequence markedly reduced the hydroxyurea (HU)-enhanced DIN7 promoter activity. In addition, nuclear fractions prepared from HU-treated cells were used in in vitro band shift assays to reveal the presence of currently unidentified trans-acting factor(s) that preferentially bound to the 19-bp region. These results suggest that the 19-bp sequence is a novel cis-acting element that is required for the regulation of DIN7 expression in response to HU-induced DNA damage.

  2. Lead Exposure during Early Human Development and DNA Methylation of Imprinted Gene Regulatory Elements in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Xie, Changchun; Murphy, Susan K.; Skaar, David; Nye, Monica; Vidal, Adriana C.; Cecil, Kim M.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Puga, Alvaro; Jirtle, Randy L.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    30 to 78 months. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that early childhood lead exposure results in sex-dependent and gene-specific DNA methylation differences in the DMRs of PEG3, IGF2/H19, and PLAGL1/HYMAI in adulthood. Citation: Li Y, Xie C, Murphy SK, Skaar D, Nye M, Vidal AC, Cecil KM, Dietrich KN, Puga A, Jirtle RL, Hoyo C. 2016. Lead exposure during early human development and DNA methylation of imprinted gene regulatory elements in adulthood. Environ Health Perspect 124:666–673; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408577 PMID:26115033

  3. DNA and mRNA elements with complementary responses to hemin, antioxidant inducers, and iron control ferritin-L expression.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Korry J; Theil, Elizabeth C

    2005-10-18

    Ferritins, an ancient family of protein nanocages, concentrate iron in iron-oxy minerals for iron-protein biosynthesis and protection against oxy radical damage. Of the two genetic mechanisms that regulate rates of ferritin-L synthesis, DNA transcription and mRNA translation, more is known about mRNA regulation where iron targets complexes of an mRNA structure, the iron-responsive element (IRE) sequence, and ferritin IRE repressors (iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2). Neither the integration of mRNA and DNA regulation nor the ferritin-L DNA promoter are well studied. We now report the combined effects of DNA transcription and mRNA translation regulation of ferritin-L synthesis. First, the promoter of human ferritin-L, encoding the animal-specific subunit associated with human diseases, was identified, and contained an overlapping Maf recognition element (MARE) and antioxidant responsive element (ARE) that was positively regulated by tert-butylhydroquinone, sulforaphane, and hemin with responses comparable to thioredoxin reductase (ARE regulator) or quinone reductase (MARE/ARE regulator). Iron, a poor regulator of the ferritin-L promoter, was 800 times less effective than sulforaphane. Combining the ferritin-L MARE/ARE and IRE produced a response to hemin that was 3-fold greater than the sum of responses of the MARE/ARE or IRE alone. Regulation of ferritin-L by a MARE/ARE DNA sequence emphasizes the importance of ferritin-L in oxidative stress that complements the mRNA regulation in iron stress. Combining DNA and mRNA mechanisms of regulation, as for ferritin-L, illustrates the advantages of using two types of genetic targets to achieve sensitive responses to multiple signals.

  4. Structural and dynamic basis of a supercoiling-responsive DNA element

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung-Hun; Yun, Sang Hoon; Sun, Dawei; Lim, Heon M.; Choi, Byong-Seok

    2006-01-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, negative supercoiling of chromosomal DNA acts locally to regulate a variety of cellular processes, such as transcription, replication, recombination and response to environmental stresses. While studying the interaction between the Hin recombinase and mutated versions of its cognate DNA-binding site, we identified a mutated DNA site that binds Hin only when the DNA is supercoiled. To understand the mechanism of this supercoiling-responsive DNA site, we used NMR spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer to determine the solution structures and dynamics of three related DNA oligonucleotides. The supercoiling-responsive DNA site formed a partially unwound and stretched helix and showed significant flexibility and base pair opening kinetics. The single CAG/CTG triplet contained in this DNA sequence displayed the same characteristics as do multiple CAG/CTG repeats, which are associated with several hereditary neuromuscular diseases. It is known that short DNA sequence motifs that have either very high or low bending flexibility occur preferentially at supercoiling-sensitive bacterial and eukaryotic promoters. From our results and these previous data, we propose a model in which supercoiling utilizes the intrinsic flexibility of a short DNA site to switch the local DNA structure from an inefficient conformation for protein binding to an efficient one, or vice versa. PMID:16414956

  5. Close Sequence Comparisons are Sufficient to Identify Humancis-Regulatory Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakar, Shyam; Poulin, Francis; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2005-12-01

    Cross-species DNA sequence comparison is the primary method used to identify functional noncoding elements in human and other large genomes. However, little is known about the relative merits of evolutionarily close and distant sequence comparisons, due to the lack of a universal metric for sequence conservation, and also the paucity of empirically defined benchmark sets of cis-regulatory elements. To address this problem, we developed a general-purpose algorithm (Gumby) that detects slowly-evolving regions in primate, mammalian and more distant comparisons without requiring adjustment of parameters, and ranks conserved elements by P-value using Karlin-Altschul statistics. We benchmarked Gumby predictions against previously identified cis-regulatory elements at diverse genomic loci, and also tested numerous extremely conserved human-rodent sequences for transcriptional enhancer activity using reporter-gene assays in transgenic mice. Human regulatory elements were identified with acceptable sensitivity and specificity by comparison with 1-5 other eutherian mammals or 6 other simian primates. More distant comparisons (marsupial, avian, amphibian and fish) failed to identify many of the empirically defined functional noncoding elements. We derived an intuitive relationship between ancient and recent noncoding sequence conservation from whole genome comparative analysis, which explains some of these findings. Lastly, we determined that, in addition to strength of conservation, genomic location and/or density of surrounding conserved elements must also be considered in selecting candidate enhancers for testing at embryonic time points.

  6. Generalized Levy-walk model for DNA nucleotide sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a generalized Levy walk to model fractal landscapes observed in noncoding DNA sequences. We find that this model provides a very close approximation to the empirical data and explains a number of statistical properties of genomic DNA sequences such as the distribution of strand-biased regions (those with an excess of one type of nucleotide) as well as local changes in the slope of the correlation exponent alpha. The generalized Levy-walk model simultaneously accounts for the long-range correlations in noncoding DNA sequences and for the apparently paradoxical finding of long subregions of biased random walks (length lj) within these correlated sequences. In the generalized Levy-walk model, the lj are chosen from a power-law distribution P(lj) varies as lj(-mu). The correlation exponent alpha is related to mu through alpha = 2-mu/2 if 2 < mu < 3. The model is consistent with the finding of "repetitive elements" of variable length interspersed within noncoding DNA.

  7. Cytoplasmic DNA synthesis in Amoeba proteus. I. On the particulate nature of the DNA-containing elements.

    PubMed

    RABINOVITCH, M; PLAUT, W

    1962-12-01

    The incorporation of tritiated thymidine in Amoeba proteus was reinvestigated in order to see if it could be associated with microscopically detectable structures. Staining experiments with basic dyes, including the fluorochrome acridine orange, revealed the presence of large numbers of 0.3 to 0.5 micro particles in the cytoplasm of all cells studied. The effect of nuclease digestion on the dye affinity of the particles suggests that they contain DNA as well as RNA. Centrifugation of living cells at 10,000 g leads to the sedimentation of the particles in the centrifugal third of the ameba near the nucleus. Analysis of centrifuged cells which had been incubated with H(3)-thymidine showed a very high degree of correlation between the location of the nucleic acid-containing granules and that of acid-insoluble, deoxyribonuclease-sensitive labeled molecules and leads to the conclusion that cytoplasmic DNA synthesis in Amoeba proteus occurs in association with these particles.

  8. The Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation [MeDIP] to Investigate the Epigenetic Remodeling in Cell Fate Determination and Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Masciarelli, Silvia; Bellissimo, Teresa; Iosue, Ilaria; Fazi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, posttranslational modifications of histone proteins, remodeling of nucleosomes, and the expression of noncoding RNAs contribute to the regulation of gene expression for the cell fate determination and tissue development. The disruption of these epigenetic mechanisms, in conjunction with genetic alterations, is a decisive element for cancer development and progression. The cancer phenotype is characterized by global DNA hypomethylation and gene-specific hypermethylation. The methylated DNA immunoprecipitation [MeDIP] is a useful approach currently used to clarify the functional consequences of DNA methylation on cell fate determination and cancer development.

  9. [Genomic noncoding sequences and the size of eukaryotic cell nucleus as important factors of gene protection from chemical mutagens].

    PubMed

    Minkevich, I G; Patrushev, L I

    2007-01-01

    An improved quantitative model describing a protective function of eukaryotic genomic noncoding sequences was developed. In this new model, two factors affecting gene protection from chemical mutagens are considered: (1) the ratio of the total lengths of coding and noncoding genomic sequences and (2) the volume of the cell nucleus. An increase in the noncoding DNA in the genome reduces the number of mutagen-damaged nucleotides in the coding region, whereas an increase in the volume of the nucleus decreases the flow of mutagens per unit of nuclear volume that attacks its surface.

  10. Long noncoding RNAs regulate adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Goff, Loyal A; Trapnell, Cole; Alexander, Ryan; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Hacisuleyman, Ezgi; Sauvageau, Martin; Tazon-Vega, Barbara; Kelley, David R; Hendrickson, David G; Yuan, Bingbing; Kellis, Manolis; Lodish, Harvey F; Rinn, John L

    2013-02-26

    The prevalence of obesity has led to a surge of interest in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying adipocyte development. Many protein-coding genes, mRNAs, and microRNAs have been implicated in adipocyte development, but the global expression patterns and functional contributions of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during adipogenesis have not been explored. Here we profiled the transcriptome of primary brown and white adipocytes, preadipocytes, and cultured adipocytes and identified 175 lncRNAs that are specifically regulated during adipogenesis. Many lncRNAs are adipose-enriched, strongly induced during adipogenesis, and bound at their promoters by key transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα). RNAi-mediated loss of function screens identified functional lncRNAs with varying impact on adipogenesis. Collectively, we have identified numerous lncRNAs that are functionally required for proper adipogenesis.

  11. Noncoding RNPs of viral origin.

    PubMed

    Steitz, Joan; Borah, Sumit; Cazalla, Demian; Fok, Victor; Lytle, Robin; Mitton-Fry, Rachel; Riley, Kasandra; Samji, Tasleem

    2011-03-01

    Like their host cells, many viruses produce noncoding (nc)RNAs. These show diversity with respect to time of expression during viral infection, length and structure, protein-binding partners and relative abundance compared with their host-cell counterparts. Viruses, with their limited genomic capacity, presumably evolve or acquire ncRNAs only if they selectively enhance the viral life cycle or assist the virus in combating the host's response to infection. Despite much effort, identifying the functions of viral ncRNAs has been extremely challenging. Recent technical advances and enhanced understanding of host-cell ncRNAs promise accelerated insights into the RNA warfare mounted by this fascinating class of RNPs. PMID:20719877

  12. Spread of X-chromosome inactivation into autosomal sequences: role for DNA elements, chromatin features and chromosomal domains.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Allison M; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lam, Lucia L; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Kobor, Michael S; Brown, Carolyn J

    2014-03-01

    X-chromosome inactivation results in dosage equivalence between the X chromosome in males and females; however, over 15% of human X-linked genes escape silencing and these genes are enriched on the evolutionarily younger short arm of the X chromosome. The spread of inactivation onto translocated autosomal material allows the study of inactivation without the confounding evolutionary history of the X chromosome. The heterogeneity and reduced extent of silencing on autosomes are evidence for the importance of DNA elements underlying the spread of silencing. We have assessed DNA methylation in six unbalanced X-autosome translocations using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. Two to 42% of translocated autosomal genes showed this mark of silencing, with the highest degree of inactivation observed for trisomic autosomal regions. Generally, the extent of silencing was greatest close to the translocation breakpoint; however, silencing was detected well over 100 kb into the autosomal DNA. Alu elements were found to be enriched at autosomal genes that escaped from inactivation while L1s were enriched at subject genes. In cells without the translocation, there was enrichment of heterochromatic features such as EZH2 and H3K27me3 for those genes that become silenced when translocated, suggesting that underlying chromatin structure predisposes genes towards silencing. Additionally, the analysis of topological domains indicated physical clustering of autosomal genes of common inactivation status. Overall, our analysis indicated a complex interaction between DNA sequence, chromatin features and the three-dimensional structure of the chromosome. PMID:24158853

  13. Spread of X-chromosome inactivation into autosomal sequences: role for DNA elements, chromatin features and chromosomal domains

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Allison M.; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lam, Lucia L.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Kobor, Michael S.; Brown, Carolyn J.

    2014-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation results in dosage equivalence between the X chromosome in males and females; however, over 15% of human X-linked genes escape silencing and these genes are enriched on the evolutionarily younger short arm of the X chromosome. The spread of inactivation onto translocated autosomal material allows the study of inactivation without the confounding evolutionary history of the X chromosome. The heterogeneity and reduced extent of silencing on autosomes are evidence for the importance of DNA elements underlying the spread of silencing. We have assessed DNA methylation in six unbalanced X-autosome translocations using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. Two to 42% of translocated autosomal genes showed this mark of silencing, with the highest degree of inactivation observed for trisomic autosomal regions. Generally, the extent of silencing was greatest close to the translocation breakpoint; however, silencing was detected well over 100 kb into the autosomal DNA. Alu elements were found to be enriched at autosomal genes that escaped from inactivation while L1s were enriched at subject genes. In cells without the translocation, there was enrichment of heterochromatic features such as EZH2 and H3K27me3 for those genes that become silenced when translocated, suggesting that underlying chromatin structure predisposes genes towards silencing. Additionally, the analysis of topological domains indicated physical clustering of autosomal genes of common inactivation status. Overall, our analysis indicated a complex interaction between DNA sequence, chromatin features and the three-dimensional structure of the chromosome. PMID:24158853

  14. A DNA element that regulates expression of an endogenous retrovirus during F9 cell differentiation is E1A dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, B T; Satyamoorthy, K; Solter, D; Basu, A; Xu, M Q; Weinmann, R; Howe, C C

    1992-01-01

    The retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 cells into parietal endoderm-like cells activates transcription of the endogenous mouse retrovirus, the intracisternal A-particle (IAP). To investigate the elements that control IAP gene differentiation-specific expression, we used methylation interference, Southwestern (DNA-protein), and transient-transfection assays and identified the IAP-proximal enhancer (IPE) element that directs differentiation-specific expression. We find that the IPE is inactive in undifferentiated F9 cells and active in differentiated parietal endoderm-like PYS-2 cells. Three proteins of 40, 60, and 68 kDa bind to the sequence GAGTAGAC located between nucleotides -53 and -47 within the IPE. The 40- and 68-kDa proteins from both the undifferentiated and differentiated cells exhibit similar DNA-binding activities. However, the 60-kDa protein from differentiated cells has greater binding activity than that from undifferentiated cells, suggesting a role for this protein in F9 differentiation-specific expression of the IAP gene. The IAP gene is negatively regulated by the adenovirus E1A proteins, and the E1A sequence responsible for repression is located at the N terminus, between amino acids 2 and 67. The DNA sequence that is the target of E1A repression also maps to the IPE element. Colocalization of the differentiation-specific and E1A-sensitive elements to the same protein-binding site within the IPE suggests that the E1A-like activity functions in F9 cells to repress IAP gene expression. Activation of the IAP gene may result when the E1A-like activity is lost or inactivated during F9 cell differentiation, followed by binding of the 60-kDa positive regulatory protein to the enhancer element. Images PMID:1406664

  15. Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Vineet K.; Attwood, Kristopher; Campbell, Moray J.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to stable gene silencing by interfering with the ability of transcriptional regulators to bind to DNA. Recent findings have revealed that hormone stimulation of certain nuclear receptors induces rapid, dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns alongside transcriptional responses at a subset of target loci, over time. However, the ability of androgen receptor (AR) to dynamically regulate gene transcription is relatively under-studied and its role in the regulation of DNA methylation patterns remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate in normal prostate cells that hormone stimulated AR activity results in dynamic changes in the transcription rate and DNA methylation patterns at the AR target genes, TIPARP and SGK1. Time-resolved chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on the SGK1 locus reveals dynamic recruitment of AR and RNA Polymerase II, as well as the recruitment of proteins involved in the DNA demethylation process, TET1 and TDG. Furthermore, the presence of DNA methylation at dynamic regions inhibits protein binding and transcriptional activity of SGK1. These findings establish AR activity as a contributing factor to the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns at target genes in prostate biology and infer further complexity involved in nuclear receptor mediation of transcriptional regulation. PMID:26646795

  16. Robust Identification of Noncoding RNA from Transcriptomes Requires Phylogenetically-Informed Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Alicia Sook-Wei; Eldai, Hisham; Liu, Wenting; McGimpsey, Stephanie; Wheeler, Nicole E.; Biggs, Patrick J.; Thomson, Nick R.; Barquist, Lars; Poole, Anthony M.; Gardner, Paul P.

    2014-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are integral to a wide range of biological processes, including translation, gene regulation, host-pathogen interactions and environmental sensing. While genomics is now a mature field, our capacity to identify noncoding RNA elements in bacterial and archaeal genomes is hampered by the difficulty of de novo identification. The emergence of new technologies for characterizing transcriptome outputs, notably RNA-seq, are improving noncoding RNA identification and expression quantification. However, a major challenge is to robustly distinguish functional outputs from transcriptional noise. To establish whether annotation of existing transcriptome data has effectively captured all functional outputs, we analysed over 400 publicly available RNA-seq datasets spanning 37 different Archaea and Bacteria. Using comparative tools, we identify close to a thousand highly-expressed candidate noncoding RNAs. However, our analyses reveal that capacity to identify noncoding RNA outputs is strongly dependent on phylogenetic sampling. Surprisingly, and in stark contrast to protein-coding genes, the phylogenetic window for effective use of comparative methods is perversely narrow: aggregating public datasets only produced one phylogenetic cluster where these tools could be used to robustly separate unannotated noncoding RNAs from a null hypothesis of transcriptional noise. Our results show that for the full potential of transcriptomics data to be realized, a change in experimental design is paramount: effective transcriptomics requires phylogeny-aware sampling. PMID:25357249

  17. Conserved Non-Coding Sequences are Associated with Rates of mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Jacob B; Feltus, Frank Alex

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state mRNA levels are tightly regulated through a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. The discovery of cis-acting DNA elements that encode these control mechanisms is of high importance. We have investigated the influence of conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs), DNA patterns retained after an ancient whole genome duplication event, on the breadth of gene expression and the rates of mRNA decay in Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of CNSs near α duplicate genes was associated with a decrease in breadth of gene expression and slower mRNA decay rates while the presence CNSs near α duplicates was associated with an increase in breadth of gene expression and faster mRNA decay rates. The observed difference in mRNA decay rate was fastest in genes with CNSs in both non-transcribed and transcribed regions, albeit through an unknown mechanism. This study supports the notion that some Arabidopsis CNSs regulate the steady-state mRNA levels through post-transcriptional control mechanisms and that CNSs also play a role in controlling the breadth of gene expression.

  18. Mouse nucleolin binds to 4.5S RNAH, a small noncoding RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yutaka Harada, Fumio

    2008-01-04

    4.5S RNAH is a rodent-specific small noncoding RNA that exhibits extensive homology to the B1 short interspersed element. Although 4.5S RNAH is known to associate with cellular poly(A)-terminated RNAs and retroviral genomic RNAs, its function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins in mouse nuclear extracts using gel mobility shift and RNA-protein UV cross-linking assays. We found that at least nine distinct polypeptides (p170, p110, p93, p70, p48, p40, p34, p20, and p16.5) specifically interacted with 4.5S RNAHin vitro. Using anti-La antibody, p48 was identified as mouse La protein. To identify the other 4.5S RNAH-binding proteins, we performed expression cloning from a mouse cDNA library and obtained cDNA clones derived from nucleolin mRNA. We identified p110 as nucleolin using nucleolin-specific antibodies. UV cross-linking analysis using various deletion mutants of nucleolin indicated that the third of four tandem RNA recognition motifs is a major determinant for 4.5S RNAH recognition. Immunoprecipitation of nucleolin from the subcellular fractions of mouse cell extracts revealed that a portion of the endogenous 4.5S RNAH was associated with nucleolin and that this complex was located in both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus.

  19. The long non-coding RNA Dali is an epigenetic regulator of neural differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chalei, Vladislava; Sansom, Stephen N; Kong, Lesheng; Lee, Sheena; Montiel, Juan F; Vance, Keith W; Ponting, Chris P

    2014-01-01

    Many intergenic long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) loci regulate the expression of adjacent protein coding genes. Less clear is whether intergenic lncRNAs commonly regulate transcription by modulating chromatin at genomically distant loci. Here, we report both genomically local and distal RNA-dependent roles of Dali, a conserved central nervous system expressed intergenic lncRNA. Dali is transcribed downstream of the Pou3f3 transcription factor gene and its depletion disrupts the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Locally, Dali transcript regulates transcription of the Pou3f3 locus. Distally, it preferentially targets active promoters and regulates expression of neural differentiation genes, in part through physical association with the POU3F3 protein. Dali interacts with the DNMT1 DNA methyltransferase in mouse and human and regulates DNA methylation status of CpG island-associated promoters in trans. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that a single intergenic lncRNA controls the activity and methylation of genomically distal regulatory elements to modulate large-scale transcriptional programmes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04530.001 PMID:25415054

  20. The long non-coding RNA Dali is an epigenetic regulator of neural differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chalei, Vladislava; Sansom, Stephen N; Kong, Lesheng; Lee, Sheena; Montiel, Juan F; Vance, Keith W; Ponting, Chris P

    2014-11-21

    Many intergenic long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) loci regulate the expression of adjacent protein coding genes. Less clear is whether intergenic lncRNAs commonly regulate transcription by modulating chromatin at genomically distant loci. Here, we report both genomically local and distal RNA-dependent roles of Dali, a conserved central nervous system expressed intergenic lncRNA. Dali is transcribed downstream of the Pou3f3 transcription factor gene and its depletion disrupts the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Locally, Dali transcript regulates transcription of the Pou3f3 locus. Distally, it preferentially targets active promoters and regulates expression of neural differentiation genes, in part through physical association with the POU3F3 protein. Dali interacts with the DNMT1 DNA methyltransferase in mouse and human and regulates DNA methylation status of CpG island-associated promoters in trans. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that a single intergenic lncRNA controls the activity and methylation of genomically distal regulatory elements to modulate large-scale transcriptional programmes.

  1. Analysis RNA-seq and Noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Alberto; Ranzani, Valeria; Rossetti, Grazisa; Panzeri, Ilaria; Abrignani, Sergio; Bonnal, Raoul J P; Pagani, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq is an approach to transcriptome profiling that uses deep-sequencing technologies to detect and accurately quantify RNA molecules originating from a genome at a given moment in time. In recent years, the advent of RNA-Seq has facilitated genome-wide expression profiling, including the identification of novel and rare transcripts like noncoding RNAs and novel alternative splicing isoforms.Here, we describe the analytical steps required for the identification and characterization of noncoding RNAs starting from RNA-Seq raw samples, with a particular emphasis on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). PMID:27659980

  2. Noncoding RNAs: Emerging Players in Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fascinating world of noncoding RNAs has recently come to light, thanks to the development of powerful sequencing technologies, revealing a variety of RNA molecules playing important regulatory functions in most, if not all, cellular processes. Many noncoding RNAs have been implicated in regulatory networks that are determinant for skeletal muscle differentiation and disease. In this review, we outline the noncoding RNAs involved in physiological mechanisms of myogenesis and those that appear dysregulated in muscle dystrophies, also discussing their potential use as disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:24729974

  3. Delta sequences in the 5' non-coding region of yeast tRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Gafner, Jürg; Robertis, Eddy M.De; Philippsen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Two so far undetected tRNA genes were found close to delta (δ) sequences at the sup4 locus on chromosome X in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two genes were identified from their abundant transcription products in frog oocytes. Hybridisation experiments allowed the mapping of the transcripts in cloned DNA and DNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of one AGGtRNAArg and one GACtRNAAsp gene. tRNAAsp genes with sequences similar or identical to GACtRNAAsp exist in 14-16 copies per haploid yeast genome, whereas only one copy was detected for AGGtRNAArg. In vivo labelling of total yeast tRNA with 32P followed by hybridisation revealed that the unique AGGtRNAArg gene is transcribed in S. cerevisiae. δ sequences are present 120 bp upstream from the first coding nucleotide in the case of AGGtRNAArg, 80 bp in the case of GACtRNAAsp and 405 bp in the case of the known UACtRNATyr (sup4) gene. δ sequences, as part of Ty elements or alone, were also found by other investigators at similar distances upstream of the mRNA start in mutant alleles of protein-coding yeast genes. Although protein-coding genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and tRNA genes by RNA polymerase III, the 5' non-coding region of both types of genes could conceivably have a peculiar DNA or chromatin structure used as preferred landing sites by transposable elements. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:16453444

  4. Evolutionarily conserved and conformationally constrained short peptides might serve as DNA recognition elements in intrinsically disordered regions.

    PubMed

    Tayal, Nitish; Choudhary, Preeti; Pandit, Shashi B; Sandhu, Kuljeet Singh

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent advances, it is yet not clear how intrinsically disordered regions in proteins recognize their targets without any defined structures. Short linear motifs had been proposed to mediate molecular recognition by disordered regions; however, the underlying structural prerequisite remains elusive. Moreover, the role of short linear motifs in DNA recognition has not been studied. We report a repertoire of short evolutionarily Conserved Recognition Elements (CoREs) in long intrinsically disordered regions, which have very distinct amino-acid propensities from those of known motifs, and exhibit a strong tendency to retain their three-dimensional conformations compared to adjacent regions. The majority of CoREs directly interact with the DNA in the available 3D structures, which is further supported by literature evidence, analyses of ΔΔG values of DNA-binding energies and threading-based prediction of DNA binding potential. CoREs were enriched in cancer-associated missense mutations, further strengthening their functional nature. Significant enrichment of glycines in CoREs and the preference of glycyl ϕ-Ψ values within the left-handed bridge range in the l-disallowed region of the Ramachandran plot suggest that Gly-to-nonGly mutations within CoREs might alter the backbone conformation and consequently the function, a hypothesis that we reconciled using available mutation data. We conclude that CoREs might serve as bait for DNA recognition by long disordered regions and that certain mutations in these peptides can disrupt their DNA binding potential and consequently the protein function. We further hypothesize that the preferred conformations of CoREs and of glycyl residues therein might play an important role in DNA binding. The highly ordered nature of CoREs hints at a therapeutic strategy to inhibit malicious molecular interactions using small molecules mimicking CoRE conformations.

  5. Enhanced efficiency of P-element mediated transgenesis in Drosophila: Microinjection of DNA complexed with nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Sonane, Madhavi; Goyal, Ritu; Chowdhuri, Debapratim K; Ram, Kristipati Ravi; Gupta, Kailash C

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of genetic transformation technology to generate stable transgenics depends upon the successful delivery of plasmid DNA in embryonic cells. The available gene vectors facilitate efficient plasmid DNA delivery to the cellular milieu but are exposed to nuclease degradation. Recent in vitro studies suggest encapsulation of plasmid DNA with nanomaterial(s) for better protection against nucleases. Therefore, in this study, we tested if complexing of free plasmid DNA with linear polyethylenimine (LPEI, 25 kDa) based nanoparticle (LPN) enhances the efficiency of transformation (transgenesis) by using Drosophila based germ-line transformation technology. Here, we show that the LPN-DNA complex not only enhances the efficiency of this transgenic technology at a DNA concentration of 0.04 μg/μl but also reduces the DNA quantity required to generate transgenics by ten folds. This approach has potential applications for other types of transgenesis and nucleic acid injection methods in Drosophila as well as other popular genetic model systems.

  6. Architecture and DNA recognition elements of the Fanconi anemia FANCM-FAAP24 complex.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Rachel; Deans, Andrew J; Swuec, Paolo; Bowles, Maureen; Costa, Alessandro; West, Stephen C; McDonald, Neil Q

    2013-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a disorder associated with a failure in DNA repair. FANCM (defective in FA complementation group M) and its partner FAAP24 target other FA proteins to sites of DNA damage. FANCM-FAAP24 is related to XPF/MUS81 endonucleases but lacks endonucleolytic activity. We report a structure of an FANCM C-terminal fragment (FANCMCTD) bound to FAAP24 and DNA. This S-shaped structure reveals the FANCM (HhH)2 domain is buried, whereas the FAAP24 (HhH)2 domain engages DNA. We identify a second DNA contact and a metal center within the FANCM pseudo-nuclease domain and demonstrate that mutations in either region impair double-stranded DNA binding in vitro and FANCM-FAAP24 function in vivo. We show the FANCM translocase domain lies in proximity to FANCMCTD by electron microscopy and that binding fork DNA structures stimulate its ATPase activity. This suggests a tracking model for FANCM-FAAP24 until an encounter with a stalled replication fork triggers ATPase-mediated fork remodeling. PMID:23932590

  7. Reconfiguration of nucleosome-depleted regions at distal regulatory elements accompanies DNA methylation of enhancers and insulators in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taberlay, Phillippa C.; Statham, Aaron L.; Kelly, Theresa K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that cancer-associated epigenetic repression occurs concomitant with CpG island hypermethylation and loss of nucleosomes at promoters, but the role of nucleosome occupancy and epigenetic reprogramming at distal regulatory elements in cancer is still poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the scope of global epigenetic alterations at enhancers and insulator elements in prostate and breast cancer cells using simultaneous genome-wide mapping of DNA methylation and nucleosome occupancy (NOMe-seq). We find that the genomic location of nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) is mostly cell type specific and preferentially found at enhancers in normal cells. In cancer cells, however, we observe a global reconfiguration of NDRs at distal regulatory elements coupled with a substantial reorganization of the cancer methylome. Aberrant acquisition of nucleosomes at enhancer-associated NDRs is associated with hypermethylation and epigenetic silencing marks, and conversely, loss of nucleosomes with demethylation and epigenetic activation. Remarkably, we show that nucleosomes remain strongly organized and phased at many facultative distal regulatory elements, even in the absence of a NDR as an anchor. Finally, we find that key transcription factor (TF) binding sites also show extensive peripheral nucleosome phasing, suggesting the potential for TFs to organize NDRs genome-wide and contribute to deregulation of cancer epigenomes. Together, our findings suggest that “decommissioning” of NDRs and TFs at distal regulatory elements in cancer cells is accompanied by DNA hypermethylation susceptibility of enhancers and insulator elements, which in turn may contribute to an altered genome-wide architecture and epigenetic deregulation in malignancy. PMID:24916973

  8. Heavy-ion radiation induces both activation of multiple endogenous transposable elements and alterations in DNA methylation in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Xiaolin, Cui; Li, Xiang

    2012-07-01

    Space radiation represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as electron, neutron, proton, heavy-ion are involved, which may provoke stress responses and jeopardize genome integrity. Given the inherent property of epigenetic modifications to respond to intrinsic aswell as external perturbations, it is conceivable that epigenetic markers like DNA methylation and transposition may undergo alterations in response to space radiation. Cytosine DNA methylation plays important roles in maintaining genome stability and controlling gene expression. A predominant means for Transposable elements (TEs) to cause genetic instability is via their transpositional activation. To find the detailed molecular characterization of the nature of genomic changes induced by space radiation, the seeds of rice were exposed to 0.02, 0.2, 1, 2 and 20 Gy dose of ^{12}C heavy-ion radiation, respectively. We found that extensive alteration in both DNA methylation and gene expression occurred in rice plants after different dose of heavy-ion radiation. Here we shown that heavy-ion radiation has induced transposition of mPing and Tos17 in rice, which belong to distinct classes including the miniature inverted terminal repeat TEs (MITEs) and long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, respectively. mPing and Tos17 mobility were found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP and genetic variation detected by AFLP. The result showed that at least in some cases transposition of TEs was associated with cytosine demethylation within the elements. Our results implicate that the heavy-ion radiation represents a potent mutagenic agent that can cause genomic instabilities by eliciting transposition of endogenous TEs in rice. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation, DNA methylation, Transposable elements, mPing, Tos17

  9. CYTOPLASMIC DNA SYNTHESIS IN AMOEBA PROTEUS. 3. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE NATURE OF THE DNA--CONTAINING ELEMENTS.

    PubMed

    WOLSTENHOLME, D R; PLAUT, W

    1964-09-01

    The application of electron microscope autoradiography to Amoeba proteus cells labeled with tritiated thymidine has permitted the identification of morphologically distinct particles in the cytoplasm as the sites of incorporated DNA precursor. The particles correspond to those previously described from light microscope studies, with respect to both H(3)Tdr incorporation and distribution in centrifugally stratified amoebae. Ingested bacteria differ from the particles, in morphology as well as in the absence of associated label. Attempts to introduce a normal particle labeling pattern by incubating amoebae with labeled sediment derived from used amoeba medium failed. The resultant conclusion, that the particles are maintained in the amoeba by self-duplication, is supported by the presence of particles in configurations suggestive of division.

