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Sample records for nonequilibrium charge carriers

  1. Temperature depopulation of the GeSi/Si quantum dots with non-equilibrium charge carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofronov, A. N.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Balagula, R. M.; Tonkikh, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    We study the temperature dependencies of equilibrium and photo-induced infrared absorption in GeSi/Si quantum dots in a wide spectral range. We show that, in spite of the large valence band offset at GeSi/Si interface and strong confinement for holes, the effect of intensive temperature depopulation of the GeSi/Si quantum dots can take place even at the temperatures below 300 K due to the large difference in density of states of the silicon valence band and quantum dot states, when the bipolar diffusion of charge carriers is not restricted.

  2. The role of transport processes of nonequilibrium charge carriers in radiative properties of arrays of InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, A. S. Savelyev, A. V.; Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Gordeev, N. Yu.; Seisyan, R. P.; Zegrya, G. G.; Pellegrini, S.; Buller, G. S.; Evtikhiev, V. P.

    2008-03-15

    The results of time-resolved photoluminescence studies of heterostructures containing monolayer arrays of InAs/GaAs quantum dots are presented. A two-component time dependence of intensity of photoluminescence from the ground state of quantum dots, with characteristic times of the slow component up to hundreds of nanoseconds and those of rapid one several nanoseconds, is studied. It is shown that the slow component is determined by the transport of nonequilibrium charge carriers between the quantum dots. At low temperatures, the time of the slow component is determined by tunneling, and at high temperatures by thermal escape of nonequilibrium charge carriers. The ratio of the contributions of tunneling and thermal escape is determined by the degree of isolation of quantum dots. A theoretical model is constructed that describes the effect of the dynamics of carrier transport on the emergence and decay of the slow component of photoluminescence.

  3. Mechanisms of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers in epitaxial Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Te (x = 0.20-0.23) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ikusov, D. G.; Sizov, F. F.; Staryi, S. V. Teterkin, V. V.

    2007-02-15

    The experimental temperature dependences of the photosensitivity and the data on the lifetime of nonequilibrium charge carriers in epitaxial Cd{sub x}Hg{sub 1-x}Te layers with x = 0.20-0.23 were used to show that, in the region of intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity in n-type films grown by molecular beam epitaxy, CHCC Auger recombination is the prevailing recombination mechanism. At the same time, in p-type films grown by liquid-or vapor-phase epitaxy, it is observed that, in the region of extrinsic conductivity, CHLH Auger recombination competes with Shockley-Read recombination. The n-type films grown by molecular beam epitaxy contain a much lower concentration of recombination centers than the p-type films grown by liquid-or gasphase epitaxy.

  4. Diffusion of nonequilibrium carriers in low-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achoyan, A.; Petrosyan, S.; Ruda, H. E.; Shik, A.

    2008-02-01

    The spatial distribution of nonequilibrium carriers generated by a partial illumination of one- and two-dimensional structures was analyzed theoretically. Due to weak electron screening, the carrier distribution in low-dimensional systems has distinct new features. For monopolar excitation, the concentration of nonequilibrium carriers decreases inside the dark regions hyperbolically in two-dimensional and logarithmically in one-dimensional structures, which results in monopolar injection, barely observable in bulk samples. Bipolar diffusion also differs markedly from that in bulk samples; in particular, there is a long-range hyperbolic tail in the majority carrier distribution, which can be either positive or negative, depending on the mobility ratio of majority and minority carriers.

  5. Role of nonequilibrium dynamical screening in carrier thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setlur, Girish S.; Chang, Yia-Chung

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the role played by nonequilibrium dynamical screening in the thermalization of carriers in a simplified two-component two-band model of a typical semiconductor like GaAs. The main feature of our approach is the theoretically sound treatment of collisions. We abandon Fermi's golden rule in favor of the nonequilibrium field-theoretic approach. However, we do not employ the Kadanoff and Baym ansatz or its generalizations. Explicit formulas are derived for the nonequilibrium screened Coloumb interaction, and the manner in which screening builds up is explained. We also compute the polarization dephasing rate as a function of the excited carrier density. At densities less than 8×1013tcm-3, it is found that the dephasing rate due to carrier-carrier scattering is proportional to the carrier density, and for densities in the range 1×1015-1016ncm-3 the dephasing rate scales sublinearly with the density, which enables a comparison with experiment. The dephasing of excitonic quantum beats as a result of carrier-carrier scattering is also brought out.

  6. Effect of annealing on the nonequilibrium carrier lifetime in GaAs grown at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, A. A.; Prokhorova, U. V.; Serdobintsev, P. Yu.; Chaldyshev, V. V. Yagovkina, M. A.

    2013-08-15

    GaAs samples grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low (230 Degree-Sign C) temperatures are investigated. One of the samples is subjected to aftergrowth annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C. Using an unconventional pump-probe scheme for measuring the dynamic variation in the light refractive index, the nonequilibrium charge-carrier lifetime (275 {+-} 30 fs before annealing) is determined. Such a short carrier lifetime in the unannealed material is due to the high concentration of point defects, mainly As{sub Ga} antisite defects. According to X-ray diffraction and steady-state optical absorption data, the As{sub Ga} concentration in the samples is 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which corresponds to an arsenic excess of 0.26 at %. Upon annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C, the superstoichiometric As defects self-organize and form As nanoinclusions in the GaAs crystal matrix. It is shown that in this case the nonequilibrium charge-carrier lifetime increases to 452 {+-} 5 fs. This lifetime is apparently ensured by the capture of non-equilibrium charge carriers at metal As nanoinclusions.

  7. Charge carrier transport in polyvinylcarbazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyutnev, Andrey P.; Saenko, Vladimir S.; Pozhidaev, Evgenii D.; Kolesnikov, Vladislav A.

    2006-07-01

    A critical analysis of the existing time-of-flight (TOF) data in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) proves that these are highly controversial with claims and counterclaims about charge carrier transport (dispersive versus Gaussian). It is felt that the TOF method taken alone is incapable of resolving the standing dilemma. As a final means to resolve it, we propose a combination of two varieties of the TOF technique using both sheet-like and uniform carrier generation modes in conjunction with radiation-induced conductivity measurements. All three techniques are realized using the ELA-50 electron gun facility. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach we report experimental data for PVK, which show that carrier transport in this polymer is indeed dispersive. Evidence is presented substantiating the gross interference the surface traps could exert on the shape of a TOF transient. As a result, a preflight part of the TOF signal should not be used for parameter evaluation.

  8. Nonequilibrium charge susceptibility and dynamical conductance: identification of scattering processes in quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Ness, H; Dash, L K

    2012-03-23

    We calculate the nonequilibrium charge transport properties of nanoscale junctions in the steady state and extend the concept of charge susceptibility to the nonequilibrium conditions. We show that the nonequilibrium charge susceptibility is related to the nonlinear dynamical conductance. In spectroscopic terms, both contain the same features versus applied bias when charge fluctuation occurs in the corresponding electronic resonances. However, we show that, while the conductance exhibits features at biases corresponding to inelastic scattering with no charge fluctuations, the nonequilibrium charge susceptibility does not. We suggest that measuring both the nonequilibrium conductance and charge susceptibility in the same experiment will permit us to differentiate between different scattering processes in quantum transport.

  9. Charge carrier thermalization in organic diodes

    PubMed Central

    van der Kaap, N. J.; Koster, L. J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Charge carrier mobilities of organic semiconductors are often characterized using steady-state measurements of space charge limited diodes. These measurements assume that charge carriers are in a steady-state equilibrium. In reality, however, energetically hot carriers are introduces by photo-excitation and injection into highly energetic sites from the electrodes. These carriers perturb the equilibrium density of occupied states, and therefore change the overall charge transport properties. In this paper, we look into the effect of energetically hot carriers on the charge transport in organic semiconductors using steady state kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. For injected hot carriers in a typical organic semiconductor, rapid energetic relaxation occurs in the order of tens of nanoseconds, which is much faster than the typical transit time of a charge carrier throught the device. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of photo-generated carriers on the steady-state mobility. For a typical organic voltaic material, an increase in mobility of a factor of 1.1 is found. Therefore, we conclude that the impact of energetically hot carriers on normal device operation is limited. PMID:26791095

  10. Preface: Special issue featuring papers from the International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, L.; Bordone, P.; Brunetti, R.

    2004-02-01

    The International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors (HCIS-13) celebrates 30 years since it first took place in Modena. Nonequilibrium dynamics of charge carriers, pioneered by the hot-electron concept, is an important issue for understanding electro-optic transport properties in semiconductor materials and structures. In these 30 years several topics have matured, and new ones have emerged thus fertilizing the field with a variety of physical problems and new ideas. The history of the conference is summarized in the opening paper `30 years of HCIS'. The future of the conference seems secure considering the continued lively interest of the participants. The conference addressed eleven major topics which constitute the backbone of the proceedings and are summarized as follows: carrier transport in low dimensional and nanostructure systems, nonequilibrium carriers in superlattices and devices, small devices and related phenomena, carrier dynamics and fluctuations, carrier quantum dynamics, coherent/incoherent carrier dynamics of optical excitations and ultra-fast optical phenomena, nonlinear optical effects, transport in organic matter, semiconductor-based spintronics, coherent dynamics in solid state systems for quantum processing and communication, novel materials and devices. Nanometric space scale and femtosecond time scale represent the ultimate domains of theoretical, experimental and practical interest. Traditional fields such as bulk properties, quantum transport, fluctuations and chaotic phenomena, etc, have received thorough and continuous attention. Emerging fields from previous conferences, such as quantum processing and communication, have been better assessed. New fields, such as spintronics and electron transport in organic matter, have appeared for the first time. One plenary talk, 11 invited talks, 230 submitted abstracts covering all these topics constituted a single-session conference. Following scientific selection

  11. Ultrafast Lateral Photo-Dember Effect in Graphene Induced by Nonequilibrium Hot Carrier Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Hua; Chang, You-Chia; Lee, Seunghyun; Zhang, Yaozhong; Zhang, Yafei; Norris, Theodore B; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2015-06-10

    The photo-Dember effect arises from the asymmetric diffusivity of photoexcited electrons and holes, which creates a transient spatial charge distribution and hence the buildup of a voltage. Conventionally, a strong photo-Dember effect is only observed in semiconductors with a large asymmetry between the electron and hole mobilities, such as in GaAs or InAs, and is considered negligible in graphene due to its electron-hole symmetry. Here, we report the observation of a strong lateral photo-Dember effect induced by nonequilibrium hot carrier dynamics when exciting a graphene-metal interface with a femtosecond laser. Scanning photocurrent measurements reveal the extraction of photoexcited hot carriers is driven by the transient photo-Dember field, and the polarity of the photocurrent is determined by the device's mobility asymmetry. Furthermore, ultrafast pump-probe measurements indicate the magnitude of photocurrent is related to the hot carrier cooling rate. Our simulations also suggest that the lateral photo-Dember effect originates from graphene's 2D nature combined with its unique electrical and optical properties. Taken together, these results not only reveal a new ultrafast photocurrent generation mechanism in graphene but also suggest new types of terahertz sources based on 2D nanomaterials.

  12. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  13. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    DOEpatents

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  14. Localized charge carriers in graphene nanodevices

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, D. Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Eich, M.; Overweg, H. C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2015-09-15

    Graphene—two-dimensional carbon—is a material with unique mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties. Its use in a wide range of applications was therefore suggested. From an electronic point of view, nanostructured graphene is of great interest due to the potential opening of a band gap, applications in quantum devices, and investigations of physical phenomena. Narrow graphene stripes called “nanoribbons” show clearly different electronical transport properties than micron-sized graphene devices. The conductivity is generally reduced and around the charge neutrality point, the conductance is nearly completely suppressed. While various mechanisms can lead to this observed suppression of conductance, disordered edges resulting in localized charge carriers are likely the main cause in a large number of experiments. Localized charge carriers manifest themselves in transport experiments by the appearance of Coulomb blockade diamonds. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for this charge localization, on interpreting the transport details, and on discussing the consequences for physics and applications. Effects such as multiple coupled sites of localized charge, cotunneling processes, and excited states are discussed. Also, different geometries of quantum devices are compared. Finally, an outlook is provided, where open questions are addressed.

  15. The role of nonequilibrium charge in generation of the thermopower in extrinsic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Konin, A.

    2011-05-15

    A theory of the thermopower is developed with consideration for the nonequilibrium charge produced in a p-type semiconductor and metal contacts. It is shown that the thermopower is generated due to redistribution of the nonequilibrium charge between the metal contacts and semiconductor via transport of nonequilibrium electrons from the metal to the semiconductor through one of the surfaces and from the semiconductor to the metal through the other surface. In a p-type semiconductor sample with thickness smaller than the diffusion length, at certain surface parameters, the thermopower nonlinearly depends on the temperature difference.

  16. Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in ultrathin Si-on-glass films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, J.; Akbas, Y.; Crandall, L.; Bellman, R.; Kosik Williams, C.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2015-10-01

    We present a femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy approach for characterization of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films grown on glass substrates. Such films are presently being considered as absorbers in tandem-type, Si-based photovoltaic cells. Our experiments consisted of time-resolved, two-colour femtosecond optical measurements, performed in the transmission mode in a wide range of delay times. Depending on the sample growth process, collected normalized transmissivity change (ΔT/T) waveforms exhibited a bi-exponential relaxation dynamics with the characteristic times varying from picoseconds to nanoseconds. Experimental data were interpreted using a three-rate-equation models, and the relaxation was identified as, depending on the Si film type, being dominated by either carrier trapping or electron-phonon cooling and followed by electron-hole recombination. An excellent fit between the model and the ΔT/T transients was obtained and a correlation between the Si film growth process, its hydrogen content, and the associated trap concentration was demonstrated.

  17. Charge carrier holes and Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jingcheng; Lyanda-Geller, Yuli

    2017-05-01

    Understanding Luttinger holes in low dimensions is crucial for numerous spin-dependent phenomena and nanotechnology. In particular, hole quantum wires that are proximity coupled to a superconductor is a promising system for the observation of Majorana fermions. Earlier treatments of confined Luttinger holes ignored a mutual transformation of heavy and light holes at the heteroboundaries. We derive the effective hole Hamiltonian in the ground state. The mutual transformation of holes is crucial for Zeeman and spin-orbit coupling, and results in several spin-orbit terms linear in momentum in hole quantum wires. We discuss the criterion for realizing Majorana modes in charge carrier hole systems. GaAs or InSb hole wires shall exhibit stronger topological superconducting pairing, and provide additional opportunities for its control compared to InSb electron systems.

  18. Hot Charge Carrier Transmission from Plasmonic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Phillip; Moskovits, Martin

    2017-05-05

    Surface plasmons have recently been harnessed to carry out processes such as photovoltaic current generation, redox photochemistry, photocatalysis, and photodetection, all of which are enabled by separating energetic (hot) electrons and holes-processes that, previously, were the domain of semiconductor junctions. Currently, the power conversion efficiencies of systems using plasmon excitation are low. However, the very large electron/hole per photon quantum efficiencies observed for plasmonic devices fan the hope of future improvements through a deeper understanding of the processes involved and through better device engineering, especially of critical interfaces such as those between metallic and semiconducting nanophases (or adsorbed molecules). In this review, we focus on the physics and dynamics governing plasmon-derived hot charge carrier transfer across, and the electronic structure at, metal-semiconductor (molecule) interfaces, where we feel the barriers contributing to low efficiencies reside. We suggest some areas of opportunity that deserve early attention in the still-evolving field of hot carrier transmission from plasmonic nanostructures to neighboring phases.

  19. Hot Charge Carrier Transmission from Plasmonic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Phillip; Moskovits, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Surface plasmons have recently been harnessed to carry out processes such as photovoltaic current generation, redox photochemistry, photocatalysis, and photodetection, all of which are enabled by separating energetic (hot) electrons and holes—processes that, previously, were the domain of semiconductor junctions. Currently, the power conversion efficiencies of systems using plasmon excitation are low. However, the very large electron/hole per photon quantum efficiencies observed for plasmonic devices fan the hope of future improvements through a deeper understanding of the processes involved and through better device engineering, especially of critical interfaces such as those between metallic and semiconducting nanophases (or adsorbed molecules). In this review, we focus on the physics and dynamics governing plasmon-derived hot charge carrier transfer across, and the electronic structure at, metal-semiconductor (molecule) interfaces, where we feel the barriers contributing to low efficiencies reside. We suggest some areas of opportunity that deserve early attention in the still-evolving field of hot carrier transmission from plasmonic nanostructures to neighboring phases.

  20. Ultrafast non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in semiconductor laser mode-locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hader, J.; Scheller, M.; Laurain, A.; Kilen, I.; Baker, C.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results on the mode-locking dynamics in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with semiconductor and graphene saturable absorber mirrors are reviewed with an emphasis on the role of nonequilibrium carrier effects. The systems are studied theoretically using a fully microscopic many-body model for the carrier distributions and polarizations, coupled to Maxwell’s equations for the field propagation. Pump-probe measurements are performed with (sub-) 100 fs resolution. The analysis shows that the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in the gain quantum-wells and saturable absorber medium significantly influences the system’s response and the resulting mode-locked pulses. The microscopic model is used to study the pulse build up from spontaneous emission noise and to determine the dependence of achievable pulse lengths and fluences on the amounts of saturable and non-saturable losses and the optical gain. The change of the group delay dispersion (GDD) on the pump level is examined and the dependence of the pulse lengths on the total amount of GDD is demonstrated experimentally. Theory-experiment comparisons are used to demonstrate the highly quantitative accuracy of the fully microscopic modeling.

  1. Charge carrier mobility in hybrid halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Carlo; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Sanvito, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The charge transport properties of hybrid halide perovskites are investigated with a combination of density functional theory including van der Waals interaction and the Boltzmann theory for diffusive transport in the relaxation time approximation. We find the mobility of electrons to be in the range 5–10 cm2V−1s−1 and that for holes within 1–5 cm2V−1s−1, where the variations depend on the crystal structure investigated and the level of doping. Such results, in good agreement with recent experiments, set the relaxation time to about 1 ps, which is the time-scale for the molecular rotation at room temperature. For the room temperature tetragonal phase we explore two possible orientations of the organic cations and find that the mobility has a significant asymmetry depending on the direction of the current with respect to the molecular axis. This is due mostly to the way the PbI3 octahedral symmetry is broken. Interestingly we find that substituting I with Cl has minor effects on the mobilities. Our analysis suggests that the carrier mobility is probably not a key factor in determining the high solar-harvesting efficiency of this class of materials. PMID:26235910

  2. Charge carrier mobility in hybrid halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Motta, Carlo; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Sanvito, Stefano

    2015-08-03

    The charge transport properties of hybrid halide perovskites are investigated with a combination of density functional theory including van der Waals interaction and the Boltzmann theory for diffusive transport in the relaxation time approximation. We find the mobility of electrons to be in the range 5-10 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) and that for holes within 1-5 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), where the variations depend on the crystal structure investigated and the level of doping. Such results, in good agreement with recent experiments, set the relaxation time to about 1 ps, which is the time-scale for the molecular rotation at room temperature. For the room temperature tetragonal phase we explore two possible orientations of the organic cations and find that the mobility has a significant asymmetry depending on the direction of the current with respect to the molecular axis. This is due mostly to the way the PbI3 octahedral symmetry is broken. Interestingly we find that substituting I with Cl has minor effects on the mobilities. Our analysis suggests that the carrier mobility is probably not a key factor in determining the high solar-harvesting efficiency of this class of materials.

  3. Generation of deformation waves in the processes of photoexcitation and recombination of nonequilibrium carriers in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanesyan, S. M.; Gusev, V. E.; Zheludev, N. I.

    1986-07-01

    The shape of acoustic pulses excited in crystalline silicon during absorption of Nd3+ YAG laser radiation was studied as a function of incident light intensity. It was revealed that the amplitude of the dilatation wave is saturated while the duration of the compression pulse is shortened. A theoretical model is suggested which explains the above experimental facts by a decrease in the time of Auger recombination for nonequilibrium carriers with an increase in their concentration for higher intensity of the optical excitation. The value of the Auger constant obtained from the experiment is ˜5×10-31 cm6s-1.

  4. The non-equilibrium charge screening effects in diffusion-driven systems with pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovkov, V. N.; Kotomin, E. A.; de la Cruz, M. Olvera

    2011-07-01

    The effects of non-equilibrium charge screening in mixtures of oppositely charged interacting molecules on surfaces are analyzed in a closed system. The dynamics of charge screening and the strong deviation from the standard Debye-Hückel theory are demonstrated via a new formalism based on computing radial distribution functions suited for analyzing both short-range and long-range spacial ordering effects. At long distances the inhomogeneous molecular distribution is limited by diffusion, whereas at short distances (of the order of several coordination spheres) by a balance of short-range (Lennard-Jones) and long-range (Coulomb) interactions. The non-equilibrium charge screening effects in transient pattern formation are further quantified. It is demonstrated that the use of screened potentials, in the spirit of the Debye-Hückel theory, leads to qualitatively incorrect results.

  5. The non-equilibrium charge screening effects in diffusion-driven systems with pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Kuzovkov, V N; Kotomin, E A; Olvera de la Cruz, M

    2011-07-21

    The effects of non-equilibrium charge screening in mixtures of oppositely charged interacting molecules on surfaces are analyzed in a closed system. The dynamics of charge screening and the strong deviation from the standard Debye-Hückel theory are demonstrated via a new formalism based on computing radial distribution functions suited for analyzing both short-range and long-range spacial ordering effects. At long distances the inhomogeneous molecular distribution is limited by diffusion, whereas at short distances (of the order of several coordination spheres) by a balance of short-range (Lennard-Jones) and long-range (Coulomb) interactions. The non-equilibrium charge screening effects in transient pattern formation are further quantified. It is demonstrated that the use of screened potentials, in the spirit of the Debye-Hückel theory, leads to qualitatively incorrect results.

  6. Anisotropy of the charge-carrier mobility in polydiacetylene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoofman, Romano J. O. M.; Siebbeles, Laurens D. A.; de Haas, Matthijs P.; Hummel, Andries; Bloor, David

    1998-08-01

    The anisotropic mobility of excess charge carriers in pure and mixed crystals of two polydiacetylene derivatives was determined. The charge carriers were produced by pulsed irradiation and detected by time-resolved measurement of the microwave conductivity. The charge-carrier mobility was measured as a function of the orientation of the polymer backbone in the crystal with respect to the probing electric microwave field. A lower limit in the intrinsic anisotropy in the charge-carrier mobility was found to be 15 in favor of charge transport in the direction of the polymer backbone as compared to the transverse direction for polydiacetylene-(bis p-fluorobenzene sulfonate) (pFBS), while a value of 90 was found for polydiacetylene-(bis p-toluene sulfonate) (pTS) and the 50:50 pTS/FBS copolymer. A lower limit of the charge-carrier mobility along the backbone of 3 cm2/V s was found for both pTS and pFBS. The charge-carrier mobility in the copolymer was found to be one order of magnitude lower than in the pure polymers.

  7. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2014-12-07

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  8. Nonequilibrium effects on charge and energy partitioning after an interaction quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzona, Alessio; Gambetta, Filippo Maria; Carrega, Matteo; Cavaliere, Fabio; Sassetti, Maura

    2017-02-01

    Charge and energy fractionalization are among the most intriguing features of interacting one-dimensional fermion systems. In this work we determine how these phenomena are modified in the presence of an interaction quench. Charge and energy are injected into the system suddenly after the quench, by means of tunneling processes with a noninteracting one-dimensional probe. Here, we demonstrate that the system settles to a steady state in which the charge fractionalization ratio is unaffected by the prequenched parameters. On the contrary, due to the postquench nonequilibrium spectral function, the energy partitioning ratio is strongly modified, reaching values larger than 1. This is a peculiar feature of the nonequilibrium dynamics of the quench process and it is in sharp contrast with the nonquenched case, where the ratio is bounded by 1.

  9. 47 CFR 69.153 - Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (PICC). 69.153 Section 69.153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... § 69.153 Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC). (a) A charge expressed in dollars and cents... maximum of $4.31 per line per month. In the event the ceilings on the PICC prevent the PICC...

  10. 47 CFR 69.153 - Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (PICC). 69.153 Section 69.153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... § 69.153 Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC). (a) A charge expressed in dollars and cents... maximum of $4.31 per line per month. In the event the ceilings on the PICC prevent the PICC from...

  11. Diffusive-convective transition in the non-equilibrium charging of an electric double layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobaskin, Vladimir; Netz, Roland R.

    2016-12-01

    We study the non-equilibrium electrolyte kinetics in a planar nanocapacitor that is driven by periodically switching surfaces charges using simulations, theory and scaling analysis. The combined effects of inter-ionic charge correlations and hydrodynamic interactions lead to correlated convective behavior for weakly charged ions. These dynamic correlations, signaling the breakdown of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory, are distinct from static correlations that are manifested by the crossover from Poisson-Boltzmann to strong-coupling theory that occurs as the ion valency increases.

  12. Time-resolved, nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in Si-on-glass thin films for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, John; Akbas, Yunus; Crandall, Lucas; Bellman, Robert; Williams, Carlo Kosik; Sobolewski, Robert

    2016-03-02

    Here, a femtosecond pump–probe spectroscopy method was used to characterize the growth process and transport properties of amorphous silicon-on-glass, thin films, intended as absorbers for photovoltaic cells. We collected normalized transmissivity change (ΔT/T) waveforms and interpreted them using a comprehensive three-rate equation electron trapping and recombination model. Optically excited ~300–500 nm thick Si films exhibited a bi-exponential carrier relaxation with the characteristic times varying from picoseconds to nanoseconds depending on the film growth process. From our comprehensive trapping model, we could determine that for doped and intrinsic films with very low hydrogen dilution the dominant relaxation mode was carrier trapping; while for intrinsic films with large hydrogen content and some texture, it was the standard electron–phonon cooling. In both cases, the initial nonequilibrium relaxation was followed by Shockley–Read–Hall recombination. An excellent fit between the model and the ΔT/T experimental transients was obtained and a correlation between the Si film growth process, its hydrogen content, and the associated trap concentration was demonstrated.

  13. Time-resolved, nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in Si-on-glass thin films for photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, John; Akbas, Yunus; Crandall, Lucas; Bellman, Robert; Kosik Williams, Carlo; Sobolewski, Roman

    2016-04-01

    A femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy method was used to characterize the growth process and transport properties of amorphous silicon-on-glass, thin films, intended as absorbers for photovoltaic cells. We collected normalized transmissivity change (ΔT/T) waveforms and interpreted them using a comprehensive three-rate equation electron trapping and recombination model. Optically excited ˜300-500 nm thick Si films exhibited a bi-exponential carrier relaxation with the characteristic times varying from picoseconds to nanoseconds depending on the film growth process. From our comprehensive trapping model, we could determine that for doped and intrinsic films with very low hydrogen dilution the dominant relaxation mode was carrier trapping; while for intrinsic films with large hydrogen content and some texture, it was the standard electron-phonon cooling. In both cases, the initial nonequilibrium relaxation was followed by Shockley-Read-Hall recombination. An excellent fit between the model and the ΔT/T experimental transients was obtained and a correlation between the Si film growth process, its hydrogen content, and the associated trap concentration was demonstrated.

  14. Time-resolved, nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in Si-on-glass thin films for photovoltaic cells

    DOE PAGES

    Serafini, John; Akbas, Yunus; Crandall, Lucas; ...

    2016-03-02

    Here, a femtosecond pump–probe spectroscopy method was used to characterize the growth process and transport properties of amorphous silicon-on-glass, thin films, intended as absorbers for photovoltaic cells. We collected normalized transmissivity change (ΔT/T) waveforms and interpreted them using a comprehensive three-rate equation electron trapping and recombination model. Optically excited ~300–500 nm thick Si films exhibited a bi-exponential carrier relaxation with the characteristic times varying from picoseconds to nanoseconds depending on the film growth process. From our comprehensive trapping model, we could determine that for doped and intrinsic films with very low hydrogen dilution the dominant relaxation mode was carrier trapping;more » while for intrinsic films with large hydrogen content and some texture, it was the standard electron–phonon cooling. In both cases, the initial nonequilibrium relaxation was followed by Shockley–Read–Hall recombination. An excellent fit between the model and the ΔT/T experimental transients was obtained and a correlation between the Si film growth process, its hydrogen content, and the associated trap concentration was demonstrated.« less

  15. On the nature of photo charge carriers in ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, V. F.; Khusnatdinov, N. N.

    1994-06-01

    A method of photoelectromotive force (PEMF) was developed to find the charge sign, mobility, and lifetime of photo charge carriers in ice generated by photons with energy hν≳6.5 eV. It was determined that the most mobile photo charge carriers are negative ones, with mobility μ increasing from 2×10-3 cm2/V s at T=-10 °C to 4×10-2 cm2/V s at T=-30 °C, and with their lifetime decreasing from 30 to 10 s in the same temperature range. Activation energies of the mobility and the lifetime are Eμ=-0.77 eV and Eτ=0.32 eV, respectively. In addition to the negative photo charge carriers positive ones arise with mobility μ=2.3×10-4 cm2/V s and lifetime τ=26 min at T=-15 °C. We suggest that the negative photo charge carriers in ice are mobile complexes of an electron, vacancy and D-defect (e-+V+D). To take into account a specific mechanism of charge transport in ice, configurational vector Ω, and the generation of complexes (e-+V+D), a reaction of ``autoionization'' was modified for ice, 2H2O+hν→H3O++OH•int(e-+V+D).

  16. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Reklaitis, Ignas

    2016-04-18

    Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm²/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm²/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects.

  17. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Reklaitis, Ignas

    2016-01-01

    Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects. PMID:28773418

  18. Space charge corrected electron emission from an aluminum surface under non-equilibrium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelen, W.; Bogaerts, A.; Mueller, B. Y.; Rethfeld, B.; Autrique, D.

    2012-06-01

    A theoretical study has been conducted of ultrashort pulsed laser induced electron emission from an aluminum surface. Electron emission fluxes retrieved from the commonly employed Fowler-DuBridge theory were compared to fluxes based on a laser-induced non-equilibrium electron distribution. As a result, the two- and three-photon photoelectron emission parameters for the Fowler-DuBridge theory have been approximated. We observe that at regimes where photoemission is important, laser-induced electron emission evolves in a more smooth manner than predicted by the Fowler-DuBridge theory. The importance of the actual electron distribution decreases at higher laser fluences, whereas the contribution of thermionic emission increases. Furthermore, the influence of a space charge effect on electron emission was evaluated by a one dimensional particle-in-cell model. Depending on the fluences, the space charge reduces the electron emission by several orders of magnitude. The influence of the electron emission flux profiles on the effective electron emission was found to be negligible. However, a non-equilibrium electron velocity distribution increases the effective electron emission significantly. Our results show that it is essential to consider the non-equilibrium electron distribution as well as the space charge effect for the description of laser-induced photoemission.

  19. The Influence of Trapped Ions and Non-equilibrium EDF on Dust Particle Charging

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.; Antipov, S. N.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2008-09-07

    Dust particles charging in a low-pressure glow discharge was investigated theoretically with the help of model for trapped and free ions coupled with the self-consistent solution of Poisson equation for electric potential. Non-equilibrium (non-Maxwellian) character of electron energy distribution function depending on gas pressure and electric field was also taken into account on the basis of the solution of kinetic Boltzmann equation. The results were compared with the experimental measurements of dust particle charge depending on gas pressure. It was shown that the calculated effective charge, i.e. the difference of the dust particle charge and trapped ion charge, is in a fairly good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Photogeneration of charge carriers in titanium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Chihiro; Iwahashi, Kuniaki; Kan'no, Ken-ichi

    2002-05-01

    We have measured action spectra of the photoconductivity of rutile crystal at ˜4 K. The photoconductivity spectrum shows a keen rise at 3.0 eV and shows a peak at 3.2 eV and a shoulder around 3.7 eV. The threshold energy of the photoconductivity excitation well agrees with the onset of the fundamental optical absorption. This result indicates that the carriers contributing to the photoconductivity are generated by the fundamental excitation of the crystal. We have found that the photoconductivity shows remarkable field dependence. Below 5 V/mm, the photoconductivity was almost field independent. On the other hand, increasing the field strength in the range from 5 to 25 V/mm strongly enhanced the photoconductivity and varied the shape of the action spectrum. The origin of the field dependence is discussed.

  1. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  2. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  3. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  4. Shielding of a Moving Charged Dust Particle in the Nonequilibrium Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, A. V.; Pal, A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Momot, A. I.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2008-09-07

    Study of shielding of a moving charged dust particle in the nonequilibrium plasma was performed. It is known that in the collisionless so-called Vlasov plasma the electric field of a slowly moving charged particle at high distances corresponds to quadrupole [1, 2, 3]. It was found that in the collisional plasma the electric field of a moving dust particle had the dipole component and the long distance behavior of the electric fields was defined by this component. Therefore the interaction of dust particles in plasma flow became dependent on the relative orientation of the interpaticle radius-vector and the flow velocity vector.

  5. Organic Charge Carriers for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Völker, Sebastian F; Collavini, Silvia; Delgado, Juan Luis

    2015-09-21

    The photovoltaic field is currently experiencing the "perovskite revolution". These materials have been known for decades, but only recently have they been applied in solid-state solar cells to obtain outstanding power conversion efficiencies. Given that the variety of perovskites used so far is limited, a lot of attention has been devoted to the development of suitable organic charge-transport materials to improve device performance. In this article, we will focus on the most promising materials able to transport electrons or holes from a structural point of view. Thereby, we focus on organic materials owing to their ease of preparation and manipulation, and this is nicely combined with the potential tuning of their properties through chemical synthesis.

  6. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers: effects of carrier density and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, K. D.; Pasveer, W. F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.; Blom, P. W. M.; de Leeuw, D. M.; Michels, M. A. J.

    2006-02-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solutions of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility on temperature, carrier density, and electric field. Our results are used in calculating current-voltage characteristics of hole-only polymer diodes. It is found that very good fits to experimental current-voltage characteristics can be obtained at different temperatures, with reasonable fitting parameters for the width of the Gaussian density of states and the lattice constant. In agreement with the experiments we find that the density dependence is dominant over the field dependence. Only at high fields and low temperatures the field dependence becomes noticeable. The potential and current distribution show strong inhomogeneities, which may have important consequences for the operation of polymer opto-electronic devices.

  7. 47 CFR 69.154 - Per-minute carrier common line charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Per-minute carrier common line charge. 69.154 Section 69.154 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... carrier common line charge. (a) Local exchange carriers may recover a per-minute carrier common...

  8. Columnar mesophases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives. II. Charge carrier mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, James; Marcon, Valentina; Kremer, Kurt; Nelson, Jenny; Andrienko, Denis

    2008-09-01

    Combining atomistic molecular dynamic simulations, Marcus-Hush theory description of charge transport rates, and master equation description of charge dynamics, we correlate the temperature-driven change of the mesophase structure with the change of charge carrier mobilities in columnar phases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives. The time dependence of fluctuations in transfer integrals shows that static disorder is predominant in determining charge transport characteristics. Both site energies and transfer integrals are distributed because of disorder in the molecular arrangement. It is shown that the contributions to the site energies from polarization and electrostatic effects are of opposite sign for positive charges. We look at three mesophases of hexabenzocoronene: herringbone, discotic, and columnar disordered. All results are compared to time resolved microwave conductivity data and show excellent agreement with no fitting parameters.

  9. 47 CFR 36.381 - Carrier access charge billing and collecting expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier access charge billing and collecting... Operating Expenses and Taxes Customer Operations Expenses § 36.381 Carrier access charge billing and... billing and collecting of access charges to interexchange carriers. (b) Of access charges other than...

  10. 47 CFR 36.381 - Carrier access charge billing and collecting expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carrier access charge billing and collecting... Operating Expenses and Taxes Customer Operations Expenses § 36.381 Carrier access charge billing and... billing and collecting of access charges to interexchange carriers. (b) Of access charges other than...

  11. Spectroscopy of equilibrium and nonequilibrium charge transfer in semiconductor quantum structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, C.; Burkhard, S.; Krähenmann, T.; Röösli, M.; Märki, P.; Basset, J.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate equilibrium and nonequilibrium charge-transfer processes by performing high-resolution transport spectroscopy. Using electrostatically defined quantum dots for energy-selective emission and detection, we achieved very high spectral resolution and a high degree of tunability of relevant experimental parameters. Most importantly, we observe that the spectral width of elastically transferred electrons can be substantially smaller than the linewidth of a thermally broadened Coulomb peak. This finding indicates that the charge-transfer process is fast compared to the electron-phonon interaction time. By drawing an analogy to double quantum dots, we argue that the spectral width of the elastic resonance is determined by the lifetime broadening hΓ of the emitter and detector states. Good agreement with the model is found also in an experiment in which the charge transfer is in the regime hΓ≫kBT. By performing spectroscopy below the Fermi energy, we furthermore observe elastic and inelastic transfer of holes.

  12. Identification of the Charge Carriers in Cerium Phosphate Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Hannah L.; Jonghe, Lutgard C. De

    2010-06-02

    The total conductivity of Sr-doped cerium orthophosphate changes by nearly two orders of magnitude depending on the oxygen and hydrogen content of the atmosphere. The defect model for the system suggests that this is because the identity of the dominant charge carrier can change from electron holes to protons when the sample is in equilibrium with air vs. humidified hydrogen. In this work are presented some preliminary measurements that can help to clarify this exchange between carriers. The conduction behavior of a 2percent Sr-doped CePO4 sample under symmetric atmospheric conditions is investigated using several techniques, including AC impedance, H/D isotope effects, and chronoamperometry.

  13. Dynamic Charge Carrier Trapping in Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Qian; Alivisatos, A Paul; Salmeron, Miquel

    2015-07-08

    Noncrystalline semiconductor materials often exhibit hysteresis in charge transport measurements whose mechanism is largely unknown. Here we study the dynamics of charge injection and transport in PbS quantum dot (QD) monolayers in a field effect transistor (FET). Using Kelvin probe force microscopy, we measured the temporal response of the QDs as the channel material in a FET following step function changes of gate bias. The measurements reveal an exponential decay of mobile carrier density with time constants of 3-5 s for holes and ∼10 s for electrons. An Ohmic behavior, with uniform carrier density, was observed along the channel during the injection and transport processes. These slow, uniform carrier trapping processes are reversible, with time constants that depend critically on the gas environment. We propose that the underlying mechanism is some reversible electrochemical process involving dissociation and diffusion of water and/or oxygen related species. These trapping processes are dynamically activated by the injected charges, in contrast with static electronic traps whose presence is independent of the charge state. Understanding and controlling these processes is important for improving the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, and memory devices based on disordered semiconductors.

