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Sample records for nondestructive chemical analysis

  1. Instrument performs nondestructive chemical analysis, data can be telemetered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A.

    1965-01-01

    Instrument automatically performs a nondestructive chemical analysis of surfaces and transmits the data in the form of electronic signals. It employs solid-state nuclear particle detectors with a charged nuclear particle source and an electronic pulse-height analyzer.

  2. [Nondestructive analysis of chemical composition, structure and mineral constitution of jadeite jade].

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang-Ce; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Gan, Fu-Xi

    2011-11-01

    The techniques of portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (PXRF), proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (LRS) were employed to analyze the chemical composition, structure and mineral constitution of 12 samples. The results indicated that the chemical compositions determined by PXRF and PIXE are well comparable and most samples are constituted by almost pure jadeite with low concentration of secondary elements. One sample contains a little omphacite and one sample is composed only by omphacite. Raman characteristic peaks of jadeite occurred at 201, 372, 698, 985 and 1 037 cm(-1), while those of omphacite located at 680 and 1 017 cm(-1). By using laser Raman spectroscopy for testing the fissures of the samples, wax in 3 samples and epoxy resin in one sample were found. Raman characteristic peaks of wax located at 2 846 and 2 880 cm(-1) and those of epoxy resin occurred at 2 924 and 3 065 c(-1). The application of nondestructive techniques in jadeite jade broadens the range of samples for future study and provides technical support for jadeite jade's further study, identification and classification.

  3. Nondestructive analysis and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.

    1993-01-01

    This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

  4. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  5. The RAMANITA method for non-destructive and in situ semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts.

    PubMed

    Smith, David C

    2005-08-01

    The "RAMANITA" method, for semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts and mathematical calculation by simultaneous equations, is published here in detail in English for the first time. It was conceived by the present writer 20 years ago for binary and ternary pyroxene and garnet systems. The mathematical description was set out in 1989, but in an abstract in an obscure French special publication. Detailed "step-by-step" calibration of two garnet ternaries, followed by their linking, in the early 1990s provided a hexary garnet database. Much later, using this garnet database, which forms part of his personal database called RAMANITA, the present writer began to develop the method by improving the terminology, automating the calculations, discussing problems and experimenting with different real chemical problems in archaeometry. Although this RAMANITA method has been very briefly mentioned in two recent books, the necessary full mathematical explanation is given only here. The method will find application in any study which requires obtaining a non-destructive semi-quantitative chemical analysis from mineral solid solutions that cannot be analysed by any destructive analytical method, in particular for archaeological, geological or extraterrestrial research projects, e.g. Recently some other workers have begun deducing chemical compositions from Raman wavenumber shifts in multivariate chemical space, but the philosophical approach is quite different.

  6. Construction and Test of Low Cost X-Ray Tomography Scanner for Physical-Chemical Analysis and Nondestructive Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Jose Martins Jr. de; Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano

    2009-06-03

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe the development of a low cost micro-CT X-ray scanner that is being developed for nondestructive testing. This tomograph operates using a microfocus X-ray source and contains a silicon photodiode as detectors. The performance of the system, by its spatial resolution, has been estimated through its Modulation Transfer Function-MTF and the obtained value at 10% of MTF is 661 {mu}m. It was built as a general purpose nondestructive testing device.

  7. A NEW NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE MATTER FILTERS: THE CASE OF MANGANESE AIR POLLUTION IN VALLECAMONICA (ITALY)

    PubMed Central

    Borgese, Laura; Zacco, Annalisa; Pal, Sudipto; Bontempi, Elza; Lucchini, Roberto; Zimmerman, Neil; Depero, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a well-established technique for chemical analysis, but it is mainly employed for quality control in the electronics semiconductor industry. The capability to analyze liquid and uniformly thin solid samples makes this technique suitable for other applications, and especially in the very critical field of environmental analysis. Comparison with standard methods like Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) show that TXRF is a practical, accurate, and reliable technique in occupational settings. Due to the greater sensitivity necessary in trace heavy metal detection, TXRF is also suitable for environmental chemical analysis. In this paper we show that based on appropriate standards, TXRF can be considered for non-destructive routine quantitative analysis of environmental matrices such as air filters. This work has been developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 PHIME (Public Health Impact of long-term, low-level Mixed element Exposure in susceptible population strata) Integrated Project (www.phime.org). The aim of this work was to investigate Mn air pollution in the area of Vallecamonica (Italy). PMID:21315919

  8. The RAMANITA © method for non-destructive and in situ semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David C.

    2005-08-01

    The "RAMANITA ©" method, for semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts and mathematical calculation by simultaneous equations, is published here in detail in English for the first time. It was conceived by the present writer 20 years ago for binary and ternary pyroxene and garnet systems. The mathematical description was set out in 1989, but in an abstract in an obscure French special publication. Detailed "step-by-step" calibration of two garnet ternaries, followed by their linking, by M. Pinet and D.C. Smith in the early 1990s provided a hexary garnet database. Much later, using this garnet database, which forms part of his personal database called RAMANITA ©, the present writer began to develop the method by improving the terminology, automating the calculations, discussing problems and experimenting with different real chemical problems in archaeometry. Although this RAMANITA © method has been very briefly mentioned in two recent books, the necessary full mathematical explanation is given only here. The method will find application in any study which requires obtaining a non-destructive semi-quantitative chemical analysis from mineral solid solutions that cannot be analysed by any destructive analytical method, in particular for archaeological, geological or extraterrestrial research projects, e.g. from gemstones or other crystalline artworks of the cultural heritage (especially by Mobile Raman Microscopy (MRM)) in situ in museums or at archaeological sites, including under water for subaquatic archaeometry; from scientifically precious mineral microinclusions (such as garnet or pyroxene within diamond); from minerals in rocks analysed in situ on planetary bodies by a rover (especially "at distance" by telescopy). Recently some other workers have begun deducing chemical compositions from Raman wavenumber shifts in multivariate chemical space, but the philosophical approach is

  9. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  10. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of volcanic samples: Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zoller, W.H.; Finnegan, D.L.; Crowe, B.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of volcanic emissions have been collected between and during eruptions of both Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes during the last three years. Airborne particles have been collected on Teflon filters and acidic gases on base-impregnated cellulose filters. Chemically neutral gas-phase species are collected on charcoal-coated cellulose filters. The primary analytical technique used is nondestructive neutron activation analysis, which has been used to determine the quantities of up to 35 elements on the different filters. The use of neutron activation analysis makes it possible to analyze for a wide range of elements in the different matrices used for the collection and to learn about the distribution between particles and gas phases for each of the elements.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation Correlated with Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Azid, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced materials are being developed for use in high-temperature gas turbine applications. For these new materials to be fully utilized, their deformation properties, their nondestructive evaluation (NDE) quality and material durability, and their creep and fatigue fracture characteristics need to be determined by suitable experiments. The experimental findings must be analyzed, characterized, modeled and translated into constitutive equations for stress analysis and life prediction. Only when these ingredients - together with the appropriate computational tools - are available, can durability analysis be performed in the design stage, long before the component is built. One of the many structural components being evaluated by the NDE group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the flywheel system. It is being considered as an energy storage device for advanced space vehicles. Such devices offer advantages over electrochemical batteries in situations demanding high power delivery and high energy storage per unit weight. In addition, flywheels have potentially higher efficiency and longer lifetimes with proper motor-generator and rotor design. Flywheels made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material show great promise for energy applications because of the high energy and power densities that they can achieve along with a burst failure mode that is relatively benign in comparison to those of flywheels made of metallic materials Therefore, to help improve durability and reduce structural uncertainties, we are developing a comprehensive analytical approach to predict the reliability and life of these components under these harsh loading conditions. The combination of NDE and two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses (e.g., stress analyses and fracture mechanics) is expected to set a standardized procedure to accurately assess the applicability of using various composite materials to design a suitable rotor/flywheel assembly.

  12. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  13. Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center, 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    2 Table I Major Current Methods of Nondestructive Testing * RADIdCRAPHIC AND RADIOMETRIC TESTING X- rays Gamma rays Neutrons Filmless techniques...OPTICAL TESTING Visual testing Optical reflectometry and transmission Holography * THERMAL TESTING Infrared radiometry The rmography 13 The present...Date 0416 The Boeing Wichita Co. Bibliography $ 90 2/27/79 0417 FDA-WEAC Service Info. n/c 2/28/79 0418 Gull Airborne Instruments Tech. Inq. n/c 3/7

  14. Non-destructive evaluation techniques for chemical weapons destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    fThe safe and verifiable disposition, either by incineration or chemical neutralization of chemical warfare (CW) agents requires correct {ital a priori} identification of each munition or container to be processed. A variety of NDE techniques have been used or tested for the examination and characterization of munitions. In the U.S., three widely used techniques are X-ray radiography, acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS), and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PINS). The technical bases, instrumental implementations, and applications of the U.S. versions of these methods are briefly discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  16. Kalman filter analysis of delayed neutron nondestructive assay measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S. E.

    1998-04-29

    The ability to nondestructively determine the presence and quantity of fissile and fertile nuclei in various matrices is important in several nuclear applications including international and domestics safeguards, radioactive waste characterization and nuclear facility operations. Material irradiation followed by delayed neutron counting is a well known and useful nondestructive assay technique used to determine the fissile-effective content of assay samples. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using Kalman filters to unfold individual isotopic contributions to delayed neutron measurements resulting from the assay of mixes of uranium and plutonium isotopes. However, the studies in question used simulated measurement data and idealized parameters. We present the results of the Kalman filter analysis of several measurements of U/Pu mixes taken using Argonne National Laboratory's delayed neutron nondestructive assay device. The results demonstrate the use of Kalman filters as a signal processing tool to determine the fissile and fertile isotopic content of an assay sample from the aggregate delayed neutron response following neutron irradiation.

  17. Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

    2006-03-01

    A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

  18. NONDESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BRITTLE FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF CERAMIC MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CERAMIC MATERIALS , *NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, BRITTLENESS, DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, DIFFUSION, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, FRACTURE (MECHANICS), IMPURITIES, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, RESONANCE, STRESSES, THERMAL DIFFUSION, THERMAL STRESSES

  19. Non-destructive electron microscopy imaging and analysis of biological samples with graphene coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Bo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Yoo, Je Min; Kim, Youngsoo; Gorbachev, Roman; Barbolina, I. I.; Kim, Sang Jin; Kang, Sangmin; Yoon, Myung-Han; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Hong, Byung Hee

    2016-12-01

    In electron microscopy (EM), charging of non-conductive biological samples by focused electron beams hinders their high-resolution imaging. Gold or platinum coatings have been commonly used to prevent such sample charging, but it disables further quantitative and qualitative chemical analyses such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Here we report that graphene-coating on biological samples enables non-destructive high-resolution imaging by EM as well as chemical analysis by EDS, utilizing graphene’s transparency to electron beams, high conductivity, outstanding mechanical strength and flexibility. We believe that the graphene-coated imaging and analysis would provide us a new opportunity to explore various biological phenomena unseen before due to the limitation in sample preparation and image resolution, which will broaden our understanding on the life mechanism of various living organisms.

  20. Multispectral UV imaging for fast and non-destructive quality control of chemical and physical tablet attributes.

    PubMed

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X; Rantanen, Jukka; Carstensen, Jens M; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-07-30

    Monitoring of tablet quality attributes in direct vicinity of the production process requires analytical techniques that allow fast, non-destructive, and accurate tablet characterization. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of multispectral UV imaging as a reliable, rapid technique for estimation of the tablet API content and tablet hardness, as well as determination of tablet intactness and the tablet surface density profile. One of the aims was to establish an image analysis approach based on multivariate image analysis and pattern recognition to evaluate the potential of UV imaging for automatized quality control of tablets with respect to their intactness and surface density profile. Various tablets of different composition and different quality regarding their API content, radial tensile strength, intactness, and surface density profile were prepared using an eccentric as well as a rotary tablet press at compression pressures from 20MPa up to 410MPa. It was found, that UV imaging can provide both, relevant information on chemical and physical tablet attributes. The tablet API content and radial tensile strength could be estimated by UV imaging combined with partial least squares analysis. Furthermore, an image analysis routine was developed and successfully applied to the UV images that provided qualitative information on physical tablet surface properties such as intactness and surface density profiles, as well as quantitative information on variations in the surface density. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that UV imaging combined with image analysis is an effective and non-destructive method to determine chemical and physical quality attributes of tablets and is a promising approach for (near) real-time monitoring of the tablet compaction process and formulation optimization purposes.

  1. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented γ-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum

  2. Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nondestructive Isotopic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir; Haefner, Andrew; Quiter, Brian

    2010-07-14

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) has been studied as one of the nondestructive analysis (NDA) techniques currently being investigated by a multi-laboratory collaboration for the determination of Pu mass in spent fuel. In NRF measurements specific isotopes are identified by their characteristic lines in recorded gamma spectra. The concentration of an isotope in a material can be determined from measured NRF signal intensities if NRF cross sections and assay geometries are known. The potential of NRF to quantify isotopic content and Pu mass in spent fuel has been studied. The addition of NRF data to MCNPX and an improved treatment of the elastic photon scattering at backward angles has enabled us to more accurately simulate NRF measurements on spent fuel assemblies. Using assembly models from the spent fuel assembly library generated at LANL, NRF measurements are simulated to find the best measurement configurations, and to determine measurement sensitivities and times, and photon source and gamma detector requirements. A first proof-of-principal measurement on a mock-up assembly with a bremsstrahlung photon source demonstrated isotopic sensitivity to approximately 1% limited by counting statistics. Data collection rates are likely a limiting factor of NRF-based measurements of fuel assemblies but new technological advances may lead to drastic improvements.

  3. Nondestructive reactivation of chemical protective garments. Final report, June 1985-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.W.; Chang, S.Y.; Klemperer, E.

    1995-12-01

    In the near future, chemical protective combat uniforms may be worn by Army personnel on a continuous basis. Activated carbon, the operative component, has diminished capacity for sorbing chemical agents after it has been exposed to dirt, sweat, cigarette smoke, engine exhaust, petroleum products and numerous other elements routinely present in the battlefield environment. This report summarizes the development of two nondestructive methods for cleaning and reactivating soiled chemical protective garments. Complete reactivation was achieved when the aqueous i-propanol iodine displacement method of Manes, which removed all but pure hydrocarbon oil soils from the current overgarment Type III foam or Kynol activated carbon fiber material, was applied in nonaqueous solvent. Subsequently, a nonaqueous solvent method that requires less handling was chosen in designing a truck-mounted system. It features non-agitative flow of methylene chloride and methanol around the chemical-protective garments suspended between ultrasonic transducers. Both methods restore full sorptivity to the Type III foam liner. There is a one-time 10% loss of activated carbon without any loss of sorptivity. The volatile solvents are more easily removed, and can be economically recovered. Overall features of a mobile unit have been sketched.

  4. Nondestructive 3D confocal laser imaging with deconvolution of seven whole stardust tracks with complementary XRF and quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.; Ebel, D.S.

    2009-03-19

    We present a nondestructive 3D system for analysis of whole Stardust tracks, using a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy and synchrotron XRF. 3D deconvolution is used for optical corrections, and results of quantitative analyses of several tracks are presented. The Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 trapped many cometary and ISM particles in aerogel, leaving behind 'tracks' of melted silica aerogel on both sides of the collector. Collected particles and their tracks range in size from submicron to millimeter scale. Interstellar dust collected on the obverse of the aerogel collector is thought to have an average track length of {approx}15 {micro}m. It has been our goal to perform a total non-destructive 3D textural and XRF chemical analysis on both types of tracks. To that end, we use a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy (LCSM) and X Ray Florescence (XRF) spectrometry. Utilized properly, the combination of 3D optical data and chemical data provides total nondestructive characterization of full tracks, prior to flattening or other destructive analysis methods. Our LCSM techniques allow imaging at 0.075 {micro}m/pixel, without the use of oil-based lenses. A full textural analysis on track No.82 is presented here as well as analysis of 6 additional tracks contained within 3 keystones (No.128, No.129 and No.140). We present a method of removing the axial distortion inherent in LCSM images, by means of a computational 3D Deconvolution algorithm, and present some preliminary experiments with computed point spread functions. The combination of 3D LCSM data and XRF data provides invaluable information, while preserving the integrity of the samples for further analysis. It is imperative that these samples, the first extraterrestrial solids returned since the Apollo era, be fully mapped nondestructively in 3D, to preserve the maximum amount of information prior to other, destructive analysis.

  5. Rapid Prototyping Integrated With Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to the practical ability to build high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer aided design (CAD) files. Using rapid prototyping, full-scale models or patterns can be built using a variety of materials in a fraction of the time required by more traditional prototyping techniques (refs. 1 and 2). Many software packages have been developed and are being designed to tackle the reverse engineering and rapid prototyping issues just mentioned. For example, image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction visualization software such as Velocity2 (ref. 3) are being used to carry out the construction process of three-dimensional volume models and the subsequent generation of a stereolithography file that is suitable for CAD applications. Producing three-dimensional models of objects from computed tomography (CT) scans is becoming a valuable nondestructive evaluation methodology (ref. 4). Real components can be rendered and subjected to temperature and stress tests using structural engineering software codes. For this to be achieved, accurate high-resolution images have to be obtained via CT scans and then processed, converted into a traditional file format, and translated into finite element models. Prototyping a three-dimensional volume of a composite structure by reading in a series of two-dimensional images generated via CT and by using and integrating commercial software (e.g. Velocity2, MSC/PATRAN (ref. 5), and Hypermesh (ref. 6)) is being applied successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The building process from structural modeling to the analysis level is outlined in reference 7. Subsequently, a stress analysis of a composite cooling panel under combined thermomechanical loading conditions was performed to validate

  6. Using the technique of computed tomography for nondestructive analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, José Martins, Jr.; Mangini, F. Salvador; Carvalho Vila, Marta Maria Duarte; ViníciusChaud, Marco

    2013-05-01

    This work presents an alternative and non-conventional technique for evaluatingof physic-chemical properties of pharmaceutical dosage forms, i.e. we used computed tomography (CT) technique as a nondestructive technique to visualize internal structures of pharmaceuticals dosage forms and to conduct static and dynamical studies. The studies were conducted involving static and dynamic situations through the use of tomographic images, generated by the scanner at University of Sorocaba - Uniso. We have shown that through the use of tomographic images it is possible to conduct studies of porosity, densities, analysis of morphological parameters and performing studies of dissolution. Our results are in agreement with the literature, showing that CT is a powerful tool for use in the pharmaceutical sciences.

  7. NON-DESTRUCTIVE IN SITU SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: PRINCIPLE AND RESULTS.

    SciTech Connect

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.; MITRA, S.; HENDREY, G.; ROGERS, H.; TORBERT, A.; PRIOR, S.

    2003-05-05

    Global warming is promoted by anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, while at the same time it is partially mitigated by carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems. However, improvement in the understanding and monitoring of below ground carbon processes is essential for evaluating strategies for carbon sequestration including quantification of carbon stores for credits. A system for non-destructive in situ carbon monitoring in soil, based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS), is described. The system can be operated in stationary or scanning mode and measures soil to depth of approximately 30 cm. There is a good agreement between results obtained from INS and standard chemical analysis of soil cores collected from the same study site.

  8. Nondestructive analysis and dating of historical paper based on IR spectroscopy and chemometric data evaluation.

    PubMed

    Trafela, Tanja; Strlic, Matija; Kolar, Jana; Lichtblau, Dirk A; Anders, Manfred; Mencigar, Danijela Pucko; Pihlar, Boris

    2007-08-15

    Sampling restrictions in analysis of cultural heritage materials narrow the choice of appropriate analytical methods considerably. In this work, near- and mid-FT-IR reflectance data were related to paper properties determined with classical analytical methods using partial least-squares. Nondestructive determination of properties, which are of importance for evaluation of the long-term stability of historical paper, i.e., ash content, lignin content, degree of polymerization of cellulose, pH, and aluminum content, is possible. With the use of a considerable sample set, satisfactory reliability was achieved for all properties but aluminum content. Considering that with age, chemical properties of paper change, dating of historical documents was attempted for the first time, also with success.

  9. Depth-dependent non-destructive analysis of thin overlayers using total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Noriyoshi; Okubo, Soichiro; Yonemitsu, Kyoko

    1996-07-01

    Electron-beam excited X-ray chemical analysis with very small angle condition has been applied to measure thin overlayers on substrates. Relations between the fluorescent X-ray intensity and the emission angle is investigated based on a model. It is demonstrated that the emission-angle dependence of the X-ray intensity is sensitively reflected by film thickness and layer structure. The calculations agreed well with experiments for thin Au and Pd multilayers on Si substrate. The results show that this method is applicable to a non-destructive depth profiling of chemical compositions.

  10. Non-destructive microstructural analysis with depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotoyabko, E.; Quintana, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    A depth-sensitive X-ray diffraction technique has been developed with the aim of studying microstructural modifications in inhomogeneous polycrystalline materials. In that method, diffraction profiles are measured at different X-ray energies varied by small steps. X-rays at higher energies probe deeper layers of material. Depth-resolved structural information is retrieved by comparing energy-dependent diffraction profiles. The method provides non-destructive depth profiling of the preferred orientation, grain size, microstrain fluctuations and residual strains. This technique is applied to the characterization of seashells. Similarly, energy-variable X-ray diffraction can be used for the non-destructive characterization of different laminated structures and composite materials.

  11. Non-destructive NIR FT Raman analysis of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, B.; Klump, H. H.; Schenzel, K.; Schulz, H.

    1999-10-01

    Non-destructive analyses of animal and plant cells and tissues by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range have not been possible since the samples are destroyed photochemically or their fluorescence conceals the Raman spectra completely. When excited with the Nd:YAG laser line at 1064 nm fluorescence-free Raman spectra of animal or plant cells and tissues can be recorded without special preparation. In this paper we concentrate on plants and its constituents: essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices, alkaloids and fibers can be characterized. The spectra allow the observation of biochemical processes, to observe the distribution of natural products, application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding, the harvesting time and control of food—everything non-destructively in living plants!

  12. Non-Destructive Micro-Chemical and Micro-Luminescence Characterization of Jadeite.

    PubMed

    Mitrani Viggiano, Alejandro; Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis; Manrique Ortega, Mayra D; Corregidor Berdasco, Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Jadeite was greatly appreciated by pre-Hispanic cultures in Mesoamerica. Despite its importance, knowledge of its mining sources was lost after the Spanish conquest. In the 1950s the only confirmed jadeite deposits in Mesoamerica were found in the Motagua River Fault (MRF), Guatemala. The aim of this study is to present a methodology that is appropriate for the study of archeological jadeite objects using non-destructive spectroscopic and micro-ion beam analysis techniques. This methodology has been applied to perform mineral, elemental, and luminescence characterization of five jadeite samples from the MRF, with white, lilac, and green colors. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of jadeite, albite, and omphacite as the main mineral phases in the samples. Elemental maps using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) with a nuclear microprobe and elemental concentration analysis from individual mineral grains using micro-PIXE coupled with micro-ionoluminescence (IL) allowed the detection of minor feldspar, titanite, and grossular mineral contents. Distinctive features from the mineral, elemental, and luminescence characterization have been found that allow the identification of these five jadeite samples.

  13. Failure analysis of electronic parts: Laboratory methods. [for destructive and nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anstead, R. J. (Editor); Goldberg, E. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Failure analysis test methods are presented for use in analyzing candidate electronic parts and in improving future design reliability. Each test is classified as nondestructive, semidestructive, or destructive. The effects upon applicable part types (i.e. integrated circuit, transitor) are discussed. Methodology is given for performing the following: immersion tests, radio graphic tests, dewpoint tests, gas ambient analysis, cross sectioning, and ultraviolet examination.

  14. Aluminum analysis in biological reference material by nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Arendt, A.; Keck, B.; Glascock, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the determination of aluminum in biological materials has become the subject of many research projects. This interest stems from an increasing knowledge of the toxicity of aluminum to both aquatic and human life. Unfortunately, the detection of aluminum in biological materials has proven troublesome. The use of traditional chemical determinations has been shown to be very long and somewhat complicated. Several attempts have been made using neutron activation analysis, but an interfering reaction must be taken into account. In this experiment the rabbit irradiation facilities at the University of Missouri Research Reactor were used. The aluminum concentrations for eight certified reference materials are shown. When US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) value is given as certified or as an information value, results agree very well. The results for NBS 1572 citrus leaves agree, and NBS 1577 results agree very well with that of Glascock et al.

  15. Development of the Pressure-core Nondestructive Analysis Tools (PNATs) for Methane Hydrate Sedimentary Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Yoneda, Jun; Konno, Yoshihiro; Jin, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    Potential of methane hydrate reservoir as a methane gas resource depends on the physical and chemical properties of geological structure. Seismic, logging and coring are very important information and data to understand these properties. Pressure core analysis is an advanced way to characterize reservoir properties such as the porosity, methane hydrate saturation, permeability, mechanical properties and so on. However, the quality of core samples should be guaranteed, which will be confirmed from the seismic and logging data in advance. Pressure core can be minimalized the dissociation of methane hydrate. The AIST introduced the Pressure-core Nondestructive Analysis Tools (PNATs), in which pressure core is handled without depressurizing the pore pressure until setting up core samples into the tools. The PNATs can evaluate the permeability, hydrate saturation, X-ray CT image, p-wave response, mechanical properties and so on, under the full pressurized operation and provide essential reservoir parameters. In this presentation, we will introduce the details of developed PNATs and several results for pressured cores obtained in the eastern Nankai Trough off Japan. This study is financially supported by METI and Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (the MH21 Research Consortium).

  16. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  17. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; Lindstrom, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably.

  18. Non-destructive analysis of didymium and praseodymium molybdate crystals using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, C. K.; Joseph, Daisy; Pandita, Sanjay; Kotru, P. N.

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of didymium (Di) and praseodymium molybdate crystals were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The assigned empirical chemical formulae of the composites were tested and verified by the EDXRF technique by estimating experimental major elemental concentration ratios. On the Basis of these ratios, the established formulae for some of the composite materials have been verified and suggestions made for their refinement. Non-destructive technique used in this analysis enables to retain the original crystal samples and makes rapid simultaneous scan of major elements such as La, Pr, Ned and Mo as well as impurities such as Ce. Absence of samarium(Sm) in the spectrum during analysis of didymium molybdate crystals indicated an incomplete growth of mixed rare earth single crystal. These crystals (e.g.,Di) are shown to be of modified stoichiometry with Ce as trace impurity.

  19. PANDA—A novel instrument for non-destructive sample analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Jani; Peräjärvi, Kari; Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri

    2010-01-01

    An instrument known as PANDA (Particles And Non-Destructive Analysis) for non-destructive sample analysis has been designed and built at the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). In PANDA the measurement techniques and instruments designed for the basic research are applied to the analysis of environmental samples. PANDA has two vacuum chambers, one for loading samples and the other for measurements. In the measurement chamber there are two individual measurement positions. Currently the first one hosts an HPGe gamma detector and a position-sensitive alpha detector. The second measurement position is intended for precise characterization of found particles. PANDA's data are recorded in event mode and events are timestamped. In the present article the technical design of PANDA is presented in detail. In addition, its performance using depleted uranium particles and an air filter is demonstrated.

  20. Non-destructive analysis and identification of jade by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of identifying jade by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. It is found that the jade can be classified, according to the chemical composition determined by PIXE. The experimental results can differentiate ancient Chinese jade works of art from fakes if the material is the same.

  1. Orthogonal projection to latent structures combined with artificial neural networks in non-destructive analysis of Ampicillin powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Guoliang; Fei, Qiang; Zuo, Ye; Ren, YuLin

    2009-01-01

    A new method orthogonal projection to latent structures (O-PLS) combined with artificial neural networks is investigated for non-destructive determination of Ampicillin powder via near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The modern NIR spectroscopy analysis technique is efficient, simple and non-destructive, which has been used in chemical analysis in diverse fields. Be a preprocessing method, O-PLS provides a way to remove systematic variation from an input data set X not correlated to the response set Y, and does not disturb the correlation between X and Y. In this paper, O-PLS pretreated spectral data was applied to establish the ANN model of Ampicillin powder, in this model, the concentration of Ampicillin as the active component was determined. The degree of approximation was employed as the selective criterion of the optimum network parameters. In order to compare the OPLS-ANN model, the calibration models that using first-derivative and second-derivative preprocessing spectra were also designed. Experimental results showed that the OPLS-ANN model was the best.

  2. Feasibility study of plutonium isotopic analysis of resin beads by nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.K.

    1985-01-01

    We have initiated a feasibility study on the use of nondestructive low-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy for plutonium isotopic analysis on resin beads. Seven resin bead samples were measured, with each sample containing an average of 9 ..mu..g of plutonium; the isotopic compositions of the samples varied over a wide range. The gamma-ray spectroscopy results, obtained from 4-h counting-time measurements, were compared with mass spectrometry results. The average ratios of gamma-ray spectroscopy to mass spectrometry were 1.014 +- 0.025 for /sup 238/Pu//sup 239/Pu, 0.996 +- 0.018 for /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu, and 0.980 +- 0.038 for /sup 241/Pu//sup 239/Pu. The rapid, automated, and accurate nondestructive isotopic analysis of resin beads may be very useful to process technicians and International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. ELECTROCHEMICALLY-MODULATED SEPARATIONS FOR DESTRUCTIVE AND NONDESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS FOR PROCESS MONITORING AND SAFEGUARDS MEASURMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Liezers, Martin; Orton, Christopher R.; Douglas, Matthew; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2010-05-07

    A timely, accurate, and precise analysis of uranium reprocessing streams is import for process monitoring and nuclear material accountability. For material accountancy, it is critical to detect both acute and chronic diversions of nuclear materials. Therefore, both on-line nondestructive (NDA) and destructive analysis (DA) approaches are desirable. Current methods for DA involve grab sampling and laboratory based column extractions that are costly, hazardous, and time consuming. Direct on-line gamma measurements of Pu, while desirable, are not possible due to contributions from other actinides and fission products. Electrochemically-modulated separation (EMS) is a straightforward, cost effective alternative technology being investigated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for highly selective, slip-stream sampling of U or Pu from reprocessing streams. The EMS selectivity results from simultaneous surface and redox chemistry that allows the affinity of the electrode to be turned “on” or “off” under potential control. Once isolated, the accumulated Pu can be measured by gamma spectroscopy or retained in a small quantity (nanogram-milligram) to reduce radiological concerns and to facilitate transport to laboratory based mass spectrometry instrumentation. In this study, we investigate both destructive and nondestructive applications of EMS. First, nondestructive Pu gamma analysis is performed using dissolved BWR spent fuel. Reduction factors for actinide and fission products and initial estimates of measurement uncertainties were measured. The methodology for DA sampling will also be reported for both Pu and U.

  4. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of

  5. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  6. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2016-12-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (Cllr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly.

  7. Nondestructive analysis of Portuguese "dinheiros" using XRF: overcoming patina constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Costa, Mário; Oliveira, Maria Inês; Jorge, Maria Estrela M.; Carvalho, Maria Luísa

    2015-06-01

    "Dinheiros" are the first Portuguese coins, minted with a billon alloy (majority-based copper alloyed with silver). In this work, a set of "dinheiros" from D. Fernando of Portugal was analyzed and the composition of the alloy was compared with other "dinheiros" from previous reigns. Although the coins were in good state of conservation and no active corrosion was macroscopically observable, they still presented a corrosion layer of unknown thickness that would impair the XRF quantitative determinations. In order to overcome this hindrance, the silver K/L intensity ratios were determined and compared for the analyzed samples in order to choose "clean" spots for quantitative analysis. The results show a clear decrease in the Ag content: from 7-9 % in the previous reigns to 0.2-0.3 % in the coins attributed to D. Fernando. The silver content determined is very comparable to the silver content determined in other copper or bronze artifacts analyzed, leading us to believe that this low amount of silver was not intentionally introduced to create a billon alloy but relates to impurities present in the original mineral specimen.

  8. Non-destructive Testing by Infrared Thermography Under Random Excitation and ARMA Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Nicolas, J. L.; Candoré, J. C.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Photothermal thermography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method, which has many applications in the field of control and characterization of thin materials. This technique is usually implemented under CW or flash excitation. Such excitations are not adapted for control of fragile materials or for multi-frequency analysis. To allow these analyses, in this article, the use of a new control mode is proposed: infrared thermography under random excitation and auto regressive moving average analysis. First, the principle of this NDT method is presented. Then, the method is shown to permit detection, with low energy constraints, of detachments situated in mural paintings.

  9. Stable organic field-effect transistors for continuous and nondestructive sensing of chemical and biologically relevant molecules in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Yun, Minseong; Sharma, Asha; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Hwang, Do Kyung; Dindar, Amir; Singh, Sanjeev; Choi, Sangmoo; Kippelen, Bernard

    2014-02-12

    The use of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as sensors in aqueous media has gained increased attention for environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. However, stable operation of OFETs in aqueous media is particularly challenging because of electrolytic hydrolysis of water, high ionic conduction through the analyte, and irreversible damage of organic semiconductors when exposed to water. To date, OFET sensors have shown the capability of label-free sensing of various chemical/biological species, but they could only be used once because their operational stability and lifetime while operating in aqueous environments has been poor, and their response times typically slow. Here, we report on OFETs with unprecedented water stability. These OFETs are suitable for the implementation of reusable chemical/biological sensors because they primarily respond to charged species diluted in an aqueous media by rapidly shifting their threshold voltage. These OFET sensors present stable current baselines and saturated signals which are ideal for detection of low concentration of small or large molecules that alter the pH of an aqueous environment. The overall response of these OFET sensors paves the way for the development of continuous chemical/biological nondestructive sensor applications in aqueous media.

  10. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  11. Optimization of ISOCS Parameters for Quantitative Non-Destructive Analysis of Uranium in Bulk Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutniy, D.; Vanzha, S.; Mikhaylov, V.; Belkin, F.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative calculation of the isotopic masses of fissionable U and Pu is important for forensic analysis of nuclear materials. γ-spectrometry is the most commonly applied tool for qualitative detection and analysis of key radionuclides in nuclear materials. Relative isotopic measurement of U and Pu may be obtained from γ-spectra through application of special software such as MGAU (Multi-Group Analysis for Uranium, LLNL) or FRAM (Fixed-Energy Response Function Analysis with Multiple Efficiency, LANL). If the concentration of U/Pu in the matrix is unknown, however, isotopic masses cannot be calculated. At present, active neutron interrogation is the only practical alternative for non-destructive quantification of fissionable isotopes of U and Pu. An active well coincidence counter (AWCC), an alternative for analyses of uranium materials, has the following disadvantages: 1) The detection of small quantities (≤100 g) of 235U is not possible in many models; 2) Representative standards that capture the geometry, density and chemical composition of the analyzed unknown are required for precise analysis; and 3) Specimen size is severely restricted by the size of the measuring chamber. These problems may be addressed using modified γ-spectrometry techniques based on a coaxial HPGe-detector and ISOCS software (In Situ Object Counting System software, Canberra). We present data testing a new gamma-spectrometry method uniting actinide detection with commonly utilized software, modified for application in determining the masses of the fissionable isotopes in unknown samples of nuclear materials. The ISOCS software, widely used in radiation monitoring, calculates the detector efficiency curve in a specified geometry and range of photon energies. In describing the geometry of the source-detector, it is necessary to clearly describe the distance between the source and the detector, the material and the thickness of the walls of the container, as well as material, density

  12. Application of near infrared spectrophotometry to the nondestructive analysis of foods: a review of experimental results.

    PubMed

    Polesello, A; Giangiacomo, R

    1983-01-01

    The authors are reviewing here the development and the application of the nondestructive spectrophotometric analytical techniques applied to the agricultural commodities. Following a short description of the theoretical bases of this technique, the most significant applications are reviewed leading to the evolution of the first generation of instruments based on such principles. The applications of the specific instruments developed for on-line measurements are summarized. The Grain Quality Analyzers actually marketed and their use in the determination of a wide range of components in foods are described. The experience gained by the research developed using such instruments has generated a new series of computerized instruments allowing for new methodologies and applications that are discussed and reviewed here. The state of the art and the development trends are briefly discussed, particularly referring to the research aimed to the extension of this technique to evaluate different chemical compounds in foods, to use as quality indices for agronomic, processing, and marketing purposes.

  13. Broadband Ultrahigh-Resolution Spectroscopy of Particle-Induced X Rays: Extending the Limits of Nondestructive Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palosaari, M. R. J.; Käyhkö, M.; Kinnunen, K. M.; Laitinen, M.; Julin, J.; Malm, J.; Sajavaara, T.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J.; Reintsema, C.; Swetz, D.; Schmidt, D.; Ullom, J. N.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2016-08-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) based on x-ray emission is widely used, for example, in the semiconductor and concrete industries. Here, we demonstrate significant quantitative and qualitative improvements in broadband x-ray NDA by combining particle-induced emission with detection based on superconducting microcalorimeter arrays. We show that the technique offers great promise in the elemental analysis of thin-film and bulk samples, especially in the difficult cases where tens of different elements with nearly overlapping emission lines have to be identified down to trace concentrations. We demonstrate the efficiency and resolving capabilities by spectroscopy of several complex multielement samples in the energy range 1-10 keV, some of which have a trace amount of impurities not detectable with standard silicon drift detectors. The ability to distinguish the chemical environment of an element is also demonstrated by measuring the intensity differences and chemical shifts of the characteristics x-ray peaks of titanium compounds. In particular, we report measurements of the K α /K β intensity ratio of thin films of TiN and measurements of Ti K α satellite peak intensities in various Ti thin-film compounds. We also assess the detection limits of the technique, comment on detection limits possible in the future, and discuss possible applications.

  14. Generation and complete nondestructive analysis of hyperentanglement assisted by nitrogen-vacancy centers in resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Mei

    2015-06-01

    We present two efficient schemes for the deterministic generation and the complete nondestructive analysis of hyperentangled Bell states in both the polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom (DOFs) of two-photon systems, assisted by the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds coupled to microtoroidal resonators as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. With the input-output process of photons, two-photon polarization-spatial hyperentangled Bell states can be generated in a deterministic way and their complete nondestructive analysis can be achieved. These schemes can be generalized to generate and analyze hyperentangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of multiphoton systems as well. Compared with previous works, these two schemes relax the difficulty of their implementation in experiment as it is not difficult to obtain the π phase shift in single-sided NV-cavity systems, but difficult in single-sided quantum-dot-cavity systems. Moreover, our schemes do not require that the transmission for the uncoupled cavity is balanceable with the reflectance for the coupled cavity and they can be operated at room temperature. Our calculations show that these schemes can reach a high fidelity and efficiency with current technology, which may be a benefit to long-distance high-capacity quantum communication with two DOFs of photon systems.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuarke, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    Technological survey summarizes accumulated knowledge of nondestructive-evaluation (NDE) testing methodology application and reliability as it is presented in literature covering time period from 1962 to 1975.

  16. Nondestructive evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

  17. [Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information.

  18. Non-destructive Analysis of Oil-Contaminated Soil Core Samples by X-ray Computed Tomography and Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry: a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoshito; Mitsuhata, Yuji; Nishiwaki, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Utsuzawa, Shin; Jinguuji, Motoharu

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of contaminated soil core samples are desirable prior to destructive measurements because they allow obtaining gross information from the core samples without touching harmful chemical species. Medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) and time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry were applied to non-destructive measurements of sandy soil core samples from a real site contaminated with heavy oil. The medical CT visualized the spatial distribution of the bulk density averaged over the voxel of 0.31 × 0.31 × 2 mm(3). The obtained CT images clearly showed an increase in the bulk density with increasing depth. Coupled analysis with in situ time-domain reflectometry logging suggests that this increase is derived from an increase in the water volume fraction of soils with depth (i.e., unsaturated to saturated transition). This was confirmed by supplementary analysis using high-resolution micro-focus X-ray CT at a resolution of ∼10 μm, which directly imaged the increase in pore water with depth. NMR transverse relaxation waveforms of protons were acquired non-destructively at 2.7 MHz by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. The nature of viscous petroleum molecules having short transverse relaxation times (T2) compared to water molecules enabled us to distinguish the water-saturated portion from the oil-contaminated portion in the core sample using an M(0)-T2 plot, where M(0) is the initial amplitude of the CPMG signal. The present study demonstrates that non-destructive core measurements by medical X-ray CT and low-field NMR provide information on the groundwater saturation level and oil-contaminated intervals, which is useful for constructing an adequate plan for subsequent destructive laboratory measurements of cores.

  19. Nondestructive method for chemically machining crucibles or molds from their enclosed ingots and castings

    DOEpatents

    Stout, Norman D.; Newkirk, Herbert W.

    1991-01-01

    An inventive method is described for chemically machining rhenium, rhenium and tungsten alloy, and group 5b and 6b crucibles or molds from included ingots and castings comprised of oxide crystals including YAG and YAG based crystals, garnets, corundum crystals, and ceramic oxides. A mixture of potassium hydroxide and 15 to 90 weight percent of potassium nitrate is prepared and maintained at a temperature above melting and below the lower of 500 degrees centigrade or the temperature of decomposition of the mixture. The enveloping metal container together with its included oxide crystal object is rotated within the heated KOH-KNO.sub.3 mixture, until the container is safely chemically machined away from the included oxide crystal object.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.

    1997-02-01

    Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

  1. Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

  2. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.; Thornton, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    Work has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution of the Coflon material using a dual detector Gel Permeation Analysis. Again these changes may result in variation in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-Ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed in a modified Fluid G, which we will call G2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures, 70 C, 110 C, and 130 C. The primary purpose of the pressure tests in Fluid G2 was to further elucidate the aging mechanism of PVDF degradation.

  3. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

  4. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal decomposition activation energies have been determined using two methods of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), with good correlation being obtained between the two techniques. Initial heating curves indicated a two-component system for Coflon (i.e. polymer plus placticizer) but a single component system for Tefzel. Two widely differing activation energies were for Coflon supported this view, 15 kcl/mol being associated with plasticizer, and 40 kcal/mol with polymer degradation. With Tefzel, values were 40-45 kcal/mol, the former perhaps being associated with a low molecular weight fraction. Appropriate acceleration factors have been determined. Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) has shown considerable dimensional change during temperature cycles. For unaged pipe sections heating to 100 C and then holding the temperature resulted in a stable thickness increase of 2%, whereas the Coflon thickness decreased continuously, reaching -4% in 2.7 weeks. Previously strained tensile bars of Tefzel expanded on cooling during TMA. SEM performed on H2S-aged Coflon samples showed significant changes in both physical and chemical nature. The first may have resulted from explosive decompression after part of the aging process. Chemically extensive dehydrofluorination was indicated, and sulfur was present as a result of the aging. These observations indicate that chemical attack of PVDF can occur in some circumstances.