  10. Non-Coding RNAs in Cardiac Aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bei, Yihua; Shi, Jing; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing

    2015-01-01

    Aging has a remarkable impact on the function of the heart, and is independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac aging is an intrinsic physiological process that results in impaired cardiac function, along with lots of cellular and molecular changes. Non-coding RNAs include small transcripts, such as microRNAs and a wide range of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Emerging evidence has revealed that non-coding RNAs acted as powerful and dynamic modifiers of cardiac aging. This review aims to provide a general overview of non-coding RNAs implicated in cardiac aging, and the underlying mechanisms involved in maintaining homeo-stasis and retarding aging.

  11. Battles and hijacks: noncoding transcription in plants.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Federico; Romero-Barrios, Natali; Jégu, Teddy; Benhamed, Moussa; Crespi, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Noncoding RNAs have emerged as major components of the eukaryotic transcriptome. Genome-wide analyses revealed the existence of thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in several plant species. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by the plant-specific RNA polymerases Pol IV and Pol V, leading to transcriptional gene silencing, as well as by Pol II. They are involved in a wide range of regulatory mechanisms impacting on gene expression, including chromatin remodeling, modulation of alternative splicing, fine-tuning of miRNA activity, and the control of mRNA translation or accumulation. Recently, dual noncoding transcription by alternative RNA polymerases was implicated in epigenetic and chromatin conformation dynamics. This review integrates the current knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms acting through plant noncoding transcription.

  12. High Throughput Analyses of Budding Yeast ARSs Reveal New DNA Elements Capable of Conferring Centromere-Independent Plasmid Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Hoggard, Timothy; Liachko, Ivan; Burt, Cassaundra; Meikle, Troy; Jiang, Katherine; Craciun, Gheorghe; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Fox, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of plasmids to propagate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental in defining eukaryotic chromosomal control elements. Stable propagation demands both plasmid replication, which requires a chromosomal replication origin (i.e., an ARS), and plasmid distribution to dividing cells, which requires either a chromosomal centromere for segregation or a plasmid-partitioning element. While our knowledge of yeast ARSs and centromeres is relatively advanced, we know less about chromosomal regions that can function as plasmid partitioning elements. The Rap1 protein-binding site (RAP1) present in transcriptional silencers and telomeres of budding yeast is a known plasmid-partitioning element that functions to anchor a plasmid to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which in turn facilitates plasmid distribution to daughter cells. This Rap1-dependent INM-anchoring also has an important chromosomal role in higher-order chromosomal structures that enhance transcriptional silencing and telomere stability. Thus, plasmid partitioning can reflect fundamental features of chromosome structure and biology, yet a systematic screen for plasmid partitioning elements has not been reported. Here, we couple deep sequencing with competitive growth experiments of a plasmid library containing thousands of short ARS fragments to identify new plasmid partitioning elements. Competitive growth experiments were performed with libraries that differed only in terms of the presence or absence of a centromere. Comparisons of the behavior of ARS fragments in the two experiments allowed us to identify sequences that were likely to drive plasmid partitioning. In addition to the silencer RAP1 site, we identified 74 new putative plasmid-partitioning motifs predicted to act as binding sites for DNA binding proteins enriched for roles in negative regulation of gene expression and G2/M-phase associated biology. These data expand our knowledge of chromosomal elements that may function in plasmid

  13. Noncoding RNA Interplay with the Genome.

    PubMed

    Gabellini, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The majority of our genome is transcribed to produce RNA molecules that are mostly noncoding. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the most numerous and functionally versatile class.LncRNAs have emerged as key regulators of gene expression at multiple levels.This section describes bioinformatics aspects important for lncRNA discovery and molecular approaches to perform structure-function characterization of this exciting class of regulatory molecules. PMID:27659975

  14. LARVA: an integrative framework for large-scale analysis of recurrent variants in noncoding annotations

    PubMed Central

    Lochovsky, Lucas; Zhang, Jing; Fu, Yao; Khurana, Ekta; Gerstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In cancer research, background models for mutation rates have been extensively calibrated in coding regions, leading to the identification of many driver genes, recurrently mutated more than expected. Noncoding regions are also associated with disease; however, background models for them have not been investigated in as much detail. This is partially due to limited noncoding functional annotation. Also, great mutation heterogeneity and potential correlations between neighboring sites give rise to substantial overdispersion in mutation count, resulting in problematic background rate estimation. Here, we address these issues with a new computational framework called LARVA. It integrates variants with a comprehensive set of noncoding functional elements, modeling the mutation counts of the elements with a β-binomial distribution to handle overdispersion. LARVA, moreover, uses regional genomic features such as replication timing to better estimate local mutation rates and mutational hotspots. We demonstrate LARVA's effectiveness on 760 whole-genome tumor sequences, showing that it identifies well-known noncoding drivers, such as mutations in the TERT promoter. Furthermore, LARVA highlights several novel highly mutated regulatory sites that could potentially be noncoding drivers. We make LARVA available as a software tool and release our highly mutated annotations as an online resource (larva.gersteinlab.org). PMID:26304545

  15. Noncoding RNAs and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan-Fei; Zhuang, Yan-Yan; Huang, Feng-Ting; Zhang, Shi-Neng

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that typically do not code for proteins. Emerging data suggest that ncRNAs play an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as cancer. The best-characterized ncRNAs are the microRNAs (miRNAs), which are short, approximately 22-nucleotide sequences of RNA of approximately 22-nucleotide in length that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, through transcript degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs can function as master gene regulators, impacting a variety of cellular pathways important to normal cellular functions as well as cancer development and progression. In addition to miRNAs, long ncRNAs, which are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, have recently emerged as novel drivers of tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of their regulation and function, and the significance of other ncRNAs such as piwi-interacting RNAs in pancreas carcinogenesis are largely unknown. This review summarizes the growing body of evidence supporting the vital roles of ncRNAs in pancreatic cancer, focusing on their dysregulation through both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and highlighting the promise of ncRNAs in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26811626

  16. Emerging roles of non-coding RNAs in epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Xue, Yuanchao

    2016-03-01

    Recent deep sequencing surveys of mammalian genomes have unexpectedly revealed pervasive and complex transcription and identified tens of thousands of RNA transcripts that do not code for proteins. These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) highlight the central role of RNA in gene regulation. ncRNAs are arbitrarily divided into two main groups: The first includes small RNAs, such as miRNAs, piRNAs, and endogenous siRNAs, that usually range from 20 to 30 nt, while the second group includes long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are typically more than 200 nt in length. These ncRNAs were initially thought to merely regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, but recent studies have indicated that ncRNAs, especially lncRNAs, are extensively associated with diverse chromatin remodeling complexes and target them to specific genomic loci to alter DNA methylation or histone status. These findings suggest an emerging theme of ncRNAs in epigenetic regulation. In this review, we discuss the wide spectrum of ncRNAs in the regulation of DNA methylation and chromatin state, as well as the key questions that needs to be investigated and acknowledging the elegant design of these intriguing macromolecules.

  17. Distribution of Unlinked Transpositions of a Ds Element from a T-DNA Locus on Tomato Chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Briza, J.; Carroll, B. J.; Klimyuk, V. I.; Thomas, C. M.; Jones, D. A.; Jones, JDG.

    1995-01-01

    In maize, receptor sites for unlinked transpositions of Activator (Ac) elements are not distributed randomly. To test whether the same is true in tomato, the receptor sites for a Dissociation (Ds) element derived from Ac, were mapped for 26 transpositions unlinked to a donor T-DNA locus on chromosome 4. Four independent transposed Dss mapped to sites on chromosome 4 genetically unlinked to the donor T-DNA, consistent with a preference for transposition to unlinked sites on the same chromosome as opposed to sites on other chromosomes. There was little preference among the nondonor chromosomes, except perhaps for chromosome 2, which carried seven transposed Dss, but these could not be proven to be independent. However, these data, when combined with those from other studies in tomato examining the distribution of transposed Acs or Dss among nondonor chromosomes, suggest there may be absolute preferences for transposition irrespective of the chromosomal location of the donor site. If true, transposition to nondonor chromosomes in tomato would differ from that in maize, where the preference seems to be determined by the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus. The tomato lines carrying Ds elements at known locations are available for targeted transposon tagging experiments. PMID:8536985

  18. HDA6 Directly Interacts with DNA Methyltransferase MET1 and Maintains Transposable Element Silencing in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuncheng; Yu, Chun-Wei; Duan, Jun; Luo, Ming; Wang, Koching; Tian, Gang; Cui, Yuhai; Wu, Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of how the histone deacetylase HDA6 participates in maintaining transposable element (TE) silencing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is not yet defined. In this study, we show that a subset of TEs was transcriptionally reactivated and that TE reactivation was associated with elevated histone H3 and H4 acetylation as well as increased H3K4Me3 and H3K4Me2 in hda6 mutants. Decreased DNA methylation of the TEs was also detected in hda6 mutants, suggesting that HDA6 silences the TEs by regulating histone acetylation and methylation as well as the DNA methylation status of the TEs. Similarly, transcripts of some of these TEs were also increased in the methyltransferase1 (met1) mutant, with decreased DNA methylation. Furthermore, H4 acetylation, H3K4Me3, H3K4Me2, and H3K36Me2 were enriched at the coregulated TEs in the met1 and hda6 met1 mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that HDA6 physically interacts with MET1 in vitro and in vivo, and further deletion analysis demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal region of HDA6 and the bromo-adjacent homology domain of MET1 were responsible for the interaction. These results suggested that HDA6 and MET1 interact directly and act together to silence TEs by modulating DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation status. PMID:21994348

  19. Association between birth weight and DNA methylation of IGF2, glucocorticoid receptor and repetitive elements LINE-1 and Alu

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Braun, Joe M; Byun, Hyang-Min; Tarantini, Letizia; Mercado, Adriana; Wright, Rosalind J; Schnaas, Lourdes; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the association between birth weight and methylation in the imprinted IGF/H19 loci, the nonimprinted gene NR3C1 and repetitive element DNA (LINE-1 and Alu). Materials & methods We collected umbilical cord venous blood from 219 infants born in Mexico City (Mexico) as part of a prospective birth cohort study and analyzed DNA methylation using pyrosequencing. Results Birth weight was not associated with DNA methylation of the regions studied. One of the CpG dinucleotides in the IGF2 imprinting control region (ICR)1 includes a potential C–T SNP. Among individuals with an absence of methylation at this site, probably due to a paternally inherited T allele, birth weight was associated with mean methylation status of both IGF2 ICR1 and ICR2. However, this association would not have survived adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion While we did not detect an association between DNA methylation and birth weight, our study suggests a potential gene–epigene interaction between a T allele in the IGF2 ICR1 and methylation of ICRs of IGF2, and fetal growth. PMID:23750643

  20. A DNA Sequence Element That Advances Replication Origin Activation Time in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Thomas J.; Kolor, Katherine; Fangman, Walton L.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication undergo activation at various times in S-phase, allowing the genome to be duplicated in a temporally staggered fashion. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation times of individual origins are not intrinsic to those origins but are instead governed by surrounding sequences. Currently, there are two examples of DNA sequences that are known to advance origin activation time, centromeres and forkhead transcription factor binding sites. By combining deletion and linker scanning mutational analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure fork direction in the context of a two-origin plasmid, we have identified and characterized a 19- to 23-bp and a larger 584-bp DNA sequence that are capable of advancing origin activation time. PMID:24022751

  1. Mutation in a primate-conserved retrotransposon reveals a noncoding RNA as a mediator of infantile encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cartault, François; Munier, Patrick; Benko, Edgar; Desguerre, Isabelle; Hanein, Sylvain; Boddaert, Nathalie; Bandiera, Simonetta; Vellayoudom, Jeanine; Krejbich-Trotot, Pascale; Bintner, Marc; Hoarau, Jean-Jacques; Girard, Muriel; Génin, Emmanuelle; de Lonlay, Pascale; Fourmaintraux, Alain; Naville, Magali; Rodriguez, Diana; Feingold, Josué; Renouil, Michel; Munnich, Arnold; Westhof, Eric; Fähling, Michael; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The human genome is densely populated with transposons and transposon-like repetitive elements. Although the impact of these transposons and elements on human genome evolution is recognized, the significance of subtle variations in their sequence remains mostly unexplored. Here we report homozygosity mapping of an infantile neurodegenerative disease locus in a genetic isolate. Complete DNA sequencing of the 400-kb linkage locus revealed a point mutation in a primate-specific retrotransposon that was transcribed as part of a unique noncoding RNA, which was expressed in the brain. In vitro knockdown of this RNA increased neuronal apoptosis, consistent with the inappropriate dosage of this RNA in vivo and with the phenotype. Moreover, structural analysis of the sequence revealed a small RNA-like hairpin that was consistent with the putative gain of a functional site when mutated. We show here that a mutation in a unique transposable element-containing RNA is associated with lethal encephalopathy, and we suggest that RNAs that harbor evolutionarily recent repetitive elements may play important roles in human brain development. PMID:22411793

  2. A DNA-centric protein interaction map of ultraconserved elements reveals contribution of transcription factor binding hubs to conservation.

    PubMed

    Viturawong, Tar; Meissner, Felix; Butter, Falk; Mann, Matthias

    2013-10-31

    Ultraconserved elements (UCEs) have been the subject of great interest because of their extreme sequence identity and their seemingly cryptic and largely uncharacterized functions. Although in vivo studies of UCE sequences have demonstrated regulatory activity, protein interactors at UCEs have not been systematically identified. Here, we combined high-throughput affinity purification, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and SILAC quantification to map intrinsic protein interactions for 193 UCE sequences. The interactome contains over 400 proteins, including transcription factors with known developmental roles. We demonstrate based on our data that UCEs consist of strongly conserved overlapping binding sites. We also generated a fine-resolution interactome of a UCE, confirming the hub-like nature of the element. The intrinsic interactions mapped here are reflected in open chromatin, as indicated by comparison with existing ChIP data. Our study argues for a strong contribution of protein-DNA interactions to UCE conservation and provides a basis for further functional characterization of UCEs.

  3. Noncoding Genomics in Gastric Cancer and the Gastric Precancerous Cascade: Pathogenesis and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Bórquez, Alejandra; Saavedra, Kathleen; Carrasco-Avino, Gonzalo; Garcia-Bloj, Benjamin; Fry, Jacqueline; Wichmann, Ignacio; Corvalán, Alejandro H.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death, whose patterns vary among geographical regions and ethnicities. It is a multifactorial disease, and its development depends on infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), host genetic factors, and environmental factors. The heterogeneity of the disease has begun to be unraveled by a comprehensive mutational evaluation of primary tumors. The low-abundance of mutations suggests that other mechanisms participate in the evolution of the disease, such as those found through analyses of noncoding genomics. Noncoding genomics includes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation of promoter sites, miRNAs, other noncoding RNAs in regulatory regions, and other topics. These processes and molecules ultimately control gene expression. Potential biomarkers are appearing from analyses of noncoding genomics. This review focuses on noncoding genomics and potential biomarkers in the context of gastric cancer and the gastric precancerous cascade. PMID:26379360

  4. Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a DNA Repetitive Element from the Mouse Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Adriana; Cossio, Gabriela; Wettstein, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    We report the development of a 3-week laboratory activity for an undergraduate molecular biology course. This activity introduces students to the practice of basic molecular techniques such as restriction enzyme digestion, agarose gel electrophoresis, cloning, plasmid DNA purification, Southern blotting, and sequencing. Students learn how to carry…

  5. Elements That Regulate the DNA Damage Response of Proteins Defective in Cockayne Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M

    2016-01-16

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a premature aging disorder characterized by developmental defects, multisystem progressive degeneration and sensitivity to ultraviolet light. CS is divided into two primary complementation groups, A and B, with the CSA and CSB proteins presumably functioning in DNA repair and transcription. Using laser microirradiation and confocal microscopy, we characterized the nature and regulation of the CS protein response to oxidative DNA damage, double-strand breaks (DSBs), angelicin monoadducts and trioxsalen interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Our data indicate that CSB recruitment is influenced by the type of DNA damage and is most rapid and robust as follows: ICLs>DSBs>monoadducts>oxidative lesions. Transcription inhibition reduced accumulation of CSB at sites of monoadducts and ICLs, but it did not affect recruitment to (although slightly affected retention at) oxidative damage. Inhibition of histone deacetylation altered the dynamics of CSB assembly, suggesting a role for chromatin status in the response to DNA damage, whereas the proteasome inhibitor MG132 had no effect. The C-terminus of CSB and, in particular, its ubiquitin-binding domain were critical to recruitment, while the N-terminus and a functional ATPase domain played a minor role at best in facilitating protein accumulation. Although the absence of CSA had no effect on CSB recruitment, CSA itself localized at sites of ICLs, DSBs and monoadducts but not at oxidative lesions. Our results reveal molecular components of the CS protein response and point to a major involvement of complex lesions in the pathology of CS.

  6. Cooperativity between DNA Methyltransferases in the Maintenance Methylation of Repetitive Elements

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gangning; Chan, Matilda F.; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tsai, Yvonne C.; Gonzales, Felicidad A.; Li, En; Laird, Peter W.; Jones, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    We used mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with systematic gene knockouts for DNA methyltransferases to delineate the roles of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) and Dnmt3a and -3b in maintaining methylation patterns in the mouse genome. Dnmt1 alone was able to maintain methylation of most CpG-poor regions analyzed. In contrast, both Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a and/or Dnmt3b were required for methylation of a select class of sequences which included abundant murine LINE-1 promoters. We used a novel hemimethylation assay to show that even in wild-type cells these sequences contain high levels of hemimethylated DNA, suggestive of poor maintenance methylation. We showed that Dnmt3a and/or -3b could restore methylation of these sequences to pretreatment levels following transient exposure of cells to 5-aza-CdR, whereas Dnmt1 by itself could not. We conclude that ongoing de novo methylation by Dnmt3a and/or Dnmt3b compensates for inefficient maintenance methylation by Dnmt1 of these endogenous repetitive sequences. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized degree of cooperativity among mammalian DNA methyltransferases in ES cells. PMID:11756544

  7. Epigenetic conservation at gene regulatory elements revealed by non-methylated DNA profiling in seven vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Long, Hannah K; Sims, David; Heger, Andreas; Blackledge, Neil P; Kutter, Claudia; Wright, Megan L; Grützner, Frank; Odom, Duncan T; Patient, Roger; Ponting, Chris P; Klose, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Two-thirds of gene promoters in mammals are associated with regions of non-methylated DNA, called CpG islands (CGIs), which counteract the repressive effects of DNA methylation on chromatin. In cold-blooded vertebrates, computational CGI predictions often reside away from gene promoters, suggesting a major divergence in gene promoter architecture across vertebrates. By experimentally identifying non-methylated DNA in the genomes of seven diverse vertebrates, we instead reveal that non-methylated islands (NMIs) of DNA are a central feature of vertebrate gene promoters. Furthermore, NMIs are present at orthologous genes across vast evolutionary distances, revealing a surprising level of conservation in this epigenetic feature. By profiling NMIs in different tissues and developmental stages we uncover a unifying set of features that are central to the function of NMIs in vertebrates. Together these findings demonstrate an ancient logic for NMI usage at gene promoters and reveal an unprecedented level of epigenetic conservation across vertebrate evolution. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00348.001. PMID:23467541

  8. Web-based identification of evolutionary conserved DNA cis-regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Benos, Panayiotis V; Corcoran, David L; Feingold, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    Transcription regulation on a gene-by-gene basis is achieved through transcription factors, the DNA-binding proteins that recognize short DNA sequences in the proximity of the genes. Unlike other DNA-binding proteins, each transcription factor recognizes a number of sequences, usually variants of a preferred, "consensus" sequence. The degree of dissimilarity of a given target sequence from the consensus is indicative of the binding affinity of the transcription factor-DNA interaction. Because of the short size and the degeneracy of the patterns, it is frequently difficult for a computational algorithm to distinguish between the true sites and the background genomic "noise." One way to overcome this problem of low signal-to-noise ratio is to use evolutionary information to detect signals that are conserved in two or more species. FOOTER is an algorithm that uses this phylogenetic footprinting concept and evaluates putative mammalian transcription factor binding sites in a quantitative way. The user is asked to upload the human and mouse promoter sequences and select the transcription factors to be analyzed. The results' page presents an alignment of the two sequences (color-coded by degree of conservation) and information about the predicted sites and single-nucleotide polymorphisms found around the predicted sites. This chapter presents the main aspects of the underlying method and gives detailed instructions and tips on the use of this web-based tool.

  9. The Genetic Signatures of Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Mattick, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the genome in animals and plants is transcribed in a developmentally regulated manner to produce large numbers of non–protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), whose incidence increases with developmental complexity. There is growing evidence that these transcripts are functional, particularly in the regulation of epigenetic processes, leading to the suggestion that they compose a hitherto hidden layer of genomic programming in humans and other complex organisms. However, to date, very few have been identified in genetic screens. Here I show that this is explicable by an historic emphasis, both phenotypically and technically, on mutations in protein-coding sequences, and by presumptions about the nature of regulatory mutations. Most variations in regulatory sequences produce relatively subtle phenotypic changes, in contrast to mutations in protein-coding sequences that frequently cause catastrophic component failure. Until recently, most mapping projects have focused on protein-coding sequences, and the limited number of identified regulatory mutations have been interpreted as affecting conventional cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements, although these regions are often themselves transcribed. Moreover, ncRNA-directed regulatory circuits underpin most, if not all, complex genetic phenomena in eukaryotes, including RNA interference-related processes such as transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing, position effect variegation, hybrid dysgenesis, chromosome dosage compensation, parental imprinting and allelic exclusion, paramutation, and possibly transvection and transinduction. The next frontier is the identification and functional characterization of the myriad sequence variations that influence quantitative traits, disease susceptibility, and other complex characteristics, which are being shown by genome-wide association studies to lie mostly in noncoding, presumably regulatory, regions. There is every possibility that many of these

  10. A-to-I editing of protein coding and noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Arka; Nishikura, Kazuko

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. Inosine pairs preferentially with cytidine, as opposed to uridine; therefore, ADAR editing alters the sequence and base pairing properties of both protein-coding and non-coding RNA. Editing can directly alter the sequence of protein-coding transcripts and modify splicing, or affect a variety of non-coding targets, including microRNA, small interfering RNA, viral transcripts, and repeat elements such as Alu and LINE. Such editing has a wide range of physiological effects, including modification of targets in the brain and in disease states.

  11. A negatively acting DNA sequence element mediates phytochrome-directed repression of phyA gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, W B; Deng, X W; Quail, P H

    1991-01-01

    Phytochrome represses transcription of its own phyA genes within 5 min of light-triggered conversion to its active Pfr form. We have utilized microprojectile mediated gene transfer into etiolated rice seedlings to delineate sequence elements in the oat phyA3 promoter responsible for this regulation. Linker-scan mutagenesis of this promoter has identified two positive elements which together are necessary for maximal transcription in the absence of Pfr. These elements are designated PE1, centered at position -357 bp, and PE3, centered at position -96 bp. Sequence mutagenesis immediately downstream of PE3 results in maximal transcription in the presence of high Pfr levels, indicating that Pfr represses phyA3 transcription through a negatively acting sequence element. This element, designated RE1, with the sequence CATGGGCGCGG, encompasses a motif that is highly conserved in all monocot phyA promoters thus far characterized. DNase I protection analysis indicates that oat nuclear extracts contain multiple factors that bind to an array of sequence motifs, including PE1 and part of PE3, within 400 bp upstream of the oat phyA3 transcription start site. This DNA-binding pattern is not altered by Pfr. Weak binding to part of the RE1 motif is evident but also with no difference between high and low Pfr levels. We conclude that the signal transduction chain that mediates Pfr-directed repression of phyA3 transcription terminates with a negatively acting transcription factor that binds to the sequence element RE1. Images PMID:1915276

  12. A role for non-coding variation in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Roussos, Panos; Mitchell, Amanda C.; Voloudakis, Georgios; Fullard, John F.; Pothula, Venu M.; Tsang, Jonathan; Stahl, Eli A.; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Charney, Alexander; Okada, Yukinori; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Plenge, Robert M.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Fromer, Menachem; Purcell, Shaun M.; Brennand, Kristen J.; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Schadt, Eric E.; Akbarian, Schahram; Sklar, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A large portion of common variant loci associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia reside within non-coding sequence of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate promoter and enhancer enrichment in schizophrenia variants associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). The enrichment is greater when functional annotations derived from human brain are used relative to peripheral tissues. Regulatory trait concordance analysis ranked genes within schizophrenia genome-wide significant loci for a potential functional role, based on co-localization of a risk SNP, eQTL and regulatory element sequence. We identified potential physical interactions of non-contiguous proximal and distal regulatory elements. This was verified in prefrontal cortex and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons for the L-type calcium channel (CACNA1C) risk locus. Our findings point to a functional link between schizophrenia-associated non-coding SNPs and 3-dimensional genome architecture associated with chromosomal loopings and transcriptional regulation in the brain. PMID:25453756

  13. Promiscuous DNA: horizontal transfer of transposable elements and why it matters for eukaryotic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Schaack, Sarah; Gilbert, Clément; Feschotte, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal transfer is the passage of genetic material between genomes by means other than parent-to-offspring inheritance. Although the transfer of genes is thought to be crucial in prokaryotic evolution, few instances of horizontal gene transfer have been reported in multicellular eukaryotes; instead, most cases involve transposable elements. With over 200 cases now documented, it is possible to assess the importance of horizontal transfer for the evolution of transposable elements and their host genomes. We review criteria for detecting horizontal transfers and examine recent examples of the phenomenon, shedding light on its mechanistic underpinnings, including the role of host-parasite interactions. We argue that the introduction of transposable elements by horizontal transfer in eukaryotic genomes has been a major force propelling genomic variation and biological innovation. PMID:20591532

  14. DNA sequences of Alu elements indicate a recent replacement of the human autosomal genetic complement

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, A.; Deininger, P.L.; Batzer, M.A.

    1996-04-30

    DNA sequences of neutral nuclear autosomal loci, compared across diverse human populations, provide a previously untapped perspective into the mode and tempo of the emergence of modern humans and a critical comparison with published clonally inherited mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome measurements of human diversity. We obtained over 55 kilobases of sequence from three autosomal loci encompassing Alu repeats for representatives of diverse human populations as well as orthologous sequences for other hominoid species at one of these loci. Nucleotide diversity was exceedingly low. Most individuals and populations were identical. Only a single nucleotide difference distinguished presumed ancestral alleles from descendants. These results differ from those expected if alleles from divergent archaic populations were maintained through multiregional continuity. The observed virtual lack of sequence polymorphism is the signature of a recent single origin for modern humans, with general replacement of archaic populations. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Exploration of noncoding sequences in metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Tobar-Tosse, Fabián; Rodríguez, Adrián C; Vélez, Patricia E; Zambrano, María M; Moreno, Pedro A

    2013-01-01

    Environment-dependent genomic features have been defined for different metagenomes, whose genes and their associated processes are related to specific environments. Identification of ORFs and their functional categories are the most common methods for association between functional and environmental features. However, this analysis based on finding ORFs misses noncoding sequences and, therefore, some metagenome regulatory or structural information could be discarded. In this work we analyzed 23 whole metagenomes, including coding and noncoding sequences using the following sequence patterns: (G+C) content, Codon Usage (Cd), Trinucleotide Usage (Tn), and functional assignments for ORF prediction. Herein, we present evidence of a high proportion of noncoding sequences discarded in common similarity-based methods in metagenomics, and the kind of relevant information present in those. We found a high density of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TRS) in noncoding sequences, with a regulatory and adaptive function for metagenome communities. We present associations between trinucleotide values and gene function, where metagenome clustering correlate with microorganism adaptations and kinds of metagenomes. We propose here that noncoding sequences have relevant information to describe metagenomes that could be considered in a whole metagenome analysis in order to improve their organization, classification protocols, and their relation with the environment. PMID:23536879

  16. Noncoding RNAs in Beta Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Ruth A.; Arnes, Luis; Sussel, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review The identification and characterization of essential islet transcription factors have improved our understanding of β cell development, provided insights into many of the cellular dysfunctions related to diabetes, and facilitated the successful generation of β cells from alternative cell sources. Recently, noncoding RNAs have emerged as a novel set of molecules that may represent missing components of the known islet regulatory pathways. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies that have implicated noncoding RNAs as important regulators of pancreas cell development and β cell function. Recent Findings Disruption of essential components of the microRNA processing machinery, in addition to misregulation of individual miRNAs, has revealed the importance of microRNAs in pancreas development and β cell function. Furthermore, over 1000 islet-specific long noncoding RNAs have been identified in mouse and human islets, suggesting that this class of noncoding molecules will also play important functional roles in the β cell. Summary The analysis of noncoding RNAs in the pancreas will provide important new insights into pancreatic regulatory processes that will improve our ability to understand and treat diabetes and may facilitate the generation of replacement β cells from alternative cell sources. PMID:25692923

  17. The expanding universe of noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, G J; Rivas, F V; Murchison, E P; Steitz, J A

    2006-01-01

    The 71st Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology celebrated the numerous and expanding roles of regulatory RNAs in systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. It was clearly evident that noncoding RNAs are undergoing a renaissance, with reports of their involvement in nearly every cellular process. Previously known classes of longer noncoding RNAs were shown to function by every possible means-acting catalytically, sensing physiological states through adoption of complex secondary and tertiary structures, or using their primary sequences for recognition of target sites. The many recently discovered classes of small noncoding RNAs, generally less than 35 nucleotides in length, most often exert their effects by guiding regulatory complexes to targets via base-pairing. With the ability to analyze the RNA products of the genome in ever greater depth, it has become clear that the universe of noncoding RNAs may extend far beyond the boundaries we had previously imagined. Thus, as much as the Symposium highlighted exciting progress in the field, it also revealed how much farther we must go to understand fully the biological impact of noncoding RNAs.

  18. Exploration of noncoding sequences in metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Tobar-Tosse, Fabián; Rodríguez, Adrián C; Vélez, Patricia E; Zambrano, María M; Moreno, Pedro A

    2013-01-01

    Environment-dependent genomic features have been defined for different metagenomes, whose genes and their associated processes are related to specific environments. Identification of ORFs and their functional categories are the most common methods for association between functional and environmental features. However, this analysis based on finding ORFs misses noncoding sequences and, therefore, some metagenome regulatory or structural information could be discarded. In this work we analyzed 23 whole metagenomes, including coding and noncoding sequences using the following sequence patterns: (G+C) content, Codon Usage (Cd), Trinucleotide Usage (Tn), and functional assignments for ORF prediction. Herein, we present evidence of a high proportion of noncoding sequences discarded in common similarity-based methods in metagenomics, and the kind of relevant information present in those. We found a high density of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TRS) in noncoding sequences, with a regulatory and adaptive function for metagenome communities. We present associations between trinucleotide values and gene function, where metagenome clustering correlate with microorganism adaptations and kinds of metagenomes. We propose here that noncoding sequences have relevant information to describe metagenomes that could be considered in a whole metagenome analysis in order to improve their organization, classification protocols, and their relation with the environment.

  19. The independent evolution of two closely related satellite DNA elements in rats (Rattus).

    PubMed Central

    Witney, F R; Furano, A V

    1983-01-01

    We have identified and determined the sequence and organization of a new rat satellite DNA in Rattus rattus, the roof rat. This satellite DNA, which we call R. rattus satellite I', consists of tandem arrays of a 185 base pair (bp) repeat unit that we call a'. a' is 86% homologous to a 185 bp portion of the 370 bp repeat unit of the previously described rat satellite [Pech et al. (1979) Nucleic Acids Res. 7, 417-432] present in the common laboratory rat species, R. norvegicus. We can thereby distinguish two 185 bp portions of the satellite I 370 bp repeat unit: "a" (homologous to a') and "b". Satellite I has the structure (a,b)n, and satellite I' has the structure (a')n. Like a, a' is only about 60% homologous to b and fails to hybridize to b. Although R. norvegicus and R. rattus contain about the same total concentration of satellite sequences, R. norvegicus contains essentially only the a,b type (satellite I), whereas R. rattus contains a' type (satellite I') and lesser amounts of the a,b type (satellite I). The a,b type (satellite I) in R. rattus is very similar to that in R. norvegicus as judged both by hybridization and by the presence of all but one of the major restriction enzyme sites that characterize the R. norvegicus satellite I. In R. rattus the a' and a,b repeat units are not detectably present in the same tandem array. All of the sequence differences between a' (R. rattus) and a (R. norvegicus) can be accounted for by simple base substitutions, and the implication of this and other features of rat satellite DNA structure for satellite DNA evolution are discussed. Images PMID:6298719

  20. Structure based approaches for targeting non-coding RNAs with small molecules.

    PubMed

    Shortridge, Matthew D; Varani, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    The increasing appreciation of the central role of non-coding RNAs (miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs) in chronic and degenerative human disease makes them attractive therapeutic targets. This would not be unprecedented: the bacterial ribosomal RNA is a mainstay for antibacterial treatment, while the conservation and functional importance of viral RNA regulatory elements has long suggested they would constitute attractive targets for new antivirals. Oligonucleotide-based chemistry has obvious appeals but also considerable pharmacological limitations that are yet to be addressed satisfactorily. Recent studies identifying small molecules targeting non-coding RNAs may provide an alternative approach to oligonucleotide methods. Here we review recent work investigating new structural and chemical principles for targeting RNA with small molecules.