  14. High charge-carrier mobility enables exploitation of carrier multiplication in quantum-dot films

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, C. S. Suchand; Cate, Sybren ten; Schins, Juleon M.; Savenije, Tom J.; Liu, Yao; Law, Matt; Kinge, Sachin; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Siebbeles, Laurens D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Carrier multiplication, the generation of multiple electron–hole pairs by a single photon, is of great interest for solar cells as it may enhance their photocurrent. This process has been shown to occur efficiently in colloidal quantum dots, however, harvesting of the generated multiple charges has proved difficult. Here we show that by tuning the charge-carrier mobility in quantum-dot films, carrier multiplication can be optimized and may show an efficiency as high as in colloidal dispersion. Our results are explained quantitatively by the competition between dissociation of multiple electron–hole pairs and Auger recombination. Above a mobility of ~1 cm2 V−1 s−1, all charges escape Auger recombination and are quantitatively converted to free charges, offering the prospect of cheap quantum-dot solar cells with efficiencies in excess of the Shockley–Queisser limit. In addition, we show that the threshold energy for carrier multiplication is reduced to twice the band gap of the quantum dots. PMID:23974282

  15. Non-equilibrium energy loss for very highly charged ions in insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, M.A.; Schenkel, T.; Bauer, P.; Amau, A.

    1996-12-31

    The energy loss of 144 keV Ar{sup +16} ions on a bilayer structure of C-CaF{sub 2} has been measured. An asymmetry in the results is found depending on which layer is passed by the ion first: the energy loss is about four times larger when the CaF{sub 2} layer is traversed by the ion first. We interpret this as an indication of the existence of a nonequilibrium charge state of the Ar ions inside the solid in the case of the insulator.

  16. Nonequilibrium Dynamical Mean-Field Theory for the Charge-Density-Wave Phase of the Falicov-Kimball Model

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2015-12-08

    Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) is developed for the case of the charge-density-wave ordered phase. We consider the spinless Falicov-Kimball model which can be solved exactly. This strongly correlated system is then placed in an uniform external dc electric field. We present a complete derivation for nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory Green’s functions defined on the Keldysh-Schwinger time contour. We also discuss numerical issues involved in solving the coupled equations.

  17. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  18. Charge-carrier screening in single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David A; Regan, William; Fedorov, Alexei V; Zettl, A; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2013-04-05

    The effect of charge-carrier screening on the transport properties of a neutral graphene sheet is studied by directly probing its electronic structure. We find that the Fermi velocity, Dirac point velocity, and overall distortion of the Dirac cone are renormalized due to the screening of the electron-electron interaction in an unusual way. We also observe an increase of the electron mean free path due to the screening of charged impurities. These observations help us to understand the basis for the transport properties of graphene, as well as the fundamental physics of these interesting electron-electron interactions at the Dirac point crossing.

  19. Charge carrier recombination dynamics in perovskite and polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paulke, Andreas; Kniepert, Juliane; Kurpiers, Jona; Wolff, Christian M.; Schön, Natalie; Brenner, Thomas J. K.; Neher, Dieter; Stranks, Samuel D.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2016-03-14

    Time-delayed collection field experiments are applied to planar organometal halide perovskite (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) based solar cells to investigate charge carrier recombination in a fully working solar cell at the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. Recombination of mobile (extractable) charges is shown to follow second-order recombination dynamics for all fluences and time scales tested. Most importantly, the bimolecular recombination coefficient is found to be time-dependent, with an initial value of ca. 10{sup −9} cm{sup 3}/s and a progressive reduction within the first tens of nanoseconds. Comparison to the prototypical organic bulk heterojunction device PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM yields important differences with regard to the mechanism and time scale of free carrier recombination.

  20. Nanofaceting as a stamp for periodic graphene charge carrier modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondráček, M.; Kalita, D.; Kučera, M.; Fekete, L.; Kopeček, J.; Lančok, J.; Coraux, J.; Bouchiat, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-04-01

    The exceptional electronic properties of monatomic thin graphene sheets triggered numerous original transport concepts, pushing quantum physics into the realm of device technology for electronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. At the conceptual pivot point is the particular two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion character of graphene charge carriers and its volitional modification by intrinsic or extrinsic means. Here, interfaces between different electronic and structural graphene modifications promise exciting physics and functionality, in particular when fabricated with atomic precision. In this study we show that quasiperiodic modulations of doping levels can be imprinted down to the nanoscale in monolayer graphene sheets. Vicinal copper surfaces allow to alternate graphene carrier densities by several 1013 carriers per cm2 along a specific copper high-symmetry direction. The process is triggered by a self-assembled copper faceting process during high-temperature graphene chemical vapor deposition, which defines interfaces between different graphene doping levels at the atomic level.

  1. Nanofaceting as a stamp for periodic graphene charge carrier modulations

    PubMed Central

    Vondráček, M.; Kalita, D.; Kučera, M.; Fekete, L.; Kopeček, J.; Lančok, J.; Coraux, J.; Bouchiat, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-01-01

    The exceptional electronic properties of monatomic thin graphene sheets triggered numerous original transport concepts, pushing quantum physics into the realm of device technology for electronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. At the conceptual pivot point is the particular two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion character of graphene charge carriers and its volitional modification by intrinsic or extrinsic means. Here, interfaces between different electronic and structural graphene modifications promise exciting physics and functionality, in particular when fabricated with atomic precision. In this study we show that quasiperiodic modulations of doping levels can be imprinted down to the nanoscale in monolayer graphene sheets. Vicinal copper surfaces allow to alternate graphene carrier densities by several 1013 carriers per cm2 along a specific copper high-symmetry direction. The process is triggered by a self-assembled copper faceting process during high-temperature graphene chemical vapor deposition, which defines interfaces between different graphene doping levels at the atomic level. PMID:27040365

  2. Organic (opto)electronic materials: understanding charge carrier dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroverkhova, Oksana

    2008-05-01

    There is growing interest in using organic (opto)electronic materials for applications in electronics and photonics. In particular, organic semiconductor thin films offer several advantages over traditional silicon technology, including low-cost processing, the potential for large-area flexible devices, high-efficiency light emission, and widely tunable properties through functionalization of the molecules. Over the past decade, remarkable progress in materials design and purification has been made, which led to applications of organic semiconductors in light-emitting diodes, polymer lasers, photovoltaic cells, high-speed photodetectors, organic thin-film transistors, and many others. Most of the applications envisioned for organic semiconductors rely on their conductive or photoconductive properties. However, despite remarkable progress in organic electronics and photonics, the nature of charge carrier photogeneration and transport in organic semiconductors is not completely understood and remains controversial, partly due to difficulties in assessing intrinsic properties that are often masked by impurities, grain boundaries, etc. Measurements of charge carrier dynamics at picosecond time scales after excitation reveal the intrinsic nature of mobile charge carriers before they are trapped at defect sites. In this presentation, I will review the current state of the field and summarize our recent results on photoconductivity of novel high-performance organic semiconductors (such as functionalized pentacene and anthradithiophene thin films) from picoseconds to seconds after photoexcitation. Photoluminescent properties of these novel materials will also be discussed.

  3. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force actingmore » on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.« less

  4. Nonequilibrium phenomena in charge recombination of excited donor-acceptor complexes and free energy gap law.

    PubMed

    Yudanov, Vladislav V; Mikhailova, Valentina A; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2010-12-23

    The charge recombination dynamics of excited donor-acceptor complexes in polar solvents has been investigated within the framework of the stochastic approach. The model involves the excited state formation by the pump pulse and accounts for the reorganization of a number of intramolecular high-frequency vibrational modes, for their relaxation as well as for the solvent reorganization following nonexponential relaxation. The hot transitions accelerate the charge recombination in the low exergonic region and suppress it in the region of moderate exothermicity. This straightens the dependence of the logarithm of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap to the form that can be fitted to the experimental data. The free energy dependence of the charge recombination rate constant can be well fitted to the multichannel stochastic model if the donor-acceptor complexes are separated into a few groups with different values of the electronic coupling. The model provides correct description of the nonexponential charge recombination dynamics in excited donor-acceptor complexes, in particular, nearly exponential recombination in perylene-tetracyanoethylene complex in acetonitrile. It appears that majority of the initially excited donor-acceptor complexes recombines in a nonthermal (hot) stage when the nonequilibrium wave packet passes through a number of term crossings corresponding to transitions toward vibrational excited states of the electronic ground state in the area of the low and moderate exothermicity.

  5. Polaronic Charge Carrier-Lattice Interactions in Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Christoph; Cho, Himchan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-10-09

    Almost ten years after the renaissance of the popular perovskite-type semiconductors based on lead salts with the general formula AMX3 (A=organic or inorganic cation; M=divalent metal; X=halide), many facets of photophysics continue to puzzle researchers. In this Minireview, light is shed on the low mobilities of charge carriers in lead halide perovskites with special focus on the lattice properties at non-zero temperature. The polar and soft lattice leads to pronounced electron-phonon coupling, limiting carrier mobility and retarding recombination. We propose that the proper picture of excited charge carriers at temperature ranges that are relevant for device operations is that of a polaron, with Fröhlich coupling constants between 1<α<3. Under the aspect of light-emitting diode application, APbX3 perovskite show moderate second order (bimolecular) recombination rates and high third-order (Auger) rate constants. It has become apparent that this is a direct consequence of the anisotropic polar A-site cation in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites and might be alleviated by replacing the organic moiety with an isotropic cation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Charge transfer doping of graphene without degrading carrier mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haichang; Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2017-06-01

    Density functional calculations are used to analyze the charge transfer doping mechanism by molecules absorbed onto graphene. Typical dopants studied are AuCl3, FeCl3, SbF5, HNO3, MoO3, Cs2O, O2, and OH. The Fermi level shifts are correlated with the electron affinity or ionization potential of the dopants. We pay particular attention to whether the dopants form direct chemisorptive bonds which cause the underlying carbon atoms to pucker to form sp3 sites as these interrupt the π bonding of the basal plane, and cause carrier scattering and thus degrade the carrier mobility. Most species even those with high or low electronegativity do not cause puckering. In contrast, reactive radicals like -OH cause puckering of the basal plane, creating sp3 sites which degrade mobility.

  7. Collective bulk carrier delocalization driven by electrostatic surface charge accumulation.

    PubMed

    Nakano, M; Shibuya, K; Okuyama, D; Hatano, T; Ono, S; Kawasaki, M; Iwasa, Y; Tokura, Y

    2012-07-25

    In the classic transistor, the number of electric charge carriers--and thus the electrical conductivity--is precisely controlled by external voltage, providing electrical switching capability. This simple but powerful feature is essential for information processing technology, and also provides a platform for fundamental physics research. As the number of charges essentially determines the electronic phase of a condensed-matter system, transistor operation enables reversible and isothermal changes in the system's state, as successfully demonstrated in electric-field-induced ferromagnetism and superconductivity. However, this effect of the electric field is limited to a channel thickness of nanometres or less, owing to the presence of Thomas-Fermi screening. Here we show that this conventional picture does not apply to a class of materials characterized by inherent collective interactions between electrons and the crystal lattice. We prepared metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors based on vanadium dioxide--a strongly correlated material with a thermally driven, first-order metal-insulator transition well above room temperature--and found that electrostatic charging at a surface drives all the previously localized charge carriers in the bulk material into motion, leading to the emergence of a three-dimensional metallic ground state. This non-local switching of the electronic state is achieved by applying a voltage of only about one volt. In a voltage-sweep measurement, the first-order nature of the metal-insulator transition provides a non-volatile memory effect, which is operable at room temperature. Our results demonstrate a conceptually new field-effect device, extending the concept of electric-field control to macroscopic phase control.

  8. Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

  9. Polaron mass of charge carriers in semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, A. Yu. Proshina, O. V.

    2015-10-15

    A theory of the interaction of charge carriers with optical phonons in a quantum well is developed with consideration for interface optical phonons. The dependence of the polaron effective mass on the quantum-well dimensions and dielectric characteristics of barriers is analyzed in detail. It is shown that, in narrow quantum wells, a quasi-two-dimensional polaron can be formed. In this case, however, the interaction parameters are defined by the charge-carrier effective mass in the quantum well and by the frequencies of interface optical phonons. If barriers are made of a nonpolar material, the polaron effective mass depends on the quantum-well width. As the quantum-well width is increased, a new mechanism of enhancement of the electron–phonon interaction develops. The mechanism is implemented, if the optical phonon energy is equal to the energy of one of the electronic transitions. This condition yields an unsteady dependence of the polaron effective mass on the quantum-well width.

  10. Charge carrier tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglin, Kevin

    There is currently a wide variety of passive plasmonic technologies, with applications in the fields of sensing, security, and optical interconnects and computing. Development of a rapidly and broadly tunable plasmonic device would be an enabling technology, giving active control over these traditionally passive devices. The free charge carrier concentration directly affects the dielectric permittivity of a semiconductor, which in turn determines the plasmonic resonance. Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using n-type substrates permit the modulation of free charge carriers in a semiconductor by applying a bias. In this study, MOS-capacitors were fabricated with an extraordinary optical transmission gratings built into the top gate. Tuning of the optical resonance of an EOT spectrum is shown applying a reverse bias across the semiconductor. The oxide layer used was hafnium dioxide, grown by atomic layer deposition. The electrical properties of the hafnia were studied in order to maximize the capabilities of this design. The samples were processed using standard photolithography and wet etching techniques, and characterized by optical microscopy, probe testing, and transmission spectroscopy. Resonant tuning of 30 nm has been demonstrated. The maximum depletion width in the semiconductor limited the effect and prohibited broader tuning.

  11. Dynamics of charge carriers on hexagonal nanoribbons with vacancy defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Cunha, Wiliam; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; Terai, Akira; Magela e Silva, Geraldo

    2016-07-01

    We develop a general model to investigate the dynamics of charge carriers in vacancy endowed honeycomb two-dimensional nanolattices. As a fundamental application, results concerning the influence of vacancies placed on different sites of semiconducting armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNR) over the transport of polarons are presented. It is observed that the positioning of vacancies plays a major role over the scattering of the charge carriers, in the sense that their overall mobility is determined by where the defect is allocated. By considering different structural configurations of the system, the arising polaron can either move freely or be reflected. Therefore, our work provides a phenomenological understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for the change of conductivity experienced by systems in which structural defects are present, a fact that has been reported for different nanostructures of the same symmetry. Because vacancies are one of the most common kinds of defects and are, in practice, unavoidable, the kind of description proposed in the present paper is crucial to correctly address transport and electronic properties in more realistic electronic devices based on two-dimensional nanolattices.

  12. Charge carrier photogeneration, trapping, and space-charge field formation in PVK-based photorefractive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Däubler, T. K.; Bittner, R.; Meerholz, K.; Cimrová, V.; Neher, D.

    2000-05-01

    We studied the dark conductivity (jdark), the photoconductivity (jphoto), and the charge carrier photogeneration efficiency η of poly(N-vinylcarbazole)-based photorefractive (PR) materials with different glass-transition temperatures (Tg) and chromophore content (ρCHR). Measurements were carried out at wavelengths similar to those used in degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) and two-beam coupling (2BC) experiments. Both thick (37 μm) and thin samples (~1 μm) were analyzed. Photoconductivity experiments at different temperatures show that both jdark and jphoto are thermally activated. For jdark the activation is not related to the glass-transition temperature of the blends, whereas photocurrents exhibit a universal behavior with respect to Tr=Tg-T. The charge carrier photogeneration efficiency η was measured by xerographic discharge experiments. η was found to be independent of both Tg and of ρCHR. The photoconductivity gain factor G defined as the number of charge carriers measured in photoconductivity in relation to the number of carriers initially photogenerated as determined by the xerographic experiments is used to compare the results of photoconductivity and xerographic discharge experiments. G is found to be much smaller than unity even for thin samples, which indicates that the mean free path of the photogenerated charge carriers is less than 1 μm at photoelectrical equilibrium. Using Schildkraut's model for the space-charge field formation in organic PR materials, trap densities Ti of approximately 1017 cm-3 could be derived from G. The field and temperature dependence of Ti is independent of ρCHR and might account for the universal Tr dependence of jphoto. The estimated trap densities are used to calculate the first-order Fourier component of the space-charge field in the PR materials illuminated with a sinusoidal intensity pattern. Modifying Schildkraut's model so that the tilt between the applied electric field and the index of refraction grating

  13. Pulse radiolysis studies on charge carriers in conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, H. D.; Miguel, M. da G.; Monkman, A. P.; Horsburgh, L. E.; Hamblett, I.; Navaratnam, S.

    2000-02-01

    The charged states of the conjugated polymers poly(2-methoxy,5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p- phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(2,5-pyridinediyl) (PPY) have been studied by pulse radiolysis. Following pulse radiolysis of argon-saturated solutions of MEH-PPV in chloroform, a new absorption is seen to grow in over a few hundred microseconds. This has a principal absorption at 1.43 eV and a weaker, low energy band (⩽0.80 eV), and is assigned to the positive one-electron charge state (positive polaron) of MEH-PPV. The slow absorption decay is unaffected by oxygen. Negative charge states (negative polarons), with absorptions around 1.4 eV, are produced upon pulse radiolysis of MEH-PPV in argon-saturated solutions in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or benzonitrile. A small solvatochromic shift is observed. In contrast to the behavior of the positive polaron, the MEH-PPV negative charge carriers decay fairly rapidly, and are readily quenched by molecular oxygen. Previous results on chemically produced positive and negative charge states of conjugated polymers and oligomers are discussed on the basis of these assignments, and comparison is made with theoretical calculations. Using benzophenone as a charge scavenger, pulse radiolysis of formic acid is shown to generate one-electron reducing species. Various derivatives of PPY, including a regioregular polymer (rPPY) and a hexyl substituted compound (HPPY) have been studied by pulse radiolysis in formic acid solution. With rPPY, new absorptions are observed at 2.59 and 1.40 eV, and are assigned to the one-electron reduced species. These are strongly quenched by molecular oxygen. With HPPY, the lower energy transition is broadened to give a maximum below 1.21 eV and a shoulder at 1.65 eV. The differences between rPPY and HPPY are interpreted on the basis of differences in the rigidity of the polymer. The relevance of these assignments to the identification of charged species in photoinduced absorption measurements is indicated.

  14. The effect of carrier gas contaminants on the charging probability of aerosols under bipolar charging conditions

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Gerhard; Reischl, Georg P.

    2012-01-01

    This work concentrates on the experimental determination of the properties of ionic molecular clusters that are produced in the bipolar ionic atmosphere of a radioactivity based 241Am charger. The main scope of this study was to investigate the dependency of the ions' properties on carrier gas contaminants caused by the evaporation of trace gases from different kinds of frequently encountered tubing materials. A recently developed high resolution mobility spectrometer allows the precise determination of the ions' electrical mobility; an empirical mass-mobility relationship was used to approximate the corresponding ion masses. It was found that impurities in the carrier gas dramatically change the pattern of the ion mobility/size distribution, resulting in very different ion properties that strongly depend on the carrier gas composition. Since the ion properties control the charging process of aerosols, it was further investigated how the different ion properties affect the calculation of the charging probabilities of aerosols. The results show that despite large variations of the ions' properties, only a minor effect on the calculated charging probabilities can be found. PMID:23209330

  15. Fractal spectrum of charge carriers in quasiperiodic graphene structures.

    PubMed

    Sena, S H R; Pereira, J M; Farias, G A; Vasconcelos, M S; Albuquerque, E L

    2010-11-24

    In this work we investigate the interaction of charge carriers in graphene with a series of p-n-p junctions arranged according to a deterministic quasiperiodic substitutional Fibonacci sequence. The junctions create a potential landscape with quantum wells and barriers of different widths, allowing the existence of quasi-confined states. Spectra of quasi-confined states are calculated for several generations of the Fibonacci sequence as a function of the wavevector component parallel to the barrier interfaces. The results show that, as the Fibonacci generation is increased, the dispersion branches form energy bands distributed as a Cantor-like set. Besides, for a quasiperiodic set of potential barriers, we obtain the electronic tunneling probability as a function of energy, which shows a striking self-similar behavior for different generation numbers.

  16. Theory of chemical kinetics and charge transfer based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bazant, Martin Z

    2013-05-21

    the past 7 years, which is capable of answering these questions. The reaction rate is a nonlinear function of the thermodynamic driving force, the free energy of reaction, expressed in terms of variational chemical potentials. The theory unifies and extends the Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn equations through a master equation for nonequilibrium chemical thermodynamics. For electrochemistry, I have also generalized both Marcus and Butler-Volmer kinetics for concentrated solutions and ionic solids. This new theory provides a quantitative description of LFP phase behavior. Concentration gradients and elastic coherency strain enhance the intercalation rate. At low currents, the charge-transfer rate is focused on exposed phase boundaries, which propagate as "intercalation waves", nucleated by surface wetting. Unexpectedly, homogeneous reactions are favored above a critical current and below a critical size, which helps to explain the rate capability of LFP nanoparticles. Contrary to other mechanisms, elevated temperatures and currents may enhance battery performance and lifetime by suppressing phase separation. The theory has also been extended to porous electrodes and could be used for battery engineering with multiphase active materials. More broadly, the theory describes nonequilibrium chemical systems at mesoscopic length and time scales, beyond the reach of molecular simulations and bulk continuum models. The reaction rate is consistently defined for inhomogeneous, nonequilibrium states, for example, with phase separation, large electric fields, or mechanical stresses. This research is also potentially applicable to fluid extraction from nanoporous solids, pattern formation in electrophoretic deposition, and electrochemical dynamics in biological cells.

  17. Intrinsic Charge Carrier Mobility in Single-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, A N; Brener, S; Katsnelson, M I

    2016-06-17

    We present a theory for single- and two-phonon charge carrier scattering in anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors applied to single-layer black phosphorus (BP). We show that in contrast to graphene, where two-phonon processes due to the scattering by flexural phonons dominate at any practically relevant temperatures and are independent of the carrier concentration n, two-phonon scattering in BP is less important and can be considered negligible at n≳10^{13}  cm^{-2}. At smaller n, however, phonons enter in the essentially anharmonic regime. Compared to the hole mobility, which does not exhibit strong anisotropy between the principal directions of BP (μ_{xx}/μ_{yy}∼1.4 at n=10^{13} cm^{-2} and T=300  K), the electron mobility is found to be significantly more anisotropic (μ_{xx}/μ_{yy}∼6.2). Absolute values of μ_{xx} do not exceed 250 (700)  cm^{2} V^{-1} s^{-1} for holes (electrons), which can be considered as an upper limit for the mobility in BP at room temperature.

  18. Importance of polaron effects for charge carrier mobility above and below pseudogap temperature in superconducting cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganiev, Orifjon

    2017-06-01

    Polaron effects and charge carrier mobility in high-T_c cuprate superconductors (HTSCs) have been investigated theoretically. The appropriate Boltzmann transport equations under relaxation time approximation were used to calculate the mobility of polaronic charge carriers and bosonic Cooper pairs above and below the pseudogap (PG) temperature T^*. It is shown that the scattering of polaronic charge carriers and bosonic Cooper pairs at acoustic and optical phonons are responsible for the charge carrier mobility above and below the PG temperature. We show that the energy scales of the binding energies of large polarons and polaronic Cooper pairs can be identified by PG cross-over temperature on the cuprate phase diagram.

  19. Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by bromine doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in bromine doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found increased lifetime values in solar cells incorporating bromine compared to pure MAPbI3 by a factor of ~2.75 at an illumination intensity corresponding to 1 sun. In the bromine containing solar cells we additionally observe an anomalously high value of extracted charge, which we deduce to originate from mobile ions.

  20. Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by bromine doping

    PubMed Central

    Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in bromine doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found increased lifetime values in solar cells incorporating bromine compared to pure MAPbI3 by a factor of ~2.75 at an illumination intensity corresponding to 1 sun. In the bromine containing solar cells we additionally observe an anomalously high value of extracted charge, which we deduce to originate from mobile ions. PMID:27982095

  1. Improved charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by bromine doping.

    PubMed

    Kiermasch, David; Rieder, Philipp; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Baumann, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2016-12-16

    The charge carrier lifetime is an important parameter in solar cells as it defines, together with the mobility, the diffusion length of the charge carriers, thus directly determining the optimal active layer thickness of a device. Herein, we report on charge carrier lifetime values in bromine doped planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells determined by transient photovoltage. The corresponding charge carrier density has been derived from charge carrier extraction. We found increased lifetime values in solar cells incorporating bromine compared to pure MAPbI3 by a factor of ~2.75 at an illumination intensity corresponding to 1 sun. In the bromine containing solar cells we additionally observe an anomalously high value of extracted charge, which we deduce to originate from mobile ions.

  2. Charge carrier transport properties in layer structured hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2014-10-15

    Due to its large in-plane thermal conductivity, high temperature and chemical stability, large energy band gap (~ 6.4 eV), hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has emerged as an important material for applications in deep ultraviolet photonic devices. Among the members of the III-nitride material system, hBN is the least studied and understood. The study of the electrical transport properties of hBN is of utmost importance with a view to realizing practical device applications. Wafer-scale hBN epilayers have been successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical deposition and their electrical transport properties have been probed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The results demonstrate that undoped hBN is a semiconductor exhibiting weak p-type at high temperatures (> 700 °K). The measured acceptor energy level is about 0.68 eV above the valence band. In contrast to the electrical transport properties of traditional III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, the temperature dependence of the hole mobility in hBN can be described by the form of μ ∝ (T/T{sub 0}){sup −α} with α = 3.02, satisfying the two-dimensional (2D) carrier transport limit dominated by the polar optical phonon scattering. This behavior is a direct consequence of the fact that hBN is a layer structured material. The optical phonon energy deduced from the temperature dependence of the hole mobility is ħω = 192 meV (or 1546 cm{sup -1}), which is consistent with values previously obtained using other techniques. The present results extend our understanding of the charge carrier transport properties beyond the traditional III-nitride semiconductors.

  3. Electric Properties of Obsidian: Evidence for Positive Hole Charge Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordvik, R.; Freund, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    The blackness of obsidian is due to the presence of oxygen anions in the valence state 1-, creating broad energy levels at the upper edge of the valence band, which absorb visible light over a wide spectral range. These energy states are associated with defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice, well-known from "smoky quartz", where Al substituting for Si captures a defect electron in the oxygen anion sublattice for charge compensation [1]. Such defect electrons, also known as positive holes, are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity in igneous rocks when uniaxial stresses are applied, causing the break-up of pre-existing peroxy defects, Si-OO-Si [2]. Peroxy defects in obsidian cannot be so easily activated by mechanical stress because the glassy matrix will break before sufficiently high stress levels can be reached. If peroxy defects do exist, however, they can be studied by activating them thermally [3]. We describe experiments with rectangular slabs of obsidian with Au electrodes at both ends. Upon heating one end, we observe (i) a thermopotential and (ii) a thermocurrent developing at distinct temperatures around 250°C and 450°C, marking the 2-step break-up of peroxy bonds. [1] Schnadt, R., and Schneider, J.: The electronic structure of the trapped-hole center in smoky quartz, Zeitschrift Physik B Condensed Matter 11, 19-42, 1970. [2] Freund, F. T., Takeuchi, A., and Lau, B. W.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31, 389-396, 2006. [3] Freund, F., and Masuda, M. M.: Highly mobile oxygen hole-type charge carriers in fused silica, Journal Material Research, 8, 1619-1622, 1991.

  4. 47 CFR 36.381 - Carrier access charge billing and collecting expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Operating Expenses and Taxes Customer Operations Expenses § 36.381 Carrier access charge billing and collecting expense. (a) This classification includes the revenue accounting functions associated with the... Carrier access charge billing and collecting expense classification based on the relative...

  5. 47 CFR 36.381 - Carrier access charge billing and collecting expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Operating Expenses and Taxes Customer Operations Expenses § 36.381 Carrier access charge billing and collecting expense. (a) This classification includes the revenue accounting functions associated with the... Carrier access charge billing and collecting expense classification based on the relative...

  6. Ballistic-Charge-Carrier Spectroscopy Of CoSi(2)/Si Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael H.; Kaiser, William J.; Fathauer, Robert W.; Bell, Lloyd D.; Lee, Edwin Y.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses experiments in which ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) and related ballistic-hole and charge-carrier-scattering spectroscopies used to investigate transport of electric-charge carriers (electrons and holes) in epitaxial CoSi2/Si system.

  7. On the role of local charge carrier mobility in the charge separation mechanism of organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Saya; Saeki, Akinori; Saito, Masahiko; Osaka, Itaru; Seki, Shu

    2015-07-21

    Although the charge separation (CS) and transport processes that compete with geminate and non-geminate recombination are commonly regarded as the governing factors of organic photovoltaic (OPV) efficiency, the details of the CS mechanism remain largely unexplored. Here we provide a systematic investigation on the role of local charge carrier mobility in bulk heterojunction films of ten different low-bandgap polymers and polythiophene analogues blended with methanofullerene (PCBM). By correlating with the OPV performances, we demonstrated that the local mobility of the blend measured by time-resolved microwave conductivity is more important for the OPV output than those of the pure polymers. Furthermore, the results revealed two separate trends for crystalline and semi-crystalline polymers. This work offers guidance in the design of high-performance organic solar cells.

  8. The influence of space charge regions on effective charge carrier lifetime in thin films and resulting opportunities for materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leendertz, C.; Teodoreanu, A.-M.; Korte, L.; Rech, B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of injection-dependent charge carrier lifetimes is a well-established method to determine material and interface quality in crystalline silicon wafer-based device structures such as solar cells. However, for thin films, this method has rarely been used. One reason is that the physical interpretation of experimental data must rely on advanced theoretical models. In this study, we show by numerical simulations and analytical approximations that the effective charge carrier lifetime in thin films is heavily affected by space charge regions (SCR) over a wide range of injection levels. By analysis of the characteristic features in the injection-dependent effective charge carrier lifetime curves, qualitative information about SCRs that occur at grain boundaries or interfaces can be obtained. In contrast, information about the defect density can only be extracted in a very limited range of injection levels and the relationship between effective charge carrier lifetime and the quasi-Fermi level splitting, which is limiting the open circuit voltage of wafer-based solar cells, is not valid in thin films. On the basis of this theoretical study, we analyze measurements of effective charge carrier lifetime in 1.5 μm thin and 2 μm fine-grained polycrystalline silicon films with lifetimes of up to 100 μs and find experimental evidence for grain boundary potential barriers. Finally, we present guidelines for optimized photoconductance measurements and the evaluation of charge carrier lifetimes in thin films, in general.

  9. Mean free paths of charge carriers in CZT crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Se-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Jeon, Sung-Dae; Ha, Jang-Ho; Hong, Duk-Geun

    2007-08-01

    The asymmetrical distortion of the Cadmium Zinc Telluride ((CZT) energy spectrum is mainly caused by the hole trapping in the CZT crystal, and it can be characterized by the mean free path of hole. The mean free paths of the charge carriers in the CZT crystal can be extracted from fitting the peak shape of the measured energy spectrum. The energy spectra of γ-rays from 241Am, and that of α particles from 238Pu were measured with a CZT with 5×5×5 mm 3. The mean free path of the electron was determined from the bias dependence of α-particle response. The energy spectra of γ-ray were simulated with EGSnrc code, in which Hecht equation was included, and the mean free path of the hole was determined by comparing the measured spectrum with the simulated one. The energy spectrum of 662 keV γ-ray was measured with the CZT detector, and it was compared with the simulated spectrum, in which newly determined mean free paths of the electron and the hole were used.

  10. Measuring charge carrier mobility in photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, A.; Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2015-03-16

    We present a charge-extraction technique, micron-scale charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage, which enables simultaneous spatially resolved measurements of charge carrier mobility and photocurrent in thin-film photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution. An intensity-modulated laser with beam diameter near the optical diffraction limit is scanned over the device, while a linear voltage ramp in reverse bias is applied at each position of illumination. We calculate the majority carrier mobility, photocurrent, and number of photogenerated charge carriers from the resulting current transient. We demonstrate this technique on an organic photovoltaic device, but it is applicable to a wide range of photovoltaic materials.

  11. Charge carrier concentration and temperature dependent recombination in polymer-fullerene solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foertig, A.; Baumann, A.; Rauh, D.; Dyakonov, V.; Deibel, C.

    2009-08-01

    We performed temperature dependent transient photovoltage and photocurrent measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojuction solar cells. We found a strongly charge carrier concentration and temperature dependent Langevin recombination prefactor. The observed recombination mechanism is discussed in terms of bimolecular recombination. The experimental results were compared with charge carrier extraction by linearly increasing voltage measurements done on the same blend system. We explain the charge carrier dynamics, following an apparent order larger than two, by dynamic trapping of charges in the tail states of the Gaussian density of states.

  12. The impact of hot charge carrier mobility on photocurrent losses in polymer-based solar cells.

    PubMed

    Philippa, Bronson; Stolterfoht, Martin; Burn, Paul L; Juška, Gytis; Meredith, Paul; White, Ronald D; Pivrikas, Almantas

    2014-07-22

    A typical signature of charge extraction in disordered organic systems is dispersive transport, which implies a distribution of charge carrier mobilities that negatively impact on device performance. Dispersive transport has been commonly understood to originate from a time-dependent mobility of hot charge carriers that reduces as excess energy is lost during relaxation in the density of states. In contrast, we show via photon energy, electric field and film thickness independence of carrier mobilities that the dispersive photocurrent in organic solar cells originates not from the loss of excess energy during hot carrier thermalization, but rather from the loss of carrier density to trap states during transport. Our results emphasize that further efforts should be directed to minimizing the density of trap states, rather than controlling energetic relaxation of hot carriers within the density of states.

  13. Communications: A nonperturbative quantum master equation approach to charge carrier transport in organic molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Liping; Zheng, Renhui; Wang, Linjun; Shi, Qiang

    2010-02-28

    We present a nonperturbative quantum master equation to investigate charge carrier transport in organic molecular crystals based on the Liouville space hierarchical equations of motion method, which extends the previous stochastic Liouville equation and generalized master equation methods to a full quantum treatment of the electron-phonon coupling. Diffusive motion of charge carriers in a one-dimensional model in the presence of nonlocal electron-phonon coupling was studied, and two different charge carrier diffusion mechanisms are observed for large and small average intermolecular couplings. The new method can also find applications in calculating spectra and energy transfer in various types of quantum aggregates where the perturbative treatments fail.

  14. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of

  15. Molecular length dictates the nature of charge carriers in single-molecule junctions of oxidized oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Dell, Emma J; Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Venkataraman, Latha; Campos, Luis M

    2015-03-01

    To develop advanced materials for electronic devices, it is of utmost importance to design organic building blocks with tunable functionality and to study their properties at the molecular level. For organic electronic and photovoltaic applications, the ability to vary the nature of charge carriers and so create either electron donors or acceptors is critical. Here we demonstrate that charge carriers in single-molecule junctions can be tuned within a family of molecules that contain electron-deficient thiophene-1,1-dioxide (TDO) building blocks. Oligomers of TDO were designed to increase electron affinity and maintain delocalized frontier orbitals while significantly decreasing the transport gap. Through thermopower measurements we show that the dominant charge carriers change from holes to electrons as the number of TDO units is increased. This results in a unique system in which the charge carrier depends on the backbone length, and provides a new means to tune p- and n-type transport in organic materials.

  16. Charge carrier transport in polycrystalline organic thin film based field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The charge carrier transport mechanism in polycrystalline thin film based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been explained using two competing models, multiple trapping and releases (MTR) model and percolation model. It has been shown that MTR model is most suitable for explaining charge carrier transport in grainy polycrystalline organic thin films. The energetic distribution of traps determined independently using Mayer-Neldel rule (MNR) is in excellent agreement with the values obtained by MTR model for copper phthalocyanine and pentacene based OFETs.

  17. Electric field assisted charge carrier photogeneration in poly(spirobifluorene-co-benzothiadiazole)

    SciTech Connect

    Devizis, A.; Serbenta, A.; Peckus, D.; Thiessen, A.; Alle, R.; Meerholz, K.; Hertel, D.; Gulbinas, V.

    2010-10-28

    The dynamics of charge carrier generation in poly(spirobifluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) was investigated by electric field-induced fluorescence quenching and differential absorption measurements. Three different time domains of carrier generation have been identified: an ultrafast phase, a subnanosecond phase, and an entire lifetime phase. The charge generation efficiencies during the first and second phases were found to be almost independent of temperature, being about 25% and 10%, respectively, at an applied electric field of 1.3x10{sup 6} V/cm, while the generation efficiency during the third phase increases from 2% at 80 K to 10% at room temperature. The results of transient spectroscopy measurements and quantum chemical calculations suggest an intramolecular charge transfer for about 1 ps from the alkoxy-substituted fluorene side group to the benzothiadiazole subunit of the main chain. The formation and evolution of the resulting charge transfer states determine the way of charge carrier generation.

  18. Earthquake lights and the stress-activation of positive hole charge carriers in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    St-Laurent, F.; Derr, J.S.; Freund, F.T.

    2006-01-01

    Earthquake-related luminous phenomena (also known as earthquake lights) may arise from (1) the stress-activation of positive hole (p-hole) charge carriers in igneous rocks and (2) the accumulation of high charge carrier concentrations at asperities in the crust where the stress rates increase very rapidly as an earthquake approaches. It is proposed that, when a critical charge carrier concentration is reached, the p-holes form a degenerated solid state plasma that can break out of the confined rock volume and propagate as a rapidly expanding charge cloud. Upon reaching the surface the charge cloud causes dielectric breakdown at the air-rock interface, i.e. corona discharges, accompanied by the emission of light and high frequency electromagnetic radiation. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single Charge Current in a Normal Mesoscopic Region Attached to Superconductor Leads via a Coupled Poisson Nonequilibrium Green Function Formalism

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F. P.

    2014-01-01

    We study the I-V characteristic of mesoscopic systems or quantum dot (QD) attached to a pair of superconducting leads. Interaction effects in the QD are considered through the charging energy of the QD; that is, the treatment of current transport under a voltage bias is performed within a coupled Poisson nonequilibrium Green function (PNEGF) formalism. We derive the expression for the current in full generality but consider only the regime where transport occurs only via a single particle current. We show for this case and for various charging energies values U 0 and associated capacitances of the QD the effect on the I-V characteristic. Also the influence of the coupling constants on the I-V characteristic is investigated. Our approach puts forward a novel interpretation of experiments in the strong Coulomb regime. PMID:24977220

  20. Nonequilibrium response of an electron-mediated charge density wave ordered material to a large dc electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh formalism, we employ nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to exactly solve for the nonlinear response of an electron-mediated charge-density-wave-ordered material. We examine both the dc current and the order parameter of the conduction electrons as the ordered system is driven by the electric field. Although the formalism we develop applies to all models, for concreteness, we examine the charge-density-wave phase of the Falicov-Kimball model, which displays a number of anomalous behaviors including the appearance of subgap density of states as the temperature increases. These subgap states should have a significant impact on transport properties, particularly the nonlinear response of the system to a large dc electric field.

  1. Modelling of the charge carrier mobility in disordered linear polymer materials.

    PubMed

    Toman, Petr; Menšík, Miroslav; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Pfleger, Jiří

    2017-03-15

    We introduced a molecular-scale description of disordered on-chain charge carrier states into a theoretical model of the charge carrier transport in polymer semiconductors. The presented model combines the quantum mechanical approach with a semi-classical solution of the inter-chain charge hopping. Our model takes into account the significant local anisotropy of the charge carrier mobility present in linear conjugated polymers. Contrary to the models based on the effective medium approximation, our approach allowed avoiding artefacts in the calculated concentration dependence of the mobility originated in its problematic configurational averaging. Monte Carlo numerical calculations show that, depending on the degree of the energetic and structural disorder, the charge carrier mobility increases significantly with increasing charge concentration due to trap filling. At high charge carrier concentrations, the effect of the energetic disorder disappears and the mobility decreases slightly due to the lower density of unoccupied states available for the hopping transport. It could explain the experimentally observed mobility degradation in organic field-effect transistors at high gate voltage.