  5. Portable generator-based XRF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel; Selavka, Carl; Zeosky, Gerald; Gahn, Norman; McClanahan, Timothy; Burbine, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  6. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Paint Can at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, David J.; Vo, Duc Ta

    2016-11-03

    In Building 2 A-wing vault MET-5 has some drums and other packages they wanted NEN-1 help identifying nondestructively. Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high-purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a paint can container labeled DU-2A to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The HPGe detector measures the gamma rays emitted by radioactive material and displays it as a spectrum. The spectrum is used to identify this radioactive material by using appropriate analysis software and identifying the gamma ray peaks. A paint can container, DU-2A, was analyzed with PeakEasy 4.84 and FRAM 5.2. The FRAM report is shown. The enrichment is 0.091% U235 and 99.907% U238. This material is depleted uranium. The measurement was performed in the near field, and to extract a mass a far field measurement will need to be taken.

  7. Nondestructive inspection assessment of eddy current and electrochemical analysis to separate inconel and stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a nondestructive inspection assessment of eddy current and electrochemical analysis to separate inconel alloys from stainless steel alloys as well as an evaluation of cleaning techniques to remove a thermal oxide layer on aircraft exhaust components. The results of this assessment are presented in terms of how effective each technique classifies a known exhaust material. Results indicate that either inspection technique can separate inconel and stainless steel alloys. Based on the experiments conducted, the electrochemical spot test is the optimum for use by airframe and powerplant mechanics. A spot test procedure is proposed for incorporation into the Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 65-9A Airframe & Powerplant Mechanic - General Handbook. 3 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Magnetic Microcalorimeter Gamma Detectors for High-Precision Non-Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Stephan; Bates, Cameron; Pereverzev, Sergey

    2014-10-03

    Cryogenic gamma (γ) detectors with operating temperatures of ~0.1 K offer 10× better energy resolution than conventional high-purity germanium detectors that are currently used for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. This can greatly increase the accuracy of NDA, especially at low-energies where gamma rays often have similar energies and cannot be resolved by Ge detectors. Among the different cryogenic detector types, Magnetic Micro-Calorimeters (MMCs) have the potential of faster count rates and better linearity. High linearity is essential to add spectra from different pixels in detector arrays that are needed for high sensitivity. MMC gamma detectors measure the energy of absorbed gamma rays form the resulting change in magnetization of an erbium-doped gold (Au:Er) sensor. The signal is read out with a SQUID preamplifier and processed digitally with room temperature electronics (see inset figure 2). The objective of this project is to develop ultra-high energy resolution γ-detectors based on magnetic micro-calorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive isotope analysis (NDA). Since MMCs, like other cryogenic γ-detector technologies with operating temperatures <0.1 K, are intrinsically slow and have to be small for high resolution, special emphasis will be placed on questions that determine sensitivity and the potential for scaling to arrays. Objectives for FY14 were therefore to fabricate an improved version of MMC γ-detectors and test their energy resolution, maximum count rate, readout noise, crosstalk between pixels and linearity.

  9. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron-electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(γ, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10-100 μg g-1.

  10. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past six months we have conducted significant research in several domains in order to clarify and understanding the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. We organized numerous analytical studies with methods including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Stress Relaxation experiments. In addition we have reanalyzed previous thermogravimetric data concerning the rate of deplasticization of Coflon pipe. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We conducted stress relaxation experiments of Coflon pipe at several temperatures and determined an activation energy. We also examined the dynamic mechanical response PVDF during deplasticization and during methanol plasticization. We performed numerous DSC analyses to research the changing crystalline morphology. We have noted significant changes in crystallinity upon aging for both PVDF and Tefzel. Little variation in elemental composition was noted for many of the aged Coflon and Tefzel samples tested.

  11. Nondestructive quantitative synchrotron grazing incidence x-ray scattering analysis of cylindrical nanostructures in supported thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, J.; Yang, S. Y.; Lee, B.; Joo, W.; Heo, K.; Kim, J. K.; Ree, M.; X-Ray Science Division; Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology

    2007-01-01

    Nondestructive nanostructural analysis is indispensable in the development of nanomaterials and nanofabrication processes for use in nanotechnology applications. This paper demonstrates a quantitative, nondestructive analysis of nanostructured thin films supported on substrates and their templated nanopores by using grazing incidence X-ray scattering and data analysis with a derived scattering theory. The analysis disclosed that vertically oriented nanodomain cylinders had formed in 20-100 nm thick films supported on substrates, which consisted of a mixture of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) and PMMA homopolymer, and that the PMMA nanodomain cylinders were selectively etched out by ultraviolet light exposure and a subsequent rinse with acetic acid, resulting in a well ordered nanostructure consisting of hexagonally packed cylindrical nanopores.

  12. Nondestructive diagnosis of flip chips based on vibration analysis using PCA-RBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lei; Shi, Tielin; Liu, Zhiping; Zhou, Hongdi; Du, Li; Liao, Guanglan

    2017-02-01

    Flip chip technology combined with solder bump interconnection has been widely applied in IC package. The solder bumps are sandwiched between dies and substrates, leading to conventional techniques being difficult to diagnose the flip chips. Meanwhile, these conventional diagnosis methods are usually performed by human visual judgment. The human eye-fatigue can easily cause fault detection. Thus, it is difficult and crucial to detect the defects of flip chips automatically. In this paper, a nondestructive diagnosis system based on vibration analysis is proposed. The flip chip is excited by air-coupled ultrasounds and raw vibration signals are measured by a laser scanning vibrometer. Forty-two features are extracted for analysis, including ten time domain features, sixteen frequency domain features and sixteen wavelet packet energy features. Principal component analysis is used for feature reduction. Radial basis function neural network is adopted for classification and recognition. Flip chips in three states (good flip chips, flip chips with missing solder bumps and flip chips with open solder bumps) are utilized to validate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that this method is effective for defect inspection in flip chip package.

  13. Chemical Sensing in Process Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) rationale for chemical sensors in process analysis; (2) existing types of process chemical sensors; (3) sensor limitations, considering lessons of chemometrics; (4) trends in process control sensors; and (5) future prospects. (JN)

  14. An Analysis of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Polymer Matrix Composite Sandwich Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Roberts, Gary D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Zheng, Diahua; Averbeck, Timothy; Roth, Donald J.; Jeanneau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Structural sandwich materials composed of triaxially braided polymer matrix composite material face sheets sandwiching a foam core are being utilized for applications including aerospace components and recreational equipment. Since full scale components are being made from these sandwich materials, it is necessary to develop proper inspection practices for their manufacture and in-field use. Specifically, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques need to be investigated for analysis of components made from these materials. Hockey blades made from sandwich materials and a flat sandwich sample were examined with multiple NDE techniques including thermographic, radiographic, and shearographic methods to investigate damage induced in the blades and flat panel components. Hockey blades used during actual play and a flat polymer matrix composite sandwich sample with damage inserted into the foam core were investigated with each technique. NDE images from the samples were presented and discussed. Structural elements within each blade were observed with radiographic imaging. Damaged regions and some structural elements of the hockey blades were identified with thermographic imaging. Structural elements, damaged regions, and other material variations were detected in the hockey blades with shearography. Each technique s advantages and disadvantages were considered in making recommendations for inspection of components made from these types of materials.

  15. Non-destructive analysis of museum objects by fibre-optic Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jim; Moens, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that has frequently been applied for the investigation of art objects. By using mobile Raman instrumentation it is possible to investigate the artworks without the need for sampling. This work evaluates the use of a dedicated mobile spectrometer for the investigation of a range of museum objects in museums in Scotland, including antique Egyptian sarcophagi, a panel painting, painted surfaces on paper and textile, and the painted lid and soundboard of an early keyboard instrument. The investigations of these artefacts illustrate some analytical challenges that arise when analysing museum objects, including fluorescing varnish layers, ambient sunlight, large dimensions of artefacts and the need to handle fragile objects with care. Analysis of the musical instrument (the Mar virginals) was undertaken in the exhibition gallery, while on display, which meant that interaction with the public and health and safety issues had to be taken into account. Experimental set-up for the non-destructive Raman spectroscopic investigation of a textile banner in the National Museums of Scotland PMID:16953310

  16. Non-destructive analysis of museum objects by fibre-optic Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Tate, Jim; Moens, Luc

    2007-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that has frequently been applied for the investigation of art objects. By using mobile Raman instrumentation it is possible to investigate the artworks without the need for sampling. This work evaluates the use of a dedicated mobile spectrometer for the investigation of a range of museum objects in museums in Scotland, including antique Egyptian sarcophagi, a panel painting, painted surfaces on paper and textile, and the painted lid and soundboard of an early keyboard instrument. The investigations of these artefacts illustrate some analytical challenges that arise when analysing museum objects, including fluorescing varnish layers, ambient sunlight, large dimensions of artefacts and the need to handle fragile objects with care. Analysis of the musical instrument (the Mar virginals) was undertaken in the exhibition gallery, while on display, which meant that interaction with the public and health and safety issues had to be taken into account. Experimental set-up for the non-destructive Raman spectroscopic investigation of a textile banner in the National Museums of Scotland.

  17. Nondestructive analysis of automotive paints with spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yue; Lawman, Samuel; Zheng, Yalin; Williams, Dominic; Zhang, Jinke; Shen, Yao-Chun

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an analytical tool for nondestructively characterizing the individual paint layer thickness of multiple layered automotive paints. A graph-based segmentation method was used for automatic analysis of the thickness distribution for the top layers of solid color paints. The thicknesses measured with OCT were in good agreement with the optical microscope and ultrasonic techniques that are the current standard in the automobile industry. Because of its high axial resolution (5.5 μm), the OCT technique was shown to be able to resolve the thickness of individual paint layers down to 11 μm. With its high lateral resolution (12.4 μm), the OCT system was also able to measure the cross-sectional area of the aluminum flakes in a metallic automotive paint. The range of values measured was 300-1850  μm2. In summary, the proposed OCT is a noncontact, high-resolution technique that has the potential for inclusion as part of the quality assurance process in automobile coating.

  18. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef.

  19. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  20. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  1. Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Birkan Bayrak, Mustafa; Guclu, Alper

    2013-09-01

    The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterising materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial neural systems, also known as artificial neural networks (ANNs), are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex engineering problems. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, non-linear unbound aggregate base and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis programme to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained with varying levels of noise in them. The trained ANN models were capable of rapidly predicting the pavement layer moduli and critical pavement responses (tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer, compressive strains on top of the subgrade layer and the deviator stresses on top of the subgrade layer), and also pavement

  2. Confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis as a new tool for the non-destructive study of the elemental distributions in pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Vincent; Reiche, Ina; Busignies, Virginies; Walter, Philippe; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2011-07-15

    Chemical imaging studies of pharmaceutical tablets are currently an important emerging field in the pharmaceutical industry. Finding the distribution of the different compounds inside the tablet is an important issue for production quality control but also for counterfeit detection. Most of the currently used techniques are limited to the study of the surface of the compacts, whereas the study of the bulk requires a time-consuming sample preparation. In this paper, we present the use of 3D micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis (3D μXRF) for the non-destructive study of pharmaceutical tablets. Based on two different examples, it was shown that it was possible to measure the distribution of several inorganic elements (Zn, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu) from the surface to a depth of several hundred microns under the surface. The X-ray absorption, depending on both matrix composition and energy, is one of the most critical factors of this analytical method while performing depth profiling or mapping. Therefore, an original method to correct the absorption, in order to accurately measure the true elemental distribution, was proposed. Moreover, by using the presence of titanium dioxide in a pharmaceutical coating, we proved that this technique is also suited to the non-destructive measurement of coating thickness.

  3. Nondestructive Speciation Depth Profiling of Complex TiOx Nanolayer Structures by Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pollakowski, Beatrix; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2015-08-04

    An important challenge of modern material science is the depth-sensitive and nondestructive analysis of the chemical binding state of complex structures consisting of multiple thin layers. In general, the correlation of the material functionality and underlying chemical and physical properties is the key question in view of directed device development, performance, and quality control. It has been shown that the combined method grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXRF) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) can significantly contribute to the nondestructive chemical analysis of buried thin films and interface structures regarding chemical speciation. Recently, we have enhanced the method to allow for a depth-resolved analysis of multilayered nanoscaled thin film structures. By means of appropriate model systems, the methodology has been developed and successfully validated. The model systems basically consist of a carbon cap layer, two titanium layers differing in their oxidation states and separated by a thin carbon layer, and a silicon substrate covered with molybdenum and a carbon layer. A differential approach has been developed to derive the chemical species of each of the titanium layers.

  4. Nondestructive testing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Don E.; McBride, Don

    A comprehensive reference covering a broad range of techniques in nondestructive testing is presented. Based on years of extensive research and application at NASA and other government research facilities, the book provides practical guidelines for selecting the appropriate testing methods and equipment. Topics discussed include visual inspection, penetrant and chemical testing, nuclear radiation, sonic and ultrasonic, thermal and microwave, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques, and training and human factors. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  5. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr.

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Nondestructive Analysis of Astromaterials by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis for PET Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Allen, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of the PET is to characterize and classify returned samples and make this information available to the larger research community who then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. The PET tries to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which has in the past limited the PET work to largely visual, nonquantitative measurements (e.g., optical microscopy). More modern techniques can also be utilized by a PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in much more rigorous way. Here we discuss our recent investigations into the applications of micro-CT and micro-XRF analyses with Apollo samples and ANSMET meteorites and assess the usefulness of these techniques in future PET. Results: The application of micro computerized tomography (micro-CT) to astromaterials is not a new concept. The technique involves scanning samples with high-energy x-rays and constructing 3-dimensional images of the density of materials within the sample. The technique can routinely measure large samples (up to approx. 2700 cu cm) with a small individual voxel size (approx. 30 cu m), and has the sensitivity to distinguish the major rock forming minerals and identify clast populations within brecciated samples. We have recently run a test sample of a terrestrial breccia with a carbonate matrix and multiple igneous clast lithologies. The test results are promising and we will soon analyze a approx. 600 g piece of Apollo sample 14321 to map out the clast population within the sample. Benchtop micro x-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) instruments can rapidly scan large areas (approx. 100 sq cm) with a small pixel size (approx. 25 microns) and measure the (semi) quantitative composition of largely unprepared surfaces for all elements between Be and U, often with sensitivity on the order of a approx. 100 ppm. Our recent

  7. Nondestructive Total Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Microscopy Combined with Multi-Way Chemometric Analysis for Visually Indistinguishable Single Fiber Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Muñoz de la Peña, Arsenio; Mujumdar, Nirvani; Heider, Emily C; Goicoechea, Hector C; Muñoz de la Peña, David; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-03-01

    The potential of total excitation-emission fluorescence microscopy combined with multiway chemometric analysis was investigated for the nondestructive forensic analysis of textile fibers. The four pairs of visually indistinguishable fibers consisted of nylon 361 dyed with acid yellow 17 and acid yellow 23, acetate satin 105B dyed with disperse blue 3 and disperse blue 14, polyester 777 dyed with disperse red 1 and disperse red 19, and acrylic 864 dyed with basic green 1 and basic green 4. Excitation emission matrices were recorded with the aid of an inverted microscope and a commercial spectrofluorimeter. The full information content of excitation-emission matrices was processed with the aid of unsupervised parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), PARAFAC supervised by linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and discriminant unfolded partial least-squares (DU-PLS). The ability of the latter algorithm to classify the four pairs of fibers demonstrates the advantage of using the multidimensionality of fluorescence data formats for the nondestructive analysis of forensic fiber evidence.

  8. Radionuclide composition of the allende meteorite from nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Rancitelli, L A; Perkins, R W; Cooper, J A; Kaye, J H; Wogman, N A

    1969-12-05

    The concentrations of beryllium-7, sodium-22, aluminum-26, potassium-40, scandium-46, vanadium-48, chromium-51, manganese-54, cobalt-57, cobalt-60, and thorium-232 (thallium-208) have been measured in the Allende meteorite by nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry. The high cobalt-60 content of the meteorite is indicative of a preatmospheric body with a minimum effective radius of 50 centimeters and a weight of 1650 kilograms; the aluminum-26 activity indicates a minimum exposure age of 3 million years.

  9. Non-destructive analysis of extracellular matrix development in cardiovascular tissue-engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Tuemen, M; Nguyen, D V A; Raffius, J; Flanagan, T C; Dietrich, M; Frese, J; Schmitz-Rode, T; Jockenhoevel, S

    2013-05-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, there is an increasing demand for non-destructive methods to quantify the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagens, elastin or sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) in vitro as a quality control before clinical use. In this study, procollagen I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), procollagen III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP), tropoelastin and sGAGs are investigated for their potential use as non-destructive markers in culture medium of statically cultivated cell-seeded fibrin gels. Measurement of PICP as marker for type I collagen synthesis, and PIIINP as marker of type III collagen turnover, correlated well with the hydroxyproline content of the fibrin gels, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. The measurement of tropoelastin as marker of elastin synthesis correlated with the amount of elastin retained in fibrin gels with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.99. sGAGs were retained in fibrin gels, but were not detectable in culture medium at any time of measurement. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of PICP and tropoelastin as non-destructive culture medium markers for collagen and elastin synthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study in cardiovascular tissue engineering investigating the whole of here proposed biomarkers of ECM synthesis to monitor the maturation process of developing tissue non-invasively, but for comprehensive assessment of ECM development, these biomarkers need to be investigated in further studies, employing dynamic cultivation conditions and more complex tissue constructs.

  10. Identifying Fracture Origin in Ceramics by Combination of Nondestructive Testing and Discrete Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Rajeev; Zhang, Jianmei

    2010-02-01

    Advanced ceramic materials have been extensively applied in aerospace, automobile and other industries. However, the reliability of the advanced ceramics is a major concern because of the brittle nature of the materials. In this paper, combination of nondestructive testing and numerical modeling Discrete Element Method is proposed to identify the fracture origin in ceramics. The nondestructive testing—laser scattering technology is first performed on the ceramic components to reveal the machining-induced damage such as cracks and the material-inherent flaws such as voids, then followed by the four point bending test. Discrete Element software package PFC2D is used to simulate the four point bending test and try to identify where the fractures start. The numerical representation of the ceramic materials is done by generating a densely packed particle system using the specimen genesis procedure and then applying the suitable microparameters to the particle system. Simulation of four point bending test is performed on materials having no defects, materials having manufacturing-induced defects like cracks, and materials having material-inherent flaws like voids. The initiation and propagation of defects is modeled and the mean contact force on the loading ball is also plotted. The simulation prediction results are well in accordance with the nondestructive testing results.

  11. IDENTIFYING FRACTURE ORIGIN IN CERAMICS BY COMBINATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AND DISCRETE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Senapati, Rajeev; Zhang Jianmei

    2010-02-22

    Advanced ceramic materials have been extensively applied in aerospace, automobile and other industries. However, the reliability of the advanced ceramics is a major concern because of the brittle nature of the materials. In this paper, combination of nondestructive testing and numerical modeling Discrete Element Method is proposed to identify the fracture origin in ceramics. The nondestructive testing--laser scattering technology is first performed on the ceramic components to reveal the machining-induced damage such as cracks and the material-inherent flaws such as voids, then followed by the four point bending test. Discrete Element software package PFC{sup 2D} is used to simulate the four point bending test and try to identify where the fractures start. The numerical representation of the ceramic materials is done by generating a densely packed particle system using the specimen genesis procedure and then applying the suitable microparameters to the particle system. Simulation of four point bending test is performed on materials having no defects, materials having manufacturing-induced defects like cracks, and materials having material-inherent flaws like voids. The initiation and propagation of defects is modeled and the mean contact force on the loading ball is also plotted. The simulation prediction results are well in accordance with the nondestructive testing results.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E

    1998-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal is to provide cutting-edge technologies, that show promise for quantitative inspection and characterization tools two to three years into the future. The NDE thrust area supports a multidisciplinary team, consisting of mechanical and electronics engineers, physicists, materials and computer scientists, chemists, technicians, and radiographers. These team members include personnel that cross departments within LLNL, and some are from academia and industry, within the US and abroad. This collaboration brings together the necessary and diver disciplines to provide the key scientific and technological advancements required to meet LLNL programmatic and industrial NDE challenges. The primary contributions of the NDE thrust area this year are described in these five reports: (1) Image Recovery Techniques for X-Ray Computed Tomography for Limited-Data Environments; (2) Techniques for Enhancing Laser Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation; (3) Optical Inspection of Glass-Epoxy Bonds; (4) Miniature X-Ray Source Development; and (5) Improving Computed Tomography Design and Operation Using Simulation Tools.

  13. Non-destructive evaluation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves by simple and multiple regression analysis of RGB image components.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, M; Mele, G; Pulvento, C; Lavini, A; d'Andria, R; Jacobsen, S-E

    2014-06-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content provides valuable information about physiological status of plants; it is directly linked to photosynthetic potential and primary production. In vitro assessment by wet chemical extraction is the standard method for leaf chlorophyll determination. This measurement is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Over the years alternative methods, rapid and non-destructive, have been explored. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of a fast and non-invasive field method for estimation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves based on RGB components analysis of digital images acquired with a standard SLR camera. Digital images of leaves from different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth were acquired directly in the field. Mean values of each RGB component were evaluated via image analysis software and correlated to leaf chlorophyll provided by standard laboratory procedure. Single and multiple regression models using RGB color components as independent variables have been tested and validated. The performance of the proposed method was compared to that of the widely used non-destructive SPAD method. Sensitivity of the best regression models for different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth was also checked. Color data acquisition of the leaves in the field with a digital camera was quick, more effective, and lower cost than SPAD. The proposed RGB models provided better correlation (highest R (2)) and prediction (lowest RMSEP) of the true value of foliar chlorophyll content and had a lower amount of noise in the whole range of chlorophyll studied compared with SPAD and other leaf image processing based models when applied to quinoa and amaranth.

  14. Pervaporation in chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Mitra, Somenath

    2010-04-16

    Unlike thermal processes such as distillation, pervaporation relies on the relative rates of solute permeation through a membrane and is a combination of evaporation and gas diffusion. The analytical pervaporation systems consist of a membrane module suitable for liquid sample introduction and a vacuum (or a sweeping gas) on the permeate side. It has been used in a wide range of applications including the analysis of various organic and inorganic compounds, and sample concentration. It has been directly interfaced with gas chromatography, spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemical detectors, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. A wide range of liquids, slurries, and solids samples has been analyzed using these techniques. This review highlights the basic principles of the pervaporation and the state of its current development as applied to analytical chemistry.

  15. Nondestructive measurement and analysis of residual stress in and around welds--A state of the art survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    One objective of mechanical design of welded fabrications is to compensate loads by stresses which the materials used in structural components can accommodate. Beside these load-induced stresses, residual stresses also have to be considered. These residual stresses are built up during weld pool cooling. All welded structures therefore have residual stresses, which can be relieved by heat treatment to below the yield-stress level at the annealing temperature. If not fully relieved, their presence can accelerate corrosion and corrosive cracking of welds. Quality assurance of welded structures needs tools for quantitative nondestructive analysis of stress states. The only nondestructive technique specifically developed for measurement and analysis of stress states is x-ray diffraction. Special devices for application under industrial or on-site environments have been developed and are extensively used. This type of measurement can be time-consuming, depending on the equipment, and has practical limitations. Moreover the penetration of x-rays into metals is small, in the order of 30 microns, and the measurements can be affected by other surface-related disturbance caused by machining and surface finishing. In the last ten years extensive research and development has been done to develop stress-analyzing techniques of a typical ndt-style,'' i.e., the use of a probe manipulated by hand or a manipulator, together with portable equipment. The present state of development of such an approach and the most important results obtained up to now are described in the following article.

  16. Nondestructive analysis of lithographic patterns with natural line edge roughness from Mueller matrix ellipsometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuguo; Shi, Yating; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Chuanwei; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-12-01

    Mueller matrix ellipsometry (MME) is applied to characterize lithographic patterns with natural line edge roughness (LER). A computationally efficient approach based on effective medium approximation is proposed to model the effects of LER in MME measurements. We present both the theoretical and experimental results on lithographic patterns with realistic LER which demonstrate that MME in combination with the proposed effective modeling method is capable of quantifying LER amplitudes. Quantitative comparisons between the MME and scanning electron microscopy measured results also reveal the strong potential of this technique for in-line nondestructive line roughness monitoring.

  17. Non-destructive analysis for the investigation of decomposition phenomena of historical manuscripts and prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, Werner; Staub, Susanne; Simon, Rolf; Heissler, Stefan; Pataki, Andrea; Banik, Gerhard

    2007-07-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage, historical books as well as illuminated manuscripts endangered by corrosive writing and printing materials or destructive coloring matters, non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of a novel combination of non-destructive analytic methods based on (a) synchrotron radiation induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) and (b) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope allows to investigate the state as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. Examples of measurements include (1) an iron gall ink manuscript of a historical memo on legal land description of the year 1769, (2) an original hand colored herbal of the years 1536/38 from the Senckenbergische Bibliothek, Frankfurt, and (3) the incunabula Johannes von Saaz: "Der Ackermann aus Boehmen" fated from 1463 and printed by Albrecht Pfister, Bamberg, owned by the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuettel.

  18. MCNP ESTIMATE OF THE SAMPLED VOLUME IN A NON-DESTRUCTIVE IN SITU SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.; DIOSZEGI, I.; MITRA, S.

    2004-05-03

    Global warming, promoted by anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emission into the atmosphere, is partially mitigated by the photosynthesis processes of the terrestrial echo systems that act as atmospheric CO{sub 2} scrubbers and sequester carbon in soil. Switching from till to no till soils management practices in agriculture further augments this process. Carbon sequestration is also advanced by putting forward a carbon ''credit'' system whereby these can be traded between CO{sub 2} producers and sequesters. Implementation of carbon ''credit'' trade will be further promulgated by recent development of a non-destructive in situ carbon monitoring system based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Volumes and depth distributions defined by the 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, and 90 percent neutron isofluxes, from a point source located at either 5 or 30 cm above the surface, were estimated using Monte Carlo calculations.

  19. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Depth of Surface Cracks Using Ultrasonic Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Sheng-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic is one of the most common uses of a non-destructive evaluation method for crack detection and characterization. The effectiveness of the acoustic-ultrasound Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for the determination of the depth of the surface crack was presented. A method for ultrasonic sizing of surface cracks combined with the time domain and frequency spectrum was adopted. The ultrasonic frequency spectrum was obtained by Fourier transform technique. A series of test specimens with various depths of surface crack ranging from 1 mm to 8 mm was fabricated. The depth of the surface crack was evaluated using the pulse-echo technique. In this work, three different longitudinal waves with frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz were employed to investigate the effect of frequency on the sizing detection of surface cracks. Reasonable accuracies were achieved with measurement errors less than 7%. PMID:25225875

  20. Integrated Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis Predicts Crack Location and Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Azia, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the finite-element analyses and the NDE modality undertaken on two flywheel rotors that were spun to burst speed. Computed tomography and dimensional measurements were used to nondestructively evaluate the rotors before and/or after they were spun to the first crack detection. Computed tomography data findings of two- and three-dimensional crack formation were used to conduct finite-element (FEA) and fracture mechanics analyses. A procedure to extend these analyses to estimate the life of these components is also outlined. NDE-FEA results for one of the rotors are presented in the figures. The stress results, which represent the radial stresses in the rim, clearly indicate that the maximum stress region is within the section defined by the computed tomography scan. Furthermore, the NDE data correlate well with the FEA results. In addition, the measurements reported show that the NDE and FEA data are in parallel.

  1. Non-destructive assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure by fluorimetric analysis of crab urine.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Samuel; Savage, Candida; Kim, Jonathan P

    2008-12-01

    The detection of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites by fluorescence spectrophotometry is particularly effective as a practical means to assess PAH exposure in decapod crabs. However, the practical application of this technique has thus far only been tested for the European shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and only a few field studies have been conducted in heavily polluted areas. The present study evaluated the adaptability of this method as a rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive biomonitoring tool for the New Zealand crab species, Macrophthalmus hirtipes (stalk-eyed mud crab). A field gradient could be detected among the sites and different input sources of PAH contamination could be discerned through the differentiation of pyrogenic and petrogenic PAH signatures. The present study shows that the fluorescence screening method is sensitive to relatively low levels of PAH contamination and more broadly applicable to smaller crab species than C. maenas, for which the technique was developed.

  2. Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

    2003-01-01

    Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  3. Complementary use of the Raman and XRF techniques for non-destructive analysis of historical paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawczak, M.; Kamińska, A.; Rabczuk, G.; Ferretti, M.; Jendrzejewski, R.; Śliwiński, G.

    2009-03-01

    The portable XRF spectrometer has been applied in situ for the non-destructive elemental mapping of the pigment components of the XV c. mural painting and frescos of the Little Christopher chamber in the Main Town Hall of Gdańsk, Poland. For a sufficiently large data collection the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to associate the most intense lines of the elements Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Hg in the XRF spectra with the palette of colors: white, brown, green, blue, red, yellow, and black observed in the painting. This allowed to limit the number of extractions of the micro-samples for the complementary Raman measurements thus assuring the practically non-destructive character of the entire analysis. The reliable identification of the pigment compositions was based on coincidence of the XRF, PCA and the Raman results which confirmed the presence of the chalk, malachite, azurite, red lead, mars red, mars yellow and candle black in the historical paints, except of the carbon-based black pigment being out of the XRF detection range. Different hues of the green paint were specified and the variety of the red and brown ones was ascribed to compositions of the Pb- and Fe-based red pigments (Fe 2O 3 and Pb 3O 4) with addition of the vermilion (HgS) and carbon black, in agreement with literature. The traces of elements: Ba and Sr, Sb and Mo, and also Cd, were ascribed to the impurities of Ca, those of some ochre pigments, and to the soluble Cd salts, respectively.

  4. Non-destructive analysis of DU content in the NIF hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibyan, Narek; Moody, Ken J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.

    2015-12-16

    The advantage of using depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums in high-yield deuterium-tritium (DT) shots at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is addressed by Döppner, et al., in great detail [1]. This DU based hohlraum incorporates a thin layer of DU, ~7 μm thick, on the inner surface along with a thin layer of a gold coating, ~0.7 μm thick, while the outer layer is ~22 μm thick gold. A thickness measurement of the DU layer can be performed using an optical microscope where the total DU weight can be computed provided a uniform DU layer. However, the uniformity of the thickness is not constant throughout the hohlraum since CAD drawing calculations of the DU weight do not agree with the computed values from optical measurements [2]. Therefore, a non-destructive method for quantifying the DU content in hohlraums has been established by utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy. The details of this method, along with results from several hohlraums, are presented in this report.

  5. From local to global analysis of defect detectability in infrared non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez-Ospina, J. F.; Benitez, H. D.

    2014-03-01

    Several image processing techniques are employed in Infrared Non-Destructive Testing (IRNDT) to enhance defect detectability. To date, there is no adequate global measurement that objectively assesses defect visibility in processed frames. In this work, a Global Signal to Noise Ratio (GSNR) that comprehensively evaluates defect detectability in processed infrared (IR) images is proposed, as well as a defect visibility measure named Infrared Image Quality Index (IRIQI) that compares the structural information of defective and sound areas. In addition, GSNR and IRIQI are validated by using the area under ROC curve (AUC). AUC quantitatively assesses defect visibility by comparing the outcomes of processing techniques to human judgements. The remarkable benefit of this global approach is that it allows one to determine the frame at which processing techniques reveals the majority of the defects by evaluating the times at which AUC curves reach their maxima. The test pieces were a Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) sample containing delaminations and a honeycomb specimen with delaminations, skin unbonds, excessive adhesive, and crushed core.

  6. Analysis of non-destructive current simulators of flux compression generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, K. A.; Curry, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    Development and evaluation of power conditioning systems and high power microwave components often used with flux compression generators (FCGs) requires repeated testing and characterization. In an effort to minimize the cost and time required for testing with explosive generators, non-destructive simulators of an FCG's output current have been developed. Flux compression generators and simulators of FCGs are unique pulsed power sources in that the current waveform exhibits a quasi-exponential increasing rate at which the current rises. Accurately reproducing the quasi-exponential current waveform of a FCG can be important in designing electroexplosive opening switches and other power conditioning components that are dependent on the integral of current action and the rate of energy dissipation. Three versions of FCG simulators have been developed that include an inductive network with decreasing impedance in time. A primary difference between these simulators is the voltage source driving them. It is shown that a capacitor-inductor-capacitor network driving a constant or decreasing inductive load can produce the desired high-order derivatives of the load current to replicate a quasi-exponential waveform. The operation of the FCG simulators is reviewed and described mathematically for the first time to aid in the design of new simulators. Experimental and calculated results of two recent simulators are reported with recommendations for future designs.

  7. Traceable Quantitative Raman Microscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis as Nondestructive Methods for the Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Absorber Films.

    PubMed

    Zakel, Sabine; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Streeck, Cornelia; Wundrack, Stefan; Weber, Alfons; Brunken, Stefan; Mainz, Roland; Beckhoff, Burckhardt; Stosch, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    The traceability of measured quantities is an essential condition when linking process control parameters to guaranteed physical properties of a product. Using Raman spectroscopy as an analytical tool for monitoring the production of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin-film solar cells, proper calibration with regard to chemical composition and lateral dimensions is a key prerequisite. This study shows how the multiple requirements of calibration in Raman microscopy might be addressed. The surface elemental composition as well as the integral elemental composition of the samples is traced back by reference-free X-ray fluorescence analysis. Reference Raman spectra are then generated for the relevant Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 related compounds. The lateral dimensions are calibrated with the help of a novel dimensional standard whose regular structures have been traced back to the International System of Units by metrological scanning force microscopy. On this basis, an approach for the quantitative determination of surface coverage values from lateral Raman mappings is developed together with a complete uncertainty budget. Raman and X-ray spectrometry have here been proven as complementary nondestructive methods combining surface sensitivity and in-depth information on elemental and species distribution for the reliable quality control of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 absorbers and Cu(In1-xGax)3Se5 surface layer formation.

  8. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for the Nondestructive Investigation of Conservation Treatments of Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Marcello; Robotti, Elisa; Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Barberis, Elettra; Shor, Pnina; Marengo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Today the long-term conservation of cultural heritage is a big challenge: often the artworks were subjected to unknown interventions, which eventually were found to be harmful. The noninvasive investigation of the conservation treatments to which they were subjected to is a crucial step in order to undertake the best conservation strategies. We describe here the preliminary results on a quick and direct method for the nondestructive identification of the various interventions of parchment by means of direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and chemometrics. The method has been developed for the noninvasive analysis of the Dead Sea Scrolls, one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. In this study castor oil and glycerol parchment treatments, prepared on new parchment specimens, were investigated in order to evaluate two different types of operations. The method was able to identify both treatments. In order to investigate the effect of the ion source temperature on the mass spectra, the DART-MS analysis was also carried out at several temperatures. Due to the high sensitivity, simplicity, and no sample preparation requirement, the proposed analytical methodology could help conservators in the challenging analysis of unknown treatments in cultural heritage.

  9. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for the Nondestructive Investigation of Conservation Treatments of Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Barberis, Elettra; Shor, Pnina; Marengo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Today the long-term conservation of cultural heritage is a big challenge: often the artworks were subjected to unknown interventions, which eventually were found to be harmful. The noninvasive investigation of the conservation treatments to which they were subjected to is a crucial step in order to undertake the best conservation strategies. We describe here the preliminary results on a quick and direct method for the nondestructive identification of the various interventions of parchment by means of direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and chemometrics. The method has been developed for the noninvasive analysis of the Dead Sea Scrolls, one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. In this study castor oil and glycerol parchment treatments, prepared on new parchment specimens, were investigated in order to evaluate two different types of operations. The method was able to identify both treatments. In order to investigate the effect of the ion source temperature on the mass spectra, the DART-MS analysis was also carried out at several temperatures. Due to the high sensitivity, simplicity, and no sample preparation requirement, the proposed analytical methodology could help conservators in the challenging analysis of unknown treatments in cultural heritage. PMID:27957383

  10. Nondestructive equipment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Identification of existing nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) methods that could be used in a low Earth orbit environment; evaluation of each method with respect to the set of criteria called out in the statement of work; selection of the most promising NDE methods for further evaluation; use of selected NDE methods to test samples of pressure vessel materials in a vacuum; pressure testing of a complex monolythic pressure vessel with known flaws using acoustic emissions in a vacuum; and recommendations for further studies based on analysis and testing are covered.

  11. Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Denison, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

  12. [The Non-Destructive Analysis of Some Ancient Jade Artifacts Unearthed from Henan Province by a Variety of Optical Techniques].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Dong, Jun-qing; Zhao, Hong-xia; Gan, Fu-xi; Hu, Yong-qing; Pan, Wen-quan

    2015-09-01

    A total of 14 pieces of ancient jade artifact unearthed from Henan Province were non-destructively analyzed by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF), laser Raman spectroscopy (portable and mobile) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, comprehensively. The raw materials of ancient jade artifacts could be determined accurately through the combination of pXRF and portable Raman spectrometer in a short time. With the advantages of small size and easy-operation, these two instruments are suitable to in situ non-destructive analysis of ancient jade artifacts. The results of the pXRF shows that these ancient jade artifacts can be divided into 6 categories such as rich in Si Al K, rich in Ca, rich in Si Ca, rich in Si Mg, rich in Si, rich in Ca P. Their main phases have been successfully identified by the portable Raman spectrometer. In the lab, the mobile confocal laser Raman spectrometer, which help us find the Raman vibration peak of [OH] in the tremolite jade, is used to make up the disadvantages of the portable Raman spectrometer such as lower spectral resolution, lower accuracy and narrower measuring range. We can use the OCT to analyze the transparency, fiber fineness and inclusion etc. of the jade artifacts. The confocal laser Raman spectroscopy combined with OCT is used to analyze 2 containing inclusion of tremolite jade samples. OCT image can visually display the distribution characteristics of the inclusion in these 2 samples. Confocal laser Raman spectroscopy can accurately locate the sample surface of inclusion, then we can observe the micro morphology and analyze its phase. The results show that the black inclusion is graphite. This work is very significant to study the geographical origin of jade. Through the study we find, the use of pXRF, laser Raman spectroscopy (portable and mobile) and OCT can be achieved on the identification and analysis of cultural relic's phase composition and texture feature and meet the basic

  13. Gas phase chemical detection with an integrated chemical analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; HELLER,EDWIN J.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.

    2000-04-12

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample preconcentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described.

  14. A novel combined approach of diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for non-destructive examination of blue ballpoint pen inks in forensic application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Vishal

    2017-03-15

    The present research is focused on the analysis of writing inks using destructive UV-Vis spectroscopy (dissolution of ink by the solvent) and non-destructive diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy along with Chemometrics. Fifty seven samples of blue ballpoint pen inks were analyzed under optimum conditions to determine the differences in spectral features of inks among same and different manufacturers. Normalization was performed on the spectroscopic data before chemometric analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and K-mean cluster analysis were used on the data to ascertain whether the blue ballpoint pen inks could be differentiated by their UV-Vis/UV-Vis NIR spectra. The discriminating power is calculated by qualitative analysis by the visual comparison of the spectra (absorbance peaks), produced by the destructive and non-destructive methods. In the latter two methods, the pairwise comparison is made by incorporating the clustering method. It is found that chemometric method provides better discriminating power (98.72% and 99.46%, in destructive and non-destructive, respectively) in comparison to the qualitative analysis (69.67%).

  15. A novel combined approach of diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for non-destructive examination of blue ballpoint pen inks in forensic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Vishal

    2017-03-01

    The present research is focused on the analysis of writing inks using destructive UV-Vis spectroscopy (dissolution of ink by the solvent) and non-destructive diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy along with Chemometrics. Fifty seven samples of blue ballpoint pen inks were analyzed under optimum conditions to determine the differences in spectral features of inks among same and different manufacturers. Normalization was performed on the spectroscopic data before chemometric analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and K-mean cluster analysis were used on the data to ascertain whether the blue ballpoint pen inks could be differentiated by their UV-Vis/UV-Vis NIR spectra. The discriminating power is calculated by qualitative analysis by the visual comparison of the spectra (absorbance peaks), produced by the destructive and non-destructive methods. In the latter two methods, the pairwise comparison is made by incorporating the clustering method. It is found that chemometric method provides better discriminating power (98.72% and 99.46%, in destructive and non-destructive, respectively) in comparison to the qualitative analysis (69.67%).

  16. Magnetic Microcalorimeter Gamma Detectors for High-Precision Non-Destructive Analysis, FY14 Extended Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S.

    2015-02-06

    Cryogenic gamma (γ) detectors with operating temperatures of ~0.1 K or below offer 10× better energy resolution than conventional high-purity germanium detectors that are currently used for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. This can greatly increase the accuracy of NDA, especially at low-energies where gamma rays often have similar energies and cannot be resolved by Ge detectors. We are developing cryogenic γ–detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), which have the potential of higher resolution, faster count rates and better linearity than other cryogenic detector technologies. High linearity is essential to add spectra from different pixels in detector arrays that are needed for high sensitivity. Here we discuss the fabrication of a new generation of MMC γ–detectors in FY2014, and the resulting improvements in energy resolution and linearity of the new design. As an example of the type of NDA that cryogenic detectors enable, we demonstrate the direct detection of Pu-242 emissions with our MMC γ–detectors in the presence of Pu-240, and show that a quantitative NDA analysis agrees with the mass spectrometry

  17. "Dry-state" surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS): toward non-destructive analysis of dyes on textile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaffino, Chiara; Ngo, Hoan Thanh; Register, Janna; Bruni, Silvia; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we report the proof of concept of the possibility to identify natural dyes on textiles using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection by means of a simple "dry-state" SERS approach, i.e., exploiting the interactions between a solid nanometallic substrate and dye molecules present on textiles, thus avoiding any extraction or necessity to remove samples. The challenges associated with instrumental constraints related to SERS analysis of bulk materials and possible contamination of artworks with metallic nanoparticles were approached. Different silver nanosubstrates, i.e., nanoislands and films obtained starting from two different metal colloids, were tested for this aim. The study also investigates different parameters associated with the synthesis of nanosubstrates influencing the enhancement of the "dry-state" SERS signals obtained. SERS spectra of anthraquinone red dyes were successfully recorded from reference wool threads using this simple approach. The results illustrate the usefulness of the practical and rapid "dry-state" SERS approach that could open new opportunities toward the non-destructive analysis of dyes in artefacts.