  1. Roles of Long Non-Coding RNAs on Tumorigenesis and Glioma Development.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Young; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jong Bae; Yoo, Heon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Jong Heon

    2014-04-01

    More than 98% of eukaryotic tanscriptomes are composed of non-coding RNAs with no functional protein-coding capacity. Those transcripts also include tens of thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are emerging as key elements of cellular homeostasis, essentially tumorigenesis steps. However, we are only beginning to understand the nature and extent of the involvement of lncRNAs on tumorigeneis. Here, we highlight recent progresses that have identified a myriad of molecular functions on tumorigenesis for several lncRNAs including metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), prostate cancer associated non-coding RNA 1 (PRNCR1), prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1), H19, and homeobox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), and several new lncRNAs for glioma development. Potential therapeutic approaches for the lncRNAs in various human diseases are also discussed.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on the DNA-protein complex between the estrogen response element and the estrogen receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štísová, Viktorie; Goffinont, Stephane; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie; Davídková, Marie

    2010-08-01

    Signaling by estrogens, risk factors in breast cancer, is mediated through their binding to the estrogen receptor protein (ER), followed by the formation of a complex between ER and a DNA sequence, called estrogen response element (ERE). Anti-estrogens act as competitive inhibitors by blocking the signal transduction. We have studied in vitro the radiosensitivity of the complex between ERα, a subtype of this receptor, and a DNA fragment bearing ERE, as well as the influence of an estrogen (estradiol) or an anti-estrogen (tamoxifen) on this radiosensitivity. We observe that the complex is destabilized upon irradiation with γ rays in aerated aqueous solution. The analysis of the decrease of binding abilities of the two partners shows that destabilization is mainly due to the damage to the protein. The destabilization is reduced when irradiating in presence of tamoxifen and is increased in presence of estradiol. These effects are due to opposite influences of the ligands on the loss of binding ability of ER. The mechanism that can account for our results is: binding of estradiol or tamoxifen induces distinct structural changes of the ER ligand-binding domain that can trigger (by allostery) distinct structural changes of the ER DNA-binding domains and thus, can differently affect ER-ERE interaction.

  3. Deep investigation of Arabidopsis thaliana junk DNA reveals a continuum between repetitive elements and genomic dark matter.

    PubMed

    Maumus, Florian; Quesneville, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain highly variable amounts of DNA with no apparent function. This so-called junk DNA is composed of two components: repeated and repeat-derived sequences (together referred to as the repeatome), and non-annotated sequences also known as genomic dark matter. Because of their high duplication rates as compared to other genomic features, transposable elements are predominant contributors to the repeatome and the products of their decay is thought to be a major source of genomic dark matter. Determining the origin and composition of junk DNA is thus important to help understanding genome evolution as well as host biology. In this study, we have used a combination of tools enabling to show that the repeatome from the small and reducing A. thaliana genome is significantly larger than previously thought. Furthermore, we present the concepts and results from a series of innovative approaches suggesting that a significant amount of the A. thaliana dark matter is of repetitive origin. As a tentative standard for the community, we propose a deep compendium annotation of the A. thaliana repeatome that may help addressing farther genome evolution as well as transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in this model plant.

  4. Deep Investigation of Arabidopsis thaliana Junk DNA Reveals a Continuum between Repetitive Elements and Genomic Dark Matter

    PubMed Central

    Maumus, Florian; Quesneville, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain highly variable amounts of DNA with no apparent function. This so-called junk DNA is composed of two components: repeated and repeat-derived sequences (together referred to as the repeatome), and non-annotated sequences also known as genomic dark matter. Because of their high duplication rates as compared to other genomic features, transposable elements are predominant contributors to the repeatome and the products of their decay is thought to be a major source of genomic dark matter. Determining the origin and composition of junk DNA is thus important to help understanding genome evolution as well as host biology. In this study, we have used a combination of tools enabling to show that the repeatome from the small and reducing A. thaliana genome is significantly larger than previously thought. Furthermore, we present the concepts and results from a series of innovative approaches suggesting that a significant amount of the A. thaliana dark matter is of repetitive origin. As a tentative standard for the community, we propose a deep compendium annotation of the A. thaliana repeatome that may help addressing farther genome evolution as well as transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in this model plant. PMID:24709859

  5. The emerging role of long non-coding RNAs in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Daniel C; Morris, Kevin V; Saayman, Sheena M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and the elucidation of the mechanisms by which they affect different disease states are providing researchers with a better understanding of a wide array of disease pathways. Moreover, lncRNAs are presenting themselves as both unique diagnostic biomarkers as well as novel targets against which to develop new therapeutics. Here we will explore the intricate network of non-coding RNAs associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Non-coding RNAs derived from both the human host as well as those from HIV itself are emerging as important regulatory elements. We discuss here the various mechanisms through which both small and long non-coding RNAs impact viral replication, pathogenesis and disease progression. Given the lack of an effective vaccine or cure for HIV and the scale of the current pandemic, a deeper understanding of the complex interplay between non-coding RNAs and HIV will support the development of innovative strategies for the treatment of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS).

  6. Circular and linear plasmids of Lyme disease spirochetes have extensive homology: characterization of a repeated DNA element.

    PubMed Central

    Zückert, W R; Meyer, J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned three copies of a repeated DNA segment from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31, present on both circular and linear plasmids of this and other B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains. The DNA sequences are characterized by a highly homologous segment containing two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF-A and ORF-B. Five additional ORFs can be found on the slightly less homologous flanking sequences: ORF-G on the opposite strand upstream of ORF-A, and ORF-C, ORF-D, ORF-E, and ORF-F downstream of ORF-B. The 4.6-kb-long element containing ORF-A through ORF-E is flanked by approximately 180-bp-long imperfect inverted repeats (IRs). The putative gene product of ORF-C displays homology to proteins involved in plasmid maintenance in a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. ORF-E features several short, highly homologous direct repeats. ORF-A, ORF-B, and ORF-D are homologous to three ORFs on a recently described 8.3-kb circular plasmid of Borrelia afzelii Ip21 that are flanked by similar IRs (J. J. Dunn, S. R. Buchstein, L.-L. Butler, S. Fisenne, D. S. Polin, B. N. Lade, and B. J. Luft, J. Bacteriol. 176:2706-2717,1994). ORF-C and ORF-E, however, are missing from this region on the Ip21 plasmid. Furthermore, the repeated DNA element as defined by the IRs is present in opposite orientations relative to the flanking sequences on the B31 and Ip21 plasmids. PMID:8636030

  7. Non-coding RNAs revealed during identification of genes involved in chicken immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ahanda, Marie-Laure Endale; Ruby, Thomas; Wittzell, Håkan; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Morin, Veronique; Oudin, Anne; Chevalier, Catherine; Young, John R; Zoorob, Rima

    2009-01-01

    Recent large-scale cDNA cloning studies have shown that a significant proportion of the transcripts expressed from vertebrate genomes do not appear to encode protein. Moreover, it was reported in mammals (human and mice) that these non-coding transcripts are expressed and regulated by mechanisms similar to those involved in the control of protein-coding genes. We have produced a collection of cDNA sequences from immunologically active tissues with the aim of discovering chicken genes involved in immune mechanisms, and we decided to explore the non-coding component of these immune-related libraries. After finding known non-coding RNAs (miRNA, snRNA, snoRNA), we identified new putative mRNA-like non-coding RNAs. We characterised their expression profiles in immune-related samples. Some of them showed changes in expression following viral infections. As they exhibit patterns of expression that parallel the behaviour of protein-coding RNAs in immune tissues, our study suggests that they could play an active role in the immune response.

  8. Statistical properties of DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing non-coding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, nucleotides thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationarity" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and non-coding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to every DNA sequence (33301 coding and 29453 non-coding) in the entire GenBank database. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the non-coding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural and artificial languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts. These statistical properties of non-coding sequences support the possibility that non-coding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  9. Gene regulation by non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Patil, Veena S; Zhou, Rui; Rana, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research on non-coding RNAs and their physiological and pathological functions. Several classes of small (20-30 nucleotides) and long (>200 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs have been firmly established as key regulators of gene expression in myriad processes ranging from embryonic development to innate immunity. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and function of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). In addition, we briefly review the relevance of small and long non-coding RNAs to human physiology and pathology and their potential to be exploited as therapeutic agents.

  10. Effect of Environmental Chemical Stress on Nuclear Noncoding RNA Involved in Epigenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Patrizio; Pulliero, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade the role of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) emerges not only as key elements of posttranscriptional gene silencing, but also as important players of epigenetic regulation. New kind and new functions of ncRNAs are continuously discovered and one of their most important roles is the mediation of environmental signals, both physical and chemical. The activity of cytoplasmic short ncRNA is extensively studied, in spite of the fact that their function and role in the nuclear compartment are not yet completely unraveled. Cellular nucleus contains a multiplicity of long and short ncRNAs controlling at different levels transcriptional and epigenetic processes. In addition, some ncRNAs are involved in RNA editing and quality control. In this paper we review the existing knowledge dealing with how chemical stressors can influence the functionality of short nuclear ncRNAs. Furthermore, we perform bioinformatics analyses indicating that chemical environmental stressors not only induce DNA damage but also influence the mechanism of ncRNAs production and control. PMID:26339639

  11. Human and mouse ABCA1 comparative sequencing and transgenesis studies identify regulatory elements

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Yang; Cavelier, L.; Chiu, Sally; Rubin, Edward; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2000-08-01

    The expression of ABCA1, a major participant in apolipoprotein mediated cholesterol efflux is highly regulated by a variety of factors including intracellular cholesterol concentration. To analyze its genomic organization and identify those sequences involved in its regulation we sequenced and compared approximately 200 Kb of orthologous DNA from mice and humans containing the ABCA1 gene and significant flanking DNA. The comparison revealed a variety of mouse human conserved sequences including 50 conserved ABCA1 exons over 147Kb of human and 124Kb of mouse genomic DNA as well as multiple mouse human conserved noncoding sequences. Using as a criteria for identifying putative regulatory elements in non-coding sequence, human and mouse sequences that were &62;75% identical for over 120 bp were screened for resulting in the identification of 34 elements. The two most highly conserved human mouse noncoding elements (CNS1: 88% identity over 498 bp, CNS2: 81% identity over 214 bp)! were also highly conserved in the ABCA1 genes of rats, dogs, cows, rabbits and pigs. Two independent studies have demonstrated that the DNA segments containing CNS2 function in vitro as a sterol response promoter. Support for the inclusion of major ABCA1 regulatory elements in the human genomic sequence examined was the demonstration that mice containing a human BAC transgene containing sequences exclusively from the analyzed interval, expressed human ABCA1 in a tissue distribution mimicking expression of endogenous mouse ABC1. These studies using a comparative genomic approach has characterized the structure of the human and mouse ABCA1 genes and has helped identify sequences participating in its expression.

  12. The mystery of extreme non-coding conservation

    PubMed Central

    Harmston, Nathan; Barešić, Anja; Lenhard, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Regions of several dozen to several hundred base pairs of extreme conservation have been found in non-coding regions in all metazoan genomes. The distribution of these elements within and across genomes has suggested that many have roles as transcriptional regulatory elements in multi-cellular organization, differentiation and development. Currently, there is no known mechanism or function that would account for this level of conservation at the observed evolutionary distances. Previous studies have found that, while these regions are under strong purifying selection, and not mutational coldspots, deletion of entire regions in mice does not necessarily lead to identifiable changes in phenotype during development. These opposing findings lead to several questions regarding their functional importance and why they are under strong selection in the first place. In this perspective, we discuss the methods and techniques used in identifying and dissecting these regions, their observed patterns of conservation, and review the current hypotheses on their functional significance. PMID:24218634

  13. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  14. RNAdb—a comprehensive mammalian noncoding RNA database

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ken C.; Stephen, Stuart; Engström, Pär G.; Tajul-Arifin, Khairina; Chen, Weisan; Wahlestedt, Claes; Lenhard, Boris; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Mattick, John S.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing numbers of transcripts identified that do not encode proteins, many of which are developmentally regulated and appear to have regulatory functions. Here, we describe the construction of a comprehensive mammalian noncoding RNA database (RNAdb) which contains over 800 unique experimentally studied non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including many associated with diseases and/or developmental processes. The database is available at http://research.imb.uq.edu.au/RNAdb and is searchable by many criteria. It includes microRNAs and snoRNAs, but not infrastructural RNAs, such as rRNAs and tRNAs, which are catalogued elsewhere. The database also includes over 1100 putative antisense ncRNAs and almost 20 000 putative ncRNAs identified in high-quality murine and human cDNA libraries, with more to be added in the near future. Many of these RNAs are large, and many are spliced, some alternatively. The database will be useful as a foundation for the emerging field of RNomics and the characterization of the roles of ncRNAs in mammalian gene expression and regulation. PMID:15608161

  15. Non-coding RNAs: Classification, Biology and Functioning.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Sonja; Kretz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing principles of molecular biology is that DNA acts as a template for transcription of messenger RNAs, which serve as blueprints for protein translation. A rapidly growing number of exceptions to this rule have been reported over the past decades: they include long known classes of RNAs involved in translation such as transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs, small nuclear RNAs involved in splicing events, and small nucleolar RNAs mainly involved in the modification of other small RNAs, such as ribosomal RNAs and transfer RNAs. More recently, several classes of short regulatory non-coding RNAs, including piwi-associated RNAs, endogenous short-interfering RNAs and microRNAs have been discovered in mammals, which act as key regulators of gene expression in many different cellular pathways and systems. Additionally, the human genome encodes several thousand long non-protein coding RNAs >200 nucleotides in length, some of which play crucial roles in a variety of biological processes such as epigenetic control of chromatin, promoter-specific gene regulation, mRNA stability, X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting. In this chapter, we will introduce several classes of short and long non-coding RNAs, describe their diverse roles in mammalian gene regulation and give examples for known modes of action. PMID:27573892

  16. Rotifer rDNA-specific R9 retrotransposable elements generate an exceptionally long target site duplication upon insertion.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Eugene A; Arkhipova, Irina R

    2009-12-15

    Ribosomal DNA genes in many eukaryotes contain insertions of non-LTR retrotransposable elements belonging to the R2 clade. These elements persist in the host genomes by inserting site-specifically into multicopy target sites, thereby avoiding random disruption of single-copy host genes. Here we describe R9 retrotransposons from the R2 clade in the 28S RNA genes of bdelloid rotifers, small freshwater invertebrate animals best known for their long-term asexuality and for their ability to survive repeated cycles of desiccation and rehydration. While the structural organization of R9 elements is highly similar to that of other members of the R2 clade, they are characterized by two distinct features: site-specific insertion into a previously unreported target sequence within the 28S gene, and an unusually long target site duplication of 126 bp. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of bdelloid genome organization and the mechanisms of target-primed reverse transcription.

  17. Employment opportunities for non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Morey, Céline; Avner, Philip

    2004-06-01

    Analysis of the genomes of several higher eukaryotic organisms, including mouse and human, has reached the striking conclusion that the mammalian transcriptome is constituted in large part of non-protein-coding transcripts. Conversely, the number of protein-coding genes was initially at least overestimated. A growing number of studies report the involvement of non-coding transcripts in a large variety of regulatory processes. This review examines the different types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and discusses their putative mode of action with particular reference to large ncRNAs and their role in epigenetic regulation.

  18. Long Noncoding RNA: Recent Updates in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Zhu, Hongming; Ge, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs belong to a class of noncoding RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides with the epigenetic regulation potential. As a novel molecular regulator, lncRNAs are often dysregulated in various pathological conditions and display multiple functions in a wide range of biological processes. Given that recent studies have indicated that lncRNAs are involved in atherosclerosis-related smooth muscle cell, endothelial cell, macrophage and lipid metabolism regulation, it is pertinent to understand the potential function of lncRNAs in atherosclerosis development. This review will highlight the recent updates of lncRNAs in atherogenesis and also discuss their potential roles as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27314829

  19. Viral Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Fu, Shujun; Sun, Lun-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Over 12 % of all human cancers are caused by oncoviruses, primarily including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). In addition to viral oncoproteins, a variety of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) produced by oncoviruses have been recognized as important cofactors that contribute to the oncogenic events. In this chapter, we will focus on the recent understanding of the long and short noncoding RNAs, as well as microRNAs of the viruses, and discuss their roles in the biology of multistep oncogenesis mediated by established human oncoviruses. PMID:27376743

  20. Linear amplification mediated PCR--localization of genetic elements and characterization of unknown flanking DNA.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Richard; Kutschera, Ina; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-06-25

    Linear-amplification mediated PCR (LAM-PCR) has been developed to study hematopoiesis in gene corrected cells of patients treated by gene therapy with integrating vector systems. Due to the stable integration of retroviral vectors, integration sites can be used to study the clonal fate of individual cells and their progeny. LAM- PCR for the first time provided evidence that leukemia in gene therapy treated patients originated from provirus induced overexpression of a neighboring proto-oncogene. The high sensitivity and specificity of LAM-PCR compared to existing methods like inverse PCR and ligation mediated (LM)-PCR is achieved by an initial preamplification step (linear PCR of 100 cycles) using biotinylated vector specific primers which allow subsequent reaction steps to be carried out on solid phase (magnetic beads). LAM-PCR is currently the most sensitive method available to identify unknown DNA which is located in the proximity of known DNA. Recently, a variant of LAM-PCR has been developed that circumvents restriction digest thus abrogating retrieval bias of integration sites and enables a comprehensive analysis of provirus locations in host genomes. The following protocol explains step-by-step the amplification of both 3'- and 5'- sequences adjacent to the integrated lentiviral vector.

  1. Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR) like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite. PMID:20565887

  2. Non-coding genetic variants in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Lupski, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variants, including single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs), in the non-coding regions of the human genome can play an important role in human traits and complex diseases. Most of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals map to non-coding regions and potentially point to non-coding variants, whereas their functional interpretation is challenging. In this review, we discuss the human non-coding variants and their contributions to human diseases in the following four parts. (i) Functional annotations of non-coding SNPs mapped by GWAS: we discuss recent progress revealing some of the molecular mechanisms for GWAS signals affecting gene function. (ii) Technical progress in interpretation of non-coding variants: we briefly describe some of the technologies for functional annotations of non-coding variants, including the methods for genome-wide mapping of chromatin interaction, computational tools for functional predictions and the new genome editing technologies useful for dissecting potential functional consequences of non-coding variants. (iii) Non-coding CNVs in human diseases: we review our emerging understanding the role of non-coding CNVs in human disease. (iv) Compound inheritance of large genomic deletions and non-coding variants: compound inheritance at a locus consisting of coding variants plus non-coding ones is described. PMID:26152199

  3. Long noncoding RNAs in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shizuka; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2015-02-13

    In recent year, increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play important roles in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions. Besides small noncoding RNAs (eg, microRNAs), >200-nucleotide long transcripts, namely long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), can interfere with gene expressions and signaling pathways at various stages. In the cardiovascular system, studies have detected and characterized the expression of lncRNAs under normal physiological condition and in disease states. Several lncRNAs are regulated during acute myocardial infarction (eg, Novlnc6) and heart failure (eg, Mhrt), whereas others control hypertrophy, mitochondrial function and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. In the vascular system, the endothelial-expressed lncRNAs (eg, MALAT1 and Tie-1-AS) can regulate vessel growth and function, whereas the smooth-muscle-expressed lncRNA smooth muscle and endothelial cell-enriched migration/differentiation-associated long noncoding RNA was recently shown to control the contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells. This review article summarizes the data on lncRNA expressions in mouse and human and highlights identified cardiovascular lncRNAs that might play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Although our understanding of lncRNAs is still in its infancy, these examples may provide helpful insights how lncRNAs interfere with cardiovascular diseases.

  4. The ATRX cDNA is prone to bacterial IS10 element insertions that alter its structure.

    PubMed

    Valle-García, David; Griffiths, Lyra M; Dyer, Michael A; Bernstein, Emily; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The SWI/SNF-like chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX has emerged as a key factor in the regulation of α-globin gene expression, incorporation of histone variants into the chromatin template and, more recently, as a frequently mutated gene across a wide spectrum of cancers. Therefore, the availability of a functional ATRX cDNA for expression studies is a valuable tool for the scientific community. We have identified two independent transposon insertions of a bacterial IS10 element into exon 8 of ATRX isoform 2 coding sequence in two different plasmids derived from a single source. We demonstrate that these insertion events are common and there is an insertion hotspot within the ATRX cDNA. Such IS10 insertions produce a truncated form of ATRX, which significantly compromises its nuclear localization. In turn, we describe ways to prevent IS10 insertion during propagation and cloning of ATRX-containing vectors, including optimal growth conditions, bacterial strains, and suggested sequencing strategies. Finally, we have generated an insertion-free plasmid that is available to the community for expression studies of ATRX. PMID:24834375

  5. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Villa, Mateo Andres; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Chaveerach, Arunrat

    2015-01-01

    Channid fishes, commonly referred to as “snakeheads”, are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes. PMID:26067030

  6. Lactase persistence DNA variant enhances lactase promoter activity in vitro: functional role as a cis regulatory element.

    PubMed

    Olds, Lynne C; Sibley, Eric

    2003-09-15

    Lactase persistence is a heritable, autosomal dominant, condition that results in a sustained ability to digest the milk sugar lactose throughout adulthood. The majority of the world's human population experiences a decline in production of the digestive enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase during maturation. However, individuals with lactase persistence continue to express high levels of the lactase gene into adulthood. Lactase persistence has been strongly correlated with single nucleotide genetic variants, C/T_(13910) and G/A_(22018), located 13.9 and 22 kb upstream from the lactase structural gene. We aimed to characterize a functional role for the polymorphisms in regulating lactase gene transcription. DNA in the region of the C/T_(13910) or G/A_(22018) human lactase variants was cloned upstream of the 3.0 kb rat lactase gene promoter in a luciferase reporter construct. Human intestinal Caco-2 cells were transfected with the lactase variant/promoter-reporter constructs and assayed for promoter activity. A 200 bp region surrounding the C_(13910) variant, associated with lactase non-persistence, results in a 2.2-fold increase in lactase promoter activity. The T_(13910) variant, associated with lactase persistence, results in an even greater 2.8-fold increase. The DNA sequence of the C/T_(13910) variants differentially interacts with intestinal cell nuclear proteins on EMSAs. AP2 co-transfection results in a similar repression of the C/T_(13910) variant/promoter-reporter constructs. The DNA region of the C/T_(13910) lactase persistence/non-persistence variant functions in vitro as a cis element capable of enhancing differential transcriptional activation of the lactase promoter. Such differential regulation by the C and T variants is consistent with a causative role in the mechanism specifying the lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes in humans.

  7. Nucleotide-sequence of a canine oral papillomavirus containing a long noncoding region.

    PubMed

    Isegawa, N; Ohta, M; Shirasawa, H; Tokita, H; Yamaura, A; Simizu, B

    1995-07-01

    The DNA genome of a canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) was completely sequenced and found to consist of 8607 base pairs, which were the longest of all known papillomaviruses (PVs). Its organization was similar to that of other PVs except that it lacked early gene 5 (E5) and possessed a unique long noncoding region (L-NCR) between the end of the early genes and the beginning of the late genes. COPV also possessed a short noncoding region (S-NCR) which contained a putative upper regulatory region (URR), which is commonly found in PVs. The L-NCR did not show any similarity to known PV DNAs nor other DNA sequences in the GenBank database. Nucleotide sequence analysis of COPV showed that it was closely related to human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV 1) and animal PVs associated with cutaneous lesions in rabbit, European elk, deer and cow as we reported previously. PMID:21552821

  8. Short interspersed DNA elements and miRNAs: a novel hidden gene regulation layer in zebrafish?

    PubMed

    Scarpato, Margherita; Angelini, Claudia; Cocca, Ennio; Pallotta, Maria M; Morescalchi, Maria A; Capriglione, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated by in silico analysis the possible correlation between microRNAs (miRNAs) and Anamnia V-SINEs (a superfamily of short interspersed nuclear elements), which belong to those retroposon families that have been preserved in vertebrate genomes for millions of years and are actively transcribed because they are embedded in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of several genes. We report the results of the analysis of the genomic distribution of these mobile elements in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and discuss their involvement in generating miRNA gene loci. The computational study showed that the genes predicted to bear V-SINEs can be targeted by miRNAs with a very high hybridization E-value. Gene ontology analysis indicates that these genes are mainly involved in metabolic, membrane, and cytoplasmic signaling pathways. Nearly all the miRNAs that were predicted to target the V-SINEs of these genes, i.e., miR-338, miR-9, miR-181, miR-724, miR-735, and miR-204, have been validated in similar regulatory roles in mammals. The large number of genes bearing a V-SINE involved in metabolic and cellular processes suggests that V-SINEs may play a role in modulating cell responses to different stimuli and in preserving the metabolic balance during cell proliferation and differentiation. Although they need experimental validation, these preliminary results suggest that in the genome of D. rerio, as in other TE families in vertebrates, the preservation of V-SINE retroposons may also have been favored by their putative role in gene network modulation. PMID:26363800

  9. Effect of fetal hemoglobin-stimulating medicines on the interaction of DNA and protein of important erythroid regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xin-Jun; Liu, De-pei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Lei; Liang, Chih-chuan

    2003-08-01

    Beta-Thalassemia is the most common single gene disorder in the world, which is caused by the imbalance between alpha-globin chain and beta-globin chain synthesis. Several medicines, such as 5-azacytidine, hydroxyurea, cytarabine, vinblatine, butyrate, and myleran, have been shown to be able to reactivate gamma-globin chain synthesis during the adult stage, and some of them (5-azacytidine, hydroxyurea, myleran, and butyrate) have been used clinically to treat thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Much research efforts are focusing on the determination of the underlying mechanisms of medicine action. In this experiment, as an effort to probe the underlying mechanism of medicine action, we used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction and in vivo footprinting methods to study the DNA-protein interaction at critical erythroid regulatory elements after hydroxyurea or myleran administration to mice. Our results showed that the patterns of in vivo footprints at both the hypersensitive site 2 of the locus control region and the beta-globin gene promoter were changed after medicine treatment. We proposed based on these results that the medicines' administration might result in a change in the interaction between trans-acting factors and cis-acting elements at these regions. These changes might influence the assembly of the transcription complex and, lastly, influence the expression of the beta-globin gene.

  10. A Non-Coding RNA Within the Rasgrf1 Locus in Mouse Is Imprinted and Regulated by Its Homologous Chromosome in Trans

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Rebecca; Soloway, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Rasgrf1 is imprinted in mouse, displaying paternal allele specific expression in neonatal brain. Paternal expression is accompanied by paternal-specific DNA methylation at a differentially methylated domain (DMD) within the locus. The cis-acting elements necessary for Rasgrf1 imprinting are known. A series of tandem DNA repeats control methylation of the adjacent DMD, which is a methylation sensitive enhancer-blocking element. These two sequences constitute a binary switch that controls imprinting and represents the Imprinting Control Region (ICR). One paternally transmitted mutation, which helped define the ICR, induced paramutation, in trans, on the maternal allele. Like many imprinted genes, Rasgrf1 lies within an imprinted cluster. One of four noncoding transcripts in the cluster, AK015891, is known to be imprinted. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that an additional noncoding RNA, AK029869, is imprinted and paternally expressed in brain throughout development. Intriguingly, any of several maternally inherited ICR mutations affected expression of the paternal AK029869 transcript in trans. Furthermore, we found that the ICR mutations exert different trans effects on AK029869 at different developmental times. Conclusions/Significance Few trans effects have been defined in mammals and, those that exist, do not show the great variation seen at the Rasgrf1 imprinted domain, either in terms of the large number of mutations that produce the effects or the range of phenotypes that emerge when they are seen. These results suggest that trans regulation of gene expression may be more common than originally appreciated and that where trans regulation occurs it can change dynamically during development. PMID:21072176

  11. Induction of transcription within chromosomal DNA loops flanked by MAR elements causes an association of loop DNA with the nuclear matrix

    PubMed Central

    Iarovaia, Olga V.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Nikolaev, Lev G.; Sverdlov, Eugene D.; Razin, Sergey V.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial organization of an ∼170 kb region of human chromosome 19, including CD22 and GPR40–GPR43 genes, was studied using in situ hybridization of a set of cosmid and PAC probes with nuclear halos prepared from proliferating and differentiated HL60 cells. The whole region under study was found to be looped out into the nuclear halo in proliferating cells. It is likely that the loop observed was attached to the nuclear matrix via MAR elements present at the flanks of the area under study. Upon dimethyl sulfoxide-induced differentiation of the cells the looped fragment became associated with the nuclear matrix. This change in the spatial organization correlated with the activation of transcription of at least two (CD22 and GPR43) genes present within the loop. The data obtained are discussed in the framework of the hypothesis postulating that the spatial organization of chromosomal DNA is maintained via constitutive (basic) and facultative (transcription-related) interactions of the latter with the nuclear matrix. PMID:16049024

  12. Induction of transcription within chromosomal DNA loops flanked by MAR elements causes an association of loop DNA with the nuclear matrix.

    PubMed

    Iarovaia, Olga V; Akopov, Sergey B; Nikolaev, Lev G; Sverdlov, Eugene D; Razin, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    The spatial organization of an approximately 170 kb region of human chromosome 19, including CD22 and GPR40-GPR43 genes, was studied using in situ hybridization of a set of cosmid and PAC probes with nuclear halos prepared from proliferating and differentiated HL60 cells. The whole region under study was found to be looped out into the nuclear halo in proliferating cells. It is likely that the loop observed was attached to the nuclear matrix via MAR elements present at the flanks of the area under study. Upon dimethyl sulfoxide-induced differentiation of the cells the looped fragment became associated with the nuclear matrix. This change in the spatial organization correlated with the activation of transcription of at least two (CD22 and GPR43) genes present within the loop. The data obtained are discussed in the framework of the hypothesis postulating that the spatial organization of chromosomal DNA is maintained via constitutive (basic) and facultative (transcription-related) interactions of the latter with the nuclear matrix. PMID:16049024

  13. DNA elements regulating alpha1-tubulin gene induction during regeneration of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Periz, G; Keller, L R

    1997-07-01

    Eukaryotic flagella are complex organelles composed of more than 200 polypeptides. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing synthesis of the flagellar protein subunits and their assembly into this complex organelle. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the premier experimental model system for studying such cellular processes. When acid shocked, C. reinhardtii excises its flagella, rapidly and coordinately activates transcription of a set of flagellar genes, and ultimately regenerates a new flagellar pair. To define functionally the regulatory sequences that govern induction of the set of genes after acid shock, we analyzed the alpha1-tubulin gene promoter. To simplify transcriptional analysis in vivo, we inserted the selectable marker gene ARG7 on the same plasmid with a tagged alpha1-tubulin gene and stably introduced it into C. reinhardtii cells. By deletion of various sequences, two promoter regions (-176 to -122 and -85 to -16) were identified as important for induction of the tagged alpha1-tubulin gene. Deleting the region between -176 and -122 from the transcription start site resulted in an induction level which was only 45 to 70% of that of the resident gene. Deleting the region upstream of -56 resulted in a complete loss of inducibility without affecting basal expression. The alpha1-tubulin promoter region from -85 to -16 conferred partial acid shock inducibility to an arylsulfatase (ARS) reporter gene. These results show that induction of the alpha1-tubulin gene after acid shock is a complex response that requires diverse sequence elements.

  14. DNA elements regulating alpha1-tubulin gene induction during regeneration of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed Central

    Periz, G; Keller, L R

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic flagella are complex organelles composed of more than 200 polypeptides. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing synthesis of the flagellar protein subunits and their assembly into this complex organelle. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the premier experimental model system for studying such cellular processes. When acid shocked, C. reinhardtii excises its flagella, rapidly and coordinately activates transcription of a set of flagellar genes, and ultimately regenerates a new flagellar pair. To define functionally the regulatory sequences that govern induction of the set of genes after acid shock, we analyzed the alpha1-tubulin gene promoter. To simplify transcriptional analysis in vivo, we inserted the selectable marker gene ARG7 on the same plasmid with a tagged alpha1-tubulin gene and stably introduced it into C. reinhardtii cells. By deletion of various sequences, two promoter regions (-176 to -122 and -85 to -16) were identified as important for induction of the tagged alpha1-tubulin gene. Deleting the region between -176 and -122 from the transcription start site resulted in an induction level which was only 45 to 70% of that of the resident gene. Deleting the region upstream of -56 resulted in a complete loss of inducibility without affecting basal expression. The alpha1-tubulin promoter region from -85 to -16 conferred partial acid shock inducibility to an arylsulfatase (ARS) reporter gene. These results show that induction of the alpha1-tubulin gene after acid shock is a complex response that requires diverse sequence elements. PMID:9199320

  15. Molecular cloning of a small DNA binding protein with specificity for a tissue-specific negative element within the rps1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, D X; Bisanz-Seyer, C; Mache, R

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a specific binding activity for the tissue-specific negative cis-element S1F binding site of spinach rps1 was isolated from a spinach cDNA expression library. This cDNA of 0.7 kb encodes an unusual small peptide of only 70 amino acids, with a basic domain which contains a nuclear localization signal and a putative DNA binding helix. This protein, named S1Fa, is highly conserved between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants and may represent a novel class of DNA binding proteins. The corresponding mRNA is accumulated more in roots and in etiolated seedlings than in green leaves. This expression pattern is correlated with the tissue-specific function of the S1F binding site which represses the rps1 promoter preferentially in roots and in etiolated plants. Images PMID:7739894

  16. Dynamics of water around the complex structures formed between the KH domains of far upstream element binding protein and single-stranded DNA molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-07-28

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) binding proteins specifically bind to the single-stranded regions of the DNA and protect it from premature annealing, thereby stabilizing the DNA structure. We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the aqueous solutions of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein complexed with two short ss-DNA segments. Attempts have been made to explore the influence of the formation of such complex structures on the microscopic dynamics and hydrogen bond properties of the interfacial water molecules. It is found that the water molecules involved in bridging the ss-DNA segments and the protein domains form a highly constrained thin layer with extremely retarded mobility. These water molecules play important roles in freezing the conformational oscillations of the ss-DNA oligomers and thereby forming rigid complex structures. Further, it is demonstrated that the effect of complexation on the slow long-time relaxations of hydrogen bonds at the interface is correlated with hindered motions of the surrounding water molecules. Importantly, it is observed that the highly restricted motions of the water molecules bridging the protein and the DNA components in the complexed forms originate from more frequent hydrogen bond reformations.