  2. Influence of injected charge carriers on photocurrents in polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehenkel, Dominique J.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Wienk, Martijn M.; Janssen, René A. J.

    2012-03-01

    We determine and analyze the photocurrent Jph in polymer solar cells under conditions where, no, one, or two different charge carriers can be injected by choosing appropriate electrodes and compare the experimental results to simulations based on a drift-diffusion device model that accounts for photogeneration and Langevin recombination of electrons and holes. We demonstrate that accounting for the series resistance of the device is essential to determine Jph. Without such correction, the results are, even qualitatively, incorrect. We show that in solar cells with forward bias applied Jph is reduced by recombination of photogenerated charge carriers with injected charge carriers. Self-selective contacts or band bending are not necessary to explain the effects. Without injecting contacts Jph is symmetric around the compensation voltage. A simple analytical model shows that under high forward bias Jph scales inversely with 1 + ξγpre, in which γpre represents the extent of Langevin recombination and ξ is a positive constant. Under conditions where Langevin recombination is very low or when electron and hole mobility are a very different, photogenerated charge carriers can affect the space-charge field and modify the injection of charge carriers. We show by simulations and experimentally that under such conditions the photocurrent can exceed that charge generation such that, effectively, photocurrent multiplication occurs.

  3. 75 FR 18255 - Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting AGENCY... interested parties of the availability of the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) database system to report PFC... public agency. The FAA has developed a national PFC database system in order to more easily track the...

  4. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Z D; Wang, J

    2014-06-28

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy

  5. Charge-reversal nanoparticles: novel targeted drug delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinli; Liu, Lisha; Jiang, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Spurred by significant progress in materials chemistry and drug delivery, charge-reversal nanocarriers are being developed to deliver anticancer formulations in spatial-, temporal- and dosage-controlled approaches. Charge-reversal nanoparticles can release their drug payload in response to specific stimuli that alter the charge on their surface. They can elude clearance from the circulation and be activated by protonation, enzymatic cleavage, or a molecular conformational change. In this review, we discuss the physiological basis for, and recent advances in the design of charge-reversal nanoparticles that are able to control drug biodistribution in response to specific stimuli, endogenous factors (changes in pH, redox gradients, or enzyme concentration) or exogenous factors (light or thermos-stimulation).

  6. Slower carriers limit charge generation in organic semiconductor light-harvesting systems

    PubMed Central

    Stolterfoht, Martin; Armin, Ardalan; Shoaee, Safa; Kassal, Ivan; Burn, Paul; Meredith, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Blends of electron-donating and -accepting organic semiconductors are widely used as photoactive materials in next-generation solar cells and photodetectors. The yield of free charges in these systems is often determined by the separation of interfacial electron–hole pairs, which is expected to depend on the ability of the faster carrier to escape the Coulomb potential. Here we show, by measuring geminate and non-geminate losses and key transport parameters in a series of bulk-heterojunction solar cells, that the charge-generation yield increases with increasing slower carrier mobility. This is in direct contrast with the well-established Braun model where the dissociation rate is proportional to the mobility sum, and recent models that underscore the importance of fullerene aggregation for coherent electron propagation. The behaviour is attributed to the restriction of opposite charges to different phases, and to an entropic contribution that favours the joint separation of both charge carriers. PMID:27324720

  7. Slower carriers limit charge generation in organic semiconductor light-harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Stolterfoht, Martin; Armin, Ardalan; Shoaee, Safa; Kassal, Ivan; Burn, Paul; Meredith, Paul

    2016-06-21

    Blends of electron-donating and -accepting organic semiconductors are widely used as photoactive materials in next-generation solar cells and photodetectors. The yield of free charges in these systems is often determined by the separation of interfacial electron-hole pairs, which is expected to depend on the ability of the faster carrier to escape the Coulomb potential. Here we show, by measuring geminate and non-geminate losses and key transport parameters in a series of bulk-heterojunction solar cells, that the charge-generation yield increases with increasing slower carrier mobility. This is in direct contrast with the well-established Braun model where the dissociation rate is proportional to the mobility sum, and recent models that underscore the importance of fullerene aggregation for coherent electron propagation. The behaviour is attributed to the restriction of opposite charges to different phases, and to an entropic contribution that favours the joint separation of both charge carriers.

  8. Comprehensive approach to intrinsic charge carrier mobility in conjugated organic molecules, macromolecules, and supramolecular architectures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Akinori; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Aida, Takuzo; Seki, Shu

    2012-08-21

    Si-based inorganic electronics have long dominated the semiconductor industry. However, in recent years conjugated polymers have attracted increasing attention because such systems are flexible and offer the potential for low-cost, large-area production via roll-to-roll processing. The state-of-the-art organic conjugated molecular crystals can exhibit charge carrier mobilities (μ) that nearly match or even exceed that of amorphous silicon (1-10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). The mean free path of the charge carriers estimated from these mobilities corresponds to the typical intersite (intermolecular) hopping distances in conjugated organic materials, which strongly suggests that the conduction model for the electronic band structure only applies to μ > 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the translational motion of the charge carriers. However, to analyze the transport mechanism in organic electronics, researchers conventionally use a disorder formalism, where μ is usually less than 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and dominated by impurities, disorders, or defects that disturb the long-range translational motion. In this Account, we discuss the relationship between the alternating-current and direct-current mobilities of charge carriers, using time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) and other techniques including field-effect transistor, time-of-flight, and space-charge limited current. TRMC measures the nanometer-scale mobility of charge carriers under an oscillating microwave electric field with no contact between the semiconductors and the metals. This separation allows us to evaluate the intrinsic charge carrier mobility with minimal trapping effects. We review a wide variety of organic electronics in terms of their charge carrier mobilities, and we describe recent studies of macromolecules, molecular crystals, and supramolecular architecture. For example, a rigid poly(phenylene-co-ethynylene) included in permethylated cyclodextrin shows a high intramolecular hole mobility of 0.5 cm(2) V

  9. Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid metal halide perovskites (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milot, Rebecca L.; Rehman, Waqaas; Eperon, Giles E.; Snaith, Henry J.; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid metal halide perovskites are attractive components for many optoelectronic applications due to a combination of their superior charge transport properties and relative ease of fabrication. A complete understanding of the nature of charge transport in these materials is therefore essential for current and future device development. We have evaluated two systems - the standard perovskite methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) and a series of mixed-iodide/bromide formamidinium lead perovskites - in an effort to determine what effect structural and chemical composition have on optoelectronic properties including mobility, charge-carrier recombination dynamics, and charge-carrier diffusion length. The photoconductivity in thin films of CH3NH3PbI3was investigated from 8 K to 370 K across three structural phases [1]. While the monomolecular charge-carrier recombination rate was found to increase with rising temperature indicating a mechanism dominated by ionized impurity mediated recombination, the bimolecular rate constant decreased with rising temperature as charge-carrier mobility declined. The Auger rate constant was highly phase specific, suggesting a strong dependence on electronic band structure. For the mixed-halide formamidinuim lead bromide-iodide perovskites, HC(NH2)2Pb(BryI1-y)3, bimolecular and Auger charge-carrier recombination rate constants strongly correlated with bromide content, which indicated a link with electronic structure [2]. Although HC(NH2)2PbBr3 and HC(NH2)2PbI3 exhibited high charge-carrier mobilities and diffusion lengths exceeding 1 μm, mobilities for mixed Br/I perovskites were all lower as a result of crystalline phase disorder.

  10. Picosecond charge transport in rutile at high carrier densities studied by transient terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajac, V.; Němec, H.; Kužel, P.

    2016-09-01

    We study terahertz photoconductivity of a rutile single crystal between 10 and 300 K under strong photoexcitation by femtosecond pulses at 266 nm. A marked dependence of the carrier mobility on the carrier density is observed leading to highly complex transport phenomena on a picosecond time scale. We develop a general model of carrier photoconductive response in the case of time dependent inhomogeneous distribution of carrier density and mobility. This allows us to assess an important role of both electrons and holes in the response of photoexcited rutile. At low temperatures, the carrier mobility is initially reduced due to the electron-hole scattering and increases by one order of magnitude upon ambipolar diffusion of the carriers into deeper regions of the sample. At room temperature, contributions of transient hot optical phonons and/or of midinfrared polaron excitations with charge-density-dependent dielectric strength emerge in the photoconductivity spectra.

  11. Characterization of charge carrier lateral conduction in irradiated dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T.; Belhaj, M.; Molinie, P.; Dirassen, B.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.

    2011-11-01

    A characterization method for surface charging analysis on insulators submitted to electron irradiation has been developed. This method, based on the use of two Kelvin probes (KPs), provides details on the transit time motion for injection of both holes and electrons. It can also be used to assess the isotropy of lateral electrical conduction on the sample. The feasibility of this method was tested on fluorinated ethylene propylene (Teflon® FEP) samples. It was found that central electron injection induces rapid surface charge spreading, in contrast to injection of holes. An electrical anisotropic behaviour of the sample was also detected.

  12. Nonequilibrium charge transport in an interacting open system: Two-particle resonance and current asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dibyendu; Soori, Abhiram; Sen, Diptiman; Dhar, Abhishek

    2009-08-01

    We use the Lippman-Schwinger scattering theory to study nonequilibrium electron transport through an interacting open quantum dot. The two-particle current is evaluated exactly while we use perturbation theory to calculate the current when the leads are Fermi liquids at different chemical potentials. We find an interesting two-particle resonance induced by the interaction and obtain criteria to observe it when a small bias is applied across the dot. Finally, for a system without spatial inversion symmetry, we find that the two-particle current is quite different depending on whether the electrons are incident from the left or the right lead.

  13. Charge transport in disordered organic host guest systems: effects of carrier density and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yimer, Y. Y.; Bobbert, P. A.; Coehoorn, R.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate charge transport in disordered organic host-guest systems with a bimodal Gaussian density of states (DOS). The energy difference between the two Gaussians defines the trap depth. By solving the Pauli master equation for the hopping of charge carriers on a regular lattice with site energies randomly drawn from the DOS, we obtain the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility on the relative guest concentration, the trap depth, the energetic disorder, the charge-carrier density and the electric field. At small and high guest concentrations, our work provides support for recent semi-analytical model results on the dependence of the mobility on the charge-carrier density at zero field. However, at the cross-over between the trap-limited and trap-to-trap hopping regimes, where the mobility attains a minimum, our results can almost be one order of magnitude larger than predicted semi-analytically. Furthermore, it is shown that field-induced detrapping can contribute strongly to the electric-field dependence of the mobility. A simple analytical expression is provided which describes the effect. This result can be used in continuum drift-diffusion models for charge transport in devices such as organic light-emitting diodes.

  14. Calculating charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers: Mean field and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottaar, J.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2006-09-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charges on a regular cubic lattice of sites. A large on-site Coulomb repulsion prohibits double occupancy of the sites. Disorder is introduced by taking random site energies from a Gaussian distribution. Recently, it was demonstrated that this model leads to a dependence of the charge-carrier mobilities on the density of charge carriers that is in agreement with experimental observations. The model is conveniently solved within a mean-field approximation, in which the correlation between the occupational probabilities of different sites is neglected. This approximation becomes exact in the limit of vanishing charge-carrier densities, but needs to be checked at high densities. We perform this check by dividing the lattice in pairs of neighboring sites and taking into account the correlation between the sites within each pair explicitly. This pair approximation is expected to account for the most important corrections to the mean-field approximation. We study the effects of varying temperature, charge-carrier density, and electric field. We demonstrate that in the parameter regime relevant for semiconducting polymers used in practical devices the corrections to the mobilities calculated from the mean-field approximation will not exceed a few percent, so that this approximation can be safely used.

  15. Competition of coalescence and 'fireball' processes in nonequilibrium emission of light charged particles from p+Au collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Budzanowski, A.; Kistryn, M.; Kliczewski, St.; Kozik, E.; Fidelus, M.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, St.; Kowalczyk, A.; Magiera, A.; Rudy, Z.; Wojciechowski, M.; Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Machner, H.; Hodde, H.; Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Siudak, R.; Piskor-Ignatowicz, B.

    2008-08-15

    The energy and angular dependence of the double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{omega}dE were measured for p,d,t,{sup 3,4,6}He, {sup 6,7,8,9}Li, {sup 7,9,10}Be, and {sup 10,11,12}B isotopes produced in reactions of 1.2- and 1.9-GeV protons on a Au target. The beam energy dependence of the data, supplemented by the cross sections from a previous experiment at 2.5 GeV, is very smooth. The shape of the spectra and angular distributions do not change significantly in the beam energy range from 1.2 to 2.5 GeV. However, the absolute value of the cross sections increases for all ejectiles. The intermediate mass fragment spectra and their angular distributions are very well reproduced by a phenomenological model of two emitting, moving sources, with parameters smoothly varying with energy. The double differential cross sections for light charged particles were analyzed in the framework of the microscopic model calculations of intranuclear cascade, including the coalescence of nucleons and a statistical model for evaporation of particles from excited residual nuclei. However, the energy and angular dependencies of the data agree with neither predictions of the microscopic intranuclear cascade calculations for protons nor the coalescence calculations for other light charged particles. A very good description of the data is achieved by the phenomenological inclusion of the emission of light charged particles from a 'fireball' (i.e., a fast and hot moving source). It was found that the nonequilibrium processes are very important for the production of light charged particles. They exhaust 40%-80% of the total cross section--depending on the emitted particles. Coalescence and fireball emission yield comparable contributions to the cross sections with the exception of the {sup 3}He data where coalescence clearly dominates. For all light charged particles, the ratio of nonequilibrium processes to processes proceeding through a phase of statistical equilibrium does

  16. Xanthan hydrogel films: molecular conformation, charge density and protein carriers.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Vânia Blasques; Petri, Denise Freitas Siqueira

    2014-01-30

    In this article the molecular conformation of xanthan chains in hydrogel films was investigated by means of circular dichroism, showing substantial differences between xanthan hydrogel prepared in the absence (XNT) and in the presence of citric acid (XCA). The xanthan chains in XNT hydrogels films presented ordered conformation (helixes), while in XCA they were in the disordered conformation (coils), exposing a larger number of carboxylate groups than XNT. The large charge density in XCA hydrogels was evidenced by their behavior under variable ionic strength. Studies about the application of XNT and XCA for loading and delivering of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ) showed that both events are controlled by hydrogels and proteins net charge, which can be triggered by pH. The preservation of LYZ native conformation after hydrogel loading explained the substantial bactericidal activity of LYZ loaded hydrogels and enables their use as active wound dressings.

  17. Probing charge transfer and hot carrier dynamics in organic solar cells with terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Paul D.; Lane, Paul A.; Melinger, Joseph S.; Esenturk, Okan; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) was used to explore charge generation, transfer, and the role of hot carriers in organic solar cell materials. Two model molecular photovoltaic systems were investigated: with zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) or alpha-sexathiophene (α-6T) as the electron donors and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as the electron acceptor. TRTS provides charge carrier conductivity dynamics comprised of changes in both population and mobility. By using time-resolved optical spectroscopy in conjunction with TRTS, these two contributions can be disentangled. The sub-picosecond photo-induced conductivity decay dynamics of C60 were revealed to be caused by auto-ionization: the intrinsic process by which charge is generated in molecular solids. In donor-acceptor blends, the long-lived photo-induced conductivity is used for weight fraction optimization of the constituents. In nanoscale multilayer films, the photo-induced conductivity identifies optimal layer thicknesses. In films of ZnPc/C60, electron transfer from ZnPc yields hot charges that localize and become less mobile as they thermalize. Excitation of high-lying Franck Condon states in C60 followed by hole-transfer to ZnPc similarly produces hot charge carriers that self-localize; charge transfer clearly precedes carrier cooling. This picture is contrasted to charge transfer in α-6T/C60, where hole transfer takes place from a thermalized state and produces equilibrium carriers that do not show characteristic signs of cooling and self-localization. These results illustrate the value of terahertz spectroscopic methods for probing charge transfer reactions.

  18. Probing Charge Transfer and Hot Carrier Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells with Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Paul D; Lane, Paul A; Melinger, Joseph S; Esenturk, Okan; Heilweil, Edwin J

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) was used to explore charge generation, transfer, and the role of hot carriers in organic solar cell materials. Two model molecular photovoltaic systems were investigated: with zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) or alpha-sexathiophene (α-6T) as the electron donors and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as the electron acceptor. TRTS provides charge carrier conductivity dynamics comprised of changes in both population and mobility. By using time-resolved optical spectroscopy in conjunction with TRTS, these two contributions can be disentangled. The sub-picosecond photo-induced conductivity decay dynamics of C60 were revealed to be caused by auto-ionization: the intrinsic process by which charge is generated in molecular solids. In donor-acceptor blends, the long-lived photo-induced conductivity is used for weight fraction optimization of the constituents. In nanoscale multilayer films, the photo-induced conductivity identifies optimal layer thicknesses. In films of ZnPc/C60, electron transfer from ZnPc yields hot charges that localize and become less mobile as they thermalize. Excitation of high-lying Franck Condon states in C60 followed by hole-transfer to ZnPc similarly produces hot charge carriers that self-localize; charge transfer clearly precedes carrier cooling. This picture is contrasted to charge transfer in α-6T/C60, where hole transfer takes place from a thermalized state and produces equilibrium carriers that do not show characteristic signs of cooling and self-localization. These results illustrate the value of terahertz spectroscopic methods for probing charge transfer reactions.

  19. Probing Charge Transfer and Hot Carrier Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Paul D.; Lane, Paul A.; Melinger, Joseph S.; Esenturk, Okan; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2017-01-01

    Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) was used to explore charge generation, transfer, and the role of hot carriers in organic solar cell materials. Two model molecular photovoltaic systems were investigated: with zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) or alpha-sexathiophene (α-6T) as the electron donors and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as the electron acceptor. TRTS provides charge carrier conductivity dynamics comprised of changes in both population and mobility. By using time-resolved optical spectroscopy in conjunction with TRTS, these two contributions can be disentangled. The sub-picosecond photo-induced conductivity decay dynamics of C60 were revealed to be caused by auto-ionization: the intrinsic process by which charge is generated in molecular solids. In donor-acceptor blends, the long-lived photo-induced conductivity is used for weight fraction optimization of the constituents. In nanoscale multilayer films, the photo-induced conductivity identifies optimal layer thicknesses. In films of ZnPc/C60, electron transfer from ZnPc yields hot charges that localize and become less mobile as they thermalize. Excitation of high-lying Franck Condon states in C60 followed by hole-transfer to ZnPc similarly produces hot charge carriers that self-localize; charge transfer clearly precedes carrier cooling. This picture is contrasted to charge transfer in α-6T/C60, where hole transfer takes place from a thermalized state and produces equilibrium carriers that do not show characteristic signs of cooling and self-localization. These results illustrate the value of terahertz spectroscopic methods for probing charge transfer reactions. PMID:28649166

  20. Intragrain charge transport in kesterite thin films—Limits arising from carrier localization

    DOE PAGES

    Hempel, Hannes; Redinger, Alex; Repins, Ingrid; ...

    2016-11-03

    Intragrain charge carrier mobilities measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in state of the art Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films are found to increase from 32 to 140 cm2V-1s-1 with increasing Se content. The mobilities are limited by carrier localization on the nanometer-scale, which takes place within the first 2 ps after carrier excitation. The localization strength obtained from the Drude-Smith model is found to be independent of the excited photocarrier density. This is in accordance with bandgap fluctuations as a cause of the localized transport. Lastly, charge carrier localization is a general issue in the probed kesterite thin films, which weremore » deposited by coevaporation, colloidal inks, and sputtering followed by annealing with varying Se/S contents and yield 4.9%-10.0% efficiency in the completed device.« less

  1. Intragrain charge transport in kesterite thin films—Limits arising from carrier localization

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, Hannes; Redinger, Alex; Repins, Ingrid; Moisan, Camille; Larramona, Gerardo; Dennler, Gilles; Handwerg, Martin; Fischer, Saskia F.; Eichberger, Rainer; Unold, Thomas

    2016-11-03

    Intragrain charge carrier mobilities measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in state of the art Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films are found to increase from 32 to 140 cm2V-1s-1 with increasing Se content. The mobilities are limited by carrier localization on the nanometer-scale, which takes place within the first 2 ps after carrier excitation. The localization strength obtained from the Drude-Smith model is found to be independent of the excited photocarrier density. This is in accordance with bandgap fluctuations as a cause of the localized transport. Lastly, charge carrier localization is a general issue in the probed kesterite thin films, which were deposited by coevaporation, colloidal inks, and sputtering followed by annealing with varying Se/S contents and yield 4.9%-10.0% efficiency in the completed device.

  2. Intragrain charge transport in kesterite thin films—Limits arising from carrier localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Hannes; Redinger, Alex; Repins, Ingrid; Moisan, Camille; Larramona, Gerardo; Dennler, Gilles; Handwerg, Martin; Fischer, Saskia F.; Eichberger, Rainer; Unold, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Intragrain charge carrier mobilities measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in state of the art Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films are found to increase from 32 to 140 cm2 V-1 s-1 with increasing Se content. The mobilities are limited by carrier localization on the nanometer-scale, which takes place within the first 2 ps after carrier excitation. The localization strength obtained from the Drude-Smith model is found to be independent of the excited photocarrier density. This is in accordance with bandgap fluctuations as a cause of the localized transport. Charge carrier localization is a general issue in the probed kesterite thin films, which were deposited by coevaporation, colloidal inks, and sputtering followed by annealing with varying Se/S contents and yield 4.9%-10.0% efficiency in the completed device.

  3. Tuning the charge carrier density in the thermoelectric colusite

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Fiseong S.; Suekuni, Koichiro Tanaka, Hiromi I.; Nishiate, Hirotaka; Ohta, Michihiro; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2016-05-07

    The colusite Cu{sub 26}V{sub 2}Sn{sub 6}S{sub 32} has high potential as a thermoelectric material at medium-high temperatures because of a large Seebeck coefficient (S ≃ 220 μV/K) and rather small electrical resistivity (ρ ≃ 100 μΩm) at 660 K. To improve the thermoelectric performance, we have tuned the hole carrier density p by substituting Zn for Cu in Cu{sub 26−x}Zn{sub x}V{sub 2}Sn{sub 6}S{sub 32} (x = 1–3) and starting with Cu and Sn deficient compositions in Cu{sub 26−y}V{sub 2}Sn{sub 6}S{sub 32} (y = 1, 2) and Cu{sub 26}V{sub 2}Sn{sub 6−z}S{sub 32} (z = 0.25–1), respectively. Powder x-ray diffraction and electron-probe microanalysis showed that the Zn-substituted samples and Sn-deficient (z ≥ 0.5) samples are formed in a single phase, whereas the Cu{sub 26−y}V{sub 2}Sn{sub 6}S{sub 32} samples are composed of two phases with slightly different compositions. Within these samples, the value of p at 300 K varies in the range between 3.6 × 10{sup 20} and 2.8 × 10{sup 21 }cm{sup −3}. The relation between p and S led to the effective mass m* of 4–7m{sub 0} for the hole carriers. The large S of the colusite is therefore ascribed to the heavy mass carriers of the valence band top. The decreases in p with x and y reduced the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT, whereas the increase in p with z raised ZT from 0.56 (z = 0) to 0.62 (z = 0.5) at 660 K.

  4. Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Their Charge Carrier Mobilities in Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Sohail; Yi, Jiabao

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted extensive interest due to their excellent electrical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. Graphene has been one of the most explored 2D materials. However, its zero band gap has limited its applications in electronic devices. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), another kind of 2D material, has a nonzero direct band gap (same charge carrier momentum in valence and conduction band) at monolayer state, promising for the efficient switching devices (e.g., field-effect transistors). This review mainly focuses on the recent advances in charge carrier mobility and the challenges to achieve high mobility in the electronic devices based on 2D-TMDC materials and also includes an introduction of 2D materials along with the synthesis techniques. Finally, this review describes the possible methodology and future prospective to enhance the charge carrier mobility for electronic devices.

  5. Charge carrier mobility in thin films of organic semiconductors by the gated van der Pauw method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolin, Cedric; Kang, Enpu; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Thin film transistors based on high-mobility organic semiconductors are prone to contact problems that complicate the interpretation of their electrical characteristics and the extraction of important material parameters such as the charge carrier mobility. Here we report on the gated van der Pauw method for the simple and accurate determination of the electrical characteristics of thin semiconducting films, independently from contact effects. We test our method on thin films of seven high-mobility organic semiconductors of both polarities: device fabrication is fully compatible with common transistor process flows and device measurements deliver consistent and precise values for the charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage in the high-charge carrier density regime that is representative of transistor operation. The gated van der Pauw method is broadly applicable to thin films of semiconductors and enables a simple and clean parameter extraction independent from contact effects.

  6. Unraveling Charge Carriers Generation, Diffusion, and Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Polycrystalline Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Piotr; Cohen, Boiko; Ponseca, Carlito S; Salado, Manuel; Kazim, Samrana; Ahmad, Shahzada; Sundström, Villy; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2016-01-07

    We report on studies of the formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) perovskite film using time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS) and flash photolysis to explore charge carriers generation, migration, and recombination. The TRTS results show that upon femtosecond excitation above the absorption edge, the initial high photoconductivity (∼75 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) remains constant at least up to 8 ns, which corresponds to a diffusion length of 25 μm. Pumping below the absorption edge results in a mobility of 40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) suggesting lower mobility of charge carriers located at the bottom of the conduction band or shallow sub-bandgap states. Furthermore, analysis of the THz kinetics reveals rising components of <1 and 20 ps, reflecting dissociation of excitons having different binding energies. Flash photolysis experiments indicate that trapped charge carriers persist for milliseconds.

  7. Charge carrier mobility in thin films of organic semiconductors by the gated van der Pauw method

    PubMed Central

    Rolin, Cedric; Kang, Enpu; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Thin film transistors based on high-mobility organic semiconductors are prone to contact problems that complicate the interpretation of their electrical characteristics and the extraction of important material parameters such as the charge carrier mobility. Here we report on the gated van der Pauw method for the simple and accurate determination of the electrical characteristics of thin semiconducting films, independently from contact effects. We test our method on thin films of seven high-mobility organic semiconductors of both polarities: device fabrication is fully compatible with common transistor process flows and device measurements deliver consistent and precise values for the charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage in the high-charge carrier density regime that is representative of transistor operation. The gated van der Pauw method is broadly applicable to thin films of semiconductors and enables a simple and clean parameter extraction independent from contact effects. PMID:28397852

  8. Theory of non-equilibrium critical phenomena in three-dimensional condensed systems of charged mobile nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kuzovkov, V N; Zvejnieks, G; Kotomin, E A

    2014-07-21

    A study of 3d electrostatic self-assembly (SA) in systems of charged nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the most difficult theoretical problems. In particular, the limiting case of negligible or very low polar media (e.g. salt) concentration, where the long-range NP interactions cannot be reduced to commonly used effective short-range (Yukawa) potentials, remains unstudied. Moreover, the present study has demonstrated that unlike the Debye-Hückel theory, a complete screening of the charges in SA kinetics (dynamic SA) is not always possible. Generally speaking, one has to take into account implicitly how each NP interacts with all other NPs (the true long-range interactions). Traditional theoretical methods allow us to monitor such electrostatic 3d system kinetics only for very short times, which is far from sufficient for understanding the dynamic SA. In this paper, combining an integrated analytical approach (the non-linear integro-differential kinetic equation for correlation functions) and reverse Monte Carlo in the 3d case, we have obtained a self-consistent solution of this challenging problem. We demonstrate, in particular, the existence of critical points and critical phenomena in the non-equilibrium kinetics in a 3d system of oppositely charged mobile NPs.

  9. Metallic modification of molybdenum disulfide monolayer via doping charge carriers: A DFT investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekaari, Ashkan; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-01

    Density-functional theory has been applied to investigate the effect of doping charge carriers on the electronic structure of single-layer MoS2. The charge of the super cell changes from zero to n = ± 3 e with e the absolute value of the elementary electric charge. Results firmly support the view that such an effect is manifested in the form of semiconductor-metal transition in addition to shift in the Fermi level. Examining the total number of allowed states at the Fermi level also reveals that the more positive/negative the charge of the super cell, the higher the electrical conductivity of the monolayer.

  10. Charge carrier transfer in tungsten disulfide - black phosphorus heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siqi; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xinwu; He, Jiaqi

    2017-09-27

    Photocarrier dynamics in tungsten disulfide - black phosphorus heterostructures were studied by time-resolved differential reflection measurements. The heterostructures were fabricated by stacking together monolayer WS2 and black phosphorus flakes that are both fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. Efficient and ultrafast transfer of photocarriers from WS2 to BP flakes was observed. This confirms the type-I band alignment of WS2/BP heterostructures that was predicted by theory. Accompanied with the photocarrier interlayer transfer process from WS2 to BP flakes, the change of the absorption of WS2 persists for several nanoseconds. These results promote the consciousness about the carrier dynamics of interlayer transfer process in van der Waals heterostructures and its application in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Dynamics of charge transfer: Rate processes formulated with nonequilibrium Green's functions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeganeh, Sina; Ratner, Mark A.; Mujica, Vladimiro

    2007-04-28

    The authors examine the connection between electron transport under bias in a junction and nonadiabatic intramolecular electron transfer (ET). It is shown that under certain assumptions it is possible to define a stationary current that allows the computation of the intramolecular transfer rate using the same formalism that is employed in the description of transport. They show that the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism of quantum transport can be used to calculate the ET rate. The formal connection between electron transport and electron transfer is made, and they work out the simple case of an electronic level coupled to a vibrational mode representing a thermal bath and show that the result is the same as expected from a Fermi golden rule treatment, and in the high-temperature limit yields the Marcus electron transfer theory. The usefulness of this alternative formulation of rates is discussed.

  12. Influence of NO2 molecule adsorption on free charge carriers and spin centers in porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, E. A.; Osminkina, L. A.; Sharov, C. S.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorption on free charge carriers and spin centers in porous silicon has been studied by FTIR and ESR spectroscopy. The silicon dangling bond (Pb1-center) density rises with increasing NO2 pressure (PNO2) while free charge carrier concentration depends on PNO2 nonmonotonically. The experimental results are explained by a microscopic model taking into account both the formation of Pb1+ -(NO2)- donor-acceptor pairs and NO2-induced oxidation of Si nanocrystal surfaces.

  13. Near-field control and imaging of free charge carrier variations in GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berweger, Samuel; Blanchard, Paul T.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Coakley, Kevin J.; Sanford, Norman A.; Wallis, Thomas M.; Bertness, Kris A.; Kabos, Pavel

    2016-02-01

    Despite their uniform crystallinity, the shape and faceting of semiconducting nanowires (NWs) can give rise to variations in structure and associated electronic properties. Here, we develop a hybrid scanning probe-based methodology to investigate local variations in electronic structure across individual n-doped GaN NWs integrated into a transistor device. We perform scanning microwave microscopy (SMM), which we combine with scanning gate microscopy to determine the free-carrier SMM signal contribution and image local charge carrier density variations. In particular, we find significant variations in free carriers across NWs, with a higher carrier density at the wire facets. By increasing the local carrier density through tip-gating, we find that the tip injects current into the NW with strongly localized current when positioned over the wire vertices. These results suggest that the strong variations in electronic properties observed within NWs have significant implications for device design and may lead to new paths to optimization.

  14. Control of Charge Carriers Trapping and Relaxation in Hematite by Oxygen Vacancy Charge: Ab Initio Non-adiabatic Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhaohui; Liu, Jin; Long, Run; Li, Linqiu; Guo, Liejin; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2017-05-17

    Ultrafast charge recombination in hematite (α-Fe2O3) severely limits its applications in solar energy conversion and utilization, for instance, in photoelectrochemical water splitting. We report the first time-domain ab initio study of charge relaxation dynamics in α-Fe2O3 with and without the oxygen vacancy (Ov) defect, using non-adiabatic molecular dynamics implemented within time-dependent density functional theory. The simulations show that the hole trapping is the rate-limiting step in the electron-hole recombination process for both neutral and ionized Ov systems. The electron trapping is fast, and the trapped electron are relatively long-lived. A similar asymmetry is found for the relaxation of free charge carriers: relaxation of photoholes in the valence band is slower than relaxation of photoelectrons in the conduction band. The slower dynamics of holes offers an advantage to water oxidation at α-Fe2O3 photoanodes. Notably, the neutral Ov defect accelerates significantly the charge recombination rate, by about a factor of 30 compared to the ideal lattice, due to the stronger electron-vibrational coupling at the defect. However, the recombination rate in the ionized Ov defect is decreased by a factor of 10 with respect to the neutral defect, likely due to expansion of the local iron shell around the Ov site. The Ov defect ionization in α-Fe2O3 photoanodes is important for increasing both electrical conductivity and charge carrier lifetimes. The simulations reproduce well the time scales for the hot carrier cooling, trapping and recombination available from transient spectroscopy experiments, and suggest two alternative mechanisms for the Ov-assisted electron-hole recombination. The study provides a detailed atomistic understanding of carrier dynamics in hematite, and rationalizes the experimentally reported activation of α-Fe2O3 photoanodes by incorporation of Ov defects.

  15. Niosomal carriers enhance oral bioavailability of carvedilol: effects of bile salt-enriched vesicles and carrier surface charge.

    PubMed

    Arzani, Gelareh; Haeri, Azadeh; Daeihamed, Marjan; Bakhtiari-Kaboutaraki, Hamid; Dadashzadeh, Simin

    2015-01-01

    Carvedilol (CRV) is an antihypertensive drug with both alpha and beta receptor blocking activity used to preclude angina and cardiac arrhythmias. To overcome the low, variable oral bioavailability of CRV, niosomal formulations were prepared and characterized: plain niosomes (without bile salts), bile salt-enriched niosomes (bilosomes containing various percentages of sodium cholate or sodium taurocholate), and charged niosomes (negative, containing dicetyl phosphate and positive, containing hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide). All formulations were characterized in terms of encapsulation efficiency, size, zeta potential, release profile, stability, and morphology. Various formulations were administered orally to ten groups of Wistar rats (n=6 per group). The plasma levels of CRV were measured by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and pharmacokinetic properties of different formulations were characterized. Contribution of lymphatic transport to the oral bioavailability of niosomes was also investigated using a chylomicron flow-blocking approach. Of the bile salt-enriched vesicles examined, bilosomes containing 20% sodium cholate (F2) and 30% sodium taurocholate (F5) appeared to give the greatest enhancement of intestinal absorption. The relative bioavailability of F2 and F5 formulations to the suspension was estimated to be 1.84 and 1.64, respectively. With regard to charged niosomes, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of CRV for positively (F7) and negatively charged formulations (F10) were approximately 2.3- and 1.7-fold higher than after a suspension. Bioavailability studies also revealed a significant increase in extent of drug absorption from charged vesicles. Tissue histology revealed no signs of inflammation or damage. The study proved that the type and concentration of bile salts as well as carrier surface charge had great influences on oral bioavailability of niosomes. Blocking the lymphatic absorption pathway

  16. Charge transfer polarisation wave and carrier pairing in the high T(sub c) copper oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakraverty, B. K.

    1990-01-01

    The High T(sub c) oxides are highly polarizable materials and are charge transfer insulators. The charge transfer polarization wave formalism is developed in these oxides. The dispersion relationships due to long range dipole-dipole interaction of a charge transfer dipole lattice are obtained in 3-D and 2-D. These are high frequency bosons and their coupling with carriers is weak and antiadiabatic in nature. As a result, the mass renormalization of the carriers is negligible in complete contrast to conventional electron-phonon interaction, that give polarons and bipolarons. Both bound and superconducting pairing is discussed for a model Hamiltonian valid in the antiadiabatic regime, both in 3-D and 2-D. The stability of the charge transfer dipole lattice has interesting consequences that are discussed.

  17. Subpicosecond to Second Time-Scale Charge Carrier Kinetics in Hematite-Titania Nanocomposite Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Ruoko, Tero-Petri; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Bärtsch, Mario; Pohjola, Juuso; Hiltunen, Arto; Niederberger, Markus; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2015-08-06

    Water splitting with hematite is negatively affected by poor intrinsic charge transport properties. However, they can be modified by forming heterojunctions to improve charge separation. For this purpose, charge dynamics of TiO2:α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite photoanodes are studied using transient absorption spectroscopy to monitor the evolution of photogenerated charge carriers as a function of applied bias voltage. The bias affects the charge carrier dynamics, leading to trapped electrons in the submillisecond time scale and an accumulation of holes with a lifetime of 0.4 ± 0.1 s. By contrast, slower electron trapping and only few long-lived holes are observed in a bare hematite photoanode. The decay of the long-lived holes is 1 order of magnitude faster for the composite photoanodes than previously published for doped hematite, indicative of higher catalytic efficiency. These results illustrate the advantages of using composite materials to overcome poor charge carrier dynamics, leading to a 30-fold enhancement in photocurrent.

  18. Recombination in liquid filled ionisation chambers with multiple charge carrier species: Theoretical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, P.; González-Castaño, D. M.; Gómez, F.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-filled ionisation chambers (LICs) are used in radiotherapy for dosimetry and quality assurance. Volume recombination can be quite important in LICs for moderate dose rates, causing non-linearities in the dose rate response of these detectors, and needs to be corrected for. This effect is usually described with Greening and Boag models for continuous and pulsed radiation respectively. Such models assume that the charge is carried by two different species, positive and negative ions, each of those species with a given mobility. However, LICs operating in non-ultrapure mode can contain different types of electronegative impurities with different mobilities, thus increasing the number of different charge carriers. If this is the case, Greening and Boag models can be no longer valid and need to be reformulated. In this work we present a theoretical and numerical study of volume recombination in parallel-plate LICs with multiple charge carrier species, extending Boag and Greening models. Results from a recent publication that reported three different mobilities in an isooctane-filled LIC have been used to study the effect of extra carrier species on recombination. We have found that in pulsed beams the inclusion of extra mobilities does not affect volume recombination much, a behaviour that was expected because Boag formula for charge collection efficiency does not depend on the mobilities of the charge carriers if the Debye relationship between mobilities and recombination constant holds. This is not the case in continuous radiation, where the presence of extra charge carrier species significantly affects the amount of volume recombination.

  19. Electrostatic Charge Carrier Injection into the Charge-Ordered Organic Material α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, Motoi; Ishihara, Takuma; Tajima, Hiroyuki

    2012-07-01

    We have fabricated a field effect transistor structure using the charge-ordered (CO) organic material α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 to investigate the effects of electrostatic carrier injection. We have observed both n-type and bipolar behaviors in the CO state, whereas, previously, only n-type characteristics were reported. The present results indicate that the transfer characteristics for a negative gate voltage, i.e., hole transport characteristics, are highly dependent on the interface conditions between α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 and the electrodes and/or gate insulator. In addition, the activation energy of the CO state is essentially independent of VSG. This result suggests the robustness of the CO state to electrostatic charge carrier injection.