  18. [Laboratory chemical analysis in ascites].

    PubMed

    Satz, N

    1991-04-13

    Chemical analysis of ascitic fluid may be helpful in determining the underlying disease. We discuss the diagnostic accuracy of the common and newer chemical parameters (protein, LDH, lactate, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, fibronectin, albumin gradient [value of serum minus value of ascites], ferritin, tumor markers, immunomodulators, leukocytes, bacterial and cytologic examinations). We also review the pathogenesis and clinical findings of the most frequent ascites forms (benign hepatic, infective, malignant ascites, ascites associated with liver metastases or hepatocellular carcinoma, cardiac and pancreatic ascites) and the most important diagnosis criteria. In the malignant ascites a high cholesterol, a narrow albumin gradient or a high ferritin value have high diagnostic accuracy, but diagnosis is by the finding of malignant cells. For the diagnosis of infective ascites, bacteriology is mandatory even though the results are negative in most cases, particularly in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis where diagnosis has to be established clinically, by a low pH or by a high leukocyte count. Benign hepatic ascites is diagnosed by demonstrating an underlying chronic liver disease and laboratory examinations of the peritoneal fluid to exclude other causes. The laboratory tests in ascites associated with liver metastases or with hepatocellular carcinoma were similar to those in benign hepatic ascites and the two ascites forms must be separated by other clinical and technical findings. Pancreatic ascites can easily be distinguished from the other forms by the high amylase and lipase content.

  19. Gas Phase Chemical Detection with an Integrated Chemical Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, Albert G.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Susan L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carloyn M.; Reno, John L.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1999-07-08

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample concentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described. The design and performance of novel micromachined acoustic wave devices, with the potential for improved chemical sensitivity, are also described.

  20. Real time and non-destructive analysis of tablet coating thickness using acoustic microscopy and infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bikiaris, D; Koutri, I; Alexiadis, D; Damtsios, A; Karagiannis, G

    2012-11-15

    Tablet coating thicknesses were estimated using several techniques such as weight gain and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in comparison with acoustic microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Acoustic microscopy, used for the first time in such an application, is based on the physical phenomenon of ultrasound propagation through the materials and the echoes generated by their interfaces. Based on the time of flights (TOFs) of the echoes from the coating surface and the tablet, it is possible to calculate the coating thickness. In order to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of these methods, drug tablets were coated with Kollicoat SR polymer for several times, so that to prepare tablets with different coating thicknesses. Tablets with 3, 6 and 9 wt% coating material have been prepared and based on SEM micrographs it was found that the tablet coating thickness is 71.99 ± 1.2 μm, 92.5 ± 1.7 μm and 132.3 ± 2.1 μm, respectively (SEM analysis). The tablet coating thicknesses measured with acoustic microscopy and infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, were in agreement with those obtained using SEM. This verifies that both techniques can be successfully applied for real time and non-destructive thickness measurements of tablet coating. Furthermore, both techniques, compared with SEM and weight gained measurements, are fast and fully automated.

  1. Nondestructive Analysis of Apollo Samples by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis: A PET Style Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of a PET is to characterize and classify the returned samples, making this information available to the general research community who can then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. A PET strives to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which often limits the PET work to largely visual measurements and observations like optical microscopy. More modern techniques can also be utilized by future PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in a more rigorous way. Here we present our recent analyses of Apollo samples 14321 and 14305 by micro-CT and micro-XRF (respectively), assess the potential for discovery of "new" Apollo samples for scientific study, and evaluate the usefulness of these techniques in future PET efforts.

  2. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy study of CaF 2(film)/Si(111): non-destructive buried interface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, M.; Kusaka, M.; Hirai, M.; Tagami, R.; Nakamura, H.; Watabe, H.

    1997-06-01

    A soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) study under an energetic electron irradiation is first applied to a non-destructive buried interface analysis of a CaF 2(film ˜ 40 nm)/Si(111) contact system, where the energy of primary electrons, Ep, is ≤ 5 keV. The present work has explored the usefulness of the application of the SXES method to the interface study to give rise to the following findings: the CaF 2/Si(111) interface shows rather sharp transition from the top CaF 2 to the substrate Si, there certainly is a Ca-silicide layer at the CaF 2/Si(111) interface, the thickness of the silicide layer is estimated to be less than several nm, and the e-beam excited SXES non-destructive study is very powerful to analyze a specimen with rather thick top film (> 40 nm) and thin interface layer (< several nm).

  3. Novel application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) for the non-destructive micro-elemental analysis of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects.

    PubMed

    Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S; Lenehan, Claire E; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; Walshe, Keryn; Pring, Allan

    2016-06-07

    This manuscript presents the first non-destructive synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence study of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects. Our results demonstrate the advantage of XFM (X-ray fluorescence microscopy) of Aboriginal Australian objects for optimum sensitivity, elemental analysis, micron-resolution mapping of pigment areas and the method also has the advantage of being non-destructive to the cultural heritage objects. Estimates of pigment thickness can be calculated. In addition, based on the elemental maps of the pigments, further conclusions can be drawn on the composition and mixtures and uses of natural mineral pigments and whether the objects were made using traditional or modern methods and materials. This manuscript highlights the results of this first application of XFM to investigate complex mineral pigments used on Aboriginal Australian objects.

  4. Rapid and nondestructive analysis of pharmaceutical products using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Pao; Du, Guorong; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2012-11-01

    Near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS) was applied to classification and quantification of azithromycin tablets with the aid of chemometric multivariate analysis. Repeatability was investigated by repeated measurements, and the effect of morphology was examined by preparing the tablets in four forms, i.e. tablet product, tablet without coating, powder of tablet without coating, and powder of tablet. Furthermore, baseline elimination by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and wavenumber selection was discussed for improving the repeatability and accuracy of the method. The results show that the spectra of the samples in the four forms can be measured with an acceptable repeatability, and classification of manufacture sites and quantitative analysis of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) can be achieved by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression, respectively. More importantly, baseline elimination and wavenumber selection can significantly simplify the calculation and improve the results.

  5. Acoustic emission analysis as a non-destructive test procedure for fiber compound structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, J.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of acoustic emission analysis is explained in scientific terms. The detection of acoustic events, their localization, damage discrimination, and event summation curves are discussed. A block diagram of the concept of damage-free testing of fiber-reinforced synthetic materials is depicted. Prospects for application of the concept are assessed.

  6. Application of discrete wavelet analysis for moisture content estimation of in-shell nuts nondestructively with a capacitance sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content is an important quality factors often measured and monitored in the processing and storage of food products such as corn and peanuts. For estimating this parameter for peanuts nondestructively a parallel-plate capacitance sensor was used in conjunction with an impedance analyzer. ...

  7. Nondestructive Analysis of Phytochemical Components by Near Infared (NIR) Spectroscopy: Measurement of Rosmarinic Acid in Prunella Vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NIR spectroscopy has developed into a rapid nondestructive method to analyze, in a single event, an increasingly complex number of general and specific components in solid and liquid samples, including dissolved solids, acids, density, pH, microbial contamination, and percent oil, carbohydrate, prot...

  8. [Nondestructive analysis and identification of pigments on colored relics by fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-qin; Dang, Gao-chao; Zhao, Jing

    2008-08-01

    Identifying pigments on colored relics is an important part of relic analysis and protection. In order to meet the special demands of protecting relics, taking into account the situation in China, we have refitted a domestic instrument to a fiber optics reflectance spectrophotometer with low price and good function to identify pigments without any damage. It consists of a tungsten lamp, a monochromator, an optical fiber, a shielding chamber, a photomultiplier tube, a reading meter, and a high voltage supply source. Through analysis of a great variety of Chinese ancient pigments, we have deduced three reflectance spectrum shapes of pigments, bell-shaped, s-shaped and oblique line-shaped. The blue or green pigments with bell-shaped spectra can be identified by the characteristic reflectance peak. The pigments with s-shaped spectra are usually red, yellow or brown. Although there are no characteristic reflectance peaks on the plots of the reflectance-wavelength, there is a peak in the first derivative (D) here. Then, the related pigments of this sort can be analyzed and identified with their derivative peaks. For the pigments with oblique line-shaped spectra, their reflectance and first derivative spectra are nearly linear and there are no peaks. The related pigments are usually white, black or gray. With our self-made fiber optics reflectance spectrophotometer, we analyzed the composition of pigments on colored pottery figurines and frescoes of Tang dynasty tombs in Xi'an by comparing their reflectance spectroscopic curves and characteristic reflectance peaks or first derivative peaks with those of standard pigments. The deep red pigment in sample 1#, the green pigment in sample 2#, and the orange and deep red pigments in sample 3# have been identified to be hematite with high purity, malachite and the mixtures of cinnabar/red lead and a little hematite, respectively. It has been indicated that the analytical results of relic pigments from this method are accurate

  9. Quantitative, nondestructive assessment of beech scale (Hemiptera: Cryptococcidae) density using digital image analysis of wax masses.

    PubMed

    Teale, Stephen A; Letkowski, Steven; Matusick, George; Stehman, Stephen V; Castello, John D

    2009-08-01

    Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is a non-native invasive insect associated with beech bark disease. A quantitative method of measuring viable scale density at the levels of the individual tree and localized bark patches was developed. Bark patches (10 cm(2)) were removed at 0, 1, and 2 m above the ground and at the four cardinal directions from 13 trees in northern New York and 12 trees in northern Michigan. Digital photographs of each patch were made, and the wax mass area was measured from two random 1-cm(2) subsamples on each bark patch using image analysis software. Viable scale insects were counted after removing the wax under a dissecting microscope. Separate regression analyses at the whole tree level for the New York and Michigan sites each showed a strong positive relationship of wax mass area with the number of underlying viable scale insects. The relationships for the New York and Michigan data were not significantly different from each other, and when pooling data from the two sites, there was still a significant positive relationship between wax mass area and the number of scale insects. The relationships between viable scale insects and wax mass area were different at the 0-, 1-, and 2-m sampling heights but do not seem to affect the relationship. This method does not disrupt the insect or its interactions with the host tree.

  10. Seismic joint analysis for non-destructive testing of asphalt and concrete slabs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.

    2005-01-01

    A seismic approach is used to estimate the thickness and elastic stiffness constants of asphalt or concrete slabs. The overall concept of the approach utilizes the robustness of the multichannel seismic method. A multichannel-equivalent data set is compiled from multiple time series recorded from multiple hammer impacts at progressively different offsets from a fixed receiver. This multichannel simulation with one receiver (MSOR) replaces the true multichannel recording in a cost-effective and convenient manner. A recorded data set is first processed to evaluate the shear wave velocity through a wave field transformation, normally used in the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method, followed by a Lambwave inversion. Then, the same data set is used to evaluate compression wave velocity from a combined processing of the first-arrival picking and a linear regression. Finally, the amplitude spectra of the time series are used to evaluate the thickness by following the concepts utilized in the Impact Echo (IE) method. Due to the powerful signal extraction capabilities ensured by the multichannel processing schemes used, the entire procedure for all three evaluations can be fully automated and results can be obtained directly in the field. A field data set is used to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  11. Non-destructive analysis of chlorine in fly ash cement concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Maslehuddin, M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman

    2009-08-01

    Preventive measures against reinforcement corrosion in concrete require increasing concrete density to prevent the diffusion of chloride ions to the steel surface. Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to concrete to increase its density. Monitoring the chloride concentration in concrete is required to assess the chances of reinforcement corrosion. In this study, FA was added to Portland cement concrete to increase its density. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was utilized to analyze the concentration of chlorine in concrete. The chlorine concentration in the FA cement concrete was evaluated by determining the yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays of chlorine from the FA concrete specimen containing 0.4-3.5 wt% chlorine. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the calculated yield obtained through the Monte Carlo simulations. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in FA cement concrete was also calculated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the FA cement concrete was found to be 0.022±0.007 and 0.038±0.017 wt% for 1.16 and 6.11 MeV prompt gamma-rays, respectively. Within the statistical uncertainty, the lower bound of MDC meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt% of chlorine in concrete set by American Concrete Institute Committee 318.

  12. Non-destructive X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) Analysis of Sediment Variance in Marine Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oti, E.; Polyak, L. V.; Dipre, G.; Sawyer, D.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic activity within marine sediments can alter the physical properties of the sediment as well as indicate nutrient flux and ocean temperatures. We examine burrowing features in sediment cores from the western Arctic Ocean collected during the 2005 Healy-Oden TransArctic Expedition (HOTRAX) and from the Gulf of Mexico Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 308. While traditional methods for studying bioturbation require physical dissection of the cores, we assess burrowing using an X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scanner. XCT noninvasively images the sediment cores in three dimensions and produces density sensitive images suitable for quantitative analysis. XCT units are recorded as Hounsfield Units (HU), where -999 is air, 0 is water, and 4000-5000 would be a higher density mineral, such as pyrite. We rely on the fundamental assumption that sediments are deposited horizontally, and we analyze the variance over each flat-lying slice. The variance describes the spread of pixel values over a slice. When sediments are reworked, drawing higher and lower density matrix into a layer, the variance increases. Examples of this can be seen in two slices in core 19H-3A from Site U1324 of IODP Expedition 308. The first slice, located 165.6 meters below sea floor consists of relatively undisturbed sediment. Because of this, the majority of the sediment values fall between 1406 and 1497 HU, thus giving the slice a comparatively small variance of 819.7. The second slice, located 166.1 meters below sea floor, features a lower density sediment matrix disturbed by burrow tubes and the inclusion of a high density mineral. As a result, the Hounsfield Units have a larger variance of 1,197.5, which is a result of sediment matrix values that range from 1220 to 1260 HU, the high-density mineral value of 1920 HU and the burrow tubes that range from 1300 to 1410 HU. Analyzing this variance allows us to observe changes in the sediment matrix and more specifically capture

  13. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  14. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  15. Dealing with Uncertainty in Chemical Risk Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    0 * (OF 41 C-DEALING WITH UNCERTAINTY IN - CHEMICAL RISK ANALYSIS THESIS David S. Clement Captain, USAF AFIT/GOR/MA/8CD-2 DT[C. ~ELECTEf 2 9 MAR 18...AFIT/GOR/MA/88D-2 DEALING WITH UNCERTAINTY IN CHEMICAL RISK ANALYSIS THESIS David S. Clement Captain, USAF AFIT/GOR/MA/88D-2 DTIC V ~ 27989 Approved...for public release; distribution unlimited S . AFIT/GOR/KA/88D-2 DEALING WITH UNCERTAINTY IN CHEMICAL RISK ANALYSIS THESIS Presented to the Faculty

  16. Digital holographic nondestructive testing of laminate composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karray, Mayssa; Christophe, Poilane; Gargouri, Mohamed; Picart, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Optical digital holographic techniques can be used for nondestructive testing of materials. Digital holographic nondestructive testing essentially measures deformations on the surface of the object. However, there is sufficient sensitivity to detect subsurface and internal defects in metallic and composite specimens. We investigate and discuss the vibration analysis of laminated composite glass-epoxy using time averaging in digital Fresnel holography to visualize the modes of vibration and to test the integrity of the structures of studied materials.

  17. Structural Anomalies Detected in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Combined Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis (NDE and FEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2003-01-01

    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object and then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. The rapid prototyping technique builds high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer-aided design files. This fundamental technique for interpreting and interacting with large data sets is being used here via Velocity2 (an integrated image-processing software, ref. 1) using computed tomography (CT) data to produce a prototype three-dimensional test specimen model for analyses. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center proposes to use these capabilities to conduct a combined nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) to screen pretest and posttest structural anomalies in structural components. A tensile specimen made of silicon nitrite (Si3N4) ceramic matrix composite was considered to evaluate structural durability and deformity. Ceramic matrix composites are being sought as candidate materials to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine engine applications. They have the unique characteristics of being able to withstand higher operating temperatures and harsh combustion environments. In addition, their low densities relative to metals help reduce component mass (ref. 2). Detailed three-dimensional volume rendering of the tensile test specimen was successfully carried out with Velocity2 (ref. 1) using two-dimensional images that were generated via computed tomography. Subsequent, three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed, and the results obtained were compared with those predicted by NDE-based calculations and experimental tests. It was shown that Velocity2 software can be used to render a three-dimensional object from a series of CT scan images with a minimum level of complexity. The analytical results (ref. 3) show that the high-stress regions correlated well with the damage sites identified by the CT scans

  18. Rapid, non-destructive carbon analysis of forest soils using neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Mitra, S.; Yanai, R. D.; Levine, C. R.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.

    2010-08-01

    Forest soils are pivotal to understanding global carbon (C) cycling and evaluating policies for mitigating global change. However, they are very difficult to monitor because of the heterogeneity of soil characteristics, the difficulty of representative sampling, and the slow time scale of response to environmental change. Here we demonstrate that use of gamma-ray spectroscopy facilitates in situ non-destructive analysis of C and other elements in forest soils. In this approach the element-specific gamma-rays are induced by fast and thermal neutrons interacting with the nuclei of the elements present in the soil. Background gamma-rays emanating from naturally occurring radionuclides in the forest are recorded as well. We applied this approach in a mature northern hardwood forest on glacial till soils at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. The inelastic neutron scattering (INS) system yielded strong signals in gamma-ray counts/h, from C and other elements present in the soil matrix that included silicon, oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, manganese and potassium. The INS sensitivity for carbon was 20.656 counts h{sup -1} kg{sup -1} C m{sup -2} based on current net C gamma-ray counts and the data for the O horizon and mineral soil to a depth of 30 cm obtained from a nearby quantitative soil pit (7.35 kg C m{sup -2}). We estimate the minimum detectable change to be {approx}0.34 kg C m{sup -2}, which is {approx}5% of the current soil C content, and the minimum detectable limit to be {approx}0.23 kg C m{sup -1}. Eight % reproducibility from 11 measurements was limited, in part, by the large variability in the system counting geometry due to the uneven forest microtopography. The INS approach has the potential to revolutionize belowground monitoring of C and other elements, because the possibility of detecting a 5% change in forest soils has not been possible with destructive sampling methods.

  19. Nature and Analysis of Chemical Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Mark S.; Fogleman, Wavell W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the nature and analysis of chemical species in water, covering publications of 1976-77. This review is concerned with inorganics, and it covers: (1) electrochemical analysis; (2) spectroscopy; (3) neutron activation, radiochemical analysis, and isotope dilution. A list of 262 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Development of Transmission Raman Spectroscopy towards the in line, high throughput and non-destructive quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solid oral dose.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Julia A; Owen, Andrew W; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-01-07

    Transmission Raman spectroscopy (TRS) is a recently introduced analytical technique to pharmaceutical analysis permitting volumetric sampling by non-destructive means. Here we demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, the enhanced speed of quantification of pharmaceutical tablets by an order of magnitude compared with conventional TRS. This is achieved using an enhancing element, "photon diode", avoiding the loss of laser photons at laser coupling interface. The proof-of-concept experiments were performed on a complex mixture consisting of 5 components (3 APIs and 2 excipients) with nominal concentrations ranging between 0.4 and 89%. Acquisition times as short as 0.01 s were reached with satisfactory quantification accuracy for all the sample components. Results suggest that even faster sampling speeds would be achievable for components with stronger Raman scattering cross sections or with higher laser powers. This major improvement in speed of volumetric analysis enables high throughput deployment of TRS for in line quality control applications within the batch or continuous manufacturing process and facilitating non-destructive analysis of large fractions.

  1. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  2. Core Handling and Real-Time Non-Destructive Characterization at the Kochi Core Center: An Example of Core Analysis from the Chelungpu Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Hirono, T.; Yeh, E.-C.; Tanikawa, W.; Soh, W.

    2007-11-01

    As an example of core analysis carried out inactive fault drilling programs, we report the procedures of core handling on the drilling site and non-destructive characterization in the laboratory. This analysis was employed onthe core samples taken from HoleBof the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP), which penetrated through the active fault that slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. We show results of the non-destructive physical property measurements carried out at the Kochi Core Center (KCC), Japan. Distinct anomalies of lower bulk density and higher magnetic susceptibilitywere recognized in all three fault zones encountered in HoleB. To keep the core samples in good condition before they are used for variousanalyses is crucial. In addition, careful planning for core handlingand core analyses is necessary for successfulinvestigations. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.s01.35.2007

  3. Sample processor for chemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus is provided which can process numerous samples that must be chemically analyzed by the application of fluids such as liquid reagents, solvents and purge gases, as well as the application of dumps for receiving the applied fluid after they pass across the sample, in a manner that permits numerous samples to be processed in a relatively short time and with minimal manpower. The processor includes a rotor which can hold numerous cartridges containing inert or adsorbent material for holding samples, and a pair of stators on opposite sides of the rotor. The stators form stations spaced along the path of the cartridges which lie in the rotor, and each station can include an aperture in one stator through which a fluid can be applied to a cartridge resting at that station, and an aperture in the other stator which can receive the fluid which has passed through the cartridge. The stators are sealed to the ends of the cartridges lying on the rotor, to thereby isolate the stations from one another.

  4. Chemical sensing in process analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, T; Callis, J B; Kowalski, B R

    1984-10-19

    Improvements in process control, which determine production efficiency and product quality, are critically dependent upon on-line process analysis. The technology of the required instrumentation will be substantially expanded by advances in sensing devices. In the future, the hardware will consist of sensor arrays and miniaturized instruments fabricated by microlithography and silicon micromachining. Chemometrics will be extensively used in software to provide error detection, selfcalibration, and correction as well as multivariate data analysis for the determination of anticipated and unanticipated species. A number of examples of monolithically fabricated sensors now exist and more will be forthcoming as the new paradigms and new tools are widely adopted. A trend toward not only on-line but even in-product sensors is becoming discernible.

  5. Non-destructive analysis of impure HEU-carbon samples using an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; McLaughlin, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    Highly enriched uranium-containing graphite-based material from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Measurements to verify the uranium content of these samples are required prior to their disposition to the Y-12 facility in Tennessee. The stored materials vary significantly in their matrix purity and in their {sup 235}U content and enrichment. A set of 26 samples selected from the LANL material inventory were analyzed non-destructively using an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) calibrated versus pure UO{sub 3} standards. A correction, calculated from published data and the approximate carbon-to-uranium atom ratios of each sample, was applied for the response enhancement from the carbon matrix. In some cases this correction was as high as 30%. Eight of the 26 sample that had been analyzed in the AWCC were destructively analyzed to provide a benchmark for the non-destructive analyses. The average recovery (NDA/Destructive results) was 0.997 {+-} 0.115. One sample had a destructive result that lay outside a 3-sigma interval about the NDA result.

  6. Non-invasive and non-destructive micro-XRF and micro-Raman analysis of a decorative wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Pérez-Alonso, Maite; Rodríguez-Laso, María Dolores; Etxebarria, Nestor; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2007-02-01

    Non-destructive and non-invasive micro-Raman fibre optic and micro-XRF analyses were performed to study a wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century. The complementarity of these two non-destructive techniques is shown in this work. The analysed artwork is considered one of the most beautiful wallpapers ever manufactured according to the catalogues and books; it is known as Chasse de Compiègne, manufactured by Jacquemart, Paris, in 1812. During the analysis, an unexpected pigment was detected by both analytical techniques: lead-tin yellow type II. This pigment was used until ca. 1750, when other yellow pigments replaced it, thus it is very difficult to find it in paintings afterwards. Together with this pigment, red lead, Prussian blue, brochantite, yellow iron oxide, calcium carbonate, vermilion, carbon black of animal origin (bone black), lead white, and raw and burnt sienna were also determined by combining the analytical information provided by both techniques. A possible degradation of brochantite to antlerite is also discussed.

  7. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  8. Computer vision-based analysis of foods: a non-destructive colour measurement tool to monitor quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-05-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis has been widely used in food industry to monitor food quality. It allows low-cost and non-contact measurements of colour to be performed. In this paper, two computer vision-based image analysis approaches are discussed to extract mean colour or featured colour information from the digital images of foods. These types of information may be of particular importance as colour indicates certain chemical changes or physical properties in foods. As exemplified here, the mean CIE a* value or browning ratio determined by means of computer vision-based image analysis algorithms can be correlated with acrylamide content of potato chips or cookies. Or, porosity index as an important physical property of breadcrumb can be calculated easily. In this respect, computer vision-based image analysis provides a useful tool for automatic inspection of food products in a manufacturing line, and it can be actively involved in the decision-making process where rapid quality/safety evaluation is needed.

  9. Probabilistic Exposure Analysis for Chemical Risk Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Kenneth T.; Cullen, Alison C.; Frey, H. Christopher; Price, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state of the science of probabilistic exposure assessment (PEA) as applied to chemical risk characterization. Current probabilistic risk analysis methods applied to PEA are reviewed. PEA within the context of risk-based decision making is discussed, including probabilistic treatment of related uncertainty, interindividual heterogeneity, and other sources of variability. Key examples of recent experience gained in assessing human exposures to chemicals in the environment, and other applications to chemical risk characterization and assessment, are presented. It is concluded that, although improvements continue to be made, existing methods suffice for effective application of PEA to support quantitative analyses of the risk of chemically induced toxicity that play an increasing role in key decision-making objectives involving health protection, triage, civil justice, and criminal justice. Different types of information required to apply PEA to these different decision contexts are identified, and specific PEA methods are highlighted that are best suited to exposure assessment in these separate contexts. PMID:19223660

  10. In-Situ Planetary Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Buehler, M. G.; Grannan, S. M.; Hecht, M. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    Both, the search for evidence of life on Mars and the assessment of the Martian environment in respect to its compatibility with human explorers, will require the ability to measure and understand the aqueous chemistry of the Martian regolith. Direct in-situ chemical analysis is the only method by which chemical biosignatures can be reliably recognized and the toxicity of the regolith accurately assessed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the aqueous ionic constituents and their concentrations is critical in developing kinetic and thermodynamic models that can be used to accurately predict the potential of the past or present Martian geochemical environment to have either generated or still sustain life. In-situ chemical characterization could provide evidence as to whether the chemical composition of the regolith or evaporates in suspected ancient water bodies have been biologically influenced.

  11. An extended chemical analysis of gallstone.

    PubMed

    Chandran, P; Kuchhal, N K; Garg, P; Pundir, C S

    2007-09-01

    Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble proteins, sodium potassium, magnesium, copper, oxalate and chlorides of biliary calculi (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment) retrieved from surgical operation of 200 patients from Haryana state was carried out. Total cholesterol as the major component and total bilirubin, phospholipids, triglycerides, bile acids, fatty acids (esterified), soluble protein, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, potassium, inorganic phosphate, oxalate and chloride as minor components were found in all types of calculi. The cholesterol stones had higher content of total cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids (esterified), inorganic phosphate and copper compared to mixed and pigment stones. The mixed stones had higher content of iron and triglycerides than to cholesterol and pigment stones. The pigment stones were richer in total bilirubin, bile acids, calcium, oxalate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and soluble protein compared to cholesterol and mixed stones. Although total cholesterol was a major component of cholesterol, mixed and pigment gall stone in Haryana, the content of most of the other lipids, cations and anions was different in different gall stones indicating their different mechanism of formation.

  12. Droplet microfluidics in (bio)chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Basova, Evgenia Yu; Foret, Frantisek

    2015-01-07

    Droplet microfluidics may soon change the paradigm of performing chemical analyses and related instrumentation. It can improve not only the analysis scale, possibility for sensitivity improvement, and reduced consumption of chemical and biological reagents, but also the speed of performing a variety of unit operations. At present, microfluidic platforms can reproducibly generate monodisperse droplet populations at kHz or higher rates with droplet sizes suitable for high-throughput experiments, single-cell detection or even single molecule analysis. In addition to being used as microreactors with volume in the micro- to femtoliter range, droplet based systems have also been used to directly synthesize particles and encapsulate biological entities for biomedicine and biotechnology applications. This minireview summarizes various droplet microfluidics operations and applications for (bio)chemical assays described in the literature during the past few years.

  13. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... for Evaluating Solid Waste, or a method validated under subpart Q of this part. Use Method 8082...

  14. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.253...

  15. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.253...

  16. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.253...

  17. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.253...

  18. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  19. Combined use of the non-destructive XRF and low energy micro-XRF techniques for the analysis of silvered nummi belonging to the Treasure of Misurata (Libya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Francesco Paolo; Garraffo, Salvatore; Pappalardo, Lighea; Rizzo, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Roman coinage underwent a severe debasement of silver during the time and the production of plated coins became a common practice for giving the impression of a high finesses of the alloy. In 294 AD, Diocletian introduced the nummus, manufactured with the same standard in all the mints by using an internal Cu-Sn-Pb-Ag core and presenting a thin silvered patina (about 2 micron) on its surface. The silver plating of the nummi have been investigated in the past and different methods have been suggested for its manufacturing (e.g. segregation during casting, chemical treatments, mercury-silvering). However, previous analyses were focused on few samples and, consequently, this technological issue remained unresolved. In the present work, the BSC-XRF (Beam Stability Controlled -XRF) and a LE-micro-XRF portable spectrometers developed at the LANDIS laboratory of IBAM-CNR and LNS-INFN in Catania (Italy), have been applied for the in-situ analysis of the silvered nummi belonging to the Misurata Treasure (Museum of Leptis Magna, El-Khomes, Libya). The treasure is composed of 108 thousand coins manufactured in 19 Imperial mints operating in the period 294-333 AD. In order to establish if, and at what extent, the mercury-silvering was used to produce the thin Ag-patina of the nummi, the non-destructive investigation was extended to 1050 well preserved coins. Measurements allowed to explore the presence of Hg and the Hg-Ag correlation at the coin surface. The portable BSC-XRF and the LE-micro XXRF techniques are suited to approach this study. A new version of the BSC-XRF spectrometer, consisting of a compact high-intensity x-ray tube (50 kV; 4 mA) coupled to a 80 mm2 SDD detector (138 eV @ 5.9 keV), was developed for the fast determination of mercury traces in a large number of coins (measurement time is 150 seconds; MDL for Hg is 100 ppm). The investigation allowed to identify the Imperial mints and the periods where the mercury-silvering were probably used. However the BSC

  20. Low Frequency Electrical and Magnetic Methods for Non-Destructive Analysis of Fiber Dispersion in Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Faifer, Marco; Ferrara, Liberato; Ottoboni, Roberto; Toscani, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in structural elements made of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCCs) plays a significant role in the framework of quality control and performance prediction. In this paper, the research activity of the authors in the aforementioned field all over the last lustrum will be reviewed. A method based on the measurement of the inductance of a probe to be placed on the specimen will be presented and its progressive development will be described. Obtained correlation with actual fiber dispersion, as checked by means of destructive methods, as well as with the mechanical performance of the composite will also be presented, in an attempt to address the significance of the method from an engineering application perspective. PMID:23337334

  1. Millefiori glasswork technique in the Migration Period: Investigation of beads with the use of nondestructive X-ray fluorescence micro-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hložek, M.; Trojek, T.

    2015-11-01

    This article shows how a non-destructive X-ray fluorescence micro-analysis enabled us to describe the elemental composition and the production technology of a unique millefiori bead that was found in a burial ground in Kyjov (Hodonin district, Czech Republic) dating back to the Migration Period. This graveyard includes more than 250 graves belonging to the Germanic Lombard tribe that were carefully explored in 2010. Only a few Langobardic burial grounds have been revealed in the Moravia until now. This burial ground is therefore a remarkable find, to which particular attention has been paid. The main aim of our project was to provide a proper description of the production technology for the millefiori bead.

  2. Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA): Root Cause Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Anniston Army Depot in Alabama, Umatilla Chemical Depot in Oregon, and Deseret Chemical Depot in Utah. The chemical weapons in these facilities account...program office has allocated additional costs for closure based on data from the closure process at the Umatilla and Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal...contractor, PCAPP is approximately five times as complex than the Anniston incineration facility and BGCAPP is roughly ten times as complex.7 As an

  3. Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-07-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to the investigation, and the destructive nature of a screening test must be considered when only a small amount of material is available. The ability to characterize an unknown stain at the scene of the crime without having to wait for results from a laboratory is another very critical step in the development of forensic body fluid analysis. Driven by the importance for forensic applications, body fluid identification methods have been extensively developed in recent years. The systematic analysis of these new developments is vital for forensic investigators to be continuously educated on possible superior techniques. Significant advances in laser technology and the development of novel light detectors have dramatically improved spectroscopic methods for molecular characterization over the last decade. The application of this novel biospectroscopy for forensic purposes opens new and exciting opportunities for the development of on-field, non-destructive, confirmatory methods for body fluid identification at a crime scene. In addition, the biospectroscopy methods are universally applicable to all body fluids unlike the majority of current techniques which are valid for individual fluids only. This article analyzes the current methods being used to identify body fluid stains including blood, semen, saliva, vaginal fluid, urine, and sweat, and also focuses on new techniques that have been developed in the last 5-6 years. In addition, the potential of new biospectroscopic techniques based on Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy is evaluated for rapid, confirmatory, non-destructive identification of a body

  4. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis: Sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure conditions in atomic oxygen (ESCA) was performed on an SSL-100/206 Small Spot Spectrometer. All data were taken with the use of a low voltage electron flood gun and a charge neutralization screen to minimize charging effects on the data. The X-ray spot size and electron flood gun voltage used are recorded on the individual spectra as are the instrumental resolutions. Two types of spectra were obtained for each specimen: (1) general surveys, and (2) high resolution spectra. The two types of data reduction performed are: (1) semiquantitative compositional analysis, and (2) peak fitting. The materials analyzed are: (1) kapton 4, 5, and 6, (2) HDPE 19, 20, and 21, and (3) PVDF 4, 5, and 6.

  5. Optofluidics in bio-chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yunbo; Fan, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Optofluidics organically integrates microfluidics and photonics and is an emerging technology in biological and chemical analysis. In this paper, we overview the recent studies in bio-chemical sensing applications of optofluidics. Particularly, we report the research progress in our lab in developing diverse optofluidic devices using two unique configurations: thin-walled capillary based optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) and multi-hole capillary based optofluidic platforms. The first one has been developed to be OFRR-based label-free biosensor, microfluidic laser based intra-cavity sensors, and on-column optical detectors for micro-gas chromatography (μGC), while the second one has been developed to be optofluidic Fabry-Pérot based label-free biosensor and optofluidic Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) biosensor. All of these devices take advantage of superior fluidic handling capability and high sensitivity, and have been used in detecting various biological and chemical analytes in either liquid or vapor phase.

  6. Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hercules, David M.

    2004-12-01

    The development of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA, XPS) is reviewed from an historical perspective that is relevant to its use for analytical chemistry. The emphasis is on early development of the technique, primarily during the period, 1964 1977. During these years there were significant developments in instrumentation, accompanied by significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of the technique. First, a historical perspective is presented to establish the backdrop against which XPS was developed. The early work in the field dealt mainly with measuring and understanding chemical shifts for elements and particularly for organic compounds. This was an exciting time because XPS appeared to provide chemical information unavailable otherwise. A detailed summary of some of the early work on chemical shifts is presented. It was also established that XPS could be used for quantitative analysis of elements, compounds, and different oxidation states of the same element. As the development of XPS occurred, emphasis changed from measuring chemical shifts to developing XPS as a surface analytical tool, a role that it fills today. Early applications to the analysis of catalysts and polymers, use to study adsorption and surface reactions, application of XPS to electrochemistry and corrosion, and studies of atmospheric particulates are all reviewed.

  7. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Helmke, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). For this study, we sampled iron ore, cast iron furnace products, slag, soil, groundwater, streamflow, and streambed sediment to determine the fate of trace metals released into the environment during the iron-smelting process. Standard techniques were used to sample and analyze all media except cast iron. We analyzed the trace-metal content of the cast iron using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, which provided rapid, on-site, nondestructive analyses for 23 elements. The artifacts analyzed included eight cast iron stoves, a footed pot, and a kettle in the Hopewell Furnace museum. We measured elevated concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the cast iron. Lead concentrations as great as 3,150 parts per million were measured in the stoves. Cobalt was detectable but not quantifiable because of interference with iron. Our study found that arsenic, cobalt, and lead were not released to soil or slag, which could pose a significant health risk to visitors and employees. Instead, our study demonstrates these heavy metals remained with the cast iron and were removed from the site.

  8. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claytor, T. M.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). The state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete is reviewed. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  9. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  10. Rapid and non-destructive analysis of metallic dental restorations using X-ray fluorescence spectra and light-element sampling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuhashi, K.; Uo, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Watari, F.

    2012-12-01

    IntroductionRecently, allergic diseases caused by dental metals have been increasing. Therefore, rapid and accurate analytical methods for the metal restorations in the oral cavities of patients are required. The purpose of this study was to develop a non-destructive extraction method for dental alloys, along with a subsequent, rapid and accurate elemental analysis. Materials and methodSamples were obtained by polishing the surfaces of metal restorations using a dental rotating tool with disposable buffs and polishing pastes. As materials for the analysis, three dental alloys were used. To compare the sampling and analysis efficiencies, two buffs and seven pastes were used. After polishing the surface of a metal restoration, the buff was analyzed using X-ray scanning analytical microscopy (XSAM). ResultsThe efficiency of the analysis was judged based on the sampling rate achieved and the absence of disturbing elements in the background in fluorescence X-ray spectra. The best results were obtained for the combination of TexMet as a buff with diamond as a paste. This combination produced a good collection efficiency and a plain background in the fluorescence X-ray spectra, resulting in a high precision of the analysis.

  11. Optofluidic Microsystems for Chemical and Biological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xudong; White, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Optofluidics – the synergistic integration of photonics and microfluidics – has recently emerged as a new analytical field that provides a number of unique characteristics for enhanced sensing performance and simplification of microsystems. In this review, we describe various optofluidic architectures developed in the past five years, emphasize the mechanisms by which optofluidics enhances bio/chemical analysis capabilities, including sensing and the precise control of biological micro/nanoparticles, and envision new research directions to which optofluidics leads. PMID:22059090

  12. Nondestructive inspection perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froom, Douglas A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents ideas for consideration by those concerned with commercial aircraft nondestructive inspection (NDI). The perspective is that of an individual with a background in military aircraft NDI, and important differences are indicated between the commercial NDI and military NDI activities. In particular, it is significantly more expensive to implement some new NDI technology, and therefore, in-depth cost-benifit studies for commercial users are recommended.

  13. Concept of nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of nondestructive evaluation, a recently evolved basic testing philosophy, and some application of NDE are examined with emphasis on aerospace applications. The discussion covers the definition of NDE, chronological development, NDE methods and systems, the use of NDE for process control, NDE for ceramics and composites, NDE for fracture control in glass, and science aspects of NDE. Specific examples of NDE applications are given.

  14. Quantum Chemical Strain Analysis For Mechanochemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Tim; Dreuw, Andreas

    2017-03-24

    The use of mechanical force to initiate a chemical reaction is an efficient alternative to the conventional sources of activation energy, i.e., heat, light, and electricity. Applications of mechanochemistry in academic and industrial laboratories are diverse, ranging from chemical syntheses in ball mills and ultrasound baths to direct activation of covalent bonds using an atomic force microscope. The vectorial nature of force is advantageous because specific covalent bonds can be preconditioned for rupture by selective stretching. However, the influence of mechanical force on single molecules is still not understood at a fundamental level, which limits the applicability of mechanochemistry. As a result, many chemists still resort to rules of thumb when it comes to conducting mechanochemical syntheses. In this Account, we show that comprehension of mechanochemistry at the molecular level can be tremendously advanced by quantum chemistry, in particular by using quantum chemical force analysis tools. One such tool is the JEDI (Judgement of Energy DIstribution) analysis, which provides a convenient approach to analyze the distribution of strain energy in a mechanically deformed molecule. Based on the harmonic approximation, the strain energy contribution is calculated for each bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle, thus providing a comprehensive picture of how force affects molecules. This Account examines the theoretical foundations of quantum chemical force analysis and provides a critical overview of the performance of the JEDI analysis in various mechanochemical applications. We explain in detail how this analysis tool is to be used to identify the "force-bearing scaffold" of a distorted molecule, which allows both the rationalization and the optimization of diverse mechanochemical processes. More precisely, we show that the inclusion of every bond, bending and torsion of a molecule allows a particularly insightful discussion of the distribution of mechanical

  15. Nondestructive analysis of structure and components of tablet coated with film by the usage of terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Issei; Shimakura, Kemmaro; Ohtake, Hideyuki; Takayanagi, Jun; Tomoda, Keishiro; Nakajima, Takehisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Makino, Kimiko

    2014-01-01

    Nondestructive analysis of tablet is of great importance from the aspect of productivity and safety. In terahertz (THz) region, however, the analysis of core of coated tablet has not been progressed. In this study, we have measured a flat-surface push-pull osmotic pump tablet, having no orifice, having bilayer core and a coating film layer. The bilayer core was made from the drug layer and the push layer, and acetaminophen was contained in the drug layer as a model drug. To study its structure and components, we have obtained reflection spectra from the drug layer side and the push layer side measurements using THz time-domain reflection spectroscopy (THz-TDRS). From these results, detection of the peak of acetaminophen in the spectrum from the drug layer side measurements was confirmed. We have made ridges approximated toward the peak using a general method of linear regression analysis in both spectra. Two-sample t-test was applied to their gradients, and significant difference between the drug layer and the push layer was shown. These results suggested that THz-TDRS is applicable to the analysis of structure and component of a coated tablet.

  16. Nondestructive analysis of dragonfly eye beads from the warring states period, excavated from a Chu tomb at the Shenmingpu site, Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yimin; Wang, Lihua; Wei, Shuya; Song, Guoding; Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Changsui

    2013-04-01

    Dragonfly eye beads are considered to be the earliest types of glass objects in China, and in the past have been considered as evidence of culture interaction or trade between West and East Asia. In this article, synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography and μ-probe energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence were used to determine the chemical composition, microstructure, and manufacturing technology of four dragonfly eye beads, excavated from a Chu tomb at the Shenmingpu site, Henan Province, China, dated stylistically to the Middle and Late Warring State Period (475 BC-221 BC). First, a nondestructive method was used to differentiate the material types including faience (glazed quartz), frit, glazed pottery (clay ceramic), and glass. Three beads were identified as faience and one bead as glazed pottery. The glaze recipe includes quartz, saltpeter, plant ash, and various copper, and is classified as belonging to the K2O-CaO-SiO2 glass system, which indicates that these beads were not imported from the West. Based on computed tomography slices, the manufacturing technology of the faience eye beads appears to include the use of an inner core, molding technology, and the direct application glazing method. These manufacturing features are consistent with the techniques used in China during this same time period for bronze mold-casting, proto-porcelain, and glass.