  17. Molecular dynamics of a κB DNA element: base flipping via cross-strand intercalative stacking in a microsecond-scale simulation

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Cameron; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The sequence-dependent structural variability and conformational dynamics of DNA play pivotal roles in many biological milieus, such as in the site-specific binding of transcription factors to target regulatory elements. To better understand DNA structure, function, and dynamics in general, and protein···DNA recognition in the ‘κB’ family of genetic regulatory elements in particular, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of a 20-bp DNA encompassing a cognate κB site recognized by the proto-oncogenic ‘c-Rel’ subfamily of NF-κB transcription factors. Simulations of the κB DNA in explicit water were extended to microsecond duration, providing a broad, atomically detailed glimpse into the structural and dynamical behavior of double helical DNA over many timescales. Of particular note, novel (and structurally plausible) conformations of DNA developed only at the long times sampled in this simulation—including a peculiar state arising at ≈0.7 μs and characterized by cross-strand intercalative stacking of nucleotides within a longitudinally sheared base pair, followed (at ≈1 μs) by spontaneous base flipping of a neighboring thymine within the A-rich duplex. Results and predictions from the microsecond-scale simulation include implications for a dynamical NF-κB recognition motif, and are amenable to testing and further exploration via specific experimental approaches that are suggested herein. PMID:18653524

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel noncoding RNA from nickel-induced lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yang; Wu, Youjun; Ma, Lin; Fan, Yingying; Kang, Xuan; Shi, Hongjun; Zhang, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Noncoding RNAs have drawn significant attention in carcinogenesis. In this study, we identified a novel gene named nickel-related gene1 (NRG1) associated with nickel-induced cancer. By using rapid amplification of cDNA end PCR, we obtained the full length of the cDNA. The sequence was analyzed by using related bioinformatics software and comparative genomics methods. The results showed that NRG1 was located on chromosome 2q12, within intron2 of ADAMTS6, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs. And, NRG1 had a high level of homology (76 %) to rat LINE1 sequence RL1.3 (long interspersed middle repetitive DNA). What's more, there was no continuous open reading frame present in NRG1 sequence. Taken together, these data demonstrate that NRG1 is a novel noncoding RNA, and we predicted it may be a transposon-like gene. The identification of NRG1 emphasized the potential role of noncoding RNA in nickel carcinogenesis. PMID:22665269

  19. A single base deletion in the 5' noncoding region of Theiler's virus attenuates neurovirulence.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, A E; Calenoff, M A; Simpson, S; Jensen, K; Lipton, H L

    1992-01-01

    Viral chimeras have been constructed through in vitro manipulations of the infectious cDNA clones of two prototypes of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus: (i) the virulent GDVII strain and (ii) the less virulent BeAn and VL strains. Previous studies have suggested that the phenotypic differences in virulence between the BeAn and GDVII strains map to both the 5' noncoding and the coat protein regions of these viral genomes. It is shown here that attenuation mapped to the 5' noncoding region is due, at least in part, to an inadvertent deletion resulting from a cloning artifact of one C nucleotide out of four between positions 876 and 879 in the BeAn sequences. The in vitro growth characteristics in BHK-21 cells, however, do not reflect the large differences in neurovirulence between chimeras that are identical except for the deleted C. Another chimera with a mutation at position 877 and a deletion at 976 is also attenuated. The wild-type sequences from the less virulent strains BeAn and VL between nucleotides 1 and 933, in an otherwise GDVII chimera, do not attenuate virulence. Sequences of the 500 nucleotides of the 5' noncoding region proximal to the translation initiation codon were obtained for nine additional Theiler's virus strains. The attenuating deletions are discussed in the context of these sequences and the proposed secondary structures for the 5' noncoding region. PMID:1548749

  20. Mobile Minos elements from Drosophila hydei encode a two-exon transposase with similarity to the paired DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Franz, G; Loukeris, T G; Dialektaki, G; Thompson, C R; Savakis, C

    1994-01-01

    Elements related to the Tc1-like Minos mobile element have been cloned from Drosophila hydei and sequenced. Southern blot and sequence analyses show that (i) the elements are actively transposing in the Drosophila hydei germ line, (ii) they are characterized by a striking degree of sequence and size homogeneity, and (iii) like Tc1, they insert at a TA dinucleotide that is probably duplicated during the process. The nucleotide sequences of two elements, Minos-2 and Minos-3, differ at only one position from each other and contain two nonoverlapping open reading frames that are separated by a putative 60-nucleotide intron. The amino-terminal part of the Minos putative transposase shows sequence similarity to the paired DNA-binding domain. Forced transcription of a modified Minos element that was introduced into the Drosophila melanogaster germ line by P element-mediated transformation resulted in the production of accurately spliced polyadenylylated RNA molecules. It is proposed that Minos-2 and/or Minos-3 may encode an active transposase containing an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain that is distantly related to the paired DNA-binding domain. Images PMID:8197129

  1. Noncoding somatic and inherited single-nucleotide variants converge to promote ESR1 expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Swneke D; Desai, Kinjal; Kron, Ken J; Mazrooei, Parisa; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Treloar, Aislinn E; Dowar, Mark; Thu, Kelsie L; Cescon, David W; Silvester, Jennifer; Yang, S Y Cindy; Wu, Xue; Pezo, Rossanna C; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Mak, Tak W; Bedard, Philippe L; Pugh, Trevor J; Sallari, Richard C; Lupien, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Sustained expression of the estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) drives two-thirds of breast cancer and defines the ESR1-positive subtype. ESR1 engages enhancers upon estrogen stimulation to establish an oncogenic expression program. Somatic copy number alterations involving the ESR1 gene occur in approximately 1% of ESR1-positive breast cancers, suggesting that other mechanisms underlie the persistent expression of ESR1. We report significant enrichment of somatic mutations within the set of regulatory elements (SRE) regulating ESR1 in 7% of ESR1-positive breast cancers. These mutations regulate ESR1 expression by modulating transcription factor binding to the DNA. The SRE includes a recurrently mutated enhancer whose activity is also affected by rs9383590, a functional inherited single-nucleotide variant (SNV) that accounts for several breast cancer risk-associated loci. Our work highlights the importance of considering the combinatorial activity of regulatory elements as a single unit to delineate the impact of noncoding genetic alterations on single genes in cancer. PMID:27571262

  2. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  3. Chromatin diminution in the copepod Mesocyclops edax: elimination of both highly repetitive and nonhighly repetitive DNA.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Christian; Drouin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin diminution, a developmentally regulated process of DNA elimination, is found in numerous eukaryotic species. In the copepod Mesocyclops edax, some 90% of its genomic DNA is eliminated during the differentiation of embryonic cells into somatic cells. Previous studies have shown that the eliminated DNA contains highly repetitive sequences. Here, we sequenced DNA fragments from pre- and postdiminution cells to determine whether nonhighly repetitive sequences are also eliminated during the process of chromatin diminution. Comparative analyses of these sequences, as well as the sequences eliminated from the genome of the copepod Cyclops kolensis, show that they all share similar abundances of tandem repeats, dispersed repeats, transposable elements, and various coding and noncoding sequences. This suggests that, in the chromatin diminution observed in M. edax, both highly repetitive and nonhighly repetitive sequences are eliminated and that there is no bias in the type of nonhighly repetitive DNA being eliminated.

  4. Exploring the Secrets of Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Mingyang; Chen, Jinhui; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has revealed that the majority of RNAs have no capacity to encode protein. Among these non-coding transcripts, recent work has focused on the roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of >200 nucleotides. Although many of their attributes, such as patterns of expression, remain largely unknown, lncRNAs have key functions in transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic gene regulation; Also, new work indicates their functions in scaffolding ribonuclear protein complexes. In plants, genome-wide identification of lncRNAs has been conducted in several species, including Zea mays, and recent research showed that lncRNAs regulate flowering time in the photoperiod pathway, and function in nodulation. In this review, we discuss the basic mechanisms by which lncRNAs regulate key cellular processes, using the large body of knowledge on animal and yeast lncRNAs to illustrate the significance of emerging work on lncRNAs in plants. PMID:25764159

  5. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5′-NNCCAC-3′ and 5′-GCGMGN′N′-3′ (M:A or C; N and N′ form Watson–Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences. PMID:23709277

  6. Protein phosphatase 2A and Cdc7 kinase regulate the DNA unwinding element-binding protein in replication initiation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzhe; Yao, Jianhong; Poudel, Sumeet; Romer, Eric; Abu-Niaaj, Lubna; Leffak, Michael

    2014-12-26

    The DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein (DUE-B) binds to replication origins coordinately with the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase and the helicase activator Cdc45 in vivo, and loads Cdc45 onto chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Human DUE-B also retains the aminoacyl-tRNA proofreading function of its shorter orthologs in lower organisms. Here we report that phosphorylation of the DUE-B unstructured C-terminal domain unique to higher organisms regulates DUE-B intermolecular binding. Gel filtration analyses show that unphosphorylated DUE-B forms multiple high molecular weight (HMW) complexes. Several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and Mcm2-7 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry of the HMW complexes. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase binding is RNase A sensitive, whereas interaction with Mcm2-7 is nuclease resistant. Unphosphorylated DUE-B HMW complex formation is decreased by PP2A inhibition or direct DUE-B phosphorylation, and increased by inhibition of Cdc7. These results indicate that the state of DUE-B phosphorylation is maintained by the equilibrium between Cdc7-dependent phosphorylation and PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation, each previously shown to regulate replication initiation. Alanine mutation of the DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation target sites increases MCM binding but blocks Cdc45 loading in vivo and inhibits cell division. In egg extracts alanine mutation of the DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation sites blocks Cdc45 loading and inhibits DNA replication. The effects of DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation reveal a novel S phase kinase regulatory mechanism for Cdc45 loading and MCM helicase activation.

  7. Thermodynamics of complex structures formed between single-stranded DNA oligomers and the KH domains of the far upstream element binding protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2016-05-01

    The noncovalent interaction between protein and DNA is responsible for regulating the genetic activities in living organisms. The most critical issue in this problem is to understand the underlying driving force for the formation and stability of the complex. To address this issue, we have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein (FBP) complexed with two single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) oligomers in aqueous media. Attempts have been made to calculate the individual components of the net entropy change for the complexation process by adopting suitable statistical mechanical approaches. Our calculations reveal that translational, rotational, and configurational entropy changes of the protein and the DNA components have unfavourable contributions for this protein-DNA association process and such entropy lost is compensated by the entropy gained due to the release of hydration layer water molecules. The free energy change corresponding to the association process has also been calculated using the Free Energy Perturbation (FEP) method. The free energy gain associated with the KH4-DNA complex formation has been found to be noticeably higher than that involving the formation of the KH3-DNA complex.

  8. Characterization of various promoter regions of the human DNA helicase-encoding genes and identification of duplicated ets (GGAA) motifs as an essential transcription regulatory element.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

    2010-05-15

    DNA helicases are important in the regulation of DNA transaction and thereby various cellular functions. In this study, we developed a cost-effective multiple DNA transfection assay with DEAE-dextran reagent and analyzed the promoter activities of the human DNA helicases. The 5'-flanking regions of the human DNA helicase-encoding genes were isolated and subcloned into luciferase (Luc) expression plasmids. They were coated onto 96-well plate and used for co-transfection with a renilla-Luc expression vector into various cells, and dual-Luc assays were performed. The profiles of promoter activities were dependent on cell lines used. Among these human DNA helicase genes, XPB, RecQL5, and RTEL promoters were activated during TPA-induced HL-60 cell differentiation. Interestingly, duplicated ets (GGAA) elements are commonly located around the transcription start sites of these genes. The duplicated GGAA motifs are also found in the promoters of DNA replication/repair synthesis factor genes including PARG, ATR, TERC, and Rb1. Mutation analyses suggested that the duplicated GGAA-motifs are necessary for the basal promoter activity in various cells and some of them positively respond to TPA in HL-60 cells. TPA-induced response of 44-bp in the RTEL promoter was attenuated by co-transfection of the PU.1 expression vector. These findings suggest that the duplicated ets motifs regulate DNA-repair associated gene expressions during macrophage-like differentiation of HL-60 cells.

  9. DNA methylation is a determinative element of photosynthesis gene expression in amyloplasts from liquid-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    PubMed

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T

    1990-10-01

    Transcriptional regulation has been shown to operate as a selective control mechanism of expression of photosynthetic genes in the nonphotosynthetic plastids, amyloplasts, of a white-wild cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). To elaborate the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation at the molecular level, we have examined the template activity of the amyloplast DNA compared to the chloroplast DNA by using the in vitro run-off transcription assay system with extracts of the two plastid types. The results of these assays clearly indicate that most of the amyloplast DNA regions do not serve as a template for the in vitro transcription regardless of the plastid extracts; this is in contrast to the chloroplast DNA which serves as an active template. It is highly likely that the template activity of amyloplast DNA per se is the modulating element of transcriptional regulation. Parallel experiments determining the DNA base content by HPLC analysis have shown that a variety of methylated bases, especially 5-methylcytosine, are localized in the DNA regions containing suppressed genes of the amyloplast genome. In sharp contrast, methylated bases were undetectable in the expressed gene regions of amyloplast and whole chloroplast genomes. The overall findings strongly support the notion that DNA methylation is involved in the selective suppression of photosynthetic genes in the nonphotosynthetic plastids of cultured sycamore cells.

  10. Linking Long Noncoding RNA Localization and Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Ling

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed the regulatory potential of many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Most lncRNAs, like mRNAs, are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and are capped, polyadenylated, and spliced. However, the subcellular fates of lncRNAs are distinct and the mechanisms of action are diverse. Investigating the mechanisms that determine the subcellular fate of lncRNAs has the potential to provide new insights into their biogenesis and specialized functions. PMID:27499234

  11. Long Noncoding RNA Regulation of Pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alessandro; Ballarino, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent a unique kind of stem cell, as they are able to indefinitely self-renew and hold the potential to differentiate into any derivative of the three germ layers. As such, human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) and human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) provide a unique opportunity for studying the earliest steps of human embryogenesis and, at the same time, are of great therapeutic interest. The molecular mechanisms underlying pluripotency represent a major field of research. Recent evidence suggests that a complex network of transcription factors, chromatin regulators, and noncoding RNAs exist in pluripotent cells to regulate the balance between self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. Regulatory noncoding RNAs come in two flavors: short and long. The first class includes microRNAs (miRNAs), which are involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of cell cycle and differentiation in PSCs. Instead, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a heterogeneous group of long transcripts that regulate gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. In this review, we focus on the role played by lncRNAs in the maintenance of pluripotency, emphasizing the interplay between lncRNAs and other pivotal regulators in PSCs.

  12. Long Noncoding RNA Regulation of Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Ballarino, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent a unique kind of stem cell, as they are able to indefinitely self-renew and hold the potential to differentiate into any derivative of the three germ layers. As such, human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) and human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) provide a unique opportunity for studying the earliest steps of human embryogenesis and, at the same time, are of great therapeutic interest. The molecular mechanisms underlying pluripotency represent a major field of research. Recent evidence suggests that a complex network of transcription factors, chromatin regulators, and noncoding RNAs exist in pluripotent cells to regulate the balance between self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. Regulatory noncoding RNAs come in two flavors: short and long. The first class includes microRNAs (miRNAs), which are involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of cell cycle and differentiation in PSCs. Instead, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a heterogeneous group of long transcripts that regulate gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. In this review, we focus on the role played by lncRNAs in the maintenance of pluripotency, emphasizing the interplay between lncRNAs and other pivotal regulators in PSCs. PMID:26697072

  13. A novel regulatory element (E77) isolated from CHO‐K1 genomic DNA enhances stable gene expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin‐Young; Kim, Yeon‐Gu; Kang, Seunghee; Lee, Hong Weon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vectors flanked by regulatory DNA elements have been used to generate stable cell lines with high productivity and transgene stability; however, regulatory elements in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which are the most widely used mammalian cells in biopharmaceutical production, are still poorly understood. We isolated a novel gene regulatory element from CHO‐K1 cells, designated E77, which was found to enhance the stable expression of a transgene. A genomic library was constructed by combining CHO‐K1 genomic DNA fragments with a CMV promoter‐driven GFP expression vector, and the E77 element was isolated by screening. The incorporation of the E77 regulatory element resulted in the generation of an increased number of clones with high expression, thereby enhancing the expression level of the transgene in the stable transfectant cell pool. Interestingly, the E77 element was found to consist of two distinct fragments derived from different locations in the CHO genome shotgun sequence. High and stable transgene expression was obtained in transfected CHO cells by combining these fragments. Additionally, the function of E77 was found to be dependent on its site of insertion and specific orientation in the vector construct. Our findings demonstrate that stable gene expression mediated by the CMV promoter in CHO cells may be improved by the isolated novel gene regulatory element E77 identified in the present study. PMID:26762773

  14. Generation of DNA Constructs Using the Golden GATEway Cloning Method.

    PubMed

    Kirchmaier, Stephan; Lust, Katharina; Wittbrodt, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    One of the most frequently executed tasks for molecular biologists is the design and generation of complex DNA constructs. Recently, we established the Golden GATEway cloning kit for the fast and efficient generation of transgenesis vectors. This cloning kit allows the modular assembly of DNA fragments in a defined order. The modularity reflects how complex transgenesis constructs are set up. For example, genome modification tools such as the Cre-Lox system utilize small recombination elements that are combined with larger open reading frames and noncoding regulatory DNA. Another example is that proteinogenic genes can be extended with different localisation tags or fluorescent markers. The Golden GATEway cloning kit allows focusing on the design of a transgenesis construct without having to compromise it by so far available cloning strategies. Here, we provide a step-by-step introduction on how to use the Golden GATEway cloning kit. PMID:27671939

  15. Non-coding RNAs Functioning in Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Fanale, Daniele; Barraco, Nadia; Listì, Angela; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the hypothesis of the presence of tumor-initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs) has received a considerable support. This model suggested the existence of CSCs which, thanks to their self-renewal properties, are able to drive the expansion and the maintenance of malignant cell populations with invasive and metastatic potential in cancer. Increasing evidence showed the ability of such cells to acquire self-renewal, multipotency, angiogenic potential, immune evasion, symmetrical and asymmetrical divisions which, along with the presence of several DNA repair mechanisms, further enhance their oncogenic potential making them highly resistant to common anticancer treatments. The main signaling pathways involved in the homeostasis of colorectal (CRC) stem cells are the Wnt, Notch, Sonic Hedgehog, and Bone Morfogenic Protein (BMP) pathways, which are mostly responsible for all the features that have been widely referred to stem cells. The same pathways have been identified in colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs), conferring a more aggressive phenotype compared to non-stem CRC cells. Recently, several evidences suggested that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) may play a crucial role in the regulation of different biological mechanisms in CRC, by modulating the expression of critical stem cell transcription factors that have been found active in CSCs. In this chapter, we will discuss the involvement of ncRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), in stemness acquisition and maintenance by CRCSCs, through the regulation of pathways modulating the CSC phenotype and growth, carcinogenesis, differentiation, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:27573896

  16. Non-coding RNAs Functioning in Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Fanale, Daniele; Barraco, Nadia; Listì, Angela; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the hypothesis of the presence of tumor-initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs) has received a considerable support. This model suggested the existence of CSCs which, thanks to their self-renewal properties, are able to drive the expansion and the maintenance of malignant cell populations with invasive and metastatic potential in cancer. Increasing evidence showed the ability of such cells to acquire self-renewal, multipotency, angiogenic potential, immune evasion, symmetrical and asymmetrical divisions which, along with the presence of several DNA repair mechanisms, further enhance their oncogenic potential making them highly resistant to common anticancer treatments. The main signaling pathways involved in the homeostasis of colorectal (CRC) stem cells are the Wnt, Notch, Sonic Hedgehog, and Bone Morfogenic Protein (BMP) pathways, which are mostly responsible for all the features that have been widely referred to stem cells. The same pathways have been identified in colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs), conferring a more aggressive phenotype compared to non-stem CRC cells. Recently, several evidences suggested that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) may play a crucial role in the regulation of different biological mechanisms in CRC, by modulating the expression of critical stem cell transcription factors that have been found active in CSCs. In this chapter, we will discuss the involvement of ncRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), in stemness acquisition and maintenance by CRCSCs, through the regulation of pathways modulating the CSC phenotype and growth, carcinogenesis, differentiation, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT).

  17. Regulatory Mechanisms That Prevent Re-initiation of DNA Replication Can Be Locally Modulated at Origins by Nearby Sequence Elements

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Christopher D.; Li, Joachim J.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells must inhibit re-initiation of DNA replication at each of the thousands of origins in their genome because re-initiation can generate genomic alterations with extraordinary frequency. To minimize the probability of re-initiation from so many origins, cells use a battery of regulatory mechanisms that reduce the activity of replication initiation proteins. Given the global nature of these mechanisms, it has been presumed that all origins are inhibited identically. However, origins re-initiate with diverse efficiencies when these mechanisms are disabled, and this diversity cannot be explained by differences in the efficiency or timing of origin initiation during normal S phase replication. This observation raises the possibility of an additional layer of replication control that can differentially regulate re-initiation at distinct origins. We have identified novel genetic elements that are necessary for preferential re-initiation of two origins and sufficient to confer preferential re-initiation on heterologous origins when the control of re-initiation is partially deregulated. The elements do not enhance the S phase timing or efficiency of adjacent origins and thus are specifically acting as re-initiation promoters (RIPs). We have mapped the two RIPs to ∼60 bp AT rich sequences that act in a distance- and sequence-dependent manner. During the induction of re-replication, Mcm2-7 reassociates both with origins that preferentially re-initiate and origins that do not, suggesting that the RIP elements can overcome a block to re-initiation imposed after Mcm2-7 associates with origins. Our findings identify a local level of control in the block to re-initiation. This local control creates a complex genomic landscape of re-replication potential that is revealed when global mechanisms preventing re-replication are compromised. Hence, if re-replication does contribute to genomic alterations, as has been speculated for cancer cells, some regions of the genome

  18. Non-Coding RNAs in Neural Networks, REST-Assured.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the nervous system, several key steps in cellular complexity and development are regulated by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF). REST recruits gene regulatory complexes to regulatory sequences, among them the repressor element-1/neuron-restrictive silencer element, and mediates developmental stage-specific gene expression or repression, chromatin (re-)organization or silencing for protein-coding genes as well as for several ncRNAs like microRNAs, short interfering RNAs or long ncRNAs. NcRNAs are far from being just transcriptional noise and are involved in chromatin accessibility, transcription and post-transcriptional processing, trafficking, or RNA editing. REST and its cofactor CoREST are both highly regulated through various ncRNAs. The importance of the correct regulation within the ncRNA network, the ncRNAome, is demonstrated when it comes to a deregulation of REST and/or ncRNAs associated with molecular pathophysiology underlying diverse disorders including neurodegenerative diseases or brain tumors. PMID:22303307

  19. DNA Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus crispatus Strain CTV-05 by Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR Analysis in a Pilot Study of Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, May A. D.; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the predominant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing species found in the vagina and is under development as a probiotic for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. In this study, we assessed whether DNA fingerprinting by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) can be used to distinguish the capsule strain of L. crispatus (CTV-05) from other endogenous strains as well as other species of vaginal lactobacilli. Vaginal and rectal lactobacilli were identified to the species level by using whole-chromosome probe DNA hybridization. The DNAs from L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasseri, and an as-yet-unnamed H2O2-negative Lactobacillus species designated 1086V were subjected to rep-PCR. The results of gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining of the DNA fingerprints obtained were compared. L. crispatus CTV-05 had a unique DNA fingerprint compared to all other lactobacilli. DNA fingerprints for 27 production lots of L. crispatus sampled from 1994 through 2001 were identical to that of the original strain isolated in 1993, suggesting strain stability. In a pilot study of nine women, this DNA fingerprinting method distinguished CTV-05 from other endogenous vaginal lactobacilli prior to and after vaginal capsule use. rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting is useful for strain typing and for evaluating longitudinal loss or acquisition of vaginal lactobacilli used as probiotics. PMID:12734221

  20. Specific interaction of mutant p53 with regions of matrix attachment region DNA elements (MARs) with a high potential for base-unpairing

    PubMed Central

    Will, Katrin; Warnecke, Gabriele; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Deppert, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Mutant, but not wild-type p53 binds with high affinity to a variety of MAR-DNA elements (MARs), suggesting that MAR-binding of mutant p53 relates to the dominant-oncogenic activities proposed for mutant p53. MARs recognized by mutant p53 share AT richness and contain variations of an AATATATTT “DNA-unwinding motif,” which enhances the structural dynamics of chromatin and promotes regional DNA base-unpairing. Mutant p53 specifically interacted with MAR-derived oligonucleotides carrying such unwinding motifs, catalyzing DNA strand separation when this motif was located within a structurally labile sequence environment. Addition of GC-clamps to the respective MAR-oligonucleotides or introducing mutations into the unwinding motif strongly reduced DNA strand separation, but supported the formation of tight complexes between mutant p53 and such oligonucleotides. We conclude that the specific interaction of mutant p53 with regions of MAR-DNA with a high potential for base-unpairing provides the basis for the high-affinity binding of mutant p53 to MAR-DNA. PMID:9811860

  1. DNA fingerprinting of Lactobacillus crispatus strain CTV-05 by repetitive element sequence-based PCR analysis in a pilot study of vaginal colonization.

    PubMed

    Antonio, May A D; Hillier, Sharon L

    2003-05-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the predominant hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-producing species found in the vagina and is under development as a probiotic for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. In this study, we assessed whether DNA fingerprinting by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) can be used to distinguish the capsule strain of L. crispatus (CTV-05) from other endogenous strains as well as other species of vaginal lactobacilli. Vaginal and rectal lactobacilli were identified to the species level by using whole-chromosome probe DNA hybridization. The DNAs from L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasseri, and an as-yet-unnamed H(2)O(2)-negative Lactobacillus species designated 1086V were subjected to rep-PCR. The results of gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining of the DNA fingerprints obtained were compared. L. crispatus CTV-05 had a unique DNA fingerprint compared to all other lactobacilli. DNA fingerprints for 27 production lots of L. crispatus sampled from 1994 through 2001 were identical to that of the original strain isolated in 1993, suggesting strain stability. In a pilot study of nine women, this DNA fingerprinting method distinguished CTV-05 from other endogenous vaginal lactobacilli prior to and after vaginal capsule use. rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting is useful for strain typing and for evaluating longitudinal loss or acquisition of vaginal lactobacilli used as probiotics. PMID:12734221

  2. Environmental Health and Long Non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    An individual's risk of developing a common disease typically depends on an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic research is uncovering novel ways through which environmental factors such as diet, air pollution, and chemical exposure can affect our genes. DNA methylation and histone modifications are the most commonly studied epigenetic mechanisms. The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in epigenetic processes has been more recently highlighted. LncRNAs are defined as transcribed RNA molecules greater than 200 nucleotides in length with little or no protein-coding capability. While few functional lncRNAs have been well characterized to date, they have been demonstrated to control gene regulation at every level, including transcriptional gene silencing via regulation of the chromatin structure and DNA methylation. This review aims to provide a general overview of lncRNA function with a focus on their role as key regulators of health and disease and as biomarkers of environmental exposure. PMID:27234044

  3. Molecular mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs on gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianwen; Mo, Xiaoyan; Fu, Liyun; Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Aberrant expression of lncRNAs has been found associated with gastric cancer, one of the most malignant tumors. By complementary base pairing with mRNAs or forming complexes with RNA binding proteins (RBPs), some lncRNAs including GHET1, MALAT1, and TINCR may mediate mRNA stability and splicing. Other lncRNAs, such as BC032469, GAPLINC, and HOTAIR, participate in the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. Under certain circumstances, ANRIL, GACAT3, H19, MEG3, and TUSC7 exhibit their biological roles by associating with microRNAs (miRNAs). By recruiting histone-modifying complexes, ANRIL, FENDRR, H19, HOTAIR, MALAT1, and PVT1 may inhibit the transcription of target genes in cis or trans. Through these mechanisms, lncRNAs form RNA-dsDNA triplex. CCAT1, GAPLINC, GAS5, H19, MEG3, and TUSC7 play oncogenic or tumor suppressor roles by correlated with tumor suppressor P53 or onco-protein c-Myc, respectively. In conclusion, interaction with DNA, RNA and proteins is involved in lncRNAs’ participation in gastric tumorigenesis and development. PMID:26788991

  4. Statistical and linguistic features of DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationary" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to all eukaryotic DNA sequences (33 301 coding and 29 453 noncoding) in the entire GenBank database. We describe a simple model to account for the presence of long-range power-law correlations which is based upon a generalization of the classic Levy walk. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the noncoding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function. We suggest that noncoding regions in plants and invertebrates may display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy than coding regions, further supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  5. Coding DNA repeated throughout intergenic regions of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome: Evolutionary footprints of RNA silencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyknons are non-random sequence patterns significantly repeated throughout non-coding genomic DNA that also appear at least once among genes. They are interesting because they portend an unforeseen connection between coding and non-coding DNA. Pyknons have only been discovered in the human genome,...

  6. Non-coding RNAs in cardiac regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanli; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Developing new therapeutic strategies which could enhance cardiomyocyte regenerative capacity is of significant clinical importance. Though promising, methods to promote cardiac regeneration have had limited success due to the weak regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian heart. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are functional RNA molecules without a protein coding function that have been reported to engage in cardiac regeneration and repair. In light of current regenerative strategies, the regulatory effects of ncRNAs can be categorized as follows: cardiac proliferation, cardiac differentiation, cardiac survival and cardiac reprogramming. miR-590, miR-199a, miR-17-92 cluster, miR302-367 cluster and miR-222 have been reported to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation while miR-1 and miR-133 suppress that. miR-499 and miR-1 promote the differentiation of cardiac progenitors into cardiomyocyte while miR-133 and H19 inhibit that. miR-21, miR-24, miR-221, miR-199a and miR-155 improve cardiac survival while miR-34a, miR-1 and miR-320 exhibit opposite effects. miR-1, miR-133, miR-208 and miR-499 are capable of reprogramming fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cells and miR-284, miR-302, miR-93, miR-106b and lncRNA-ST8SIA3 are able to enhace cardiac reprogramming. Exploring non-coding RNA-based methods to enhance cardiac regeneration would be instrumental for devising new effective therapies against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26462179

  7. An expanding universe of noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Storz, Gisela

    2002-05-17

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been found to have roles in a great variety of processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome replication, RNA processing and modification, messenger RNA stability and translation, and even protein degradation and translocation. Recent studies indicate that ncRNAs are far more abundant and important than initially imagined. These findings raise several fundamental questions: How many ncRNAs are encoded by a genome? Given the absence of a diagnostic open reading frame, how can these genes be identified? How can all the functions of ncRNAs be elucidated?

  8. The site-specific ribosomal DNA insertion element R1Bm belongs to a class of non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Y.; Eickbush, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of insertion elements, R1 and R2 (previously called type I and type II), are known to interrupt the 28S ribosomal genes of several insect species. In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, each element occupies approximately 10% of the estimated 240 ribosomal DNA units, while at most only a few copies are located outside the ribosomal DNA units. The authors present here the complete nucleotide sequence of an R1 insertion from B. mori (R1Bm). This 5.1-kilobase element contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) which together occupy 88% of its length. ORF1 is 461 amino acids in length and exhibits characteristics of retroviral gag genes. ORF2 is 1,051 amino acids in length and contains homology to reverse transcriptase-like enzymes. The analysis of 3' and 5' ends of independent isolates from the ribosomal locus supports the suggestion that R1 is still functioning as a transposable element. The precise location of the element within the genome implies that its transposition must occur with remarkable insertion sequence specificity. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences from six retrotransposons, R1 and R2 of B. mori, I factor and F element of Drosophila melanogaster, L1 of Mus domesticus, and Ingi of Trypanosoma brucei, reveals a relatively high level of sequence homology in the reverse transcriptase region. Like R1, these elements lack long terminal repeats. The authors therefore named this class of related elements the non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons.