  20. Charge-carrier relaxation in disordered organic semiconductors studied by dark injection: Experiment and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesta, M.; Schaefer, C.; de Groot, J.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of stationary charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors has matured during recent years. However, charge-carrier relaxation in nonstationary situations is still poorly understood. Such relaxation can be studied in dark injection experiments, in which the bias applied over an unilluminated organic semiconductor device is abruptly increased. The resulting transient current reveals both charge-carrier transport and relaxation characteristics. We performed such experiments on hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based organic semiconductor. Modeling the dark injection by solving a one-dimensional master equation using the equilibrium carrier mobility leads to a too-slow current transient, since this approach does not account for carrier relaxation. Modeling by solving a three-dimensional time-dependent master equation does take into account all carrier transport and relaxation effects. With this modeling, the time scale of the current transient is found to be in agreement with experiment. With a disorder strength somewhat smaller than extracted from the temperature-dependent stationary current-voltage characteristics, also the shape of the experimental transients is well described.

  1. Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaics: Charge-Carrier Recombination, Diffusion, and Radiative Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-01-19

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices that harvest the energy provided by the sun have great potential as renewable energy sources, yet uptake has been hampered by the increased cost of solar electricity compared with fossil fuels. Hybrid metal halide perovskites have recently emerged as low-cost active materials in PV cells with power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 20%. Rapid progress has been achieved over only a few years through improvements in materials processing and device design. In addition, hybrid perovskites appear to be good light emitters under certain conditions, raising the prospect of applications in low-cost light-emitting diodes and lasers. Further optimization of such hybrid perovskite devices now needs to be supported by a better understanding of how light is converted into electrical currents and vice versa. This Account provides an overview of charge-carrier recombination and mobility mechanisms encountered in such materials. Optical-pump-terahertz-probe (OPTP) photoconductivity spectroscopy is an ideal tool here, because it allows the dynamics of mobile charge carriers inside the perovskite to be monitored following excitation with a short laser pulse whose photon energy falls into the range of the solar spectrum. We first review our insights gained from transient OPTP and photoluminescence spectroscopy on the mechanisms dominating charge-carrier recombination in these materials. We discuss that mono-molecular charge-recombination predominantly originates from trapping of charges, with trap depths being relatively shallow (tens of millielectronvolts) for hybrid lead iodide perovskites. Bimolecular recombination arises from direct band-to-band electron-hole recombination and is found to be in significant violation of the simple Langevin model. Auger recombination exhibits links with electronic band structure, in accordance with its requirement for energy and momentum conservation for all charges involved. We further discuss charge-carrier mobility

  2. Analysis of Charge Carrier Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Thin Films and Nanoparticle Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    We present a systematic analysis of charge carrier transport in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices based on phenomenological charge carrier transport models. These transient drift-diffusion-reaction models describe electron and hole transport and their trapping, detrapping, and recombination self-consistently with Poisson's equation for the electric field in the active layer. We predict transient currents in devices with active layers composed of P3HT, PCBM, and PBTDV polymers, as well as donor-acceptor blends. The propensity of the material to generate charge, zero-field carrier mobilities, as well as trapping, detrapping, and recombination rate coefficients are determined by fitting the modeling predictions to experimental data of photocurrent evolution. We have investigated effects of material structure and morphology by comparing the fitting outcomes for active layers consisting of both thin films and nanoparticle assemblies. We have also analyzed the effect on charge carrier transport of nanoparticle surface characteristics, as well as of thermal annealing of both thin-film and nanoparticle-assembly active layers. The model predictions provide valuable input toward synthesis of new nanoparticle assemblies that lead to improved OPV device performance.

  3. Charge Carrier Hopping Dynamics in Homogeneously Broadened PbS Quantum Dot Solids.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Rachel H; Lee, Elizabeth M Y; Weidman, Mark C; Willard, Adam P; Tisdale, William A

    2017-02-08

    Energetic disorder in quantum dot solids adversely impacts charge carrier transport in quantum dot solar cells and electronic devices. Here, we use ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to show that homogeneously broadened PbS quantum dot arrays (σhom(2):σinh(2) > 19:1, σinh/kBT < 0.4) can be realized if quantum dot batches are sufficiently monodisperse (δ ≲ 3.3%). The homogeneous line width is found to be an inverse function of quantum dot size, monotonically increasing from ∼25 meV for the largest quantum dots (5.8 nm diameter/0.92 eV energy) to ∼55 meV for the smallest (4.1 nm/1.3 eV energy). Furthermore, we show that intrinsic charge carrier hopping rates are faster for smaller quantum dots. This finding is the opposite of the mobility trend commonly observed in device measurements but is consistent with theoretical predictions. Fitting our data to a kinetic Monte Carlo model, we extract charge carrier hopping times ranging from 80 ps for the smallest quantum dots to over 1 ns for the largest, with the same ethanethiol ligand treatment. Additionally, we make the surprising observation that, in slightly polydisperse (δ ≲ 4%) quantum dot solids, structural disorder has a greater impact than energetic disorder in inhibiting charge carrier transport. These findings emphasize how small improvements in batch size dispersity can have a dramatic impact on intrinsic charge carrier hopping behavior and will stimulate further improvements in quantum dot device performance.

  4. Charge Carrier Trapping at Surface Defects of Perovskite Solar Cell Absorbers: A First-Principles Study.

    PubMed

    Uratani, Hiroki; Yamashita, Koichi

    2017-02-16

    The trapping of charge carriers at defects on surfaces or grain boundaries is detrimental for the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). For example, it is the main limiting factor for carrier lifetime. Moreover, it causes hysteresis in the current-voltage curves, which is considered to be a serious issue for PSCs' operation. In this work, types of surface defects responsible for carrier trapping are clarified by a comprehensive first-principles investigation into surface defects of tetragonal CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3). Considering defect formation energetics, it is proposed that a Pb-rich condition is preferred to an I-rich one; however, a moderate condition might possibly be the best choice. Our result paves the way for improving the performance of PSCs through a rational strategy of suppressing carrier trapping at surface defects.

  5. Unified Description of Charge-Carrier Mobilities in Disordered Semiconducting Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasveer, W. F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.; Blom, P. W.; de Leeuw, D. M.; Michels, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    From a numerical solution of the master equation for hopping transport in a disordered energy landscape with a Gaussian density of states, we determine the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility on temperature, carrier density, and electric field. Experimental current-voltage characteristics in devices based on semiconducting polymers are excellently reproduced with this unified description of the mobility. At room temperature it is mainly the dependence on carrier density that plays an important role, whereas at low temperatures and high fields the electric field dependence becomes important. Omission in the past of the carrier-density dependence has led to an underestimation of the hopping distance and the width of the density of states in these polymers.

  6. Unified description of charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Pasveer, W F; Cottaar, J; Tanase, C; Coehoorn, R; Bobbert, P A; Blom, P W M; de Leeuw, D M; Michels, M A J

    2005-05-27

    From a numerical solution of the master equation for hopping transport in a disordered energy landscape with a Gaussian density of states, we determine the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility on temperature, carrier density, and electric field. Experimental current-voltage characteristics in devices based on semiconducting polymers are excellently reproduced with this unified description of the mobility. At room temperature it is mainly the dependence on carrier density that plays an important role, whereas at low temperatures and high fields the electric field dependence becomes important. Omission in the past of the carrier-density dependence has led to an underestimation of the hopping distance and the width of the density of states in these polymers.

  7. Mapping the spatial distribution of charge carriers in quantum-confined heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Lane, Lucas A.; Nie, Shuming

    2014-01-01

    Quantum-confined nanostructures are considered ‘artificial atoms’ because the wavefunctions of their charge carriers resemble those of atomic orbitals. For multiple-domain heterostructures, however, carrier wavefunctions are more complex and still not well understood. We have prepared a unique series of cation-exchanged HgxCd1−xTe quantum dots (QDs) and seven epitaxial core–shell QDs and measured their first and second exciton peak oscillator strengths as a function of size and chemical composition. A major finding is that carrier locations can be quantitatively mapped and visualized during shell growth or cation exchange simply using absorption transition strengths. These results reveal that a broad range of quantum heterostructures with different internal structures and band alignments exhibit distinct carrier localization patterns that can be used to further improve the performance of optoelectronic devices and enhance the brightness of QD probes for bioimaging. PMID:25080298

  8. Ab initio charge-carrier mobility model for amorphous molecular semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, Andrea; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Liu, Feilong; Nitsche, Robert; Coehoorn, Reinder; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Bobbert, Peter A.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate charge-carrier mobility models of amorphous organic molecular semiconductors are essential to describe the electrical properties of devices based on these materials. The disordered nature of these semiconductors leads to percolative charge transport with a large characteristic length scale, posing a challenge to the development of such models from ab initio simulations. Here, we develop an ab initio mobility model using a four-step procedure. First, the amorphous morphology together with its energy disorder and intermolecular charge-transfer integrals are obtained from ab initio simulations in a small box. Next, the ab initio information is used to set up a stochastic model for the morphology and transfer integrals. This stochastic model is then employed to generate a large simulation box with modeled morphology and transfer integrals, which can fully capture the percolative charge transport. Finally, the charge-carrier mobility in this simulation box is calculated by solving a master equation, yielding a mobility function depending on temperature, carrier concentration, and electric field. We demonstrate the procedure for hole transport in two important molecular semiconductors, α -NPD and TCTA. In contrast to a previous study, we conclude that spatial correlations in the energy disorder are unimportant for α -NPD. We apply our mobility model to two types of hole-only α -NPD devices and find that the experimental temperature-dependent current density-voltage characteristics of all devices can be well described by only slightly decreasing the simulated energy disorder strength.

  9. Strontium Insertion in Methylammonium Lead Iodide: Long Charge Carrier Lifetime and High Fill-Factor Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez-del-Rey, Daniel; Savenije, Tom J.; Nordlund, Dennis; Schulz, Philip; Berry, Joseph J.; Sessolo, Michele

    2016-09-22

    The addition of Sr2+ in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films enhances the charge carrier collection efficiency of solar cells leading to very high fill factors, up to 85%. The charge carrier lifetime of Sr2+-containing perovskites is in excess of 40 us, longer than those reported for perovskite single crystals.

  10. Modification of electrostatic charge on inhaled carrier lactose particles by addition of fine particles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, F S; Carter, P A; Rowley, G; Dandiker, Y

    1999-01-01

    Triboelectrification affects particle adhesion and agglomeration and hence the formulation, manufacture, and use of dry powder inhaler (DPI) devices. Electrostatic charge measurement of two component mixes of spray-dried or crystalline lactose fine particles (< 10 microns) 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30% w/w with spray-dried or crystalline lactose 63-90 microns, respectively, has been undertaken using a system incorporating pneumatic transport of the mixed powders to a stainless steel cyclone charging device. The magnitude of charge on the mixes was shown to decrease with increased fine particle content, and there was no significant difference in charge for each concentration between spray-dried and crystalline lactose. Both the variation of charge and powder adhesion to the cyclone surface increased with increase in fine particle content. The proportion of fine particles in carrier systems in DPIs may thus have an important role where triboelectrification is involved.

  11. Spin and charge pumping in magnetic tunnel junctions with precessing magnetization: A nonequilibrium Green function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Son-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Ray; Xiao, John Q.; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    2009-02-01

    We study spin and charge currents pumped by precessing magnetization of a single ferromagnetic layer within F|I|N or F|I|F ( F -ferromagnet; I -insulator; N -normal metal) multilayers of nanoscale thickness attached to two normal-metal electrodes with no applied bias voltage between them. Both simple one-dimensional model, consisting of a single precessing spin and a potential barrier as the “sample,” and realistic three-dimensional devices are investigated. In the rotating reference frame, where the magnetization appears to be static, these junctions are mapped onto a four-terminal dc circuit whose effectively half-metallic ferromagnetic electrodes are biased by the frequency ℏω/e of microwave radiation driving magnetization precession at the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) conditions. We show that pumped spin current in F|I|F junctions, diminished behind the tunnel barrier and increased in the opposite direction, is filtered into charge current by the second F layer to generate dc pumping voltage of the order of ˜1μV (at FMR frequency ˜10GHz ) in an open circuit. In F|I|N devices, several orders of magnitude smaller charge current and the corresponding dc voltage appear concomitantly with the pumped spin current due to barrier induced asymmetry in the transmission coefficients connecting the four electrodes in the rotating-frame picture of pumping.

  12. A molecule to detect and perturb the confinement of charge carriers in quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Matthew T; Amin, Victor A; Cass, Laura C; Weiss, Emily A

    2011-12-14

    This paper describes unprecedented bathochromic shifts (up to 970 meV) of the optical band gaps of CdS, CdSe, and PbS quantum dots (QDs) upon adsorption of an organic ligand, phenyldithiocarbamate (PTC), and the use of PTC to map the quantum confinement of specific charge carriers within the QDs as a function of their radius. For a given QD material and physical radius, R, the magnitude of the increase in apparent excitonic radius (ΔR) upon delocalization by PTC directly reflects the degree of quantum confinement of one or both charge carriers. The plots of ΔR vs R for CdSe and CdS show that exciton delocalization by PTC occurs specifically through the excitonic hole. Furthermore, the plot for CdSe, which spans a range of R over multiple confinement regimes for the hole, identifies the radius (R∼1.9 nm) at which the hole transitions between regimes of strong and intermediate confinement. This demonstration of ligand-induced delocalization of a specific charge carrier is a first step toward eliminating current-limiting resistive interfaces at organic-inorganic junctions within solid-state hybrid devices. Facilitating carrier-specific electronic coupling across heterogeneous interfaces is especially important for nanostructured devices, which comprise a high density of such interfaces.

  13. Long-Distance Charge Carrier Funneling in Perovskite Nanowires Enabled by Built-in Halide Gradient.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wenming; Leng, Jing; Zhao, Chunyi; Jin, Shengye

    2017-01-18

    The excellent charge carrier transportation in organolead halide perovskites is one major contributor to the high performance of many perovskite-based devices. There still exists a possibility for further enhancement of carrier transportation through nanoscale engineering, owing to the versatile wet-chemistry synthesis and processing of perovskites. Here we report the successful synthesis of bromide-gradient CH3NH3PbBrxI3-x single-crystalline nanowires (NWs) by a solid-to-solid ion exchange reaction starting from one end of pure CH3NH3PbI3 NWs, which was confirmed by local photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements. Due to the built-in halide gradient, the long-distance carrier transportation was driven by the energy funnel, rather than the spontaneous carrier diffusion. Indeed, local PL kinetics demonstrated effective charge carrier transportation only from the high-bandgap bromide-rich region to the low-bandgap iodine-rich region over a few micrometers. Therefore, these halide gradient NWs might find applications in various optoelectronic devices requiring long-distance and directional delivery of excitation energy.

  14. On the nature of charge carrier scattering in Ag{sub 2}Se at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarov, M. B.

    2010-10-15

    The electric and thermoelectric properties of silver selenide in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K have been studied. The data obtained are interpreted within the theory of one-type carriers and Kane dispersion relation, with allowance for the character of electron-electron interaction. It is established that, for the concentrations n {<=} 7.8 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, charge carriers are scattered by impurity ions at T {<=} 30 K and by acoustic and optical phonons and point defects at T {>=} 30 K. Electron-electron interactions are found to be elastic at T < 30 K.

  15. Electrode configuration and signal subtraction technique for single polarity charge carrier sensing in ionization detectors

    DOEpatents

    Luke, P.

    1996-06-25

    An ionization detector electrode and signal subtraction apparatus and method provide at least one first conductive trace formed onto the first surface of an ionization detector. The first surface opposes a second surface of the ionization detector. At least one second conductive trace is also formed on the first surface of the ionization detector in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern with the at least one first conductive trace. Both of the traces are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. By forming the traces in a substantially interlaced and symmetric pattern, signals generated by a charge carrier are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the traces. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carrier moves to within close proximity of the traces and is received at the collecting trace. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge and to determine the position at which the charge carrier originated within the ionization detector. 9 figs.

  16. Electrode configuration and signal subtraction technique for single polarity charge carrier sensing in ionization detectors

    DOEpatents

    Luke, Paul

    1996-01-01

    An ionization detector electrode and signal subtraction apparatus and method provides at least one first conductive trace formed onto the first surface of an ionization detector. The first surface opposes a second surface of the ionization detector. At least one second conductive trace is also formed on the first surface of the ionization detector in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern with the at least one first conductive trace. Both of the traces are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. By forming the traces in a substantially interlaced and symmetric pattern, signals generated by a charge carrier are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the traces. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carrier moves to within close proximity of the traces and is received at the collecting trace. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge and to determine the position at which the charge carrier originated within the ionization detector.

  17. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E... calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage... actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? Charges...

  18. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E... calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage... actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? Charges...

  19. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E... calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage... actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? Charges...

  20. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  1. The kinetics of the bimolecular A+B --> 0 reaction in condensed matter: Effects of non-equilibrium charge screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovkov, V. N.; Kotomin, E. A.; von Niessen, W.

    1996-12-01

    The kinetics of the bimolecular A+B→0 reaction between charged reactants is studied in two dimensions, i.e., on a surface. The theory is based on the Kirkwood superposition approximation for three-particle densities and the self-consistent treatment of the electrostatic interactions defined by the non-uniform spatial distribution of similar and dissimilar reactants. Special attention is paid to pattern formation and many-particle effects arising from reaction-induced formation of loose domains containing similar reactants only. It is shown that the critical exponent α characterizing the algebraic concentration decay law, n(t)∝t-α, differs strongly between symmetric (DA=DB) and asymmetric (DA=0) reactant mobilities. This effect is abnormal from the point of view of standard chemical kinetics. It arises directly from the specific spatial distribution in the system as in ``raisins A in a dough B.'' At long reaction times the asymptotics of the interaction potentials is of non-equilibrium type at large relative distances. The accumulation kinetics in the presence of a permanent source is studied. Results of the microscopic formalism are compared with a previous mesoscopic theory.

  2. Experimental evaluation of the carrier lifetime in GaAs grown at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, A. A.; Serdobintsev, P. Yu.; Chaldyshev, V. V.

    2012-05-15

    The relaxation dynamics of nonequilibrium charge carriers in gallium arsenide epitaxial films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low temperatures has been studied. The growth conditions of the epitaxial layer provided an excess arsenic content of 1.2% in the layer. In a material of this kind, the carrier lifetime is <1 ps. To examine carrier relaxation in the femtosecond range, an original scheme for measuring the refractive index dynamics was developed on the basis of the pump-probe technique. The lifetime of nonequilibrium charge carriers was evaluated to be (200 {+-} 35) fs.

  3. Study of charge-carrier relaxation in a disordered organic semiconductor by simulating impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesta, M.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a very sensitive probe of nonstationary charge transport governed by charge-carrier relaxation in devices of disordered organic semiconductors. We simulate impedance spectroscopy measurements of hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based disordered organic semiconductor by solving a time-dependent three-dimensional master equation for the occupational probabilities of transport sites in the semiconductor. We focus on the capacitance-voltage characteristics at different frequencies. In order to obtain good agreement with the measured characteristics, we have to assume a lower strength of a Gaussian energy disorder than obtained from best fits to the stationary current density-voltage characteristics. This lower disorder strength is in agreement with dark-injection studies of nonstationary charge transport on the same devices. The results add to solving the puzzle of reconciling nonstationary with stationary charge-transport studies of disordered organic semiconductors.

  4. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2012-08-13

    This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

  5. Spin fluctuations of nonequilibrium electrons and excitons in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Effects that are related to deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium have a special place in modern physics. Among these, nonequilibrium phenomena in quantum systems attract the highest interest. The experimental technique of spin-noise spectroscopy has became quite widespread, which makes it possible to observe spin fluctuations of charge carriers in semiconductors under both equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. This calls for the development of a theory of spin fluctuations of electrons and electron-hole complexes for nonequilibrium conditions. In this paper, we consider a range of physical situations where a deviation from equilibrium becomes pronounced in the spin noise. A general method for the calculation of electron and exciton spin fluctuations in a nonequilibrium state is proposed. A short review of the theoretical and experimental results in this area is given.

  6. Spin fluctuations of nonequilibrium electrons and excitons in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Glazov, M. M.

    2016-03-15

    Effects that are related to deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium have a special place in modern physics. Among these, nonequilibrium phenomena in quantum systems attract the highest interest. The experimental technique of spin-noise spectroscopy has became quite widespread, which makes it possible to observe spin fluctuations of charge carriers in semiconductors under both equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. This calls for the development of a theory of spin fluctuations of electrons and electron–hole complexes for nonequilibrium conditions. In this paper, we consider a range of physical situations where a deviation from equilibrium becomes pronounced in the spin noise. A general method for the calculation of electron and exciton spin fluctuations in a nonequilibrium state is proposed. A short review of the theoretical and experimental results in this area is given.

  7. Charge carrier transport and photogeneration in P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic blends.

    PubMed

    Laquai, Frédéric; Andrienko, Denis; Mauer, Ralf; Blom, Paul W M

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the charge transport and photogeneration in bulk-heterojunction solar cells made from blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) and methano-fullerene (PCBM). The charge transport, specifically the hole mobility in the RR-P3HT phase of the polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blend, is dramatically affected by thermal annealing. The hole mobility increases more than three orders of magnitude and reaches a value of up to 2 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after the thermal annealing process as a result of an improved semi-crystallinity of the film. This significant increase of the hole mobility balances the electron and hole mobilities in a photovoltaic blend in turn reducing space-charge formation, and this is the most important factor for the strong enhancement of the photovoltaic efficiency compared to an as cast, that is, non-annealed device. In fact, the balanced charge carrier mobility in RR-P3HT:PCBM blends in combination with a field- and temperature-independent charge carrier generation and greatly reduced non-geminate recombination explains the large quantum efficiencies mea-sured in P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices.

  8. Base Sequence Effects on Charge Carrier Generation in Dna:. a Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, E. B.; Lewis, J. P.; Sankey, O. F.

    We have thoroughly analyzed the electronic structure of stacked DNA Watson-Crick (WC) base pair dimers using ab initio Hartree-Fock and semiempirical Hartree-Fock-configuration-interaction quantum chemistry. We consider all the possible base compositions and sequences at the nucleoside level in vacuo. The results show that in such systems charge carrier generation could in principle be possible via charge transfer excitons, which turn out to dominate the first excited electronic states of the WC base pairs and their stacked dimers, and this process is largely sequence- and conformation-dependent. Possible consequences of this result for polymeric DNA duplexes are discussed.

  9. Molecular ion battery: a rechargeable system without using any elemental ions as a charge carrier

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Masaru; Sano, Hikaru; Ando, Hisanori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to exceed the lithium redox potential in electrochemical systems? It seems impossible to exceed the lithium potential because the redox potential of the elemental lithium is the lowest among all the elements, which contributes to the high voltage characteristics of the widely used lithium ion battery. However, it should be possible when we use a molecule-based ion which is not reduced even at the lithium potential in principle. Here we propose a new model system using a molecular electrolyte salt with polymer-based active materials in order to verify whether a molecular ion species serves as a charge carrier. Although the potential of the negative-electrode is not yet lower than that of lithium at present, this study reveals that a molecular ion can work as a charge carrier in a battery and the system is certainly a molecular ion-based “rocking chair” type battery. PMID:26043147

  10. Phenol photodegradation on platinized-TiO2 photocatalysts related to charge-carrier dynamics.

    PubMed

    Emilio, Carina A; Litter, Marta I; Kunst, Marinus; Bouchard, Michel; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe

    2006-04-11

    Three commercial TiO2 compounds (Degussa P25, Sachtleben UV100, and Millenium PC50) and their platinized forms have been studied by the time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) method to follow their charge-carrier dynamics and to relate it to the photocatalytic activity for phenol degradation in TiO2 aqueous suspensions. The degradation reaction has been studied in detail, following the time evolution of the concentration of phenol and its intermediates by liquid chromatography. The results show that platinization has a distinct influence on the commercial compounds, decreasing globally the activity of P25 and increasing the activity of PC50 and UV100. An influence of charge-carrier lifetimes on the photoactivity of pure and platinized TiO2 samples has been evidenced.

  11. Effective mass of a charged carrier in a nonpolar liquid: Snowball effect in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Chikina, I.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasiparticle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He{sup 4} in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called ''snowball'' model). Moreover, in addition to the generalization of Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal-fluid contribution divergency and the way of the corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  12. The Effective Mass of a Charged Carrier in a Nonpolar Liquid:. Applications to Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, Andrei; Chikina, Ioulia; Shikin, Valeriy

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasi-particle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called “snowball” model). Moreover, in addition to generalization of the Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal fluid contribution divergency and the way of corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  13. Effective mass of a charged carrier in a nonpolar liquid: Snowball effect in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasiparticle can be introduced without Atkins’s idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called “snowball” model). Moreover, in addition to the generalization of Atkins’s model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal-fluid contribution divergency and the way of the corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  14. The Effective Mass of a Charged Carrier in a Nonpolar Liquid:. Applications to Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, Andrei; Chikina, Ioulia; Shikin, Valeriy

    2009-12-01

    The problem of a correct definition of the charged carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is shown that the effective mass of such a quasi-particle can be introduced without Atkins's idea about the solidification of liquid He4 in the close vicinity of an ion (the so-called "snowball" model). Moreover, in addition to generalization of the Atkins's model, the charged carrier effective mass formation is considered within the framework of the two-fluid scenario. The physical reasons of the normal fluid contribution divergency and the way of corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Agreement between the theory and the available experimental data is found in a wide range of temperatures.

  15. Charge carrier mobility in organic molecular materials probed by electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shu; Saeki, Akinori; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Sakamaki, Daisuke

    2014-06-21

    Charge carrier mobility is an essential parameter providing control over the performance of semiconductor devices fabricated using a variety of organic molecular materials. Recent design strategies toward molecular materials have been directed at the substitution of amorphous silicon-based semiconductors; accordingly, numerous measurement techniques have been designed and developed to probe the electronic conducting nature of organic materials bearing extremely wide structural variations in comparison with inorganic and/or metal-oxide semiconductor materials. The present perspective highlights the evaluation methodologies of charge carrier mobility in organic materials, as well as the merits and demerits of techniques examining the feasibility of organic molecules, crystals, and supramolecular assemblies in semiconductor applications. Beyond the simple substitution of amorphous silicon, we have attempted to address in this perspective the systematic use of measurement techniques for future development of organic molecular semiconductors.

  16. Molecular ion battery: a rechargeable system without using any elemental ions as a charge carrier.

    PubMed

    Yao, Masaru; Sano, Hikaru; Ando, Hisanori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2015-06-04

    Is it possible to exceed the lithium redox potential in electrochemical systems? It seems impossible to exceed the lithium potential because the redox potential of the elemental lithium is the lowest among all the elements, which contributes to the high voltage characteristics of the widely used lithium ion battery. However, it should be possible when we use a molecule-based ion which is not reduced even at the lithium potential in principle. Here we propose a new model system using a molecular electrolyte salt with polymer-based active materials in order to verify whether a molecular ion species serves as a charge carrier. Although the potential of the negative-electrode is not yet lower than that of lithium at present, this study reveals that a molecular ion can work as a charge carrier in a battery and the system is certainly a molecular ion-based "rocking chair" type battery.

  17. Charge carrier hopping transport based on Marcus theory and variable-range hopping theory in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Banerjee, Writam; Sun, Pengxiao; Gao, Nan; Liu, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Charge carrier hopping transport is generally taken from Miller-Abrahams and Marcus transition rates. Based on the Miller-Abrahams theory and nearest-neighbour range hopping theory, Apsley and Hughes developed a concise calculation method (A-H method) to study the hopping conduction in disordered systems. Here, we improve the A-H method to investigate the charge carrier hopping transport by introducing polaron effect and electric field based on Marcus theory and variable-range hopping theory. This improved method can well describe the contribution of polaron effect, energetic disorder, carrier density, and electric field to the charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductor. In addition, the calculated results clearly show that the charge carrier mobility represents different polaron effect dependence with the polaron activation energy and decreases with increasing electric field strength for large fields.

  18. Explicitly Solvable Model of the Charge Carriers' Phenomena in Isotropic Conducting Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzak, Yaroslav S.; Wacławski, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the kinetic properties of the isotropic conducting crystals is presented. The general formulas for these kinetic properties are expressed in terms of the Fermi integrals. These integrals were obtained using methods of statistical ensembles with varying number of particles and the Gibbs's grand canonical distribution. The determination of the scattering function and the exploration of its relation with the mobility of the current carriers inside these crystals have been made. Together with the results of theoretical analysis of the scattering function and its relation with the current carriers' mobility, these formulas constitute the mathematical model of the charge carriers' transport phenomena in conducting crystals (where a non-parabolic energy spectrum is described by Kane's formula) and provide algorithms for the calculation of these properties.

  19. Explicitly Solvable Model of the Charge Carriers' Phenomena in Isotropic Conducting Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzak, Yaroslav S.; Wacławski, Tadeusz

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the kinetic properties of the isotropic conducting crystals is presented. The general formulas for these kinetic properties are expressed in terms of the Fermi integrals. These integrals were obtained using methods of statistical ensembles with varying number of particles and the Gibbs's grand canonical distribution. The determination of the scattering function and the exploration of its relation with the mobility of the current carriers inside these crystals have been made. Together with the results of theoretical analysis of the scattering function and its relation with the current carriers' mobility, these formulas constitute the mathematical model of the charge carriers' transport phenomena in conducting crystals (where a non-parabolic energy spectrum is described by Kane's formula) and provide algorithms for the calculation of these properties.

  20. Bound and Scattering States of Itinerant Charge Carriers in Complex Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzemsky, A. L.

    The concept of magnetic polaron is analyzed and developed to elucidate the nature of itinerant charge carrier states in magnetic semiconductors and similar complex magnetic materials. By contrasting the scattering and bound states of carriers within the s-d exchange model, the nature of bound states at finite temperatures is clarified. The free magnetic polaron at certain conditions is realized as a bound state of the carrier (electron or hole) with the spin wave. Quite generally, a self-consistent theory of a magnetic polaron is formulated within a nonperturbative many-body approach, the Irreducible Green Functions (IGF) method which is used to describe the quasiparticle many-body dynamics at finite temperatures. Within the above many-body approach we elaborate a self-consistent picture of dynamic behavior of two interacting subsystems, the localized spins and the itinerant charge carriers. In particular, we show that the relevant generalized mean fields emerges naturally within our formalism. At the same time, the correct separation of elastic scattering corrections permits one to consider the damping effects (inelastic scattering corrections) in the unified and coherent fashion. The damping of magnetic polaron state, which is quite different from the damping of the scattering states, finds a natural interpretation within the present self-consistent scheme.

  1. Role of Adsorbed Water on Charge Carrier Dynamics in Photoexcited TiO2

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Overall photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most sought after processes for sustainable solar-to-chemical energy conversion. The efficiency of this process strongly depends on charge carrier recombination and interaction with surface adsorbates at different time scales. Here, we investigated how hydration of TiO2 P25 affects dynamics of photogenerated electrons at the millisecond to minute time scale characteristic for chemical reactions. We used rapid scan diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The decay of photogenerated electron absorption was substantially slower in the presence of associated water. For hydrated samples, the charge carrier recombination rates followed an Arrhenius-type behavior in the temperature range of 273–423 K; these became temperature-independent when the material was dehydrated at temperatures above 423 K or cooled below 273 K. A DFT+U analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding with adsorbed water stabilizes surface-trapped holes at anatase TiO2(101) facet and lowers the barriers for hole migration. Hence, hole mobility should be higher in the hydrated material than in the dehydrated system. This demonstrates that adsorbed associated water can efficiently stabilize photogenerated charge carriers in nanocrystalline TiO2 and suppress their recombination at the time scale up to minutes.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of charge carrier anisotropic motion in twisted few-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kandyba, Viktor; Yablonskikh, Mikhail; Barinov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, a layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, captures enormous interest as probably the most promising component of future electronics thanks to its mechanical robustness, flexibility, and unique charge carrier quasiparticles propagating like massless high energy Dirac fermions. If several graphene layers form a stack, the interaction between them is, on the one hand, weak, allowing realization of various registries between the layers and, on the other hand, strong enough for a wide range tuning of the electronic properties. Here we grow few layer graphene with various number of layers and twist configurations and address the electronic properties of individual atomic layers in single microscopic domains using angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The dependence of the interlayer coupling on the twist angle is analyzed and, in the domains with tri-layers and more, if different rotations are present, the electrons in weaker coupled adjacent layers are shown to have different properties manifested by coexisting van Hove singularities, moiré superlattices with corresponding superlattice Dirac points, and charge carrier group velocity renormalizations. Moreover, pronounced anisotropy in the charge carrier motion, opening a possibility to transform strongly coupled graphene bilayers into quasi one-dimensional conductors, is observed. PMID:26548567

  3. A charge carrier transport model for donor-acceptor blend layers

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Janine Widmer, Johannes; Koerner, Christian; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl; Kleemann, Hans; Tress, Wolfgang; Riede, Moritz

    2015-01-28

    Highly efficient organic solar cells typically comprise donor-acceptor blend layers facilitating effective splitting of excitons. However, the charge carrier mobility in the blends can be substantially smaller than in neat materials, hampering the device performance. Currently, available mobility models do not describe the transport in blend layers entirely. Here, we investigate hole transport in a model blend system consisting of the small molecule donor zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the acceptor fullerene C{sub 60} in different mixing ratios. The blend layer is sandwiched between p-doped organic injection layers, which prevent minority charge carrier injection and enable exploiting diffusion currents for the characterization of exponential tail states from a thickness variation of the blend layer using numerical drift-diffusion simulations. Trap-assisted recombination must be considered to correctly model the conductivity behavior of the devices, which are influenced by local electron currents in the active layer, even though the active layer is sandwiched in between p-doped contacts. We find that the density of deep tail states is largest in the devices with 1:1 mixing ratio (E{sub t} = 0.14 eV, N{sub t} = 1.2 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) directing towards lattice disorder as the transport limiting process. A combined field and charge carrier density dependent mobility model are developed for this blend layer.

  4. Charge carrier dynamics at the pentacene-C60 interface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Robin Carl; Karthäuser, Andrea; Breuer, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Chatterjee, Sangam

    2017-02-01

    Organic molecular solids feature various properties considered advantageous for next-generation photovoltaic devices such as mechanical flexibility and ease of fabrication by, e.g., large-scale and large volume printing. Additionally, Singlet-Exciton Fission may allow surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, one photoexcited singlet-type exciton decays into two triplet-type excitons, effectively doubling the number of excited charge carriers. Hence, above-unity quantum efficiencies may be achieved in photovoltaics and have been reported in for example, pentacene (PEN) -C60 heterojunctions. Here, we study the carrier dynamics at well-defined PEN-C60 interface model systems by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments for different excitation photon energies. Thereby, we disentangle charge transfer and excitation dynamics, i.e., injection, transport, dissociation, and extraction. The photoluminescence spectra reveal two distinct transition energies associated with charge-transfer (CT) states expected from photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. These long-lived transitions show a clear dependence on excitation energy, corroborating the proposed CT transitions and revealing the fact that carriers need to be created in both individual constituents for CT transitions to be observable. Additionally, the C60 photoluminescence efficiency strongly quenches for increasing PEN coverage while the lifetime is drastically enhanced yielding strong evidence for an electron transfer between the PEN ground state and C60 when only the latter is photoexcited.

  5. Non-equilibrium Dirac carrier dynamics in graphene investigated with time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gierz, Isabella; Link, Stefan; Starke, Ulrich; Cavalleri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We have used time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) to assess the influence of many-body interactions on the Dirac carrier dynamics in graphene. From the energy-dependence of the measured scattering rates we directly determine the imaginary part of the self-energy, visualizing the existence of a relaxation bottleneck associated with electron-phonon coupling. A comparison with static line widths obtained by high-resolution ARPES indicates that the dynamics of photo-excited carriers in graphene are solely determined by the equilibrium self-energy. Furthermore, the subtle interplay of different many-body interactions in graphene may allow for carrier multiplication, where the absorption of a single photon generates more than one electron-hole pair via impact ionization. We find that, after photo-excitation, the number of carriers in the conduction band along the ΓK-direction keeps increasing for about 40 fs after the pump pulse is gone. A definite proof of carrier multiplication in graphene, however, requires a more systematic study, carefully taking into account the contribution of momentum relaxation on the measured rise time.

  6. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2 MeV/u sulfur ions passing through carbon foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, M.; Sataka, M.; Kawatsura, K.; Takahiro, K.; Komaki, K.; Shibata, H.; Sugai, H.; Nishio, K.

    2009-08-01

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions for 2.0 MeV/u sulfur ions after passing through carbon foils were studied experimentally. For the equilibrium charge-state distribution, incident ions of S 7+, S 12+, S 14+ and S 16+ were injected into carbon foils 54, 98, 150 and 200 μg/cm 2 in thickness, whereas for the non-equilibrium distributions, new measurements for S 15+ and S 16+ incidences were made through carbon foils of 0.9-10 μg/cm 2 to supplement our previous experiments regarding S 6+-S 14+ incidences [M. Imai, M. Sataka, K. Kawatsura, K. Takahiro, K. Komaki, H. Shibata, H. Sugai, K. Nishio, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 230 (2005) 63; M. Imai, M. Sataka, K. Kawatsura, K. Takahiro, K. Komaki, H. Shibata, H. Sugai, K. Nishio, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 256 (2007) 11]. Mean charge states for S 6+-S 14+ incidences as functions of the penetration thickness merged at 6.9 μg/cm 2 and changed together until reaching equilibrium at around 100 μg/cm 2, while those for S 15+ and S 16+ incidences took different paths to equilibrium, which was also the case for distribution widths for S 6+-S 14+, S 15+ and S 16+ incidences. An equilibrium mean charge state of 12.68 and distribution width of 1.11 were attained with equilibrium charge distributions between 6+ and 16+.

  7. Excited state and charge-carrier dynamics in perovskite solar cell materials.

    PubMed

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Tian, Yuxi; Sundström, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2016-02-26

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research.

  8. Excited state and charge-carrier dynamics in perovskite solar cell materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponseca, Carlito S., Jr.; Tian, Yuxi; Sundström, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G.

    2016-02-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research.