  17. Updated Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of the General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis (LSENS) computer code has become available. A prior version of LSENS was described in "Program Helps to Determine Chemical-Reaction Mechanisms" (LEW-15758), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 1995), page 66. To recapitulate: LSENS solves complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical-kinetics problems (e.g., combustion of fuels) that are represented by sets of many coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations. LSENS has been designed for flexibility, convenience, and computational efficiency. The present version of LSENS incorporates mathematical models for (1) a static system; (2) steady, one-dimensional inviscid flow; (3) reaction behind an incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; (4) a perfectly stirred reactor; and (5) a perfectly stirred reactor followed by a plug-flow reactor. In addition, LSENS can compute equilibrium properties for the following assigned states: enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static and one-dimensional-flow problems, including those behind an incident shock wave and following a perfectly stirred reactor calculation, LSENS can compute sensitivity coefficients of dependent variables and their derivatives, with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate-coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  18. Rhizoslides: paper-based growth system for non-destructive, high throughput phenotyping of root development by means of image analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A quantitative characterization of root system architecture is currently being attempted for various reasons. Non-destructive, rapid analyses of root system architecture are difficult to perform due to the hidden nature of the root. Hence, improved methods to measure root architecture are necessary to support knowledge-based plant breeding and to analyse root growth responses to environmental changes. Here, we report on the development of a novel method to reveal growth and architecture of maize root systems. Results The method is based on the cultivation of different root types within several layers of two-dimensional, large (50 × 60 cm) plates (rhizoslides). A central plexiglass screen stabilizes the system and is covered on both sides with germination paper providing water and nutrients for the developing root, followed by a transparent cover foil to prevent the roots from falling dry and to stabilize the system. The embryonic roots grow hidden between a Plexiglas surface and paper, whereas crown roots grow visible between paper and the transparent cover. Long cultivation with good image quality up to 20 days (four fully developed leaves) was enhanced by suppressing fungi with a fungicide. Based on hyperspectral microscopy imaging, the quality of different germination papers was tested and three provided sufficient contrast to distinguish between roots and background (segmentation). Illumination, image acquisition and segmentation were optimised to facilitate efficient root image analysis. Several software packages were evaluated with regard to their precision and the time investment needed to measure root system architecture. The software 'Smart Root’ allowed precise evaluation of root development but needed substantial user interference. 'GiaRoots’ provided the best segmentation method for batch processing in combination with a good analysis of global root characteristics but overestimated root length due to thinning artefacts. 'Whin

  19. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.J.; Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, A.B.; Cummins, R.L.; Reeves, M.E.; Hylton, T.D.

    1990-07-01

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Quantitative analysis of physical and chemical changes in CMP polyurethane pad surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.; Fookes, B.; Obeng, Y.; Machinski, S.; Richardson, K.A

    2002-08-15

    Polishing pads play a key role in chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), which has been recognized as a critical step to improve the topography of wafers for semiconductor fabrication. In service, chemical and mechanical changes in a polishing pad are expected to have a significant impact on the pad's CMP performance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes in the pore geometry on the CMP pad surface after use. The average height of the roughness between the pores of the polishing pad was measured using white light interferometry (WLI). Attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR/FTIR) method was found to provide a novel opportunity for the nondestructive surface analysis of pad materials. Results of an ATR/IR microscopy study that evaluated the extent of chemical degradation of pad materials both before and after polishing cycle are presented. The infrared results identified that the changes in chemical state of used pad materials, specifically for C = O and C--O--C infrared stretching bands, were a surface phenomenon.

  1. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  2. Scanning photoelectron microscope for nanoscale three-dimensional spatial-resolved electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiba, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Nagamura, N.; Toyoda, S.; Kumigashira, H.; Oshima, M.; Amemiya, K.; Senba, Y.; Ohashi, H.

    2011-11-01

    In order to achieve nondestructive observation of the three-dimensional spatially resolved electronic structure of solids, we have developed a scanning photoelectron microscope system with the capability of depth profiling in electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). We call this system 3D nano-ESCA. For focusing the x-ray, a Fresnel zone plate with a diameter of 200 μm and an outermost zone width of 35 nm is used. In order to obtain the angular dependence of the photoelectron spectra for the depth-profile analysis without rotating the sample, we adopted a modified VG Scienta R3000 analyzer with an acceptance angle of 60° as a high-resolution angle-resolved electron spectrometer. The system has been installed at the University-of-Tokyo Materials Science Outstation beamline, BL07LSU, at SPring-8. From the results of the line-scan profiles of the poly-Si/high-k gate patterns, we achieved a total spatial resolution better than 70 nm. The capability of our system for pinpoint depth-profile analysis and high-resolution chemical state analysis is demonstrated.

  3. Scanning photoelectron microscope for nanoscale three-dimensional spatial-resolved electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Horiba, K.; Oshima, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Nagamura, N.; Toyoda, S.; Kumigashira, H.; Amemiya, K.; Senba, Y.; Ohashi, H.

    2011-11-15

    In order to achieve nondestructive observation of the three-dimensional spatially resolved electronic structure of solids, we have developed a scanning photoelectron microscope system with the capability of depth profiling in electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). We call this system 3D nano-ESCA. For focusing the x-ray, a Fresnel zone plate with a diameter of 200 {mu}m and an outermost zone width of 35 nm is used. In order to obtain the angular dependence of the photoelectron spectra for the depth-profile analysis without rotating the sample, we adopted a modified VG Scienta R3000 analyzer with an acceptance angle of 60 deg. as a high-resolution angle-resolved electron spectrometer. The system has been installed at the University-of-Tokyo Materials Science Outstation beamline, BL07LSU, at SPring-8. From the results of the line-scan profiles of the poly-Si/high-k gate patterns, we achieved a total spatial resolution better than 70 nm. The capability of our system for pinpoint depth-profile analysis and high-resolution chemical state analysis is demonstrated.

  4. Non-destructive analysis of the two subspecies of African elephants, mammoth, hippopotamus, and sperm whale ivories by visible and short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Masahiko; Morimoto, Susumu; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2004-06-01

    Visible (VIS) and short-wave near infrared (SW-NIR) spectroscopy was used for non-destructive analysis of ivories. VIS-SW-NIR (500-1000 nm) spectra were measured in situ for five kinds of ivories, that is two subspecies of African elephants, mammoth, hippopotamus, and sperm whale. Chemometrics analyses were carried out for the spectral data from 500 to 1000 nm region. The five kinds of ivories were clearly discriminated from each other on the scores plot of two principal components (PCs) obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). It was noteworthy that the ivories of the two subspecies of African elephants were discriminated by the scores of PC 1. The loadings plot for PC 1 showed that the discrimination relies on the intensity changes in bands due to collagenous proteins and water interacting with proteins. It was found that the scores plot of PC 2 is useful to distinguish between the ivories of the two subspecies of African elephants and the other ivories. We also developed a calibration model that predicted the specific gravity of five kinds of ivories from their VIS-SW-NIR spectral data using partial least squares (PLS)-1 regression. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of this model were 0.960 and 0.037, respectively.

  5. Principal component analysis on chemical abundances spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-04-01

    In preparation for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph (HERMES) chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. This leads to a way to study the origin of elements from observed chemical abundances using principal component analysis. We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disc stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. By studying solar-neighbourhood stars, we confirm the universality of the r-process that tends to produce [neutron-capture elements/Fe] in a constant ratio. We find that, especially at low metallicity, the production of r-process elements is likely to be associated with the production of α-elements. This may support the core-collapse supernovae as the r-process site. We also verify the overabundances of light s-process elements at low metallicity, and find that the relative contribution decreases at higher metallicity, which suggests that this lighter elements primary process may be associated with massive stars. We also verify the contribution from the s-process in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars at high metallicity. Our analysis reveals two types of core-collapse supernovae: one produces mainly α-elements, the other produces both α-elements and Fe-peak elements with a large enhancement of heavy Fe-peak elements which may be the contribution from hypernovae. Excluding light elements that may be subject to internal mixing, K and Cu, we find that the [X/Fe] chemical abundance space in the solar neighbourhood has about six independent dimensions both at low metallicity (-3.5 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲-2) and high metallicity ([Fe/H] ≳-1). However the dimensions come from very different origins in these two cases. The extra contribution from low-mass AGB

  6. Nondestructive testing with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Tarpani, José Ricardo; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique based on the principle that two dissimilar materials, i.e., possessing different thermo-physical properties, would produce two distinctive thermal signatures that can be revealed by an infrared sensor, such as a thermal camera. The fields of NDT applications are expanding from classical building or electronic components monitoring to more recent ones such as inspection of artworks or composite materials. Furthermore, thermography can be conveniently used as a didactic tool for physics education in universities given that it provides the possibility of visualizing fundamental principles, such as thermal physics and mechanics among others.

  7. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  8. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  9. In-Situ Chemical Analysis of Extraterrestrial Material Captured in Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Horz, F.; Bajt, S.; Sutton, S. R.

    1996-03-01

    High-speed interplanetary dust and orbital debris can be collected non-destructively using aerogel capture cells on earth- orbiting spacecraft and the STARDUST comet sample return mission. In-situ chemical analysis of captured particles is highly desirable for initial classification as space debris or interplanetary dust, allowing quick determination of the dust to debris ratio, and selection of an appropriate analytical protocol for each particle based on a prior knowledge of its type. In a proof-of-principle experiment the X-Ray Microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source was used to analyze 50 micron diameter Allende fragments shot into 20 mg/cc silica aerogel at 3 to 6 km/s. A one-second data acquisition allowed determination of Fe/Ni ratios. Five minute data acquisitions allowed analysis of Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in Allende fragments as deep as 5 mm below the aerogel surface and Ca was detected in fragments up to 3.6 mm below the surface, demonstrating the ability to identify chondritic material, and distinguish it from orbital debris, by in-situ chemical analysis.

  10. Application of a new Raman microprobe spectrometer to nondestructive analysis of sulfate and other ions in individual phases in fluid inclusions in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosasco, G.J.; Roedder, E.

    1979-01-01

    Rosasco et al. (1975), reported the first successful application of laser-excited Raman spectroscopy for the identification and nondestructive partial analysis of individual solid, liquid, and gaseous phases in selected fluid inclusions. We report here the results of the application of a new instrument, based on back-scattering, that eliminates many of the previous stringent sample limitations and hence greatly expands the range of applicability of Raman spectroscopy to fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusions in many porphyry copper deposits contain 5-10 ??m 'daughter' crystals thought to be anhydrite but too small for identification by the previous Raman technique. Using the new instrument, we have verified that such daughter crystals in quartz from Bingham, Utah, are anhydrite. They may form by leakage of hydrogen causing internal autooxidation of sulfide ion. Daughter crystals were also examined in apatite (Durango, Mexico) and emerald (Muzo, Colombia). Valid analyses of sulfur species in solution in small fluid inclusions from ore deposits would be valuable, but are generally impossible by conventional methods. We present a calibration procedure for analyses for SO42- in such inclusions from Bingham, Utah (12,000 ?? 4000 ppm) and Creede, Colo. (probably < 500 ppm). A fetid Brazilian quartz, originally thought to contain liquid H2S, is shown to contain only HS- in major amounts. ?? 1979.

  11. Hybrid Al/steel-joints manufactured by ultrasound enhanced friction stir welding (USE-FSW): Process comparison, nondestructive testing and microscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomä, M.; Wagner, G.; Straß, B.; Wolter, B.; Benfer, S.; Fürbeth, W.

    2017-03-01

    The process of friction stir welding (FSW) is an innovative joining technique, which proved its potential in joining dissimilar metals that are poorly fusion weldable. This ability opens a wide range for applications in industrial fields, where weight reduction by partial substitution of conventional materials through lightweight materials is a current central aim. As a consequence of this, the realization of aluminum / steel-joints is of great interest. For this material compound, several friction stir welds were carried out by different researchers for varying Al/steel-joints, whereas the definition of optimal process parameters as well as the increase of mechanical properties was in the focus of the studies. To achieve further improved properties for this dissimilar joint a newly developed hybrid process named “ultrasound enhanced friction stir welding (USE-FSW)” was applied. In this paper the resulting properties of Al/steel-joints using FSW and USE-FSW will be presented and compared. Furthermore, first results by using the nondestructive testing method “computer laminography” to analyze the developed joining area will be shown supplemented by detailed light-microscopic investigations, scanning electron microscopic analysis, and EDX.

  12. SALI chemical analysis of provided samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Christopher H.

    1993-01-01

    SRI has completed the chemical analysis of all the samples supplied by NASA. The final batch of four samples consisted of: one inch diameter MgF2 mirror, control 1200-ID-FL3; one inch diameter neat resin, PMR-15, AO171-IV-55, half exposed and half unexposed; one inch diameter chromic acid anodized, EOIM-3 120-47 aluminum disc; and AO-exposed and unexposed samples of fullerene extract material in powdered form, pressed into In foil for analysis. Chemical analyses of the surfaces were performed by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The analyses emphasize surface contamination or general organic composition. SALI uses nonselective photoionization of sputtered or desorbed atoms and molecules above but close (approximately one mm) to the surface, followed by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. In these studies, we used laser-induced desorption by 5-ns pulse-width 355-nm light (10-100 mJ/sq cm) and single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118-nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/sq cm). SPI was chosen primarily for its ability to obtain molecular information, whereas multiphoton ionization (not used in the present studies) is intended primarily for elemental and small molecule information. In addition to these four samples, the Au mirror (EOIM-3 200-11, sample four) was depth profiled again. Argon ion sputtering was used together with photoionization with intense 355-nm radiation (35-ps pulsewidths). Depth profiles are similar to those reported earlier, showing reproducibility. No chromium was found in the sample above noise level; its presence could at most be at the trace level. Somewhat more Ni appears to be present in the Au layer in the unexposed side, indicating thermal diffusion without chemical enhancement. The result of the presence of oxygen is apparently to tie-up/draw out the Ni as an oxide at the surface. The exposed region has a brownish tint appearance to the naked eye.

  13. Use of the VvMybA1 gene for non-destructive quantification of promoter activity via color histogram analysis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a convenient plant-based reporter system to analyze promoters and facilitate selection of genetically engineered plants. The VvMybA1 gene of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) regulates the last metabolic step of anthocyanin biosynthesis and its ectopic expression leads to anthocyanin production in otherwise non-pigmented cells. To develop an anthocyanin-based quantitative reporter system, the VvMybA1 gene was isolated from V. vinifera 'Merlot' and placed under control of three promoters to test its ability to distinguish different activity levels. Promoters included a double enhanced CaMV35S (d35S) promoter, a double enhanced CsVMV (dCsVMV) promoter or a bi-directional dual promoter (BDDP), resulting in transformation vectors DAT, CAT and DEAT, respectively. These vectors were introduced into grapevine and tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for transient and stable expression analysis. A linear relationship between the mean red brightness (MRB) and optical density (OD) values with a 0.99 regression coefficient was identified in a dilution series of anthocyanin, thus allowing the use of histogram data for non-destructive and real-time assessment of transcriptional activity. Results of histogram-based analysis of color images from transformed grapevine somatic embryos (SE) and various tissues of transgenic tobacco showed a consistent six to sevenfold promoter activity increase of DEAT over DAT. This expression increase was verified by spectroscopic measurement of anthocyanin concentrations in sepal tissue of transgenic tobacco plants. These results were congruent with previously findings of promoter activity derived from GUS fluorometric assay, thus demonstrating for the first time that the VvMybA1 gene could offer a simple, versatile and reliable plant-based alternative for quantitative promoter analysis in plants.

  14. Master equation analysis of deterministic chemical chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongli; Li, Qianshu

    1998-05-01

    The underlying microscopic dynamics of deterministic chemical chaos was investigated in this paper. We analyzed the master equation for the Williamowski-Rössler model by direct stochastic simulation as well as in the generating function representation. Simulation within an ensemble revealed that in the chaotic regime the deterministic mass action kinetics is related neither to the ensemble mean nor to the most probable value within the ensemble. Cumulant expansion analysis of the master equation also showed that the molecular fluctuations do not admit bounded values but increase linearly in time infinitely, indicating the meaninglessness of the chaotic trajectories predicted by the phenomenological equations. These results proposed that the macroscopic description is no longer useful in the chaotic regime and a more microscopic description is necessary in this circumstance.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  16. Feasibility study in the application of optical signal analysis to non-destructive testing of complex structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B.; Brown, H.

    1974-01-01

    Advantages of the large time bandwidth product of optical processing are presented. Experiments were performed to study the feasibility of the use of optical spectral analysis for detection of flaws in structural elements excited by random noise. Photographic and electronic methods of comparison of complex spectra were developed. Limitations were explored, and suggestions for further work are offered.

  17. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses

  18. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Martin f. Helmke,

    2014-01-01

    Sampling cast iron produced by the furnace posed two problems. First, verification that the iron was actually cast at Hopewell Furnace was necessary, as some iron objects found at Hopewell may not have originated there. This was accomplished by using artifacts on display at the Hopewell visitor center (fig. 2). All artifacts on display have been positively attributed to the furnace, and stoves produced by the furnace are easily recognized by the name “Hopewell” cast into them. The second problem was the analysis of the trace metal content of the cast iron, because it was not possible to break off part of a historically important artifact and send it to a laboratory for analysis. This problem was solved when the USGS collaborated with West Chester University, which owns a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer.

  19. Geochemical evidence of multistage retrogressive failure during the 160,000ka Icod landslide from turbidite facies analysis: multidisciplinary investigative approaches using destructive and non-destructive methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, James; Wynn, Russell; Masson, Doug; Croudace, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The study of modern deep-sea systems through targeted piston coring has enabled detailed investigations into the process mechanics of turbidity currents. In complex systems such as the Moroccan Turbidite System the derivation of provenance is of vital importance, since flows from different sources in this system have been found to behave differently. Early provenance studies in the Madeira Abyssal Plain found that bulk sand-fraction geochemical analysis through ICP-AES could enable successful attribution of provenance to specific turbidites alongside electron microprobe analysis (de Lange, Jarvis & Kuijpers, 1987; Pearce & Jarvis, 1992). These sources including the Moroccan siliclastic shelf, Tenerife, Las Palma, El Hierro and Madeira. ICP-AES, MC-ICP-MS and XRF have been utilised here, however these present destructive methodologies, using 0.1-5g of material >63µm. Deep-sea piston cores are also expensive to collect, and often there is not enough material to remove for analysis without compromising the core. Furthermore, routine sampling, preparation and analysis using the destructive methods stated above are undertaken at considerable cost and analytical time. The successful use of non-destructive instruments to yield quantitative geochemical has become paramount at the NOC. This presentation serves to show the successful application of the TM-1000 tabletop SEM EDS analyser, ITRAX micro-XRF analyser and the GEOTEK XYZ logger, in coincidence with traditional destructive methods. These instruments can only supply semi-quantitative data, unless correct calibration can be achieved, and will be shown here. The 160,000ka Icod landslide from Tenerife generated a 150km3 debris avalanche with a runout of 105km and a >180km3 turbidity, which will form the case study for application of these instruments. The vertically stacked subunit facies of the Icod turbidite has been attributed to generation from a multistage retrogressive failure (Wynn & Masson, 2003). Here there

  20. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  1. Nondestructive X-Ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Sediment Cores: A Case Study from the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oti, E.; Polyak, L. V.; Cook, A.; Dipre, G.

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of marine sediment records can help elucidate recent changes in the Arctic Ocean circulation and sea ice conditions. We examine sediment cores from the western Arctic Ocean, representing Late to Early Quaternary age (potentially up to 1 Ma). Previous studies of Arctic sediment cores indicate that interglacial/interstadial periods with relatively high sea levels and reduced ice cover are characterized by vigorous bioturbation, while glacial intervals have little to no bioturbation. Traditional methods for studying bioturbation require physical dissection of the cores, effectively destroying them. To treat this limitation, we evaluate archival sections of the cores using an X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) scanner, which noninvasively images the sediment cores in three dimensions. The scanner produces density sensitive images suitable for quantitative analysis and for identification of bioturbation based on size, shape, and orientation. We use image processing software to isolate burrows from surrounding sediment, reconstruct them three-dimensionally, and then calculate their surface areas, volumes, and densities. Preliminary analysis of a core extending to the early Quaternary shows that bioturbation ranges from 0 to approximately 20% of the core's volume. In future research, we will quantitatively define the relationship between bioturbation activity and glacial regimes. XCT examination of bioturbation and other sedimentary features has the potential to shed light on paleoceanographic conditions such as sedimentation patterns and food flux. XCT is an alternative, underexplored investigation method that bears implications not only for illustrating paleoclimate variations but also for preserving cores for future, more advanced technologies.

  2. Non-destructive Quantitative Phase Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of Zirconium Coated U-10Mo Fuel Foils via Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, Dustin Ray; Vogel, Sven C.; Hollis, Kendall Jon; Brown, Donald William; Dombrowski, David E.

    2016-10-18

    This report uses neutron diffraction to investigate the crystal phase composition of uranium-molybdenum alloy foils (U-10Mo) for the CONVERT MP-1 Reactor Conversion Project, and determines the effect on alpha-uranium contamination following the deposition of a Zr metal diffusion layer by various methods: plasma spray deposition of Zr powders at LANL and hot co-rolling with Zr foils at BWXT. In summary, there is minimal decomposition of the gamma phase U-10Mo foil to alpha phase contamination following both plasma spraying and hot co-rolling. The average unit cell volume, i.e. lattice spacing, of the Zr layer can be mathematically extracted from the diffraction data; co-rolled Zr matches well with literature values of bulk Zr, while plasma sprayed Zr shows a slight increase in the lattice spacing, indicative of interstitial oxygen in the lattice. Neutron diffraction is a beneficial alternative to conventional methods of phase composition, i.e. x ray diffraction (XRD) and destructive metallography. XRD has minimal penetration depth in high atomic number materials, particularly uranium, and can only probe the first few microns of the fuel plate; neutrons pass completely through the foil, allowing for bulk analysis of the foil composition and no issues with addition of cladding layers, as in the final, aluminum-clad reactor fuel plates. Destructive metallography requires skilled technicians, cutting of the foil into small sections, hazardous etching conditions, long polishing and microscopy times, etc.; the neutron diffraction system has an automated sample loader and can fit larger foils, so there is minimal analysis preparation; the total spectrum acquisition time is ~ 1 hour per sample. The neutron diffraction results are limited by spectra refinement/calculation times and the availability of the neutron beam source. In the case of LANSCE at Los Alamos, the beam operates ~50% of the year. Following the lessons learned from these preliminary results, optimizations to

  3. Swedish chemical regulation: an overview and analysis.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Ragnar E

    2003-04-01

    This article begins with a review of the regulation of chemicals in Sweden over the past 30 years, focusing particularly on the 1997 Government Environmental Quality Bill, which called for a toxic-free society by the year 2020. The second part of the article analyzes why Sweden has taken this route. The third and final section discusses Sweden's present role in formulating present EU chemical regulation, such as the recent EU Chemical White Paper, and hypothesizes future impacts of Swedish chemical regulations on the EU itself.

  4. Non-destructive Phenotypic Analysis of Early Stage Tree Seedling Growth Using an Automated Stereovision Imaging Method

    PubMed Central

    Montagnoli, Antonio; Terzaghi, Mattia; Fulgaro, Nicoletta; Stoew, Borys; Wipenmyr, Jan; Ilver, Dag; Rusu, Cristina; Scippa, Gabriella S.; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-01-01

    A plant phenotyping approach was applied to evaluate growth rate of containerized tree seedlings during the precultivation phase following seed germination. A simple and affordable stereo optical system was used to collect stereoscopic red–green–blue (RGB) images of seedlings at regular intervals of time. Comparative analysis of these images by means of a newly developed software enabled us to calculate (a) the increments of seedlings height and (b) the percentage greenness of seedling leaves. Comparison of these parameters with destructive biomass measurements showed that the height traits can be used to estimate seedling growth for needle-leaved plant species whereas the greenness trait can be used for broad-leaved plant species. Despite the need to adjust for plant type, growth stage and light conditions this new, cheap, rapid, and sustainable phenotyping approach can be used to study large-scale phenome variations due to genome variability and interaction with environmental factors. PMID:27840632

  5. From the experimental simulation to integrated non-destructive analysis by means of optical and infrared techniques: results compared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Lambiase, F.; Paoletti, D.; Di Ilio, A.; Maldague, X.

    2012-11-01

    In this work the possibility of modeling manufacturing ceramic products is analyzed through the application of transient thermography, holographic interferometry and digital speckle photography, in order to identify the subsurface defects characteristics. This integrated method could be used to understand the nature of heterogeneous materials (such as plastic, sponge simulating a void, wood, aluminum) potentially contained within ceramic materials, as well as to predict crack formation due to them. The paper presents the analysis of green ceramic tile containing defects of different types and sizes located at different depths. The finite element method is used for solving the problem of transient heat transfer occurring in experimental conditions. Unknown parameters of the numerical model (such as convective heat transfer coefficients and sample surface emissivity) were adjusted to obtain numerical simulation results as close as possible to those obtained experimentally. Similarities and differences between experimental and simulated data are analyzed and discussed. Possibilities for improving the results and further developments are proposed.

  6. Non-Destructive State Machine Reverse Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jessica L.

    2013-10-10

    Most of the integrated circuits (ICs) that are in electronic systems today are based on state machines. We are taking advantage of this to develop a hardware reverse engineering method that discovers the IC’s underlying state machine, rather than its transistors and gates. While there are other methods for destructively reverse engineering ICs or for non-destructively characterizing ICs, our method offers a fast and accurate analysis while remaining non-destructive. To do this, we present an intelligent brute-force method of exploring the logic of the IC using only the input and outputs designed into the IC - the I/O pins. From this exploration, we can apply a folding algorithm to discover the designed state machine.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation by acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonics is an ultrasonic technique that was originally devised to cope with the particular problems associated with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber/polymer composite structures. The fiber/polymer composites are more attenuating to ultrasound than any other material presently of interest. This limits the applicability of high-frequency ultrasonics. A common use of ultrasound is the imaging of flaws internal to a structure by scattering from the interface with the flaw. However, structural features of composites can scatter ultrasound internally, thus obscuring the flaws. A need relative to composites is to be able to nondestructively measure the strength of laminar boundaries in order to assess the integrity of a structure. Acousto-ultrasonics has exhibited the ability to use the internal scattering to provide information for determining the strength of laminar boundaries. Analysis of acousto-ultrasonic signals by the wave ray paths that compose it leads to waveform partitioning that enhances the sensitivity to mechanical strength parameters.

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

  9. Evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, J. J.; Polcari, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments performed in the evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing of chip and wire bonds are presented. Semiconductor devices were subjected to time-temperature excursions, static-load life testing and multiple pre-stressing loads to determine the feasibility of a nondestructive tensile testing approach. The report emphasizes the importance of the breaking angle in determining the ultimate tensile strength of a wire bond, a factor not generally recognized nor implemented in such determinations.

  10. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not

  11. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  12. Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Slag Material Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca B; Eekelers, Kim; Degryse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has seen a dramatic increase in use for archaeological projects. The attraction of the technique is its portable and nondestructive nature. In many cases, the archaeological artefacts in question cannot be destructively sampled, or the piece itself cannot be sent to an analytical laboratory. One of the current research interests associated with the Sagalassos project is the study of the Roman iron industry. Previously exported iron slag and ore from the site and the surrounding area was subjected to laboratory chemical analyses. These indicated that different ores were being utilized in the production of iron in different periods. In order to further the project the slag material still in the site depot needed to be analyzed. However, recent legislative changes mean that materials can only be analyzed on-site. Since samples could not be taken and destructive chemical analysis was no longer feasible, a portable, nondestructive technique was required. Handheld XRF can easily provide qualitative data, but these data are only comparable to other handheld XRF qualitative data, from the same device. Quantitative data gathering is possible, but can be more problematic, particularly when the material in question is heterogeneous in nature. A calibration file was created using the manufacturer's software and "in-house" standards made from the pre-quantified samples of iron slag available in the laboratory. In order to make the calibration as robust as possible, the composition of the standards was analyzed statistically to determine which of these created bias and leverage for specific elements. These standards were then omitted from the calibration for that element. The calibration was tested in the laboratory using samples of iron slag previously analyzed with wet chemistry, and the results indicated that most sample analyses showed <30% error. Results with a >30% error were found in samples which contained very low or very

  13. Chemical Engineering Data Analysis Made Easy with DataFit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The outline for half of a one-credit-hour course in analysis of chemical engineering data is presented, along with a range of typical problems encountered later on in the chemical engineering curriculum that can be used to reinforce the data analysis skills learned in the course. This mini course allows students to be exposed to a variety of ChE…

  14. Nondestructive evaluation of pyroshock propagation using hydrocodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juho; Hwang, Dae-Hyeon; Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Pyroshock or pyrotechnic shock generated by explosive events of pyrotechnic devices can induce fatal failures in electronic payloads. Therefore, understanding and estimation of pyroshock propagation through complex structures are necessary. However, an experimental approach using real pyrotechnic devices is quite burdensome because pyrotechnic devices can damage test structures and newly manufactured test structures are necessary for each experiment. Besides, pyrotechnic experiments are quite expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous. Consequently, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of pyroshock propagation without using real pyrotechnic devices is necessary. In this study, nondestructive evaluation technique for pyroshock propagation estimation using hydrocodes is proposed. First, pyroshock propagation is numerically analyzed using AUTODYN, a commercial hydrocodes. Hydrocodes can handle stress wave propagation including elastic, plastic, and shock wave in the time domain. Test structures are modeled and pyroshock time history is applied to where the pyroshock propagation originates. Numerical NDE results of pyroshock propagation on test structures are analyzed in terms of acceleration time histories and acceleration shock response spectra (SRS) results. To verify the proposed numerical methodology, impact tests using airsoft gun are performed. The numerical analysis results for the impact tests are compared with experimental results and they show good agreements. The proposed numerical techniques enable us to nondestructively characterize pyroshock propagation.

  15. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter surveys the analytical techniques used to determine the concentrations of aerosol mass and its chemical components. The techniques surveyed include mass, major ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), organic carbon, elemental carbon, and trace elements. As reported in...

  16. Nondestructive Acoustic Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Volker

    Acoustic imaging techniques are used in the field of nondestructive testing of technical components to measure defects such as lack of side wall fusion or cracks in welded joints. Data acquisition is performed by a remote-controlled manipulator and a PC for the mass storage of the high-frequency time-of-flight data at each probe position. The quality of the acoustic images and the interpretation relies on the proper understanding of the transmitted wave fronts and the arrangement of the probes in pulse-echo mode or in pitch-and-catch arrangement. The use of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique allows the depth-dependent resolution to be replaced by a depth-independent resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio to be improved. Examples with surface-connected cracks are shown to demonstrate the improved features. The localization accuracy could be improved by entering 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional reconstructed data into the environment of a 3-dimensional CAD drawing. The propagation of ultrasonic waves through austenitic welds is disturbed by the anisotropic and inhomogeneous structure of the material. The effect is more or less severe depending upon the longitudinal or shear wave modes. To optimize the performance of an inspection software tool, a 3-dimensional CAD-Ray program has been implemented, where the shape of the inhomogeneous part of a weld can be simulated together with the grain structure based on the elastic constants. Ray-tracing results are depicted for embedded and for surface-connected defects.

  17. Approximate chemical analysis of volcanic glasses using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Di Genova, Danilo; Morgavi, Daniele; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Neuville, Daniel R; Borovkov, Nikita; Perugini, Diego; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-12-01

    The effect of chemical composition on the Raman spectra of a series of natural calcalkaline silicate glasses has been quantified by performing electron microprobe analyses and obtaining Raman spectra on glassy filaments (~450 µm) derived from a magma mingling experiment. The results provide a robust compositionally-dependent database for the Raman spectra of natural silicate glasses along the calcalkaline series. An empirical model based on both the acquired Raman spectra and an ideal mixing equation between calcalkaline basaltic and rhyolitic end-members is constructed enabling the estimation of the chemical composition and degree of polymerization of silicate glasses using Raman spectra. The model is relatively insensitive to acquisition conditions and has been validated using the MPI-DING geochemical standard glasses1 as well as further samples. The methods and model developed here offer several advantages compared with other analytical and spectroscopic methods such as infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron and ion microprobe analyses, inasmuch as Raman spectroscopy can be performed with a high spatial resolution (1 µm(2)) without the need for any sample preparation as a nondestructive technique. This study represents an advance in efforts to provide the first database of Raman spectra for natural silicate glasses and yields a new approach for the treatment of Raman spectra, which allows us to extract approximate information about the chemical composition of natural silicate glasses using Raman spectroscopy. We anticipate its application in handheld in situ terrestrial field studies of silicate glasses under extreme conditions (e.g. extraterrestrial and submarine environments).

  18. Approximate chemical analysis of volcanic glasses using Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Morgavi, Daniele; Hess, Kai‐Uwe; Neuville, Daniel R.; Borovkov, Nikita; Perugini, Diego; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chemical composition on the Raman spectra of a series of natural calcalkaline silicate glasses has been quantified by performing electron microprobe analyses and obtaining Raman spectra on glassy filaments (~450 µm) derived from a magma mingling experiment. The results provide a robust compositionally‐dependent database for the Raman spectra of natural silicate glasses along the calcalkaline series. An empirical model based on both the acquired Raman spectra and an ideal mixing equation between calcalkaline basaltic and rhyolitic end‐members is constructed enabling the estimation of the chemical composition and degree of polymerization of silicate glasses using Raman spectra. The model is relatively insensitive to acquisition conditions and has been validated using the MPI‐DING geochemical standard glasses1 as well as further samples. The methods and model developed here offer several advantages compared with other analytical and spectroscopic methods such as infrared spectroscopy, X‐ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron and ion microprobe analyses, inasmuch as Raman spectroscopy can be performed with a high spatial resolution (1 µm2) without the need for any sample preparation as a nondestructive technique. This study represents an advance in efforts to provide the first database of Raman spectra for natural silicate glasses and yields a new approach for the treatment of Raman spectra, which allows us to extract approximate information about the chemical composition of natural silicate glasses using Raman spectroscopy. We anticipate its application in handheld in situ terrestrial field studies of silicate glasses under extreme conditions (e.g. extraterrestrial and submarine environments). © 2015 The Authors Journal of Raman Spectroscopy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27656038

  19. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-10

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R(2), 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants.

  20. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants.

  1. A new non-destructive analysis of semiconductor heterojunctions with very thin surface layers: An application of soft x-ray spectroscopy to Si-compound (film)/Si (substrate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, M.; Kusaka, M.; Hirai, M.; Nakamura, H.

    1990-01-01

    A non-destructive analysis of a heterointerface of Si-compound/Si (substrate) is carried out using soft X-ray spectroscopy (SXS). The method is based on the fact that the SiL2,3 valence band SXS spectrum of a Si-compound shows a clear difference from that of Si crystal. Also is utilized the fact that energetic electrons can reach deeper regions in solid with increasing primary electron energy, Ep. Surface and interface structures of a Si crystal with a Si-compound on top are clarified with changing Ep up to 4 keV.

  2. Environmental analysis of the chemical release module. [space shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Dubin, M.

    1980-01-01

    The environmental analysis of the Chemical Release Module (a free flying spacecraft deployed from the space shuttle to perform chemical release experiments) is reviewed. Considerations of possible effects of the injectants on human health, ionosphere, weather, ground based optical astronomical observations, and satellite operations are included. It is concluded that no deleterious environmental effects of widespread or long lasting nature are anticipated from chemical releases in the upper atmosphere of the type indicated for the program.

  3. Theory, Image Simulation, and Data Analysis of Chemical Release Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, Eugene M.

    1994-01-01

    The final phase of Grant NAG6-1 involved analysis of physics of chemical releases in the upper atmosphere and analysis of data obtained on previous NASA sponsored chemical release rocket experiments. Several lines of investigation of past chemical release experiments and computer simulations have been proceeding in parallel. This report summarizes the work performed and the resulting publications. The following topics are addressed: analysis of the 1987 Greenland rocket experiments; calculation of emission rates for barium, strontium, and calcium; the CRIT 1 and 2 experiments (Collisional Ionization Cross Section experiments); image calibration using background stars; rapid ray motions in ionospheric plasma clouds; and the NOONCUSP rocket experiments.

  4. Theory, Image Simulation, and Data Analysis of Chemical Release Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.

    1994-04-01

    The final phase of Grant NAG6-1 involved analysis of physics of chemical releases in the upper atmosphere and analysis of data obtained on previous NASA sponsored chemical release rocket experiments. Several lines of investigation of past chemical release experiments and computer simulations have been proceeding in parallel. This report summarizes the work performed and the resulting publications. The following topics are addressed: analysis of the 1987 Greenland rocket experiments; calculation of emission rates for barium, strontium, and calcium; the CRIT 1 and 2 experiments (Collisional Ionization Cross Section experiments); image calibration using background stars; rapid ray motions in ionospheric plasma clouds; and the NOONCUSP rocket experiments.

  5. Quantitation of chemical warfare agents using the direct analysis in real time (DART) technique.

    PubMed

    Nilles, J Michael; Connell, Theresa R; Durst, H Dupont

    2009-08-15

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is an ion source that permits rapid mass spectrometric detection of gases, liquids, and solids in open air under ambient conditions. It is a unique technology in the field of chemical weapons detectors in that it does not require a vapor pressure, does not require sample preparation, and is nondestructive to the original sample. While the DART technique has had success as a first line instrument of detection, there have been lingering doubts over the technique's quantitative reliability and reproducibility. Here, we demonstrate its capability to produce linear calibration curves (R(2) = 0.99 or better) for the nerve agents GA, GB, and VX as well as the blister agent HD. Independently prepared check standards measured against these curves typically have recovery errors less than 3%. We show the DART instrument response to be linear over roughly 3 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, this study shows that averaging as few as three measurements for each data point is sufficient to produce high quality calibration curves, thus reducing data collection time and providing quicker results.

  6. Recognizing chemicals in patents: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maryam; Wiegandt, David Luis; Schmedding, Florian; Leser, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data. Here, we evaluate the two state-of-the-art chemical NER tools, tmChem and ChemSpot, on four different annotated patent corpora, two of which consist of full texts. We study the overall performance of the tools, compare their results at the instance level, report on high-recall and high-precision ensembles, and perform cross-corpus and intra-corpus evaluations. Our findings indicate that full patents are considerably harder to analyze than patent abstracts and clearly confirm the common wisdom that using the same text genre (patent vs. scientific) and text type (abstract vs. full text) for training and testing is a pre-requisite for achieving high quality text mining results.

  7. Quantifying chemical reactions by using mixing analysis.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Anna; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Tubau, Isabel; Pujades, Estanislao

    2015-01-01

    This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. We propose an approach to quantify such processes using mixing calculations. The methodology consists of the following steps: (1) identification of the recharge sources (end-members) and selection of the species (conservative and non-conservative) to be used, (2) identification of the chemical processes and (3) evaluation of mixing ratios including the chemical processes. This methodology has been applied in the Besòs River Delta (NE Barcelona, Spain), where the River Besòs is the main aquifer recharge source. A total number of 51 groundwater samples were collected from July 2007 to May 2010 during four field campaigns. Three river end-members were necessary to explain the temporal variability of the River Besòs: one river end-member is from the wet periods (W1) and two are from dry periods (D1 and D2). This methodology has proved to be useful not only to compute the mixing ratios but also to quantify processes such as calcite and magnesite dissolution, aerobic respiration and denitrification undergone at each observation point.

  8. Chemical properties and methods of analysis of refractory compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samsonov, G. V. (Editor); Frantsevich, I. N. (Editor); Yeremenko, V. N. (Editor); Nazarchuk, T. N. (Editor); Popova, O. I. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reactions involving refractory metals and the alloys based on them are discussed. Chemical, electrochemical, photometric, spectrophotometric, and X-ray analysis are among the methods described for analyzing the results of the reactions and for determining the chemical properties of these materials.

  9. Alpha particle backscattering measurements used for chemical analysis of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Alpha particle backscattering performs a chemical analysis of surfaces. The apparatus uses a curium source and a semiconductor detector to determine the energy spectrum of the particles. This in turn determines the chemical composition of the surface after calibration to known samples.

  10. Exergy analysis of a chemical metallurgical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, D. R.; Steward, F. R.

    1984-12-01

    The concept of available work or exergy is used to develop an expression from which the causes of exergy losses in a chemical reactor are identified. The concept is illustrated by application to a lead blast furnace. The performance of the sinter plant and the lead smelter are assessed by the same procedures. The possibilities of exergy recovery are discussed and a heat pump installation is described. The advantages of the exergy method of process assessment relative to the traditional heat balance are discussed.

  11. Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

    1972-01-01

    Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

  12. Laser ultrasound for nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1982-03-01

    Noncontact techniques for generating and detecting high frequency ultrasonic waves ( 1 MHz) are being explored using pulsed laser thermoelastic transduction and heterodyne interferometry respectively. In addition, holographic projection techniques are being investigated for beam shaping and beam steering of the thermoelastic waves. Possible applications of this technology include performance of ultrasonic nondestructive testing in hostile or inaccessible environments.