  9. Boundary Associated Long Noncoding RNA Mediates Long-Range Chromosomal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nwigwe, Ifeoma Jane; Kim, Yoon Jung; Wacker, David A.; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is involved in organizing chromosomes into mega base-sized, topologically associated domains (TADs) along with other factors that define sub-TAD organization. CTCF-Cohesin interactions have been shown to be critical for transcription insulation activity as it stabilizes long-range interactions to promote proper gene expression. Previous studies suggest that heterochromatin boundary activity of CTCF may be independent of Cohesin, and there may be additional mechanisms for defining topological domains. Here, we show that a boundary site we previously identified known as CTCF binding site 5 (CBS5) from the homeotic gene cluster A (HOXA) locus exhibits robust promoter activity. This promoter activity from the CBS5 boundary element generates a long noncoding RNA that we designate as boundary associated long noncoding RNA-1 (blncRNA1). Functional characterization of this RNA suggests that the transcript stabilizes long-range interactions at the HOXA locus and promotes proper expression of HOXA genes. Additionally, our functional analysis also shows that this RNA is not needed in the stabilization of CTCF-Cohesin interactions however CTCF-Cohesin interactions are critical in the transcription of blncRNA1. Thus, the CTCF-associated boundary element, CBS5, employs both Cohesin and noncoding RNA to establish and maintain topologically associated domains at the HOXA locus. PMID:26302455

  10. Boundary Associated Long Noncoding RNA Mediates Long-Range Chromosomal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Nwigwe, Ifeoma Jane; Kim, Yoon Jung; Wacker, David A; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is involved in organizing chromosomes into mega base-sized, topologically associated domains (TADs) along with other factors that define sub-TAD organization. CTCF-Cohesin interactions have been shown to be critical for transcription insulation activity as it stabilizes long-range interactions to promote proper gene expression. Previous studies suggest that heterochromatin boundary activity of CTCF may be independent of Cohesin, and there may be additional mechanisms for defining topological domains. Here, we show that a boundary site we previously identified known as CTCF binding site 5 (CBS5) from the homeotic gene cluster A (HOXA) locus exhibits robust promoter activity. This promoter activity from the CBS5 boundary element generates a long noncoding RNA that we designate as boundary associated long noncoding RNA-1 (blncRNA1). Functional characterization of this RNA suggests that the transcript stabilizes long-range interactions at the HOXA locus and promotes proper expression of HOXA genes. Additionally, our functional analysis also shows that this RNA is not needed in the stabilization of CTCF-Cohesin interactions however CTCF-Cohesin interactions are critical in the transcription of blncRNA1. Thus, the CTCF-associated boundary element, CBS5, employs both Cohesin and noncoding RNA to establish and maintain topologically associated domains at the HOXA locus. PMID:26302455

  11. Development and validation of InnoQuant™, a sensitive human DNA quantitation and degradation assessment method for forensic samples using high copy number mobile elements Alu and SVA.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Gina M; Montgomery, Anne H; Thompson, Robyn; Indest, Brooke; Carroll, Marion; Sinha, Sudhir K

    2014-11-01

    There is a constant need in forensic casework laboratories for an improved way to increase the first-pass success rate of forensic samples. The recent advances in mini STR analysis, SNP, and Alu marker systems have now made it possible to analyze highly compromised samples, yet few tools are available that can simultaneously provide an assessment of quantity, inhibition, and degradation in a sample prior to genotyping. Currently there are several different approaches used for fluorescence-based quantification assays which provide a measure of quantity and inhibition. However, a system which can also assess the extent of degradation in a forensic sample will be a useful tool for DNA analysts. Possessing this information prior to genotyping will allow an analyst to more informatively make downstream decisions for the successful typing of a forensic sample without unnecessarily consuming DNA extract. Real-time PCR provides a reliable method for determining the amount and quality of amplifiable DNA in a biological sample. Alu are Short Interspersed Elements (SINE), approximately 300bp insertions which are distributed throughout the human genome in large copy number. The use of an internal primer to amplify a segment of an Alu element allows for human specificity as well as high sensitivity when compared to a single copy target. The advantage of an Alu system is the presence of a large number (>1000) of fixed insertions in every human genome, which minimizes the individual specific variation possible when using a multi-copy target quantification system. This study utilizes two independent retrotransposon genomic targets to obtain quantification of an 80bp "short" DNA fragment and a 207bp "long" DNA fragment in a degraded DNA sample in the multiplex system InnoQuant™. The ratio of the two quantitation values provides a "Degradation Index", or a qualitative measure of a sample's extent of degradation. The Degradation Index was found to be predictive of the observed loss

  12. Gene Expression of Protein-Coding and Non-Coding RNAs Related to Polyembryogenesis in the Parasitic Wasp, Copidosoma floridanum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2014-01-01

    Polyembryony is a unique form of development in which many embryos are clonally produced from a single egg. Polyembryony is known to occur in many animals, but the underlying genetic mechanism responsible is unknown. In a parasitic wasp, Copidosoma floridanum, polyembryogenesis is initiated during the formation and division of the morula. In the present study, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos at the cleavage and subsequent primary morula stages, times when polyembryogenesis is likely to be controlled genetically. Of 182 and 263 cDNA clones isolated from these embryos, 38% and 70%, respectively, were very similar to protein-coding genes obtained from BLAST analysis and 55 and 65 clones, respectively, were stage-specific. In our libraries we also detected a high frequency of long non-coding RNA. Some of these showed stage-specific expression patterns in reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. The stage-specificity of expression implies that these protein-coding and non-coding genes are related to polyembryogenesis in C. floridanum. The non-coding genes are not similar to any known non-coding RNAs and so are good candidates as regulators of polyembryogenesis. PMID:25469914

  13. Principles of long noncoding RNA evolution derived from direct comparison of transcriptomes in 17 species.

    PubMed

    Hezroni, Hadas; Koppstein, David; Schwartz, Matthew G; Avrutin, Alexandra; Bartel, David P; Ulitsky, Igor

    2015-05-19

    The inability to predict long noncoding RNAs from genomic sequence has impeded the use of comparative genomics for studying their biology. Here, we develop methods that use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data to annotate the transcriptomes of 16 vertebrates and the echinoid sea urchin, uncovering thousands of previously unannotated genes, most of which produce long intervening noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs). Although in each species, >70% of lincRNAs cannot be traced to homologs in species that diverged >50 million years ago, thousands of human lincRNAs have homologs with similar expression patterns in other species. These homologs share short, 5'-biased patches of sequence conservation nested in exonic architectures that have been extensively rewired, in part by transposable element exonization. Thus, over a thousand human lincRNAs are likely to have conserved functions in mammals, and hundreds beyond mammals, but those functions require only short patches of specific sequences and can tolerate major changes in gene architecture.

  14. DASHR: database of small human noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuk Yee; Kuksa, Pavel P; Amlie-Wolf, Alexandre; Valladares, Otto; Ungar, Lyle H; Kannan, Sampath; Gregory, Brian D; Wang, Li-San

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are highly abundant RNAs, typically <100 nucleotides long, that act as key regulators of diverse cellular processes. Although thousands of sncRNA genes are known to exist in the human genome, no single database provides searchable, unified annotation, and expression information for full sncRNA transcripts and mature RNA products derived from these larger RNAs. Here, we present the Database of small human noncoding RNAs (DASHR). DASHR contains the most comprehensive information to date on human sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products. DASHR provides a simple user interface for researchers to view sequence and secondary structure, compare expression levels, and evidence of specific processing across all sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products in various human tissues. DASHR annotation and expression data covers all major classes of sncRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs), Piwi-interacting (piRNAs), small nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic (sn-, sno-, scRNAs, respectively), transfer (tRNAs), and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Currently, DASHR (v1.0) integrates 187 smRNA high-throughput sequencing (smRNA-seq) datasets with over 2.5 billion reads and annotation data from multiple public sources. DASHR contains annotations for ∼ 48,000 human sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products, 82% of which are expressed in one or more of the curated tissues. DASHR is available at http://lisanwanglab.org/DASHR.

  15. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-05-14

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  16. Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and transposases of an unusual family of insertion elements.

    PubMed Central

    Lenich, A G; Glasgow, A C

    1994-01-01

    Deletion analysis of the subcloned DNA inversion region of Moraxella lacunata indicates that Piv is the only M. lacunata-encoded factor required for site-specific inversion of the tfpQ/tfpI pilin segment. The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of insertion sequence elements, suggesting that Piv is a novel site-specific recombinase. Images PMID:8021196

  17. Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae) from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fabíola Araújo Dos; Marques, Diego Ferreira; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Feldberg, Eliana; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo R

    2016-03-01

    Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3) in populations from the Amazonas river (white water), the Negro river (black water) and the Tapajós river (clear water), in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics) in all the samples. Heteromorphism in pair 14 was detected as evidence for the initial differentiation of an XX/XY system. Minor differences detected in the amount of repetitive DNA markers are interpreted as possible signatures of local adaptations to distinct aquatic environments.

  18. Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae) from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fabíola Araújo; Marques, Diego Ferreira; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Feldberg, Eliana; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3) in populations from the Amazonas river (white water), the Negro river (black water) and the Tapajós river (clear water), in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics) in all the samples. Heteromorphism in pair 14 was detected as evidence for the initial differentiation of an XX/XY system. Minor differences detected in the amount of repetitive DNA markers are interpreted as possible signatures of local adaptations to distinct aquatic environments. PMID:27007897

  19. Cloning of a DNA-binding protein that interacts with the ethylene-responsive enhancer element of the carnation GST1 gene.

    PubMed

    Maxson, J M; Woodson, W R

    1996-07-01

    Ethylene transcriptionally activates a glutathione S-transferase gene (GST1) at the onset of the senescence program in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals. A 126 bp region of the GST1 promoter sequence has been identified as an ethylene-responsive enhancer element (ERE). In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of nuclear proteins from senescing petals to recognize a 22 bp sequence within the ERE (ERE oligonucleotide). Mutation of the ERE oligonucleotide sequence significantly alters the strength of this nuclear protein-DNA association. The wild-type ERE oligonucleotide sequence was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Nucleotide sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence analysis of this cDNA predicted a 32 kDa protein which we have designated carnation ethylene-responsive element-binding protein-1 (CEBP-1). The mRNA expression pattern of CEBP-1 suggests that it is not transcriptionally regulated by ethylene. The amino acid sequence homology of CEBP-1 with other plant nucleic acid binding proteins indicates a conserved nucleic acid binding domain. Within this domain are two highly conserved RNA-binding motifs, RNP-1 and RNP-2. An acidic region and a putative nuclear localization signal are also identified.

  20. An expanding universe of the non-coding genome in cancer biology

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bin; He, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic transformation is caused by accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that ultimately convert normal cells into tumor cells with uncontrolled proliferation and survival, unlimited replicative potential and invasive growth [Hanahan,D. et al. (2011) Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell, 144, 646–674]. Although the majority of the cancer studies have focused on the functions of protein-coding genes, emerging evidence has started to reveal the importance of the vast non-coding genome, which constitutes more than 98% of the human genome. A number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) derived from the ‘dark matter’ of the human genome exhibit cancer-specific differential expression and/or genomic alterations, and it is increasingly clear that ncRNAs, including small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), play an important role in cancer development by regulating protein-coding gene expression through diverse mechanisms. In addition to ncRNAs, nearly half of the mammalian genomes consist of transposable elements, particularly retrotransposons. Once depicted as selfish genomic parasites that propagate at the expense of host fitness, retrotransposon elements could also confer regulatory complexity to the host genomes during development and disease. Reactivation of retrotransposons in cancer, while capable of causing insertional mutagenesis and genome rearrangements to promote oncogenesis, could also alter host gene expression networks to favor tumor development. Taken together, the functional significance of non-coding genome in tumorigenesis has been previously underestimated, and diverse transcripts derived from the non-coding genome could act as integral functional components of the oncogene and tumor suppressor network. PMID:24747961

  1. An expanding universe of the non-coding genome in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bin; He, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Neoplastic transformation is caused by accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that ultimately convert normal cells into tumor cells with uncontrolled proliferation and survival, unlimited replicative potential and invasive growth [Hanahan,D. et al. (2011) Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell, 144, 646-674]. Although the majority of the cancer studies have focused on the functions of protein-coding genes, emerging evidence has started to reveal the importance of the vast non-coding genome, which constitutes more than 98% of the human genome. A number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) derived from the 'dark matter' of the human genome exhibit cancer-specific differential expression and/or genomic alterations, and it is increasingly clear that ncRNAs, including small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), play an important role in cancer development by regulating protein-coding gene expression through diverse mechanisms. In addition to ncRNAs, nearly half of the mammalian genomes consist of transposable elements, particularly retrotransposons. Once depicted as selfish genomic parasites that propagate at the expense of host fitness, retrotransposon elements could also confer regulatory complexity to the host genomes during development and disease. Reactivation of retrotransposons in cancer, while capable of causing insertional mutagenesis and genome rearrangements to promote oncogenesis, could also alter host gene expression networks to favor tumor development. Taken together, the functional significance of non-coding genome in tumorigenesis has been previously underestimated, and diverse transcripts derived from the non-coding genome could act as integral functional components of the oncogene and tumor suppressor network.

  2. Towards structural classification of long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2016-01-01

    While long non-coding RNAs play key roles in disease and development, few structural studies have been performed to date for this emerging class of RNAs. Previous structural studies are reviewed, and a pipeline is presented to determine secondary structures of long non-coding RNAs. Similar to riboswitches, experimentally determined secondary structures of long non-coding RNAs for one species, may be used to improve sequence/structure alignments for other species. As riboswitches have been classified according to their secondary structure, a similar scheme could be used to classify long non-coding RNAs. This article is part of a Special Issue titled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa.

  3. Deciphering the function of non-coding RNAs in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Fromm, Bastian; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing methods is fuelling the discovery of multiple non-coding RNA transcripts with direct implication in cell biology and homeostasis. This new layer of biological regulation seems to be of particular importance in human pathogenesis, including cancer. The aberrant expression of ncRNAs is a feature of prostate cancer, as they promote tumor-suppressive or oncogenic activities, controlling multicellular events leading to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. From the small RNAs involved in the RNAi pathway to the long non-coding RNAs controlling chromatin remodeling, alternative splicing, and DNA repair, the non-coding transcriptome represents the significant majority of transcriptional output. As such, ncRNAs appear as exciting new diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools. However, additional work is required to characterize the RNA species, their functions, and their applicability to clinical practice in oncology. In this review, we summarize the most important features of ncRNA biology, emphasizing its relevance in prostate carcinogenesis and its potential for clinical applications. PMID:27221068

  4. Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against Exotoxin A Using a Novel Decoy-SELEX Method and Sensitive Detection of Exotoxin A in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ka Lok; Yancey, Kailey; Battistella, Luisa; Williams, Ryan M.; Hickey, Katherine M.; Bostick, Chris D.; Gannett, Peter M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Exotoxin A is one of the virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that can cause infections resulting in adverse health outcomes and increased burden to health care systems. Current methods of diagnosing P. aeruginosa infections are time consuming and can require significant preparation of patient samples. This study utilized a novel variation of the Systematic Evolution of Ligand by Exponential Enrichment, Decoy-SELEX, to identify an Exotoxin A specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecular recognition element (MRE). Its emphasis is on increasing stringency in directing binding toward free target of interest and at the same time decreasing binding toward negative targets. A ssDNA MRE with specificity and affinity was identified after fourteen rounds of Decoy-SELEX. Utilizing surface plasmon resonance measurements, the determined equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the MRE is between 4.2 µM and 4.5 µM, and is highly selective for Exotoxin A over negative targets. A ssDNA MRE modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed and achieved sensitive detection of Exotoxin A at nanomolar concentrations in human serum. This study has demonstrated the proof-of-principle of using a ssDNA MRE as a clinical diagnostic tool. PMID:26636098

  5. Evaluating the Stability of mRNAs and Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ayupe, Ana Carolina; Reis, Eduardo M

    2017-01-01

    Changes in RNA stability have an important impact in the gene expression regulation. Different methods based on the transcription blockage with RNA polymerase inhibitors or metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNAs have been developed to evaluate RNA decay rates in cultured cell. Combined with techniques to measure transcript abundance genome-wide, these methods have been used to reveal novel features of the eukaryotic transcriptome. The stability of protein-coding mRNAs is in general closely associated to the physiological function of their encoded proteins, with short-lived mRNAs being significantly enriched among regulatory genes whereas genes associated with housekeeping functions are predominantly stable. Likewise, the stability of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) seems to reflect their functional role in the cell. Thus, investigating RNA stability can provide insights regarding the function of yet uncharacterized regulatory ncRNAs. In this chapter, we discuss the methodologies currently used to estimate RNA decay and outline an experimental protocol for genome-wide estimation of RNA stability of protein-coding and lncRNAs. This protocol details the transcriptional blockage of cultured cells with actinomycin D, followed by RNA isolation at different time points, the determination of transcript abundance by qPCR/DNA oligoarray hybridization, and the calculation of individual transcript half-lives.

  6. Evaluating the Stability of mRNAs and Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ayupe, Ana Carolina; Reis, Eduardo M

    2017-01-01

    Changes in RNA stability have an important impact in the gene expression regulation. Different methods based on the transcription blockage with RNA polymerase inhibitors or metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNAs have been developed to evaluate RNA decay rates in cultured cell. Combined with techniques to measure transcript abundance genome-wide, these methods have been used to reveal novel features of the eukaryotic transcriptome. The stability of protein-coding mRNAs is in general closely associated to the physiological function of their encoded proteins, with short-lived mRNAs being significantly enriched among regulatory genes whereas genes associated with housekeeping functions are predominantly stable. Likewise, the stability of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) seems to reflect their functional role in the cell. Thus, investigating RNA stability can provide insights regarding the function of yet uncharacterized regulatory ncRNAs. In this chapter, we discuss the methodologies currently used to estimate RNA decay and outline an experimental protocol for genome-wide estimation of RNA stability of protein-coding and lncRNAs. This protocol details the transcriptional blockage of cultured cells with actinomycin D, followed by RNA isolation at different time points, the determination of transcript abundance by qPCR/DNA oligoarray hybridization, and the calculation of individual transcript half-lives. PMID:27662875

  7. Evolution of an Alu DNA element of type Sx in the lineage of primates and the origin of an associated tetranucleotide microsatellite.

    PubMed

    Crouau-Roy, B; Clisson, I

    2000-08-01

    A 394-bp DNA fragment, which in human is on chromosome 6 near the MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein) gene and encompasses an Alu element and an associated tetranucleotide microsatellite, was sequenced from a large range of primate species to follow its evolutionary divergence and to understand the origin of the microsatellite. This Alu element is found at the same orthologous position in all primates sequenced, but the tetranucleotide repeat is present only in Catarrhini between the 3'-oligo(dA) of the Alu element and the 3' flanking direct repeat. Little intraspecific variation was found. Sequence identity values for this orthologous primate Alu averaged 90% (82-99%) with transitions comprising between 70% and 100% of the observed nucleotide substitutions. Although the insertion of the Alu element predates the separation of these species, the original sequence of the site of integration can still be identified. This identification of the direct repeats suggests an active role of the oligo(dA) of the Alu element in the origin of the tetranucleotide repeats. The microsatellite probably appeared after the insertion of the Alu element, early in the lineage leading to the common ancestor of the hominoids and the Old World monkeys.

  8. Distinct Expression of Long Non-Coding RNAs in an Alzheimer's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo Young; Moon, Jangsup; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Park, Dong-Kyu; Yoo, Jung-Seok; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Shin, Jung-Won; Jeon, Daejong; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Manho; Lee, Sang Kun; Chu, Kon

    2015-01-01

    With the recent advancement in transcriptome-wide profiling approach, numerous non-coding transcripts previously unknown have been identified. Among the non-coding transcripts, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have received increasing attention for their capacity to modulate transcriptional regulation. Although alterations in the expressions of non-coding RNAs have been studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD), most research focused on the involvement of microRNAs, and comprehensive expression profiling of lncRNAs in AD has been lacking. In this study, microarray analysis was performed to procure the expression profile of lncRNAs dysregulated in a triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD). A total of 4,622 lncRNAs were analyzed: 205 lncRNAs were significantly dysregulated in 3xTg-AD compared with control mice, and 230 lncRNAs were significantly dysregulated within 3xTg-AD in an age-dependent manner (≥2.0-fold, p < 0.05). Among these, 27 and 15 lncRNAs, respectively, had adjacent protein-coding genes whose expressions were also significantly dysregulated. A majority of these lncRNAs and their adjacent genes shared the same direction of dysregulation. For these pairs of lncRNAs and adjacent genes, significant Gene Ontology terms were DNA-dependent regulation of transcription, transcription regulator activity, and embryonic organ morphogenesis. One of the most highly upregulated lncRNAs had a 395 bp core sequence that overlapped with multiple chromosomal regions. This is the first study that comprehensively identified dysregulated lncRNAs in 3xTg-AD mice and will likely facilitate the development of therapeutics targeting lncRNAs in AD.

  9. [SIGNIFICANCE OF NONCODING RNA IN BREAST CANCER].

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiaki

    2015-11-01

    Noncoding RNA (ncRNA) has a crucial role in the molecular mechanisms of malignant features of breast cancer. This review outlines the biological and clinical significance of well-investigated microRNAs including let-7, miR-21, miR-200, miR-15/16, miR-155, and miR-221/222, and long ncRNAs such as H19, LSINCT5, HOTAIR, and GAS5. The biological roles of microRNAs secreted in the exosome are also described. Combined analysis of mRNA and ncRNA will help to develop the field of genetic diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:26845889

  10. Non-Coding RNAs and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Smolle, Elisabeth; Haybaeck, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    A high percentage of the mammalian genome consists of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Among ncRNAs two main subgroups have been identified: long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs). ncRNAs have been demonstrated to play a role in a vast variety of diseases, since they regulate gene transcription and are involved in post-transcriptional regulation. They have the potential to function as molecular signals or as guides for transcription factors and to regulate epigenetic modifiers. In this literature review we have summarized data on miRNAs and lncRNAs and their involvement in dyslipidaemia, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and adipogenesis. Outlining certain ncRNAs as disease biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets, and testing them in vivo, will be the next steps in future research. PMID:25093715

  11. Visualization of Enhancer-Derived Noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Youtaro; Fanucchi, Stephanie; Mhlanga, Musa M

    2017-01-01

    Enhancers are principal regulators that allow spatiotemporal tissue-specific control of gene expression. While mounting evidence suggests that enhancer-derived long noncoding RNAs (long ncRNAs), including enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), are an important component of enhancer function, their expression has not been broadly analyzed at a single cell level via imaging techniques. This protocol describes a method to image eRNA in single cells by in situ hybridization followed by tyramide signal amplification (TSA). The procedure can be multiplexed to simultaneously visualize both eRNA and protein-coding transcript at the site of transcriptional elongation, thereby permitting analysis of dynamics between the two transcript species in single cells. Our approach is not limited to eRNAs, but can be implemented on other transcripts.

  12. Visualization of Enhancer-Derived Noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Youtaro; Fanucchi, Stephanie; Mhlanga, Musa M

    2017-01-01

    Enhancers are principal regulators that allow spatiotemporal tissue-specific control of gene expression. While mounting evidence suggests that enhancer-derived long noncoding RNAs (long ncRNAs), including enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), are an important component of enhancer function, their expression has not been broadly analyzed at a single cell level via imaging techniques. This protocol describes a method to image eRNA in single cells by in situ hybridization followed by tyramide signal amplification (TSA). The procedure can be multiplexed to simultaneously visualize both eRNA and protein-coding transcript at the site of transcriptional elongation, thereby permitting analysis of dynamics between the two transcript species in single cells. Our approach is not limited to eRNAs, but can be implemented on other transcripts. PMID:27662867

  13. The 5' and 3' ends of alphavirus RNAs – non-coding is not non-functional

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Jennifer L.; Chen, Rubing; Trobaugh, Derek W.; Diamond, Michael S.; Weaver, Scott C.; Klimstra, William B.; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The non-coding regions found at the 5' and 3' ends of alphavirus genomes regulate viral gene expression, replication, translation and virus-host interactions, which have significant implications for viral evolution, host range, and pathogenesis. The functions of these non-coding regions are mediated by a combination of linear sequence and structural elements. The capped 5' untranslated region (UTR) contains promoter elements, translational regulatory sequences that modulate dependence on cellular translation factors, and structures that help to avoid innate immune defenses. The polyadenylated 3' UTR contains highly conserved sequence elements for viral replication, binding sites for cellular miRNAs that determine cell tropism, host range, and pathogenesis, and conserved binding regions for a cellular protein that influences viral RNA stability. Nonetheless, there are additional conserved elements in non-coding regions of the virus (e.g., the repeated sequence elements in the 3' UTR) whose function remains obscure. Thus, key questions remain as to the function of these short yet influential untranslated segments of alphavirus RNAs. PMID:25630058

  14. Pathological ribonuclease H1 causes R-loop depletion and aberrant DNA segregation in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Gokhan; Desai, Radha; Bailey, Laura J.; Yasukawa, Takehiro; Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Durigon, Romina; Holmes, J. Bradley; Moss, Chloe F.; Mennuni, Mara; Houlden, Henry; Hanna, Michael G.; Pitceathly, Robert D. S.; Spinazzola, Antonella; Holt, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic information in mammalian mitochondrial DNA is densely packed; there are no introns and only one sizeable noncoding, or control, region containing key cis-elements for its replication and expression. Many molecules of mitochondrial DNA bear a third strand of DNA, known as “7S DNA,” which forms a displacement (D-) loop in the control region. Here we show that many other molecules contain RNA as a third strand. The RNA of these R-loops maps to the control region of the mitochondrial DNA and is complementary to 7S DNA. Ribonuclease H1 is essential for mitochondrial DNA replication; it degrades RNA hybridized to DNA, so the R-loop is a potential substrate. In cells with a pathological variant of ribonuclease H1 associated with mitochondrial disease, R-loops are of low abundance, and there is mitochondrial DNA aggregation. These findings implicate ribonuclease H1 and RNA in the physical segregation of mitochondrial DNA, perturbation of which represents a previously unidentified disease mechanism. PMID:27402764

  15. Long noncoding RNAs: Lessons from genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Kanduri, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting has been a great resource for studying transcriptional and post-transcriptional-based gene regulation by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). In this article, I overview the functional role of intergenic lncRNAs (H19, IPW, and MEG3), antisense lncRNAs (Kcnq1ot1, Airn, Nespas, Ube3a-ATS), and enhancer lncRNAs (IG-DMR eRNAs) to understand the diverse mechanisms being employed by them in cis and/or trans to regulate the parent-of-origin-specific expression of target genes. Recent evidence suggests that some of the lncRNAs regulate imprinting by promoting intra-chromosomal higher-order chromatin compartmentalization, affecting replication timing and subnuclear positioning. Whereas others act via transcriptional occlusion or transcriptional collision-based mechanisms. By establishing genomic imprinting of target genes, the lncRNAs play a critical role in important biological functions, such as placental and embryonic growth, pluripotency maintenance, cell differentiation, and neural-related functions such as synaptic development and plasticity. An emerging consensus from the recent evidence is that the imprinted lncRNAs fine-tune gene expression of the protein-coding genes to maintain their dosage in cell. Hence, lncRNAs from imprinted clusters offer insights into their mode of action, and these mechanisms have been the basis for uncovering the mode of action of lncRNAs in several other biological contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa.

  16. Non-coding landscapes of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ragusa, Marco; Barbagallo, Cristina; Statello, Luisa; Condorelli, Angelo Giuseppe; Battaglia, Rosalia; Tamburello, Lucia; Barbagallo, Davide; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Purrello, Michele

    2015-01-01

    For two decades Vogelstein’s model has been the paradigm for describing the sequence of molecular changes within protein-coding genes that would lead to overt colorectal cancer (CRC). This model is now too simplistic in the light of recent studies, which have shown that our genome is pervasively transcribed in RNAs other than mRNAs, denominated non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The discovery that mutations in genes encoding these RNAs [i.e., microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs] are causally involved in cancer phenotypes has profoundly modified our vision of tumour molecular genetics and pathobiology. By exploiting a wide range of different mechanisms, ncRNAs control fundamental cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis and apoptosis: these data have also confirmed their role as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in cancer development and progression. The existence of a sophisticated RNA-based regulatory system, which dictates the correct functioning of protein-coding networks, has relevant biological and biomedical consequences. Different miRNAs involved in neoplastic and degenerative diseases exhibit potential predictive and prognostic properties. Furthermore, the key roles of ncRNAs make them very attractive targets for innovative therapeutic approaches. Several recent reports have shown that ncRNAs can be secreted by cells into the extracellular environment (i.e., blood and other body fluids): this suggests the existence of extracellular signalling mechanisms, which may be exploited by cells in physiology and pathology. In this review, we will summarize the most relevant issues on the involvement of cellular and extracellular ncRNAs in disease. We will then specifically describe their involvement in CRC pathobiology and their translational applications to CRC diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. PMID:26556998

  17. Long noncoding RNAs: Lessons from genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Kanduri, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting has been a great resource for studying transcriptional and post-transcriptional-based gene regulation by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). In this article, I overview the functional role of intergenic lncRNAs (H19, IPW, and MEG3), antisense lncRNAs (Kcnq1ot1, Airn, Nespas, Ube3a-ATS), and enhancer lncRNAs (IG-DMR eRNAs) to understand the diverse mechanisms being employed by them in cis and/or trans to regulate the parent-of-origin-specific expression of target genes. Recent evidence suggests that some of the lncRNAs regulate imprinting by promoting intra-chromosomal higher-order chromatin compartmentalization, affecting replication timing and subnuclear positioning. Whereas others act via transcriptional occlusion or transcriptional collision-based mechanisms. By establishing genomic imprinting of target genes, the lncRNAs play a critical role in important biological functions, such as placental and embryonic growth, pluripotency maintenance, cell differentiation, and neural-related functions such as synaptic development and plasticity. An emerging consensus from the recent evidence is that the imprinted lncRNAs fine-tune gene expression of the protein-coding genes to maintain their dosage in cell. Hence, lncRNAs from imprinted clusters offer insights into their mode of action, and these mechanisms have been the basis for uncovering the mode of action of lncRNAs in several other biological contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. PMID:26004516

  18. Multisubunit RNA Polymerases IV and V: Purveyors of Non-Coding RNA for Plant Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2011-08-01

    In all eukaryotes, nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesize the myriad RNAs that are essential for life. Remarkably, plants have evolved two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, RNA polymerases IV and V, which orchestrate non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing processes affecting development, transposon taming, antiviral defence and allelic crosstalk. Biochemical details concerning the templates and products of RNA polymerases IV and V are lacking. However, their subunit compositions reveal that they evolved as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II, which provides the unique opportunity to study the functional diversification of a eukaryotic RNA polymerase family.

  19. Non-coding RNAs as the bridge between epigenetic mechanisms, lineages and domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Sela, Mor; Kloog, Yoel; Rechavi, Oded

    2014-01-01

    Many cases of heritable environmental responses have been documented but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Recently, inherited RNA interference has been shown to act as a multigenerational genome surveillance apparatus. We suggest that inheritance of regulatory RNAs is at the root of many other epigenetic phenomena, the trigger that induces other epigenetic mechanisms, such as the depositing of histone modifications and DNA methylation. In addition, we explore the possibility that interacting organisms influence each other's transcriptomes by exchanging heterologous non-coding RNAs. PMID:24882818

  20. Potential roles of noncoding RNAs in environmental epigenetic transgenerational inheritance.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei

    2014-12-01

    "Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance" (ETI) has been defined as germline (sperm or egg) transmission of epigenetic information between generations in the absence of direct exposures or genetic manipulations. Among reported cases of ETI in mammals, the majority are induced by environmental factors, including environmental toxicants [e.g. agricultural fungicide vinclozolin, plastic additive bisphenol A, pesticide methoxychlor, dioxin, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and hydrocarbons] and poor nutritional conditions. Although the ETI phenomenon is well established, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Putative epimutations, including changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns, have been reported, but it remains unclear how these epimutations are formed in the first place, and how they are memorized in the germline and then get transmitted to subsequent generations. Based on recent advances in our understanding of regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), I propose that ncRNAs are involved in ETI, during both the initial epimutation formation and the subsequent germline transmission of epimutations. ncRNAs can function at epigenetic levels by affecting DNA methylation and histone modifications, thereby changing gene transcriptional activities, which can lead to an altered mRNA transcriptome associated with a disease phenotype. Alternatively, novel or altered ncRNA expression can cause dysregulated post-transcriptional regulation, thus directly affecting the mRNA transcriptome and inducing a disease phenotype. Sperm-borne ncRNAs are potential mediators for epigenetic memory across generations, but they alone may not be sufficient for stable transmission of epimutations across generations. Overall, research on ncRNAs in the context of ETI is urgently needed to shed light on the underlying mechanism of ETI.