  9. Generating free charges by carrier multiplication in quantum dots for highly efficient photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Sybren; Sandeep, C S Suchand; Liu, Yao; Law, Matt; Kinge, Sachin; Houtepen, Arjan J; Schins, Juleon M; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: In a conventional photovoltaic device (solar cell or photodiode) photons are absorbed in a bulk semiconductor layer, leading to excitation of an electron from a valence band to a conduction band. Directly after photoexcitation, the hole in the valence band and the electron in the conduction band have excess energy given by the difference between the photon energy and the semiconductor band gap. In a bulk semiconductor, the initially hot charges rapidly lose their excess energy as heat. This heat loss is the main reason that the theoretical efficiency of a conventional solar cell is limited to the Shockley-Queisser limit of ∼33%. The efficiency of a photovoltaic device can be increased if the excess energy is utilized to excite additional electrons across the band gap. A sufficiently hot charge can produce an electron-hole pair by Coulomb scattering on a valence electron. This process of carrier multiplication (CM) leads to formation of two or more electron-hole pairs for the absorption of one photon. In bulk semiconductors such as silicon, the energetic threshold for CM is too high to be of practical use. However, CM in nanometer sized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) offers prospects for exploitation in photovoltaics. CM leads to formation of two or more electron-hole pairs that are initially in close proximity. For photovoltaic applications, these charges must escape from recombination. This Account outlines our recent progress in the generation of free mobile charges that result from CM in QDs. Studies of charge carrier photogeneration and mobility were carried out using (ultrafast) time-resolved laser techniques with optical or ac conductivity detection. We found that charges can be extracted from photoexcited PbS QDs by bringing them into contact with organic electron and hole accepting materials. However, charge localization on the QD produces a strong Coulomb attraction to its counter charge in the organic material. This limits the production

  10. Glass transition dynamics and charge carrier mobility in conjugated polyfluorene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hui; Liu, Dan; Wang, Tao

    Conjugated polymers are commonly used in organic optoelectronic devices, e.g. organic photovoltaics (OPVs), light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). In these devices, the conjugated polymers are prepared as thin films with thicknesses in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers, and are interfaced with different function layers made from organic or inorganic materials. We have studied the glass transition temperature (Tg) of poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene)-co-N-(1, 4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) thin films supported on different substrates, as well as their SCLC charge carrier mobility in photodiodes. Both Monotonic and non-monotonic Tg deviations are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si/SiOx and PEDOT:PSS, respectively. With low to moderate thermal crosslinking, the thickness dependent Tg deviation still exists, which diminishes in TFB films with a high crosslinking degree. The vertical charge carrier mobility of TFB thin films extracted from the SCLC measurements is found increase with film thickness, a value increases from 1 to 50 x 10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the thickness range from 15 to 180 nm. Crosslinking was found to reduce the carrier mobility in TFB thin films. The Tg deviations are also discussed using the classic layered models in the literature. Our results provide a precise guide for the fabrication and design of high performance optoelectronic devices.

  11. Charge Carrier Conduction Mechanism in PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haowei; Wang, Yishan; He, Bo; Li, Weile; Sulaman, Muhammad; Xu, Junfeng; Yang, Shengyi; Tang, Yi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-07-20

    With its properties of bandgap tunability, low cost, and substrate compatibility, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are becoming promising materials for optoelectronic applications. Additionally, solution-processed organic, inorganic, and hybrid ligand-exchange technologies have been widely used in PbS CQDs solar cells, and currently the maximum certified power conversion efficiency of 9.9% has been reported by passivation treatment of molecular iodine. Presently, there are still some challenges, and the basic physical mechanism of charge carriers in CQDs-based solar cells is not clear. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a monitoring technology for current by changing the frequency of applied alternating current voltage, and it provides an insight into its electrical properties that cannot be measured by direct current testing facilities. In this work, we used EIS to analyze the recombination resistance, carrier lifetime, capacitance, and conductivity of two typical PbS CQD solar cells Au/PbS-TBAl/ZnO/ITO and Au/PbS-EDT/PbS-TBAl/ZnO/ITO, in this way, to better understand the charge carriers conduction mechanism behind in PbS CQD solar cells, and it provides a guide to design high-performance quantum-dots solar cells.

  12. Magnetism and superconductivity in a quasi-2D anisotropic system doped with charge carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Palistrant, M. E.

    2016-07-15

    The theory of multiband superconducting systems with variable density of charge carriers is analyzed. The possibility of emergence of nonphonon high-temperature superconductivity due to the predominance of electron–electron interband interactions over intraband interactions, as well as due to the fact that the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of multiband systems in the superconducting phase differ qualitatively from those of single-band systems, is indicated. Phase transitions in a quasi-2D anisotropic medium upon a change in the carrier concentration, i.e., a transition from the commensurate to the incommensurate state of the spin density wave, are analyzed. Such a transition is observed when the Umklapp processes in the lattice structure are taken into account. These processes facilitate a deviation of wavevector Q of the spin density wave from 2k{sub F}, as well as a displacement of the bandgap relative to the Fermi surface. This leads to the generation of free charge carriers and the possibility of superconductivity. It is shown that superconductivity accompanies the magnetism. The conditions for the coexistence of these two phenomena are determined.

  13. Polymer-free carbon nanotube thermoelectrics with improved charge carrier transport and power factor

    DOE PAGES

    Norton-Baker, Brenna; Ihly, Rachelle; Gould, Isaac E.; ...

    2016-11-17

    Here, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) have recently attracted attention for their promise as active components in a variety of optical and electronic applications, including thermoelectricity generation. Here we demonstrate that removing the wrapping polymer from the highly enriched s-SWCNT network leads to substantial improvements in charge carrier transport and thermoelectric power factor. These improvements arise primarily from an increase in charge carrier mobility within the s-SWCNT networks because of removal of the insulating polymer and control of the level of nanotube bundling in the network, which enables higher thin-film conductivity for a given carrier density. Ultimately, these studies demonstratemore » that highly enriched s-SWCNT thin films, in the complete absence of any accompanying semiconducting polymer, can attain thermoelectric power factors in the range of approximately 400 μW m-1K-2, which is on par with that of some of the best single-component organic thermoelectrics demonstrated to date.« less

  14. Polymer-Free Carbon Nanotube Thermoelectrics with Improved Charge Carrier Transport and Power Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Norton-Baker, Brenna; Ihly, Rachelle; Gould, Isaac E.; Avery, Azure D.; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw R.; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.

    2016-12-09

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) have recently attracted attention for their promise as active components in a variety of optical and electronic applications, including thermoelectricity generation. Here we demonstrate that removing the wrapping polymer from the highly enriched s-SWCNT network leads to substantial improvements in charge carrier transport and thermoelectric power factor. These improvements arise primarily from an increase in charge carrier mobility within the s-SWCNT networks because of removal of the insulating polymer and control of the level of nanotube bundling in the network, which enables higher thin-film conductivity for a given carrier density. Ultimately, these studies demonstrate that highly enriched s-SWCNT thin films, in the complete absence of any accompanying semiconducting polymer, can attain thermoelectric power factors in the range of approximately 400 uW m-1K-2, which is on par with that of some of the best single-component organic thermoelectrics demonstrated to date.

  15. Impact of thermal annealing on nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in single-crystal, freestanding GaAs mesostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulics, M.; Hardtdegen, H.; Adam, R.; Grützmacher, D.; Gregušová, D.; Novák, J.; Kordoš, P.; Sofer, Z.; Serafini, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobolewski, Roman; Marso, M.

    2014-04-01

    We report on the impact of thermal annealing to carrier transport and transient, subpicosecond photoresponse of freestanding GaAs mesostructures. Our measurements included micro-photoluminescence and dark current and responsivity studies as well as optical femtosecond characterization. The fabricated GaAs mesostructures consisted of both mesowires and platelets that were integrated into coplanar striplines to form a photoconductive switch. We demonstrate that an optimized annealing process of our mesostructures, performed at 600 °C for 20 min, led to restoring bulklike properties of our freestanding devices. They exhibited dark currents below 600 pA at 10 V bias, responsivity of 0.2 A W-1 at 30 V, and mobility as high as 7300 cm2 V s-1. The annealed freestanding GaAs photodetectors were characterized by subpicosecond carrier relaxation dynamics with negligible trapping and a cutoff frequency of 1.3 THz. The latter characteristics make them excellent candidates for THz-bandwidth optoelectronics.

  16. Kinetics of photo-activated charge carriers in Sn:CdS

    SciTech Connect

    Patidar, Manju Mishra Gorli, V. R.; Gangrade, Mohan; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V.; Panda, Richa

    2016-05-23

    Kinetics of the photo-activated charge carriers has been investigated in Tin substituted Cadmium Sulphide, Cd{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}S (x=0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15), thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis. X-Ray Diffraction shows an increase in strain that resulted in the decreased crystallite size upon Sn substitution. At the first sight, the photo current characteristics show a quenching effect on Sn substitution. However, survival of persistent photocurrents is seen even up to 15% of Sn substitution. Transient photo current decay could be explained with a 2τ relaxation model. CdS normally has an n-type character and the Sn doping expected to inject hole carriers. The two fold increase in τ{sub 1}, increase in activation energy and the decrease in photocurrents upon Sn substitution point towards a band gap cleaning scenario that include compensation and associated carrier injection dynamics. In addition Atomic Force Microscopy shows a drastic change in microstructure that modulates the carrier dynamics as a whole.

  17. Energy resolution and related charge carrier mobility in LaBr3:Ce scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodyuk, I. V.; Quarati, F. G. A.; Alekhin, M. S.; Dorenbos, P.

    2013-09-01

    The scintillation response of LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystals was studied as function of temperature and Ce concentration with synchrotron X-rays between 9 keV and 100 keV. The results were analyzed using the theory of carrier transport in wide band gap semiconductors to gain new insights into charge carrier generation, diffusion, and capture mechanisms. Their influence on the efficiency of energy transfer and conversion from X-ray or γ-ray photon to optical photons and therefore on the energy resolution of lanthanum halide scintillators was studied. From this, we will propose that scattering of carriers by both the lattice phonons and by ionized impurities are key processes determining the temperature dependence of carrier mobility and ultimately the scintillation efficiency and energy resolution. When assuming about 100 ppm ionized impurity concentration in 0.2% Ce3+ doped LaBr3, mobilities are such that we can reproduce the observed temperature dependence of the energy resolution, and in particular, the minimum in resolution near room temperature is reproduced.

  18. Kinetics of photo-activated charge carriers in Sn:CdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patidar, Manju Mishra; Panda, Richa; Gorli, V. R.; Gangrade, Mohan; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetics of the photo-activated charge carriers has been investigated in Tin substituted Cadmium Sulphide, Cd1-xSnxS (x=0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15), thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis. X-Ray Diffraction shows an increase in strain that resulted in the decreased crystallite size upon Sn substitution. At the first sight, the photo current characteristics show a quenching effect on Sn substitution. However, survival of persistent photocurrents is seen even up to 15% of Sn substitution. Transient photo current decay could be explained with a 2τ relaxation model. CdS normally has an n-type character and the Sn doping expected to inject hole carriers. The two fold increase in τ1, increase in activation energy and the decrease in photocurrents upon Sn substitution point towards a band gap cleaning scenario that include compensation and associated carrier injection dynamics. In addition Atomic Force Microscopy shows a drastic change in microstructure that modulates the carrier dynamics as a whole.

  19. Charge Carrier Transport Mechanism Based on Stable Low Voltage Organic Bistable Memory Device.

    PubMed

    Ramana, V V; Moodley, M K; Kumar, A B V Kiran; Kannan, V

    2015-05-01

    A solution processed two terminal organic bistable memory device was fabricated utilizing films of polymethyl methacrylate PMMA/ZnO/PMMA on top of ITO coated glass. Electrical characterization of the device structure showed that the two terminal device exhibited favorable switching characteristics with an ON/OFF ratio greater than 1 x 10(4) when the voltage was swept between - 2 V and +3 V. The device maintained its state after removal of the bias voltage. The device did not show degradation after a 1-h retention test at 120 degrees C. The memory functionality was consistent even after fifty cycles of operation. The charge transport switching mechanism is discussed on the basis of carrier transport mechanism and our analysis of the data shows that the charge carrier trans- port mechanism of the device during the writing process can be explained by thermionic emission (TE) and space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) mechanism models while erasing process could be explained by the FN tunneling mechanism. This demonstration provides a class of memory devices with the potential for low-cost, low-power consumption applications, such as a digital memory cell.

  20. Stress Activation and Propagation of Electronic Charge Carriers in Igneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, J.; Freund, F. T.

    2007-12-01

    Igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Earth's crust generate electric currents when subjected to deviatoric stresses. The reason is that these rocks contain dormant electronic charge carriers in the form of peroxy links. Peroxy links are sites in the crystal structures of the constituent minerals where oxygen anions have converted from their common 2- valence state to the 1- valence state, O3X-OO-XO3 with X=Si4+, Al3+ etc. As rocks are stressed and dislocations sweep through the mineral grains, the peroxy links break up, activating electrons and pholes ("phole" is an abbreviation for "positive hole", a defect electron on the oxygen sublattice, chemically O- in a matrix of O2-). The pholes are mobile electronic charge carriers that can spread out of the stressed rock into the surrounding unstressed rock. They travel via energy levels at the upper edge of the valence bands, cross grain boundaries and achieve a phase velocity on the order of 200±50 m/sec, consistent with phonon-assisted electron hopping. Due to mutual repulsion inside the rock volume the pholes spread to the surface, where they build up a positive surface charge. The surface charge can be measured with a non-contact capacitive sensor. If a Cu contact is applied to the surface of the rock, electrons are injected from ground into the rock in response to the evolving positive charge on the rock surface. We modeled surface potentials and burst-like electron injections following low and medium velocity impact experiments, 100 m/sec and 1.5 km/sec respectively.

  1. Positively Charged Nanostructured Lipid Carriers and Their Effect on the Dissolution of Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Choe, Jaehyeog; Suh, Seokjin; Ko, Sanghoon

    2016-05-20

    The objective of this study is to develop suitable formulations to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. We selected lipid-based formulation as a drug carrier and modified the surface using positively charged chitosan derivative (HTCC) to increase its water solubility and bioavailability. Chitosan and HTCC-coated lipid particles had higher zeta-potential values than uncoated one over the whole pH ranges and improved encapsulation efficiency. In vitro drug release showed that all NLC formulations showed higher in vitro release efficiency than drug particle at pH 7.4. Furthermore, NLC formulation prepared with chitosan or HTCC represented good sustained release property. The results indicate that chitosan and HTCC can be excellent formulating excipients of lipid-based delivery carrier for improving poorly water soluble drug delivery.

  2. Light-emitting quantum dot transistors: emission at high charge carrier densities.

    PubMed

    Schornbaum, Julia; Zakharko, Yuriy; Held, Martin; Thiemann, Stefan; Gannott, Florentina; Zaumseil, Jana

    2015-03-11

    For the application of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots in optoelectronic devices, for example, solar cells and light-emitting diodes, it is crucial to understand and control their charge transport and recombination dynamics at high carrier densities. Both can be studied in ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors (LEFETs). Here, we report the first quantum dot light-emitting transistor. Electrolyte-gated PbS quantum dot LEFETs exhibit near-infrared electroluminescence from a confined region within the channel, which proves true ambipolar transport in ligand-exchanged quantum dot solids. Unexpectedly, the external quantum efficiencies improve significantly with current density. This effect correlates with the unusual increase of photoluminescence quantum yield and longer average lifetimes at higher electron and hole concentrations in PbS quantum dot thin films. We attribute the initially low emission efficiencies to nonradiative losses through trap states. At higher carrier densities, these trap states are deactivated and emission is dominated by trions.

  3. Experimental measurements of charge carrier mobility: lifetime products for large sample of pixilated CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadawale, S. V.; Shanmugam, M.; Purohit, Shishir; Acharya, Y. B.; Sudhakar, Manju

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) is thought to be a primary work horse for hard X-ray astronomy in future. Due to the relatively large band-gap, it offers near room temperature operation while maintaining much better energy resolution then scintillator detectors operating in similar energy range. Further, CZT detectors are available in the form of pixilated detectors with area up to few cm2 and hence it is possible to realize very large detector area by having an array of such pixilated CZT detectors. However, it is well known that the energy spectrum of mono-energetic X-ray measured by CZT detectors does not have a Gaussian shape but has significant low-energy tail. This is mainly due to relatively poor mobility and small life time of the charge carriers, particularly of holes, in the CZT crystals. Thus, in order to understand spectral response for a large array of CZT detectors consisting of multiple elements / pixels, it is essential to characterize the mobility-lifetime products of charge carriers for each individual elements / pixels. Here we present experimental measurements of charge carrier mobility-lifetime products for large sample of multi-pixel CZT detectors. The mobility-lifetime products are measured by simultaneously fitting a ‘CZT line’ model to pixel wise spectra of 122 keV X-rays from 57Co at three different bias voltages. These were carried out as a part of selection of CZT detector modules for the “High Energy X-ray spectrometer (HEX)” onboard Indian moon mission - Chandrayaan-1.

  4. Charge Carrier Dynamics of Quantum Confined Semiconductor Nanoparticles Analyzed via Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibert, Arthur Joseph, III

    Semiconductor nanoparticles are tiny crystalline structures (typically range from 1 - 100 nm) whose shape in many cases can be dictated through tailored chemical synthesis with atomic scale precision. The small size of these nanoparticles often results in quantum confinement (spatial confinement of wave functions), which imparts the ability to manipulate band-gap energies thus allowing them to be optimally engineered for different applications (i.e., photovoltaics, photocatalysis, imaging). However, charge carriers excited within these nanoparticles are often involved in many different processes: trapping, trap migration, Auger recombination, non-radiative relaxation, radiative relaxation, oxidation / reduction, or multiple exciton generation. Broadband ultrafast transient absorption laser spectroscopy is used to spectrally resolve the fate of excited charge carriers in both wavelength and time, providing insight as to what synthetic developments or operating conditions will be necessary to optimize their efficiency for certain applications. This thesis outlines the effort of resolving the dynamics of excited charge carriers for several Cd and Si based nanoparticle systems using this experimental technique. The thesis is organized into five chapters and two appendices as indicated below. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the photophysics of semiconductor nanoparticles. It begins by defining what nanoparticles, semiconductors, charge carriers, and quantum confinement are. From there it details how the study of charge carrier dynamics within nanoparticles can lead to increased efficiency in applications such as photocatalysis. Finally, the experimental methodology associated with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is introduced and its power in mapping charge carrier dynamics is established. Chapter 2 (JPCC, 19647, 2011) introduces the first of the studied samples: water-solubilized 2D CdSe nanoribbons (NRs), which were synthesized in the Osterloh

  5. Ultrafast Charge Carrier Recombination and Trapping in Hematite Photoanodes under Applied Bias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transient absorption spectroscopy on subpicosecond to second time scales is used to investigate photogenerated charge carrier recombination in Si-doped nanostructured hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes as a function of applied bias. For unbiased hematite, this recombination exhibits a 50% decay time of ∼6 ps, ∼103 times faster than that of TiO2 under comparable conditions. Anodic bias significantly retards hematite recombination dynamics, and causes the appearance of electron trapping on ps−μs time scales. These ultrafast recombination dynamics, their retardation by applied bias, and the associated electron trapping are discussed in terms of their implications for efficient water oxidation. PMID:24950057

  6. Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hägglund, Carl; Zäch, Michael; Kasemo, Bengt

    2008-01-01

    An interesting possibility to improve the conversion and cost efficiencies of photovoltaic solar cells is to exploit the large optical cross sections of localized (nanoparticle) surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). We have investigated this prospect for dye sensitized solar cells. Photoconductivity measurements were performed on flat TiO2 films, sensitized by a combination of dye molecules and arrays of nanofabricated elliptical gold disks. An enhanced dye charge carrier generation rate was found and shown to derive from the LSPR contribution by means of the polarization dependent resonance frequency in the anisotropic, aligned gold disks.

  7. Ab initio theory of charge-carrier conduction in ultrapure organic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannewald, K.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2004-08-01

    We present an ab initio description of charge-carrier mobilities in organic molecular crystals of high purity. Our approach is based on Holstein's original concept of small-polaron bands but generalized with respect to the inclusion of nonlocal electron-phonon coupling. By means of an explicit expression for the mobilities as a function of temperature in combination with ab initio calculations of the material parameters, we demonstrate the predictive power of our theory by applying it to naphthalene. The results show a good qualitative agreement with experiment and provide insight into the difference between electron and hole mobilities as well as their peculiar algebraic and anisotropic temperature dependencies.

  8. Effective of the q-deformed pseudoscalar magnetic field on the charge carriers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Eshghi, M. E-mail: m.eshghi@semnan.ac.ir; Mehraban, H.

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we have obtained exact analytical solutions of the time-independent Dirac-Weyl equation for the charge carriers with q-deformed pseudoscalar magnetic barrier (PMB) in graphene by using the ansatz method. We have also found a solution that describes the left propagating wave function to calculation of the reflection and transmission coefficients using the Riemann’s equation. This allows us to conclude about the Dirac-Weyl equation with PMB and to understand quantum behavior of the Dirac fermions. Finally, some of the numerical results are shown, too.

  9. Top-gate dielectric induced doping and scattering of charge carriers in epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puls, Conor P.; Staley, Neal E.; Moon, Jeong-Sun; Robinson, Joshua A.; Campbell, Paul M.; Tedesco, Joseph L.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Eddy, Charles R.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Liu, Ying

    2011-07-01

    We show that an e-gun deposited dielectric impose severe limits on epitaxial graphene-based device performance based on Raman spectroscopy and low-temperature transport measurements. Specifically, we show from studies of epitaxial graphene Hall bars covered by SiO2 that the measured carrier density is strongly inhomogenous and predominantly induced by charged impurities at the grapheme/dielectric interface that limit mobility via Coulomb interactions. Our work emphasizes that material integration of epitaxial graphene and a gate dielectric is the next major road block towards the realization of graphene-based electronics.

  10. Influence of Exciton Lifetime on Charge Carrier Dynamics in an Organic Heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Kanika L.; Sykes, Matthew E.; An, Kwang Hyup; Frieberg, Bradley; Green, P. F.; Shtein, Max

    2013-03-18

    Interactions between charge carriers and excitons, as well as between excitons and optical cavity modes in organic optoelectronic devices are fundamental to their operational limits and chief in preventing the realization of certain phenomena, such as electrically pumped organic lasing. We uncovered a previously unreported phenomenon, wherein optical cavity-modulated exciton decay rate leads to a concomitant modulation in the electrical current of an archetypal NPD/Alq₃ organic light emitting device operated in forward bias. The magnitude of this variation is sensitive to the local dielectric environment of the device and is found to be as large as 15%.

  11. Long-lived charge carrier dynamics in polymer/quantum dot blends and organometal halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Hirokazu

    Solution-processable semiconductors offer a potential route to deploy solar panels on a wide scale, based on the possibility of reduced manufacturing costs by using earth-abundant materials and inexpensive production technologies, such as inkjet or roll-to-roll printing. Understanding the fundamental physics underlying device operation is important to realize this goal. This dissertation describes studies of two kinds of solar cells: hybrid polymer/PbS quantum dot solar cells and organometal halide perovskite solar cells. Chapter two discusses details of the experimental techniques. Chapter three and four explore the mechanisms of charge transfer and energy transfer spectroscopically, and find that both processes contribute to the device photocurrent. Chapter four investigates the important question of how the energy level alignment of quantum dot acceptors affects the operation of hybrid polymer/quantum dot solar cells, by making use of the size-tunable energy levels of PbS quantum dots. We observe that long-lived charge transfer yield is diminished at larger dot sizes as the energy level offset at the polymer/quantum dot interface is changed through decreasing quantum confinement using a combination of spectroscopy and device studies. Chapter five discusses the effects of TiO2 surface chemistry on the performance of organometal halide perovskite solar cells. Specifically, chapter five studies the effect of replacing the conventional TiO2 electrode with Zr-doped TiO2 (Zr-TiO2). We aim to explore the correlation between charge carrier dynamics and device studies by incorporating zirconium into TiO2. We find that, compared to Zr-free controls, solar cells employing Zr-TiO2 give rise to an increase in overall power conversion efficiency, and a decrease in hysteresis. We also observe longer carrier lifetimes and higher charge carrier densities in devices on Zr-TiO2 electrodes at microsecond times in transient photovoltage experiments, as well as at longer persistent

  12. Novel diketopyrroloppyrrole random copolymers: high charge-carrier mobility from environmentally benign processing.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hui-Jun; Lee, Gi Back; Chung, Dae Sung; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kwon, Soon-Ki

    2014-10-01

    The random copolymerization between two different diketopyrrolopyrole-based conducting units represents a suitable synthetic strategy to increase the solubility of polymer semiconductors in a non-chlorinated solvent, without compromising the high charge-carrier mobility. Highly performing thin-film transistors processed from environmentally benign solvents such as tetralin are demonstrated for the first time, resulting in a mobility of greater than 5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Electro-Convective and Non-Equilibrium Electro-Osmotic Instability of Electric Conduction from an Electrolyte Solution into a Charge Selective Solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Isaak

    2006-03-01

    Electro-convection is reviewed as a mechanism of mixing in the diffusion layer of a strong electrolyte adjacent to a charge-selective solid, such as an ion exchange (electrodialysis) membrane or an electrode. Two types of electro-convection in strong electrolytes may be distinguished: bulk electro-convection , due to the action of the electric field upon the residual space charge of a quasi-electro-neutral bulk solution, and convection induced by electro-osmotic slip, due to electric forces acting in the thin electric double layer of either quasi-equilibrium or non-equilibrium type near the solid/liquid interface. According to recent studies, the latter appears to be the likely source of mixing in the diffusion layer, leading to `over-limiting' conductance in electrodialysis. Electro-convection near a uniform charge selective solid/liquid interface sets on as a result of hydrodynamic instability of one-dimensional steady state electric conduction through such an interface. We discuss instabilities of this kind appearing in the full electro-convective and limiting non-equilibrium electro-osmotic formulations. The short- and long-wave aspects of these instabilities are discussed along with the wave-number selection principles and possible sources of low frequency excess electric noise experimentally observed in these systems.

  14. Charge carrier mobilities in organic semiconductors: crystal engineering and the importance of molecular contacts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Asif; Heck, Alexander; Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Nefedov, Alexei; Rohwerder, Michael; Müllen, Klaus; Elstner, Marcus; Wöll, Christof

    2015-09-14

    We have conducted a combined experimental and theoretical study on the optimization of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) as organic semiconductor. While orientations with high electronic coupling are unfavorable in the native liquid crystalline phase of HBC, we enforced such orientations by applying external constraints. To this end, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were formed by a non-conventional preparation method on an Au-substrate using electrochemical control. Within these SAMs the HBC units are forced into favorable orientations that cannot be achieved by unconstrained crystallization. For simulating the charge transport we applied a recently developed approach, where the molecular structure and the charge carrier are propagated simultaneously during a molecular dynamics simulation. Experiments as well as simulations are mutually supportive of an improved mobility in these novel materials. The implication of these findings for a rational design of future organic semiconductors will be discussed.

  15. Snapshots of the retarded interaction of charge carriers with ultrafast fluctuations in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Conte, S.; Vidmar, L.; Golež, D.; Mierzejewski, M.; Soavi, G.; Peli, S.; Banfi, F.; Ferrini, G.; Comin, R.; Ludbrook, B. M.; Chauviere, L.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Eisaki, H.; Greven, M.; Lupi, S.; Damascelli, A.; Brida, D.; Capone, M.; Bonča, J.; Cerullo, G.; Giannetti, C.

    2015-05-01

    One of the pivotal questions in the physics of high-temperature superconductors is whether the low-energy dynamics of the charge carriers is mediated by bosons with a characteristic timescale. This issue has remained elusive as electronic correlations are expected to greatly accelerate the electron-boson scattering processes, confining them to the very femtosecond timescale that is hard to access even with state-of-the-art ultrafast techniques. Here we simultaneously push the time resolution and frequency range of transient reflectivity measurements up to an unprecedented level, enabling us to directly observe the ~16 fs build-up of the effective electron-boson interaction in hole-doped copper oxides. This extremely fast timescale is in agreement with numerical calculations based on the t-J model and the repulsive Hubbard model, in which the relaxation of the photo-excited charges is achieved via inelastic scattering with short-range antiferromagnetic excitations.

  16. Diffusion engineering of ions and charge carriers for stable efficient perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Enbing; Chen, Han; Xie, Fengxian; Wu, Yongzhen; Chen, Wei; Su, Yanjie; Islam, Ashraful; Grätzel, Michael; Yang, Xudong; Han, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Long-term stability is crucial for the future application of perovskite solar cells, a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology that has rapidly advanced in the recent years. Here, we designed a nanostructured carbon layer to suppress the diffusion of ions/molecules within perovskite solar cells, an important degradation process in the device. Furthermore, this nanocarbon layer benefited the diffusion of electron charge carriers to enable a high-energy conversion efficiency. Finally, the efficiency on a perovskite solar cell with an aperture area of 1.02 cm2, after a thermal aging test at 85 °C for over 500 h, or light soaking for 1,000 h, was stable of over 15% during the entire test. The present diffusion engineering of ions/molecules and photo generated charges paves a way to realizing long-term stable and highly efficient perovskite solar cells. PMID:28604673

  17. Diffusion engineering of ions and charge carriers for stable efficient perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Enbing; Chen, Han; Xie, Fengxian; Wu, Yongzhen; Chen, Wei; Su, Yanjie; Islam, Ashraful; Grätzel, Michael; Yang, Xudong; Han, Liyuan

    2017-06-01

    Long-term stability is crucial for the future application of perovskite solar cells, a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology that has rapidly advanced in the recent years. Here, we designed a nanostructured carbon layer to suppress the diffusion of ions/molecules within perovskite solar cells, an important degradation process in the device. Furthermore, this nanocarbon layer benefited the diffusion of electron charge carriers to enable a high-energy conversion efficiency. Finally, the efficiency on a perovskite solar cell with an aperture area of 1.02 cm2, after a thermal aging test at 85 °C for over 500 h, or light soaking for 1,000 h, was stable of over 15% during the entire test. The present diffusion engineering of ions/molecules and photo generated charges paves a way to realizing long-term stable and highly efficient perovskite solar cells.

  18. A new approach to calculate charge carrier transport mobility in organic molecular crystals from imaginary time path integral simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2015-05-07

    We present a new non-perturbative method to calculate the charge carrier mobility using the imaginary time path integral approach, which is based on the Kubo formula for the conductivity, and a saddle point approximation to perform the analytic continuation. The new method is first tested using a benchmark calculation from the numerical exact hierarchical equations of motion method. Imaginary time path integral Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to explore the temperature dependence of charge carrier delocalization and mobility in organic molecular crystals (OMCs) within the Holstein and Holstein-Peierls models. The effects of nonlocal electron-phonon interaction on mobility in different charge transport regimes are also investigated.

  19. A new approach to calculate charge carrier transport mobility in organic molecular crystals from imaginary time path integral simulations.

    PubMed

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2015-05-07

    We present a new non-perturbative method to calculate the charge carrier mobility using the imaginary time path integral approach, which is based on the Kubo formula for the conductivity, and a saddle point approximation to perform the analytic continuation. The new method is first tested using a benchmark calculation from the numerical exact hierarchical equations of motion method. Imaginary time path integral Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to explore the temperature dependence of charge carrier delocalization and mobility in organic molecular crystals (OMCs) within the Holstein and Holstein-Peierls models. The effects of nonlocal electron-phonon interaction on mobility in different charge transport regimes are also investigated.

  20. Charge carrier mobility and concentration as a function of composition in AgPO3-AgI glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Ana Candida Martins; Nascimento, Marcio Luis Ferreira; Bragatto, Caio Barca; Souquet, Jean-Louis

    2011-12-01

    Conductivity data of the xAgI(1 - x)AgPO3 system (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were collected in the liquid and glassy states. The difference in the dependence of ionic conductivity on temperature below and above their glass transition temperatures (Tg) is interpreted by a discontinuity in the charge carrier's mobility mechanisms. Charge carrier displacement occurs through an activated mechanism below Tg and through a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse mechanism above this temperature. Fitting conductivity data with the proposed model allows one to determine separately the enthalpies of charge carrier formation and migration. For the five investigated compositions, the enthalpy of charge carrier formation is found to decrease, with x, from 0.86 to 0.2 eV, while the migration enthalpy remains constant at ≈0.14 eV. Based on these values, the charge carrier mobility and concentration in the glassy state can then be calculated. Mobility values at room temperature (≈10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1) do not vary significantly with the AgI content and are in good agreement with those previously measured by the Hall-effect technique. The observed increase in ionic conductivity with x would thus only be due to an increase in the effective charge carrier concentration. Considering AgI as a weak electrolyte, the change in the effective charge carrier concentration is justified and is correlated to the partial free energy of silver iodide forming a regular solution with AgPO3.

  1. Real-time charge carrier motion in P3HT studied with Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, Chloe; Zaidi, Alyina; Moscatello, Jason; Aidala, Katherine

    We have developed a technique that uses scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to study the real-time injection and extraction of charge carriers in organic semiconductor devices. We investigate P3HT (full name) in an inverted field effect transistor geometry with gold electrodes. By positioning the SPM tip at an individual location and using Kelvin probe microscopy to record the potential over time, we can record how the charge carriers respond to changing the backgate voltage while the source and drain electrodes are grounded. We see relatively fast screening for negative backgate voltages because holes are quickly injected into the P3HT film. The screening is slower for positive gate voltages, because some of these holes are trapped and therefore less mobile. We compare P3HT transistors with different fabrication procedures that are expected to change the trap distribution: no silanization of the oxide and no annealing, silanization and no annealing, and both silanization and annealing. By incrementally stepping the gate voltage, we probe different trap depths. The recorded change in potential over time is best fit by a double exponential, suggesting two physical mechanisms involved in screening. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMR-0955348, and the Center for Heirarchical Manufacturing at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (NSF CMMI-1025020).

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on transport of charge carriers in Cu nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlawat, Devender; Chauhan, R. P.; Sonkawade, R. G.; Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of gamma ray photons on the electrical conductivity of 100 nm Cu nanowires prepared by the technique of electrodeposition using track-etched membranes. Different fluences of photons have been used to observe the effect and in each case of post-irradiation, electrical conductivity is found to increase in a linear manner with increase in applied potential difference; however the rate of increase of conductivity is different in different cases of radiation fluence. Grain boundary scattering is of significance for the post-irradiation parabolic nature of the I-V characteristics (IVC), which are of a linear pattern following Ohm's law before irradiation. Increase or decrease in the number of charge carriers during their transport through the nanowires is the result of two competitive processes—specular and diffusive scattering of charge carriers (electrons) from grain boundaries, which are itself a region of high resistance rather than inter-grain regions. The results have been discussed in light of the Mayadas and Shatzkes (MS) model with a slight modification for irradiated nanowires.

  3. Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A A; Nelson, Keith A; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-12

    There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon-phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron-phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump-probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron-phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron-phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.

  4. Distribution of charge carrier transport properties in organic semiconductors with Gaussian disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrmann, Jens; Ruf, Manuel; Vocke, David; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Deibel, Carsten

    2014-05-01

    The charge carrier drift mobility in disordered semiconductors is commonly graphically extracted from time-of-flight (TOF) photocurrent transients yielding a single transit time. However, the term transit time is ambiguously defined and fails to deliver a mobility in terms of a statistical average. Here, we introduce an advanced computational procedure to evaluate TOF transients, which allows to extract the whole distribution of transit times and mobilities from the photocurrent transient, instead of a single value. This method, extending the work of Scott et al. (Phys. Rev. B 46, 8603 (1992)), is applicable to disordered systems with a Gaussian density of states and its accuracy is validated using one-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. We demonstrate the superiority of this new approach by comparing it to the common geometrical analysis of hole TOF transients measured on poly(3-hexyl thiophene-2,5-diyl). The extracted distributions provide access to a very detailed and accurate analysis of the charge carrier transport. For instance, not only the mobility given by the mean transit time but also the mean mobility can be calculated. Whereas the latter determines the macroscopic photocurrent, the former is relevant for an accurate determination of the energetic disorder parameter σ within the Gaussian disorder model. σ derived by using the common geometrical method is, as we show, underestimated instead.

  5. Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; ...

    2016-10-12

    There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon–phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron–phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here in this paper, we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump–probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to opticallymore » generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron–phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron–phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.« less

  6. Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-12

    There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon–phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron–phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here in this paper, we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump–probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron–phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron–phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.

  7. Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon–phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron–phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump–probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron–phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron–phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors. PMID:27731406

  8. Doped GaN nanowires on diamond: Structural properties and charge carrier distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Fabian; Winnerl, Andrea; Weiszer, Saskia; Hetzl, Martin; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a detailed study on GaN nanowire doping, which is vital for device fabrication. The nanowires (NWs) are grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy on diamond (111) substrates. Dopant atoms are found to facilitate nucleation, thus an increasing NW density is observed for increasing dopant fluxes. While maintaining nanowire morphology, we demonstrate the incorporation of Si and Mg up to concentrations of 9 × 1020cm-3 and 1 × 1020cm-3 , respectively. The dopant concentration in the nanowire cores is determined by the thermodynamic solubility limit, whereas excess dopants are found to segregate to the nanowire surface. The strain state of the NWs is investigated by X-ray diffraction, which confirms a negligible strain compared to planar thin films. Doping-related emissions are identified in low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy and the temperature quenching yields ionization energies of Si donors and Mg acceptors of 17 meV and 167 meV, respectively. At room temperature, luminescence and absorption spectra are found to coincide and the sub-band gap absorption is suppressed in n-type NWs. The charge carrier distribution in doped GaN nanowires is simulated under consideration of surface states at the non-polar side facets. For doping concentrations below 1017cm-3 , the nanowires are depleted of charge carriers, whereas they become highly conductive above 1019cm-3 .

  9. Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon-phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron-phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump-probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron-phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron-phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.

  10. Temperature dependence of exciton and charge carrier dynamics in organic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, A. D.; Kendrick, M. J.; Loth, M.; Anthony, J. E.; Ostroverkhova, O.