  13. Non-destructive analysis of the conformational differences among feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products from bioethanol production with molecular spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gamage, I H; Jonker, A; Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2014-01-24

    The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique as a fast method to detect the source effects among original feedstock sources of wheat and their corresponding co-products, wheat DDGS, from bioethanol production. Different sources of the bioethanol feedstock and their corresponding bioethanol co-products, three samples per source, were collected from the same newly-built bioethanol plant with current bioethanol processing technology. Multivariate molecular spectral analyses were carried out using agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The molecular spectral data of different feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products were compared at four different regions of ca. 1800-1725 cm(-1) (carbonyl CO ester, mainly related to lipid structure conformation), ca. 1725-1482 cm(-1) (amide I and amide II region mainly related to protein structure conformation), ca. 1482-1180 cm(-1) (mainly associated with structural carbohydrate) and ca. 1180-800 cm(-1) (mainly related to carbohydrates) in complex plant-based system. The results showed that the molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique could reveal the structural differences among the bioethanol feedstock sources and among their corresponding co-products. The AHCA and PCA analyses were able to distinguish the molecular structure differences associated with chemical functional groups among the different sources of the feedstock and their corresponding co-products. The molecular spectral differences indicated the differences in functional, biomolecular and biopolymer groups which were confirmed by wet chemical analysis. These biomolecular and biopolymer structural differences were associated with chemical and nutrient profiles and nutrient utilization and availability. Molecular spectral analyses had the potential to identify molecular structure difference among bioethanol feedstock

  14. Non-destructive analysis of the conformational differences among feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products from bioethanol production with molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, I. H.; Jonker, A.; Zhang, X.; Yu, P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique as a fast method to detect the source effects among original feedstock sources of wheat and their corresponding co-products, wheat DDGS, from bioethanol production. Different sources of the bioethanol feedstock and their corresponding bioethanol co-products, three samples per source, were collected from the same newly-built bioethanol plant with current bioethanol processing technology. Multivariate molecular spectral analyses were carried out using agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The molecular spectral data of different feedstock sources and their corresponding co-products were compared at four different regions of ca. 1800-1725 cm-1 (carbonyl Cdbnd O ester, mainly related to lipid structure conformation), ca. 1725-1482 cm-1 (amide I and amide II region mainly related to protein structure conformation), ca. 1482-1180 cm-1 (mainly associated with structural carbohydrate) and ca. 1180-800 cm-1 (mainly related to carbohydrates) in complex plant-based system. The results showed that the molecular spectroscopy with multivariate technique could reveal the structural differences among the bioethanol feedstock sources and among their corresponding co-products. The AHCA and PCA analyses were able to distinguish the molecular structure differences associated with chemical functional groups among the different sources of the feedstock and their corresponding co-products. The molecular spectral differences indicated the differences in functional, biomolecular and biopolymer groups which were confirmed by wet chemical analysis. These biomolecular and biopolymer structural differences were associated with chemical and nutrient profiles and nutrient utilization and availability. Molecular spectral analyses had the potential to identify molecular structure difference among bioethanol feedstock sources

  15. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials via Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging for the non-destructive evaluation of the degree of cure, aging, and other properties of resin-based composite materials. This method can be used in air, and is portable for field use. This method operates in reflectance, absorbance, and luminescence modes. The ultraviolet source is used to illuminate a composite surface of interest. In reflectance mode, the reflected response is acquired via the imaging system or via the spectrometer. The spectra are analyzed for organic compounds (conjugated organics) and inorganic compounds (semiconducting band-edge states; luminescing defect states such as silicates, used as adhesives for composite aerospace applications; and metal oxides commonly used as thermal coating paints on a wide range of spacecraft). The spectra are compared with a database for variation in conjugation, substitution, or length of molecule (in the case of organics) or band edge position (in the case of inorganics). This approach is useful in the understanding of material quality. It lacks the precision in defining the exact chemical structure that is found in other materials analysis techniques, but it is advantageous over methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and chromatography in that it can be used in the field to assess significant changes in chemical structure that may be linked to concerns associated with weaknesses or variations in structural integrity, without disassembly of or destruction to the structure of interest.

  16. Nondestructive test to track pollutant transport into landfill liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzar, A.; Ghomari, F.

    2009-03-01

    Over the last decade, waste disposal has become a particularly sensitive issue in Algeria. New legislation concerning landfill liner design has been adopted. Traditional methods of landfill liner characterization involve soil sampling and chemical analysis, which are costly, destructive and time-consuming. New techniques are currently being investigated that aim to provide nondestructive liner characterisation. This paper details technical aspects associated with electrical conductivity measurements within landfill liners and presents experimental work to show the direct application of electrical techniques to track ionic movement through a sand bentonite liner under chemically induced flow. Samples of sand bentonite were mixed and compacted with NaCl electrolytes at different concentrations. The electrical conductivities of compacted specimens were measured with a two-electrode cell. The effects of frequency and electrolyte concentration on the conductivity measurement were explored. The relationship between the soil electrical conductivity and the NaCl electrolyte concentration in interstitial pore fluid was determined. The conductivity measurements were used to quantify the pore fluid concentration and effective diffusion coefficient of sand bentonite liners. It is concluded here that the electrical conductivity of compacted specimens depends mainly on the salt concentration in the pore fluid, and that this approach could therefore be used to track ionic movement through liners during diffusion.

  17. Non-destructive analysis of the conformational changes in human lens lipid and protein structures of the immature cataracts associated with glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Li, Mei-Jane; Liang, Run-Chu; Lee, Shui-Mei

    1998-09-01

    Previous study has supposed a possible mechanism of exacerbating cataract formation in cataractous human lens capsules induced by hypertension or glaucoma. To clarify the glaucoma-induced cataract formation of the eyes lens, changes in the human lens lipid and protein structures of immature cataractous patients with or without glaucoma were investigated. Two normal lenses, ten immature cataractous lenses without any complication and four immature cataractous lenses with glaucoma were used after surgical operation. Each de-capsulated human lens sample was sliced with a number 15 surgical blade. The intact nuclear lens regions were used for non-destructive analysis. The lens lipid and protein structures, as well as compositions of these lens samples, were determined using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy with second-derivative, de-convolution and curve-fitting methods. The results indicate that the IR spectrum of glaucomatous lenses appeared as a shoulder only at 2853 cm -1, thus the composition of the symmetric CH 2 stretching band at 2853 (2852) cm -1 decreased more significantly in glaucomatous lens to only one half of that in normal and immature cataractous lenses. The composition of the asymmetric CH 3 stretching band at 2965 cm -1 for normal lens decreases markedly from 32 to 20% for immature cataractous lenses with or without glaucoma. The compositional ratio of component at 2965 cm -1 to component at 2928 (2930) cm -1 for normal lenses was about 0.702, and that ratio for cataractous lenses without glaucoma was 0.382 but for glaucomatous lenses was 0.377. The maximum peak position of amide I band for IR spectra of the normal lens, immature cataractous lenses without complications or glaucomatous lenses appeared respectively at 1632, 1630 or 1622 cm -1, assigned to β sheet structure. A marked difference in peak intensity of amide I band for the normal lenses and immature cataractous human lenses with or without glaucoma was observed. The

  18. SYSTEMS CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PETROLEUM POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of an established mathematical treatment useful for the characterization and identification of petroleum pollutants is described. Using discriminant analysis of relevant infrared spectrophotometric data, 99% of numerous known and unknown oil samples have been corr...

  19. Development of a nondestructive method for underglaze painted tiles--demonstrated by the analysis of Persian objects from the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Ina; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Höhn, Yvonne; Malzer, Wolfgang; Voigt, Friederike

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents an analytical method developed for the nondestructive study of nineteenth-century Persian polychrome underglaze painted tiles. As an example, 9 tiles from French and German museum collections were investigated. Before this work was undertaken little was known about the materials used in pottery at that time, although the broad range of colors and shades, together with their brilliant glazes, made these objects stand out when compared with Iranian ceramics of the preceding periods and suggested the use of new pigments, colorants, and glaze compositions. These materials are thought to be related to provenance and as such appropriate criteria for art-historical attribution. The analytical method is based on the combination of different nondestructive spectroscopic techniques using microfocused beams such as proton-induced X-ray emission/proton-induced gamma-ray emission, X-ray fluorescence, 3D X-ray absorption near edge structure, and confocal Raman spectroscopy and also visible spectroscopy. It was established to address the specific difficulties these objects and the technique of underglaze painting raise. The exact definition of the colors observed on the tiles using the Natural Color System helped to attribute them to different colorants. It was possible to establish the presence of Cr- and U-based colorants as new materials in nineteenth-century Persian tilemaking. The difference in glaze composition (Pb, Sn, Na, and K contents) as well as the use of B and Sn were identified as a potential marker for different workshops.

  20. Nondestructive characterization of woven fabric ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D.K.; Saini, V.; Liaw, P.K.; Yu, N.; Miriyala, N.; McHargue, C.J.; Snead, L.L.; Lowden, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Woven fabric ceramic composites fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration method are susceptible to high void content and inhomogeneity. The condition of such materials may be characterized nondestructively with ultrasonic methods. In this work, longitudinal and shear waves were used in the quantitative determination of elastic constants of Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composites as a function of volume percent of porosity. Elastic stiffness constants were obtained for both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions with respect to fiber fabric. The effect of porosity on the modulus of woven fabric composites was also modeled and compared to the measured results. Scan images based on the amplitude and time-of-flight of radio frequency (RF) ultrasonic pulses were used for evaluating the material homogeneity for the purpose of optimizing the manufacturing process and for correlation with the mechanical testing results.

  1. Chemical Analysis of the Interface in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Depth Profiling.

    PubMed

    Busby, Yan; List-Kratochvil, Emil J W; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques

    2017-02-01

    Despite the wide use of blends combining an organic p-type polymer and molecular fullerene-based electron acceptor, the proper characterization of such bulk heterojunction materials is still challenging. To highlight structure-to-function relations and improve the device performance, advanced tools and strategies need to be developed to characterize composition and interfaces with sufficient accuracy. In this work, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is combined with very low energy argon ion beam sputtering to perform a nondestructive depth profile chemical analysis on full Al/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ITO (P3HT, poly(3-hexylthiophene); PCBM, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester; PEDOT, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene; PSS, polystyrenesulfonate; ITO, indium tin oxide) bulk-heterojunction solar cell device stacks. Key information, such as P3HT and PCBM composition profiles and Al-PCBM chemical bonding, are deduced in this basic device structure. The interface chemical analysis allows us to evidence, with unprecedented accuracy, the inhomogeneous distribution of PCBM, characterized by a strong segregation toward the top metal electrode. The chemical analysis high-resolution spectra allows us to reconstruct P3HT/PCBM ratio through the active layer depth and correlate with the device deposition protocol and performance. Results evidence an inhomogeneous P3HT/PCBM ratio and poorly controllable PCBM migration, which possibly explains the limited light-to-power conversion efficiency in this basic device structure. The work illustrates the high potential of XPS depth profile analysis for studying such organic/inorganic device stacks.

  2. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golterman, H. L.

    This manual, one of a series prepared for the guidance of research workers conducting studies as part of the International Biological Programme, contains recommended methods for the analysis of fresh water. The techniques are grouped in the following major sections: Sample Taking and Storage; Conductivity, pH, Oxidation-Reduction Potential,…

  3. Pretest uncertainty analysis for chemical rocket engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric pretest uncertainty analysis has been performed for a chemical rocket engine test at a unique 1000:1 area ratio altitude test facility. Results from the parametric study provide the error limits required in order to maintain a maximum uncertainty of 1 percent on specific impulse. Equations used in the uncertainty analysis are presented.

  4. Grazing-incidence x-ray fluorescence analysis for non-destructive determination of In and Ga depth profiles in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber films

    SciTech Connect

    Streeck, C.; Brunken, S.; Kaufmann, C. A.; Weber, A.; Schock, H.-W.; Mainz, R.; Gerlach, M.; Hönicke, P.; Lubeck, J.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Beckhoff, B.; Herzog, C.; Kanngießer, B.

    2013-09-09

    Development of highly efficient thin film solar cells involves band gap engineering by tuning their elemental composition with depth. Here we show that grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and well-characterized instrumentation is suitable for a non-destructive and reference-free analysis of compositional depth profiles in thin films. Variation of the incidence angle provides quantitative access to the in-depth distribution of the elements, which are retrieved from measured fluorescence intensities by modeling parameterized gradients and fitting calculated to measured fluorescence intensities. Our results show that double Ga gradients in Cu(In{sub 1−x},Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} can be resolved by GIXRF.

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  6. Nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing need to quantitatively and nondestructively evaluate the strength and toughness properties of pipeline steels, particularly in aging pipeline infrastructure. These strength and toughness properties, namely yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and toughness, are essential for determining the safe operating pressure of the pipelines. For some older pipelines crucial information can be unknown, which makes determining the pressure rating difficult. Current inspection techniques address some of these issues, but they are not comprehensive. This paper will briefly discuss current inspection techniques and relevant literature for relating nondestructive measurements to key strength and toughness properties. A project is in progress to provide new in-trench tools that will give strength properties without the need for sample removal and destructive testing. Preliminary experimental ultrasonic methods and measurements will be presented, including velocity, attenuation, and backscatter measurements.

  7. A Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy Method for Non-Destructive Detection of Gelatin-Encapsulated Powders.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kuanglin; Dhakal, Sagar; Qin, Jianwei; Peng, Yankun; Schmidt, Walter F; Kim, Moon S; Chan, Diane E

    2017-03-18

    Non-destructive subsurface detection of encapsulated, coated, or seal-packaged foods and pharmaceuticals can help prevent distribution and consumption of counterfeit or hazardous products. This study used a Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) method to detect and identify urea, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen powders contained within one or more (up to eight) layers of gelatin capsules to demonstrate subsurface chemical detection and identification. A 785-nm point-scan Raman spectroscopy system was used to acquire spatially offset Raman spectra for an offset range of 0 to 10 mm from the surfaces of 24 encapsulated samples, using a step size of 0.1 mm to obtain 101 spectral measurements per sample. As the offset distance was increased, the spectral contribution from the subsurface powder gradually outweighed that of the surface capsule layers, allowing for detection of the encapsulated powders. Containing mixed contributions from the powder and capsule, the SORS spectra for each sample were resolved into pure component spectra using self-modeling mixture analysis (SMA) and the corresponding components were identified using spectral information divergence values. As demonstrated here for detecting chemicals contained inside thick capsule layers, this SORS measurement technique coupled with SMA has the potential to be a reliable non-destructive method for subsurface inspection and authentication of foods, health supplements, and pharmaceutical products that are prepared or packaged with semi-transparent materials.

  8. A Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy Method for Non-Destructive Detection of Gelatin-Encapsulated Powders

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kuanglin; Dhakal, Sagar; Qin, Jianwei; Peng, Yankun; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Chan, Diane E.

    2017-01-01

    Non-destructive subsurface detection of encapsulated, coated, or seal-packaged foods and pharmaceuticals can help prevent distribution and consumption of counterfeit or hazardous products. This study used a Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) method to detect and identify urea, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen powders contained within one or more (up to eight) layers of gelatin capsules to demonstrate subsurface chemical detection and identification. A 785-nm point-scan Raman spectroscopy system was used to acquire spatially offset Raman spectra for an offset range of 0 to 10 mm from the surfaces of 24 encapsulated samples, using a step size of 0.1 mm to obtain 101 spectral measurements per sample. As the offset distance was increased, the spectral contribution from the subsurface powder gradually outweighed that of the surface capsule layers, allowing for detection of the encapsulated powders. Containing mixed contributions from the powder and capsule, the SORS spectra for each sample were resolved into pure component spectra using self-modeling mixture analysis (SMA) and the corresponding components were identified using spectral information divergence values. As demonstrated here for detecting chemicals contained inside thick capsule layers, this SORS measurement technique coupled with SMA has the potential to be a reliable non-destructive method for subsurface inspection and authentication of foods, health supplements, and pharmaceutical products that are prepared or packaged with semi-transparent materials. PMID:28335453

  9. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Method for Stress Analysis of Structural Members and Near-Surface Layers of Materials: Focus on Ukrainian Research (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    The results obtained by Ukrainian researchers on the justification, development, and application of ultrasonic nondestructive methods (UNDMs) for evaluating stresses in structural members and near-surface layers of materials are briefly discussed. A distinguishing feature of Ukrainian methods is that they are capable of determining triaxial (including biaxial and uniaxial as partial cases) stresses, unlike non-Ukrainian methods applicable only to uniaxial stresses. The UNDMs are based on the laws of wave propagation in solids with initial (residual) stresses, including the laws of Rayleigh wave propagation. The results discussed were obtained in the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (S. P.Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics and E. O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding)

  10. Non-destructive analysis of hydrogen-induced cracking of api steels using acoustic microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S. B.; Choi, Y.; Jung, H. G.; Kho, S. W.; Lee, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering were applied to non-destructively evaluate the hydrogen-induced cracking of API steels and to find the initiation time of the crack. The API steels had equiaxed grains with about 4 to 12-μm average grain size along the rolling, sample-normal, and transverse directions. For 5 days of immersion in a sodium-acetic solution with chloride ions (NaCl: CH3COOH: H2O: FeCl2 = 50: 5: 944: 1, pH = 2.7), micro-sized cracks were not formed in the as-received specimen, but they did form in the 7% deformed specimen. Nano-sized cracks were observed in the specimen after 3 days of immersion by small-angle neutron scattering.

  11. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  12. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals.

  13. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured

  14. Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Morgan, Catherine H.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2006-07-18

    A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

  15. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  16. Chemical and biochemical analysis using microfluidic-localized field platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepaniak, Michael; Abu-Hatab, Nahla; Wellman, Amber; John, Joshy; Connatser, Maggie

    2007-09-01

    Microfluidics offer the advantages of multiplexed analysis on small, inexpensive platforms. We describe herein two distinct optical detection techniques that have the common point of sequestering and measuring analyte signals in highly localized EM fields. The first technique mates a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform with colloidal-based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in order to perform parallel, high throughput vibrational spectroscopy. Spectra are acquired for analytes localized in surface plasmon fields associated with conventional and uniquely synthesized cubic silver colloids. SERS studies such as pH of the colloidal solution, and the type of colloid are used to demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the method. In addition, a facile passive pumping method is used to deliver Ag colloids and analytes into the channels where all SERS measurements were completed under nondestructive flowing conditions. With this approach, SERS signal reproducibility was found to be better than 7%. A calibration curve for the drug mitoxantrone (resonance enhanced) was generated. The second technique seeks to integrate a passively-pumped, microfluidic, PDMS platform and planar waveguide technology, utilizing magnetic beads as solid supports for fluoro-assays with direct detection of bound analyte within the sample mixture accomplished by selectively driving functionalized beads to a localized evanescent field. Because analyte binding occurs in free solution, the reaction is not diffusion limited and, once magnetically delivered to the evanescent wave, the analyte can be detected with fewer complications arising from non-optically homogeneous, biological matrices. Additionally, the evanescent sensing surface can be easily regenerated by simply removing the bead-retaining magnetic field. Initial testing, optimization and calibration were performed using a model sandwich immunoassay system for the detection of rabbit IgG, with which we demonstrate a

  17. Fast, quantitative, and nondestructive evaluation of hydrided LWR fuel cladding by small angle incoherent neutron scattering of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Qian, S.; Littrell, K.; Parish, C. M.; Plummer, L. K.

    2015-02-13

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor will be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  18. Fast, quantitative, and nondestructive evaluation of hydrided LWR fuel cladding by small angle incoherent neutron scattering of hydrogen

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Y.; Qian, S.; Littrell, K.; ...

    2015-02-13

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distributionmore » of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor will be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.« less

  19. Nondestructive Waste Assay Using Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2123

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    This project was supported by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and the Federal Environmental Technology Center (FETC) to develop an improved nondestructive assay (NDA) capability that uses gamma-ray computed tomography and gamma-energy spectral analysis techniques to perform waste assay measurements. It was the intent of the Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) development and demonstration project to enhance the overall utility of waste assay through the implementation of techniques that can accommodate known measurement complications, e.g., waste matrix and radioactive material distribution heterogeneities. This technology can measure the radionuclide content in all types of waste regardless of their classification as low level (LLW), transuranic (TRU) or mixed (MLLW or MTRU). The nondestructive waste assay capability needed to support Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste characterization needs is necessarily a function of the waste form configurations in inventory. These waste form configurations exhibit a number of variables impacting assay system response that must be accounted for to ensure valid measurement data. Such variables include: matrix density, matrix elemental composition, matrix density distribution, radioactive material radionuclidic/isotopic composition, radioactive material physical/chemical form, and physical distribution in the waste matrix. Existing nondestructive assay technologies have identified capability limits with respect to these variables. Certain combinations of these variables result in waste configurations within the capability of one or more of the existing systems. Other combinations that are prevalent in the inventory are outside of the capability of such systems.

  20. Nondestructive Electromagnetic Characterization of Uniaxial Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    NONDESTRUCTIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF UNIAXIAL MATERIALS DISSERTATION Neil G. Rogers, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENG-DS-14-S-05 DEPARTMENT OF...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-DS-14-S-05 NONDESTRUCTIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF UNIAXIAL MATERIALS...September 2014 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENG-DS-14-S-05 NONDESTRUCTIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC

  1. Method for combined biometric and chemical analysis of human fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Staymates, Jessica L; Orandi, Shahram; Staymates, Matthew E; Gillen, Greg

    This paper describes a method for combining direct chemical analysis of latent fingerprints with subsequent biometric analysis within a single sample. The method described here uses ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as a chemical detection method for explosives and narcotics trace contamination. A collection swab coated with a high-temperature adhesive has been developed to lift latent fingerprints from various surfaces. The swab is then directly inserted into an IMS instrument for a quick chemical analysis. After the IMS analysis, the lifted print remains intact for subsequent biometric scanning and analysis using matching algorithms. Several samples of explosive-laden fingerprints were successfully lifted and the explosives detected with IMS. Following explosive detection, the lifted fingerprints remained of sufficient quality for positive match scores using a prepared gallery consisting of 60 fingerprints. Based on our results (n = 1200), there was no significant decrease in the quality of the lifted print post IMS analysis. In fact, for a small subset of lifted prints, the quality was improved after IMS analysis. The described method can be readily applied to domestic criminal investigations, transportation security, terrorist and bombing threats, and military in-theatre settings.

  2. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) study of atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. G.; Seals, R. D.; Wightman, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses by ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) on several Nuclepore filters which were exposed during air pollution studies are presented along with correlative measurements by Neutron Activation Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Samples were exposed during air pollution studies at Norfolk, Virginia and the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It was demonstrated that with the ESCA technique it was possible to identify the chemical (bonding) state of elements contained in the atmospheric particulate matter collected on Nuclepore filters. Sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, chlorine, alkali, and alkaline earth metal species were identified in the Norfolk samples. ESCA binding energy data for aluminum indicated that three chemically different types of aluminum are present in the launch and background samples from NASA-KSC.

  3. Computational singular perturbation analysis of stochastic chemical systems with stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijin; Han, Xiaoying; Cao, Yanzhao; Najm, Habib N.

    2017-04-01

    Computational singular perturbation (CSP) is a useful method for analysis, reduction, and time integration of stiff ordinary differential equation systems. It has found dominant utility, in particular, in chemical reaction systems with a large range of time scales at continuum and deterministic level. On the other hand, CSP is not directly applicable to chemical reaction systems at micro or meso-scale, where stochasticity plays an non-negligible role and thus has to be taken into account. In this work we develop a novel stochastic computational singular perturbation (SCSP) analysis and time integration framework, and associated algorithm, that can be used to not only construct accurately and efficiently the numerical solutions to stiff stochastic chemical reaction systems, but also analyze the dynamics of the reduced stochastic reaction systems. The algorithm is illustrated by an application to a benchmark stochastic differential equation model, and numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the construction.

  4. Microfabricated devices for performing chemical and biochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.; Foote, R.S.

    1997-05-01

    There is growing interest in microfabricated devices that perform chemical and biochemical analysis. The general goal is to use microfabrication tools to construct miniature devices that can perform a complete analysis starting with an unprocessed sample. Such devices have been referred to as lab-on-a-chip devices. Initial efforts on microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip devices focused on chemical separations. There are many potential applications of these fluidic microchip devices. Some applications such as chemical process control or environmental monitoring would require that a chip be used over an extended period of time or for many analyses. Other applications such as forensics, clinical diagnostics, and genetic diagnostics would employ the chip devices as single use disposable devices.

  5. A nondestructive characterization system of periodically poled crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaixi; Zhou, Huang; Chen, Liyuan; Zou, Xiaolin; Miao, Long; Feng, Xinkai; Li, Guangwei; Liang, Wanguo

    2015-08-01

    Periodically poled crystals are widely used as SHG, DFG, SFG, OPO and THz generation, and there is a broad application prospect in some areas such as the laser display, optical fiber communication, atmospheric exploration and military confrontation. At present, to get the parameters of periodically poled crystals, like duty ratio, the main method is chemical etching of the samples. In this paper, we present a nondestructive characterization system of periodically poled crystals. When we apply a proper high voltage on both sides of the periodically poled crystal, the refractive index difference of positive and negative domain will be increased and we can observe a clear domain pattern by the a microscope so as to obtain general information. Then a single frequency laser is prepared to radiate on +z surface of the periodically poled crystal, we can get some orders of diffraction according to diffraction optics principle. Finally, we can measure the parameters such as period, duty ratio by use of numerical analysis. The testing sample size of this system can be up to 60mm, The accuracy of the testing period can be 0.1μm, and the measurement range of duty ratio is 20%-50%.

  6. LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical kinetics problems. The motivation for the development of this program is the continuing interest in developing detailed chemical reaction mechanisms for complex reactions such as the combustion of fuels and pollutant formation and destruction. A reaction mechanism is the set of all elementary chemical reactions that are required to describe the process of interest. Mathematical descriptions of chemical kinetics problems constitute sets of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The number of ODEs can be very large because of the numerous chemical species involved in the reaction mechanism. Further complicating the situation are the many simultaneous reactions needed to describe the chemical kinetics of practical fuels. For example, the mechanism describing the oxidation of the simplest hydrocarbon fuel, methane, involves over 25 species participating in nearly 100 elementary reaction steps. Validating a chemical reaction mechanism requires repetitive solutions of the governing ODEs for a variety of reaction conditions. Analytical solutions to the systems of ODEs describing chemistry are not possible, except for the simplest cases, which are of little or no practical value. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable numerical solution techniques for chemical kinetics problems. In addition to solving the ODEs describing chemical kinetics, it is often necessary to know what effects variations in either initial condition values or chemical reaction mechanism parameters have on the solution. Such a need arises in the development of reaction mechanisms from experimental data. The rate coefficients are often not known with great precision and in general, the experimental data are not sufficiently detailed to accurately estimate the rate coefficient parameters. The development of a reaction mechanism is facilitated by a systematic sensitivity analysis

  7. Methods of chemical analysis used to characterize battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K. J.; Streets, W. E.

    1980-05-01

    Procedures are given for the chemical analysis of a variety of materials of interest in battery development and research. These materials include LiCl-KCl eutectic, Li-Al alloys, lithium sulfide, lithium aluminum chloride, calcium sulfide, titanium sulfide, and various sulfides of iron, nickel, copper, and cobalt. 8 tables.

  8. Rethinking the History of Artists' Pigments Through Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrie, Barbara H.

    2012-07-01

    Following a brief overview of the history of analysis of artists' pigments, I discuss the illustrative example of lead-tin yellow. Recent advances in our knowledge of artists' use of red lakes, glassy pigments, and metallic pigments in works of cultural heritage, particularly European paintings, as determined from chemical analyses are described.

  9. Spectangular - Spectral Disentangling For Detailed Chemical Analysis Of Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablowski, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Disentangling of spectra helps to improve the orbit parameters and allows detailed chemical analysis. Spectangular is a GUI program written in C++ for spectral disentangling of spectra of SB1 and SB2 systems. It is based on singular value decomposition in the wavelength space and is coupled to an orbital solution.The results are the component spectra and the orbital parameters.

  10. Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro by Raman spectroscopy – from single cells to humans

    PubMed Central

    Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Weeks, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    Summary The gold standard for clinical diagnostics of tissues is immunofluorescence staining. Toxicity of many fluorescent dyes precludes their application in vivo. Raman spectroscopy, a chemically specific, label-free diagnostic technique, is rapidly gaining in acceptance as a powerful alternative. It has the ability to probe the chemical composition of biological materials in a nondestructive and mostly non-perturbing manner. We review the most recent developments in Raman spectroscopy in the life sciences, detailing advances in technology that have improved the ability to screen for diseases. Its role in the monitoring of biological function and mapping the intracellular chemical microenvironment will be discussed. Applications including endoscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and coherent Raman scattering (CRS) will be reviewed. PMID:19268566

  11. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    PubMed

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites.

  12. Liquid crystals in nondestructive testing.

    PubMed

    Fergason, J L

    1968-09-01

    The cholesteric phase is associated with scattering effects that give rise to iridescent colors, the dominant wavelength being influenced by very small changes in temperature, which can be as large as 1000 A shift per degree. This unusually high temperature sensitivity has given rise to the use of the cholesteric phase as a sensitive thermometer and thermal mapping media. This paper reviews the optical effects in the cholesteric phase with some new additions that are particularly relevant to thermal mapping. An attempt has been made to give a complete picture of the cholesteric liquid crystal as applied to nondestructive testing, rather than to review the work actually being done in this field.

  13. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

    1999-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or

  14. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation: Requirements for tomorrow's reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the technology of measurement, analysis, and prediction of the state of material/structural systems for safety, reliability, and mission assurance. QNDE has impact on everyday life from the cars we drive, the planes we fly, the buildings we work or live in, literally to the infrastructure of our world. Here, researchers highlight some of the new sciences and technologies that are part of a safer, cost effective tomorrow. Specific technologies that are discussed are thermal QNDE of aircraft structural integrity, ultrasonic QNDE for materials characterization, and technology spinoffs from aerospace to the medical sector. In each case, examples are given of how new requirements result in enabling measurement technologies, which in turn change the boundaries of design/practice.

  15. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, C. W.; Lam, Y. L.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Luximon, A.; Lau, K. W.; Chen, K. S.

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  16. Technologies and microstructures for separation techniques in chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiering, Vincent L.; Lammerink, Theo S. J.; Jansen, Henri V.; Fluitman, Jan H.; van den Berg, Albert

    1996-09-01

    The possibilities for microtechnology in chemical analysis and separation techniques are discussed. The combination of the materials and the dimensions of structures can limit the sample and waste volumes on the one hand, but also increases the performance of the chemical systems. Especially in high performance chromatography separation systems, where the separation quality is directly depending on the length to width ratio of the fluid channels, there is a large potential for applications. Novel technologies as well as demonstrator devices for different applications will be presented in this paper. Finally, a modular concept for microfluidic systems, in which these micromachined structures can be incorporated, is described and illustrated with a demonstrator.

  17. Component pattern analysis of chemicals using multispectral THz imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuki

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz (THz) imaging, which allows detection and identification of chemicals by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the chemicals were obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra previously measured with a widely tunable THz-wave parametric oscillator. Further we have applied this technique to the detection and identification of illicit drugs concealed in envelopes. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

  18. Near-field Optical Imagigng and Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, La Rosa

    1998-03-01

    Identification of molecular structures in complex mixtures represents a major challenge in chemical research today. Microfabricated devices or lab-on-a-chip that perform chemical analysis allows dynamic sampling of picoliter microenvironments and separation. The long-term goals of nanochemistry down to the femtoliter scale involve refinement of the detection limit to single-molecule. Our approach consists in designing a very sensitive near-field optical microscope (NSOM-SIAM) to explore the mesoscopic properties of organic compounds. The validity, sensitivity and unique spatial resolution of this system will be discussed for multiple analyte chemosensing.

  19. Comparative study of nondestructive pavement testing, WES (Waterways Experiment Station) NDT (nondestructive tests) methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.; Alelxander, D. R.

    1985-09-01

    A demonstration of nondestructive airfield pavement evaluation procedures conducted by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) using both the WES 16-kip vibrator and a Dynatest falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is described. The nondestructive tests (NDT) were conducted at MacDill Air Force Base on five pavement test areas consisting of asphaltic concrete, portland cement concrete, and composite pavements. Two methods of data analysis were used. The dynamic stiffness modulus (DMS) method used dynamic deflection data from the WES 16-kip vibrator with a correlation analysis developed a number of years ago by WES. This method uses a correlation between the DSM (a load-deflection ratio) and the allowable load on a single wheel as derived from traditional test pit methods. The second analysis scheme used measured deflection basins at the pavement surface and layered elastic theory. Elastic moduli are computed by matching measured deflection basins with computed basins. Limiting stress/strain is then used to compute allowable aircraft loadings. This method was used with data from both the WES 16-kip vibrator and the FWD. Also demonstrated was a method of determining joint load transfer and of making appropriate adjustments to the allowable load to account for lack of load transfer.

  20. Nondestructive Material Testing Using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, D.

    The fact that optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides information on internal structures of scattering tissue in a noninvasive way has led to a broad acceptance of OCT for dedicated biomedical imaging and diagnostics applications. Outside the biomedical field, an irreversible alteration of an object under investigation by the characterization method itself is likewise undesirable, especially in the case that such an object has to be further used with its original state maintained. For this purpose, a variety of so-called nondestructive testing (NDT) methods is nowadays at hand,with OCT as novel technique exhibiting a huge potential to add valuable contributions to nondestructive testing and evaluation of semitransparent, scattering materials with structural features on the micron scale. Therefore, within this chapter, a broad range of applications for OCT in NDT is presented, ranging from examples of industrial quality control over classification and authentication tasks to the evaluation of materials in research and development.The individual applications are listed according to the category of information obtained from the individual measurements, starting with the evaluation of the pure surface structure, proceeding to thickness measurements of layered systems, to imaging of internal 3D structures and finally leading to the determination of functional information.

  1. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    PubMed

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006).

  2. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation - Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Rice, F. J.; Kraft, N. C.; Taylor, S. C.; Lillo, M.; Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008-2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm2 peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm3 peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  3. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive tests. 193.2321 Section 193.2321 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of storage tanks with internal design pressure above 15 psig must be nondestructively examined in... cryogenic temperatures must be nondestructively examined in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section VIII Division 1) (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). (b) For storage...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of storage tanks with internal design pressure above 15 psig must be nondestructively examined in... cryogenic temperatures must be nondestructively examined in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section VIII Division 1) (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). (b) For storage...

  6. Nondestructive evaluation of stresses within AISI stainless steel 304 material -- A magnetometric approach

    SciTech Connect

    Manglik, V.K.; Vaghmare, R.; Modi, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    Stainless steel is widely used industrial material and also used in fabrication of satellite components. The use of optimum section of components calls for Non-Destructive Evaluation of structure to avoid catastrophic failures which are predominantly due to the high stress level. The effect of cold working and/or stress on the magnetic properties of stainless steel was discussed in the past. An attempt is made in present work to correlate the induced magnetic flux density in stainless steel AISI-304 with the stress level. In the present work, various samples of stainless steel were prepared for experiment after confirming the material belongs to AISI-304 by detailed chemical and physical analysis. These samples were also heat treated at 1,066 deg. C. to eliminate presence of initial stresses and obtain austenitic structure. Stresses in identical samples were generated by torsional deformation and induced magnetic flux density were measured in a very well configured test set up which has the resolution of 1 nT (nano-tesla). Finally, a correlation is presented between the induced magnetic flux density and stress level which could be very helpful tool in non-destructive evaluation of stresses in stainless steel AISI-304.

  7. Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaschl, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  8. Automating the analytical laboratory via the Chemical Analysis Automation paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.; Rzeszutko, C.

    1997-10-01

    To address the need for standardization within the analytical chemistry laboratories of the nation, the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program within the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology`s Robotic Technology Development Program is developing laboratory sample analysis systems that will automate the environmental chemical laboratories. The current laboratory automation paradigm consists of islands-of-automation that do not integrate into a system architecture. Thus, today the chemist must perform most aspects of environmental analysis manually using instrumentation that generally cannot communicate with other devices in the laboratory. CAA is working towards a standardized and modular approach to laboratory automation based upon the Standard Analysis Method (SAM) architecture. Each SAM system automates a complete chemical method. The building block of a SAM is known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The SLM, either hardware or software, automates a subprotocol of an analysis method and can operate as a standalone or as a unit within a SAM. The CAA concept allows the chemist to easily assemble an automated analysis system, from sample extraction through data interpretation, using standardized SLMs without the worry of hardware or software incompatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs. A Task Sequence Controller (TSC) software program schedules and monitors the individual tasks to be performed by each SLM configured within a SAM. The chemist interfaces with the operation of the TSC through the Human Computer Interface (HCI), a logical, icon-driven graphical user interface. The CAA paradigm has successfully been applied in automating EPA SW-846 Methods 3541/3620/8081 for the analysis of PCBs in a soil matrix utilizing commercially available equipment in tandem with SLMs constructed by CAA.

  9. Exploring Chemical Analysis, 1st Edition (by Daniel C. Harris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, John C.

    1998-01-01

    W. H. Freeman: New York, 1997. ISBN: 0716730421. $80.00. Daniel Harris's book Quantitative Chemical Analysis is one of the 1000-pound gorillas for introductory analytical chemistry, both because of its dominance in the field and its size and information content. Students find the writing informal, interesting, and clear. Faculty like the completeness of the book and its sound treatment of the subject matter. It contains everything that an introductory analytical course could possibly want. Daniel Harris's recent book, Exploring Chemical Analysis, is a tamed version of the 1000-pound gorilla for nonchemistry majors. Students will find the same informality, interest, and clarity as in the earlier text but they will also find the book a comfortable companion. Faculty will find an abbreviated but excellent treatment of the subject matter. It contains most of the things that an introductory nonmajors analytical course should want.

  10. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  11. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kounaves, Samuel P

    2003-02-17

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and

  12. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and

  13. Analysis of the stochastic excitability in the flow chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkirtseva, Irina

    2015-11-30

    A dynamic model of the thermochemical process in the flow reactor is considered. We study an influence of the random disturbances on the stationary regime of this model. A phenomenon of noise-induced excitability is demonstrated. For the analysis of this phenomenon, a constructive technique based on the stochastic sensitivity functions and confidence domains is applied. It is shown how elaborated technique can be used for the probabilistic analysis of the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations in the flow chemical reactor.

  14. Analysis of the stochastic excitability in the flow chemical reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina

    2015-11-01

    A dynamic model of the thermochemical process in the flow reactor is considered. We study an influence of the random disturbances on the stationary regime of this model. A phenomenon of noise-induced excitability is demonstrated. For the analysis of this phenomenon, a constructive technique based on the stochastic sensitivity functions and confidence domains is applied. It is shown how elaborated technique can be used for the probabilistic analysis of the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations in the flow chemical reactor.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on research and development of techniques for nondestructive evaluation and characterization of advanced ceramics for heat engine applications. Highlighted in this review are Lewis Research Center efforts in microfocus radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). The techniques were evaluated by applying them to research samples of green and sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing seeded voids. Probabilities of detection of voids were determined for diameters as small as 20 microns for microfucus radiography, SLAM, and SAM. Strengths and limitations of the techniques for ceramic applications are identified. Application of ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic microstructures is also discussed.

  16. Advances in nondestructive evaluation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley's Materials Characterization Instrumentation Section has followed the philosophy of improving the science base of nondestructive evaluation and advancing the state of the art of quantitative interpretability of physical measurements of materials. Details of several R&D programs choosen to highlight the last several years are given. Applications of these technologies are presented in the area of stress measurement, characterization of metal heat treatment, and evaluation of material internal structure. A second focus of the program is on quantitative transducers/measurements that have resulted in better data in irregular inhomogeneous materials such as composites. Examples are presented of new capabilities resulting from these advances that include fatigue and impact damage evaluation.

  17. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  18. Nondestructive characterization of micromachined ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, Adam; Hix, Kenneth E.; Yaney, Perry; Zhan, Qiwen; Dosser, Larry R.; Blackshire, James L.

    2005-05-01

    The aerospace, automotive, and electronic industries are finding increasing need for components made from silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4). The development and use of miniaturized ceramic parts, in particular, is of significant interest in a variety of critical applications. As these application areas grow, manufacturers are being asked to find new and better solutions for machining and forming ceramic materials with microscopic precision. Recent advances in laser machining technologies are making precision micromachining of ceramics a reality. Questions regarding micromachining accuracy, residual melt region effects, and laser-induced microcracking are of critical concern during the machining process. In this activity, a variety of nondestructive inspection methods have been used to investigate the microscopic features of laser-machined ceramic components. The primary goal was to assess the micromachined areas for machining accuracy and microcracking using laser ultrasound, scanning electron microscopy, and white-light interference microscopic imaging of the machined regions.

  19. Nondestructive Profilometry of Optical Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Lars S; Baker, Christopher; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P

    2016-12-14

    Single-mode optical nanofibers are a central component of a broad range of applications and emerging technologies. Their fabrication has been extensively studied over the past decade, but imaging of the final submicrometer products has been restricted to destructive or low-precision techniques. Here, we demonstrate an optical scattering-based scanning method that uses a probe nanofiber to locally scatter the evanescent field of a sample nanofibre. The method does not damage the sample nanofiber and is easily implemented by only using the same equipment as in a standard fiber-puller setup. We demonstrate the subnanometer radial resolution at video rates (0.7 nm in 10 ms) on single mode nanofibers, allowing for a complete high-precision profile to be obtained within minutes of fabrication. The method thus enables nondestructive, fast, and precise characterization of optical nanofibers, with applications ranging from optical sensors and cold atom traps to nonlinear optics.

  20. Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baer, DR; Gaspar, DJ; Nachimuthu, P; Techane, SD; Castner, DG

    2010-01-01

    The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties. PMID:20052578

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, L.A.; Kunerth, D.C.; Walter, J.B.

    1991-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation techniques were developed to characterize performance degrading conditions in continuous fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites. Porosity, fiber-matrix interface bond strength, and physical damage were among the conditions studied. The material studied is formed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of the matrix material into a preform of woven reinforcing fibers. Acoustic, ultrasonic, and vibration response techniques were studied. Porosity was investigated because of its inherent presence in the CVI process and of the resultant degradation of material strength. Correlations between porosity and ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were clearly demonstrated. The ability of ultrasonic transmission scanning techniques to map variations in porosity in a single sample was also demonstrated. The fiber-matrix interface bond was studied because of its importance in determining the fracture toughness of the material. Correlations between interface bonding and acoustic and ultrasonic properties were observed. These results are presented along with those obtained form acoustic and vibration response measurements on material samples subjected to mechanical impact damage. This is the final report on research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Tip enhanced Raman scattering: plasmonic enhancements for nanoscale chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Zachary D.; Marr, James M.; Wang, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) is an emerging technique that uses a metalized scanning probe microscope tip to spatially localize electric fields that enhances Raman scattering enabling chemical imaging on nanometer dimensions. Arising from the same principles as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), TERS offers unique advantages associated with controling the size, shape, and location of the enhancing nanostructure. In this article we discuss the correlations between current understanding of SERS and how this relates to TERS, as well as how TERS provides new understanding and insights. The relationship between plasmon resonances and Raman enhancements is emphasized as the key to obtaining optimal TERS results. Applications of TERS, including chemical analysis of carbon nanotubes, organic molecules, inorganic crystals, nucleic acids, proteins, cells and organisms, are used to illustrate the information that can be gained. Under ideal conditions TERS is capable of single molecule sensitivity and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. The ability to control plasmonic enhancements for chemical analysis suggests new experiments and opportunities to understand molecular composition and interactions on the nanoscale.