  1. Long noncoding RNAs: functional surprises from the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Wilusz, Jeremy E.; Sunwoo, Hongjae; Spector, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed, yielding a complex network of transcripts that includes tens of thousands of long noncoding RNAs with little or no protein-coding capacity. Although the vast majority of long noncoding RNAs have yet to be characterized thoroughly, many of these transcripts are unlikely to represent transcriptional “noise” as a significant number have been shown to exhibit cell type-specific expression, localization to subcellular compartments, and association with human diseases. Here, we highlight recent efforts that have identified a myriad of molecular functions for long noncoding RNAs. In some cases, it appears that simply the act of noncoding RNA transcription is sufficient to positively or negatively affect the expression of nearby genes. However, in many cases, the long noncoding RNAs themselves serve key regulatory roles that were assumed previously to be reserved for proteins, such as regulating the activity or localization of proteins and serving as organizational frameworks of subcellular structures. In addition, many long noncoding RNAs are processed to yield small RNAs or, conversely, modulate how other RNAs are processed. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that long noncoding RNAs can function via numerous paradigms and are key regulatory molecules in the cell. PMID:19571179

  2. Functional annotation of the vlinc class of non-coding RNAs using systems biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Georges St.; Vyatkin, Yuri; Antonets, Denis; Ri, Maxim; Qi, Yao; Saik, Olga; Shtokalo, Dmitry; de Hoon, Michiel J.L.; Kawaji, Hideya; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R.R.; Nicolas, Estelle; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Wahlestedt, Claes; Kapranov, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Functionality of the non-coding transcripts encoded by the human genome is the coveted goal of the modern genomics research. While commonly relied on the classical methods of forward genetics, integration of different genomics datasets in a global Systems Biology fashion presents a more productive avenue of achieving this very complex aim. Here we report application of a Systems Biology-based approach to dissect functionality of a newly identified vast class of very long intergenic non-coding (vlinc) RNAs. Using highly quantitative FANTOM5 CAGE dataset, we show that these RNAs could be grouped into 1542 novel human genes based on analysis of insulators that we show here indeed function as genomic barrier elements. We show that vlincRNAs genes likely function in cis to activate nearby genes. This effect while most pronounced in closely spaced vlincRNA–gene pairs can be detected over relatively large genomic distances. Furthermore, we identified 101 vlincRNA genes likely involved in early embryogenesis based on patterns of their expression and regulation. We also found another 109 such genes potentially involved in cellular functions also happening at early stages of development such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Overall, we show that Systems Biology-based methods have great promise for functional annotation of non-coding RNAs. PMID:27001520

  3. Origin and evolution of the long non-coding genes in the X-inactivation center.

    PubMed

    Romito, Antonio; Rougeulle, Claire

    2011-11-01

    Random X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the eutherian mechanism of X-linked gene dosage compensation, is controlled by a cis-acting locus termed the X-inactivation center (Xic). One of the striking features that characterize the Xic landscape is the abundance of loci transcribing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including Xist, the master regulator of the inactivation process. Recent comparative genomic analyses have depicted the evolutionary scenario behind the origin of the X-inactivation center, revealing that this locus evolved from a region harboring protein-coding genes. During mammalian radiation, this ancestral protein-coding region was disrupted in the marsupial group, whilst it provided in eutherian lineage the starting material for the non-translated RNAs of the X-inactivation center. The emergence of non-coding genes occurred by a dual mechanism involving loss of protein-coding function of the pre-existing genes and integration of different classes of mobile elements, some of which modeled the structure and sequence of the non-coding genes in a species-specific manner. The rising genes started to produce transcripts that acquired function in regulating the epigenetic status of the X chromosome, as shown for Xist, its antisense Tsix, Jpx, and recently suggested for Ftx. Thus, the appearance of the Xic, which occurred after the divergence between eutherians and marsupials, was the basis for the evolution of random X inactivation as a strategy to achieve dosage compensation.

  4. Functional annotation of the vlinc class of non-coding RNAs using systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Georges; Vyatkin, Yuri; Antonets, Denis; Ri, Maxim; Qi, Yao; Saik, Olga; Shtokalo, Dmitry; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Kawaji, Hideya; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Nicolas, Estelle; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Wahlestedt, Claes; Kapranov, Philipp

    2016-04-20

    Functionality of the non-coding transcripts encoded by the human genome is the coveted goal of the modern genomics research. While commonly relied on the classical methods of forward genetics, integration of different genomics datasets in a global Systems Biology fashion presents a more productive avenue of achieving this very complex aim. Here we report application of a Systems Biology-based approach to dissect functionality of a newly identified vast class of very long intergenic non-coding (vlinc) RNAs. Using highly quantitative FANTOM5 CAGE dataset, we show that these RNAs could be grouped into 1542 novel human genes based on analysis of insulators that we show here indeed function as genomic barrier elements. We show that vlinc RNAs genes likely function in cisto activate nearby genes. This effect while most pronounced in closely spaced vlinc RNA-gene pairs can be detected over relatively large genomic distances. Furthermore, we identified 101 vlinc RNA genes likely involved in early embryogenesis based on patterns of their expression and regulation. We also found another 109 such genes potentially involved in cellular functions also happening at early stages of development such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Overall, we show that Systems Biology-based methods have great promise for functional annotation of non-coding RNAs.

  5. The Landscape of Long Noncoding RNAs in the Human Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Matthew K.; Niknafs, Yashar S.; Malik, Rohit; Singhal, Udit; Sahu, Anirban; Hosono, Yasuyuki; Barrette, Terrence R.; Prensner, John R.; Evans, Joseph R.; Zhao, Shuang; Poliakov, Anton; Cao, Xuhong; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M.; Wu, Yi-Mi; Robinson, Dan R.; Beer, David G.; Feng, Felix Y.; Iyer, Hariharan K.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of tissue physiology and disease processes including cancer. In order to delineate genome-wide lncRNA expression, we curated 7,256 RNA-Seq libraries from tumors, normal tissues, and cell lines comprising over 43 terabases of sequence from 25 independent studies. We applied ab initio assembly methodology to this dataset, yielding a consensus human transcriptome of 91,013 expressed genes. Over 68% (58,648) of genes were classified as lncRNAs, of which 79% (48,952) were previously unannotated. About 1% (597) of the lncRNAs harbored ultraconserved elements and 7% (3,900) overlapped disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To prioritize lineage-specific, disease-associated lncRNA expression we employed non-parametric differential expression testing and nominated 7,942 lineage- or cancer-associated lncRNA genes. The lncRNA landscape characterized here may shed light into normal biology and cancer pathogenesis, and be valuable for future biomarker development. PMID:25599403

  6. Loss of Conserved Noncoding RNAs in Genomes of Bacterial Endosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    Matelska, Dorota; Kurkowska, Malgorzata; Purta, Elzbieta; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    The genomes of intracellular symbiotic or pathogenic bacteria, such as of Buchnera, Mycoplasma, and Rickettsia, are typically smaller compared with their free-living counterparts. Here we showed that noncoding RNA (ncRNA) families, which are conserved in free-living bacteria, frequently could not be detected by computational methods in the small genomes. Statistical tests demonstrated that their absence is not an artifact of low GC content or small deletions in these small genomes, and thus it was indicative of an independent loss of ncRNAs in different endosymbiotic lineages. By analyzing the synteny (conservation of gene order) between the reduced and nonreduced genomes, we revealed instances of protein-coding genes that were preserved in the reduced genomes but lost cis-regulatory elements. We found that the loss of cis-regulatory ncRNA sequences, which regulate the expression of cognate protein-coding genes, is characterized by the reduction of secondary structure formation propensity, GC content, and length of the corresponding genomic regions. PMID:26782934

  7. A brief history of the status of transposable elements: from junk DNA to major players in evolution.

    PubMed

    Biémont, Christian

    2010-12-01

    The idea that some genetic factors are able to move around chromosomes emerged more than 60 years ago when Barbara McClintock first suggested that such elements existed and had a major role in controlling gene expression and that they also have had a major influence in reshaping genomes in evolution. It was many years, however, before the accumulation of data and theories showed that this latter revolutionary idea was correct although, understandably, it fell far short of our present view of the significant influence of what are now known as "transposable elements" in evolution. In this article, I summarize the main events that influenced my thinking about transposable elements as a young scientist and the influence and role of these specific genomic elements in evolution over subsequent years. Today, we recognize that the findings about genomic changes affected by transposable elements have considerably altered our view of the ways in which genomes evolve and work. PMID:21156958

  8. A brief history of the status of transposable elements: from junk DNA to major players in evolution.

    PubMed

    Biémont, Christian

    2010-12-01

    The idea that some genetic factors are able to move around chromosomes emerged more than 60 years ago when Barbara McClintock first suggested that such elements existed and had a major role in controlling gene expression and that they also have had a major influence in reshaping genomes in evolution. It was many years, however, before the accumulation of data and theories showed that this latter revolutionary idea was correct although, understandably, it fell far short of our present view of the significant influence of what are now known as "transposable elements" in evolution. In this article, I summarize the main events that influenced my thinking about transposable elements as a young scientist and the influence and role of these specific genomic elements in evolution over subsequent years. Today, we recognize that the findings about genomic changes affected by transposable elements have considerably altered our view of the ways in which genomes evolve and work.

  9. The Foldback-like element Galileo belongs to the P superfamily of DNA transposons and is widespread within the Drosophila genus.

    PubMed

    Marzo, Mar; Puig, Marta; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2008-02-26

    Galileo is the only transposable element (TE) known to have generated natural chromosomal inversions in the genus Drosophila. It was discovered in Drosophila buzzatii and classified as a Foldback-like element because of its long, internally repetitive, terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and lack of coding capacity. Here, we characterized a seemingly complete copy of Galileo from the D. buzzatii genome. It is 5,406 bp long, possesses 1,229-bp TIRs, and encodes a 912-aa transposase similar to those of the Drosophila melanogaster 1360 (Hoppel) and P elements. We also searched the recently available genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species for elements similar to Dbuz\\Galileo by using bioinformatic tools. Galileo was found in six species (ananassae, willistoni, peudoobscura, persimilis, virilis, and mojavensis) from the two main lineages within the Drosophila genus. Our observations place Galileo within the P superfamily of cut-and-paste transposons and extend considerably its phylogenetic distribution. The interspecific distribution of Galileo indicates an ancient presence in the genus, but the phylogenetic tree built with the transposase amino acid sequences contrasts significantly with that of the species, indicating lineage sorting and/or horizontal transfer events. Our results also suggest that Foldback-like elements such as Galileo may evolve from DNA-based transposon ancestors by loss of the transposase gene and disproportionate elongation of TIRs.

  10. Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements in vertebrate HOX gene clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, Simona; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-12-31

    Due to their high degree of conservation, comparisons of DNA sequences among evolutionarily distantly-related genomes permit to identify functional regions in noncoding DNA. Hox genes are optimal candidate sequences for comparative genome analyses, because they are extremely conserved in vertebrates and occur in clusters. We aligned (Pipmaker) the nucleotide sequences of HoxA clusters of tilapia, pufferfish, striped bass, zebrafish, horn shark, human and mouse (over 500 million years of evolutionary distance). We identified several highly conserved intergenic sequences, likely to be important in gene regulation. Only a few of these putative regulatory elements have been previously described as being involved in the regulation of Hox genes, while several others are new elements that might have regulatory functions. The majority of these newly identified putative regulatory elements contain short fragments that are almost completely conserved and are identical to known binding sites for regulatory proteins (Transfac). The conserved intergenic regions located between the most rostrally expressed genes in the developing embryo are longer and better retained through evolution. We document that presumed regulatory sequences are retained differentially in either A or A clusters resulting from a genome duplication in the fish lineage. This observation supports both the hypothesis that the conserved elements are involved in gene regulation and the Duplication-Deletion-Complementation model.

  11. Junk DNA: Prospects for Oral Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Patil, Shankargouda; Anand, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    About 98% of human genes are transcribed into noncoding ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is known by the name of "junk DNA." Unlike its name, it has been proved by now that junk deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) can have some functional activities. PMID:27207194

  12. AzaHx, a novel fluorescent, DNA minor groove and G·C recognition element: Synthesis and DNA binding properties of a p-anisyl-4-aza-benzimidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (azaHx-PI) polyamide.

    PubMed

    Satam, Vijay; Babu, Balaji; Patil, Pravin; Brien, Kimberly A; Olson, Kevin; Savagian, Mia; Lee, Megan; Mepham, Andrew; Jobe, Laura Beth; Bingham, John P; Pett, Luke; Wang, Shuo; Ferrara, Maddi; Bruce, Chrystal D; Wilson, W David; Lee, Moses; Hartley, John A; Kiakos, Konstantinos

    2015-09-01

    The design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of azaHx-PI or p-anisyl-4-aza-benzimidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (5) are described. AzaHx, 2-(p-anisyl)-4-aza-benzimidazole-5-carboxamide, is a novel, fluorescent DNA recognition element, derived from Hoechst 33258 to recognize G·C base pairs. Supported by theoretical data, the results from DNase I footprinting, CD, ΔT(M), and SPR studies provided evidence that an azaHx/IP pairing, formed from antiparallel stacking of two azaHx-PI molecules in a side-by-side manner in the minor groove, selectively recognized a C-G doublet. AzaHx-PI was found to target 5'-ACGCGT-3', the Mlu1 Cell Cycle Box (MCB) promoter sequence with specificity and significant affinity (K(eq) 4.0±0.2×10(7) M(-1)).

  13. Electrostatic and Hydrophobic Interactions Mediate Single-Stranded DNA Recognition and Acta2 Repression by Purine-Rich Element-Binding Protein B.

    PubMed

    Rumora, Amy E; Ferris, Lauren A; Wheeler, Tamar R; Kelm, Robert J

    2016-05-17

    Myofibroblast differentiation is characterized by an increased level of expression of cytoskeletal smooth muscle α-actin. In human and murine fibroblasts, the gene encoding smooth muscle α-actin (Acta2) is tightly regulated by a network of transcription factors that either activate or repress the 5' promoter-enhancer in response to environmental cues signaling tissue repair and remodeling. Purine-rich element-binding protein B (Purβ) suppresses the expression of Acta2 by cooperatively interacting with the sense strand of a 5' polypurine sequence containing an inverted MCAT cis element required for gene activation. In this study, we evaluated the chemical basis of nucleoprotein complex formation between the Purβ repressor and the purine-rich strand of the MCAT element in the mouse Acta2 promoter. Quantitative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding assays conducted in the presence of increasing concentrations of monovalent salt or anionic detergent suggested that the assembly of a high-affinity nucleoprotein complex is driven by a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Consistent with the results of pH titration analysis, site-directed mutagenesis revealed several basic amino acid residues in the intermolecular (R267) and intramolecular (K82 and R159) subdomains that are essential for Purβ transcriptional repressor function in Acta2 promoter-reporter assays. In keeping with their diminished Acta2 repressor activity in fibroblasts, purified Purβ variants containing an R267A mutation exhibited reduced binding affinity for purine-rich ssDNA. Moreover, certain double and triple-point mutants were also defective in binding to the Acta2 corepressor protein, Y-box-binding protein 1. Collectively, these findings establish the repertoire of noncovalent interactions that account for the unique structural and functional properties of Purβ. PMID:27064749

  14. Noncoding RNAs in Regulation of Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongdong; Sun, Linchong; Li, Zhaoyong; Gao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Since the description of the Warburg effect 90 years ago, metabolic reprogramming has been gradually recognized as a major hallmark of cancer cells. Mounting evidence now indicates that cancer is a kind of metabolic disease, quite distinct from conventional perception. While metabolic alterations in cancer cells have been extensively observed in glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolisms, its underlying regulatory mechanisms are still poorly understood. Noncoding RNA, also known as the "dark matter in life," functions through various mechanisms at RNA level regulating different biological pathways. The last two decades have witnessed the booming of noncoding RNA study on microRNA (miRNA), long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), circular RNA (circRNA), PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA), etc. In this chapter, we will discuss the regulatory roles of noncoding RNAs on cancer metabolism. PMID:27376736

  15. Breast cancer stem cells programs: enter the (non)-code.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Marion A; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Ginestier, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Breast tumors exhibit a hierarchical cellular organization driven by several subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSCs). These breast CSC subpopulations are able to infinitely self-renew and to differentiate, giving rise to tumor heterogeneity. Accumulating evidence show that breast CSCs resist conventional therapies and i`nitiate tumor relapse. The development of anti-CSCs therapies may therefore greatly improve patient survival. A better elucidation of molecular circuitries involved in stemness would offer new relevant targets. Noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, are regulators of cell identity and are notably found deregulated in breast CSCs. This review will focus on noncoding RNAs involved in CSCs biology during breast cancer initiation, maintenance, therapeutic resistance and metastatic progression. Potential clinical applications using noncoding RNAs as biomarkers or therapies will be discussed.

  16. Noncoding oligonucleotides: the belle of the ball in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Shum, Ka-To; Rossi, John J

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy carries the promise of cures for many diseases based on manipulating the expression of a person's genes toward the therapeutic goal. The relevance of noncoding oligonucleotides to human disease is attracting widespread attention. Noncoding oligonucleotides are not only involved in gene regulation, but can also be modified into therapeutic tools. There are many strategies that leverage noncoding oligonucleotides for gene therapy, including small interfering RNAs, antisense oligonucleotides, aptamers, ribozymes, decoys, and bacteriophage phi 29 RNAs. In this chapter, we will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of gene therapies that use noncoding oligonucleotides for disease treatment. The mechanism and development of each therapeutic will be described, with a particular focus on its clinical development. Finally, we will discuss the challenges associated with developing nucleic acid therapeutics and the prospects for future success.

  17. The TTSMI database: a catalog of triplex target DNA sites associated with genes and regulatory elements in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Chew, Chee Siang; Yong, Tai Pang; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Thammasorn, Wimada; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    A triplex target DNA site (TTS), a stretch of DNA that is composed of polypurines, is able to form a triple-helix (triplex) structure with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and is able to influence the site-specific modulation of gene expression and/or the modification of genomic DNA. The co-localization of a genomic TTS with gene regulatory signals and functional genome structures suggests that TFOs could potentially be exploited in antigene strategies for the therapy of cancers and other genetic diseases. Here, we present the TTS Mapping and Integration (TTSMI; http://ttsmi.bii.a-star.edu.sg) database, which provides a catalog of unique TTS locations in the human genome and tools for analyzing the co-localization of TTSs with genomic regulatory sequences and signals that were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and/or predicted by computational models. TTSMI was designed as a user-friendly tool that facilitates (i) fast searching/filtering of TTSs using several search terms and criteria associated with sequence stability and specificity, (ii) interactive filtering of TTSs that co-localize with gene regulatory signals and non-B DNA structures, (iii) exploration of dynamic combinations of the biological signals of specific TTSs and (iv) visualization of a TTS simultaneously with diverse annotation tracks via the UCSC genome browser. PMID:25324314

  18. The TTSMI database: a catalog of triplex target DNA sites associated with genes and regulatory elements in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Chew, Chee Siang; Yong, Tai Pang; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Thammasorn, Wimada; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    A triplex target DNA site (TTS), a stretch of DNA that is composed of polypurines, is able to form a triple-helix (triplex) structure with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and is able to influence the site-specific modulation of gene expression and/or the modification of genomic DNA. The co-localization of a genomic TTS with gene regulatory signals and functional genome structures suggests that TFOs could potentially be exploited in antigene strategies for the therapy of cancers and other genetic diseases. Here, we present the TTS Mapping and Integration (TTSMI; http://ttsmi.bii.a-star.edu.sg) database, which provides a catalog of unique TTS locations in the human genome and tools for analyzing the co-localization of TTSs with genomic regulatory sequences and signals that were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and/or predicted by computational models. TTSMI was designed as a user-friendly tool that facilitates (i) fast searching/filtering of TTSs using several search terms and criteria associated with sequence stability and specificity, (ii) interactive filtering of TTSs that co-localize with gene regulatory signals and non-B DNA structures, (iii) exploration of dynamic combinations of the biological signals of specific TTSs and (iv) visualization of a TTS simultaneously with diverse annotation tracks via the UCSC genome browser.

  19. LNA/DNA chimeric oligomers mimic RNA aptamers targeted to the TAR RNA element of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Darfeuille, Fabien; Hansen, Jens Bo; Orum, Henrik; Di Primo, Carmelo; Toulmé, Jean-Jacques

    2004-01-01

    One of the major limitations of the use of phosphodiester oligonucleotides in cells is their rapid degradation by nucleases. To date, several chemical modifications have been employed to overcome this issue but insufficient efficacy and/or specificity have limited their in vivo usefulness. In this work conformationally restricted nucleotides, locked nucleic acid (LNA), were investigated to design nuclease resistant aptamers targeted against the HIV-1 TAR RNA. LNA/DNA chimeras were synthesized from a shortened version of the hairpin RNA aptamer identified by in vitro selection against TAR. The results indicate that these modifications confer good protection towards nuclease digestion. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, thermal denaturation monitored by UV-spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance experiments identified LNA/DNA TAR ligands that bind to TAR with a dissociation constant in the low nanomolar range as the parent RNA aptamer. The crucial G, A residues that close the aptamer loop remain a key structural determinant for stable LNA/DNA chimera-TAR complexes. This work provides evidence that LNA modifications alternated with DNA can generate stable structured RNA mimics for interacting with folded RNA targets. PMID:15181175

  20. Circulating Non-coding RNA as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferracin, Manuela; Lupini, Laura; Mangolini, Alessandra; Negrini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that colorectal cancer influences the types and quantity of nucleic acids - especially microRNAs - detected in the bloodstream. Concentration of circulating (cell-free) microRNAs, and possibly of other non-coding RNAs, could therefore serve as valuable colorectal cancer biomarker and could deliver insight into the disease process. This chapter addresses the recent discoveries on circulating microRNA and long non-coding RNA as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer. PMID:27573900

  1. Role of the cgtA gene function in DNA replication of extrachromosomal elements in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ulanowska, Katarzyna; Sikora, Aleksandra; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Czyz, Agata

    2003-07-01

    The cgtA gene codes for a common GTP-binding protein whose homologues were found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms investigated so far. Although cgtA is an essential gene in most bacterial species, its precise functions in the regulation of cellular processes are largely unknown. In Escherichia coli, dysfunction or overexpression of the cgtA gene causes problems in various chromosomal functions, like synchronization of DNA replication initiation and partitioning of daughter chromosomes after a replication round. It is not know how the cgtA gene product regulates these processes. Here we investigated effects of cgtA dysfunction on replication of plasmid and phage replicons. We found that replication of some plasmids (e.g., ColE1-like) is not affected in the cgtA mutant. On the other hand, dysfunction of the cgtA gene caused a strong inhibition of lambda plasmid DNA replication. Bacteriophage lambda development was severely impaired in the cgtA mutant. Replication of other plasmid replicons (derivatives of F, R1, R6K, and RK2) was influenced by the cgtA mutation moderately. It seems that DNA synthesis per se is not affected by CgtA, and that this protein might control replication initiation indirectly, by regulation of function(s) or production of one or more replication factors. In fact, we found that level of the host-encoded replication protein DnaA is significantly decreased in the cgtA mutant. This indicates that CgtA is involved in the regulation of dnaA gene expression.

  2. A Machine Learning Approach for Accurate Annotation of Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Song, Yinglei; Liu, Chunmei; Wang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Searching genomes to locate noncoding RNA genes with known secondary structure is an important problem in bioinformatics. In general, the secondary structure of a searched noncoding RNA is defined with a structure model constructed from the structural alignment of a set of sequences from its family. Computing the optimal alignment between a sequence and a structure model is the core part of an algorithm that can search genomes for noncoding RNAs. In practice, a single structure model may not be sufficient to capture all crucial features important for a noncoding RNA family. In this paper, we develop a novel machine learning approach that can efficiently search genomes for noncoding RNAs with high accuracy. During the search procedure, a sequence segment in the searched genome sequence is processed and a feature vector is extracted to represent it. Based on the feature vector, a classifier is used to determine whether the sequence segment is the searched ncRNA or not. Our testing results show that this approach is able to efficiently capture crucial features of a noncoding RNA family. Compared with existing search tools, it significantly improves the accuracy of genome annotation. PMID:26357266

  3. A Machine Learning Approach for Accurate Annotation of Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunmei; Wang, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Searching genomes to locate noncoding RNA genes with known secondary structure is an important problem in bioinformatics. In general, the secondary structure of a searched noncoding RNA is defined with a structure model constructed from the structural alignment of a set of sequences from its family. Computing the optimal alignment between a sequence and a structure model is the core part of an algorithm that can search genomes for noncoding RNAs. In practice, a single structure model may not be sufficient to capture all crucial features important for a noncoding RNA family. In this paper, we develop a novel machine learning approach that can efficiently search genomes for noncoding RNAs with high accuracy. During the search procedure, a sequence segment in the searched genome sequence is processed and a feature vector is extracted to represent it. Based on the feature vector, a classifier is used to determine whether the sequence segment is the searched ncRNA or not. Our testing results show that this approach is able to efficiently capture crucial features of a noncoding RNA family. Compared with existing search tools, it significantly improves the accuracy of genome annotation. PMID:26357266

  4. Non-coding RNAs and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that typically do not code for proteins. Emerging data suggest that ncRNAs play an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including atherosclerosis. The best-characterized ncRNAs are the microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small, ~22 nucleotide (nt) sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through transcript degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs control several aspects of atherosclerosis including endothelial cell, vascular smooth cell, and macrophage functions as well as lipoprotein metabolism. Apart from miRNAs, recently ncRNAs, especially long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), have emerged as important potential regulators of the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism of their regulation and function as well as significance of other ncRNAs such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) during atherogenesis is largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field, highlighting the importance of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis and discuss their potential use as therapeutic targets in CVDs. PMID:24623179

  5. Gene activation-associated long noncoding RNAs function in mouse preimplantation development

    PubMed Central

    Hamazaki, Nobuhiko; Uesaka, Masahiro; Nakashima, Kinichi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Imamura, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    In mice, zygotic activation occurs for a wide variety of genes, mainly at the 2-cell stage. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly being recognized as modulators of gene expression. In this study, directional RNA-seq of MII oocytes and 2-cell embryos identified more than 1000 divergently transcribed lncRNA/mRNA gene pairs. Expression of these bidirectional promoter-associated noncoding RNAs (pancRNAs) was strongly associated with the upregulation of their cognate genes. Conversely, knockdown of three abundant pancRNAs led to reduced mRNA expression, accompanied by sustained DNA methylation even in the presence of enzymes responsible for DNA demethylation. In particular, microinjection of siRNA against the abundant pancRNA partner of interleukin 17d (Il17d) mRNA at the 1-cell stage caused embryonic lethality, which was rescued by supplying IL17D protein in vitro at the 4-cell stage. Thus, this novel class of lncRNAs can modulate the transcription machinery in cis to activate zygotic genes and is important for preimplantation development. PMID:25633350

  6. No longer a nuisance: long non-coding RNAs join CENP-A in epigenetic centromere regulation.

    PubMed

    Rošić, Silvana; Erhardt, Sylvia

    2016-04-01

    Centromeres represent the basis for kinetochore formation, and are essential for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Despite these essential roles, centromeres are not defined by specific DNA sequences, but by epigenetic means. The histone variant CENP-A controls centromere identity epigenetically and is essential for recruiting kinetochore components that attach the chromosomes to the mitotic spindle during mitosis. Recently, a new player in centromere regulation has emerged: long non-coding RNAs transcribed from repetitive regions of centromeric DNA function in regulating centromeres epigenetically. This review summarizes recent findings on the essential roles that transcription, pericentromeric transcripts, and centromere-derived RNAs play in centromere biology.

  7. Serum Levels of Selected Vitamins and Trace Elements in Nigerian Consumers of Alcoholic Beverage: A Suggestion for DNA Hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Ude, A N; Edem, V F; Onifade, A A; Arinola, O G

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid, vitamins and Zinc play essential role in DNA methylation but alcohol consumption is known to affectthe levels of these micronutrients leading to risk of developing various illnesses and certain cancers. This study determinedthe levels of DNA methylation dependent-micronutrients (folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, zinc and selenium) andhomocysteine as a suggestion for DNA methylation status in Nigerian alcohol consumers compared with non-consumers ofalcohol. Venous blood (5ml) was obtained from thirty-four males that consume alcoholic beverages for at least 10 years andthirty-two male controls that did not consume alcoholic beverages at least 10 years. Serum concentrations of folate, vitaminB12, vitamin B6, homocysteine (Hcy), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were determined using High Performance LiquidChromatography (HPLC) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) as appropriate. Independent Student t-test wasused to compare the mean values between alcohol consumers and control. Mean differences were considered significant atp<0.05. The mean serum levels of Zn and Se were significantly raised in alcohol consumers when compared with nonalcohol consumers while the mean levels of Vitamin B6 and Hcy were significantly reduced in alcohol consumers whencompared with non-alcohol consumers. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean serum levels ofVitamin B12 and folate in alcohol consumers when compared with non-alcohol consumers. Since vitamin B6 and Hcy arerequired for DNA methylation, reduced vitamin B6 and Hcy levels in consumers of alcoholic beverages might suggest DNAhypomethylation in alcohol consumers. PMID:27574771

  8. In Vitro Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against S. aureus Alpha Toxin and Sensitive Detection in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ka L.; Battistella, Luisa; Salva, Alysia D.; Williams, Ryan M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both community and hospital settings. Due to the prevalence of S. aureus related infections and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of S. aureus infections is crucial in benefiting patient health outcomes. In this study, a rigorous Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) variant previously developed by our laboratory was utilized to select a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element (MRE) targeting alpha toxin with high affinity and specificity. At the end of the 12-round selection, the selected MRE had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 93.7 ± 7.0 nM. Additionally, a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed by using the selected ssDNA MRE as the toxin-capturing element and a sensitive detection of 200 nM alpha toxin in undiluted human serum samples was achieved. PMID:25633102

  9. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element against Clostridium difficile Toxin B and Sensitive Detection in Human Fecal Matter

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Eamonn; Williams, Ryan M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Toxin B is one of the major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that is responsible for a significant number of diarrhea cases in acute care settings. Due to the prevalence of C. difficile induced diarrhea, rapid and correct diagnosis is crucial in the disease management. In this study, we have employed a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE) specific for toxin B. At the end of the 12-round selection, one MRE with high affinity (Kd = 47.3 nM) for toxin B was identified. The selected MRE demonstrated low cross binding activities on negative targets: bovine serum albumin, Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, and cholera toxin of Vibrio cholera. A modified sandwich ELISA assay was developed utilizing the selected ssDNA MRE as the antigen capturing element and achieved a sensitive detection of 50 nM of toxin B in human fecal preparations. PMID:25734010

  10. Select Prenatal Environmental Exposures and Subsequent Alterations of Gene-Specific and Repetitive Element DNA Methylation in Fetal Tissues.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin B; Marsit, Carmen J

    2015-06-01

    Strong evidence implicates maternal environmental exposures in contributing to adverse outcomes during pregnancy and later in life through the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis. Recent research suggests these effects are mediated through the improper regulation of DNA methylation in offspring tissues, specifically placental tissue, which plays a critical role in fetal development. This article reviews the relevant literature relating DNA methylation in multiple tissues at or near delivery to several prenatal environmental toxicants and stressors, including cigarette smoke, endocrine disruptors, heavy metals, as well as maternal diet. These human studies expand upon previously reported outcomes in animal model interventions and include effects on both imprinted and non-imprinted genes. We have also noted some of the strengths and limitations in the approaches used, and consider the appropriate interpretation of these findings in terms of their effect size and their relationship to differential gene expression and potential health outcomes. The studies suggest an important role of DNA methylation in mediating the effects of the intrauterine environment on children's health and a need for additional research to better clarify the role of this epigenetic mechanism as well as others. PMID:26231362

  11. Select Prenatal Environmental Exposures and Subsequent Alterations of Gene-Specific and Repetitive Element DNA Methylation in Fetal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benjamin B.; Marsit, Carmen J.