    2011-12-01

    We report on physical mechanisms behind the temperature-dependent optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and photoconductivity in spin-coated films of a functionalized anthradithiophene (ADT) derivative, ADT-triethylsilylethynyl (TES)-F, and its composites with C60 and another ADT derivative, ADT-TIPS-CN. Measurements of absorption and PL spectra, PL lifetimes, and transient photocurrent were performed at temperatures between 98 and 300 K as a function of applied electric field. In pristine ADT-TES-F films, absorptive and emissive species were identified to be disordered H aggregates whose properties are affected by static and dynamic disorder. The exciton bandwidths were ≤0.06 and ˜0.115 eV for absorptive and emissive aggregates, respectively, indicative of higher disorder in the emissive species. The exciton in the latter was found to be delocalized over approximately four to five molecules. The PL properties were significantly modified upon adding a guest molecule to the ADT-TES-F host. In ADT-TES-F/C60 composites, the PL was considerably quenched due to photoinduced electron transfer from ADT-TES-F to C60, while in ADT-TES-F/ADT-TIPS-CN blends, the PL was dominated by emission from an exciplex formed between ADT-TES-F and ADT-TIPS-CN molecules. In all materials, the PL quantum yield dramatically decreased as the temperature increased due to thermally activated nonradiative recombination. Considerable electric-field-induced PL quenching was observed at low temperatures at electric fields above ˜105 V/cm due to tunneling into dark states. No significant contribution of ADT-TES-F emissive exciton dissociation to transient photocurrent was observed. In all materials, charge carriers were photogenerated at sub-500-ps time scales, limited by the laser pulse width, with temperature- and electric-field-independent photogeneration efficiency. In ADT-TES-F/C60 (2%) composites, the photogeneration efficiency was a factor of 2-3 higher than that in pristine ADT

  11. Charge carrier transport in defective reduced graphene oxide as quantum dots and nanoplatelets in multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Mawin Martinez; de Oliveira, Rafael Furlan; de Almeida, Tiago Pedroso; Hensel, Rafael Cintra; Bufon, Carlos César Bof; Rodrigues, Varlei; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Gobbi, Ângelo L; Piazzetta, Maria Helena O; Riul, Antonio

    2017-10-06

    Graphene is a breakthrough 2D material due to its unique mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties, with considerable responsiveness in real applications. However, the coverage of large areas with pristine graphene is a challenge and graphene derivatives have been alternatively exploited to produce hybrid and composite materials that allow for new developments, considering also the handling of large areas using distinct methodologies. For electronic applications it is highly keen the investigation of electrical properties of graphene derivatives and related composites to determine whether the characteristic 2D charge transport of pristine graphene is preserved. Here, we report a systematic study of the charge transport mechanisms of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) chemically functionalized with sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), named as GPSS. GPSS was produced either as quantum dots (QDs) or nanoplatelets (NPLs), being further nanostructured with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) through the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to produce graphene nanocomposites with molecular level control. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements indicated a meticulous growth of the LbL nanostructures onto gold interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), with a space-charge-limited current (SCLC) dominated by a Mott-variable range hopping mechanism. A 2D intra-planar conduction within the GPSS nanostructure was observed, which resulted in effective charge carrier mobility (μ) of 4.7 cm<sup>2</sup> V<sup>-1</sup> s<sup>-1</sup> for the QDs and 34.7 cm<sup>2</sup> V<sup>-1</sup> s<sup>-1</sup> for the NPLs. The LbL assemblies together with the dimension of the materials used (QDs or NPLs) were favorably used for the fine tuning and control of the charge carrier mobility inside the LbL nanostructures. Such 2D charge conduction mechanism and high µ values inside an interlocked multilayered assembly containing graphene

  12. Proton intercalated two-dimensional WO3 nano-flakes with enhanced charge-carrier mobility at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuiykov, Serge; Kats, Eugene; Carey, Benjamin; Balendhran, Sivacarendran

    2014-11-01

    Quasi two-dimensional (Q2D) semiconducting metal oxides with enhanced charge carrier mobility hold tremendous promise for nano-electronics, photonics, catalysis, nano-sensors and electrochromic applications. In addition to graphene and metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te), 2D sub-stoichiometric WO3-x is gaining importance as a promising semiconductor material for field-effect-transistor (FET) based devices. A combination of high permittivity, suppression of the Coulomb effects, and their stratified structure enhances the carrier mobility in such a material. Additionally, the sub-stoichiometry of this semiconductor oxide allows the reduction of the bandgap and increase of the free charge carriers at the same time. Here, we report for the first time H+ intercalated WO3 FETs, made of Q2D nano-flakes, with enhanced charge-carrier mobility exceeding 319 cm2 V-1 s-1 comparable with the charge-carrier mobility of Q2D dichalcogenides MoS2 and WSe2. Analyses indicate that the enhanced electrical properties of the sub-stoichiometric WO3-x depend on the oxygen vacancies in the intercalated nano-flakes. These findings confirmed that Q2D sub-stoichiometric WO3-x is a promising material for various functional FET devices.Quasi two-dimensional (Q2D) semiconducting metal oxides with enhanced charge carrier mobility hold tremendous promise for nano-electronics, photonics, catalysis, nano-sensors and electrochromic applications. In addition to graphene and metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te), 2D sub-stoichiometric WO3-x is gaining importance as a promising semiconductor material for field-effect-transistor (FET) based devices. A combination of high permittivity, suppression of the Coulomb effects, and their stratified structure enhances the carrier mobility in such a material. Additionally, the sub-stoichiometry of this semiconductor oxide allows the reduction of the bandgap and increase of the free charge carriers at the same time. Here, we report

  13. Bulk charge carrier transport in push-pull type organic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Karak, Supravat; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Duzhko, Volodimyr V

    2014-12-10

    Operation of organic electronic and optoelectronic devices relies on charge transport properties of active layer materials. The magnitude of charge carrier mobility, a key efficiency metrics of charge transport properties, is determined by the chemical structure of molecular units and their crystallographic packing motifs, as well as strongly depends on the film fabrication approaches that produce films with different degrees of anisotropy and structural order. Probed by the time-of-flight and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction techniques, bulk charge carrier transport, molecular packing, and film morphology in different structural phases of push-pull type organic semiconductor, 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazole), one of the most efficient small-molecule photovoltaic materials to-date, are described herein. In the isotropic phase, the material is ambipolar with high mobilities for a fluid state. The electron and hole mobilities at the phase onset at 210.78 °C are 1.0 × 10(-3) cm(2)/(V s) and 6.5 × 10(-4) cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Analysis of the temperature and electric field dependences of the mobilities in the framework of Gaussian disorder formalism suggests larger energetic and positional disorder for electron transport sites. Below 210 °C, crystallization into a polycrystalline film with a triclinic unit cell symmetry and high degree of anisotropy leads to a 10-fold increase of hole mobility. The mobility is limited by the charge transfer along the direction of branched alkyl side chains. Below 90 °C, faster cooling rates produce even higher hole mobilities up to 2 × 10(-2) cm(2)/(V s) at 25 °C because of the more isotropic orientations of crystalline domains. These properties facilitate in understanding efficient material performance in photovoltaic devices and will guide further development of materials and devices.

  14. Time-resolved measurements of charge carrier dynamics and optical nonlinearities in narrow-bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Benjamin Varberg

    All-optical time-resolved measurement techniques provide a powerful tool for investigating critical parameters that determine the performance of infrared photodetector and emitter semiconductor materials. Narrow-bandgap InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) have shown great promise as a next generation source of these materials, due to superior intrinsic properties and versatility. Unfortunately, InAs/GaSb T2SLs are plagued by parasitic Shockley-Read-Hall recombination centers that shorten the carrier lifetime and limit device performance. Ultrafast pump-probe techniques and time-resolved differential transmission measurements are used here to demonstrate that Ga-free InAs/InAsSb T2SLs and InAsSb alloys do not have this same limitation and thus have significantly longer carrier lifetimes. Measurements at 77 K provided minority carrier lifetimes of 9 mus and 3 mus for an unintentionally doped mid-wave infrared (MWIR) InAs/InAsSb T2SL and InAsSb alloy, respectively; a two order of magnitude increase compared to the 90 ns minority carrier lifetime measured in a comparable MWIR InAs/GaSb T2SL. Through temperature-dependent lifetime measurements, the various carrier recombination processes are differentiated and the dominant mechanisms identified for each material. These results demonstrate that these Ga-free materials are viable options over InAs/GaSb T2SLs for potentially improved infrared photodetectors. In addition to carrier lifetimes, the drift and diffusion of excited charge carriers through the superlattice growth layers (i.e. vertical transport) directly affects the performance of photodetectors and emitters. Unfortunately, there is a lack of information pertaining to vertical transport, primarily due to difficulties in making measurements on thin growth layers and the need for non-standard measurement techniques. However, all-optical ultrafast techniques are successfully used here to directly measure vertical diffusion in MWIR InAs/GaSb T2SLs. By optically

  15. Quantum states of charge carriers and longitudinal conductivity in double periodic n-type semiconductor lattice structures in electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Perov, A. A. Penyagin, I. V.

    2015-07-15

    Quantum states of charge carriers in double periodic semiconductor superlattices of n-type quantum dots with Rashba spin–orbit coupling in an electron gas have been calculated in the one-electron approximation in the presence of mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. For these structures in weak constant electric field, the solution to the quasi-classical kinetic Boltzmann equation shows that the states of carriers in magnetic Landau minibands with negative differential conductivity are possible.

  16. Charge carrier dynamics in nanocrystalline Dy substituted ceria based oxygen ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anirban, Sk.; Dutta, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nano-crystalline Ce1-xDyxO2-δ (x = 0.1-0.5) materials were prepared using the low temperature citrate auto-ignition method. The Rietveld analysis of the XRD data confirmed the single phase cubic fluorite structure. The particle sizes of the sintered samples are in nano range and lattice parameter increases with Dy concentration. Polydispersed and agglomerated particles are observed by SEM. The EDAX spectra show good stoichiometry of the different atoms in the samples. The conductivity is found to have both grain and grain boundary contribution and shows highest value at x= 0.2. The frequency dependence of dielectric permittivity has been analyzed using Havrilliak-Negami formalism. The variation in different electrical properties has been explained by formation defect associates and their interaction with charge carriers.

  17. Internal transmission coefficient in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell device

    SciTech Connect

    Rosikhin, Ahmad Winata, Toto

    2016-04-19

    Internal transmission profile in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been explored theoretically. Photovoltaic device was constructed from graphene/Si heterojunction forming a multilayer stuck with Si as generation layer. The graphene/Si sheet was layered on ITO/glass wafer then coated by Al forming Ohmic contact with Si. Photon incident propagate from glass substrate to metal electrode and assumed that there is no transmission in Al layer. The wavelength range spectra used in this calculation was 200 – 1000 nm. It found that transmission intensity in the generation layer show non-linear behavior and partitioned by few areas which related with excitation process. According to this information, it may to optimize the photons absorption to create more excitation process by inserting appropriate material to enhance optical properties in certain wavelength spectra because of the exciton generation is strongly influenced by photon absorption.

  18. Charge carrier dynamics in nanocrystalline Dy substituted ceria based oxygen ion conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Anirban, Sk.; Dutta, A.

    2016-05-06

    Nano-crystalline Ce{sub 1-x}Dy{sub x}O{sub 2-δ} (x = 0.1-0.5) materials were prepared using the low temperature citrate auto-ignition method. The Rietveld analysis of the XRD data confirmed the single phase cubic fluorite structure. The particle sizes of the sintered samples are in nano range and lattice parameter increases with Dy concentration. Polydispersed and agglomerated particles are observed by SEM. The EDAX spectra show good stoichiometry of the different atoms in the samples. The conductivity is found to have both grain and grain boundary contribution and shows highest value at x= 0.2. The frequency dependence of dielectric permittivity has been analyzed using Havrilliak-Negami formalism. The variation in different electrical properties has been explained by formation defect associates and their interaction with charge carriers.

  19. Anomalous Magnetic Field Dependence of Charge Carrier Density in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuivalainen, P.; Sinkkonen, J.; Stubb, T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports calculations of temperature and magnetic field dependent thermal and optical activation energies of a shallow donor state and the energy of the conduction band edge in a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The formation of the bound magnetic polaron (BMP), i.e., a magnetically polarized cluster associated with the donor electron, is taken into account. The solution of a set of coupled equations for the energy of a donor electron and for the local non-uniform magnetization around the donor center indicates that the activation energies have their maxima near the Curie temperature and decrease with the application of a magnetic field. This decrease leads to a strong magnetic field dependence of the charge carrier density nc explains well the giant negative magnetoresistance of EuSe observed experimentally at low temperatures.

  20. Time-resolved HAXPES using a microfocused XFEL beam: From vacuum space-charge effects to intrinsic charge-carrier recombination dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Oloff, Lars-Philip; Chainani, Ashish; Matsunami, Masaharu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Togashi, Tadashi; Osawa, Hitoshi; Hanff, Kerstin; Quer, Arndt; Matsushita, Ryuki; Shiraishi, Ryutaro; Nagashima, Maki; Kimura, Ayato; Matsuishi, Kotaro; Yabashi, Makina; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Rossi, Giorgio; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Rossnagel, Kai; Oura, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (trHAXPES) using microfocused X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL, hν = 8 keV) pulses as a probe and infrared laser pulses (hν = 1.55 eV) as a pump is employed to determine intrinsic charge-carrier recombination dynamics in La:SrTiO3. By means of a combination of experiments and numerical N-body simulations, we first develop a simple approach to characterize and decrease XFEL-induced vacuum space-charge effects, which otherwise pose a serious limitation to spectroscopy experiments. We then show that, using an analytical mean-field model, vacuum space-charge effects can be counteracted by pump laser-induced photoholes at high excitation densities. This provides us a method to separate vacuum space-charge effects from the intrinsic charge-carrier recombination dynamics in the time domain. Our trHAXPES results thus open a route to studies of intrinsic charge-carrier dynamics on picosecond time scales with lateral spatial resolution on the micrometer scale. PMID:27731408

  1. Doped GaN nanowires on diamond: Structural properties and charge carrier distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Fabian Winnerl, Andrea; Weiszer, Saskia; Hetzl, Martin; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-01-28

    In this work, we present a detailed study on GaN nanowire doping, which is vital for device fabrication. The nanowires (NWs) are grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy on diamond (111) substrates. Dopant atoms are found to facilitate nucleation, thus an increasing NW density is observed for increasing dopant fluxes. While maintaining nanowire morphology, we demonstrate the incorporation of Si and Mg up to concentrations of 9× 10{sup 20}cm{sup −3} and 1 × 10{sup 20}cm{sup −3}, respectively. The dopant concentration in the nanowire cores is determined by the thermodynamic solubility limit, whereas excess dopants are found to segregate to the nanowire surface. The strain state of the NWs is investigated by X-ray diffraction, which confirms a negligible strain compared to planar thin films. Doping-related emissions are identified in low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy and the temperature quenching yields ionization energies of Si donors and Mg acceptors of 17 meV and 167 meV, respectively. At room temperature, luminescence and absorption spectra are found to coincide and the sub-band gap absorption is suppressed in n-type NWs. The charge carrier distribution in doped GaN nanowires is simulated under consideration of surface states at the non-polar side facets. For doping concentrations below 10{sup 17}cm{sup −3}, the nanowires are depleted of charge carriers, whereas they become highly conductive above 10{sup 19}cm{sup −3}.

  2. Quantifying charge carrier concentration in ZnO thin films by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maragliano, C.; Lilliu, S.; Dahlem, M. S.; Chiesa, M.; Souier, T.; Stefancich, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last years there has been a renewed interest for zinc oxide semiconductor, mainly triggered by its prospects in optoelectronic applications. In particular, zinc oxide thin films are being widely used for photovoltaic applications, in which the determination of the electrical conductivity is of great importance. Being an intrinsically doped material, the quantification of its doping concentration has always been challenging. Here we show how to probe the charge carrier density of zinc oxide thin films by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, a technique that allows measuring the contact potential difference between the tip and the sample surface with high spatial resolution. A simple electronic energy model is used for correlating the contact potential difference with the doping concentration in the material. Limitations of this technique are discussed in details and some experimental solutions are proposed. Two-dimensional doping concentration images acquired on radio frequency-sputtered intrinsic zinc oxide thin films with different thickness and deposited under different conditions are reported. We show that results inferred with this technique are in accordance with carrier concentration expected for zinc oxide thin films deposited under different conditions and obtained from resistivity and mobility measurements. PMID:24569599

  3. Bimodal behaviour of charge carriers in graphene induced by electric double layer

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sing-Jyun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is performed into the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid as a function of the contact area ratio. It is shown that the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the interface of the graphene and the liquid causes an overlap of the conduction bands and valance bands and increases the density of state (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF). In other words, a greater number of charge carriers are induced for transport and the graphene changes from a semiconductor to a semimetal. In addition, it is shown that the dependence of the DOS at EF on the contact area ratio has a bimodal distribution which responses to the experimental observation, a pinnacle curve. The maximum number of induced carriers is expected to occur at contact area ratios of 40% and 60%. In general, the present results indicate that modulating the EDL provides an effective means of tuning the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid. PMID:27464986

  4. Interfacial Study To Suppress Charge Carrier Recombination for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Nirmal; Dubey, Ashish; Khatiwada, Devendra; Mitul, Abu Farzan; Wang, Qi; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Iefanova, Anastasiia; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng; Kumar, Mukesh; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-12-09

    We report effects of an interface between TiO2-perovskite and grain-grain boundaries of perovskite films prepared by single step and sequential deposited technique using different annealing times at optimum temperature. Nanoscale kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurement shows that charge transport in a perovskite solar cell critically depends upon the annealing conditions. The KPFM results of single step and sequential deposited films show that the increase in potential barrier suppresses the back-recombination between electrons in TiO2 and holes in perovskite. Spatial mapping of the surface potential within perovskite film exhibits higher positive potential at grain boundaries compared to the surface of the grains. The average grain boundary potential of 300-400 mV is obtained upon annealing for sequentially deposited films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicate the formation of a PbI2 phase upon annealing which suppresses the recombination. Transient analysis exhibits that the optimum device has higher carrier lifetime and short carrier transport time among all devices. An optimum grain boundary potential and proper band alignment between the TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) and the perovskite absorber layer help to increase the overall device performance.

  5. Proton intercalated two-dimensional WO3 nano-flakes with enhanced charge-carrier mobility at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhuiykov, Serge; Kats, Eugene; Carey, Benjamin; Balendhran, Sivacarendran

    2014-12-21

    Quasi two-dimensional (Q2D) semiconducting metal oxides with enhanced charge carrier mobility hold tremendous promise for nano-electronics, photonics, catalysis, nano-sensors and electrochromic applications. In addition to graphene and metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te), 2D sub-stoichiometric WO(3-x) is gaining importance as a promising semiconductor material for field-effect-transistor (FET) based devices. A combination of high permittivity, suppression of the Coulomb effects, and their stratified structure enhances the carrier mobility in such a material. Additionally, the sub-stoichiometry of this semiconductor oxide allows the reduction of the bandgap and increase of the free charge carriers at the same time. Here, we report for the first time H(+) intercalated WO(3) FETs, made of Q2D nano-flakes, with enhanced charge-carrier mobility exceeding 319 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) comparable with the charge-carrier mobility of Q2D dichalcogenides MoS(2) and WSe(2). Analyses indicate that the enhanced electrical properties of the sub-stoichiometric WO(3-x) depend on the oxygen vacancies in the intercalated nano-flakes. These findings confirmed that Q2D sub-stoichiometric WO(3-x) is a promising material for various functional FET devices.

  6. Cycle of charge carrier states with formation and extinction of a floating gate in an ambipolar tetracyanoquaterthienoquinoid-based field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takuro; Toyota, Taro; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Michio M.; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sugawara, Tadashi

    2017-03-01

    A tetracyanoquaterthienoquinoid (TCT4Q)-based field effect transistor is characterized by the ambipolar transfer characteristics and the facile shift of the threshold voltage induced by the bias stress. The trapping and detrapping kinetics of charge carriers was investigated in detail by the temperature dependence of the decay of source-drain current (ISD). We found a repeatable formation of a molecular floating gate is derived from a 'charge carrier-and-gate' cycle comprising four stages, trapping of mobile carriers, formation of a floating gate, induction of oppositely charged mobile carriers, and recombination between mobile and trapped carriers to restore the initial state.

  7. Origin of long lifetime of band-edge charge carriers in organic–inorganic lead iodide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianran; Chen, Wei-Liang; Foley, Benjamin J.; Lee, Jooseop; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Ko, J. Y. Peter; Brown, Craig M.; Harriger, Leland W.; Zhang, Depei; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Chang, Yu-Ming; Choi, Joshua J.; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Long carrier lifetime is what makes hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites high-performance photovoltaic materials. Several microscopic mechanisms behind the unusually long carrier lifetime have been proposed, such as formation of large polarons, Rashba effect, ferroelectric domains, and photon recycling. Here, we show that the screening of band-edge charge carriers by rotation of organic cation molecules can be a major contribution to the prolonged carrier lifetime. Our results reveal that the band-edge carrier lifetime increases when the system enters from a phase with lower rotational entropy to another phase with higher entropy. These results imply that the recombination of the photoexcited electrons and holes is suppressed by the screening, leading to the formation of polarons and thereby extending the lifetime. Thus, searching for organic–inorganic perovskites with high rotational entropy over a wide range of temperature may be a key to achieve superior solar cell performance. PMID:28673975

  8. Long-lived charge carrier generation in ordered films of a covalent perylenediimide–diketopyrrolopyrrole–perylenediimide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, Patrick E.; Dyar, Scott M.; Margulies, Eric A.; Shoer, Leah E.; Cook, Andrew W.; Eaton, Samuel W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2015-07-31

    The photophysics of a covalently linked perylenediimide–diketopyrrolopyrrole–perylenediimide acceptor–donor–acceptor molecule (PDI–DPP–PDI, 1) were investigated and found to be markedly different in solution versus in unannealed and solvent annealed films. Photoexcitation of 1 in toluene results in quantitative charge separation in τ = 3.1 ± 0.2 ps, with charge recombination in τ = 340 ± 10 ps, while in unannealed/disordered films of 1, charge separation occurs in τ < 250 fs, while charge recombination displays a multiexponential decay in ~6 ns. The absence of long-lived, charge separation in the disordered film suggests that few free charge carriers are generated. In contrast, upon CH₂Cl₂ vapor annealing films of 1, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering shows that the molecules form a more ordered structure. Photoexcitation of the ordered films results in initial formation of a spin-correlated radical ion pair (electron–hole pair) as indicated by magnetic field effects on the formation of free charge carriers which live for ~4 μs. This result has significant implications for the design of organic solar cells based on covalent donor–acceptor systems and shows that long-lived, charge-separated states can be achieved by controlling intramolecular charge separation dynamics in well-ordered systems.

  9. Long-lived charge carrier generation in ordered films of a covalent perylenediimide–diketopyrrolopyrrole–perylenediimide molecule

    DOE PAGES

    Hartnett, Patrick E.; Dyar, Scott M.; Margulies, Eric A.; ...

    2015-07-31

    The photophysics of a covalently linked perylenediimide–diketopyrrolopyrrole–perylenediimide acceptor–donor–acceptor molecule (PDI–DPP–PDI, 1) were investigated and found to be markedly different in solution versus in unannealed and solvent annealed films. Photoexcitation of 1 in toluene results in quantitative charge separation in τ = 3.1 ± 0.2 ps, with charge recombination in τ = 340 ± 10 ps, while in unannealed/disordered films of 1, charge separation occurs in τ < 250 fs, while charge recombination displays a multiexponential decay in ~6 ns. The absence of long-lived, charge separation in the disordered film suggests that few free charge carriers are generated. In contrast, uponmore » CH₂Cl₂ vapor annealing films of 1, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering shows that the molecules form a more ordered structure. Photoexcitation of the ordered films results in initial formation of a spin-correlated radical ion pair (electron–hole pair) as indicated by magnetic field effects on the formation of free charge carriers which live for ~4 μs. This result has significant implications for the design of organic solar cells based on covalent donor–acceptor systems and shows that long-lived, charge-separated states can be achieved by controlling intramolecular charge separation dynamics in well-ordered systems.« less

  10. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS, PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT, (PBP&E) AND... calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage... minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum...

  11. Charged carrier spin dynamics in ZnO quantum wells and epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungtaek; Puls, J.; Sadofev, S.; Henneberger, F.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal charged carrier spin dynamics is studied for ZnO quantum wells and epilayers using the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton X- and the neutral donor bound exciton D0X , respectively. The hole spin relaxation is derived from the optical orientation of X- and D0X photoluminescence, whereas the spin relaxation of the resident electrons and donor electrons is accessed via the bleaching of the spin selective excitation process. Hole spin relaxation times of τ1s ,h of 80 and 140 ps are found for D0X and X-, respectively, which are practically independent of a magnetic field B∥ applied along the ZnO c ⃗ axis. Much longer longitudinal electron spin relaxation times in the 1 μ s range are uncovered if the hyperfine interaction is suppressed by a proper B∥. A field strength of ≈2 mT is large enough proving the extremely small value of the Overhauser field in ZnO. This is related to the very restricted number of magnetic nuclei interacting with the electron inside the volume of the exciton complex.

  12. Initiating and imaging the coherent surface dynamics of charge carriers in real space

    PubMed Central

    Rusimova, K. R.; Bannister, N.; Harrison, P.; Lock, D.; Crampin, S.; Palmer, R. E.; Sloan, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    The tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope is an atomic-scale source of electrons and holes. As the injected charge spreads out, it can induce adsorbed molecules to react. By comparing large-scale ‘before' and ‘after' images of an adsorbate covered surface, the spatial extent of the nonlocal manipulation is revealed. Here, we measure the nonlocal manipulation of toluene molecules on the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface at room temperature. Both the range and probability of nonlocal manipulation have a voltage dependence. A region within 5–15 nm of the injection site shows a marked reduction in manipulation. We propose that this region marks the extent of the initial coherent (that is, ballistic) time-dependent evolution of the injected charge carrier. Using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we develop a model of this time-dependent expansion of the initially localized hole wavepacket within a particular surface state and deduce a quantum coherence (ballistic) lifetime of ∼10 fs. PMID:27677938

  13. Directional Charge-Carrier Transport in Oriented Benzodithiophene Covalent Organic Framework Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Medina, Dana D; Petrus, Michiel L; Jumabekov, Askhat N; Margraf, Johannes T; Weinberger, Simon; Rotter, Julian M; Clark, Timothy; Bein, Thomas

    2017-02-22

    Charge-carrier transport in oriented COF thin films is an important factor for realizing COF-based optoelectronic devices. We describe how highly oriented electron-donating benzodithiophene BDT-COF thin films serve as a model system for a directed charge-transport study. Oriented BDT-COF films were deposited on different electrodes with excellent control over film roughness and topology, allowing for high-quality electrode-COF interfaces suitable for device fabrication. Hole-only devices were constructed to study the columnar hole mobility of the BDT-COF films. The transport measurements reveal a clear dependency of the measured hole mobilities on the BDT-COF film thickness, where thinner films showed about two orders of magnitude higher mobilities than thicker ones. Transport measurements under illumination yielded an order of magnitude higher mobility than in the dark. In-plane electrical conductivity values of up to 5 × 10(-7) S cm(-1) were obtained for the oriented films. Impedance measurements of the hole-only devices provided further electrical description of the oriented BDT-COF films in terms of capacitance, recombination resistance, and dielectric constant. An exceptionally low dielectric constant value of approximately 1.7 was estimated for the BDT-COF films, a further indication of their highly porous nature. DFT and molecular-dynamics simulations were carried out to gain further insights into the relationships between the COF layer interactions, electronic structure, and the potential device performance.

  14. Mucus permeating carriers: formulation and characterization of highly densely charged nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Steiner, Corinna; Schmutzler, Matthias; Wilcox, Matthew D; Veldhuis, Gert J; Pearson, Jeffrey P; Huck, Christian W; Salvenmoser, Willi; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The GI mucus layer represents a significant block to drug carriers absorption. Taking an example from nature, virus-mimicking nanoparticles (NPs) with highly densely charged surface were designed with the aim to improve their mucus permeation ability. NPs were formulated by combining chitosan with chondroitin sulfate and were characterized by particle size, ζ-potential and hydrophobicity. The interaction occurring between NPs and diluted porcine intestinal mucus was investigated by a new method. Furthermore, the rotating tube technique was exploited to evaluate the NPs permeation ability in fresh undiluted porcine intestinal mucus. NPs (400-500 nm) presenting a slightly positive (4.02 mV) and slightly negative (-3.55 mV) ζ-potential resulted to be hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively. On the one hand the hydrophobic NPs undergo physico-chemical changes when incubated with mucus, namely the size increased and the ζ-potential decreased. On the other hand, the hydrophilic NPs did not significantly change size and net charge during incubation with mucus. Both types of NPs showed a 3-fold higher diffusion ability compared to the reference 50/50 DL-lactide/glycolide copolymer NPs (136 nm, -23 mV, hydrophilic). Based on these results, this work gives valuable information for the further design of mucus-penetrating NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spiro-OMeTAD single crystals: Remarkably enhanced charge-carrier transport via mesoscale ordering

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dong; Qin, Xiang; Li, Yuan; He, Yao; Zhong, Cheng; Pan, Jun; Dong, Huanli; Xu, Wei; Li, Tao; Hu, Wenping; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Bakr, Osman M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the crystal structure and hole-transport mechanism in spiro-OMeTAD [2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9′-spirobifluorene], the dominant hole-transporting material in perovskite and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Despite spiro-OMeTAD’s paramount role in such devices, its crystal structure was unknown because of highly disordered solution-processed films; the hole-transport pathways remained ill-defined and the charge carrier mobilities were low, posing a major bottleneck for advancing cell efficiencies. We devised an antisolvent crystallization strategy to grow single crystals of spiro-OMeTAD, which allowed us to experimentally elucidate its molecular packing and transport properties. Electronic structure calculations enabled us to map spiro-OMeTAD’s intermolecular charge-hopping pathways. Promisingly, single-crystal mobilities were found to exceed their thin-film counterparts by three orders of magnitude. Our findings underscore mesoscale ordering as a key strategy to achieving breakthroughs in hole-transport material engineering of solar cells. PMID:27152342

  16. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Aniket; Gupta, Neeraj; Lochan, Abhiram; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  17. Wave propagation and optical properties in slabs with light-induced free charge carriers.

    PubMed

    Lencina, Alberto; Vaveliuk, Pablo; Ruiz, Beatriz; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor

    2006-11-01

    A theoretical analysis on wave propagation and optical properties of slabs with light-induced free charge carriers within a Fabry-Pérot framework is presented. The key of the analysis is to attack the wave propagation problem in terms of the time-averaged Poynting vector modulus within the medium through an alternative approach. This fact allows coupling the microscopic (free charge rate) and macroscopic (electromagnetic field evolution) equations self-consistently by means of the nonlinear permittivity and conductivity, which, in turn, depend on the time-averaged Poynting vector modulus. Thereby, the transmittance, reflectance, and absorptive power are derived as functions of the pump intensity and medium thickness. Bistable behavior is found at relatively high excitation intensity for positive values of the nonlinear permittivity coefficient. The bistability enhances for increasing values of such coefficient and weakens for increasing values of nonlinear photoconductivity coefficient. On the contrary, for negative nonlinear permittivity coefficient, bistability does not appear possessing these media mirrorlike behavior. Some possible applications are suggested.

  18. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Aniket; Lochan, Abhiram; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.; Gupta, Neeraj; Sharma, G. D.

    2016-08-14

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  19. Charge carrier mobility and electronic properties of Al(Op)3: impact of excimer formation

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Pascal; Schäfer, Bernhard; Fattori, Valeria; Sun, Xiangnan; Strunk, Timo; Meded, Velimir; Hueso, Luis E; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Ruben, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Summary We have studied the electronic properties and the charge carrier mobility of the organic semiconductor tris(1-oxo-1H-phenalen-9-olate)aluminium(III) (Al(Op)3) both experimentally and theoretically. We experimentally estimated the HOMO and LUMO energy levels to be −5.93 and −3.26 eV, respectively, which were close to the corresponding calculated values. Al(Op)3 was successfully evaporated onto quartz substrates and was clearly identified in the absorption spectra of both the solution and the thin film. A structured steady state fluorescence emission was detected in solution, whereas a broad, red-shifted emission was observed in the thin film. This indicates the formation of excimers in the solid state, which is crucial for the transport properties. The incorporation of Al(Op)3 into organic thin film transistors (TFTs) was performed in order to measure the charge carrier mobility. The experimental setup detected no electron mobility, while a hole mobility between 0.6 × 10−6 and 2.1 × 10−6 cm2·V−1·s−1 was measured. Theoretical simulations, on the other hand, predicted an electron mobility of 9.5 × 10−6 cm2·V−1·s−1 and a hole mobility of 1.4 × 10−4 cm2·V−1·s−1. The theoretical simulation for the hole mobility predicted an approximately one order of magnitude higher hole mobility than was observed in the experiment, which is considered to be in good agreement. The result for the electron mobility was, on the other hand, unexpected, as both the calculated electron mobility and chemical common sense (based on the capability of extended aromatic structures to efficiently accept and delocalize additional electrons) suggest more robust electron charge transport properties. This discrepancy is explained by the excimer formation, whose inclusion in the multiscale simulation workflow is expected to bring the theoretical simulation and experiment into agreement. PMID:26171287

  20. Numerical Analysis of Threshold between Laser-Supported Detonation and Combustion Wave Using Thermal Non-Equilibrium and Multi-Charged Ionization Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Yuya

    Laser-supported Detonation (LSD), which is one type of Laser-supported Plasma (LSP), is an important phenomenon because it can generate high pressures and temperatures for laser absorption. In this study, using thermal-non-equilibrium model, we numerically simulate LSPs, which are categorized as either LSDs or laser-supported combustion-waves (LSCs). For the analysis model, a two-temperature (heavy particle and electron-temperature) model has been used because the electronic mode excites first in laser absorption and a thermal non-equilibrium state easily arises. In the numerical analysis of the LSDs, laser absorption models are particularly important. Therefore, a multi-charged ionization model is considered to evaluate precisely the propagation and the structure transition of the LSD waves in the proximity of the LSC-LSD threshold. In the new model, the transition of the LSD construction near the threshold, which is indicated by the ionization delay length, becomes more practical.

  1. Charge Density and Molecular Weight of Polyphosphoramidate Gene Carrier Are Key Parameters Influencing Its DNA Compaction Ability and Transfection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yong; Jiang, Xuan; Pan, Deng; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2011-01-01

    A series of polyphosphoramidates (PPA) with different molecular weights (MWs) and charge densities were synthesized and examined for their DNA compaction ability and transfection efficiency. A strong correlation was observed between the transfection efficiency of PPA/DNA nanoparticles and the MW and net positive charge density of the PPA gene carriers in three different cell lines (HeLa, HEK293 and HepG2 cells). An increase in MW and/or net positive charge density of PPA carrier yielded higher DNA compaction capacity, smaller nanoparticles with higher surface charges and higher complex stability against challenges by salt and polyanions. These favorable physicochemical properties of nanoparticles led to enhanced transfection efficiency. PPA/DNA nanoparticles with the highest complex stability showed comparable transfection efficiency as PEI/DNA nanoparticles likely by compensating the low buffering capacity with higher cellular uptake and affording higher level of protection to DNA in endolysosomal compartment. The differences in transfection efficiency were not attributed by any difference in cytotoxicity among the carriers, as all nanoparticles showed minimal level of cytotoxicity under the transfection conditions. Using PPA as a model system, we demonstrated the structural dependence of transfection efficiency of polymer gene carrier. These results offer more insights into nanoparticle engineering for non-viral gene delivery. PMID:21067136

  2. 14 CFR 382.31 - May carriers impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May carriers impose special charges on... 382.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL...

  3. Facet-selective charge carrier transport, deactivation mechanism and stabilization of a Cu2O photo-electro-catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yun, Xiaogang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Wenqin; Li, Yongdan

    2016-03-14

    A facet-dependent photo-deactivation mechanism of Cu2O was verified and reported, which is caused by the facet-dependent charge carrier transport. During irradiation, the {100} and {110} crystal facets are selectively corroded by the photo-generated holes, while the {111} facets are comparatively stable.

  4. Charge density and molecular weight of polyphosphoramidate gene carrier are key parameters influencing its DNA compaction ability and transfection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Jiang, Xuan; Pan, Deng; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2010-12-13

    A series of polyphosphoramidates (PPAs) with different molecular weights (MWs) and charge densities were synthesized and examined for their DNA compaction ability and transfection efficiency. A strong correlation was observed between the transfection efficiency of PPA/DNA nanoparticles and the MW and net positive charge density of the PPA gene carriers in three different cell lines (HeLa, HEK293, and HepG2 cells). An increase in MW and net positive charge density of PPA carrier yielded higher DNA compaction capacity, smaller nanoparticles with higher surface charges, and higher complex stability against challenges by salt and polyanions. These favorable physicochemical properties of nanoparticles led to enhanced transfection efficiency. PPA/DNA nanoparticles with the highest complex stability showed comparable transfection efficiency as PEI/DNA nanoparticles likely by compensating the low buffering capacity with higher cellular uptake and affording higher level of protection to DNA in endolysosomal compartment. The differences in transfection efficiency were not attributed by any difference in cytotoxicity among the carriers, as all nanoparticles showed a minimal level of cytotoxicity under the transfection conditions. Using PPA as a model system, we demonstrated the structural dependence of transfection efficiency of polymer gene carrier. These results offer more insights into nanoparticle engineering for nonviral gene delivery.

  5. 14 CFR 382.31 - May carriers impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May carriers impose special charges on... 382.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL...

  6. Ultrafast relaxation and transfer of charge carriers in type-II heterodoping (n-i-p-i) superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, N.; Hauenstein, H. M.; Seilmeier, A.

    1995-12-01

    In all-optical experiments, transient nonlinear absorption changes due to band filling and the Franz-Keldysh effect are used to study the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers in AlxGa1-xAs type-II-hetero-n-i-p-i structures containing a single 20-nm-wide GaAs quantum well in each Ultrafast relaxation and transfer of charge carriers in type-II heterodoping superlattices intrinsic region. Pump pulses of 0.6 ps duration inject electron-hole pairs exclusively in the quantum wells located in the region with high electric field. We observe carrier cooling and thermionic transfer of the thermalized carriers perpendicular to the layers. The measured transfer times between ~50 and ~500 ps are found to increase with excitation power. The transfer process is followed by lateral carrier diffusion and, finally, by interband recombination which proceeds on a time scale from 100 μs to several seconds depending on the density of photoexcited carriers. The experimental results are compared with model calculations on Thomas-Fermi approximation.

  7. Temperature-dependent anisotropic charge-carrier mobility limited by ionized impurity scattering in thin-layer black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue; Ruden, P. Paul

    2017-04-01

    Anisotropic charge-carrier transport in black phosphorus limited by ionized impurity scattering at finite temperature is explored theoretically. The anisotropic electronic structure enters the calculation for the polarizability (screening), the momentum relaxation time, and the mobility. For finite temperature, elastic scattering is not limited to the Fermi surface and the polarizability is temperature dependent. The impact of screening is investigated in detail with its dependence on carrier density and temperature. Competing with the thermal excitation effects, the temperature dependence of the polarizability is found to dominate for T <100 K. As a result, the charge-carrier mobility slowly decreases with increasing temperature. The weak temperature dependence of the mobility and its anisotropy ratio of 1.9-3.2 agree with published experimental data.

  8. Influence of high-pressure treatment on charge carrier transport in PbS colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seung Jin; Yoon, Seokhyun; Oh, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Doo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-01-21

    We investigated the effects of high-pressure treatment on charge carrier transport in PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solids. We applied high pressure to PbS CQD solids using nitrogen gas to reduce the inter-dot distance. Using this simple process, we obtained conductive PbS CQD solids. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was used to study charge carrier transport as a function of pressure. We found that the minimum pressure needed to increase the dielectric constant, conductivity, and carrier mobility was 4 MPa. All properties dramatically improved at 5 MPa; for example, the mobility increased from 0.13 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 0.1 MPa to 0.91 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 5 MPa. We propose this simple process as a nondestructive approach for making conductive PbS CQD solids that are free of chemical and physical defects.