  3. Computational singular perturbation analysis of stochastic chemical systems with stiffness

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lijin; Han, Xiaoying; Cao, Yanzhao; ...

    2017-01-25

    Computational singular perturbation (CSP) is a useful method for analysis, reduction, and time integration of stiff ordinary differential equation systems. It has found dominant utility, in particular, in chemical reaction systems with a large range of time scales at continuum and deterministic level. On the other hand, CSP is not directly applicable to chemical reaction systems at micro or meso-scale, where stochasticity plays an non-negligible role and thus has to be taken into account. In this work we develop a novel stochastic computational singular perturbation (SCSP) analysis and time integration framework, and associated algorithm, that can be used to notmore » only construct accurately and efficiently the numerical solutions to stiff stochastic chemical reaction systems, but also analyze the dynamics of the reduced stochastic reaction systems. Furthermore, the algorithm is illustrated by an application to a benchmark stochastic differential equation model, and numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the construction.« less

  4. Kojak: Efficient analysis of chemically cross-linked protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hoopmann, Michael R.; Zelter, Alex; Johnson, Richard S.; Riffle, Michael; MacCoss, Michael J.; Davis, Trisha N.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry enable the analysis of protein-protein interactions and protein topologies, however complicated cross-linked peptide spectra require specialized algorithms to identify interacting sites. The Kojak cross-linking software application is a new, efficient approach to identify cross-linked peptides, enabling large-scale analysis of protein-protein interactions by chemical cross-linking techniques. The algorithm integrates spectral processing and scoring schemes adopted from traditional database search algorithms, and can identify cross-linked peptides using many different chemical cross-linkers, with or without heavy isotope labels. Kojak was used to analyze both novel and existing datasets, and was compared with existing cross-linking algorithms. The algorithm provided increased cross-link identifications over existing algorithms, and equally importantly, the results in a fraction of computational time. The Kojak algorithm is open-source, cross-platform, and freely available. This software provides both existing and new cross-linking researchers alike an effective way to derive additional cross-link identifications from new or existing datasets. For new users, it provides a simple analytical resource resulting in more cross-link identifications than other methods. PMID:25812159

  5. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Julia E.; Martens, Kylee; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2016-12-01

    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high-resolution (R ˜ 60,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (< {{S}}/{{N}}> ˜ 100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1 m telescope and the Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤slant 0.06 dex (σ = 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 and W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only iron but with other elements analyzed in this study, suggesting the proposed connection between these two stars may be real.

  6. Non-destructive ultrasonic measurements of case depth. [in steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flambard, C.; Lambert, A.

    1978-01-01

    Two ultrasonic methods for nondestructive measurements of the depth of a case-hardened layer in steel are described. One method involves analysis of ultrasonic waves diffused back from the bulk of the workpiece. The other method involves finding the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves launched on the surface of the work. Procedures followed in the two methods for measuring case depth are described.

  7. LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical kinetics problems. The motivation for the development of this program is the continuing interest in developing detailed chemical reaction mechanisms for complex reactions such as the combustion of fuels and pollutant formation and destruction. A reaction mechanism is the set of all elementary chemical reactions that are required to describe the process of interest. Mathematical descriptions of chemical kinetics problems constitute sets of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The number of ODEs can be very large because of the numerous chemical species involved in the reaction mechanism. Further complicating the situation are the many simultaneous reactions needed to describe the chemical kinetics of practical fuels. For example, the mechanism describing the oxidation of the simplest hydrocarbon fuel, methane, involves over 25 species participating in nearly 100 elementary reaction steps. Validating a chemical reaction mechanism requires repetitive solutions of the governing ODEs for a variety of reaction conditions. Analytical solutions to the systems of ODEs describing chemistry are not possible, except for the simplest cases, which are of little or no practical value. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable numerical solution techniques for chemical kinetics problems. In addition to solving the ODEs describing chemical kinetics, it is often necessary to know what effects variations in either initial condition values or chemical reaction mechanism parameters have on the solution. Such a need arises in the development of reaction mechanisms from experimental data. The rate coefficients are often not known with great precision and in general, the experimental data are not sufficiently detailed to accurately estimate the rate coefficient parameters. The development of a reaction mechanism is facilitated by a systematic sensitivity analysis

  8. Space shuttle: Structural integrity and assessment study. [development of nondestructive test procedures for space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A study program was conducted to determine the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements and to develop a preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the entire space shuttle vehicle. The rationale and guidelines for structural analysis and NDE requirements development are discussed. Recommendations for development of NDE technology for the orbiter thermal protection system and certain structural components are included. Recommendations to accomplish additional goals toward space shuttle inspection are presented.

  9. Non-destructive identification of twisted light.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyun; Wang, Bo; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    The non-destructive identification of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to various applications in the optical information processing. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method to identify non-destructively the OAM by using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our schemes are applicable not only to the case with integer charges, but also to optical vortices with noninteger charges. Our Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the non-destructive identification of twisted light with integer or noninteger topological charges, which has potential applications in the OAM-based data transmission for optical communications.

  10. QSAR modeling and chemical space analysis of antimalarial compounds.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Pavel; Viira, Birgit; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth; Maran, Uko; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2017-04-03

    Generative topographic mapping (GTM) has been used to visualize and analyze the chemical space of antimalarial compounds as well as to build predictive models linking structure of molecules with their antimalarial activity. For this, a database, including ~3000 molecules tested in one or several of 17 anti-Plasmodium activity assessment protocols, has been compiled by assembling experimental data from in-house and ChEMBL databases. GTM classification models built on subsets corresponding to individual bioassays perform similarly to the earlier reported SVM models. Zones preferentially populated by active and inactive molecules, respectively, clearly emerge in the class landscapes supported by the GTM model. Their analysis resulted in identification of privileged structural motifs of potential antimalarial compounds. Projection of marketed antimalarial drugs on this map allowed us to delineate several areas in the chemical space corresponding to different mechanisms of antimalarial activity. This helped us to make a suggestion about the mode of action of the molecules populating these zones.

  11. ISS Expeditions 16 & 17: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During the twelve month span of Expeditions 16 and 17 beginning October of 2007, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principle sources of potable water and for the first time, European groundsupplied water was also available. Although water was transferred from Shuttle to ISS during Expeditions 16 and 17, no Shuttle potable water was consumed during this timeframe. A total of 12 potable water samples were collected using U.S. hardware during Expeditions 16 and 17 and returned on Shuttle flights 1E (STS122), 1JA (STS123), and 1J (STS124). The average sample volume was sufficient for complete chemical characterization to be performed. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these potable water samples are presented in this paper. The WAFAL also received potable water samples for analysis from the Russian side collected inflight with Russian hardware, as well as preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 30. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed herein. Although the potable water supplies available during Expeditions 16 and 17 were judged safe for crew consumption, a recent trending of elevated silver levels in the SVOZV water is a concern for longterm consumption and efforts are being made to lower these levels.

  12. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  13. Development of Nondestructive Measuring Technique of Environmental Radioactive Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

    The Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the Japanese big earthquake in 2011. The main radioactivity concerned after the accident are I-131 (half-life 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years) and 137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days) and 90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new detection technique which enables us to realize quantitative evaluation of the strontium radioactivity by means of nondestructive measurement without chemical separation processing, which is concerned to be included inside foods, environmental water and soil around us, in order to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to the radiation.

  14. Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

  15. Interlaboratory comparison of chemical analysis of uranium mononitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, E. J.; Davis, W. F.; Halloran, J. T.; Graab, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical methods were established in which the critical variables were controlled, with the result that acceptable interlaboratory agreement was demonstrated for the chemical analysis of uranium mononitride. This was accomplished by using equipment readily available to laboratories performing metallurgical analyses. Agreement among three laboratories was shown to be very good for uranium and nitrogen. Interlaboratory precision of + or - 0.04 percent was achieved for both of these elements. Oxygen was determined to + or - 15 parts per million (ppm) at the 170-ppm level. The carbon determination gave an interlaboratory precision of + or - 46 ppm at the 320-ppm level.

  16. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bharti, Amardeep Goyal, Navdeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.

    2015-08-28

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  17. Fixation and chemical analysis of single fog and rain droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, M.; Akashi, S.; Ma, C.-J.; Tohno, S.

    Last decade, the importance of global environmental problems has been recognized worldwide. Acid rain is one of the most important global environmental problems as well as the global warming. The grasp of physical and chemical properties of fog and rain droplets is essential to make clear the physical and chemical processes of acid rain and also their effects on forests, materials and ecosystems. We examined the physical and chemical properties of single fog and raindrops by applying fixation technique. The sampling method and treatment procedure to fix the liquid droplets as a solid particle were investigated. Small liquid particles like fog droplet could be easily fixed within few minutes by exposure to cyanoacrylate vapor. The large liquid particles like raindrops were also fixed successively, but some of them were not perfect. Freezing method was applied to fix the large raindrops. Frozen liquid particles existed stably by exposure to cyanoacrylate vapor after freezing. The particle size measurement and the elemental analysis of the fixed particle were performed in individual base using microscope, and SEX-EDX, particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and micro-PIXE analyses, respectively. The concentration in raindrops was dependent upon the droplet size and the elapsed time from the beginning of rainfall.

  18. Chemical Analysis of NOx Removal Under Different Reduced Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddouche, A.; Lemerini, M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a chemical kinetic analysis of different species involved in nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas induced by stationary corona discharge at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This study takes into account twenty different chemical species participating in one hundred and seventy selected chemical reactions. The reaction rate coefficients are taken from the literature, and the density is analyzed by the continuity equation without the diffusion term. A large number of investigations considered the removal of NOx showing the effects of N, O and O3 radicals. The aim of the present simulation is to complete these studies by analysing various plasma species under different reduced electric fields in the range of 100-200 Td (1 Td=10-21 V·m2). In particular, we analyze the time evolution of depopulation (10-9-10-3 s) of NOx. We have found that the depopulation rate of NO and NO2 is substantially affected by the rise of reduced electric field as it grows from 100 Td to 200 Td. This allows us to ascertain the important role played by the reduced electric field.

  19. Chemical structure analysis of starch and cellulose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mischnick, Petra; Momcilovic, Dane

    2010-01-01

    Starch and cellulose are the most abundant and important representatives of renewable biomass. Since the mid-19th century their properties have been changed by chemical modification for commercial and scientific purposes, and there substituted polymers have found a wide range of applications. However, the inherent polydispersity and supramolecular organization of starch and cellulose cause the products resulting from their modification to display high complexity. Chemical composition analysis of these mixtures is therefore a challenging task. Detailed knowledge on substitution patterns is fundamental for understanding structure-property relationships in modified cellulose and starch, and thus also for the improvement of reproducibility and rational design of properties. Substitution patterns resulting from kinetically or thermodynamically controlled reactions show certain preferences for the three available hydroxyl functions in (1→4)-linked glucans. Spurlin, seventy years ago, was the first to describe this in an idealized model, and nowadays this model has been extended and related to the next hierarchical levels, namely, the substituent distribution in and over the polymer chains. This structural complexity, with its implications for data interpretation, and the analytical approaches developed for its investigation are outlined in this article. Strategies and methods for the determination of the average degree of substitution (DS), monomer composition, and substitution patterns at the polymer level are presented and discussed with respect to their limitations and interpretability. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and modern mass spectrometry (MS), including tandem MS, are the main instrumental techniques employed, in combination with appropriate sample preparation by chemical and enzymatic methods.

  20. 40 CFR 761.314 - Chemical analysis of standard wipe test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical analysis of standard wipe test samples. 761.314 Section 761.314 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....314 Chemical analysis of standard wipe test samples. Perform the chemical analysis of standard...

  1. Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

    1982-01-01

    A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges.

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  3. Electromagnetic imaging methods for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions.

  4. Why we have to characterize rocks nondestructively?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Valentin D.

    1999-12-01

    It is an analys of the relative importance of metallic and industrial minerals and the role of nondestructive methods is discused. The authors aim is on the basis of widespread nondestructive rocks evaluation to create rock physical properties data base for the needs of: construction activity; industry; geological genetically reconstructions; natural and technogenic hazard assessments; nuclear and high toxic waste disposition; environment protection and many others.

  5. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  6. SQUIDs: microscopes and nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Michael

    2005-03-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are magnetic field sensores with unsurpassed sensitivity. They are amazingly versatile, being able to measure all physical quantities which can be converted to magnetic flux. They are routinely fabricated in thin film technology from two classes of superconducting materials: high-temperature superconductors (HTS) which are usually cooled to 77 K, and low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which have to be cooled to 4.2 K. SQUIDs have many applications, two of which shall be discussed in this paper. In SQUID microscopy, a SQUID scans a sample, which preferrably is at room temperature, and measures the two-dimensional magnetic field distribution at the surface of the sample. In order to achieve a relatively high spatial resolution, the stand-off distance between the sample and the SQUID is made as small as possible. SQUIDs show also promising results in the field of nondestructive testing of various materials. For example, ferromagnetic impurities in stainless steel formed by aging processes in the material can be detected with high probability, and cracks in conducting materials, for example aircraft parts, can be located using eddy current methods. Especially for the case of thick, highly conductive, or ferromagnetic materials, as well as sintered materials, it can be shown that a SQUID-based NDE system exhibits a much higher sensitivity compared to conventional eddy current NDE and ultrasonic testing.

  7. Quantitative chemical analysis of ocular melanosomes in the TEM.

    PubMed

    Eibl, O; Schultheiss, S; Blitgen-Heinecke, P; Schraermeyer, U

    2006-01-01

    Melanosomes in retinal tissues of a human, monkey and rat were analyzed by EDX in the TEM. Samples were prepared by ultramicrotomy at different thicknesses. The material was mounted on Al grids and samples were analyzed in a Zeiss 912 TEM equipped with an Omega filter and EDX detector with ultrathin window. Melanosomes consist of C and O as main components, mole fractions are about 90 and 3-10 at.%, respectively, and small mole fraction ratios, between 2 and 0.1 at.%, of Na, Mg, K, Si, P, S, Cl, Ca. All elements were measured quantitatively by standardless EDX with high precision. Mole fractions of transition metals Fe, Cu and Zn were also measured. For Fe a mole fraction ratio of less than 0.1at.% was found and gives the melanin its paramagnetic properties. Its mole fraction is however close to or below the minimum detectable mass fraction of the used equipment. Only in the human eye and only in the retinal pigment epitelium (rpe) the mole fractions of Zn (0.1 at.% or 5000 microg/g) and Cu were clearly beyond the minimum detectable mass fraction. In the rat and monkey eye the mole fraction of Zn was at or below the minimum detectable mass fraction and could not be measured quantitatively. The obtained results yielded the chemical composition of the melanosomes in the choroidal tissue and the retinal pigment epitelium (rpe) of the three different species. The results of the chemical analysis are discussed by mole fraction correlation diagrams. Similarities and differences between the different species are outlined. Correlation behavior was found to hold over species, e.g. the Ca-O correlation. It indicates that Ca is bound to oxygen rich sites in the melanin. These are the first quantitative analyses of melanosomes by EDX reported so far. The quantitative chemical analysis should open a deeper understanding of the metabolic processes in the eye that are of central importance for the understanding of a large number of eye-related diseases. The chemical analysis also

  8. Microbiological and Chemical Analysis of Land Snails Commercialised in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Antonello; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Currò, Vittoria; Galuppo, Lucia; Vargetto, Daniela; Vicari, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg) and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg) much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers. PMID:27800385

  9. A modular approach for automated sample preparation and chemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michael L.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Pacetti, Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Changes in international relations, especially within the past several years, have dramatically affected the programmatic thrusts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE now is addressing the environmental cleanup required as a result of 50 years of nuclear arms research and production. One major obstacle in the remediation of these areas is the chemical determination of potentially contaminated material using currently acceptable practices. Process bottlenecks and exposure to hazardous conditions pose problems for the DOE. One proposed solution is the application of modular automated chemistry using Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to perform Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program has developed standards and prototype equipment that will accelerate the development of modular chemistry technology and is transferring this technology to private industry.

  10. Information-Theoretical Complexity Analysis of Selected Elementary Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Espíritu, M.; Esquivel, R. O.; Dehesa, J. S.

    We investigate the complexity of selected elementary chemical reactions (namely, the hydrogenic-abstraction reaction and the identity SN2 exchange reaction) by means of the following single and composite information-theoretic measures: disequilibrium (D), exponential entropy(L), Fisher information (I), power entropy (J), I-D, D-L and I-J planes and Fisher-Shannon (FS) and Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) shape complexities. These quantities, which are functionals of the one-particle density, are computed in both position (r) and momentum (p) spaces. The analysis revealed that the chemically significant regions of these reactions can be identified through most of the single information-theoretic measures and the two-component planes, not only the ones which are commonly revealed by the energy, such as the reactant/product (R/P) and the transition state (TS), but also those that are not present in the energy profile such as the bond cleavage energy region (BCER), the bond breaking/forming regions (B-B/F) and the charge transfer process (CT). The analysis of the complexities shows that the energy profile of the abstraction reaction bears the same information-theoretical features of the LMC and FS measures, however for the identity SN2 exchange reaction does not hold a simple behavior with respect to the LMC and FS measures. Most of the chemical features of interest (BCER, B-B/F and CT) are only revealed when particular information-theoretic aspects of localizability (L or J), uniformity (D) and disorder (I) are considered.

  11. Stochastic Analysis of Chemical Reaction Networks Using Linear Noise Approximation.

    PubMed

    Cardelli, Luca; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Laurenti, Luca

    2016-10-28

    Stochastic evolution of Chemical Reactions Networks (CRNs) over time is usually analysed through solving the Chemical Master Equation (CME) or performing extensive simulations. Analysing stochasticity is often needed, particularly when some molecules occur in low numbers. Unfortunately, both approaches become infeasible if the system is complex and/or it cannot be ensured that initial populations are small. We develop a probabilistic logic for CRNs that enables stochastic analysis of the evolution of populations of molecular species. We present an approximate model checking algorithm based on the Linear Noise Approximation (LNA) of the CME, whose computational complexity is independent of the population size of each species and polynomial in the number of different species. The algorithm requires the solution of first order polynomial differential equations. We prove that our approach is valid for any CRN close enough to the thermodynamical limit. However, we show on four case studies that it can still provide good approximation even for low molecule counts. Our approach enables rigorous analysis of CRNs that are not analyzable by solving the CME, but are far from the deterministic limit. Moreover, it can be used for a fast approximate stochastic characterization of a CRN.

  12. Stochastic analysis of Chemical Reaction Networks using Linear Noise Approximation.

    PubMed

    Cardelli, Luca; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Laurenti, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Stochastic evolution of Chemical Reactions Networks (CRNs) over time is usually analyzed through solving the Chemical Master Equation (CME) or performing extensive simulations. Analysing stochasticity is often needed, particularly when some molecules occur in low numbers. Unfortunately, both approaches become infeasible if the system is complex and/or it cannot be ensured that initial populations are small. We develop a probabilistic logic for CRNs that enables stochastic analysis of the evolution of populations of molecular species. We present an approximate model checking algorithm based on the Linear Noise Approximation (LNA) of the CME, whose computational complexity is independent of the population size of each species and polynomial in the number of different species. The algorithm requires the solution of first order polynomial differential equations. We prove that our approach is valid for any CRN close enough to the thermodynamical limit. However, we show on four case studies that it can still provide good approximation even for low molecule counts. Our approach enables rigorous analysis of CRNs that are not analyzable by solving the CME, but are far from the deterministic limit. Moreover, it can be used for a fast approximate stochastic characterization of a CRN.

  13. Infrared thermography non-destructive evaluation of lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-jun; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Qiang

    2011-08-01

    The power lithium-ion battery with its high specific energy, high theoretical capacity and good cycle-life is a prime candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Safety is especially important for large-scale lithium-ion batteries, especially the thermal analysis is essential for their development and design. Thermal modeling is an effective way to understand the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion battery during charging and discharging. With the charging and discharging, the internal heat generation of the lithium-ion battery becomes large, and the temperature rises leading to an uneven temperature distribution induces partial degradation. Infrared (IR) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) has been well developed for decades years in materials, structures, and aircraft. Most thermographic methods need thermal excitation to the measurement structures. In NDE of battery, the thermal excitation is the heat generated from carbon and cobalt electrodes in electrolyte. A technique named "power function" has been developed to determine the heat by chemical reactions. In this paper, the simulations of the transient response of the temperature distribution in the lithium-ion battery are developed. The key to resolving the security problem lies in the thermal controlling, including the heat generation and the internal and external heat transfer. Therefore, three-dimensional modelling for capturing geometrical thermal effects on battery thermal abuse behaviour is required. The simulation model contains the heat generation during electrolyte decomposition and electrical resistance component. Oven tests are simulated by three-dimensional model and the discharge test preformed by test system. Infrared thermography of discharge is recorded in order to analyze the security of the lithium-ion power battery. Nondestructive detection is performed for thermal abuse analysis and discharge analysis.

  14. Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rose, J L

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis.

  15. Skin biopsy as a nondestructive tool for the toxicological assessment of endangered populations of pinnipeds: preliminary results on mixed function oxidase in Otaria flavescens.

    PubMed

    Fossi, M C; Savelli, C; Marsili, L; Casini, S; Jimenez, B; Junin, M; Castello, H; Lorenzani, J A

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for assessing the toxicological risk of endangered populations of pinnipeds based on a nondestructive biological tool, the skin biopsy specimen. Skin biopsies can be obtained from pinnipeds by anaesthetising the animals and taking a small amount of skin in the anterior flipper area, or by shooting a biopsy dart with a crossbow. Skin biopsy material is suitable for a wide range of chemical and biomarker analysis. Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be analysed in subcutaneous fat and MFO activity (BPMO), Cyt.P450 isoforms, and DNA damage can be detected in epidermis.

  16. X-ray chemical analyzer for field applications

    DOEpatents

    Gamba, Otto O. M.

    1977-01-01

    A self-supporting portable field multichannel X-ray chemical analyzer system comprising a lightweight, flexibly connected, remotely locatable, radioisotope-excited sensing probe utilizing a cryogenically-cooled solid state semi-conductor crystal detector for fast in situ non-destructive, qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in solid, powder, liquid or slurried form, utilizing an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry technique.

  17. Chemical Abundance Analysis of the Symbiotic Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, Cezary; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of symbiotic stars - the long period, interacting binary systems - composed of red giant donor and a hot, compact companion is important for our understanding of binary stellar evolution in systems where mass loss or transfer take place involving RGB/AGB stars. The elemental abundances of symbiotic giants can track the mass exchange history and can determine their parent stellar population. However, the number of these objects with fairly well determined photospheric composition is insufficient for statistical considerations. Here we present the detailed chemical abundance analysis obtained for the first time for 14 M-type symbiotic giants. The analysis is based on the high resolution (R ˜ 50000), high S/N ˜ 100, near-IR spectra (at H- and K-band regions) obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. Spectrum synthesis employing standard LTE analysis and atmosphere models was used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis reveals mostly slightly sub-solar or near-solar metallicities. We obtained significantly subsolar metallicities for RW Hya, RT Ser, and Hen 3-1213 and slightly super-solar metallicity in V455 Sco. The very low ^{12}C/^{13}C isotopic ratios, ˜6-11, and significant enrichment in nitrogen ^{14}N isotope in almost all giants in our sample indicate that they have experienced the first dredge-up.

  18. Exploratory nondestructive evaluation (NDE) research for advanced materials and processes: Volume 1 -- High resolution computed tomography for failure analysis. Final report, 1 July 1995--30 April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.; Knutson, B.; Nerenberg, R.; Deobald, L.; Nelson, J.

    1998-07-01

    Failure analysis is an essential element of all engineered products. The goal of failure analysis is the understanding of root causes of any undesirable effects. High resolution computed tomography offers detailed information on the internal assembly and material condition of objects under failure analysis investigation allowing accurate interpretation of effects not detectable by other means. Failure analysis using CT investigations are improved in technical accuracy at a reduced schedule and cost over alternative approaches. The cost of a high resolution CT system is often difficult to justify for CT applications only. However, when the system provides high resolution radioscopic imaging as well as CT, the cost justification is favorable. To achieve a combination high resolution radioscopic and CT system, a microfocus X-ray source is used. A versatile microfocus radioscopic system with CT capability has been successfully implemented as a standard tool in an aerospace failure analysis laboratory whose budget is in the range of $1 M/year. Using this tool, studies of electronic, electromechanical and composite material items have been performed. Such a system pays for itself within 2 years through higher productivity of the laboratory, increased laboratory value to the company and timely resolution of critical problems.

  19. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to

  20. Nondestructive assay of spent boiling-water-reactor fuel by active neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.; Ricker, C.W.; Ragan, G.L.; Difilippo, F.C.; Slaughter, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel from Dresden I was assayed for total fissile mass, using the active neutron interrogation method. The nondestructive assay (NDA) system used has four Sb-Be sources for interrogation of the fuels; the induced fission neutrons from the fuel are counted by four lead-shielded methane-filled proportional counters biased above the energy of the source neutrons. Results agreed with results from the chemical analyses to within 2 to 3%. Similar agreement was obtained when two combinations of canned spent fuel were used as standards for the nondestructive assays.

  1. Nondestructive sampling of human skeletal remains yields ancient nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Deborah A; Bonine, Holly M; Mata-Míguez, Jaime; Kemp, Brian M; Snow, Meradeth H; LeBlanc, Steven A

    2012-02-01

    Museum curators and living communities are sometimes reluctant to permit ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human skeletal remains because the extraction of aDNA usually requires the destruction of at least some skeletal material. Whether these views stem from a desire to conserve precious materials or an objection to destroying ancestral remains, they limit the potential of aDNA research. To help address concerns about destructive analysis and to minimize damage to valuable specimens, we describe a nondestructive method for extracting DNA from ancient human remains. This method can be used with both teeth and bone, but it preserves the structural integrity of teeth much more effectively than that of bone. Using this method, we demonstrate that it is possible to extract both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from human remains dating between 300 BC and 1600 AD. Importantly, the method does not expose the remains to hazardous chemicals, allowing them to be safely returned to curators, custodians, and/or owners of the samples. We successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA from 90% of the individuals tested, and we were able to analyze 1-9 nuclear loci in 70% of individuals. We also show that repeated nondestructive extractions from the same tooth can yield amplifiable mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The high success rate of this method and its ability to yield DNA from samples spanning a wide geographic and temporal range without destroying the structural integrity of the sampled material may make possible the genetic study of skeletal collections that are not available for destructive analysis.

  2. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed. PMID:23012541

  3. Remote Chemical Analysis at Enceladus: An Astrobiology Science Instrument Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. P.; Price, K.; Willis, P.; Jones, S.

    2013-12-01

    An instrument concept is being developed for the future exploration of Enceladus where remote chemical analysis would be performed onboard a spacecraft while in flight. The instrument will look for evidence for the presence of life in a subsurface ocean habitat by examining nascent ice grains collected by flying the spacecraft directly through the plume or jets of Enceladus. This astrobiology science instrument concept is compatible with an Enceladus sample return mission or a Saturn system orbiter mission. Described are 5 science tiers supported by the instrument system with a mass spectrometer at its core. Results for automation of sample pre-concentration and optical detection of free amino acids will also be presented and discussed as a pathway for assessing the inventory of organic molecules in a potentially inhabited ice covered Enceladus ocean. Concept for the Enceladus Amino Acid Sampler, an astrobiology science instrument system with 5 distinct science tiers for exploring the Enceladus subsurface composition.

  4. Complete chemical analysis of aerosol particles in real-time

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mo; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Real-time mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles using an ion trap mass spectrometer is described. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation ionization at the center of the ion trap. The produced ions are analyzed by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Ions of interest are selected and dissociated through collision with buffer gas atoms for further fragmentation analysis. Real-time chemical analyses of inorganic, organic, and bacterial aerosol articles have been demonstrated. It has been confirmed that the velocity and the size of the incoming particles highly correlate to each other. The performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are discussed.

  5. Bacterial mixture analysis with Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ashish; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.; Emge, Darren K.; Jensen, Janet L.; Snyder, A. Peter

    2009-05-01

    Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy (RCIM) is being evaluated as a technology for waterborne pathogen detection. Binary and ternary mixtures including combinations of polystyrene beads, Grampositive Bacillus anthracis and B. atrophaeus spores, B. cereus vegetative cells, and Gram-negative E. coli cells were investigated by RCIM for differentiation and characterization purposes. We have demonstrated the ability of RCIM, in combination with Pearson's cross correlation and multivariate principal components analysis data reduction techniques, to differentiate these components in the same field of view (FOV). Conventional applications of RCIM consist of differentiating relatively broad areas in a FOV. Here, RCIM is expanded in its capabilities to differentiate and distinguish between different micron size species in single particles and clusters of mixed species.

  6. Computational analysis of RNA structures with chemical probing data

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Ping; Zhang, Shaojie

    2015-01-01

    RNAs play various roles, not only as the genetic codes to synthesize proteins, but also as the direct participants of biological functions determined by their underlying high-order structures. Although many computational methods have been proposed for analyzing RNA structures, their accuracy and efficiency are limited, especially when applied to the large RNAs and the genome-wide data sets. Recently, advances in parallel sequencing and high-throughput chemical probing technologies have prompted the development of numerous new algorithms, which can incorporate the auxiliary structural information obtained from those experiments. Their potential has been revealed by the secondary structure prediction of ribosomal RNAs and the genome-wide ncRNA function annotation. In this review, the existing probing-directed computational methods for RNA secondary and tertiary structure analysis are discussed. PMID:25687190

  7. Further development of ultrasonic techniques for non-destructive evaluation based on Fourier analysis of signals from irregular and inhomogeneous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    To investigate the use of Fourier analysis techniques model systems had to be designed to test some of the general properties of the interaction of sound with an inhomogeneity. The first models investigated were suspensions of solid spheres in water. These systems allowed comparison between theoretical computation of the frequency dependence of the attenuation coefficient and measurement of the attenuation coefficient over a range of frequencies. Ultrasonic scattering processes in both suspensions of hard spheres in water, and suspensions of hard spheres in polyester resin were investigated. The second model system was constructed to test the applicability of partial wave analysis to the description of an inhomogeneity in a solid, and to test the range of material properties over which the measurement systems were valid.

  8. [Application of confocal micro-beam X-ray fluorescence in nondestructive scanning analysis of the distribution of elements in a single hair].

    PubMed

    Liu, He-He; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Sun, Tian-Xi; Peng, Song; Zhao, Wei-Gang; Sun, Wei-Yuan; Li, Yu-De; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Guang-Cui; Luo, Ping; Ding, Xun-Liang

    2013-11-01

    The confocal micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based on polycapillary X-ray lens and conventional X-ray source was used to carry out the scanning analysis of the distribution of the elements in a single hair. The elemental distribution in the single hair was obtained. In the confocal micro XRF technology, the output focal spot of the polycapillary focusing X-ray lens and the input focal spot of the polycapillary parallel X-ray lens were adjusted confocally. The detector could only detect the X-rays from the overlapping foci. This confocal structure decreased the effects of the background on the X-ray spectra, and was accordingly helpful for improving the accuracy of this XRF technology. A polycapillary focusing X-ray lens with a high gain in power density was used to decrease the requirement of power of the X-ray source used in this confocal technology, and made it possible to perform such confocal micro XRF analysis by using the conventional X-ray source with low cost. Experimental results indicated that the confocal micro X-ray fluorescence based on polycapillary X-ray lens had potential applications in analyzing the elemental distribution of individual hairs.

  9. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2010-02-02

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank

  10. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Ettore Gigante, Giovanni; Castellano, Alfredo

    1999-06-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd1-xZnxTe and HgI 2, coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 μm, an area of about 2×3 mm 2, an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 μm. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching ˜9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd 1- xZn xTe detector has an area of 4 mm 2 and a thickness of 3 mm. It has an energy resolution of about 300 eV at 5.9 keV, and an efficiency of 100% over the whole range of X-rays. Finally the HgI 2 detector has an efficiency of about 100% in the whole range of X-rays, and an energy resolution of about 200 eV at 5.9 keV. Coupled to a small 50-60 kV, 1 mA, W-anode X-ray tube, portable systems can be constructed, for the analysis of practically all elements. These systems were applied to analysis in the field of archaeometry and in all applications for which portable systems are needed or at least useful (for example X-ray transmission measurements, X-ray microtomography and so on). Results of in-field use of these detectors and a comparison among these room temperature detectors in relation to concrete applications are presented. More specifically, concerning EDXRF analysis, ancient gold samples were analysed in Rome, in Mexico City and in Milan, ancient bronzes in Sassari, in Bologna, in Chieti and in Naples, and sulfur (due to pollution

  11. Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.; Randall, M. D.; Mitchell, D. K.; Williams, L. P.; Pattee, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to fabricate design critical and man-rated aerospace structures using materials near the limits of their capabilities requires a comprehensive and dependable assurance program. The quality assurance program must rely heavily on nondestructive testing methods for thorough inspection to assess properties and quality of hardware items. A survey of nondestructive testing methods is presented to provide space program managers, supervisors and engineers who are unfamiliar with this technical area with appropriate insight into the commonly accepted nondestructive testing methods available, their interrelationships, used, advantages and limitations. Primary emphasis is placed on the most common methods: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasonics and eddy current. A number of the newer test techniques including thermal, acoustic emission, holography, microwaves, eddy-sonic and exo-electron emission, which are beginning to be used in applications of interest to NASA, are also discussed briefly.

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, approximately 42 million children under the age of 5 years are considered overweight or obese. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-chemical stres...

  13. Structural analysis of photosystem I polypeptides using chemical crosslinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armbrust, T. S.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes, obtained from leaves of 14 d soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Williams) plants, were treated with the chemical crosslinkers glutaraldehyde or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to investigate the structural organization of photosystem I. Polypeptides were resolved using lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and were identified by western blot analysis using a library of polyclonal antibodies specific for photosystem I subunits. An electrophoretic examination of crosslinked thylakoids revealed numerous crosslinked products, using either glutaraldehyde or EDC. However, only a few of these could be identified by western blot analysis using subunit-specific polyclonal antibodies. Several glutaraldehyde dependent crosslinked species were identified. A single band was identified minimally composed of PsaC and PsaD, documenting the close interaction between these two subunits. The most interesting aspect of these studies was a crosslinked species composed of the PsaB subunit observed following EDC treatment of thylakoids. This is either an internally crosslinked species, which will provide structural information concerning the topology of the complex PsaB protein, a linkage with a polypeptide for which we do not yet have an immunological probe, or a masking of epitopes by the EDC linkage at critical locations in the peptide which is linked to PsaB.

  14. Structural analysis of photosystem I polypeptides using chemical crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Armbrust, T S; Odom, W R; Guikema, J A

    1994-07-01

    Thylakoid membranes, obtained from leaves of 14 d soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Williams) plants, were treated with the chemical crosslinkers glutaraldehyde or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to investigate the structural organization of photosystem I. Polypeptides were resolved using lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and were identified by western blot analysis using a library of polyclonal antibodies specific for photosystem I subunits. An electrophoretic examination of crosslinked thylakoids revealed numerous crosslinked products, using either glutaraldehyde or EDC. However, only a few of these could be identified by western blot analysis using subunit-specific polyclonal antibodies. Several glutaraldehyde dependent crosslinked species were identified. A single band was identified minimally composed of PsaC and PsaD, documenting the close interaction between these two subunits. The most interesting aspect of these studies was a crosslinked species composed of the PsaB subunit observed following EDC treatment of thylakoids. This is either an internally crosslinked species, which will provide structural information concerning the topology of the complex PsaB protein, a linkage with a polypeptide for which we do not yet have an immunological probe, or a masking of epitopes by the EDC linkage at critical locations in the peptide which is linked to PsaB.

  15. Chemical analysis of uranium compounds. [For Fe, Ni, fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Jarabek, R.J.

    1987-10-01

    Research and development studies relating to gaseous diffusion plants require expertise in the analysis of uranium and its compounds. Synthesis of these compounds along with subsequent use necessitates a means of identification in addition to X-ray diffraction patterns normally obtained. Analyses for fluoride, nickel, and iron have been developed to supplement the analysis for U/sup +4/ and U total previously developed. The fluoride is determined by pyrolysis, with subsequent acid-base titration. Nickel is analyzed by precipitation with dimethylglyoxime following complexation of the uranium with citric acid. Iron is analyzed iodometrically following an ammonium hydroxide-ammonium carbonate separation process from the uranium. High precision and accuracy can be obtained on these procedures using low-cost, wet chemical methods. Expensive computerized equipment is not needed. Uranium compounds analyzed include UF/sub 5/, UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and U/sub 2/F/sub 9/.

  16. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified.

  17. Petroleomics: the next grand challenge for chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Alan G; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2004-01-01

    Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has recently revealed that petroleum crude oil contains heteroatom-containing (N,O,S) organic components having more than 20,000 distinct elemental compositions (C(c)H(h)N(n)O(o)S(s)). It is therefore now possible to contemplate the ultimate characterization of all of the chemical constituents of petroleum, along with their interactions and reactivity, a concept we denote as "petroleomics". Such knowledge has already proved capable of distinguishing petroleum and its distillates according to their geochemical origin and maturity, distillation cut, extraction method, catalytic processing, etc. The key features that have opened up this new field have been (a) ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass analysis, specifically, the capability to resolve species differing in elemental composition by C(3) vs SH(4) (i.e., 0.0034 Da); (b) higher magnetic field to cover the whole mass range at once; (c) dynamic range extension by external mass filtering; and (d) plots of Kendrick mass defect vs nominal Kendrick mass as a means for sorting different compound "classes" (i.e., numbers of N, O, and S atoms), "types" (rings plus double bonds), and alkylation ((-CH(2))(n)) distributions, thereby extending to >900 Da the upper limit for unique assignment of elemental composition based on accurate mass measurement. The same methods are also being applied successfully to analysis of humic and fulvic acids, coals, and other complex natural mixtures, often without prior or on-line chromatographic separation.

  18. Flow Injection Analysis and Liquid Chromatography for Multifunctional Chemical Analysis (MCA) Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Ana V.; Loegel, Thomas N.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    The large class sizes of first-year chemistry labs makes it challenging to provide students with hands-on access to instrumentation because the number of students typically far exceeds the number of research-grade instruments available to collect data. Multifunctional chemical analysis (MCA) systems provide a viable alternative for large-scale…

  19. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  20. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API) with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be

  1. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) OF DAMAGED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H.

    2009-03-03

    A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

  2. Biogeographical Analysis of Chemical Co-Occurrence Data to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A challenge with multiple chemical risk assessment is the need to consider the joint behavior of chemicals in mixtures. To address this need, pharmacologists and toxicologists have developed methods over the years to evaluate and test chemical interaction. In practice, however, testing of chemical interaction more often comprises ad hoc binary combinations and rarely examines higher order combinations. One explanation for this practice is the belief that there are simply too many possible combinations of chemicals to consider. Indeed, under stochastic conditions the possible number of chemical combinations scales geometrically as the pool of chemicals increases. However, the occurrence of chemicals in the environment is determined by factors, economic in part, which favor some chemicals over others. We investigate methods from the field of biogeography, originally developed to study avian species co-occurrence patterns, and adapt these approaches to examine chemical co-occurrence. These methods were applied to a national survey of pesticide residues in 168 child care centers from across the country. Our findings show that pesticide co-occurrence in the child care center was not random but highly structured, leading to the co-occurrence of specific pesticide combinations. Thus, ecological studies of species co-occurrence parallel the issue of chemical co-occurrence at specific locations. Both are driven by processes that introduce structure in the pattern of co-o

  3. Chemical supply chain modeling for analysis of homeland security events

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Pepple, Mark A.; Eidson, Eric D.; Jones, Brian S.

    2013-09-06

    The potential impacts of man-made and natural disasters on chemical plants, complexes, and supply chains are of great importance to homeland security. To be able to estimate these impacts, we developed an agent-based chemical supply chain model that includes: chemical plants with enterprise operations such as purchasing, production scheduling, and inventories; merchant chemical markets, and multi-modal chemical shipments. Large-scale simulations of chemical-plant activities and supply chain interactions, running on desktop computers, are used to estimate the scope and duration of disruptive-event impacts, and overall system resilience, based on the extent to which individual chemical plants can adjust their internal operations (e.g., production mixes and levels) versus their external interactions (market sales and purchases, and transportation routes and modes). As a result, to illustrate how the model estimates the impacts of a hurricane disruption, a simple example model centered on 1,4-butanediol is presented.