    2015-01-01

    Strong evidence implicates maternal environmental exposures in contributing to adverse outcomes during pregnancy and later in life through the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis. Recent research suggests these effects are mediated through the improper regulation of DNA methylation in offspring tissues, specifically placental tissue, which plays a critical role in fetal development. This article reviews the relevant literature relating DNA methylation in multiple tissues at or near delivery to several prenatal environmental toxicants and stressors, including cigarette smoke, endocrine disruptors, heavy metals, as well as maternal diet. These human studies expand upon previously reported outcomes in animal model interventions and include effects on both imprinted and non-imprinted genes. We have also noted some of the strengths and limitations in the approaches used, and consider the appropriate interpretation of these findings in terms of their effect size and their relationship to differential gene expression and potential health outcomes. The studies suggest an important role of DNA methylation in mediating the effects of the intrauterine environment on children’s health and a need for additional research to better clarify the role of this epigenetic mechanism as well as others. PMID:26231362

  12. Identification and punctate nuclear localization of a novel noncoding RNA, Ks-1, from the honeybee brain.

    PubMed Central

    Sawata, Miyuki; Yoshino, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Ohashi, Kazuaki; Kubo, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    We identified a novel gene, Ks-1, which is expressed preferentially in the small-type Kenyon cells of the honeybee brain. This gene is also expressed in some of the large soma neurons in the brain and in the suboesophageal ganglion. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments indicated that Ks-1 transcripts are enriched in the honeybee brain. cDNA cloning revealed that the consensus Ks-1 cDNA is over 17 kbp and contains no significant open reading frames. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that Ks-1 transcripts are located in the nuclei of the neural cells, accumulating in some scattered spots. These findings demonstrate that Ks-1 encodes a novel class of noncoding nuclear RNA and is possibly involved in the regulation of neural functions. PMID:12088150

  13. Identification of a novel cis-regulatory element essential for immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    LaFlam, Taylor N; Seumois, Grégory; Miller, Corey N; Lwin, Wint; Fasano, Kayla J; Waterfield, Michael; Proekt, Irina; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Anderson, Mark S

    2015-11-16

    Thymic central tolerance is essential to preventing autoimmunity. In medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), the Autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene plays an essential role in this process by driving the expression of a diverse set of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs), which are presented and help tolerize self-reactive thymocytes. Interestingly, Aire has a highly tissue-restricted pattern of expression, with only mTECs and peripheral extrathymic Aire-expressing cells (eTACs) known to express detectable levels in adults. Despite this high level of tissue specificity, the cis-regulatory elements that control Aire expression have remained obscure. Here, we identify a highly conserved noncoding DNA element that is essential for Aire expression. This element shows enrichment of enhancer-associated histone marks in mTECs and also has characteristics of being an NF-κB-responsive element. Finally, we find that this element is essential for Aire expression in vivo and necessary to prevent spontaneous autoimmunity, reflecting the importance of this regulatory DNA element in promoting immune tolerance. PMID:26527800

  14. Portraying breast cancers with long noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Van Grembergen, Olivier; Bizet, Martin; de Bony, Eric J.; Calonne, Emilie; Putmans, Pascale; Brohée, Sylvain; Olsen, Catharina; Guo, Mingzhou; Bontempi, Gianluca; Sotiriou, Christos; Defrance, Matthieu; Fuks, François

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a role in cancer development, but this role is not yet clear. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional survey to explore the lncRNA landscape across 995 breast tissue samples. We identified 215 lncRNAs whose genes are aberrantly expressed in breast tumors, as compared to normal samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of breast tumors on the basis of their lncRNAs revealed four breast cancer subgroups that correlate tightly with PAM50-defined mRNA-based subtypes. Using multivariate analysis, we identified no less than 210 lncRNAs prognostic of clinical outcome. By analyzing the coexpression of lncRNA genes and protein-coding genes, we inferred potential functions of the 215 dysregulated lncRNAs. We then associated subtype-specific lncRNAs with key molecular processes involved in cancer. A correlation was observed, on the one hand, between luminal A–specific lncRNAs and the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor–β pathways and, on the other hand, between basal-like–specific lncRNAs and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–dependent pathways and of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Finally, we showed that a specific lncRNA, which we called CYTOR, plays a role in breast cancer. We confirmed its predicted functions, showing that it regulates genes involved in the EGFR/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and is required for cell proliferation, cell migration, and cytoskeleton organization. Overall, our work provides the most comprehensive analyses for lncRNA in breast cancers. Our findings suggest a wide range of biological functions associated with lncRNAs in breast cancer and provide a foundation for functional investigations that could lead to new therapeutic approaches.

  15. Portraying breast cancers with long noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Van Grembergen, Olivier; Bizet, Martin; de Bony, Eric J; Calonne, Emilie; Putmans, Pascale; Brohée, Sylvain; Olsen, Catharina; Guo, Mingzhou; Bontempi, Gianluca; Sotiriou, Christos; Defrance, Matthieu; Fuks, François

    2016-09-01

    Evidence is emerging that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a role in cancer development, but this role is not yet clear. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional survey to explore the lncRNA landscape across 995 breast tissue samples. We identified 215 lncRNAs whose genes are aberrantly expressed in breast tumors, as compared to normal samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of breast tumors on the basis of their lncRNAs revealed four breast cancer subgroups that correlate tightly with PAM50-defined mRNA-based subtypes. Using multivariate analysis, we identified no less than 210 lncRNAs prognostic of clinical outcome. By analyzing the coexpression of lncRNA genes and protein-coding genes, we inferred potential functions of the 215 dysregulated lncRNAs. We then associated subtype-specific lncRNAs with key molecular processes involved in cancer. A correlation was observed, on the one hand, between luminal A-specific lncRNAs and the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β pathways and, on the other hand, between basal-like-specific lncRNAs and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent pathways and of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Finally, we showed that a specific lncRNA, which we called CYTOR, plays a role in breast cancer. We confirmed its predicted functions, showing that it regulates genes involved in the EGFR/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and is required for cell proliferation, cell migration, and cytoskeleton organization. Overall, our work provides the most comprehensive analyses for lncRNA in breast cancers. Our findings suggest a wide range of biological functions associated with lncRNAs in breast cancer and provide a foundation for functional investigations that could lead to new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27617288

  16. Portraying breast cancers with long noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Van Grembergen, Olivier; Bizet, Martin; de Bony, Eric J.; Calonne, Emilie; Putmans, Pascale; Brohée, Sylvain; Olsen, Catharina; Guo, Mingzhou; Bontempi, Gianluca; Sotiriou, Christos; Defrance, Matthieu; Fuks, François

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a role in cancer development, but this role is not yet clear. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional survey to explore the lncRNA landscape across 995 breast tissue samples. We identified 215 lncRNAs whose genes are aberrantly expressed in breast tumors, as compared to normal samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of breast tumors on the basis of their lncRNAs revealed four breast cancer subgroups that correlate tightly with PAM50-defined mRNA-based subtypes. Using multivariate analysis, we identified no less than 210 lncRNAs prognostic of clinical outcome. By analyzing the coexpression of lncRNA genes and protein-coding genes, we inferred potential functions of the 215 dysregulated lncRNAs. We then associated subtype-specific lncRNAs with key molecular processes involved in cancer. A correlation was observed, on the one hand, between luminal A–specific lncRNAs and the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor–β pathways and, on the other hand, between basal-like–specific lncRNAs and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–dependent pathways and of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Finally, we showed that a specific lncRNA, which we called CYTOR, plays a role in breast cancer. We confirmed its predicted functions, showing that it regulates genes involved in the EGFR/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and is required for cell proliferation, cell migration, and cytoskeleton organization. Overall, our work provides the most comprehensive analyses for lncRNA in breast cancers. Our findings suggest a wide range of biological functions associated with lncRNAs in breast cancer and provide a foundation for functional investigations that could lead to new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27617288

  17. Expression of 5 S rRNA genes linked to 35 S rDNA in plants, their epigenetic modification and regulatory element divergence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In plants, the 5 S rRNA genes usually occur as separate tandems (S-type arrangement) or, less commonly, linked to 35 S rDNA units (L-type). The activity of linked genes remains unknown so far. We studied the homogeneity and expression of 5 S genes in several species from family Asteraceae known to contain linked 35 S-5 S units. Additionally, their methylation status was determined using bisulfite sequencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to reveal the sub-nuclear positions of rDNA arrays. Results We found that homogenization of L-type units went to completion in most (4/6) but not all species. Two species contained major L-type and minor S-type units (termed Ls-type). The linked genes dominate 5 S rDNA expression while the separate tandems do not seem to be expressed. Members of tribe Anthemideae evolved functional variants of the polymerase III promoter in which a residing C-box element differs from the canonical angiosperm motif by as much as 30%. On this basis, a more relaxed consensus sequence of a plant C-box: (5’-RGSWTGGGTG-3’) is proposed. The 5 S paralogs display heavy DNA methylation similarly as to their unlinked counterparts. FISH revealed the close association of 35 S-5 S arrays with nucleolar periphery indicating that transcription of 5 S genes may occur in this territory. Conclusions We show that the unusual linked arrangement of 5 S genes, occurring in several plant species, is fully compatible with their expression and functionality. This extraordinary 5 S gene dynamics is manifested at different levels, such as variation in intrachromosomal positions, unit structure, epigenetic modification and considerable divergence of regulatory motifs. PMID:22716941

  18. Global Analysis of DNA Methylation Variation in Adipose Tissue from Twins Reveals Links to Disease-Associated Variants in Distal Regulatory Elements

    PubMed Central

    Grundberg, Elin; Meduri, Eshwar; Sandling, Johanna K.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Keildson, Sarah; Buil, Alfonso; Busche, Stephan; Yuan, Wei; Nisbet, James; Sekowska, Magdalena; Wilk, Alicja; Barrett, Amy; Small, Kerrin S.; Ge, Bing; Caron, Maxime; Shin, So-Youn; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Barrett, Amy; Bataille, Veronique; Bell, Jordana T.; Buil, Alfonso; Deloukas, Panos; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Durbin, Richard; Glass, Daniel; Grundberg, Elin; Hassanali, Neelam; Hedman, Åsa K.; Ingle, Catherine; Knowles, David; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lowe, Christopher E.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meduri, Eshwar; di Meglio, Paola; Min, Josine L.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Nestle, Frank O.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Nisbet, James; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Parts, Leopold; Potter, Simon; Sandling, Johanna; Sekowska, Magdalena; Shin, So-Youn; Small, Kerrin S.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D.; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Travers, Mary E.; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Tsoka, Sophia; Wilk, Alicja; Yang, Tsun-Po; Zondervan, Krina T.; Lathrop, Mark; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Spector, Timothy D.; Bell, Jordana T.; Deloukas, Panos

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation play a key role in gene regulation and disease susceptibility. However, little is known about the genome-wide frequency, localization, and function of methylation variation and how it is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. We utilized the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource (MuTHER) and generated Illumina 450K adipose methylome data from 648 twins. We found that individual CpGs had low variance and that variability was suppressed in promoters. We noted that DNA methylation variation was highly heritable (h2median = 0.34) and that shared environmental effects correlated with metabolic phenotype-associated CpGs. Analysis of methylation quantitative-trait loci (metQTL) revealed that 28% of CpGs were associated with nearby SNPs, and when overlapping them with adipose expression quantitative-trait loci (eQTL) from the same individuals, we found that 6% of the loci played a role in regulating both gene expression and DNA methylation. These associations were bidirectional, but there were pronounced negative associations for promoter CpGs. Integration of metQTL with adipose reference epigenomes and disease associations revealed significant enrichment of metQTL overlapping metabolic-trait or disease loci in enhancers (the strongest effects were for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and body mass index [BMI]). We followed up with the BMI SNP rs713586, a cg01884057 metQTL that overlaps an enhancer upstream of ADCY3, and used bisulphite sequencing to refine this region. Our results showed widespread population invariability yet sequence dependence on adipose DNA methylation but that incorporating maps of regulatory elements aid in linking CpG variation to gene regulation and disease risk in a tissue-dependent manner. PMID:24183450

  19. Evolutionary conservation of long noncoding RNAs; sequence, structure, function

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Per; Lipovich, Leonard; Grandér, Dan; Morris, Kevin V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genome wide studies have revealed the abundance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mammalian transcriptomes. The ENCODE Consortium has elucidated the prevalence of human lncRNA genes, which are as numerous as protein-coding genes. Surprisingly, many lncRNAs do not show the same pattern of high interspecies conservation as protein-coding genes. The absence of functional studies and the frequent lack of sequence conservation therefore make functional interpretation of these newly discovered transcripts challenging. Many investigators have suggested the presence and importance of secondary structural elements within lncRNAs, but mammalian lncRNA secondary structure remains poorly understood. It is intriguing to speculate that in this group of genes, RNA secondary structures might be preserved throughout evolution and that this might explain the lack of sequence conservation among many lncRNAs. Scope of review Here, we review the extent of interspecies conservation among different lncRNAs, with a focus on a subset of lncRNAs that have been functionally investigated. The function of lncRNAs is widespread and we investigate whether different forms of functionalities may be conserved. Major conclusions Lack of conservation does not imbue a lack of function. We highlight several examples of lncRNAs where RNA structure appears to be the main functional unit and evolutionary constraint. We survey existing genomewide studies of mammalian lncRNA conservation and summarize their limitations. We further review specific human lncRNAs which lack evolutionary conservation beyond primates but have proven to be both functional and therapeutically relevant. General significance Pioneering studies highlight a role in lncRNAs for secondary structures, and possibly the presence of functional “modules”, which are interspersed with longer and less conserved stretches of nucleotide sequences. Taken together, high-throughput analysis of conservation and

  20. Conserved Noncoding Sequences Regulate lhx5 Expression in the Zebrafish Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liu; Chen, Fengjiao; Peng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The LIM homeobox family protein Lhx5 plays important roles in forebrain development in the vertebrates. The lhx5 gene exhibits complex temporal and spatial expression patterns during early development but its transcriptional regulation mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we have used transgenesis in zebrafish in order to define regulatory elements that drive lhx5 expression in the forebrain. Through comparative genomic analysis we identified 10 non-coding sequences conserved in five teleost species. We next examined the enhancer activities of these conserved non-coding sequences with Tol2 transposon mediated transgenesis. We found a proximately located enhancer gave rise to robust reporter EGFP expression in the forebrain regions. In addition, we identified an enhancer located at approximately 50 kb upstream of lhx5 coding region that is responsible for reporter gene expression in the hypothalamus. We also identify an enhancer located approximately 40 kb upstream of the lhx5 coding region that is required for expression in the prethalamus (ventral thalamus). Together our results suggest discrete enhancer elements control lhx5 expression in different regions of the forebrain. PMID:26147098

  1. Evolutionary annotation of conserved long non-coding RNAs in major mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Bu, DeChao; Luo, HaiTao; Jiao, Fei; Fang, ShuangSang; Tan, ChengFu; Liu, ZhiYong; Zhao, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian genomes contain tens of thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that have been implicated in diverse biological processes. However, the lncRNA transcriptomes of most mammalian species have not been established, limiting the evolutionary annotation of these novel transcripts. Based on RNA sequencing data from six tissues of nine species, we built comprehensive lncRNA catalogs (4,142-42,558 lncRNAs) covering the major mammalian species. Compared to protein- coding RNAs, expression of lncRNAs exhibits striking lineage specificity. Notably, although 30%-99% human lncRNAs are conserved across different species on DNA locus level, only 20%-27% of these conserved lncRNA loci are detected to transcription, which represents a stark contrast to the proportion of conserved protein-coding genes (48%-80%). This finding provides a valuable resource for experimental scientists to study the mechanisms of lncRNAs. Moreover, we constructed lncRNA expression phylogenetic trees across nine mammals and demonstrated that lncRNA expression profiles can reliably determine phylogenic placement in a manner similar to their coding counterparts. Our data also reveal that the evolutionary rate of lncRNA expression varies among tissues and is significantly higher than those for protein-coding genes. To streamline the processes of browsing lncRNAs and detecting their evolutionary statuses, we integrate all the data produced in this study into a database named PhyloNONCODE (http://www.bioinfo.org/phyloNoncode). Our work starts to place mammalian lncRNAs in an evolutionary context and represent a rich resource for comparative and functional analyses of this critical layer of genome.

  2. TFIIS-Dependent Non-coding Transcription Regulates Developmental Genome Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Olejniczak, Kamila; Gruchota, Julita; Gromadka, Robert; Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Mathy, Nathalie; Duharcourt, Sandra; Bétermier, Mireille; Nowak, Jacek K

    2015-07-01

    Because of their nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide a unique opportunity to study the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the communication between germline and somatic lineages. In these unicellular eukaryotes, a new somatic nucleus develops at each sexual cycle from a copy of the zygotic (germline) nucleus, while the old somatic nucleus degenerates. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is massively rearranged during this process through the reproducible elimination of repeated sequences and the precise excision of over 45,000 short, single-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IESs). Different types of ncRNAs resulting from genome-wide transcription were shown to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of genome rearrangements. To understand how ncRNAs are produced from the entire genome, we have focused on a homolog of the TFIIS elongation factor, which regulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional pausing. Six TFIIS-paralogs, representing four distinct families, can be found in P. tetraurelia genome. Using RNA interference, we showed that TFIIS4, which encodes a development-specific TFIIS protein, is essential for the formation of a functional somatic genome. Molecular analyses and high-throughput DNA sequencing upon TFIIS4 RNAi demonstrated that TFIIS4 is involved in all kinds of genome rearrangements, including excision of ~48% of IESs. Localization of a GFP-TFIIS4 fusion revealed that TFIIS4 appears specifically in the new somatic nucleus at an early developmental stage, before IES excision. RT-PCR experiments showed that TFIIS4 is necessary for the synthesis of IES-containing non-coding transcripts. We propose that these IES+ transcripts originate from the developing somatic nucleus and serve as pairing substrates for germline-specific short RNAs that target elimination of their homologous sequences. Our study, therefore, connects the onset of zygotic non coding transcription to the control of genome plasticity in Paramecium, and establishes for

  3. Mechanism of cancer drug resistance and the involvement of noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongping; Hui, Kam M

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major reasons for the failure of cancer therapies. Although our understanding of resistance to targeted cancer drugs remains incomplete, new and more creative approaches are being exploited to intercept this phenomenon. Considerable advances have been made in our understanding that cancer drug resistance can be caused by alterations of drug efflux, increases in drug metabolism, mutations of drug targets, alterations in DNA repair and cell cycle, changes in cell apoptosis and autophagy, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the generation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Furthermore, intracellular signalling pathways have been shown to play key physiological roles and the abnormal activation of signalling pathways may be correlated with drug resistance. Recently, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and alternative splicing, which provides cells with yet another mode to greatly increase regulatory complexity and fine-tune their transcriptome and can rapidly adjust their proteome in response to stimuli. Consequently, a wide variety of biological functions have been shown to depend on the coordinated interactions between noncoding RNAs and cellular signalling networks to achieve a concerted desired physiological outcome, whereas mutations and dysregulation of ncRNAs have been linked to diverse human diseases, including cancer drug resistance. In this review, we will discuss recent findings on the multiple molecular roles of regulatory ncRNAs on the signalling pathways involved in cancer drug resistance and the therapeutic potential of reverse drug resistance.

  4. Strategies for Development of Functionally Equivalent Promoters with Minimum Sequence Homology for Transgene Expression in Plants: cis-Elements in a Novel DNA Context versus Domain Swapping1

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Simran; Chakravarthy, Suma; Advani, Sonia; Datta, Sudipta; Pental, Deepak; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (35S) promoter has been extensively used for the constitutive expression of transgenes in dicotyledonous plants. The repetitive use of the same promoter is known to induce transgene inactivation due to promoter homology. As a way to circumvent this problem, we tested two different strategies for the development of synthetic promoters that are functionally equivalent but have a minimum sequence homology. Such promoters can be generated by (a) introducing known cis-elements in a novel or synthetic stretch of DNA or (b) “domain swapping,” wherein domains of one promoter can be replaced with functionally equivalent domains from other heterologous promoters. We evaluated the two strategies for promoter modifications using domain A (consisting of minimal promoter and subdomain A1) of the 35S promoter as a model. A set of modified 35S promoters were developed whose strength was compared with the 35S promoter per se using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Analysis of the expression of the reporter gene in transient assay system showed that domain swapping led to a significant fall in promoter activity. In contrast, promoters developed by placing cis-elements in a novel DNA context showed levels of expression comparable with that of the 35S. Two promoter constructs Mod2A1T and Mod3A1T were then designed by placing the core sequences of minimal promoter and subdomain A1 in divergent DNA sequences. Transgenics developed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with the two constructs and with 35S as control were used to assess the promoter activity in different tissues of primary transformants. Mod2A1T and Mod3A1T were found to be active in all of the tissues tested, at levels comparable with that of 35S. Further, the expression of the Mod2A1T promoter in the seedlings of the T1 generation was also similar to that of the 35S promoter. The present strategy opens up the possibility of creating a set of synthetic promoters with minimum sequence

  5. PVT1: a rising star among oncogenic long noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Teresa; Farina, Lorenzo; Macino, Giuseppe; Paci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that short and long noncoding RNAs critically participate in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and (mis)function. However, while the functional characterization of short non-coding RNAs has been reaching maturity, there is still a paucity of well characterized long noncoding RNAs, even though large studies in recent years are rapidly increasing the number of annotated ones. The long noncoding RNA PVT1 is encoded by a gene that has been long known since it resides in the well-known cancer risk region 8q24. However, a couple of accidental concurrent conditions have slowed down the study of this gene, that is, a preconception on the primacy of the protein-coding over noncoding RNAs and the prevalent interest in its neighbor MYC oncogene. Recent studies have brought PVT1 under the spotlight suggesting interesting models of functioning, such as competing endogenous RNA activity and regulation of protein stability of important oncogenes, primarily of the MYC oncogene. Despite some advancements in modelling the PVT1 role in cancer, there are many questions that remain unanswered concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its functioning. PMID:25883951

  6. PVT1: A Rising Star among Oncogenic Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Teresa; Farina, Lorenzo; Macino, Giuseppe; Paci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that short and long noncoding RNAs critically participate in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and (mis)function. However, while the functional characterization of short non-coding RNAs has been reaching maturity, there is still a paucity of well characterized long noncoding RNAs, even though large studies in recent years are rapidly increasing the number of annotated ones. The long noncoding RNA PVT1 is encoded by a gene that has been long known since it resides in the well-known cancer risk region 8q24. However, a couple of accidental concurrent conditions have slowed down the study of this gene, that is, a preconception on the primacy of the protein-coding over noncoding RNAs and the prevalent interest in its neighbor MYC oncogene. Recent studies have brought PVT1 under the spotlight suggesting interesting models of functioning, such as competing endogenous RNA activity and regulation of protein stability of important oncogenes, primarily of the MYC oncogene. Despite some advancements in modelling the PVT1 role in cancer, there are many questions that remain unanswered concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its functioning. PMID:25883951

  7. Cis-acting elements in the lytic origin of DNA replication of Marek's disease virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, A; Iwata, A; Ueda, S

    1998-12-01

    The replication origin of Marek's disease virus (MDV) type 1 was analysed by using a transient replication assay with plasmids containing various fragments of MDV strain Md5 genomic DNA. Plasmid pMBH, containing the BamHI-H fragment, showed replication activity in MDV-infected chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). By deletion analysis of pMBH, two regions, the promoter-enhancer region of the MDV pp38 gene and the 132 bp tandem direct repeat, were shown to be required for replication activity. Replication of pMBH was not observed in uninfected CEF, suggesting that a trans-acting factor(s) encoded by the MDV genome was necessary for replication.

  8. Archaeal Haloarcula californiae Icosahedral Virus 1 Highlights Conserved Elements in Icosahedral Membrane-Containing DNA Viruses from Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Demina, Tatiana A.; Pietilä, Maija K.; Svirskaitė, Julija; Ravantti, Janne J.; Atanasova, Nina S.; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite their high genomic diversity, all known viruses are structurally constrained to a limited number of virion morphotypes. One morphotype of viruses infecting bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes is the tailless icosahedral morphotype with an internal membrane. Although it is considered an abundant morphotype in extreme environments, only seven such archaeal viruses are known. Here, we introduce Haloarcula californiae icosahedral virus 1 (HCIV-1), a halophilic euryarchaeal virus originating from salt crystals. HCIV-1 also retains its infectivity under low-salinity conditions, showing that it is able to adapt to environmental changes. The release of progeny virions resulting from cell lysis was evidenced by reduced cellular oxygen consumption, leakage of intracellular ATP, and binding of an indicator ion to ruptured cell membranes. The virion contains at least 12 different protein species, lipids selectively acquired from the host cell membrane, and a 31,314-bp-long linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The overall genome organization and sequence show high similarity to the genomes of archaeal viruses in the Sphaerolipoviridae family. Phylogenetic analysis based on the major conserved components needed for virion assembly—the major capsid proteins and the packaging ATPase—placed HCIV-1 along with the alphasphaerolipoviruses in a distinct, well-supported clade. On the basis of its virion morphology and sequence similarities, most notably, those of its core virion components, we propose that HCIV-1 is a member of the PRD1-adenovirus structure-based lineage together with other sphaerolipoviruses. This addition to the lineage reinforces the notion of the ancient evolutionary links observed between the viruses and further highlights the limits of the choices found in nature for formation of a virion. PMID:27435460

  9. Genomic DNA nanoparticles rescue rhodopsin-associated retinitis pigmentosa phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zongchao; Banworth, Marcellus J.; Makkia, Rasha; Conley, Shannon M.; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R.; Cooper, Mark J.; Naash, Muna I.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the rhodopsin gene cause retinal degeneration and clinical phenotypes including retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and congenital stationary night blindness. Effective gene therapies have been difficult to develop, however, because generating precise levels of rhodopsin expression is critical; overexpression causes toxicity, and underexpression would result in incomplete rescue. Current gene delivery strategies routinely use cDNA-based vectors for gene targeting; however, inclusion of noncoding components of genomic DNA (gDNA) such as introns may help promote more endogenous regulation of gene expression. Here we test the hypothesis that inclusion of genomic sequences from the rhodopsin gene can improve the efficacy of rhodopsin gene therapy in the rhodopsin knockout (RKO) mouse model of RP. We utilize our compacted DNA nanoparticles (NPs), which have the ability to transfer larger and more complex genetic constructs, to deliver murine rhodopsin cDNA or gDNA. We show functional and structural improvements in RKO eyes for up to 8 months after NP-mediated gDNA but not cDNA delivery. Importantly, in addition to improvements in rod function, we observe significant preservation of cone function at time points when cones in the RKO model are degenerated. These results suggest that inclusion of native expression elements, such as introns, can significantly enhance gene expression and therapeutic efficacy and may become an essential option in the array of available gene delivery tools.— Han, Z., Banworth, M. J., Makkia, R., Conley, S. M., Al-Ubaidi, M. R., Cooper, M. J., Naash, M. I. Genomic DNA nanoparticles rescue rhodopsin-associated retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. PMID:25713057

  10. Pack-Mutator-like transposable elements (Pack-MULEs) induce directional modification of genes through biased insertion and DNA acquisition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning; Ferguson, Ann A; Slotkin, R Keith; Lisch, Damon

    2011-01-25

    In monocots, many genes demonstrate a significant negative GC gradient, meaning that the GC content declines along the orientation of transcription. Such a gradient is not observed in the genes of the dicot plant Arabidopsis. In addition, a lack of homology is often observed when comparing the 5' end of the coding region of orthologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis. The reasons for these differences have been enigmatic. The presence of GC-rich sequences at the 5' end of genes may influence the conformation of chromatin, the expression level of genes, as well as the recombination rate. Here we show that Pack-Mutator-like transposable elements (Pack-MULEs) that carry gene fragments specifically acquire GC-rich fragments and preferentially insert into the 5' end of genes. The resulting Pack-MULEs form independent, GC-rich transcripts with a negative GC gradient. Alternatively, the Pack-MULEs evolve into additional exons at the 5' end of existing genes, thus altering the GC content in those regions. We demonstrate that Pack-MULEs modify the 5' end of genes and are at least partially responsible for the negative GC gradient of genes in grasses. Such a unique and global impact on gene composition and gene structure has not been observed for any other transposable elements.

  11. Self-assembly of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide harboring the estrogen response element in the presence of polyamines: ionic, structural, and DNA sequence specificity effects.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J S; Thomas, T J; Shirahata, A; Thomas, T

    2000-01-01

    Estrogenic regulation of gene expression is mediated by the binding of the hormone to its specific receptor, estrogen receptor (ER), which undergoes structural and conformational alterations to recognize specific DNA sequences, estrogen response elements (ERE), in responsive genes to trigger a series of events culminating in the transcription of these genes. Polyamines are ubiquitous cellular cations that are important for cell growth and differentiation, and have been shown to participate in estrogenic regulation of gene expression. Polyamine-mediated DNA condensation/aggregation has been studied to understand the ionic and structural requirements for the compaction of DNA. DNA condensation/decondensation may also play a role in transcription and replication. We studied the aggregation of a 38-mer oligonucleotide duplex (ODN) in the presence of natural and synthetic polyamines under different ionic conditions (NaCl, KCl, and K glutamate). Our results showed that an ODN harboring the consensus ERE (ODN1) was 2-fold more susceptible to precipitation by spermine compared to ODN2 containing scrambled sequences, or a mutant ODN (ODN3). The nature of the monovalent cations (Na+ vs K+), and anions (Cl- vs glutamate) also played an important role in the efficacy of a polyamine to precipitate ODNs: potassium glutamate being the least effective in suppressing the ability of spermine to precipitate ODNs. The concentration of polyamines required for precipitating the ODNs increased with monovalent ion concentration in the buffer. With ODN1, a plot of log[spermine4+] at the 50% precipitation concentrations against log[Na+/K+] yielded a straight line, with a slope of 1.8 +/- 0.18, a value comparable to that predicted by the counterion condensation theory (1.85). We also observed significant structural specificity effects of spermine and its analogues [NH2(CH2)3NH(CH2)nNH(CH2)3NH2, where n = 2-9; n = 4 for spermine] on aggregating the ODN1. These results demonstrate DNA sequence

  12. Non-coding RNAs in chromatin disease involving neurological defects.

    PubMed

    Della Ragione, Floriana; Gagliardi, Miriam; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Matarazzo, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Novel classes of small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are increasingly becoming apparent, being engaged in diverse structural, functional and regulatory activities. They take part in target gene silencing, play roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic processes, such as chromatin remodeling, nuclear reorganization with the formation of silent compartments and fine-tuning of gene recruitment into them. Among their functions, non-coding RNAs are thought to act either as guide or scaffold for epigenetic modifiers that write, erase, and read the epigenetic signature over the genome. Studies on human disorders caused by defects in epigenetic modifiers and involving neurological phenotypes highlight the disruption of diverse classes of non-coding RNAs. Noteworthy, these molecules mediate a wide spectrum of neuronal functions, including brain development, and synaptic plasticity. These findings imply a significant contribution of ncRNAs in pathophysiology of the aforesaid diseases and provide new concepts for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:24616662

  13. Non-coding RNAs regulate tumor cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bodu; Sun, Lijuan; Song, Erwei

    2013-10-01

    Tumor metastasis is one of the most serious challenges for human cancers as the majority of deaths caused by cancer are associated with metastasis, rather than the primary tumor. Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor cell plasticity plays a critical role in tumor metastasis by giving rise to various cell types which is necessary for tumor to invade adjacent tissues and form distant metastasis. These include differentiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse process, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that the biology of tumor cell plasticity is tightly linked to functions of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Therefore, understanding the mechanisms how non-coding RNAs regulate tumor cell plasticity is essential for discovery of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets to overcome metastasis.

  14. Non-coding RNAs in chromatin disease involving neurological defects.

    PubMed

    Della Ragione, Floriana; Gagliardi, Miriam; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Matarazzo, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Novel classes of small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are increasingly becoming apparent, being engaged in diverse structural, functional and regulatory activities. They take part in target gene silencing, play roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic processes, such as chromatin remodeling, nuclear reorganization with the formation of silent compartments and fine-tuning of gene recruitment into them. Among their functions, non-coding RNAs are thought to act either as guide or scaffold for epigenetic modifiers that write, erase, and read the epigenetic signature over the genome. Studies on human disorders caused by defects in epigenetic modifiers and involving neurological phenotypes highlight the disruption of diverse classes of non-coding RNAs. Noteworthy, these molecules mediate a wide spectrum of neuronal functions, including brain development, and synaptic plasticity. These findings imply a significant contribution of ncRNAs in pathophysiology of the aforesaid diseases and provide new concepts for potential therapeutic applications.

  15. Analysis of genetic elements controlling Staphylococcus aureus lrgAB expression: potential role of DNA topology in SarA regulation.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, D F; Brunskill, E W; Bayles, K W

    2000-09-01

    Penicillin-induced killing and murein hydrolase activity in Staphylococcus aureus are dependent on a variety of regulatory elements, including the LytSR two-component regulatory system and the virulence factor regulators Agr and Sar. The LytSR effects on these processes can be explained, in part, by the recent finding that a LytSR-regulated operon, designated lrgAB, affects murein hydrolase activity and penicillin tolerance. To examine the regulation of lrgAB expression in greater detail, we performed Northern blot and promoter fusion analyses. Both methods revealed that Agr and Sar, like LytSR, positively regulate lrgAB expression. A mutation in the agr locus reduced lrgAB expression approximately sixfold, while the sar mutation reduced lrgAB expression to undetectable levels. cis-acting regulatory elements involved in lrgAB expression were identified by fusing various fragments of the lrgAB promoter region to the xylE reporter gene and integrating these constructs into the chromosome. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase assays identified DNA sequences, including an inverted repeat and intrinsic bend sites, that contribute to maximal lrgAB expression. Confirmation of the importance of the inverted repeat was achieved by demonstrating that multiple copies of the inverted repeat reduced lrgAB promoter activity, presumably by titrating out a positive regulatory factor. The results of this study demonstrate that lrgAB expression responds to a variety of positive regulatory factors and suggest that specific DNA topology requirements are important for optimal expression. PMID:10940023

  16. Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of the Effects of Reprotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Larriba, Eduardo; del Mazo, Jesús

    2016-03-25

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulatory elements of gene expression and chromatin structure. Both long and small ncRNAs can also act as inductors and targets of epigenetic programs. Epigenetic patterns can be transmitted from one cell to the daughter cell, but, importantly, also through generations. Diversity of ncRNAs is emerging with new and surprising roles. Functional interactions among ncRNAs and between specific ncRNAs and structural elements of the chromatin are drawing a complex landscape. In this scenario, epigenetic changes induced by environmental stressors, including reprotoxicants, can explain some transgenerationally-transmitted phenotypes in non-Mendelian ways. In this review, we analyze mechanisms of action of reprotoxicants upon different types of ncRNAs and epigenetic modifications causing transgenerationally transmitted characters through germ cells but affecting germ cells and reproductive systems. A functional model of epigenetic mechanisms of transgenerational transmission ncRNAs-mediated is also proposed.