  9. Interfacial Engineering and Charge Carrier Dynamics in Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edley, Michael

    Photovoltaic energy is a clean and renewable source of electricity; however, it faces resistance to widespread use due to cost. Nanostructuring decouples constraints related to light absorption and charge separation, potentially reducing cost by allowing a wider variety of processing techniques and materials to be used. However, the large interfacial areas also cause an increased dark current which negatively affects cell efficiency. This work focuses on extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells that used a ZnO nanowire array as a scaffold for an extremely thin CdSe absorber layer. Photoexcited electrons generated in the CdSe absorber are transferred to the ZnO layer, while photogenerated holes are transferred to the liquid electrolyte. The transfer of photoexcited carriers to their transport layer competes with bulk recombination in the absorber layer. After charge separation, transport of charge carriers to their respective contacts must occur faster than interfacial recombination for efficient collection. Charge separation and collection depend sensitively on the dimensions of the materials as well as their interfaces. We demonstrated that an optimal absorber thickness can balance light absorption and charge separation. By treating the ZnO/CdSe interface with a CdS buffer layer, we were able to improve the Voc and fill factor, increasing the ETA cell's efficiency from 0.53% to 1.34%, which is higher than that achievable using planar films of the same material. We have gained additional insight into designing ETA cells through the use of dynamic measurements. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that characteristic times for electron injection from CdSe to ZnO are less than 1 ps. Electron injection is rapid compared to the 2 ns bulk lifetime in CdSe. Optoelectronic measurements such as transient photocurrent/photovoltage and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were applied to study the processes of charge transport and interfacial recombination

  10. Positive Hole Charge Carriers and their Role in Generating Pre-Earthquake Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    All minerals that crystallize from a fluid-laden magma or recrystallize in a high-grade metamorphic environment, even nominally anhydrous minerals, incorporate traces of H2O into their matrices: feldspars, pyroxenes, olivines etc. Upon cooling below 600-400°C hydroxyl pairs such as O3Si-OH HO-SiO3 rearrange electronically to form peroxy bonds, O3Si-OO-SiO3 + H2. Thus peroxy defects are introduced into essentially all rocks in the upper portions of the Earth crust. I'll discuss 1. why peroxy defects are thermodynamically allowed; 2. how peroxy defects are activated by stress; 3. what happens when peroxy defects release positive holes and inject them into an otherwise insulating medium; 4. why positive holes have the ability to spread out of the stressed rock volume; 5. why most positive holes are long-lived; 6. how positive holes travel fast and far; 7. what happens when positive holes arrive at the Earth surface; 8. how positive holes can recombine at the surface, returning to the peroxy state and emitting IR radiation with characteristic spectroscopic signature; 9. how positive holes set up microscopic electric fields at rock surfaces, steep enough to field-ionize air molecules and even trigger corona discharges; 10. positive and negative air ionization; 11. selective coupling of positive airborne ions to the ionosphere; 12. how the positive holes flow is not inhibited by the presence of water in rock pores. 13. how positive holes change from electronic charge carriers to highly reactive oxygen radicals when they arrive at rock-water interfaces. The concept of the rock battery is based on the recognition that rocks, which are stressed, turn into a source of positive holes charge carriers. Those positive holes flow out along the self-generated potential gradient. They can generate electric currents, which generate EM signals. However, sustained currents are possible only if and when the battery circuit is closed. Circuit closure in the Earth crust is difficult but

  11. Insights into charge carrier dynamics in organo-metal halide perovskites: from neat films to solar cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiajun; Chen, Yani; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tõnu; Liang, Ziqi

    2017-08-03

    Organo-metal halide perovskites have recently obtained world-wide attention as promising solar cell materials. They have broad and strong light absorption along with excellent carrier transport properties which partially explain their record power conversion efficiencies above 22%. However, the basic understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms is still limited and there remain large discrepancies among reported transport characteristics of perovskite materials. Notably, the carrier mobility of perovskite samples either in thin films or within solar cells obtained using different techniques can vary by up to 7-8 orders of magnitude. This tutorial review aims to offer insights into the scope, advantages, limitations and latest developments of the techniques that have been applied for studying charge carrier dynamics in perovskites. We summarize a comprehensive set of measurements including (1) time-resolved laser spectroscopies (transient absorption, time-resolved photoluminescence, terahertz spectroscopy and microwave conductivity); (2) electrical transient techniques (charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage and time-of-flight); and (3) steady-state methods (field-effect transistor, Hall effect and space charge limited current). Firstly, the basics of the above measurements are described. We then comparatively summarize the charge carrier characteristics of perovskite-based neat films, bilayer films and solar cells. Finally, we compare the different approaches in evaluating the key parameters of transport dynamics and unravel the reasons for the large discrepancies among these methods. We anticipate that this tutorial review will serve as the entry point for understanding the experimental results from the above techniques and provide insights into charge carrier dynamics in perovskite materials and devices.

  12. Compositional dependence of charge carrier transport in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Justus; Nichterwitz, Melanie; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, Dirk; Frahm, Ronald; Unold, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells deposited by thermal co-evaporation have been characterized structurally and electronically to determine the dependence of the electronic properties on the elemental composition of the kesterite phase, which can significantly deviate from the total sample composition. To this end, the kesterite phase content and composition were determined by a combination of X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption measurements. The electronic properties, such as carrier density and minority carrier diffusion length, were determined by electron beam induced current measurements and capacitance-voltage profiling. The charge-carrier transport properties are found to strongly depend on the Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio of the kesterite phase. For the Cu-poor sample, a minority carrier diffusion length of 270 nm and a total collection length of approx. 500 nm are deduced, indicating that current collection should not be an issue in thin devices.

  13. Time-resolved correlative optical microscopy of charge-carrier transport, recombination, and space-charge fields in CdTe heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Kuciauskas, Darius; Myers, Thomas H.; Barnes, Teresa M.; ...

    2017-02-20

    From time- and spatially resolved optical measurements, we show that extended defects can have a large effect on the charge-carrier recombination in II-VI semiconductors. In CdTe double heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on the InSb (100)-orientation substrates, we characterized the extended defects and found that near stacking faults the space-charge field extends by 2-5 μm. Charge carriers drift (with the space-charge field strength of 730-1,360 V cm-1) and diffuse (with the mobility of 260 ± 30 cm2 V-1 s-1) toward the extended defects, where the minority-carrier lifetime is reduced from 560 ns to 0.25 ns. Furthermore, the extended defectsmore » are nonradiative recombination sinks that affect areas significantly larger than the typical crystalline grains in II-VI solar cells. From the correlative time-resolved photoluminescence and second-harmonic generation microscopy data, we developed a band-diagram model that can be used to analyze the impact of extended defects on solar cells and other electronic devices.« less

  14. Time-resolved correlative optical microscopy of charge-carrier transport, recombination, and space-charge fields in CdTe heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuciauskas, Darius; Myers, Thomas H.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Jensen, Søren A.; Allende Motz, Alyssa M.

    2017-02-01

    From time- and spatially resolved optical measurements, we show that extended defects can have a large effect on the charge-carrier recombination in II-VI semiconductors. In CdTe double heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on the InSb (100)-orientation substrates, we characterized the extended defects and found that near stacking faults the space-charge field extends by 2-5 μm. Charge carriers drift (with the space-charge field strength of 730-1,360 V cm-1) and diffuse (with the mobility of 260 ± 30 cm2 V-1 s-1) toward the extended defects, where the minority-carrier lifetime is reduced from 560 ns to 0.25 ns. Therefore, the extended defects are nonradiative recombination sinks that affect areas significantly larger than the typical crystalline grains in II-VI solar cells. From the correlative time-resolved photoluminescence and second-harmonic generation microscopy data, we developed a band-diagram model that can be used to analyze the impact of extended defects on solar cells and other electronic devices.

  15. On the generation of charge-carrier recombination centers in the sapphire substrates of silicon-on-sapphire structures

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, P. A. Belova, N. E.; Demakov, K. D.; Shemardov, S. G.

    2015-08-15

    A method for the production of high-quality radiation-resistant silicon-on-sapphire structures through the fabrication of a layer of nanopores in sapphire by helium ion implantation, i.e., by creating charge-carrier recombination centers, is proposed. In this case, the quality of the silicon layer is simultaneously improved. The problem of the thermal stability of the pores is discussed with the aim of analyzing the possibility of producing a microcircuit on the resultant modified silicon-on-sapphire sample. The layer of pores possesses a large total surface area and, hence, decreases the lifetime of charge carriers generated during irradiation of the operating microcircuit. This effect reduces the charge at the silicon-sapphire interface and improves radiation resistance.

  16. The Moving Lines on Electron Spectra as Charge Reflexes on Non-equilibrium States of Nanostructured Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mishchuk, Oleg A

    2016-12-01

    The experimental results present the phenomenon of moving lines on electron spectra which are linked spatially and in time with the localization and durability of the processes of new surface producing in folds and grain boundaries. This effect was also realized for a thin-layer composite "organic on metal films on dielectric substrate" in modeling non-equilibrium conditions which are created by the intensive electron beam pulse impact. It was found that the nature of the inceptive adsorption layer, in addition to the metal film, determines the initial positions of moving lines on the spectra. The main accents in these investigations were in observations of appearance of the moving lines, dynamics of their displacements on the spectra, final stages when these lines vanished, and finding the general regularities between the spontaneous and induced events.

  17. The Moving Lines on Electron Spectra as Charge Reflexes on Non-equilibrium States of Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchuk, Oleg A.

    2016-04-01

    The experimental results present the phenomenon of moving lines on electron spectra which are linked spatially and in time with the localization and durability of the processes of new surface producing in folds and grain boundaries. This effect was also realized for a thin-layer composite "organic on metal films on dielectric substrate" in modeling non-equilibrium conditions which are created by the intensive electron beam pulse impact. It was found that the nature of the inceptive adsorption layer, in addition to the metal film, determines the initial positions of moving lines on the spectra. The main accents in these investigations were in observations of appearance of the moving lines, dynamics of their displacements on the spectra, final stages when these lines vanished, and finding the general regularities between the spontaneous and induced events.

  18. Universal crossover of the charge carrier fluctuation mechanism in different polymer/carbon nanotubes composites

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, C. Mauro, C.; Pagano, S.; Landi, G.; Neitzert, H. C.

    2015-10-05

    Carbon nanotubes added to polymer and epoxy matrices are compounds of interest for applications in electronics and aerospace. The realization of high-performance devices based on these materials can profit from the investigation of their electric noise properties, as this gives a more detailed insight of the basic charge carriers transport mechanisms at work. The dc and electrical noise characteristics of different polymer/carbon nanotubes composites have been analyzed from 10 to 300 K. The results suggest that all these systems can be regarded as random resistive networks of tunnel junctions formed by adjacent carbon nanotubes. However, in the high-temperature regime, contributions deriving from other possible mechanisms cannot be separated using dc information alone. A transition from a fluctuation-induced tunneling process to a thermally activated regime is instead revealed by electric noise spectroscopy. In particular, a crossover is found from a two-level tunneling mechanism, operating at low temperatures, to resistance fluctuations of a percolative network, in the high-temperature region. The observed behavior of 1/f noise seems to be a general feature for highly conductive samples, independent on the type of polymer matrix and on the nanotube density.

  19. Spatial localization of excitons and charge carriers in hybrid perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong

    2015-07-21

    The fundamental photophysics underlying the remarkably high power conversion efficiency of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-based solar cells has been increasingly studied using complementary spectroscopic techniques. The spatially heterogeneous polycrystalline morphology of the photoactive layers owing to the presence of distinct crystalline grains has been generally neglected in optical measurements and therefore the reported results are typically averaged over hundreds or even thousands of such grains. Here, we apply femtosecond transient absorption microscopy to spatially and temporally probe ultrafast electronic excited-state dynamics in pristine methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films and composite structures. We found that the electronic excited-state relaxation kinetics are extremely sensitive to the sample location probed, which was manifested by position-dependent decay timescales and transient signals. As a result, analysis of transient absorption kinetics acquired at distinct spatial positions enabled us to identify contributions of excitons and free charge carriers.

  20. Charge-carrier transport and recombination in heteroepitaxial CdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Kuciauskas, Darius Farrell, Stuart; Dippo, Pat; Moseley, John; Moutinho, Helio; Li, Jian V.; Allende Motz, A. M.; Kanevce, Ana; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Timothy A.; Levi, Dean H.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Colegrove, Eric; Sivananthan, S.

    2014-09-28

    We analyze charge-carrier dynamics using time-resolved spectroscopy and varying epitaxial CdTe thickness in undoped heteroepitaxial CdTe/ZnTe/Si. By employing one-photon and nonlinear two-photon excitation, we assess surface, interface, and bulk recombination. Two-photon excitation with a focused laser beam enables characterization of recombination velocity at the buried epilayer/substrate interface, 17.5 μm from the sample surface. Measurements with a focused two-photon excitation beam also indicate a fast diffusion component, from which we estimate an electron mobility of 650 cm² (Vs)⁻¹ and diffusion coefficient D of 17 cm² s⁻¹. We find limiting recombination at the epitaxial film surface (surface recombination velocity Ssurface = (2.8 ± 0.3) × 10⁵cm s ⁻¹) and at the heteroepitaxial interface (interface recombination velocity Sinterface = (4.8 ± 0.5) × 10⁵ cm s⁻¹). The results demonstrate that reducing surface and interface recombination velocity is critical for photovoltaic solar cells and electronic devices that employ epitaxial CdTe.

  1. Corneal permeation properties of a charged lipid nanoparticle carrier containing dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Junfeng; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Xin; Deng, Guanghan; Hou, Dongzhi; Chen, Yanzhong; Lu, Zhufen

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery carriers can maintain effective therapeutic concentrations in the eye. To this end, we developed lipid nanoparticles (L/NPs) in which the surface was modified with positively charged chitosan, which engaged in hydrogen bonding with the phospholipid membrane. We evaluated in vitro corneal permeability and release characteristics, ocular irritation, and drug dynamics of modified and unmodified L/NPs in aqueous humor. The size of L/NPs was uniform and showed a narrow distribution. Corneal permeation was altered by the presence of chitosan and was dependent on particle size; the apparent permeability coefficient of dexamethasone increased by 2.7 and 1.8 times for chitosan-modified and unmodified L/NPs, respectively. In conclusion, a chitosan-modified system could be a promising method for increasing the ocular bioavailability of unmodified L/NPs by enhancing their retention time and permeation into the cornea. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the development of effective drug delivery systems in the treatment of ocular disease. PMID:28243093

  2. Heterodimensional charge-carrier confinement in stacked submonolayer InAs in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S.; Young, M. P.; Hodgson, P. D.; Young, R. J.; Hayne, M.; Danos, L.; Schliwa, A.; Strittmatter, A.; Lenz, A.; Eisele, H.; Pohl, U. W.; Bimberg, D.

    2016-02-01

    Charge-carrier confinement in nanoscale In-rich agglomerations within a lateral InGaAs quantum well (QW) formed from stacked submonolayers (SMLs) of InAs in GaAs is studied. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and magneto-PL clearly demonstrate strong vertical and weak lateral confinement, yielding two-dimensional (2D) excitons. In contrast, high-temperature (400 K) magneto-PL reveals excited states that fit a Fock-Darwin spectrum, characteristic of a zero-dimensional (0D) system in a magnetic field. This paradox is resolved by concluding that the system is heterodimensional: the light electrons extend over several In-rich agglomerations and see only the lateral InGaAs QW, i.e., are 2D, while the heavier holes are confined within the In-rich agglomerations, i.e., are 0D. This description is supported by single-particle effective-mass and eight-band k .p calculations. We suggest that the heterodimensional nature of nanoscale SML inclusions is fundamental to the ability of respective optoelectronic devices to operate efficiently and at high speed.

  3. Solution of a new nonlinear equation for the distribution of charge carriers in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liboff, Richard L.; Schenter, Gregory K.

    1986-11-01

    The solution of a recently obtained nonlinear differential equation for the distribution function of charge carriers in a semiconductor in an electric field is derived. It is given by fSL(x)=\\{1+B[s/(x+s)]sex \\}-1. This solution represents the symmetric part of the total distribution function. The nondimensional energy and applied electric field are x and √s , respectively, and B is a constant determined by normalization. The total distribution is given by the above and its derivative and is found to be rotationally symmetric about the electric field. This distribution reduces to the shifted Fermi-Dirac distribution for small s and to the Druyvesteyn distribution in the classical limit. An analytic expression for electrical conductivity is derived together with an approximate expression for the chemical potential in the small-electric-field limit. A generalized criterion for the classical versus quantum domains is discussed relevant to the present study. It is found that otherwise quantum domains become classical for sufficiently large applied electric fields.

  4. Synthesis of p -and n-type Gels Doped with Ionic Charge Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alveroglu, E.; Yilmaz, Y.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we synthesized the new kinds of semiconducting polymeric gels having negative ( n-type) and positive ( p-type) counter ions as charge carriers. The polyacrylamide gel was doped with pyranine (8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid, trisodium salt), having {text{SO}}3^{ - } ions as side groups and Na+ as counter ions, so-called p-type semiconducting gel. The doping process was performed during the polymerization where the pyranine binds to the polymer strands over OH group chemically via radical addition. In a similar way, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel was doped with methacrylamidopropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (MAPTAC), having Cl- as counter ions, so-called n-type semiconducting gel. Here MAPTAC was embedded by copolymerization within the polymer network (NIPA). These semiconducting gels can show different electrical properties by changing the concentration of the doping agents, swelling ratio etc. We have shown that the pn junction, formed by combining p-type and n-type gels together in close contact, rectifies the current similar to the conventional Si and Ge diodes.

  5. Computational Confirmation of the Carrier for the "XCN" Interstellar Ice Bank: OCN(-) Charge Transfer Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.-Y.; Woon, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental studies provide evidence that carrier for the so-called XCN feature at 2165 cm(exp -1) (4.62 micron) in young stellar objects is an OCN(-)/NH4(+) charge transfer (CT) complex that forms in energetically processed interstellar icy grain mantles. Although other RCN nitriles and RCN iosonitriles have been considered, Greenberg's conjecture that OCN(-) is associated with the XCN feature has persisted for over 15 years. In this work we report a computational investigation that thoroughly confirms the hypothesis that the XCN feature observed in laboratory studies can result from OCN(-)/NH4(+) CT complexes arising from HNCO and NH3, in a water ice environment. Density functional theory calculations with theory calculations with HNCO, NH3, and up to 12 waters reproduce seven spectroscopic measurements associated with XCN: the band origin of the asymmetric stretching mode of OCN(-), shifts due to isotopic substitutions of C, N, O, and H, and two weak features. However, very similar values are also found for the OCN(-)/NH4(+) CT complex arising from HOCN and NH3. In both cases, the complex forms by barrierless proton transfer from HNCO or HOCN to NH3 during the optimization of the solvated system. Scaled B3LYP/6-31+G** harmonic frequencies for HNCO and HOCN cases are 2181 and 2202 cm(exp -1), respectively.

  6. Thickness dependent charge transfer states and dark carriers density in vacuum deposited small molecule organic photocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Himanshu; Tzabari, Lior; Solomeshch, Olga; Tessler, Nir

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the influence of the active layer thickness on the balance of the internal mechanisms affecting the efficiency of copper phthalocyanine - fullerene (C60) based vacuum deposited bulk heterojunction organic photocell. We fabricated a range of devices for which we varied the thickness of the active layer from 40 to 120 nm and assessed their performance using optical and electrical characterization techniques. As reported previously for phthalocyanine:C60, the performance of the device is highly dependent on the active layer thickness and of all the thicknesses we tried, the 40 nm thin active layer device showed the best solar cell characteristic parameters. Using the transfer matrix based optical model, which includes interference effects, we calculated the optical power absorbed in the active layers for the entire absorption band, and we found that this cannot explain the trend with thickness. Measurement of the cell quantum efficiency as a function of light intensity showed that the relative weight of the device internal processes changes when going from 40 nm to 120 nm thick active layer. Electrical modeling of the device, which takes different internal processes into account, allowed to quantify the changes in the processes affecting the generation - recombination balance. Sub gap external quantum efficiency and morphological analysis of the surface of the films agree with the model's result. We found that as the thickness grows the density of charge transfer states and of dark carriers goes up and the uniformity in the vertical direction is reduced.

  7. Spatial localization of excitons and charge carriers in hybrid perovskite thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Yang, Bin; ...

    2015-07-21

    The fundamental photophysics underlying the remarkably high power conversion efficiency of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-based solar cells has been increasingly studied using complementary spectroscopic techniques. The spatially heterogeneous polycrystalline morphology of the photoactive layers owing to the presence of distinct crystalline grains has been generally neglected in optical measurements and therefore the reported results are typically averaged over hundreds or even thousands of such grains. Here, we apply femtosecond transient absorption microscopy to spatially and temporally probe ultrafast electronic excited-state dynamics in pristine methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films and composite structures. We found that the electronic excited-state relaxation kinetics aremore » extremely sensitive to the sample location probed, which was manifested by position-dependent decay timescales and transient signals. As a result, analysis of transient absorption kinetics acquired at distinct spatial positions enabled us to identify contributions of excitons and free charge carriers.« less

  8. Functionalized organic semiconductor molecules to enhance charge carrier injection in electroluminescent cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Eyyup; Kara, Duygu Akin; Karakaya, Caner; Yigit, Mesude Zeliha; Havare, Ali Kemal; Can, Mustafa; Tozlu, Cem; Demic, Serafettin; Kus, Mahmut; Aboulouard, Abdelkhalk

    2017-07-01

    Organic semiconductor (OSC) materials as a charge carrier interface play an important role to improve the device performance of organic electroluminescent cells. In this study, 4,4″-bis(diphenyl amino)-1,1':3‧,1″-terphenyl-5'-carboxylic acid (TPA) and 4,4″-di-9H-carbazol-9-yl-1,1':3‧,1″-terphenyl-5'-carboxylic acid (CAR) has been designed and synthesized to modify indium tin oxide (ITO) layer as interface. Bare ITO and PEDOT:PSS coated on ITO was used as reference anode electrodes for comparison. Furthermore, PEDOT:PSS coated over CAR/ITO and TPA/ITO to observe stability of OSC molecules and to completely cover the ITO surface. Electrical, optical and surface characterizations were performed for each device. Almost all modified devices showed around 36% decrease at the turn on voltage with respect to bare ITO. The current density of bare ITO, ITO/CAR and ITO/TPA were measured as 288, 1525 and 1869 A/m2, respectively. By increasing current density, luminance of modified devices showed much better performance with respect to unmodified devices.

  9. Charge-carrier concentration dependence of the hopping mobility in organic materials with Gaussian disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coehoorn, R.; Pasveer, W. F.; Bobbert, P. A.; Michels, M. A. J.

    2005-10-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the hopping mobility in semiconducting organic materials depends on the charge-carrier concentration. We have analyzed this effect within the framework of six existing semianalytical models, for the case of a Gaussian density of states (DOS). These models were either not applied earlier to the case of a Gaussian DOS, or are shown to require a major modification. The mobility is constant below a certain concentration, which decreases with increasing ratio ŝ of the width of the DOS over the thermal energy kBT , and it increases for larger concentrations. At very high concentrations final state effects limit this increase or even give rise to a decrease. An analytical expression is given for the mobility, μ , in the form of the product of the mobility in the low concentration limit times a concentration (c) and ŝ -dependent enhancement factor. Depending on c , ln(μ) varies approximately linearly with 1/T or with 1/T2 . This finding may lead to a solution for the long-standing controversy between polaron-based and disorder-based hopping models.

  10. Spatial Localization of Excitons and Charge Carriers in Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films

    DOE PAGES

    Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin L; Yang, Bin; ...

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental photophysics underlying the remarkably high power conversion efficiency of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-based solar cells has been increasingly studied using complementary spectroscopic techniques. However, the spatially heterogeneous polycrystalline morphology of the photoactive layers owing to the presence of distinct crystalline grains has been generally neglected in optical measurements and therefore the reported results are typically averaged over hundreds or even thousands of such grains. Here, we apply femtosecond transient absorption microscopy to spatially and temporally probe ultrafast electronic excited-state dynamics in pristine methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films and composite structures. We found that the electronic excited-state relaxation kineticsmore » are extremely sensitive to the sample location probed, which was manifested by position-dependent decay timescales and transient signals. Analysis of transient absorption kinetics acquired at distinct spatial positions enabled us to identify contributions of excitons and free charge carriers.« less

  11. Phonon focusing and electron–phonon drag in semiconductor crystals with degenerate charge-carrier statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuleyev, I. G. Kuleyev, I. I.; Bakharev, S. M.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2016-09-15

    We study the effect of anisotropy in elastic properties on the electron–phonon drag and thermoelectric phenomena in gapless semiconductors with degenerate charge-carrier statistics. It is shown that phonon focusing leads to a number of new effects in the drag thermopower at low temperatures, when diffusive phonon scattering from the boundaries is the predominant relaxation mechanism. We analyze the effect of phonon focusing on the dependences of the thermoelectromotive force (thermopower) in HgSe:Fe crystals on geometric parameters and the heat-flow directions relative to the crystal axes in the Knudsen regime of the phonon gas flow. The crystallographic directions that ensure the maximum and minimum values of the thermopower are determined and the role of quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse phonons in the drag thermopower in HgSe:Fe crystals at low temperatures is analyzed. It is shown that the main contribution to the drag thermopower comes from slow quasi-transverse phonons in the directions of focusing in long samples.

  12. Universal crossover of the charge carrier fluctuation mechanism in different polymer/carbon nanotubes composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, C.; Landi, G.; Mauro, C.; Neitzert, H. C.; Pagano, S.

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes added to polymer and epoxy matrices are compounds of interest for applications in electronics and aerospace. The realization of high-performance devices based on these materials can profit from the investigation of their electric noise properties, as this gives a more detailed insight of the basic charge carriers transport mechanisms at work. The dc and electrical noise characteristics of different polymer/carbon nanotubes composites have been analyzed from 10 to 300 K. The results suggest that all these systems can be regarded as random resistive networks of tunnel junctions formed by adjacent carbon nanotubes. However, in the high-temperature regime, contributions deriving from other possible mechanisms cannot be separated using dc information alone. A transition from a fluctuation-induced tunneling process to a thermally activated regime is instead revealed by electric noise spectroscopy. In particular, a crossover is found from a two-level tunneling mechanism, operating at low temperatures, to resistance fluctuations of a percolative network, in the high-temperature region. The observed behavior of 1/f noise seems to be a general feature for highly conductive samples, independent on the type of polymer matrix and on the nanotube density.

  13. Carrier mobility in mesoscale heterogeneous organic materials: Effects of crystallinity and anisotropy on efficient charge transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hajime; Shirasawa, Raku; Nakamoto, Mitsunori; Hattori, Shinnosuke; Tomiya, Shigetaka

    2017-07-01

    Charge transport in the mesoscale bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) is studied using multiscale simulations in combination with molecular dynamics, the density functional theory, the molecular-level kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method, and the coarse-grained kMC method, which was developed to estimate mesoscale carrier mobility. The effects of the degree of crystallinity and the anisotropy of the conductivity of donors on hole mobility are studied for BHJ structures that consist of crystalline and amorphous pentacene grains that act as donors and amorphous C60 grains that act as acceptors. We find that the hole mobility varies dramatically with the degree of crystallinity of pentacene because it is largely restricted by a low-mobility amorphous region that occurs in the hole transport network. It was also found that the percolation threshold of crystalline pentacene is relatively high at approximately 0.6. This high percolation threshold is attributed to the 2D-like conductivity of crystalline pentacene, and the threshold is greatly improved to a value of approximately 0.3 using 3D-like conductive donors. We propose essential guidelines to show that it is critical to increase the degree of crystallinity and develop 3D conductive donors for efficient hole transport through percolative networks in the BHJs of OPVs.

  14. Complete ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in photo-excited all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3).

    PubMed

    Mondal, Navendu; Samanta, Anunay

    2017-02-02

    Understanding the nature and dynamics of the photo-induced transients of all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) is key to their exploitation in potential applications. In order to determine the nature of charge carriers, their deactivation pathways and dynamics, the photo-induced transients of CsPbBr3, CsPbBr2I, CsPbBr1.5I1.5 and CsPbI3 NCs are spectrally and temporally characterized employing a combination of femtosecond transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) up-conversion techniques and global analysis of the data. The results provide distinct identities of the excitons and free charge carriers and distinguish the hot charge carriers from the cold ones. The carrier trapping is attributed to the electrons and their dynamics is unaffected in mixed halide perovskites. The excitation energy dependence of the TA dynamics suggests that the trap states are shallow in nature and mainly limited near the band-edge level. In mixed halide perovskites, an increase in the iodine content leads to hole trapping in a short time scale (<5 ps). The insights obtained from this study are likely to be helpful for tuning the photo-response of these substances and their better utilization in light-based applications.

  15. Monte Carlo study of charge transport in organic sandwich-type single-carrier devices: Effects of Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Holst, J. J. M.; van Oost, F. W. A.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2011-02-01

    We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of transport of charge carriers of a single type in devices consisting of a disordered organic semiconductor sandwiched in between two electrodes. The simulations are based on hopping of carriers between sites with a Gaussian energetic distribution, which is either spatially uncorrelated or has a correlation based on interactions with randomly oriented dipoles. Coulomb interactions between the carriers are taken into account explicitly. For not too small injection barriers between the electrodes and the organic semiconductor, we find that the current obtained from the simulations can be described quite well by a one-dimensional drift-diffusion continuum model, which takes into account the long-range contributions of Coulomb interactions through the space-charge potential. For devices with low injection barriers, however, the simulations yield a considerably lower current than the continuum model. The reduction of the current for uncorrelated disorder is larger than for correlated disorder. By performing simulations in which the short-range contributions of the Coulomb interactions between the carriers are omitted, we demonstrate that the difference is caused by these short-range contributions. We can rationalize our results by analyzing the three-dimensional current distributions and the in-plane radial distribution function of the carriers resulting from the simulations for different injection barriers with and without taking into account these short-range contributions.

  16. Kinetics of optically excited charge carriers at the GaN surface: Influence of catalytic Pt nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Winnerl, Andrea Pereira, Rui N.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-10-21

    In this work, we use GaN with different deposited Pt nanostructures as a controllable model system to investigate the kinetics of photo-generated charge carriers in hybrid photocatalysts. We combine conductance and contact potential difference measurements to investigate the influence of Pt on the processes involved in the capture and decay of photo-generated charge carriers at and close to the GaN surface. We found that in the presence of Pt nanostructures the photo-excitation processes are similar to those found in Pt free GaN. However, in GaN with Pt nanostructures, photo-generated holes are preferentially trapped in surface states of the GaN covered with Pt and/or in electronic states of the Pt and lead to an accumulation of positive charge there, whereas negative charge is accumulated in localized states in a shallow defect band of the GaN covered with Pt. This preferential accumulation of photo-generated electrons close to the surface is responsible for a dramatic acceleration of the turn-off charge transfer kinetics and a stronger dependence of the surface photovoltage on light intensity when compared to a Pt free GaN surface. Our study shows that in hybrid photocatalysts, the metal nanostructures induce a spatially inhomogeneous surface band bending of the semiconductor that promotes a lateral drift of photogenerated charges towards the catalytic nanostructures.

  17. Effect of charge trapping on effective carrier lifetime in compound semiconductors: High resistivity CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect

    Kamieniecki, Emil

    2014-11-21

    The dominant problem limiting the energy resolution of compound semiconductor based radiation detectors is the trapping of charge carriers. The charge trapping affects energy resolution through the carrier lifetime more than through the mobility. Conventionally, the effective carrier lifetime is determined using a 2-step process based on measurement of the mobility-lifetime product (μτ) and determining drift mobility using time-of-flight measurements. This approach requires fabrication of contacts on the sample. A new RF-based pulse rise-time method, which replaces this 2-step process with a single non-contact direct measurement, is discussed. The application of the RF method is illustrated with high-resistivity detector-grade CdZnTe crystals. The carrier lifetime in the measured CdZnTe, depending on the quality of the crystals, was between about 5 μs and 8 μs. These values are in good agreement with the results obtained using conventional 2-step approach. While the effective carrier lifetime determined from the initial portion of the photoresponse transient combines both recombination and trapping in a manner similar to the conventional 2-step approach, both the conventional and the non-contact RF methods offer only indirect evaluation of the effect of charge trapping in the semiconductors used in radiation detectors. Since degradation of detector resolution is associated not with trapping but essentially with detrapping of carriers, and, in particular, detrapping of holes in n-type semiconductors, it is concluded that evaluation of recombination and detrapping during photoresponse decay is better suited for evaluation of compound semiconductors used in radiation detectors. Furthermore, based on previously reported data, it is concluded that photoresponse decay in high resistivity CdZnTe at room temperature is dominated by detrapping of carriers from the states associated with one type of point defect and by recombination of carriers at one type of

  18. Photogeneration and transport of charge carriers in hybrid materials of conjugated polymers and dye-sensitized TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Däubler, T. K.; Glowacki, I.; Scherf, U.; Ulanski, J.; Hörhold, H.-H.; Neher, D.

    1999-12-01

    Steady state photoconductivity and current-voltage (I-V) experiments are performed on solid films of organic/inorganic composites of dye-sensitized TiO2 in combination with poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), a ladder-type PPP and a soluble PPV derivative. The I-V characteristics of the composites in the dark are explained by the formation of percolation networks of nanoparticles between the electrodes. Photoaction spectra of the devices prove that the photogeneration of charge carriers is significantly enhanced and spectrally broadened only if electron transfer from the polymer to the dye is possible. Increasing the concentration of the nanoparticles in the hybrid materials changes the spectral shape of the photoresponse. For high TiO2 contents signatures due to the absorption of the Ruthenium dye can be observed. The different electronic properties of anatase/brookite TiO2 and rutile TiO2 have only minor effects on the generation of charge carriers and on the shape of the photoaction spectra. Indeed, photocurrents are more related to the Brunauer—Emmett-Teller surface area of the nanoparticles and thus, to the amount of dye adsorbed. Charge collection efficiencies exceeding 100%, observed for both bias directions, can be explained by photoconductivity gain. It is proposed that recombination is reduced by transport of the oppositely charged carriers in two different phases.

  19. Photon Reabsorption Masks Intrinsic Bimolecular Charge-Carrier Recombination in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Crothers, Timothy W; Milot, Rebecca L; Patel, Jay B; Parrott, Elizabeth S; Schlipf, Johannes; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2017-08-14

    An understanding of charge-carrier recombination processes is essential for the development of hybrid metal halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications. We show that typical measurements of the radiative bimolecular recombination constant in CH3NH3PbI3 are strongly affected by photon reabsorption that masks a much larger intrinsic bimolecular recombination rate constant. By investigating a set of films whose thickness varies between 50 and 533 nm, we find that the bimolecular charge recombination rate appears to slow by an order of magnitude as the film thickness increases. However, by using a dynamical model that accounts for photon reabsorption and charge-carrier diffusion we determine that a single intrinsic bimolecular recombination coefficient of value 6.8 × 10(-10) cm(3)s(-1) is common to all samples irrespective of film thickness. Hence, we postulate that the wide range of literature values reported for such coefficients is partly to blame on differences in photon out-coupling between samples with crystal grains or mesoporous scaffolds of different sizes influencing light scattering, whereas thinner films or index-matched surrounding layers can reduce the possibility for photon reabsorption. We discuss the critical role of photon confinement on free charge-carrier retention in thin photovoltaic layers and highlight an approach to assess the success of such schemes from transient spectroscopic measurement.

  20. Remarkable enhancement of charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymer field-effect transistors upon incorporating an ionic additive.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hewei; Yu, Chenmin; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Geng, Hua; Yi, Yuanping; Broch, Katharina; Hu, Yuanyuan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Jiang, Lang; Qi, Penglin; Cai, Zhengxu; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhang, Deqing

    2016-05-01

    Organic semiconductors with high charge carrier mobilities are crucial for flexible electronic applications. Apart from designing new conjugated frameworks, different strategies have been explored to increase charge carrier mobilities. We report a new and simple approach to enhancing the charge carrier mobility of DPP-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-conjugated polymer by incorporating an ionic additive, tetramethylammonium iodide, without extra treatments into the polymer. The resulting thin films exhibit a very high hole mobility, which is higher by a factor of 24 than that of thin films without the ionic additive under the same conditions. On the basis of spectroscopic grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy studies as well as theoretical calculations, the remarkable enhancement of charge mobility upon addition of tetramethylammonium iodide is attributed primarily to an inhibition of the torsion of the alkyl side chains by the presence of the ionic species, facilitating a more ordered lamellar packing of the alkyl side chains and interchain π-π interactions.

  1. Remarkable enhancement of charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymer field-effect transistors upon incorporating an ionic additive

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hewei; Yu, Chenmin; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Geng, Hua; Yi, Yuanping; Broch, Katharina; Hu, Yuanyuan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Jiang, Lang; Qi, Penglin; Cai, Zhengxu; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhang, Deqing

    2016-01-01

    Organic semiconductors with high charge carrier mobilities are crucial for flexible electronic applications. Apart from designing new conjugated frameworks, different strategies have been explored to increase charge carrier mobilities. We report a new and simple approach to enhancing the charge carrier mobility of DPP-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene–conjugated polymer by incorporating an ionic additive, tetramethylammonium iodide, without extra treatments into the polymer. The resulting thin films exhibit a very high hole mobility, which is higher by a factor of 24 than that of thin films without the ionic additive under the same conditions. On the basis of spectroscopic grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy studies as well as theoretical calculations, the remarkable enhancement of charge mobility upon addition of tetramethylammonium iodide is attributed primarily to an inhibition of the torsion of the alkyl side chains by the presence of the ionic species, facilitating a more ordered lamellar packing of the alkyl side chains and interchain π-π interactions. PMID:27386541

  2. Charge Carrier Processes in Photovoltaic Materials and Devices: Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots and Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Paul

    Charge separation, transport, and recombination represent fundamental processes for electrons and holes in semiconductor photovoltaic devices. Here, two distinct materials systems, based on lead sulfide quantum dots and on polycrystalline cadmium telluride, are investigated to advance the understanding of their fundamental nature for insights into the material science necessary to improve the technologies. Lead sulfide quantum dots QDs have been of growing interest in photovoltaics, having recently produced devices exceeding 10% conversion efficiency. Carrier transport via hopping through the quantum dot thin films is not only a function of inter-QD distance, but of the QD size and dielectric media of the surrounding materials. By conducting temperature dependent transmission, photoluminescence, and time resolved photoluminescence measurements, we gain insight into photoluminescence quenching and size-dependent carrier transport through QD ensembles. Turning to commercially relevant cadmium telluride (CdTe), we explore the high concentrations of self-compensating defects (donors and acceptors) in polycrystalline thin films via photoluminescence from recombination at defect sites. Low temperature (25 K) photoluminescence measurements of CdTe reveal numerous radiative transitions due to exciton, trap assisted, and donor-acceptor pair recombination events linked with various defect states. Here we explore the difference between films deposited via close space sublimation (CSS) and radio frequency magnetron sputtering, both as-grown and following a cadmium chloride treatment. The as-grown CSS films exhibited a strong donor-acceptor pair transition associated with deep defect states. Constructing photoluminescence spectra as a function of time from time-resolved photoluminescence data, we report on the temporal evolution of this donor-acceptor transition. Having gained insight into the cadmium telluride film quality from low temperature photoluminescence measurements

  3. Effects of Te inclusions on charge-carrier transport properties in CdZnTe radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yaxu; Rong, Caicai; Xu, Yadong; Shen, Hao; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Ning; Lv, Haoyan; Li, Xinyi; Wei, Dengke; Jie, Wanqi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of tellurium (Te) inclusions on the charge collection efficiency in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detectors has been investigated using ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique. Combining the analysis of infrared transmittance image, most of the low charge collection areas in the IBIC images prove the existence of Te inclusions. To further clarify the role of Te inclusions on charge transport properties, bias dependent local IBIC scan was performed on Te inclusion related regions from 20 V to 500 V. The result shows that charge collection efficiencies in Te inclusion degraded regions experience fast ascent under low biases and slow descent at high applied biases, which deviates from Hecht rule. This behavior is attributed to the competitive influence of two mechanisms under different biases, namely charge carrier trapping due to uniformly distributed point defects and Te inclusion induced transient charge loss. A modified Hecht equation is further proposed to explain the effects of high-density localized defects, say Te inclusions, on the charge collection efficiency.