  4. Non-destructive infrared analyses: a method for provenance analyses of sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowitz, Jörg; Ehling, Angela

    2008-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is commonly applied in the laboratory for mineral analyses in addition to XRD. Because such technical efforts are time and cost consuming, we present an infrared-based mobile method for non-destructive mineral and provenance analyses of sandstones. IR spectroscopy is based on activating chemical bonds. By irradiating a mineral mixture, special bonds are activated to vibrate depending on the bond energy (resonance vibration). Accordingly, the energy of the IR spectrum will be reduced thereby generating an absorption spectrum. The positions of the absorption maxima within the spectral region indicate the type of the bonds and in many cases identify minerals containing these bonds. The non-destructive reflection spectroscopy operates in the near infrared region (NIR) and can detect all common clay minerals as well as sulfates, hydroxides and carbonates. The spectra produced have been interpreted by computer using digital mineral libraries that have been especially collected for sandstones. The comparison of all results with XRD, RFA and interpretations of thin sections demonstrates impressively the accuracy and reliability of this method. Not only are different minerals detectable, but also differently ordered kaolinites and varieties of illites can be identified by the shape and size of the absorption bands. Especially clay minerals and their varieties in combination with their relative contents form the characteristic spectra of sandstones. Other components such as limonite, hematite and amorphous silica also influence the spectra. Sandstones, similar in colour and texture, often can be identified by their characteristic reflectance spectra. Reference libraries with more than 60 spectra of important German sandstones have been created to enable entirely computerized interpretations and identifications of these dimension stones. The analysis of infrared spectroscopy results is demonstrated with examples of different sandstones

  5. Chemical analysis of pharmaceuticals and explosives in fingermarks using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaplan-Sandquist, Kimberly; LeBeau, Marc A; Miller, Mark L

    2014-02-01

    Chemical analysis of latent fingermarks, "touch chemistry," has the potential of providing intelligence or forensically relevant information. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) was used as an analytical platform for obtaining mass spectra and chemical images of target drugs and explosives in fingermark residues following conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix processing. There were two main purposes of this research: (1) develop effective laboratory methods for detecting drugs and explosives in fingermark residues and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting drugs and explosives after casual contact with pills, powders, and residues. Further, synthetic latent print reference pads were evaluated as mimics of natural fingermark residue to determine if the pads could be used for method development and quality control. The results suggest that artificial amino acid and sebaceous oil residue pads are not suitable to adequately simulate natural fingermark chemistry for MALDI/TOF MS analysis. However, the pads were useful for designing experiments and setting instrumental parameters. Based on the natural fingermark residue experiments, handling whole or broken pills did not transfer sufficient quantities of drugs to allow for definitive detection. Transferring drugs or explosives in the form of powders and residues was successful for preparing analytes for detection after contact with fingers and deposition of fingermark residue. One downfall to handling powders was that the analyte particles were easily spread beyond the original fingermark during development. Analyte particles were confined in the original fingermark when using transfer residues. The MALDI/TOF MS was able to detect procaine, pseudoephedrine, TNT, and RDX from contact residue under laboratory conditions with the integration of conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix. MALDI/TOF MS is a nondestructive

  6. Nondestructive Assessment of Engineered Cartilage Composition by Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McGoverin, Cushla M; Hanifi, Arash; Palukuru, Uday P; Yousefi, Farzad; Glenn, Padraig B M; Shockley, Michael; Spencer, Richard G; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineering presents a strategy to overcome the limitations of current tissue healing methods. Scaffolds, cells, external growth factors and mechanical input are combined in an effort to obtain constructs with properties that mimic native tissues. However, engineered constructs developed using similar culture environments can have very different matrix composition and biomechanical properties. Accordingly, a nondestructive technique to assess constructs during development such that appropriate compositional endpoints can be defined is desirable. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis is a modality being investigated to address the challenges associated with current evaluation techniques, which includes nondestructive compositional assessment. In the present study, cartilage tissue constructs were grown using chondrocytes seeded onto polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds in similar environments in three separate tissue culture experiments and monitored using NIRS. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) analysis models of NIR spectra were calculated and used to predict tissue composition, with biochemical assay information used as the reference data. Results showed that for combined data from all tissue culture experiments, PLS models were able to assess composition with significant correlations to reference values, including engineered cartilage water (at 5200 cm(-1), R = 0.68, p = 0.03), proteoglycan (at 4310 cm(-1), R = 0.82, p = 0.007), and collagen (at 4610 cm(-1), R = 0.84, p = 0.005). In addition, degradation of PGA was monitored using specific NIRS frequencies. These results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis provides a nondestructive modality to assess engineered cartilage, which could provide information to determine the optimal time for tissue harvest for clinical applications.

  7. Pavement nondestructive evaluation using finite-element dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, W.; Hackett, R. M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the nondestructive evaluation devices, visual distress survey and coring used to investigate jointed concrete pavement performance in northern Mississippi. 3D finite-element models were developed to simulate in-service conditions and to characterize in-situ material properties. Reasonable good agreement is found between in-situ moduli backcalculated from the dynamic analysis of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflections measured on selected pavements and laboratory moduli. Effects of load pulse shape, cracking, and discontinuities on the surface deflection response of pavements subjected to FWD load wee also investigated. It is shown that 3D analysis of temperature distribution and resulting thermal stresses play a significant role int he performance of concrete pavements. The study results demonstrated the extensive usefulness of the finite-element dynamic analysis and limitations of the static multilayered analysis and other pavement analysis programs which do not allow for crack modeling and dynamic analysis.

  8. Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material. The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material.

  9. A statistical approach to nondestructive testing of laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, H.A.

    1983-07-01

    A statistical analysis of the data obtained from a relatively new nondestructive technique for laser welding is presented. The technique is one in which information relating to the quality of the welded joint is extracted from the high intensity plume which is generated from the materials that are welded. The system is such that the detected plume is processed to give a numerical value associated with the material vaporization and consequently, the weld quality. Optimum thresholds for the region in which a weld can be considered as acceptable are determined based on the Neyman-Pearson criterion and Bayes rule.

  10. Nondestructive Examination Guidance for Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Lareau, John P.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Qiao, Hong; Moran, Traci L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2016-09-30

    In this report, an assessment of NDE methods is performed for components of NUHOMS 80 and 102 dry storage system components in an effort to assist NRC staff with review of license renewal applications. The report considers concrete components associated with the horizontal storage modules (HSMs) as well as metal components in the HSMs. In addition, the report considers the dry shielded canister (DSC). Scope is limited to NDE methods that are considered most likely to be proposed by licensees. The document, ACI 349.3R, Evaluation of Existing Nuclear Safety-Related Concrete Structures, is used as the basis for the majority of the NDE methods summarized for inspecting HSM concrete components. Two other documents, ACI 228.2R, Nondestructive Test Methods for Evaluation of Concrete in Structures, and ORNL/TM-2007/191, Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structure-Overview of Methods and Related Application, supplement the list with additional technologies that are considered applicable. For the canister, the ASME B&PV Code is used as the basis for NDE methods considered, along with currently funded efforts through industry (Electric Power Research Institute [EPRI]) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop inspection technologies for canisters. The report provides a description of HSM and DSC components with a focus on those aspects of design considered relevant to inspection. This is followed by a brief description of other concrete structural components such as bridge decks, dams, and reactor containment structures in an effort to facilitate comparison between these structures and HSM concrete components and infer which NDE methods may work best for certain HSM concrete components based on experience with these other structures. Brief overviews of the NDE methods are provided with a focus on issues and influencing factors that may impact implementation or performance. An analysis is performed to determine which NDE methods are most applicable to specific

  11. Edward's sword? - A non-destructive study of a medieval king's sword

    SciTech Connect

    Segebade, Chr.

    2013-04-19

    Non-destructive and instrumental methods including photon activation analysis were applied in an examination of an ancient sword. It was tried to find indication of forgery or, if authentic, any later processing and alteration. Metal components of the hilt and the blade were analysed by instrumental photon activation. Non-destructive metallurgical studies (hardness measurements, microscopic microstructure analysis) are briefly described, too. The results of these investigations did not yield indication of non-authenticity. This stood in agreement with the results of stylistic and scientific studies by weapon experts.

  12. Review of Specific Chemical Interactions for Hydrazine Analysis and Proposed Adaptation for Microsensor Chemical Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-30

    basic hydrszine chemistry relevant to the analytical reactions presented in subsequent sections and to the coating requirements for chemical microsensors...Sections 2, 3, 4 and 5 discuss specific analytical hydrazine reactions which have been classified as alldehyde or ketone condensations, aromatfc...surface. It "is ideally designed to have a specific chemical receptivity to a "particular vapor whose interaction coincidentally produces a -I property

  13. 46 CFR 151.04-7 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.04-7 Section 151.04-7... testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet § 151.04-5 (d) and (l), the owner... that— (1) The proposal is followed; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel...

  14. 46 CFR 151.04-7 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.04-7 Section 151.04-7... testing. (a) Before nondestructive testing may be conducted to meet § 151.04-5 (d) and (l), the owner... that— (1) The proposal is followed; and (2) Nondestructive testing is performed by personnel...

  15. Quality assurance of X-ray spectrometry for chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiros, M. A.; Pinheiro, T.; Araújo, M. F.; Costa, M. M.; Palha, M.; da Silva, R. C.

    2001-11-01

    Three different techniques, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, total reflection X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission were used to initiate an evaluation program on quality assurance (QA) procedures applied to X-ray spectrometry for chemical analysis. The use of standard methodologies to assure the statistical control of measurement data is the main objective of this work. Certified Reference Materials were used and up to 15 certified elements were analyzed to carry out the QA procedures. For the internal quality control, z-scores were calculated and control charts were produced. The plotted elemental data illustrate statistically controlled methodologies for the majority of the determinations. Even the cases where the control charts exhibit values out of control limits, the z-scores are below 3 in absolute value, indicating satisfactory results. Concerning external quality control the statistical methods applied showed that the results obtained for the three techniques are comparable, although some significant differences occur, mainly due to sample preparation. Therefore, the techniques are traceable to certified reference materials and the data gathered so far, enable to initiate a database for QA procedures.

  16. Incomplete oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in chemical oxygen demand analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James E; Mueller, Sherry A; Kim, Byung R

    2007-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was found to incompletely oxidize in chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis, leading to incorrect COD values for water samples containing relatively large amounts of EDTA. The degree of oxidation depended on the oxidant used, its concentration, and the length of digestion. The COD concentrations measured using COD vials with a potassium dichromate concentration of 0.10 N (after dilution by sample and sulfuric acid) were near theoretical oxygen demand values. However, COD measured with dichromate concentrations of 0.010 N and 0.0022 N were 30 to 40% lower than theoretical oxygen demand values. Similarly, lower COD values were observed with manganic sulfate as oxidant at 0.011 N. Extended digestion yielded somewhat higher COD values, suggesting incomplete and slower oxidation of EDTA, as a result of lower oxidant concentrations. For wastewater in which EDTA is a large fraction of COD, accurate COD measurement may not be achieved with methods using dichromate concentrations less than 0.1 N.

  17. Method of chemical analysis for oil shale wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.R.; Alden, L.; Bonomo, F.S.; Nichols, J.; Sexton, E.

    1984-06-01

    Several methods of chemical analysis are described for oil shale wastewaters and retort gases. These methods are designed to support the field testing of various pollution control systems. As such, emphasis has been placed on methods which are rapid and sufficiently rugged to perform well under field conditions. Ion chromatograph has been developed as a technique for the minor non-carbonate inorganic anions in retort water, including SO4, NO3, S2O3, SCN(-1), and total S. The method recommended for sulfide is a potiometric titration with Pb(II). The freezing point depression was used to determine the total solute content in retort waters, a test which can be considered analogous to the standard residue test. Three methods are described for the determination of total ammoniacal nitrogen in retort wastewaters: (1) a modified ion selective electrode technique, (2) an optical absorption technique, and (3) an ion chromatographic technique. Total sulfur in retort gas is determined by combusting the gas in a continuously flowing system, whereupon the resulting sulfur dioxide is determined by SO2 monitor. Individual sulfur species in retort gas including H2S, COS, SO2, and CH3CH2SH are determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Quality control, pH, conductivity, total inorganic carbon, and total organic carbon measurements are discussed briefly.

  18. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  19. Nondestructive Tests for Weed Seedbank Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed conditions and burial fates are usually unknown at the onset of experiments because viability and germinability are determined through destructive assays. We hypothesized that conductivity of seed steep can be used to nondestructively differentiate germinable, dormant, and dead seeds within see...

  20. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive tests. 193.2321 Section 193.2321 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  2. Experimental prototype instruments for nondestructive testing

    SciTech Connect

    Smolyakova, L.E.

    1987-10-01

    Results are given of state acceptance tests on experimental prototype nondestructive testing instruments along with their technical specifications and advantages over the better Soviet and foreign counterparts. The instruments include the UF-10P ultrasonic hydrostatic testing instrument, the PRIZ-12 piezoelectric transducer, and the RTVK-2K and LEB-1K radioisotope thickness gages.

  3. Handbooks for nondestructive testing using ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Four handbooks have been prepared for use in teaching metal parts inspectors and quality assurance technicians the fundamentals of nondestructive testing using ultrasonic detection methods. The handbooks may be used in the shop or laboratory, or as study texts in technical schools and in the home.

  4. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen and chemical heat pipes were proposed as methods of transporting energy from a primary energy source (nuclear, solar) to the user. In the chemical heat pipe system, primary energy is transformed into the energy of a reversible chemical reaction; the chemical species are then transmitted or stored until the energy is required. Analysis of thermochemical hydrogen schemes and chemical heat pipe systems on a second law efficiency or available work basis show that hydrogen is superior especially if the end use of the chemical heat pipe is electrical power.

  6. Long-term selection using a single trait criterion, non-destructive deformation, in White Leghorns: Effect over time on genetic parameters for traits related to egg production.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Olivier; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Vincenot, Christian E; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Moriya, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Although non-destructive deformation is relevant for assessing eggshell strength, few long-term selection experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. This study used restricted maximum likelihood-based methods with a four-trait animal model to analyze the effect of non-destructive deformation on egg production, egg weight and sexual maturity in a two-way selection experiment involving 17 generations of White Leghorns. In the strong shell line, corresponding to the line selected for low non-destructive deformation values, the heritability estimates were 0.496 for non-destructive deformation, 0.253 for egg production, 0.660 for egg weight and 0.446 for sexual maturity. In the weak shell line, corresponding to the line selected for high non-destructive deformation values, the heritabilities were 0.372, 0.162, 0.703 and 0.404, respectively. An asymmetric response to selection was observed for non-destructive deformation, egg production and sexual maturity, whereas egg weight decreased for both lines. Using non-destructive deformation to select for stronger eggshell had a small negative effect on egg production and sexual maturity, suggesting the need for breeding programs to balance selection between eggshell traits and egg production traits. However, the analysis of the genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and egg weight revealed that large eggs are not associated with poor eggshell quality.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Aerosol Components: Chemical Analysis and Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, C.; Niessner, R.; Pöschl, U.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants in the atmosphere and originate primarily from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels. Their main sources are anthropogenic (e.g. vehicle emissions, domes- tic heating or tobacco smoke), and PAHs consisting of more than four fused aromatic rings reside mostly on combustion aerosol particles, where they can react with atmo- spheric trace gases like O3, NOx or OH radicals leading to a wide variety of partially oxidized and nitrated derivatives. Such chemical transformations can strongly affect the activity of the aerosol particles as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. Moreover some poly- cyclic aromatic compounds (PACs = PAHs + derivatives) are known to have a high carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic potential, and are thus of major importance in air pollution control. Furthermore PACs can be used as well defined soot model sub- stances, since the basic structure of soot can be regarded as an agglomerate of highly polymerized PAC-layers. For the chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic aerosol components a new analyti- cal method based on LC-APCI-MS has been developed, and a data base comprising PAHs, Oxy-PAHs and Nitro-PAHs has been established. Together with a GC-HRMS method it will be applied to identify and quantify PAHs and Nitro-PAHs in atmo- spheric aerosol samples, diesel exhaust particle samples and model soot samples from laboratory reaction kinetics and product studies. As reported before, the adsorption and surface reaction rate of ozone on soot and PAH-like particle surfaces is reduced by competitive adsorption of water vapor at low relative humidity (< 25 %). Recent results at higher relative humidities (ca. 50 %), however, indicate re-enhanced gas phase ozone loss, which may be due to absorbtion of ozone into an aqueous surface layer. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen

  8. Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center, 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Institute Organization 5 3 DTIC Support of NTIAC 6 4 Fields Comprising Input Records 13 il LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Major Current Methods of...Accordingly, AMMRC was charged to provide the interface with the NDT com- munity for services of both NTIAC and NTDSC. During the period from...evaluation -- the full range of methods and techniques whereby a material, component, or entire system can be so characterized as to reliably predict

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignocellulosic biomass using infrared techniques: A mini-review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current wet chemical methods for biomass composition analysis using two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and unable to provide structural information about biomass. Infrared techniques provide fast, low-cost analysis, are non-destructive, and have shown promising re...

  10. Chemical supply chain modeling for analysis of homeland security events

    DOE PAGES

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Pepple, Mark A.; ...

    2013-09-06

    The potential impacts of man-made and natural disasters on chemical plants, complexes, and supply chains are of great importance to homeland security. To be able to estimate these impacts, we developed an agent-based chemical supply chain model that includes: chemical plants with enterprise operations such as purchasing, production scheduling, and inventories; merchant chemical markets, and multi-modal chemical shipments. Large-scale simulations of chemical-plant activities and supply chain interactions, running on desktop computers, are used to estimate the scope and duration of disruptive-event impacts, and overall system resilience, based on the extent to which individual chemical plants can adjust their internal operationsmore » (e.g., production mixes and levels) versus their external interactions (market sales and purchases, and transportation routes and modes). As a result, to illustrate how the model estimates the impacts of a hurricane disruption, a simple example model centered on 1,4-butanediol is presented.« less

  11. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and first hyper polarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Worldwide, approximately 42 million children under the age of 5 years are considered overweight or obese. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-ch...

  13. Spectral analysis of four meteors. [chemical compositions and spectral emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Four meteor spectra are analyzed for chemical composition and radiative processes. The chemical compositions of the Taurid, Geminid, and Perseid meteors were found to be similar to that of a typical stony meteorite. The chemical composition of the sporadic meteor was found to be similar to that of a nickel iron meteorite. The radiation from optical meteors was found to be similar to that of a low temperature gas, except that strong, anomalous ionic radiation is superposed on the neutral radiation in bright, fast meteors.

  14. Network structural analysis using directed graph for chemical reaction analysis in weakly-ionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuto, Kyosuke; Mizui, Yasutaka; Miyagi, Shigeyuki; Sakai, Osamu; Murakami, Tomoyuki

    2016-09-01

    We visualize complicated chemical reaction systems in weakly-ionized plasmas by analysing network structure for chemical processes, and calculate some indexes by assuming interspecies relationships to be a network to clarify them. With the current social evolution, the mean size of general data which we can use in computers grows huge, and significance of the data analysis increases. The methods of the network analysis which we focus on in this study do not depend on a specific analysis target, but the field where it has been already applied is still limited. In this study, we analyse chemical reaction systems in plasmas for configuring the network structure. We visualize them by expressing a reaction system in a specific plasma by a directed graph and examine the indexes and the relations with the characteristic of the species in the reaction system. For example, in the methane plasma network, the centrality index reveals importance of CH3 in an influential position of species in the reaction. In addition, silane and atmospheric pressure plasmas can be also visualized in reaction networks, suggesting other characteristics in the centrality indexes.

  15. Preparation of pure neptunium oxide for nondestructive assay standards

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Dunn, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.

    1991-03-01

    Accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, particularly with gamma spectrometry, require pure material standards. The purity of materials used as standards is verified by reliable chemical techniques, and these materials are then used to calibrate and certify NDA instruments. So that they can be used for this purpose, impure NpO{sub 2} and metal were each purified by a different procedure. The NpO{sub 2}, which contained more than 2500 ppm plutonium, was purified by a double peroxide precipitation, followed by ion exchange and oxalate precipitation of the eluate. All impurities, including plutonium, were below 10 ppm in the product. The metal, which contained more than 10,000 ppm of tantalum, was dissolved in 12 M HCl and then precipitated as the Np(4) oxalate. The final product was below 100 ppm of all impurities except calcium. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  16. CERENA: ChEmical REaction Network Analyzer--A Toolbox for the Simulation and Analysis of Stochastic Chemical Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Fröhlich, Fabian; Raue, Andreas; Theis, Fabian J; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression, signal transduction and many other cellular processes are subject to stochastic fluctuations. The analysis of these stochastic chemical kinetics is important for understanding cell-to-cell variability and its functional implications, but it is also challenging. A multitude of exact and approximate descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics have been developed, however, tools to automatically generate the descriptions and compare their accuracy and computational efficiency are missing. In this manuscript we introduced CERENA, a toolbox for the analysis of stochastic chemical kinetics using Approximations of the Chemical Master Equation solution statistics. CERENA implements stochastic simulation algorithms and the finite state projection for microscopic descriptions of processes, the system size expansion and moment equations for meso- and macroscopic descriptions, as well as the novel conditional moment equations for a hybrid description. This unique collection of descriptions in a single toolbox facilitates the selection of appropriate modeling approaches. Unlike other software packages, the implementation of CERENA is completely general and allows, e.g., for time-dependent propensities and non-mass action kinetics. By providing SBML import, symbolic model generation and simulation using MEX-files, CERENA is user-friendly and computationally efficient. The availability of forward and adjoint sensitivity analyses allows for further studies such as parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. The MATLAB code implementing CERENA is freely available from http://cerenadevelopers.github.io/CERENA/.

  17. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  18. RMP Guidance for Chemical Distributors - Chapter 4: Offsite Consequence Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to perform the OCA for regulated substances, informing the government and the public about potential consequences of an accidental chemical release at your facility. Includes calculations for worst-case scenario, alternative scenarios, and endpoints.

  19. A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

  20. SIMULATION MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MULTIMEDIA ANALYSIS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multimedia understanding of pollutant behavior in the environment is of particular concern for chemicals that are toxic and are subject to accumulation in the environmental media (air, soil, water, vegetation) where biota and human exposure is significant. Multimedia simulation ...

  1. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  2. Subcellular chemical and morphological analysis by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and image analysis techniques

    PubMed Central

    D’Arco, Annalisa; Brancati, Nadia; Ferrara, Maria Antonietta; Indolfi, Maurizio; Frucci, Maria; Sirleto, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The visualization of heterogeneous morphology, segmentation and quantification of image features is a crucial point for nonlinear optics microscopy applications, spanning from imaging of living cells or tissues to biomedical diagnostic. In this paper, a methodology combining stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and image analysis technique is presented. The basic idea is to join the potential of vibrational contrast of stimulated Raman scattering and the strength of imaging analysis technique in order to delineate subcellular morphology with chemical specificity. Validation tests on label free imaging of polystyrene-beads and of adipocyte cells are reported and discussed. PMID:27231626

  3. X-ray texture analysis of paper coating pigments and the correlation with chemical composition analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roine, J.; Tenho, M.; Murtomaa, M.; Lehto, V.-P.; Kansanaho, R.

    2007-10-01

    The present research experiments the applicability of x-ray texture analysis in investigating the properties of paper coatings. The preferred orientations of kaolin, talc, ground calcium carbonate, and precipitated calcium carbonate particles used in four different paper coatings were determined qualitatively based on the measured crystal orientation data. The extent of the orientation, namely, the degree of the texture of each pigment, was characterized quantitatively using a single parameter. As a result, the effect of paper calendering is clearly seen as an increase on the degree of texture of the coating pigments. The effect of calendering on the preferred orientation of kaolin was also evident in an independent energy dispersive spectrometer analysis on micrometer scale and an electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis on nanometer scale. Thus, the present work proves x-ray texture analysis to be a potential research tool for characterizing the properties of paper coating layers.

  4. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  5. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  6. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  7. Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

    1999-02-16

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

  8. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis - especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca(2+) and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca(2+) content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca(2+) content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat

  9. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca2+ content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca2+ content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available

  10. Comparative chemical analysis of dew and rain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekouch, Imad; Mileta, Marina; Muselli, Marc; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, Irène; Šojat, Višnja; Kabbachi, Belkacem; Beysens, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Dew and rain water were collected and analyzed during 3 years (2004-2006) in Zadar, Croatia. The goal was to characterize the chemical properties of dew water versus rain water (and the atmosphere in which they form) and to determine the extent to which they can be used as potable water. The corresponding parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions (HCO 3-, Cl -, SO 42-, NO 3-), and major cations (NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+). The mean pH and EC values were comparable for both dew and rain water, pH = 6.7 (dew) and pH = 6.35 (rain), EC = 195 µS cm - 1 (dew) and EC = 178 µS cm - 1 (rain). The ratio (SO 42- + NO 3-)/(Ca 2+ + Mg 2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of both dew and rain water. Both dew and rain water exhibited low mineralization. The analysis of the major ions showed that the concentration of cations is high compared to that of anions (presumably because the NO 2-, HCOO - and CH 3COO - ions were not measured), with Ca² +, Na + and Mg 2+ as the main ions. In order to discriminate between the marine and non-marine origin of ions, the sea-salt fraction (SSF) was calculated by taking Na + as a reference. The small SSF value in dew suggests a considerable contribution of non-marine origin for components Ca ²+, K +, SO 42- and NO 3-, except Cl -. In contrast, in rain water, the values of the non sea-salt fraction (NSSF) indicate that only Ca² + and NO 3- are not influenced by sea proximity. The study of the neutralization factor, NF, reveals the descending order of the cations in dew and rain water, NF Ca²+ > NF Mg²+ > NF K+ > NF NH4+. The dew and rain water are in conformity with the World Health Organization directives for potability, except for Mg 2+.

  11. Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rabitz, H.

    1993-12-01

    The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

  12. Modular verification of chemical reaction network encodings via serializability analysis.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko; Phillips, Andrew

    2016-06-13

    Chemical reaction networks are a powerful means of specifying the intended behaviour of synthetic biochemical systems. A high-level formal specification, expressed as a chemical reaction network, may be compiled into a lower-level encoding, which can be directly implemented in wet chemistry and may itself be expressed as a chemical reaction network. Here we present conditions under which a lower-level encoding correctly emulates the sequential dynamics of a high-level chemical reaction network. We require that encodings are transactional, such that their execution is divided by a "commit reaction" that irreversibly separates the reactant-consuming phase of the encoding from the product-generating phase. We also impose restrictions on the sharing of species between reaction encodings, based on a notion of "extra tolerance", which defines species that may be shared between encodings without enabling unwanted reactions. Our notion of correctness is serializability of interleaved reaction encodings, and if all reaction encodings satisfy our correctness properties then we can infer that the global dynamics of the system are correct. This allows us to infer correctness of any system constructed using verified encodings. As an example, we show how this approach may be used to verify two- and four-domain DNA strand displacement encodings of chemical reaction networks, and we generalize our result to the limit where the populations of helper species are unlimited.

  13. Evaluating Chemical Persistence in a Multimedia Environment: ACART Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.H.; McKone, T.E.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1999-02-01

    For the thousands of chemicals continuously released into the environment, it is desirable to make prospective assessments of those likely to be persistent. Persistent chemicals are difficult to remove if adverse health or ecological effects are later discovered. A tiered approach using a classification scheme and a multimedia model for determining persistence is presented. Using specific criteria for persistence, a classification tree is developed to classify a chemical as ''persistent'' or ''non-persistent'' based on the chemical properties. In this approach, the classification is derived from the results of a standardized unit world multimedia model. Thus, the classifications are more robust for multimedia pollutants than classifications using a single medium half-life. The method can be readily implemented and provides insight without requiring extensive and often unavailable data. This method can be used to classify chemicals when only a few properties are known and be used to direct further data collection. Case studies are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the approach.

  14. Cheminformatics Analysis of EPA ToxCast Chemical Libraries ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An important goal of toxicology research is the development of robust methods that use in vitro and chemical structure information to predict in vivo toxicity endpoints. The US EPA ToxCast program is addressing this goal using ~600 in vitro assays to create bioactivity profiles on a set of 320 compounds, mostly pesticide actives, that have well characterized in vivo toxicity. These 320 compounds (EPA-320 set evaluated in Phase I of ToxCast) are a subset of a much larger set of ~10,000 candidates that are of interest to the EPA (called here EPA-10K). Predictive models of in vivo toxicity are being constructed from the in vitro assay data on the EPA-320 chemical set. These models require validation on additional chemicals prior to wide acceptance, and this will be carried out by evaluating compounds from EPA-10K in Phase II of ToxCast. We have used cheminformatics approaches including clustering, data visualization, and QSAR to develop models for EPA-320 that could help prioritizing EPA-10K validation chemicals. Both chemical descriptors, as well as calculated physicochemical properties have been used. Compounds from EPA-10K are prioritized based on their similarity to EPA-320 using different similarity metrics, with similarity thresholds defining the domain of applicability for the predictive models built for EPA-320 set. In addition, prioritized lists of compounds of increasing dissimilarity from the EPA-320 have been produced, to test the ability of the EPA-320

  15. Analysis of Chemical Bioactivity through In Vitro Profiling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Safety assessment of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing. However, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation drive the development of alternative approaches. The EPA’s ToxCast and the multiagency Tox21 programs address this through use of an extensive in vitro screening program to generate data on a large library of important environmental chemicals. These in vitro assays encompass both cell-free, biochemical assays targeting proteins that may be potential molecular initiating events and cellular assays that provide coverage of critical signaling pathways and toxicity phenotypes. Effects on model organisms such as the developing zebrafish, are also part of the testing strategy. A variety of computational approaches are used to analyze the resulting complex data sets to gain insight in to inherent biological activity of chemicals and possible mechanisms of toxicity. Several case studies including identification of modulators of estrogen receptor and aromatic hydrocarbon receptor pathways with effects in primary human cell systems will be described. In addition, existing in vivo data from a subset of the chemicals was used to anchor predictive models using in vitro data for a number of adverse endpoints including reproductive and developmental toxicities. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach will be described. This work does not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Pres

  16. Evaluating multimedia chemical persistence: Classification and regression tree analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.H.; McKone, T.E.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    2000-04-01

    For the thousands of chemicals continuously released into the environment, it is desirable to make prospective assessments of those likely to be persistent. Widely distributed persistent chemicals are impossible to remove from the environment and remediation by natural processes may take decades, which is problematic if adverse health or ecological effects are discovered after prolonged release into the environment. A tiered approach using a classification scheme and a multimedia model for determining persistence is presented. Using specific criteria for persistence, a classification tree is developed to classify a chemical as persistent or nonpersistent based on the chemical properties. In this approach, the classification is derived from the results of a standardized unit world multimedia model. Thus, the classifications are more robust for multimedia pollutants than classifications using a single medium half-life. The method can be readily implemented and provides insight without requiring extensive and often unavailable data. This method can be used to classify chemicals when only a few properties are known and can be used to direct further data collection. Case studies are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the approach.

  17. Nondestructive testing of ceramic engine components. Final progress report for completed CRADAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Happoldt, G.P.

    1993-07-15

    This report describes a method for the nondestructive testing of ZrO{sub 2} plasma-sprayed layers with intentional disbonds. A theoretical analysis was conducted to determine the surface-temperature difference for each disbond using a given input heat pulse.

  18. Feasibility Study of Non-Destructive Techniques to Measure Corrosion in SAVY Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, Matthew Nicholas

    2016-07-15

    Stainless Steel SAVY containers are used to transport and store nuclear material. They are prone to interior corrosion in the presence of certain chemicals and a low-oxygen environment. SAVY containers also have relatively thin walls to reduce their weight, making their structural integrity more vulnerable to the effects of corrosion. A nondestructive evaluation system that finds and monitors corrosion within containers in use would improve safety conditions and preclude hazards. Non-destructive testing can determine whether oxidation or corrosion is occurring inside the SAVY containers, and there are a variety of non-destructive testing methods that may be viable. The feasibility study described will objectively decide which method best fits the requirements of the facility and the problem. To improve efficiency, the containers cannot be opened during the non-destructive examination. The chosen technique should also be user-friendly and relatively quick to apply. It must also meet facility requirements regarding wireless technology and maintenance. A feasibility study is an objective search for a new technology or product to solve a particular problem. First, the design, technical, and facility feasibility requirements are chosen and ranked in order of importance. Then each technology considered is given a score based upon a standard ranking system. The technology with the highest total score is deemed the best fit for a certain application.

  19. Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Fatigue.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    Magnetic perturbation signatures and Barkhausen noise results have been obtained from an AISI 4340 steel fatigue specimen stress-cycled at 180ksi...vicinity of the fatigue crack. Barkhausen noise signals were obtained on a grid pattern in the vicinity of several fatigue cracks with a Barkhausen ...fatigue specimens are being fabricated for magnetic perturbation and Barkhausen noise analysis measurements. Fatigue cracks in Ti-6Al-4V specimens were investigated with the electric current injection technique.

  20. Photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis and its implementation in deep tissue with a catheter setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhou-xian; Lin, Jian-die D.; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the relative concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. This study validated the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing liver conditions during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also tested.

  1. Development of instrumentation for magnetic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, S.

    1991-09-23

    The use of failure-prone components in critical applications has been traditionally governed by removing such components from service prior to the expiration of their predicted life expectancy. Such early retirement of materials does not guarantee that a particular sample will not fail in actual usage. The increasing cost of such life expectancy based operation and increased demand for improved reliability in industrial settings has necessitated an alternate form of quality control. Modern applications employ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), also known as nondestructive testing (NDT), as a means of monitoring the levels and growth of defects in a material throughout its operational life. This thesis describes the modifications made to existing instrumentation used for magnetic measurements at the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. Development of a new portable instrument is also given. An overview of the structure and operation of this instrumentation is presented. This thesis discusses the application of the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen measurement techniques, described in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively, to a number of ferromagnetic specimens. Specifically, measurements were made on a number of railroad steel specimens for fatigue characterization, and on specimens of Damascus steel and Terfenol-D for materials evaluation. 60 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Chemical shift and coupling constant analysis of dibenzyloxy disulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoutenburg, Eric G.; Gryn'ova, Ganna; Coote, Michelle L.; Priefer, Ronny

    2015-02-01

    Dialkoxy disulfides have found applications in the realm of organic synthesis as an S2 or alkoxy donor, under thermal and photolytic decompositions conditions, respectively. Spectrally, dibenzyloxy disulfides possess an ABq in the 1H NMR, which can shift by over 1.1 ppm depending on the substituents present on the aromatic ring, as well as the solvent employed. The effect of the said substituents and solvent were analyzed and compared to the center of the ABq, geminal coupling, and the differences in chemical shifts of the individual doublets. Additionally, quantum-chemical calculations demonstrated the intramolecular H-bonding arrangement, found within the dibenzyloxy disulfides.

  3. Nondestructive examination of the TRMM RCS propellant tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of using eddy current nondestructive examination of determine flaw sizes in completely assembled hydrazine propellant tanks. The study was performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project to help determine whether existing propellant tanks could meet the fracture analysis requirements of the current pressure vessel specification, MIL-STD-1522A and, therefore be used on the TRMM spacecraft. After evaluating several nondestructive test methods, eddy current testing was selected as the most promising method for determining flaw sizes on external and internal surfaces of completely assembled tanks. Tests were conducted to confirm the detection capability of the eddy current NDE, procedures were developed to inspect two candidate tanks, and the test support equipment was designed. The non-spherical tank eddy current NDE test program was terminated when the decision was made to procure new tanks for the TRMM propulsion subsystem. The information on the development phase of this test program is presented in this paper as a reference for future investigation on the subject.

  4. ASTP chemical and microbiological analysis of potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Leslie, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project procedures for potable water system servicing and the results of preflight and postflight chemical and microbiological analyses of the water are discussed. Tables show results of the analyses. The effectiveness of the water system is evaluated.

  5. Koopmans' Analysis of Chemical Hardness with Spectral-Like Resolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three approximation levels of Koopmans' theorem are explored and applied: the first referring to the inner quantum behavior of the orbitalic energies that depart from the genuine ones in Fock space when the wave-functions' Hilbert-Banach basis set is specified to solve the many-electronic spectra of spin-orbitals' eigenstates; it is the most subtle issue regarding Koopmans' theorem as it brings many critics and refutation in the last decades, yet it is shown here as an irrefutable “observational” effect through computation, specific to any in silico spectra of an eigenproblem; the second level assumes the “frozen spin-orbitals” approximation during the extracting or adding of electrons to the frontier of the chemical system through the ionization and affinity processes, respectively; this approximation is nevertheless workable for great deal of chemical compounds, especially organic systems, and is justified for chemical reactivity and aromaticity hierarchies in an homologue series; the third and the most severe approximation regards the extension of the second one to superior orders of ionization and affinities, here studied at the level of chemical hardness compact-finite expressions up to spectral-like resolution for a paradigmatic set of aromatic carbohydrates. PMID:23970834

  6. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  7. An Analysis of the Algebraic Method for Balancing Chemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the algebraic method for balancing chemical reactions. Introduces a third general condition that involves a balance between the total amount of oxidation and reduction. Requires the specification of oxidation states for all elements throughout the reaction. Describes the general conditions, the mathematical treatment, redox reactions, and…

  8. Sampling of vehicle emissions for chemical analysis and biological testing.

    PubMed Central

    Schuetzle, D

    1983-01-01

    Representative dilution tube sampling techniques for particulate and gas phase vehicle emissions are described using Teflon filter media and XAD-2 resin. More than 90% of the total gas (C8-C18) and particulate direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity (TA 98) was found in the particulate phase. The gas and particulate phase material was fractionated by HPLC into nonpolar, moderately polar and highly polar chemical fractions. The moderately polar chemical fraction of the particulates contained more than 50% of the direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity for the total extract. The concentration of oxygenated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAH) and nitrated PAH (nitro-PAH) identified in the moderately polar particulate fractions are given. Nitro-PAH account for most of the direct-acting (TA 98) Ames assay mutagenicity in these moderately polar fractions. Reactions and kinetic expressions for chemical conversion of PAH are presented. Chemical conversion of PAH to nitro-PAH during dilution tube sampling of particulates on Teflon filters and gases on XAD-2 resin is a minor problem (representing 10-20%, on the average, of the 1-nitropyrene found in extracts) at short (46 min) sampling times, at low sampling temperatures (42 degrees C), and in diluted exhaust containing 3 ppm NO2. Particulate emissions collected from dilution tubes on filter media appear to be representative of what is emitted in the environment as based upon a comparison of highway and laboratory studies. PMID:6186484

  9. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  10. Direct, non-destructive, and rapid evaluation of developmental cotton fibers by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical, compositional, and structural differences within the fibers at different growth stages have been investigated considerably through a number of methodologies. Due to its direct, non-destructive, and rapid attribute, this study reports the utilization of attenuated total reflection Fourier t...

  11. Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence: quantitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaque chemical content in human aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Erbin; Wishart, David; Khoury, Samir; Kay, Cyril M.; Jugdutt, Bodh I.; Tulip, John; Lucas, Alexandra

    1996-05-01

    We have been studying laser-induced fluorescence as a technique for identification of selected changes in the chemical composition of atherosclerotic plaque. Formulae for quantification of chemical changes have been developed based upon analysis of fluorescence emission spectra using multiple regression analysis and the principal of least squares. The intima of human aortic necropsy specimens was injected with chemical compounds present in atherosclerotic plaque. Spectra recorded after injection of selected chemical components found in plaque (collagen I, III, IV, elastin and cholesterol) at varying concentrations (0.01 - 1.0 mg) were compared with saline injection. A single fiber system was used for both fluorescence excitation (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/ pulse, 5 Hz) and fluorescence emission detection. Average spectra for each chemical have been developed and the wavelengths of peak emission intensity identified. Curve fitting analysis as well as multiple regression analysis were used to develop formulae for assessment of chemical content. Distinctive identifying average curves were established for each chemical. Excellent correlations were identified for collagen I, III, and IV, elastin, and cholesterol (R2 equals 0.92 6- 0.997). Conclusions: (1) Fluorescence spectra of human aortas were significantly altered by collagen I, collagen III, elastin and cholesterol. (2) Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis may allow quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic plaque chemical content in situ.

  13. High resolution Physio-chemical Tissue Analysis: Towards Non-invasive In Vivo Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhuo-xian; Lin, Jian-die; Deng, Cheri X.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Xueding

    2016-01-01

    Conventional gold standard histopathologic diagnosis requires information of both high resolution structural and chemical changes in tissue. Providing optical information at ultrasonic resolution, photoacoustic (PA) technique could provide highly sensitive and highly accurate tissue characterization noninvasively in the authentic in vivo environment, offering a replacement for histopathology. A two-dimensional (2D) physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) combining micrometer to centimeter morphology and chemical composition simultaneously can be generated for each biological sample with PA measurements at multiple optical wavelengths. This spectrogram presents a unique 2D “physio-chemical signature” for any specific type of tissue. Comprehensive analysis of PCS, termed PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), can lead to very rich diagnostic information, including the contents of all relevant molecular and chemical components along with their corresponding histological microfeatures, comparable to those accessible by conventional histology. PAPCA could contribute to the diagnosis of many diseases involving diffusive patterns such as fatty liver. PMID:26842459

  14. High resolution Physio-chemical Tissue Analysis: Towards Non-invasive In Vivo Biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Lin, Jian-Die; Deng, Cheri X.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Xueding

    2016-02-01

    Conventional gold standard histopathologic diagnosis requires information of both high resolution structural and chemical changes in tissue. Providing optical information at ultrasonic resolution, photoacoustic (PA) technique could provide highly sensitive and highly accurate tissue characterization noninvasively in the authentic in vivo environment, offering a replacement for histopathology. A two-dimensional (2D) physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) combining micrometer to centimeter morphology and chemical composition simultaneously can be generated for each biological sample with PA measurements at multiple optical wavelengths. This spectrogram presents a unique 2D “physio-chemical signature” for any specific type of tissue. Comprehensive analysis of PCS, termed PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), can lead to very rich diagnostic information, including the contents of all relevant molecular and chemical components along with their corresponding histological microfeatures, comparable to those accessible by conventional histology. PAPCA could contribute to the diagnosis of many diseases involving diffusive patterns such as fatty liver.

  15. Analysis of the nutritional status of algae by Fourier transform infrared chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmugl, Carol J.; Bayarri, Zuheir-El; Bunta, Maria; Holt, Justin B.; Giordano, Mario

    2006-09-01

    A new non-destructive method to study the nutritional status of algal cells and their environments is demonstrated. This approach allows rapid examination of whole cells without any or little pre-treatment providing a large amount of information on the biochemical composition of cells and growth medium. The method is based on the analysis of a collection of infrared (IR) spectra for individual cells; each spectrum describes the biochemical composition of a portion of a cell; a complete set of spectra is used to reconstruct an image of the entire cell. To obtain spatially resolved information synchrotron radiation was used as a bright IR source. We tested this method on the green flagellate Euglena gracilis; a comparison was conducted between cells grown in nutrient replete conditions (Type 1) and on cells allowed to deplete their medium (Type 2). Complete sets of spectra for individual cells of both types were analyzed with agglomerative hierarchical clustering, leading to distinct clusters representative of the two types of cells. The average spectra for the clusters confirmed the similarities between the clusters and the types of cells. The clustering analysis, therefore, allows the distinction of cells of the same species, but with different nutritional histories. In order to facilitate the application of the method and reduce manipulation (washing), we analyzed the cells in the presence of residual medium. The results obtained showed that even with residual medium the outcome of the clustering analysis is reliable. Our results demonstrate the applicability FTIR microspectroscopy for ecological and ecophysiological studies.

  16. Chemical etching and EDAX analysis of beryllium-free nickel-chromium ceramo-metal alloy.

    PubMed

    Atta, O M; Mosleh, I E; Shehata, M T

    1995-10-01

    A chemical etching technique is described for producing etch patterns in beryllium-free nickel chromium ceramo-metal alloy. Disc-shaped samples were chemically etched, evaluated with SEM and analysed by the EDAX technique. Scanning electron micrographs revealed, profound retentive cavities. The EDAX analysis provided a comprehensive interpretation of the etch mechanism. The obtained results show that the developed chemical etching has the potential to produce a highly retentive etched surface with less problematic and less technique sensitive than electrolytic etching.