  17. Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of the Effects of Reprotoxicants

    PubMed Central

    Larriba, Eduardo; del Mazo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulatory elements of gene expression and chromatin structure. Both long and small ncRNAs can also act as inductors and targets of epigenetic programs. Epigenetic patterns can be transmitted from one cell to the daughter cell, but, importantly, also through generations. Diversity of ncRNAs is emerging with new and surprising roles. Functional interactions among ncRNAs and between specific ncRNAs and structural elements of the chromatin are drawing a complex landscape. In this scenario, epigenetic changes induced by environmental stressors, including reprotoxicants, can explain some transgenerationally-transmitted phenotypes in non-Mendelian ways. In this review, we analyze mechanisms of action of reprotoxicants upon different types of ncRNAs and epigenetic modifications causing transgenerationally transmitted characters through germ cells but affecting germ cells and reproductive systems. A functional model of epigenetic mechanisms of transgenerational transmission ncRNAs-mediated is also proposed. PMID:27023531

  18. Crystallographic analysis of an RNA polymerase σ-subunit fragment complexed with -10 promoter element ssDNA: quadruplex formation as a possible tool for engineering crystal contacts in protein-ssDNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Feklistov, Andrey; Darst, Seth A

    2013-09-01

    Structural studies of -10 promoter element recognition by domain 2 of the RNA polymerase σ subunit [Feklistov & Darst (2011), Cell, 147, 1257-1269] reveal an unusual crystal-packing arrangement dominated by G-quartets. The 3'-terminal GGG motif of the oligonucleotide used in crystallization participates in G-quadruplex formation with GGG motifs from symmetry-related complexes. Stacking between neighboring G-quadruplexes results in the formation of pseudo-continuous four-stranded columns running throughout the length of the crystal (G-columns). Here, a new crystal form is presented with a different arrangement of G-columns and it is proposed that the fortuitous finding of G-quartet packing could be useful in engineering crystal contacts in protein-ssDNA complexes. PMID:23989139

  19. Pilot sequencing of onion genomic DNA reveals fragments of transposable elements, low gene densities, and significant gene enrichment after methyl filtration.

    PubMed

    Jakse, Jernej; Meyer, Jenelle D F; Suzuki, Go; McCallum, John; Cheung, Foo; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    Sequencing of the onion (Allium cepa) genome is challenging because it has one of the largest nuclear genomes among cultivated plants. We undertook pilot sequencing of onion genomic DNA to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive DNAs. Complete sequences from two onion BACs were AT rich (64.8%) and revealed long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons, similar to other larger plant genomes. Random BACs were end sequenced and only 3 of 460 ends showed significant (e < -25) non-organellar hits to the protein databases. The BAC-end sequences were AT rich (63.4%), similar to the completely sequenced BACs. A total of 499,997 bp of onion genomic DNA yielded an estimated mean density of one gene per 168 kb, among the lowest reported to date. Methyl filtration was highly effective relative to random shotgun reads in reducing frequencies of anonymous sequences from 82 to 55% and increasing non-organellar protein hits from 4 to 42%. Our results revealed no evidence for gene-dense regions and indicated that sequencing of methyl-filtered genomic fragments should be an efficient approach to reveal genic sequences in the onion genome.

  20. DNA methylation of LINE-1 and Alu repetitive elements in relation to sex hormones and pubertal timing in Mexican-American children

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Rauch, Stephen; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms linking environmental exposures to earlier pubertal development are not well characterized. Epigenetics may play an important role, but data on the relationship between epigenetic marks and puberty, particularly in humans, is limited. Methods We used pyrosequencing to measure Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) methylation in DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and 9-year-old children (n=266). Tanner staging was completed six times between ages 9 and 12 years to determine pubertal status, and hormone levels were measured in 12-year-old boys. Results Among girls, we observed a suggestive trend of increased odds of breast and pubic hair development with higher Alu and LINE-1 methylation in 9-year-old blood, respectively. The strongest association identified was an inverse association of LINE-1 methylation in 9-year-old girls with odds of experiencing menarche by age 12 (OR(95%CI): 0.63(0.46,0.87); p=0.005). We observed a consistent inverse relationship for Alu and LINE-1 methylation at 9 years with luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels in boys but it was only significant between LINE-1 and LH. Conclusion DNA methylation of Alu and LINE-1 may be involved in puberty initiation and development. This relationship should be confirmed in future studies. PMID:26882368

  1. Hx, a novel fluorescent, minor groove and sequence specific recognition element: design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of p-anisylbenzimidazole-imidazole/pyrrole-containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Sameer; Liu, Yang; Babu, Balaji; Davis, Ryan; Sielaff, Alan; Ruprich, Jennifer; Westrate, Laura; Tronrud, Christopher; Ferguson, Amanda; Franks, Andrew; Tzou, Samuel; Adkins, Chandler; Rice, Toni; Mackay, Hilary; Kluza, Jerome; Tahir, Sharjeel A; Lin, Shicai; Kiakos, Konstantinos; Bruce, Chrystal D; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2011-04-19

    With the aim of incorporating a recognition element that acts as a fluorescent probe upon binding to DNA, three novel pyrrole (P) and imidazole (I)-containing polyamides were synthesized. The compounds contain a p-anisylbenzimidazolecarboxamido (Hx) moiety attached to a PP, IP, or PI unit, giving compounds HxPP (2), HxIP (3), and HxPI (4), respectively. These fluorescent hybrids were tested against their complementary nonfluorescent, non-formamido tetraamide counterparts, namely, PPPP (5), PPIP (6), and PPPI (7) (cognate sequences 5'-AAATTT-3', 5'-ATCGAT-3', and 5'-ACATGT-3', respectively). The binding affinities for both series of polyamides for their cognate and noncognate sequences were ascertained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies, which revealed that the Hx-containing polyamides gave binding constants in the 10(6) M(-1) range while little binding was observed for the noncognates. The binding data were further compared to the corresponding and previously reported formamido-triamides f-PPP (8), f-PIP (9), and f-PPI (10). DNase I footprinting studies provided additional evidence that the Hx moiety behaved similarly to two consecutive pyrroles (PP found in 5-7), which also behaved like a formamido-pyrrole (f-P) unit found in distamycin and many formamido-triamides, including 8-10. The biophysical characterization of polyamides 2-7 on their binding to the abovementioned DNA sequences was determined using thermal melts (ΔT(M)), circular dichroism (CD), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies. Density functional calculations (B3LYP) provided a theoretical framework that explains the similarity between PP and Hx on the basis of molecular electrostatic surfaces and dipole moments. Furthermore, emission studies on polyamides 2 and 3 showed that upon excitation at 322 nm binding to their respective cognate sequences resulted in an increase in fluorescence at 370 nm. These low molecular weight polyamides show promise for use as probes for monitoring

  2. The 5' noncoding sequences from a less virulent Theiler's virus dramatically attenuate GDVII neurovirulence.

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, H L; Calenoff, M; Bandyopadhyay, P; Miller, S D; Dal Canto, M C; Gerety, S; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    RNA transcripts derived from recombinant chimeras between the highly virulent GDVII virus and the less virulent BeAn virus were constructed to study the molecular pathogenesis of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection. The presence of the BeAn 5' noncoding sequences in chimera 2 (BeAn 5' noncoding sequences joined with the GDVII nucleotides encoding the polyprotein and present in the 3' end) resulted in dramatic attenuation of GDVII neurovirulence and development of poliomyelitis in mice. This reduced neurovirulence was associated with slower virus growth and lower peak titers in the brain and spinal cord than with parental GDVII virus replication. On the other hand, the sites of replication following chimera 2 infection were the same as those seen in GDVII-infected mice; the distribution of virus antigen and histopathological changes indicated that chimera 2 replicates in neurons in the brain, e.g., in the neocortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and brain stem, as well as in anterior-horn cells in the spinal cord. Chimera 2 was efficiently cleared from the mouse central nervous system by day 30 postinfection, in marked contrast to the persistence of the BeAn parent in the central nervous system. This suggests that elements in the BeAn sequences that encode the polyprotein or are present in the 3' noncoding region are necessary for viral persistence. It is of interest that chimera 2-infected mice developed localized inflammatory, demyelinating lesions which were detected at day 28 postinfection but these lesions did not become larger with time. Thus, virus persistence appears to be required for maintenance and progression of immune-mediated demyelination. If the demyelinating lesions become sufficiently large, clinical signs and disease may develop. Images PMID:2072455

  3. The 5' noncoding sequences from a less virulent Theiler's virus dramatically attenuate GDVII neurovirulence.

    PubMed

    Lipton, H L; Calenoff, M; Bandyopadhyay, P; Miller, S D; Dal Canto, M C; Gerety, S; Jensen, K

    1991-08-01

    RNA transcripts derived from recombinant chimeras between the highly virulent GDVII virus and the less virulent BeAn virus were constructed to study the molecular pathogenesis of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection. The presence of the BeAn 5' noncoding sequences in chimera 2 (BeAn 5' noncoding sequences joined with the GDVII nucleotides encoding the polyprotein and present in the 3' end) resulted in dramatic attenuation of GDVII neurovirulence and development of poliomyelitis in mice. This reduced neurovirulence was associated with slower virus growth and lower peak titers in the brain and spinal cord than with parental GDVII virus replication. On the other hand, the sites of replication following chimera 2 infection were the same as those seen in GDVII-infected mice; the distribution of virus antigen and histopathological changes indicated that chimera 2 replicates in neurons in the brain, e.g., in the neocortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and brain stem, as well as in anterior-horn cells in the spinal cord. Chimera 2 was efficiently cleared from the mouse central nervous system by day 30 postinfection, in marked contrast to the persistence of the BeAn parent in the central nervous system. This suggests that elements in the BeAn sequences that encode the polyprotein or are present in the 3' noncoding region are necessary for viral persistence. It is of interest that chimera 2-infected mice developed localized inflammatory, demyelinating lesions which were detected at day 28 postinfection but these lesions did not become larger with time. Thus, virus persistence appears to be required for maintenance and progression of immune-mediated demyelination. If the demyelinating lesions become sufficiently large, clinical signs and disease may develop.

  4. A 5'-3' terminal stem in small non-coding RNAs extends their lifetime.

    PubMed

    Koval, Anastasia P; Gogolevskaya, Irina K; Tatosyan, Karina A; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2015-01-25

    4.5SI and 4.5SH are two non-coding RNAs about 100nt long, synthesized by RNA polymerase III in cells of various rodents including mice, rats, and hamsters. The first RNA is long-lived whereas the half-life of the second is only 20min. We previously found that the 16bp double-stranded structure (stem), formed by 4.5SI RNA termini, contributes essentially to the long lifetime of this RNA (Koval et al., 2012). The rapid decay of 4.5SH RNA seems to be related to the lack of a similar structure in this RNA. The aim of this work was to verify whether the lifetime of any other short-lived non-coding RNA can be prolonged following creation of the double-stranded structure with its terminal regions. Here RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III from short interspersed elements (SINEs) B2 and Rhin-1 from the genomes of mouse and horseshoe bat, respectively, were used. Replacement of 16nt at the 3'-terminal region by the sequence complementary to the 5' end region of B2 and Rhin-1 RNA increased their half-life more than 4 fold. In addition, we demonstrated that shortening of the terminal stem from 16 to 8bp decreased only slightly the 4.5SI RNA lifetime. Finally, we showed that the disruption of an internal (non-terminal) stem in 4.5SI RNA did not accelerate its decay in cells. Possible mechanisms of the small non-coding RNA lifetime extension are discussed.

  5. Identification of novel long non-coding RNAs in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaokun; Xie, Bojian; Ma, Zhaosheng; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Wenmin; Xu, Dong; Yan, Xinqiang; Chen, Beibei; Yu, Longyao; Li, Jicheng; Chen, Xiaobing; Ding, Kan; Cao, Feilin

    2015-08-28

    Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC) are characterized by particularly poor outcomes, and there are no established markers significantly associated with prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are subclass of noncoding RNAs that have been recently shown to play critical roles in cancer biology. However, little is known about their mechanistic role in TNBC pathogenesis. In this report, we investigated the expression patterns of lncRNAs from TNBC tissues and matched normal tissues with Agilent Human lncRNA array. We identified 1,758 lncRNAs and 1,254 mRNAs that were differentially expressed (≥ 2-fold change), indicating that many lncRNAs are significantly upregulated or downregulated in TNBC. Among these, XR_250621.1 and NONHSAT125629 were the most upregulated and downregulated lncRNAs respectively. qRT-PCR was employed to validate the microarray analysis findings, and results were consistent with the data from the microarrays. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were applied to explore the potential lncRNAs functions, some pathways including microtubule motor activity and DNA replication were identified in TNBC pathogenesis. Our study revealed that a set of lncRNAs were differentially expressed in TNBC tissues, suggesting that they may play role in TNBC. These results shed light on lncRNAs' biological functions and provide useful information for exploring potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer.

  6. Comprehensive Reconstruction and Visualization of Non-Coding Regulatory Networks in Human

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Russo, Francesco; Bombieri, Nicola; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established on-line repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins, and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command-line, and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape. PMID:25540777

  7. Partial Hepatectomy Induced Long Noncoding RNA Inhibits Hepatocyte Proliferation during Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lulu; Damle, Sagar S.; Booten, Sheri; Singh, Priyam; Sabripour, Mahyar; Hsu, Jeff; Jo, Minji; Katz, Melanie; Watt, Andy; Hart, Christopher E.; Freier, Susan M.; Monia, Brett P.; Guo, Shuling

    2015-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) is a complex and well-orchestrated biological process in which synchronized cell proliferation is induced in response to the loss of liver mass. To define long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that participate in the regulation of liver regeneration, we performed microarray analysis and identified more than 400 lncRNAs exhibiting significantly altered expression. Of these, one lncRNA, LncPHx2 (Long noncoding RNA induced by PHx 2), was highly upregulated during liver regeneration. Depletion of LncPHx2 during liver regeneration using antisense oligonucleotides led to a transient increase in hepatocyte proliferation and more rapid liver regeneration. Gene expression analysis showed that LncPHx2 depletion resulted in upregulation of mRNAs encoding proteins known to promote cell proliferation, including MCM components, DNA polymerases, histone proteins, and transcription factors. LncPHx2 interacts with the mRNAs of MCM components, making it a candidate to regulate the expression of MCMs and other genes post-transcriptionally. Collectively, our data demonstrate that LncPHx2 is a key lncRNA that participates in a negative feedback loop modulating hepatocyte proliferation through RNA-RNA interactions. PMID:26207833

  8. Comprehensive reconstruction and visualization of non-coding regulatory networks in human.

    PubMed

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Russo, Francesco; Bombieri, Nicola; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established on-line repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins, and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command-line, and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape.

  9. Comprehensive reconstruction and visualization of non-coding regulatory networks in human.

    PubMed

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Russo, Francesco; Bombieri, Nicola; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established on-line repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins, and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command-line, and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape. PMID:25540777

  10. Long Non-coding RNA ANRIL and Polycomb in Human Cancers and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aguilo, Francesca; Cecilia, Serena Di; Walsh, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The long non-coding RNA CDKN2B-AS1, commonly referred to as the Antisense Non-coding RNA in the INK4 Locus (ANRIL), is a 3.8-kb-long RNA transcribed from the short arm of human chromosome 9 on p21.3 that overlaps a critical region encompassing three major tumor suppressor loci juxtaposed to the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster and the methyl-thioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene. Genome-wide association studies have identified this region with a remarkable and growing number of disease-associated DNA alterations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, which corresponds to increased susceptibility to human disease. Recent attention has been devoted on whether these alterations in the ANRIL sequence affect its expression levels and/or its splicing transcript variation, and in consequence, global cellular homeostasis. Moreover, recent evidence postulates that ANRIL not only can regulate their immediate genomic neighbors in cis, but also has the capacity to regulate additional loci in trans. This action would further increase the complexity for mechanisms imposed through ANRIL and furthering the scope of this lncRNA in disease pathogenesis. In this chapter, we summarize the most recent findings on the investigation of ANRIL and provide a perspective on the biological and clinical significance of ANRIL as a putative biomarker, specifically, its potential role in directing cellular fates leading to cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26220772

  11. Function and Therapeutic Potential of Noncoding RNAs in Cardiac Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Creemers, Esther E; van Rooij, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis as a result of excessive extracellular matrix deposition leads to stiffening of the heart, which can eventually lead to heart failure. An important event in cardiac fibrosis is the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, which secrete large amounts of extracellular matrix proteins. Although the function of protein-coding genes in myofibroblast activation and fibrosis have been a topic of investigation for a long time, it has become clear that noncoding RNAs also play key roles in cardiac fibrosis. This review discusses the involvement of microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs in cardiac fibrosis and summarizes the issues related to translating these findings into real-life therapies.

  12. Long non-coding RNAs in pluripotent stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Lammens, Tim; D'hont, Inge; D'Herde, Katharina; Benoit, Yves; Diez-Fraile, Araceli

    2013-12-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are defined by their unlimited self-renewal capacities and potential to differentiate into any cell lineage. Many crucial determinants for the induction and maintenance of this pluripotent state have been identified. Long non-coding RNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of pluripotent stem cells and have enhanced our understanding of their potential functions in tissue regeneration. This review provides an overview of recent important insights into the roles of long non-coding RNAs as regulators and markers of pluripotency.

  13. Functions of plants long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Sarfraz; Li, Jingrui; Sun, Qianwen

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been emerged as important players for various biological pathways, including dosage compensation, genomic imprinting, chromatin regulation, alternative splicing and nuclear organization. A large number of lncRNAs had already been identified by different approaches in plants, while the functions of only a few of them have been investigated. This review will summarize our current understanding of a wide range of plant lncRNAs functions, and highlight their roles in the regulation of diverse pathways in plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa.

  14. Non-coding RNAs in Mammary Gland Development and Disease.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Gurveen K; Milevskiy, Michael J G; Wilson, Wesley; Shewan, Annette M; Brown, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are untranslated RNA molecules that function to regulate the expression of numerous genes and associated biochemical pathways and cellular functions. NcRNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). They participate in the regulation of all developmental processes and are frequently aberrantly expressed or functionally defective in disease. This Chapter will focus on the role of ncRNAs, in particular miRNAs and lncRNAs, in mammary gland development and disease.

  15. Long Noncoding RNAs: Fresh Perspectives into the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Froberg, John E.; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2014-01-01

    Large scale mapping of transcriptomes has revealed significant levels of transcriptional activity within both unannotated and annotated regions of the genome. Interestingly, many of the novel transcripts demonstrate tissue-specific expression and some level of sequence conservation across species, but most have low protein-coding potential. Here we describe progress in identifying and characterizing long noncoding RNAs and review how these transcripts interact with other biological molecules to regulate diverse cellular processes. We also preview emerging techniques that will help advance the discovery and characterization of novel transcripts. Finally, we discuss the role of long non-coding RNAs in disease and therapeutics. PMID:24290031

  16. Non-coding RNAs in Mammary Gland Development and Disease.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Gurveen K; Milevskiy, Michael J G; Wilson, Wesley; Shewan, Annette M; Brown, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are untranslated RNA molecules that function to regulate the expression of numerous genes and associated biochemical pathways and cellular functions. NcRNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). They participate in the regulation of all developmental processes and are frequently aberrantly expressed or functionally defective in disease. This Chapter will focus on the role of ncRNAs, in particular miRNAs and lncRNAs, in mammary gland development and disease. PMID:26659490

  17. Overexpression of long non-coding RNAs following exposure to xenobiotics in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2012-04-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent an important transcriptional output of eukaryotic genomes. In addition to their functional relevance as housekeeping and regulatory elements, recent studies have suggested their involvement in rather unexpected cellular functions. The aim of this work was to analyse the transcriptional behaviour of non-coding RNAs in the toxic response to pollutants in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. Three well-characterized long non-coding sequences were studied: telomeric repeats, Cla repetitive elements and the SINE CTRT1. Transcription levels were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24-h exposures to three current aquatic contaminants: bisphenol A (BPA), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Upregulation of telomeric transcripts was found after BPA treatments. Moreover, BPA significantly activated Cla transcription, which also appeared to be increased by cadmium, whereas BBP did not affect the transcription levels of these sequences. Transcription of SINE CTRT1 was not altered by any of the chemicals tested. These data are discussed in the light of previous studies that have shown a response by long ncRNAS (lncRNAs) to cellular stressors, indicating a relationship with environmental stimuli. Our results demonstrated for the first time the ability of bisphenol A to activate non-coding sequences mainly located at telomeres and centromeres. Overall, this study provides evidence that xenobiotics can induce specific responses in ncRNAs derived from repetitive sequences that could be relevant in the toxic response, and also suggests that ncRNAs could represent a novel class of potential biomarkers in toxicological assessment.

  18. The Arginine/Lysine-Rich Element within the DNA-Binding Domain Is Essential for Nuclear Localization and Function of the Intracellular Pathogen Resistance 1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kezhen; Wu, Yongyan; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Zihan; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The mouse intracellular pathogen resistance 1 (Ipr1) gene plays important roles in mediating host immunity and previous work showed that it enhances macrophage apoptosis upon mycobacterium infection. However, to date, little is known about the regulation pattern of Ipr1 action. Recent studies have investigated the protein-coding genes and microRNAs regulated by Ipr1 in mouse macrophages, but the structure and the functional motif of the Ipr1 protein have yet to be explored. In this study, we analyzed the domains and functional motif of the Ipr1 protein. The resulting data reveal that Ipr1 protein forms a homodimer and that the Sp100-like domain mediates the targeting of Ipr1 protein to nuclear dots (NDs). Moreover, we found that an Ipr1 mutant lacking the classic nuclear localization signal (cNLS) also translocated into the nuclei, suggesting that the cNLS is not the only factor that directs Ipr1 nuclear localization. Additionally, mechanistic studies revealed that an arginine/lysine-rich element within the DNA-binding domain (SAND domain) is critical for Ipr1 binding to the importin protein receptor NPI-1, demonstrating that this element plays an essential role in mediating the nuclear localization of Ipr1 protein. Furthermore, our results show that this arginine/lysine-rich element contributes to the transcriptional regulation and apoptotic activity of Ipr1. These findings highlight the structural foundations of Ipr1 action and provide new insights into the mechanism of Ipr1-mediated resistance to mycobacterium. PMID:27622275

  19. The Arginine/Lysine-Rich Element within the DNA-Binding Domain Is Essential for Nuclear Localization and Function of the Intracellular Pathogen Resistance 1

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kezhen; Wu, Yongyan; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Zihan; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The mouse intracellular pathogen resistance 1 (Ipr1) gene plays important roles in mediating host immunity and previous work showed that it enhances macrophage apoptosis upon mycobacterium infection. However, to date, little is known about the regulation pattern of Ipr1 action. Recent studies have investigated the protein-coding genes and microRNAs regulated by Ipr1 in mouse macrophages, but the structure and the functional motif of the Ipr1 protein have yet to be explored. In this study, we analyzed the domains and functional motif of the Ipr1 protein. The resulting data reveal that Ipr1 protein forms a homodimer and that the Sp100-like domain mediates the targeting of Ipr1 protein to nuclear dots (NDs). Moreover, we found that an Ipr1 mutant lacking the classic nuclear localization signal (cNLS) also translocated into the nuclei, suggesting that the cNLS is not the only factor that directs Ipr1 nuclear localization. Additionally, mechanistic studies revealed that an arginine/lysine-rich element within the DNA-binding domain (SAND domain) is critical for Ipr1 binding to the importin protein receptor NPI-1, demonstrating that this element plays an essential role in mediating the nuclear localization of Ipr1 protein. Furthermore, our results show that this arginine/lysine-rich element contributes to the transcriptional regulation and apoptotic activity of Ipr1. These findings highlight the structural foundations of Ipr1 action and provide new insights into the mechanism of Ipr1-mediated resistance to mycobacterium. PMID:27622275

  20. A selfish DNA element engages a meiosis-specific motor and telomeres for germ-line propagation.

    PubMed

    Sau, Soumitra; Conrad, Michael N; Lee, Chih-Ying; Kaback, David B; Dresser, Michael E; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2014-06-01

    The chromosome-like mitotic stability of the yeast 2 micron plasmid is conferred by the plasmid proteins Rep1-Rep2 and the cis-acting locus STB, likely by promoting plasmid-chromosome association and segregation by hitchhiking. Our analysis reveals that stable plasmid segregation during meiosis requires the bouquet proteins Ndj1 and Csm4. Plasmid relocalization from the nuclear interior in mitotic cells to the periphery at or proximal to telomeres rises from early meiosis to pachytene. Analogous to chromosomes, the plasmid undergoes Csm4- and Ndj1-dependent rapid prophase movements with speeds comparable to those of telomeres. Lack of Ndj1 partially disrupts plasmid-telomere association without affecting plasmid colocalization with the telomere-binding protein Rap1. The plasmid appears to engage a meiosis-specific motor that orchestrates telomere-led chromosome movements for its telomere-associated segregation during meiosis I. This hitherto uncharacterized mode of germ-line transmission by a selfish genetic element signifies a mechanistic variation within the shared theme of chromosome-coupled plasmid segregation during mitosis and meiosis.

  1. Energetics of the lattice: packing elements in crystals of four-stranded intercalated cytosine-rich DNA molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, I.; Cai, L.; Chen, L.; Rich, A.

    1997-01-01

    Condensation of single molecules from solution into crystals represents a transition between distinct energetic states. In solution, the atomic interactions within the molecule dominate. In the crystalline state, however, a set of additional interactions are formed between molecules in close contact in the lattice--these are the packing interactions. The crystal structures of d(CCCT), d(TAACCC), d(CCCAAT), and d(AACCCC) have in common a four-stranded intercalated cytosine segment, built by stacked layers of cytosine.cytosine+ (C.C+) base pairs coming from two parallel duplexes that intercalate into each other with opposite polarity. The intercalated cytosine segments in these structures are similar in their geometry, even though the sequences crystallized in different space groups. In the crystals, adenine and thymine residues of the sequences are used to build the three-dimensional crystal lattice by elaborately interacting with symmetry-related molecules. The packing elements observed provide novel insight about the copious ways in which nucleic acid molecules can interact with each other--for example, when folded in more complicated higher order structures, such as mRNA and chromatin.

  2. Changes in DNA methylation and transgenerational mobilization of a transposable element (mPing) by the Topoisomerase II inhibitor, Etoposide, in rice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Etoposide (epipodophyllotoxin) is a chemical commonly used as an anti-cancer drug which inhibits DNA synthesis by blocking topoisomerase II activity. Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that etoposide constitutes a genotoxic stress which may induce genomic instability including mobilization of normally quiescent transposable elements (TEs). However, it remained unknown whether similar genetically mutagenic effects could be imposed by etoposide in plant cells. Also, no information is available with regard to whether the drug may cause a perturbation of epigenetic stability in any organism. Results To investigate whether etoposide could generate genetic and/or epigenetic instability in plant cells, we applied etoposide to germinating seeds of six cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes including both subspecies, japonica and indica. Based on the methylation-sensitive gel-blotting results, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation of three TEs (Tos17, Osr23 and Osr36) and two protein-encoding genes (Homeobox and CDPK-related genes) were detected in the etoposide-treated plants (S0 generation) in four of the six studied japonica cultivars, Nipponbare, RZ1, RZ2, and RZ35, but not in the rest japonica cultivar (Matsumae) and the indica cultivar (93-11). DNA methylation changes in the etoposide-treated S0 rice plants were validated by bisulfite sequencing at both of two analyzed loci (Tos17 and Osr36). Transpositional activity was tested for eight TEs endogenous to the rice genome in both the S0 plants and their selfed progenies (S1 and S2) of one of the cultivars, RZ1, which manifested heritable phenotypic variations. Results indicated that no transposition occurred in the etoposide-treated S0 plants for any of the TEs. Nonetheless, a MITE transposon, mPing, showed rampant mobilization in the S1 and S2 progenies descended from the drug-treated S0 plants. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that etoposide imposes a similar genotoxic stress on

  3. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA TERRA: a noncoding RNA connecting telomere biology to genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Chartrand, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are dynamic nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of chromosomes from degradation and activation of DNA damage response. For this reason, telomeres are essential to genome integrity. Chromosome ends are enriched in heterochromatic marks and proper organization of telomeric chromatin is important to telomere stability. Despite their heterochromatic state, telomeres are transcribed giving rise to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) called TERRA (telomeric repeat-containing RNA). TERRA molecules play critical roles in telomere biology, including regulation of telomerase activity and heterochromatin formation at chromosome ends. Emerging evidence indicate that TERRA transcripts form DNA-RNA hybrids at chromosome ends which can promote homologous recombination among telomeres, delaying cellular senescence and sustaining genome instability. Intriguingly, TERRA RNA-telomeric DNA hybrids are involved in telomere length homeostasis of telomerase-negative cancer cells. Furthermore, TERRA transcripts play a role in the DNA damage response (DDR) triggered by dysfunctional telomeres. We discuss here recent developments on TERRA's role in telomere biology and genome integrity, and its implication in cancer.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in chickpea and their potential role in flower development.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Niraj; Singh, Vikash Kumar; Garg, Rohini; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs constitute a major portion of the transcriptome in most of eukaryotes. Long non-coding transcripts originating from the DNA segment present between the protein coding genes are termed as long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs). Several evidences suggest the role of lincRNAs in regulation of various biological processes. In this study, we identified a total of 2248 lincRNAs in chickpea using RNA-seq data from eight successive stages of flower development and three vegetative tissues via an optimized pipeline. Different characteristic features of lincRNAs were studied and compared with those of predicted mRNAs in chickpea. Further, we utilized a method using network propagation algorithm to reveal the putative function of lincRNAs in plants. In total, at least 79% of the identified chickpea lincRNAs were assigned with a putative function. A comprehensive expression profiling revealed differential expression patterns and tissue specificity of lincRNAs in different stages of flower development in chickpea. In addition, potential lincRNAs-miRNA interactions were explored for the predicted lincRNAs in chickpea. These findings will pave the way for understanding the role of lincRNAs in the regulatory mechanism underlying flower development in chickpea and other legumes. PMID:27628568

  5. Genome-wide analysis of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in chickpea and their potential role in flower development

    PubMed Central

    Khemka, Niraj; Singh, Vikash Kumar; Garg, Rohini; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs constitute a major portion of the transcriptome in most of eukaryotes. Long non-coding transcripts originating from the DNA segment present between the protein coding genes are termed as long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs). Several evidences suggest the role of lincRNAs in regulation of various biological processes. In this study, we identified a total of 2248 lincRNAs in chickpea using RNA-seq data from eight successive stages of flower development and three vegetative tissues via an optimized pipeline. Different characteristic features of lincRNAs were studied and compared with those of predicted mRNAs in chickpea. Further, we utilized a method using network propagation algorithm to reveal the putative function of lincRNAs in plants. In total, at least 79% of the identified chickpea lincRNAs were assigned with a putative function. A comprehensive expression profiling revealed differential expression patterns and tissue specificity of lincRNAs in different stages of flower development in chickpea. In addition, potential lincRNAs-miRNA interactions were explored for the predicted lincRNAs in chickpea. These findings will pave the way for understanding the role of lincRNAs in the regulatory mechanism underlying flower development in chickpea and other legumes. PMID:27628568

  6. Automated conserved non-coding sequence (CNS) discovery reveals differences in gene content and promoter evolution among grasses

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Gina; Schnable, James C.; Pedersen, Brent; Freeling, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Conserved non-coding sequences (CNS) are islands of non-coding sequence that, like protein coding exons, show less divergence in sequence between related species than functionless DNA. Several CNSs have been demonstrated experimentally to function as cis-regulatory regions. However, the specific functions of most CNSs remain unknown. Previous searches for CNS in plants have either anchored on exons and only identified nearby sequences or required years of painstaking manual annotation. Here we present an open source tool that can accurately identify CNSs between any two related species with sequenced genomes, including both those immediately adjacent to exons and distal sequences separated by >12 kb of non-coding sequence. We have used this tool to characterize new motifs, associate CNSs with additional functions, and identify previously undetected genes encoding RNA and protein in the genomes of five grass species. We provide a list of 15,363 orthologous CNSs conserved across all grasses tested. We were also able to identify regulatory sequences present in the common ancestor of grasses that have been lost in one or more extant grass lineages. Lists of orthologous gene pairs and associated CNSs are provided for reference inbred lines of arabidopsis, Japonica rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, brachypodium, and maize. PMID:23874343

  7. Emerging role of long noncoding RNAs as regulators of innate immune cell development and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Elling, Roland; Chan, Jennie; Fitzgerald, Katherine A