  17. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Continued Storage of Chemical Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    FEIS Final Environmental Impact Statement FMEA failure modes and effects analysis GA GA Technologies Inc. HAZOP haz-r . td op.-ability analysis HF han...8217Li 6 operation at the facility HC handling operation related to onsite transportation HP high pressure H&R H&R Technical Associates, Inc. HA human...External Events ........... .................. .. 5-14 5.2.1. Tornadoes and High Winds . . . . ..... 5-14 5.2.2. Meteorite Sttikes

  18. Characterization of pottery fragments by nondestructive neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barilaro, Donatella; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Venuti, Valentina; Barone, Germana; Kockelmann, Winfried

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present work is the characterization of pottery fragments coming from the town of Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy). The samples belong to very different historical periods, from 18th century B.C. to 16th century A.D., and have finely decorated surfaces. Time-of-flight neutron-diffraction measurements were performed in order to obtain a quantitative identification of the mineralogical composition of the samples. A good determination of the relative weight fractions of the phases was obtained using the Rietveld analysis method. The application of neutron-diffraction technique allowed us to carry out a detailed analysis in a nondestructive way, so intact large fragments were investigated without damaging the precious decoration on the surface.

  19. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  20. Nondestructive optical characterization of MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    2013-10-01

    Advances in emerging technology of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are one of the most challenging tasks in today's experimental mechanics. More specifically, development of these miniature devices requires sophisticated design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and characterization tools that have multiphysics and multiscale capabilities, especially as MEMS are being developed for use at harsh conditions. In harsh-environment and high-performance guidance applications inertial sensors must be sensitive to low rates of rotation yet survive the high blast loads associated with the initial launch. In this multi-year study a set of tuning fork gyroscopes (TFGs) were subjected to a series of increasing g-loads (culminating at approximately 60,000 g's) with measurements of shape made after each test. High-g-testing was conducted within the large test chamber using a custom fabricated mini powder gun. A custom set of test sample packages were hermetically sealed with glass lids to allow optical inspection of components while preserving the operating (vacuum) environment. Optical and interferometric measurements have been made prior to and after each shock g-loading. The shape of the TFG test articles was measured using optoelectronic laser interferometric microscope (OELIM) methodology. Line traces were extracted from pertinent structures to clearly examine changes in the TFG. Failure of the die was observed in the form of fractures below the chip surface as well as fractures in the glass lid sealing the package.

  1. Chemical Discrimination of Cortex Phellodendri amurensis and Cortex Phellodendri chinensis by Multivariate Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui; Wang, Huiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Han, Ying; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuhong; Meng, Xiangcai; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: As herbal medicines have an important position in health care systems worldwide, their current assessment, and quality control are a major bottleneck. Cortex Phellodendri chinensis (CPC) and Cortex Phellodendri amurensis (CPA) are widely used in China, however, how to identify species of CPA and CPC has become urgent. Materials and Methods: In this study, multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigation of chemical discrimination of CPA and CPC. Results: Principal component analysis showed that two herbs could be separated clearly. The chemical markers such as berberine, palmatine, phellodendrine, magnoflorine, obacunone, and obaculactone were identified through the orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis, and were identified tentatively by the accurate mass of quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers for discrimination of CPA and CPC. Of them, phellodenrine is significantly higher in CPC than that of CPA, whereas obacunone and obaculactone are significantly higher in CPA than that of CPC. Conclusion: The present study proves that multivariate analysis approach based chemical analysis greatly contributes to the investigation of CPA and CPC, and showed that the identified chemical markers as a whole should be used to discriminate the two herbal medicines, and simultaneously the results also provided chemical information for their quality assessment. SUMMARY Multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigate the herbal medicineThe chemical markers were identified through multivariate analysis approachA total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers. UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based multivariate analysis method for the herbal medicine samples Abbreviations used: CPC: Cortex Phellodendri chinensis, CPA: Cortex Phellodendri amurensis, PCA: Principal component analysis, OPLS-DA: Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, BPI: Base peaks ion

  2. Chemical analysis of charged Li/SO(sub)2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Lawson, D.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Barnes, J.; Bis, R.

    1987-01-01

    The initial focus of the program was to confirm that charging can indeed result in explosions and constitute a significant safety problem. Results of this initial effort clearly demonstrated that cells do indeed explode on charge and that charging does indeed constitute a real and severe safety problem. The results of the effort to identify the chemical reactions involved in and responsible for the observed behavior are described.

  3. Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Sliced, Precooked, Canned Bacon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    350 C and examined after 24 and 48 hours for typical black, shiny convex calories surrounded by a clear zone ( AOAC , 1975)12. Typical colonies were...tested for coagulast production ( AOAC , 1975)12 9 U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Food and Drug Administration. Bacteriological Analytical...samples were held under refrigeration. Chemical tests. Tests for moisture, protein, fat, salt, and ash were made in accordance with AOAC (197 )13

  4. Nondestructive Handheld Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Analysis of Spectroscopic Changes and Multivariate Modeling of Thermally Degraded Plain Portland Cement Concrete and its Slag and Fly Ash-Based Analogs.

    PubMed

    Leung Tang, Pik; Alqassim, Mohammad; Nic Daéid, Niamh; Berlouis, Leonard; Seelenbinder, John

    2016-05-01

    Concrete is by far the world's most common construction material. Modern concrete is a mixture of industrial pozzolanic cement formulations and aggregate fillers. The former acts as the glue or binder in the final inorganic composite; however, when exposed to a fire the degree of concrete damage is often difficult to evaluate nondestructively. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy through techniques such as transmission, attenuated total reflectance, and diffuse reflectance have been rarely used to evaluate thermally damaged concrete. In this paper, we report on a study assessing the thermal damage of concrete via the use of a nondestructive handheld FT-IR with a diffuse reflectance sample interface. In situ measurements can be made on actual damaged areas, without the need for sample preparation. Separate multivariate models were developed to determine the equivalent maximal temperature endured for three common industrial concrete formulations. The concrete mixtures were successfully modeled displaying high predictive power as well as good specificity. This has potential uses in forensic investigation and remediation services particularly for fires in buildings.

  5. Heat and Chemical Exergy Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, M.; Üçgül, I.; Özek, N.

    2007-04-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, derived from the combustion of fossil fuels for heat and electricity generation, can be significantly reduced or even completely eliminated by substituting fossil fuels with a clean energy source, e.g. solar energy. However, solar radiation reaching the earth is diluted, intermittent, and, unequally distributed. These disadvantages can be overcome by converting solar energy into chemical energy carriers, i.e. solar fuels, such as solar hydrogen and solar methanol, which can be long-termed stored and long-ranged transported. Since the energy conversion efficiency of thermochemical processes is limited by the Carnot efficiency, the use of concentrated solar radiation as the source of high-temperature process heat provides a thermodynamically efficient path for the conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels. In this study, water-gas shift reaction in parabolic trough collector is evaluated with regarding the heat exergy and chemical exergy analyses and the results are given as tables and graphs.

  6. Correlated Imaging – A Grand Challenge in Chemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Masyuko, Rachel; Lanni, Eric; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Correlated chemical imaging is an emerging strategy for acquisition of images by combining information from multiplexed measurement platforms to track, visualize, and interpret in situ changes in the structure, organization, and activities of interesting chemical systems, frequently spanning multiple decades in space and time. Acquiring and correlating information from complementary imaging experiments has the potential to expose complex chemical behavior in ways that are simply not available from single methods applied in isolation, thereby greatly amplifying the information gathering power of imaging experiments. However, in order to correlate image information across platforms, a number of issues must be addressed. First, signals are obtained from disparate experiments with fundamentally different figures of merit, including pixel size, spatial resolution, dynamic range, and acquisition rates. In addition, images are often acquired on different instruments in different locations, so the sample must be registered spatially so that the same area of the sample landscape is addressed. The signals acquired must be correlated in both spatial and temporal domains, and the resulting information has to be presented in a way that is readily understood. These requirements pose special challenges for image cross-correlation that go well beyond those posed in single technique imaging approaches. The special opportunities and challenges that attend correlated imaging are explored by specific reference to correlated mass spectrometric and Raman imaging, a topic of substantial and growing interest. PMID:23431559

  7. Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkalčec, Biserka; Murković Steinberg, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument.

  8. Tattoo inks: legislation, pigments, metals and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Prior, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Legal limits for chemical substances require that they are linked to clearly defined analytical methods. Present limits for certain chemicals in tattoo and permanent make-up inks do not mention analytical methods for the detection of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or forbidden colourants. There is, therefore, no established method for the determination of the quantities of these chemicals in tattoo and permanent make-up inks. Failing to provide an appropriate method may lead to unqualified and questionable results which often cause legal disputes that are ultimately resolved by a judge with regard to the method that should have been applied. Analytical methods are tuned to exactly what is to be found and what causes the health problems. They are extremely specific. Irrespective of which is the correct method for detecting metals in tattoo inks, the focus should be on the actual amounts of ink in the skin. CTL® has conducted experiments to determine these amounts and these experiments are crucial for toxicological evaluations and for setting legal limits. When setting legal limits, it is essential to also incorporate factors such as daily consumption, total uptake and frequency of use. A tattoo lasts for several decades; therefore, the limits that have been established for heavy metals used in drinking water or soap are not relevant. Drinking water is consumed on a daily basis and soap is used several times per week, while tattooing only occurs once.

  9. A thermodynamic analysis of alternative approaches to chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart; Pihl, Josh A

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review and clarify some of the points made by previous authors regarding chemical looping combustion (CLC). While much of the recent interest in chemical looping combustion has been associated with carbon sequestration, our primary interest here is its potential to increase the thermodynamic efficiency of converting fuel chemical energy into useful work. We expand on several points about the details of CLC that we feel have not previously been sufficiently explored, and suggest alternative (and possibly more practical) approaches that exploit some of the same thermodynamic concepts. We illustrate our key points with {First} and {Second} Law analyses of ideal conceptual processes, which in addition to {CLC} also include isothermal, non-equilibrium, preheated combustion and combustion with thermochemical recuperation. Our results suggest that a significant portion of the potential efficiency benefit of CLC might be achieved without the need to handle and transport large quantities of solid oxygen storage material. Exploitation of this fact may lead to higher efficiency approaches for power generation from hydrocarbon fuels combustion.

  10. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  11. Chemical Analysis of the Moon at the Surveyor VII Landing Site: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Turkevich, A L; Franzgrote, E J; Patterson, J H

    1968-10-04

    The alpha-scattering experiment aboard Surveyor VII has provided a chemical analysis of the moon in the area of the crater Tycho. The preliminary results indicate a chemical composition similar to that already found at two mare sites, but with a lower concentration of elements of the iron group (titanium through copper).

  12. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  13. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Missimer, David M.; Summer, Michael E.; Fink, Samuel D.

    2010-02-05

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  14. Application of a microcoil probe head in NMR analysis of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri; Vanninen, Paula

    2008-07-15

    A 1.7-mm microcoil probe head was tested in the analysis of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention. The microcoil probe head demonstrated a high mass sensitivity in the detection of traces of organophosphorus compounds in samples. Methylphosphonic acid, the common secondary degradation product of sarin, soman, and VX, was detected at level 50 ng (0.52 nmol) from a 30-microL water sample using proton-observed experiments. Direct phosphorus observation of methylphosphonic acid with (31)P{(1)H} NMR experiment was feasible at the 400-ng (4.17 nmol) level. Application of the microcoil probe head in the spiked sample analysis was studied with a test water sample containing 2-10 microg/mL of three organophosphorus compounds. High-quality (1)H NMR, (31)P{(1)H} NMR, 2D (1)H-(31)P fast-HMQC, and 2D TOCSY spectra were obtained in 3 h from the concentrated 1.7-mm NMR sample prepared from 1 mL of the water solution. Furthermore, a 2D (1)H-(13)C fast-HMQC spectrum with sufficient quality was possible to measure in 5 h. The microcoil probe head demonstrated a considerable sensitivity improvement and reduction of measurement times for the NMR spectroscopy in identification of chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention.

  15. Chemical Evolution and Network Analysis in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, D.; Davis, S. S.

    2005-12-01

    We present a study of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks focusing on the characteristics of the chemical network. Species of particular interest include H2O, CO, OCS, CH3OH and CH3OCH3. We simulate the evolution in a static bi-dimensional disk between the radii of 0.4 and 300 AU. The chemical network is built upon the UMIST rate database. The network is evolved until a stationary state is reached. Each species of interest's sub-network is analyzed to identify the most active reactions. In most cases, a small sub-set of reactions (2-5) is clearly dominant, accounting for more than 90% of the activity for a given species, at a given location. Because of the wide-ranging physical conditions in the disk, with temperatures from 10K to 2000K, these subsets of reactions vary with the location. For example, in the inner disk (0.4 AU), with temperatures over 2000K, H2O chemistry is dominated (in stationary state) by the reversible reaction H2 + OH ⇌ H2O + H ; at radius 0.7 AU, at a temperature of 950K, the activity is divided between H3O+ + HCN → HCNH+ + H2O and H3+ + H2O → H3O+ + H2 ; at 6 AU, with T=135K, between O- +H2 → H2O + e-; and H3+ + H2O → H3O+ + H2. There are two major benefits to identifying these reactions. The first is to reduce the number of chemical reactions to compute realistic abundances, and lower the cost of a future dynamical disk model coupled with the chemical evolution. The second benefit is to pick some reactions to be part of a current project to refine their rates using computational quantum chemistry techniques to address a major shortcoming: the lack of information or reliability concerning the temperature dependence of the reaction rates outside of the experimental window for which data was collected. A large number of rates form the UMIST database have no temperature dependence, and the ones that do are based on the classic Arrhenius law, which can be highly inaccurate if extrapolated over a large temperature range

  16. Nondestructive Methods and Special Test Instrumentation Supporting NASA Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Greene, Nathanael; Cameron, Ken; Madaras, Eric; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh; Murthy, Pappu; Revilock, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aging composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), being used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently under evaluation to better quantify their reliability and clarify their likelihood of failure due to stress rupture and age-dependent issues. As a result, some test and analysis programs have been successfully accomplished and other related programs are still in progress at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and other NASA centers, with assistance from the commercial sector. To support this effort, a group of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) experts was assembled to provide NDE competence for pretest evaluation of test articles and for application of NDE technology to real-time testing. Techniques were required to provide assurance that the test article had adequate structural integrity and manufacturing consistency to be considered acceptable for testing and these techniques were successfully applied. Destructive testing is also being accomplished to better understand the physical and chemical property changes associated with progression toward "stress rupture" (SR) failure, and it is being associated with NDE response, so it can potentially be used to help with life prediction. Destructive work also includes the evaluation of residual stresses during dissection of the overwrap, laboratory evaluation of specimens extracted from the overwrap to evaluate physical property changes, and quantitative microscopy to inform the theoretical micromechanics.

  17. Autofluorescence microscopy: a non-destructive tool to monitor mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Robim M; Macko, Peter; Palosaari, Taina; Whelan, Maurice P

    2011-10-30

    Visualization of NADH by fluorescence microscopy makes it possible to distinguish mitochondria inside living cells, allowing structure analysis of these organelles in a non-invasive way. Mitochondrial morphology is determined by the occurrence of mitochondrial fission and fusion. During normal cell function mitochondria appear as elongated tubular structures. However, cellular malfunction induces mitochondria to fragment into punctiform, vesicular structures. This change in morphology is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and early apoptosis. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that autofluorescence imaging of mitochondria in living eukaryotic cells provides structural and morphological information that can be used to assess mitochondrial health. We firstly established the illumination conditions that do not affect mitochondrial structure and calculated the maximum safe light dose to which the cells can be exposed. Subsequently, sequential recording of mitochondrial fluorescence was performed and changes in mitochondrial morphology were monitored in a continuous non-destructive way. This approach was then used to assess mitochondrial toxicity induced by potential toxicants exposed to mammalian cells. Both mouse and human cells were used to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity of different compounds with different toxicities. This technique constitutes a novel and promising approach to explore chemical induced toxicity because of its reliability to monitor mitochondrial morphology changes and corresponding toxicity in a non-invasive way.

  18. Quality assessment of cortex cinnamomi by HPLC chemical fingerprint, principle component analysis and cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Qin; Lai, Mao-Xiang; Wang, Qiang

    2007-06-01

    HPLC fingerprint analysis, principle component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis were introduced for quality assessment of Cortex cinnamomi (CC). The fingerprint of CC was developed and validated by analyzing 30 samples of CC from different species and geographic locations. Seventeen chromatographic peaks were selected as characteristic peaks and their relative peak areas (RPA) were calculated for quantitative expression of the HPLC fingerprints. The correlation coefficients of similarity in chromatograms were higher than 0.95 for the same species while much lower than 0.6 for different species. Besides, two principal components (PCs) have been extracted by PCA. PC1 separated Cinnamomum cassia from other species, capturing 56.75% of variance while PC2 contributed for their further separation, capturing 19.08% variance. The scores of the samples showed that the samples could be clustered reasonably into different groups corresponding to different species and different regions. The scores and loading plots together revealed different chemical properties of each group clearly. The cluster analysis confirmed the results of PCA analysis. Therefore, HPLC fingerprint in combination with chemometric techniques provide a very flexible and reliable method for quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines.

  19. Nondestructive Testing for Moisture Content in Foods by Neutron Gauging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Food, *Nondestructive testing, *Neutrons, Moisture, Californium compounds, Radioactive isotopes, Containers, Powders, Measurement, Gamma rays, Test methods, Neutron absorption, Military rations, Radiation effects

  20. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Catalina Bosch; Rojas, Fuensanta Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on these techniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications such as environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand, flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and can be interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analytical method for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, and ease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using optical chemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. This work summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using optical chemical sensors in FIA.

  1. Airborne photography of chemical releases and analysis of twilight sky brightness data, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1976-01-01

    The photography from aboard an aircraft of chemical releases is reported. The equipment installation on the aircraft is described, and photographs of the releases are included. An extensive analysis of twilight sky photographs is presented.

  2. A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.

  3. Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    A microchip apparatus and method provide fluidic manipulations for a variety of applications, including sample injection for microchip liquid chromatography. The microchip is fabricated using standard photolitographic procedures and chemical wet etching, with the substrate and cover plate joined using direct bonding. Capillary electrophoresis is performed in channels formed in the substrate. Injections are made by electro-osmotically pumping sample through the injection channel that crosses the separation channel, followed by a switching of the potentials to force a plug into the separation channel.

  4. Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael

    1999-01-01

    A microchip apparatus and method provide fluidic manipulations for a variety of applications, including sample injection for microchip liquid chromatography. The microchip is fabricated using standard photolithographic procedures and chemical wet etching, with the substrate and cover plate joined using direct bonding. Capillary electrophoresis is performed in channels formed in the substrate. Injections are made by electro-osmotically pumping sample through the injection channel that crosses the separation channel, followed by a switching of the potentials to force a plug into the separation channel.

  5. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  6. Nondestructive SEM testing of planar structures

    SciTech Connect

    Aristov, V.V.; Dremova, N.N.; Kireev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The potentialities of three hardware SEM tomography methods developed in this work that allow the reconstruction of the distributions of geometrical parameters and electrophysical properties with the conventional spatial resolution (determined by the primary electron penetration depth) and depth profiling of these parameters with a resolution within a range {approximately}10-100 nm are demonstrated. The paper covers such issues as the back scatter coefficient dependence on the electron energy, the BSE detection in narrow energy bands, electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) with space-charge region (SCR) width modulation, and cathodoluminescence with beam intensity and energy modulation. All these approaches show promise for nondestructive characterization of submicron structures.

  7. Nondestructive assay confirmatory assessment experiments: mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.

    1980-04-30

    The confirmatory assessment experiments demonstrate traceable nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of plutonium in mixed oxide powder using commercially available spontaneous-fission assay systems. The experiments illustrate two major concepts: the production of calibration materials using calorimetric assay, and the use of paired measurements for measurement assurance. Two batches of well-characterized mixed oxide powder were used to establish the random and systematic error components. The major components of an NDA measurement assurance technique to establish and maintain traceability are identified and their functions are demonstrated. 20 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Automation for nondestructive inspection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the motivation and an architectural framework for using small mobile robots as automated aids to operators of nondestructive inspection (NDI) equipment. We review the need for aircraft skin inspection, and identify the constraints in commercial airlines operations that make small mobile robots the most attractive alternative for automated aids for NDI procedures. We describe the design and performance of the robot (ANDI) that we designed, built, and are testing for deployment of eddy current probes in prescribed commercial aircraft inspections. We discuss recent work aimed at also providing robotic aids for visual inspection.

  9. Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2011-03-15

    We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.

  10. Nondestructive Technique To Assess Embrittlement In Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent research at NASA Langley Research Center led to identification of nondestructive technique for detection of temper embrittlement in HY80 steel. Measures magnetoacoustic emission associated with reversible motion of domain walls at low magnetic fields. Of interest to engineers responsible for reliability and safety of various dynamically loaded and/or thermally cycled steel parts. Applications include testing of landing gears, naval vessels, and parts subjected to heat, such as those found in steam-pipe fittings, boilers, turbine rotors, and nuclear pressure vessels.

  11. Microwave sensors for nondestructive testing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Tuami; Glay, David; Mamouni, Ahmed; Leroy, Yves

    1999-10-01

    Much of today's applications in nondestructive testing by microwaves use an automatic network analyzer. As a result, there is a need for systems to reduce the cost of this kind of techniques. Fortunately, now we can benefit from the cost reduction of the microwave components, induced by the considerable development of the communication market, around 2 and 10 GHz. So, it seems reasonable to think that microwaves will take advantage of this new situation to assert themselves in this application field. In this context we conceive and develop original equipment competitive in term of price and reliability.

  12. Production and Chemical Analysis of Cometary Ice Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Gene D.; Whited, Linda J.; DeRuiter, Cynthia; Khare, Bishun N.; Patnaik, Archita; Sagan, Carl

    1996-07-01

    Organic heteropolymers that we call here ice tholin II have been produced by plasma discharge irradiation of water/methanol/carbon dioxide/ethane cocondensed ices in a rough simulation of cometary chemistry. The radiation yield of these organic heteropolymers is approximately 10-26g/eV. Intermediate products including polyalcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, and hydrocarbons are also produced. No detectable polyoxymethylene is generated in this experiment. Preliminary chemical analyses of ice tholin using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques lead to the conclusion that ice tholin contains a significant degree of polyalcohol functionality, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbon groups and carbonyl-containing groups such as ketones and esters. Ice tholin II shows some spectroscopic similarities to 1:6 ethane/water ice tholin (ice tholin I), but overall the two are chemically distinct. Ice tholins may be difficult to detect in comets due to their low volatility, but nevertheless may have been delivered to the early Earth by cometary impacts and interplanetary dust particles. These polyalcohol-containing molecules would then have been available to participate in prebiotic chemistry, such as the synthesis of acyclic nucleic acid analogues which have been suggested as the first biomacromolecules

  13. New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. I. Chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Austero, Marjorie S; Donius, Amalie E; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Schauer, Caroline L

    2012-10-07

    Chitosan (CS), the deacetylated form of chitin, the second most abundant, natural polysaccharide, is attractive for applications in the biomedical field because of its biocompatibility and resorption rates, which are higher than chitin. Crosslinking improves chemical and mechanical stability of CS. Here, we report the successful utilization of a new set of crosslinkers for electrospun CS. Genipin, hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulphonate (HDACS) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) have not been previously explored for crosslinking of electrospun CS. In this first part of a two-part publication, we report the morphology, determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and chemical interactions, determined by Fourier transform infrared microscopy, respectively. FESEM revealed that CS could successfully be electrospun from trifluoroacetic acid with genipin, HDACS and ECH added to the solution. Diameters were 267 ± 199 nm, 644 ± 359 nm and 896 ± 435 nm for CS-genipin, CS-HDACS and CS-ECH, respectively. Short- (15 min) and long-term (72 h) dissolution tests (T(600)) were performed in acidic, neutral and basic pHs (3, 7 and 12). Post-spinning activation by heat and base to enhance crosslinking of CS-HDACS and CS-ECH decreased the fibre diameters and improved the stability. In the second part of this publication, we report the mechanical properties of the fibres.

  14. New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. I. Chemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Austero, Marjorie S.; Donius, Amalie E.; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Schauer, Caroline L.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (CS), the deacetylated form of chitin, the second most abundant, natural polysaccharide, is attractive for applications in the biomedical field because of its biocompatibility and resorption rates, which are higher than chitin. Crosslinking improves chemical and mechanical stability of CS. Here, we report the successful utilization of a new set of crosslinkers for electrospun CS. Genipin, hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulphonate (HDACS) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) have not been previously explored for crosslinking of electrospun CS. In this first part of a two-part publication, we report the morphology, determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and chemical interactions, determined by Fourier transform infrared microscopy, respectively. FESEM revealed that CS could successfully be electrospun from trifluoroacetic acid with genipin, HDACS and ECH added to the solution. Diameters were 267 ± 199 nm, 644 ± 359 nm and 896 ± 435 nm for CS–genipin, CS–HDACS and CS–ECH, respectively. Short- (15 min) and long-term (72 h) dissolution tests (T600) were performed in acidic, neutral and basic pHs (3, 7 and 12). Post-spinning activation by heat and base to enhance crosslinking of CS–HDACS and CS–ECH decreased the fibre diameters and improved the stability. In the second part of this publication, we report the mechanical properties of the fibres. PMID:22628209

  15. Chemical and Flowfield Modeling for Enhanced Analysis of Contamination Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunstein, Matthew; Finchum, Andy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a new Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code, the Molecular Beam Simulator (MBS), which is designed to analyze laboratory scale molecular beam-surface (and crossed-beam) experiments. The MBS is primarily intended to model experiments associated with spacecraft contamination effects, but it can also be used to simulate a variety of surface chemistry and reactive flow measurements. The MBS code is fully three-dimensional, includes a wide-range of chemical processes, and can model one or multiple pulsed (non-steady) sources. As an example application of the MBS code, a fast, pulsed, oxygen atom-surface experiment which examines the chemistry behind erosion of graphite by oxygen atoms is analyzed. Unsteady DSMC simulations show that experimental observations of excited molecular states after the pulse has hit the surface are consistent with two distinct chemical mechanisms: a direct one where the excited molecules are formed on the surface, and a two-step mechanism where ground state molecules formed on the surface are collisionally excited after they leave the surface by trailing oxygen atoms in the pulse. Further DSMC calculations suggest experiments which can distinguish between these mechanisms.

  16. Crystal-Chemical Analysis Martian Minerals in Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N..; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; DesMarais, D. J.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analyses on scooped soil at Rocknest and on drilled rock fines at Yellowknife Bay (John Klein and Cumberland samples), The Kimberley (Windjana sample), and Pahrump (Confidence Hills sample) in Gale crater, Mars. Samples were analyzed with the Rietveld method to determine the unit-cell parameters and abundance of each observed crystalline phase. Unit-cell parameters were used to estimate compositions of the major crystalline phases using crystal-chemical techniques. These phases include olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene minerals. Comparison of the CheMin sample unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical compositions of the major crystalline phases. Preliminary unit-cell parameters, abundances and compositions of crystalline phases found in Rocknest and Yellowknife Bay samples were reported in. Further instrument calibration, development of 2D-to- 1D pattern conversion corrections, and refinement of corrected data allows presentation of improved compositions for the above samples.

  17. Ligand binding analysis and screening by chemical denaturation shift.

    PubMed

    Schön, Arne; Brown, Richard K; Hutchins, Burleigh M; Freire, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    The identification of small molecule ligands is an important first step in drug development, especially drugs that target proteins with no intrinsic activity. Toward this goal, it is important to have access to technologies that are able to measure binding affinities for a large number of potential ligands in a fast and accurate way. Because ligand binding stabilizes the protein structure in a manner dependent on concentration and binding affinity, the magnitude of the protein stabilization effect elicited by binding can be used to identify and characterize ligands. For example, the shift in protein denaturation temperature (Tm shift) has become a popular approach to identify potential ligands. However, Tm shifts cannot be readily transformed into binding affinities, and the ligand rank order obtained at denaturation temperatures (≥60°C) does not necessarily coincide with the rank order at physiological temperature. An alternative approach is the use of chemical denaturation, which can be implemented at any temperature. Chemical denaturation shifts allow accurate determination of binding affinities with a surprisingly wide dynamic range (high micromolar to sub nanomolar) and in situations where binding changes the cooperativity of the unfolding transition. In this article, we develop the basic analytical equations and provide several experimental examples.

  18. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Annica; Treu, Andreas; van Zeeland, Albert N T; Gosselink, Richard J A; Westin, Mats

    2010-09-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be

  19. Laser applications to chemical analysis: an introduction by the feature editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Jay B.; Ramsey, J. Michael; Lucht, Robert P.

    1995-06-01

    This issue of Applied Optics features papers on the application of laser technology to chemical analysis. Many of the contributions, although not all, result from papers presented at the Fourth OSA Topical Meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, which was held at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, March, 1994. This successful meeting, with nearly one hundred participants, continued the tradition of earlier LACA meetings to focus on the optical science of laser-based measurements of temperature and trace chemical assays in a wide variety of practical applications.

  20. Chemical Fingerprint Analysis and Quantitative Analysis of Rosa rugosa by UPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Sanawar; Abdulla, Rahima; Ayupbec, Amatjan; Aisa, Haji Akbar

    2016-12-21

    A method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) was developed for quantitative analysis of five active compounds and chemical fingerprint analysis of Rosa rugosa. Ten batches of R. rugosa collected from different plantations in the Xinjiang region of China were used to establish the fingerprint. The feasibility and advantages of the used UPLC fingerprint were verified for its similarity evaluation by systematically comparing chromatograms with professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. In quantitative analysis, the five compounds showed good regression (R² = 0.9995) within the test ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 94.2%-103.8%. The similarities of liquid chromatography fingerprints of 10 batches of R. rugosa were more than 0.981. The developed UPLC fingerprint method is simple, reliable, and validated for the quality control and identification of R. rugosa. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five major bioactive ingredients in the R. rugosa samples was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results indicated that the UPLC fingerprint, as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantification analysis, can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of R. rugosa.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

  2. Optical surface contouring for non-destructive inspection of turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modarress, Dariush; Schaack, David F.

    1994-01-01

    Detection of stress cracks and other surface defects during maintenance and in-service inspection of propulsion system components, including turbine blades and combustion compartments, is presently performed visually. There is a need for a non-contact, miniaturized, and fully fieldable instrument that may be used as an automated inspection tool for inspection of aircraft engines. During this SBIR Phase 1 program, the feasibility of a ruggedized optical probe for automatic and nondestructive inspection of complex shaped objects will be established. Through a careful analysis of the measurement requirements, geometrical and optical constraints, and consideration of issues such as manufacturability, compactness, simplicity, and cost, one or more conceptual optical designs will be developed. The proposed concept will be further developed and a prototype will be fabricated during Phase 2.

  3. Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

  4. Physical Model Assisted Probability of Detection in Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Meeker, W. Q.; Thompson, R. B.

    2011-06-01

    Nondestructive evaluation is used widely in many engineering and industrial areas to detect defects or flaws such as cracks inside parts or structures during manufacturing or for products in service. The standard statistical model is a simple empirical linear regression between the (possibly transformed) signal response variables and the (possibly transformed) explanatory variables. For some applications, such a simple empirical approach is inadequate. An important alternative approach is to use knowledge of the physics of the inspection process to provide information about the underlying relationship between the response and explanatory variables. Use of such knowledge can greatly increase the power and accuracy of the statistical analysis and enable, when needed, proper extrapolation outside the range of the observed explanatory variables. This paper describes a set of physical model-assisted analyses to study the capability of two different ultrasonic testing inspection methods to detect synthetic hard alpha inclusion and flat-bottom hole defects in a titanium forging disk.

  5. Field verification of a nondestructive damage location algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Stubbs, N.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past 25 years, the use of modal parameters for detecting damage has received considerable attention from the civil engineering community. The basic idea is that changes in the structure`s properties, primarily stiffness, will alter the dynamic properties of the structure such as frequencies and mode shapes, and properties derived from these quantities such as modal-based flexibility. In this paper, a method for nondestructive damage location in bridges, as determined by changes in the modal properties, is described. The damage detection algorithm is applied to pre- and post-damage modal properties measured on a bridge. Results of the analysis indicate that the method accurately locates the damage. Subjects relating to practical implementation of this damage identification algorithm that need further study are discussed.

  6. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-02-18

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  7. Nondestructive Measurements for Diagnostics of Advanced Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Prowant, Matthew S.; Dib, Gerges; Roy, Surajit; Luzi, Lorenzo; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2016-09-20

    Information on advanced reactor (AdvRx) component condition and failure probability is necessary to maintaining adequate safety margins and avoiding unplanned shutdowns, both of which have regulatory and economic consequences. Prognostic health management (PHM) technologies provide one approach to addressing these needs by providing the technical means for lifetime management of significant passive components and reactor internals. However, such systems require measurement data that are sensitive to degradation of the component. This paper describes results to date of ongoing research on nondestructive measurements of component condition for degradation mechanisms of relevance to AdvRx concepts. The focus of this paper is on in-situ ultrasonic measurements during high-temperature creep degradation. The data were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the measurements to creep degradation, with the specific objective of assessing the suitability of the resulting correlations for remaining life prediction. The details of the measurements, results of data analysis, and ongoing research in this area are discussed.

  8. Non-destructive photoacoustic imaging of metal surface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Jeesu; Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-11-01

    The detection of metal surface defects is important in achieving the goals of product quality enhancement and manufacturing cost reduction. Identifying the defects with visual inspection is difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Thus, several inspection methods using line cameras, magnetic field, and ultrasound have been proposed. However, identifying small defects on metal surfaces remains a challenge. To deal with this problem, we propose the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a new non-destructive imaging tool to detect metal surface defects. We successfully visualized two types of cracks (i.e., unclassified and seam cracks) in metal plate samples using PAI. In addition, we successfully extracted cracked edges from height-encoded photoacoustic maximum amplitude projection images using the Laplacian of Gaussian filtering method, and then, quantified the detected edges for a statistical analysis. We concluded that PAI can be useful in detecting metal surface defects reducing the defect rate and manufacturing cost during metal production.

  9. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Disposal of Chemical Munitions at Regional or National Sites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    the frequency of periodic maintenance (PM); (2) the use of different failure detection systems; and (3) the various methods used to monitor equipment...EECUTIVE OFFICER-PROGRAM MANAGER FOR CHEMICAL DEMIUTARIZATION A h PIIOWlI GOUND , 4RYLAND 21010-5401 88 4 7 102 GA-C18563 RISK ANALYSIS OF THE DISPOSAL OF...any, directly in the fault tree and to make an allowance S for those not explicitly identified. A Beta factor method (e.g., Ref. 2-3) is a convenient

  10. A modified positron lifetime spectrometer as method of non-destructive testing in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. Q.; Shi, J. J.; Jiang, J.; Liu, X. B.; Wang, R. S.; Wu, Y. C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims to develop a new non-destructive testing (NDT) method using positron annihilation spectroscopy, a powerful tool to detect vacancy-type defects and defect's chemical environment. A positron NDT system was designed and constructed by modifying the "sandwich" structure of sample-source-sample in the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer. The positron lifetime spectra of one single sample can be measured and analyzed by subtracting the contribution of a reference sample. The feasibility and reliability of the positron NDT system have been tested by analyzing nondestructively deformation damage caused by mechanical treatment in metals and steels. This system can be used for detecting defects and damage in thick or large-size samples without cutting off the sample materials, as well as for detecting two-dimensional distribution of defects.

  11. Nondestructive imaging of materials microstructure using x-ray tomographic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J.H.; Saroyan, R.A. ); Nichols, M.C. ); Bonse, U. . Fachbereich Physik); Stock, S.R.; Breunig, T.M.; Guvenilir, A. . School of Material Engineering)

    1990-11-01

    A technique for nondestructively imaging microstructures of materials in situ, especially a technique capable of delineating the time evolution of chemical changes or damage, will greatly benefit studies of materials processing and failure. X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM) is a high resolution, three-dimensional inspection method which is capable of imaging composite materials microstructures with a resolution of a few micrometers. Because XTM is nondestructive, it will be possible to examine materials under load or during processing, and obtain three-dimensional images of fiber positions, microcracks, and pores. This will allow direct imaging of microstructural evolution, and will provide time-dependent data for comparison to fracture mechanics and processing models. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Minimizing Errors in Numerical Analysis of Chemical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusling, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates minimizing errors in computational methods commonly used in chemistry. Provides a series of examples illustrating the propagation of errors, finite difference methods, and nonlinear regression analysis. Includes illustrations to explain these concepts. (MVL)

  13. Instantaneous physico-chemical analysis of suspension-based nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanxu; Ugaz, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput manufacturing of nanomaterial-based products demands robust online characterization and quality control tools capable of continuously probing the in-suspension state. But existing analytical techniques are challenging to deploy in production settings because they are primarily geared toward small-batch ex-situ operation in research laboratory environments. Here we introduce an approach that overcomes these limitations by exploiting surface complexation interactions that emerge when a micron-scale chemical discontinuity is established between suspended nanoparticles and a molecular tracer. The resulting fluorescence signature is easily detectable and embeds surprisingly rich information about composition, quantity, size, and morphology of nanoparticles in suspension independent of their agglomeration state. We show how this method can be straightforwardly applied to enable continuous sizing of commercial ZnO nanoparticles, and to instantaneously quantify the anatase and rutile composition of multicomponent TiO2 nanoparticle mixtures pertinent to photocatalysis and solar energy conversion. PMID:25923196

  14. Engineering and Functional Analysis of Mitotic Kinases Through Chemical Genetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mathew J K; Jallepalli, Prasad V

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, multiple protein kinases transform the cytoskeleton and chromosomes into new and highly dynamic structures that mediate the faithful transmission of genetic information and cell division. However, the large number and strong conservation of mammalian kinases in general pose significant obstacles to interrogating them with small molecules, due to the difficulty in identifying and validating those which are truly selective. To overcome this problem, a steric complementation strategy has been developed, in which a bulky "gatekeeper" residue within the active site of the kinase of interest is replaced with a smaller amino acid, such as glycine or alanine. The enlarged catalytic pocket can then be targeted in an allele-specific manner with bulky purine analogs. This strategy provides a general framework for dissecting kinase function with high selectivity, rapid kinetics, and reversibility. In this chapter we discuss the principles and techniques needed to implement this chemical genetic approach in mammalian cells.

  15. Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2012-11-01

    The chemical composition of surgical smoke, a gaseous by-product of some surgical devices—lasers, drills, vessel sealing devices—is of great interest due to the many toxic components that have been found to date. For the first time, surgical smoke samples collected during routine keyhole surgery were analyzed with infrared laser spectroscopy. Traces (ppm range) of methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and sevoflurane were detected in the samples which consisted mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Except for the anaesthetic sevoflurane, none of the compounds were present at dangerous concentrations. Negative effects on the health of operation room personnel can be excluded for many toxic compounds found in earlier studies, since their concentrations are below recommended exposure limits.

  16. Chemical analysis of 24 dusty (pre-)main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acke, B.; Waelkens, C.

    2004-12-01

    We have analysed the chemical photospheric composition of 24 Herbig Ae/Be and Vega-type stars in search for the λ Bootis phenomenon. We present the results of the elemental abundances of the sample stars. Some of the stars were never before studied spectroscopically at optical wavelengths. We have determined the projected rotational velocities of our sample stars. Furthermore, we discuss stars that depict a (selective) depletion pattern in detail. HD 4881 and HD 139614 seem to display an overall deficiency. AB Aur and possibly HD 126367 have subsolar values for the iron abundance, but are almost solar in silicon. HD 100546 is the only clear λ Bootis star in our sample. Appendix is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  17. Analysis for chemical agent breakdown products: Avoiding IMPA false positives

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, K.M.; Markowitz, V.

    1996-12-31

    Cleanup of DOD sites where chemical warfare agents have been used or stored presents a number of unique problems. Isopropylmethylphosphonic Acid (IMPA), a degradation product of Sarin (GB), is one important contaminant to be monitored at many such sites. IMPA has historically been determined by Army Environmental Center (AEC) method UT02, an ion chromatography method. This method is prone to serious interference problems which can lead an inexperienced analyst to report false positive results. A study of interferences present in groundwater samples taken from a US military installation was undertaken. The interference problems were identified, and techniques were developed which minimize the problem in most samples. These techniques have been used by the authors in several large studies at DOD sites, and have virtually eliminated false positive problems.

  18. Identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds based on multiscale linear fitting of terahertz spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is considered as an attractive tool for the analysis of chemical composition. The traditional methods for identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds by THz spectroscopy are all based on full-spectrum data. However, intrinsic features of the THz spectrum only lie in absorption peaks due to existence of disturbances, such as unexpected components, scattering effects, and barrier materials. We propose a strategy that utilizes Lorentzian parameters of THz absorption peaks, extracted by a multiscale linear fitting method, for both identification of pure chemicals and quantitative analysis of mixtures. The multiscale linear fitting method can automatically remove background content and accurately determine Lorentzian parameters of the absorption peaks. The high recognition rate for 16 pure chemical compounds and the accurate predicted concentrations for theophylline-lactose mixtures demonstrate the practicability of our approach.

  19. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  20. Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging techniques for quality evaluation and assessment of fish and fish products.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Ju; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, people have increasingly realized the importance of acquiring high quality and nutritional values of fish and fish products in their daily diet. Quality evaluation and assessment are always expected and conducted by using rapid and nondestructive methods in order to satisfy both producers and consumers. During the past two decades, spectroscopic and imaging techniques have been developed to nondestructively estimate and measure quality attributes of fish and fish products. Among these noninvasive methods, visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy, computer/machine vision, and hyperspectral imaging have been regarded as powerful and effective analytical tools for fish quality analysis and control. VIS/NIR spectroscopy has been widely applied to determine intrinsic quality characteristics of fish samples, such as moisture, protein, fat, and salt. Computer/machine vision on the other hand mainly focuses on the estimation of external features like color, weight, size, and surface defects. Recently, by incorporating both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system, hyperspectral imaging cannot only measure the contents of different quality attributes simultaneously, but also obtain the spatial distribution of such attributes when the quality of fish samples are evaluated and measured. This paper systematically reviews the research advances of these three nondestructive optical techniques in the application of fish quality evaluation and determination and discuss future trends in the developments of nondestructive technologies for further quality characterization in fish and fish products.