  4. FOB-SH: Fragment orbital-based surface hopping for charge carrier transport in organic and biological molecules and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, J.; Gajdos, F.; Blumberger, J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a fragment orbital-based fewest switches surface hopping method, FOB-SH, designed to efficiently simulate charge carrier transport in strongly fluctuating condensed phase systems such as organic semiconductors and biomolecules. The charge carrier wavefunction is expanded and the electronic Hamiltonian constructed in a set of singly occupied molecular orbitals of the molecular sites that mediate the charge transfer. Diagonal elements of the electronic Hamiltonian (site energies) are obtained from a force field, whereas the off-diagonal or electronic coupling matrix elements are obtained using our recently developed analytic overlap method. We derive a general expression for the exact forces on the adiabatic ground and excited electronic state surfaces from the nuclear gradients of the charge localized electronic states. Applications to electron hole transfer in a model ethylene dimer and through a chain of ten model ethylenes validate our implementation and demonstrate its computational efficiency. On the larger system, we calculate the qualitative behaviour of charge mobility with change in temperature T for different regimes of the intermolecular electronic coupling. For small couplings, FOB-SH predicts a crossover from a thermally activated regime at low temperatures to a band-like transport regime at higher temperatures. For higher electronic couplings, the thermally activated regime disappears and the mobility decreases according to a power law. This is interpreted by a gradual loss in probability for resonance between the sites as the temperature increases. The polaron hopping model solved for the same system gives a qualitatively different result and underestimates the mobility decay at higher temperatures. Taken together, the FOB-SH methodology introduced here shows promise for a realistic investigation of charge carrier transport in complex organic, aqueous, and biological systems.

  5. Anisotropy, phonon modes, and free charge carrier parameters in monoclinic β -gallium oxide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.; Korlacki, R.; Knight, S.; Hofmann, T.; Schöche, S.; Darakchieva, V.; Janzén, E.; Monemar, B.; Gogova, D.; Thieu, Q.-T.; Togashi, R.; Murakami, H.; Kumagai, Y.; Goto, K.; Kuramata, A.; Yamakoshi, S.; Higashiwaki, M.

    2016-03-01

    We derive a dielectric function tensor model approach to render the optical response of monoclinic and triclinic symmetry materials with multiple uncoupled infrared and far-infrared active modes. We apply our model approach to monoclinic β -Ga2O3 single-crystal samples. Surfaces cut under different angles from a bulk crystal, (010) and (2 ¯01 ), are investigated by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry within infrared and far-infrared spectral regions. We determine the frequency dependence of 4 independent β -Ga2O3 Cartesian dielectric function tensor elements by matching large sets of experimental data using a point-by-point data inversion approach. From matching our monoclinic model to the obtained 4 dielectric function tensor components, we determine all infrared and far-infrared active transverse optic phonon modes with Au and Bu symmetry, and their eigenvectors within the monoclinic lattice. We find excellent agreement between our model results and results of density functional theory calculations. We derive and discuss the frequencies of longitudinal optical phonons in β -Ga2O3 . We derive and report density and anisotropic mobility parameters of the free charge carriers within the tin-doped crystals. We discuss the occurrence of longitudinal phonon plasmon coupled modes in β -Ga2O3 and provide their frequencies and eigenvectors. We also discuss and present monoclinic dielectric constants for static electric fields and frequencies above the reststrahlen range, and we provide a generalization of the Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation for monoclinic lattices with infrared and far-infrared active modes. We find that the generalized Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation is fulfilled excellently for β -Ga2O3 .

  6. Mechanistic insights into the photoinduced charge carrier dynamics of BiOBr/CdS nanosheet heterojunctions for photovoltaic application.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huimin; Zhang, Beibei; He, Weiwei; Xiang, Yong; Zheng, Zhi

    2017-03-02

    The rational design of high performance hetero-structure photovoltaic devices requires a full understanding of the photoinduced charge transfer mechanism and kinetics at the interface of heterojunctions. In this paper, we intelligently fabricated p-BiOBr/n-CdS heterojunctions with perfect nanosheet arrays by using a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction and chemical bath deposition methods at low temperature. A BiOBr/CdS heterojunction based solar cell has been fabricated which exhibited enhanced photovoltaic responses. Assisted by the surface photovoltage (SPV), transient photovoltage (TPV) and Kelvin probe technique, the photoinduced charge transfer dynamics on the BiOBr nanosheet and p-BiOBr/n-CdS interface were systematically investigated. It was found that the BiOBr/CdS nanosheet array heterojunctions were more efficient in facilitating charge carrier separation than both bare BiOBr and CdS films. The mechanism underlying the photoinduced charge carrier transfer behaviour was unravelled by allying the energy band of BiOBr/CdS p-n junctions from both the interfacial electric field and surface electric field. In addition, the CdS loading thickness in the p-BiOBr/n-CdS heterojunction and the incident wavelength affected greatly the transfer behavior of photoinduced charges, which was of great value for design of photovoltaic devices.

  7. Influence of the Si/SiO2 interface on the charge carrier density of Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Senz, S.; Gösele, U.

    2007-02-01

    The electrical properties of Si nanowires covered by a SiO2 shell are influenced by the properties of the Si/SiO2 interface. This interface can be characterized by the fixed oxide charge density Qf and the interface trap level density Dit. We derive expressions for the effective charge carrier density in silicon nanowires as a function of Qf, Dit, the nanowire radius, and the dopant density. It is found that a nanowire is fully depleted when its radius is smaller than a critical radius acrit. An analytic expression for acrit is derived.

  8. Effect of temperature and rare-earth doping on charge-carrier mobility in indium-monoselenide crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Abdinov, A. Sh.; Babayeva, R. F.; Amirova, S. I.; Rzayev, R. M.

    2013-08-15

    In the temperature range T = 77-600 K, the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility ({mu}) on the initial dark resistivity is experimentally investigated at 77 K ({rho}d{sub 0}), as well as on the temperature and the level (N) of rare-earth doping with such elements as gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), and dysprosium (Dy) in n-type indium-monoselenide (InSe) crystals. It is established that the anomalous behavior of the dependences {mu}(T), {mu}({rho}d{sub 0}), and {mu}(N) found from the viewpoint of the theory of charge-carrier mobility in crystalline semiconductors is related, first of all, to partial disorder in indium-monoselenide crystals and can be attributed to the presence of random drift barriers in the free energy bands.

  9. Determination of the charge carrier compensation mechanism in Te-doped GaAs by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, J.; Weber, E. R.; Jäger, N. D.; Urban, K.; Ebert, Ph.

    2003-03-01

    We identified the charge carrier compensation mechanism in Te-doped GaAs with atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy. Three types of defects were found: tellurium donors (TeAs), Ga vacancies (VGa), and Ga vacancy-donor complexes (VGa-TeAs). We show quantitatively that the compensation in Te-doped bulk GaAs is exclusively caused by vacancy-donor complexes in contrast to Si-doped GaAs. This is explained with the Fermi-level effect as the universal mechanism leading to Ga vacancy formation in n-doped GaAs, and a Coulomb interaction leading to the formation of the complexes. The quantification of the carrier compensation yields a -3e charge state of VGa in bulk GaAs.

  10. Numerical Analysis on Non-Equilibrium Mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation Wave Using Multiply-Charged Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki

    2006-05-01

    Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), one type of Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP), is considered as the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for laser absorption. In this study, I have numerically simulated the 1-D LSD waves propagating through a helium gas, in which Multiply-charged ionization model is considered for describing an accurate ionization process.

  11. Numerical Analysis on Non-Equilibrium Mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation Wave Using Multiply-Charged Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki

    2006-05-02

    Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), one type of Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP), is considered as the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for laser absorption. In this study, I have numerically simulated the 1-D LSD waves propagating through a helium gas, in which Multiply-charged ionization model is considered for describing an accurate ionization process.

  12. Charge carrier transport and collection enhancement of copper indium diselenide photoactive nanoparticle-ink by laser crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, Qiong; Cheng, Gary J.; Zhang, Martin Y.; Wang, Yuefeng; Das, Suprem R.; Bhat, Venkataprasad S.; Huang, Fuqiang

    2014-09-15

    There has been increasing needs for cost-effective and high performance thin film deposition techniques for photovoltaics. Among all deposition techniques, roll-to-roll printing of nanomaterials has been a promising method. However, the printed thin film contains many internal imperfections, which reduce the charge-collection performance. Here, direct pulse laser crystallization (DPLC) of photoactive nanoparticles-inks is studied to meet this challenge. In this study, copper indium selenite (CIS) nanoparticle-inks is applied as an example. Enhanced crystallinity, densified structure in the thin film is resulted after DLPC under optimal conditions. It is found that the decreased film internal imperfections after DPLC results in reducing scattering and multi-trapping effects. Both of them contribute to better charge-collection performance of CIS absorber material by increasing extended state mobility and carrier lifetime, when carrier transport and kinetics are coupled. Charge carrier transport was characterized after DPLC, showing mobility increased by 2 orders of magnitude. Photocurrent under AM1.5 illumination was measured and shown 10 times enhancement of integrated power density after DPLC, which may lead to higher efficiency in photo-electric energy conversion.

  13. Thickness-Dependent Charge Carrier Dynamics in CdSe/ZnSe/CdS Core/Barrier/Shell Nanoheterostructures.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sushma; Chowdhury, Apurba; Sapra, Sameer

    2016-03-03

    We report the synthesis of CdSe/ZnSe/CdS heterostructures composed of type I and type II band alignments, where ZnSe acts as a barrier for charge carriers between the CdSe core and the CdS shell as well as being an active component of the type I (CdSe/ZnSe) and type II (ZnSe/CdS) structure simultaneously. We investigated the effect of the thickness of the barrier and the shell on the charge carrier dynamics by using UV/Vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The experimental data are supported by simple theoretical calculations based on effective mass approximation (EMA). PL results indicate the emission from both type I and type II structures. Time-resolved fluorescence studies show that the lifetime of the core emission decreases with increasing barrier width, owing to a greater confinement of the exciton to the core, whereas it increases with shell width because of the tunneling of charge carriers, primarily electrons, delaying the recombination of the exciton. The lifetime of the shell emission decreases with shell width as well as barrier width and height, with a larger effect being observed for the barrier width and negligible for the associated changes in the barrier height. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Universal experimental test for the role of free charge carriers in the thermal Casimir effect within a micrometer separation range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimonte, G.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a universal experiment to measure the differential Casimir force between a Au-coated sphere and two halves of a structured plate covered with a P-doped Si overlayer. The concentration of free charge carriers in the overlayer is chosen slightly below the critical one, for which the phase transition from dielectric to metal occurs. One half of the structured plate is insulating, while the second half is made of gold. For the former we consider two structures, one consisting of bulk high-resistivity Si and the other of a layer of SiO 2 followed by bulk high-resistivity Si. The differential Casimir force is computed within the Lifshitz theory using four approaches that have been proposed in the literature to account for the role of free charge carriers in metallic and dielectric materials interacting with quantum fluctuations. According to these approaches, Au at low frequencies is described by either the Drude or the plasma model, whereas the free charge carriers in dielectric materials at room temperature are either taken into account or disregarded. It is shown that the values of differential Casimir forces, computed in the micrometer separation range using these four approaches, are widely distinct from each other and can be easily discriminated experimentally. It is shown that for all approaches the thermal component of the differential Casimir force is sufficiently large for direct observation. The possible errors and uncertainties in the proposed experiment are estimated and its importance for the theory of quantum fluctuations is discussed.

  15. Impedance spectroscopy of organic hetero-layer OLEDs as a probe for charge carrier injection and device degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowy, Stefan; Ren, Wei; Wagner, Julia; Weber, Josef A.; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) is a powerful method for characterizing the electrical properties of materials and their interfaces. In this study we use IS to investigate the charge carrier injection properties of different anodes and anode treatments in bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). These are ITO-based (indium tin oxide) hetero-layer devices with TPD (N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4-diamine) as hole transporting layer (HTL) and Alq3 (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum) as emission and electron transporting layer (EML and ETL, respectively). A detailed analysis of the capacitance as function of frequency and DC bias yields information about trapped and interfacial charges as well as the dynamics of injected charges. Furthermore, we use IS to study degradation processes in OLEDs.

  16. Oxygen vacancies promoted interfacial charge carrier transfer of CdS/ZnO heterostructure for photocatalytic hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying Peng; Yang, Yongqiang; Wang, Guosheng; Liu, Gang

    2017-10-01

    The solid-state Z-scheme trinary/binary heterostructures show the advantage of utilizing the high-energy photogenerated charge carriers in photocatalysis. However, the key factors controlling such Z-scheme in the binary heterostructures are still unclear. In this paper, we showed that oxygen vacancies could act as an interface electron transfer mediator to promote the direct Z-scheme charge transfer process in binary semiconductor heterostructures of CdS/ZnS. Increasing the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies of ZnO crystal can greatly enhance photocatalytic hydrogen generation of CdS/ZnO heterostructure. This was attributed to the strengthened direct Z-scheme charge transfer process in CdS/ZnO, as evidenced by steady-state/time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and selective photodeposition of metal particles on the heterostructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of charge and molecular weight on the functionality of gelatin carriers for corneal endothelial cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Lu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Ko-Hua; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2006-06-01

    Cell transplantation strategies usually involve the use of supporting carrier materials because of the soft and fragile nature of these grafts. In this work, a cell-adhesive gelatin hydrogel carrier was fabricated to deliver cultivated human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) sheets, which were harvested from thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-grafted culture surfaces. The carrier disks, consisting of gelatins with a different isoelectric point (IEP = 5.0 and 9.0) and a molecular weight (MW) ranging from 3 to 100 kDa, were subjected to 16.6 kGy gamma irradiation for sterilization. The effect of IEP and MW of the raw gelatins (i.e., before irradiation) on the functionality of sterilized disks was studied by determinations of mechanical property, water content, dissolution degree, and cytocompatibility. Irrespective of the IEP of raw gelatin, hydrogel disks prepared with high MW (100 kDa) exhibited a greater tensile strength, lower water content, and slower dissolution rate than those made of low MW gelatin (8 and 3 kDa). From the investigation of cellular responses to the disks, the negatively charged gelatin (IEP = 5.0) groups were more cytocompatible when compared with their positively charged counterparts (IEP = 9.0) at the same MW (100 kDa). Additionally, in the negatively charged gelatin groups, only a slight increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was observed with increasing MW of gelatin from 3 to 100 kDa. It is concluded that the gamma-sterilized hydrogel disks made from raw gelatins (IEP = 5.0, MW = 100 kDa) with appropriate dissolution degree and acceptable cytocompatibility are capable of providing stable mechanical support, making these carriers promising candidates for intraocular delivery of cultivated HCEC sheets.

  18. Dissociation of Charge Transfer States and Carrier Separation in Bilayer Organic Solar Cells: A Time-Resolved Electroabsorption Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Devižis, Andrius; De Jonghe-Risse, Jelissa; Hany, Roland; Nüesch, Frank; Jenatsch, Sandra; Gulbinas, Vidmantas; Moser, Jacques-E

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast optical probing of the electric field by means of Stark effect in planar heterojunction cyanine dye/fullerene organic solar cells enables one to directly monitor the dynamics of free electron formation during the dissociation of interfacial charge transfer (CT) states. Motions of electrons and holes is scrutinized separately by selectively probing the Stark shift dynamics at selected wavelengths. It is shown that only charge pairs with an effective electron-hole separation distance of less than 4 nm are created during the dissociation of Frenkel excitons. Dissociation of the coulombically bound charge pairs is identified as the major rate-limiting step for charge carriers' generation. Interfacial CT states split into free charges on the time-scale of tens to hundreds of picoseconds, mainly by electron escape from the Coulomb potential over a barrier that is lowered by the electric field. The motion of holes in the small molecule donor material during the charge separation time is found to be insignificant.

  19. Nonequilibrium processes.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, J C

    1971-08-01

    Nonequilibrium phenomena have been studied for over half a century, particularly as a means to understanding the mechanism of energy transfer. Application of the insights and techniques of molecular physics to chemistry has resulted in a view of chemistry as constituting an aspect of the study of strong collisions, and chemical reaction as a special type of energy transfer. Increasing use has been made in experimental work of nonequilibrium environments for the study of chemical processes. The nature and purpose of such experiments are reviewed here, very briefly, and an attempt is made to point to areas that appear ripe for development over the coming decade.

  20. Demonstration of the Difference in the Casimir Force for Samples with Different Charge-Carrier Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.; Mohideen, U.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2006-10-27

    A measurement of the Casimir force between a gold coated sphere and two Si plates of different carrier densities is performed using a high vacuum based atomic force microscope. The results are compared with the Lifshitz theory and good agreement is found. Our experiment demonstrates that by changing the carrier density of the semiconductor plate by several orders of magnitude it is possible to modify the Casimir interaction. This result may find applications in nanotechnology.

  1. Point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy of doped manganites: Charge carrier spin-polarization and proximity effects (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoruchko, V. N.; D'yachenko, A. I.; Tarenkov, V. Yu.

    2013-03-01

    Materials with spin-polarized charge carriers are the most demanded in the spin-electronics. Particularly requested are the so-called half-metals which have the maximum attainable value of carrier spin polarization. Doped manganites are in the list of compounds with, potentially, half-metallic properties. The point-contact (PC) Andreev-reflection (AR) spectroscopy is a robust and direct method to measure the degree of current spin polarization. In this report, advances in PCAR spectroscopy of ferromagnetic manganites are reviewed. The experimental results obtained on "classic" s-wave superconductor—ferromagnetic manganites PCs, as well as related theoretical models applied to deduce the actual value of charge carrier spin-polarization, are discussed. Data obtained on "proximity affected" contacts is also outlined. Systematic and repeatable nature of a number of principal experimental facts detected in the AR spectrum of proximity affected contacts suggests that some new physical phenomena have been documented here. Different models of current flow through a superconductor-half-metal ferromagnet interface, as well as possibility of unconventional superconducting proximity effect, have been discussed.

  2. Interference of spin-, charge- and orbital degrees of freedom in low-carrier rare earth compounds, investigated by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.

    2006-05-01

    In rare earth compounds, the concentration of charge carriers is known to strongly influence the nature, and the charge carriers caused by valence fluctuations result in a complete suppression of the magnetic state, as typically observed for YbInCu4. The notable exception has been reported for the cubic (NaCl structure) TmX and YbX families with low carrier, that exhibits antiferro-magnetic (AFM) order at low temperatures. Among these families, TmTe and YbSb with degenerate low-lying multiplets have an additional transition of antiferro-quadrupolar (AFQ) orderings. To elucidate the interplay between the electronic transport and magnetic and/or orbital phenomena close to a semiconductor-to-metal transition, we have carried NMR measurements of 63Cu in YbInCu4, 125Te in TmTe, and 121Sb in YbSb down to 1.2 K and the implication of NMR findings is discussed in terms of the CEF splitting.

  3. Change in carrier type in high-k gate carbon nanotube field-effect transistors by interface fixed charges.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, N; Ohno, Y; Kitamura, T; Kishimoto, S; Mizutani, T

    2010-04-23

    We study the phenomenon of change in carrier type in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) caused by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a HfO(2) gate insulator. When a HfO(2) layer is deposited on a CNFET, the type of carrier changes from p-type to n-type. The so-obtained n-type device has good performance and stability in air. The conductivity of such a device with a channel length of 0.7 microm is 11% of the quantum conductance 4e(2)/h. The contact resistance for electron current is estimated to be 14 kOmega. The n-type conduction of this CNFET is maintained for more than 100 days. The change in carrier type is attributed to positive fixed charges introduced at the interface between the HfO(2) and SiO(2) layers. We also propose a novel technique to control the type of conduction by utilizing interface fixed charges; this technique is compatible with Si CMOS process technology.

  4. Investigation of free charge carrier dynamics in single-crystalline CVD diamond by two-photon absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Ivakin, E V; Kisialiou, I G; Ralchenko, V G; Bolshakov, A P; Ashkinazi, E E; Sharonov, G V

    2014-11-30

    By using the methods of transient gratings (TGs) and induced absorption, we have studied the kinetics of plasma of free charge carriers (FCCs) created by the action of a picosecond laser pulse in two high-purity diamond single crystals synthesised from the gas phase. The gratings with different spatial periods have been excited at the wavelengths of 266 or 213 nm (above and below the fundamental absorption edge in diamond) and probed with continuous-wave radiation in the visible region. At the moderate FCC concentrations (∼7 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}), the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion and the carrier recombination time of two crystals are 20.3 and 18.9 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and 30 and 190 ns, respectively. The increase in the carrier concentration up to 5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} reduces the TG lifetime. We have determined the conditions under which the relaxation of the grating of carriers leads to the formation of a thermal grating, with the amplitude sufficient for its experimental observation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Elmasry, F.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2014-05-21

    Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7 K < T < 18 K). Observed A, B, and C types of ESR signals were identical to those observed previously in GaAs:Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7 K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

  6. Modeling charge collection efficiency degradation in partially depleted GaAs photodiodes using the 1- and 2-carrier Hecht equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auden, E. C.; Vizkelethy, G.; Serkland, D. K.; Bossert, D. J.; Doyle, B. L.

    2017-05-01

    The Hecht equation can be used to model the nonlinear degradation of charge collection efficiency (CCE) in response to radiation-induced displacement damage in both fully and partially depleted GaAs photodiodes. CCE degradation is measured for laser-generated photocurrent as a function of fluence and bias in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As p-i-n photodiodes which have been irradiated with 12 MeV C and 7.5 MeV Si ions. CCE is observed to degrade more rapidly with fluence in partially depleted photodiodes than in fully depleted photodiodes. When the intrinsic GaAs layer is fully depleted, the 2-carrier Hecht equation describes CCE degradation as photogenerated electrons and holes recombine at defect sites created by radiation damage in the depletion region. If the GaAs layer is partially depleted, CCE degradation is more appropriately modeled as the sum of the 2-carrier Hecht equation applied to electrons and holes generated within the depletion region and the 1-carrier Hecht equation applied to minority carriers that diffuse from the field-free (non-depleted) region into the depletion region. Enhanced CCE degradation is attributed to holes that recombine within the field-free region of the partially depleted intrinsic GaAs layer before they can diffuse into the depletion region.

  7. Modeling charge collection efficiency degradation in partially depleted GaAs photodiodes using the 1- and 2-carrier Hecht equations

    DOE PAGES

    Auden, E. C.; Vizkelethy, G.; Serkland, D. K.; ...

    2017-03-24

    Here, the Hecht equation can be used to model the nonlinear degradation of charge collection efficiency (CCE) in response to radiation-induced displacement damage in both fully and partially depleted GaAs photodiodes. CCE degradation is measured for laser-generated photocurrent as a function of fluence and bias in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As p-i-n photodiodes which have been irradiated with 12 MeV C and 7.5 MeV Si ions. CCE is observed to degrade more rapidly with fluence in partially depleted photodiodes than in fully depleted photodiodes. When the intrinsic GaAs layer is fully depleted, the 2-carrier Hecht equation describes CCE degradation as photogenerated electrons and holesmore » recombine at defect sites created by radiation damage in the depletion region. If the GaAs layer is partially depleted, CCE degradation is more appropriately modeled as the sum of the 2-carrier Hecht equation applied to electrons and holes generated within the depletion region and the 1-carrier Hecht equation applied to minority carriers that diffuse from the field-free (non-depleted) region into the depletion region. Enhanced CCE degradation is attributed to holes that recombine within the field-free region of the partially depleted intrinsic GaAs layer before they can diffuse into the depletion region.« less

  8. Electrically induced phase transition in α -(BEDT-TTF)2I3 : Indications for Dirac-like hot charge carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, T.; Ivek, T.; Schweitzer, D.; Dressel, M.

    2016-06-01

    The two-dimensional organic conductor α -(BEDT-TTF)2I3 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at TCO=135 K due to electronic charge ordering. We have conducted time-resolved investigations of its electronic properties in order to explore the field- and temperature-dependent dynamics. At a certain threshold field, the system switches from a low-conducting to a high-conducting state, accompanied by a negative differential resistance. Our time-dependent infrared investigations indicate that close to TCO, the strong electric field pushes the crystal into a metallic state with optical properties similar to the one for T >TCO . Well into the insulating state, however, at T =80 K , the spectral response evidences a completely different electronically induced high-conducting state. Applying a two-state model of hot electrons explains the observations by excitation of charge carriers with a high mobility. They resemble the Dirac-like charge carriers with a linear dispersion of the electronic bands found in α -(BEDT-TTF)2I3 at high pressure. Extensive numerical simulations quantitatively reproduce our experimental findings in all details.

  9. Dependence of the carrier mobility and trapped charge limited conduction on silver nanoparticles embedment in doped polypyrrole nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2013-10-01

    The present article demonstrates an intensive study upon the temperature dependent current density (J)-voltage (V) characteristics of moderately doped polypyrrole nanostructure and its silver nanoparticles incorporated nanocomposites. Analysis of the measured J-V characteristics of different synthesized nano-structured samples within a wide temperature range revealed that the electrical conduction behavior followed a trapped charge-limited conduction and a transition of charge transport mechanism from deep exponential trap limited conduction to shallow traps limited conduction had been occurred due to the incorporation of silver nanoparticles within the polypyrrole matrix. A direct evaluation of carrier mobility as a function of electric field and temperature from the measured J-V characteristics illustrates that the incorporation of silver nanoparticles within the polypyrrole matrix enhances the carrier mobility at a large extent by reducing the concentration of traps within the polypyrrole matrix. The calculated mobility is consistent with the Poole-Frenkel form for the electrical field up to a certain temperature range. The nonlinear low temperature dependency of mobility of all the nanostructured samples was explained by Mott variable range hopping conduction mechanisms. Quantitative information regarding the charge transport parameters obtained from the above study would help to extend optimization strategies for the fabrication of new organic semiconducting nano-structured devices.

  10. Time-resolved microwave technique for ultrafast charge-carrier recombination time measurements in diamonds and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnov, S. V.; Ritus, A. I.; Klimentov, S. M.; Pimenov, S. M.; Konov, V. I.; Gloor, S.; Lüthy, W.; Weber, H. P.

    1999-03-01

    Recombination times of laser-excited charge carriers in natural diamond crystals, polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films, and GaAs wafers were measured with 1 ns time resolution by a microwave-radiation technique. A waveguide scheme was applied to record time-dependent reflection and transmission of 140 GHz cw radiation. The measured recombination carrier lifetimes in the bulk of natural and CVD diamond samples were found to be of 1-3 ns. In GaAs, a distinguishing difference between the bulk (15 ns) and surface (3.5 ns) recombination times was observed. To validate the applicability of the developed technique, a computer simulation of the microwave-radiation interaction with excited plane-parallel specimens has been performed applying the Fabry-Perot resonator theory and the classical Drude model.

  11. Amplitude-phase coupling and chirp in quantum-dot lasers: influence of charge carrier scattering dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lingnau, Benjamin; Chow, Weng W; Lüdge, Kathy

    2014-03-10

    We investigate the dependence of the amplitude-phase coupling in quantum-dot (QD) lasers on the charge-carrier scattering timescales. The carrier scattering processes influence the relaxation oscillation parameters, as well as the frequency chirp, which are both important parameters when determining the modulation performance of the laser device and its reaction to optical perturbations. We find that the FM/AM response exhibits a strong dependence on the modulation frequency, which leads to a modified optical response of QD lasers when compared to conventional laser devices. Furthermore, the frequency response curve changes with the scattering time scales, which can allow for an optimization of the laser stability towards optical perturbations.

  12. Solution of a generalized Boltzmann's equation for nonequilibrium charged-particle transport via localized and delocalized states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Peter W.; Philippa, Bronson; Cocks, Daniel; White, Ronald D.

    2016-03-01

    We present a general phase-space kinetic model for charged-particle transport through combined localized and delocalized states, capable of describing scattering collisions, trapping, detrapping, and losses. The model is described by a generalized Boltzmann equation, for which an analytical solution is found in Fourier-Laplace space. The velocity of the center of mass and the diffusivity about it are determined analytically, together with the flux transport coefficients. Transient negative values of the free particle center-of-mass transport coefficients can be observed due to the trapping to, and detrapping from, localized states. A Chapman-Enskog-type perturbative solution technique is applied, confirming the analytical results and highlighting the emergence of a density gradient representation in the weak-gradient hydrodynamic regime. A generalized diffusion equation with a unique global time operator is shown to arise, reducing to the standard diffusion equation and a Caputo fractional diffusion equation in the normal and dispersive limits. A subordination transformation is used to solve the generalized diffusion equation by mapping from the solution of a corresponding standard diffusion equation.

  13. Engineering Thin Films of a Tetrabenzoporphyrin toward Efficient Charge-Carrier Transport: Selective Formation of a Brickwork Motif.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohtaro; Shan, Bowen; Xu, Xiaomin; Yang, Shuaijun; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Kuzuhara, Daiki; Aratani, Naoki; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Miao, Qian; Yamada, Hiroko

    2017-03-08

    Tetrabenzoporphyrin (BP) is a p-type organic semiconductor characterized by the large, rigid π-framework, excellent stability, and good photoabsorption capability. These characteristics make BP and its derivatives prominent active-layer components in organic electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the control of the solid-state arrangement of BP frameworks, especially in solution-processed thin films, has not been intensively explored, and charge-carrier mobilities observed in BP-based materials have stayed relatively low as compared to those in the best organic molecular semiconductors. This work concentrates on engineering the solid-state packing of a BP derivative, 5,15-bis(triisopropylsilyl)ethynyltetrabenzoporphyrin (TIPS-BP), toward achieving efficient charge-carrier transport in its solution-processed thin films. The effort leads to the selective formation of a brickwork packing that has two dimensionally extended π-staking. The maximum field-effect hole mobility in the resulting films reaches 1.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is approximately 14 times higher than the record value for pristine free-base BP (0.070 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). This achievement is enabled mainly through the optimization of three factors; namely, deposition process, cast solvent, and self-assembled monolayer that constitutes the dielectric surface. On the other hand, polarized-light microscopy and grazing-incident wide-angle X-ray diffraction analyses show that there remains some room for improvement in the in-plane homogeneity of molecular alignment, suggesting even higher charge-carrier mobilities can be obtained upon further optimization. These results will provide a useful basis for the polymorph engineering and morphology optimization in solution-processed organic molecular semiconductors.

  14. Non-equilibrium of charged particles in swarms and plasmas—from binary collisions to plasma effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Simonović, I.; Marjanović, S.; Bošnjaković, D.; Marić, D.; Malović, G.; Dujko, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we show three quite different examples of low-temperature plasmas, where one can follow the connection of the elementary binary processes (occurring at the nanoscopic scale) to the macroscopic discharge behavior and to its application. The first example is on the nature of the higher-order transport coefficient (second-order diffusion or skewness); how it may be used to improve the modelling of plasmas and also on how it may be used to discern details of the relevant cross sections. A prerequisite for such modeling and use of transport data is that the hydrodynamic approximation is applicable. In the second example, we show the actual development of avalanches in a resistive plate chamber particle detector by conducting kinetic modelling (although it may also be achieved by using swarm data). The current and deposited charge waveforms may be predicted accurately showing temporal resolution, which allows us to optimize detectors by adjusting the gas mixture composition and external fields. Here kinetic modeling is necessary to establish high accuracy and the details of the physics that supports fluid models that allows us to follow the transition to streamers. Finally, we show an example of positron traps filled with gas that, for all practical purposes, are a weakly ionized gas akin to swarms, and may be modelled in that fashion. However, low pressures dictate the need to apply full kinetic modelling and use the energy distribution function to explain the kinetics of the system. In this way, it is possible to confirm a well established phenomenology, but in a manner that allows precise quantitative comparisons and description, and thus open doors to a possible optimization.

  15. Recombination dynamics of optically excited charge carriers in bulk MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völzer, Tim; Lütgens, Matthias; Fennel, Franziska; Lochbrunner, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS2, are promising candidates for optoelectronic or catalytic applications. On that account, a detailed characterization of the electronic dynamics in these materials is of pivotal importance. Here, we investigate the temporal evolution of an excited carrier population by all-optical pump-probe spectroscopy. On the sub-picosecond time scale we observe thermal relaxation of the excited carriers by electron–phonon coupling. The dynamics on the nanosecond time scale can be understood in terms of defect-assisted Auger recombination over a broad carrier density regime spanning more than one order of magnitude. Hence, our results emphasize the importance of defect states for electronic processes in TMDCs at room temperature.

  16. Combined impact of entropy and carrier delocalization on charge transfer exciton dissociation at the donor-acceptor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Several models of the charge transfer exciton (CTE) have been proposed to explain its dissociation at the donor-acceptor (DA) interface. However, the underlying physics is still under debate. Here, we derive a temperature (T ) dependent tight-binding model for an electron-hole pair at the DA interface. The main finding is the existence of the localization-delocalization transition at a critical T , which can explain the CTE dissociation. The present study highlights the combined effect of entropy (finite T ) and carrier delocalization in the CTE dissociation.

  17. Electronic properties of meso-superstructured and planar organometal halide perovskite films: charge trapping, photodoping, and carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    Leijtens, Tomas; Stranks, Samuel D; Eperon, Giles E; Lindblad, Rebecka; Johansson, Erik M J; McPherson, Ian J; Rensmo, Håkan; Ball, James M; Lee, Michael M; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-07-22

    Solution-processed organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells are attracting increasing interest, leading to high performances over 15% in thin film architectures. Here, we probe the presence of sub gap states in both solid and mesosuperstructured perovskite films and determine that they strongly influence the photoconductivity response and splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels in films and solar cells. We find that while the planar perovskite films are superior to the mesosuperstructured films in terms of charge carrier mobility (in excess of 20 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and emissivity, the planar heterojunction solar cells are limited in photovoltage by the presence of sub gap states and low intrinsic doping densities.

  18. Analysis of carrier transport and carrier trapping in organic diodes with polyimide-6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene double-layer by charge modulation spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Eunju E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp; Taguchi, Dai E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp Iwamoto, Mitsumasa E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp

    2014-08-18

    We studied the carrier transport and carrier trapping in indium tin oxide/polyimide (PI)/6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene)/Au diodes by using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and time-resolved electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurements. TR-EFISHG directly probes the spatial carrier behaviors in the diodes, and CMS is useful in explaining the carrier motion with respect to energy. The results clearly indicate that the injected carriers move across TIPS-pentacene thorough the molecular energy states of TIPS-pentacene and accumulate at the PI/TIPS-pentacene interface. However, some carriers are trapped in the PI layers. These findings take into account the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the diodes.

  19. Homoleptic copper(I) arylthiolates as a new class of p-type charge carriers: structures and charge mobility studies.

    PubMed

    Che, Chi-Ming; Li, Cheng-Hui; Chui, Stephen Sin-Yin; Roy, V A L; Low, Kam-Hung

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric homoleptic copper(I) arylthiolates [Cu(p-SC(6)H(4)-X)](infinity) (X=CH(3) (1), H (2), CH(3)O (3), tBu (4), CF(3) (5), NO(2) (6), and COOH (7)) have been prepared as insoluble crystalline solids in good yields (75-95 %). Structure determinations by powder X-ray diffraction analysis have revealed that 1-3 and 6 form polymers of infinite chain length, with the copper atoms bridged by arylthiolate ligands. Weak intra-chain pi***pi stacking interactions are present in 1-3, as evidenced by the distances (3.210 A in 1, 3.016 A in 2, 3.401 A in 3) between the mean planes of neighboring phenyl rings. In the structure of 6, the intra-chain pi***pi interactions (d=3.711 A) are insignificant and the chain polymers are associated through weak, non-covalent C-H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions (d=2.586 A). Samples of 1-7 in their polycrystalline forms proved to be thermally stable at 200-300 degrees C; their respective decomposition temperatures are around 100 degrees C higher than that of the aliphatic analogue [Cu(SCH(3))](infinity). Data from in situ variable-temperature X-ray diffractometry measurements indicated that the structures of both 1 and 7 are thermally more robust than that of [Cu(SCH(3))](infinity). TEM analysis revealed that the solid samples of 1-5 and [Cu(SCH(3))](infinity) contained homogeneously dispersed crystalline nanorods with widths of 20-250 nm, whereas smaller plate-like nanocrystals were found for 6 and 7. SAED data showed that the chain polymers of 1-3 and [Cu(SCH(3))](infinity) similarly extend along the long axes of their nanorods. The nanorods of 1-5 and [Cu(SCH(3))](infinity) have been found to exhibit p-type field-effect transistor behavior, with charge mobility (micro) values of 10(-2)-10(-5) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Polycrystalline solid samples of 6 and 7 each showed a low charge mobility (<10(-6) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). The charge mobility values of field-effect transistors made from crystalline nanorods of 1-3 and [Cu(SCH(3))](infinity

  20. 47 CFR 51.907 - Transition of price cap carrier access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section in the calculation of its eligible recovery for 2012. (c) Step 2... and rate structure modifications. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, nothing in... to determine composite intrastate End Office Access Service rates, the carrier shall establish...

  1. 47 CFR 51.909 - Transition of rate-of-return carrier access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall calculate the difference between each exiting Rate-of-Return Carrier's 2011-2012 tariff year... treated as a negative amount. The Association shall divide the calculated difference by the Rate-of-Return... Association shall proportionately adjust its June 30 switched access rate caps by the percentage...

  2. Localized Excited Charge Carriers Generate Ultrafast Inhomogeneous Strain in the Multiferroic BiFeO3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-03

    4Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 5Department of... Material Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA 6Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford...ferroelectric [10] or magnetic materials [11]. The photo- voltaic effect in this complex material and the underlying ultrafast carrier dynamics after

  3. 47 CFR 51.909 - Transition of rate-of-return carrier access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Beginning July 1, 2017, notwithstanding any other provision of the Commission's rules: (1) Each Rate-of... methodology: (i) Each Rate-of-Return Carrier shall calculate its 2017 interstate Target Composite Terminating End Office Access Rate. The 2017 interstate Target Composite Terminating End Office Access Rate...

  4. Manipulating charge density waves in 1 T -TaS2 by charge-carrier doping: A first-principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, D. F.; Xiao, R. C.; Lu, W. J.; Lv, H. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2016-09-01

    The transition-metal dichalcogenide 1 T -TaS2 exhibits a rich set of charge-density-wave (CDW) orders. Recent investigations suggested that using light or an electric field can manipulate the commensurate CDW (CCDW) ground state. Such manipulations are considered to be determined by charge-carrier doping. Here we use first-principles calculations to simulate the carrier-doping effect on the CCDW in 1 T -TaS2 . We investigate the charge-doping effects on the electronic structures and phonon instabilities of the 1 T structure, and we analyze the doping-induced energy and distortion ratio variations in the CCDW structure. We found that both in bulk and monolayer 1 T -TaS2 , the CCDW is stable upon electron doping, while hole doping can significantly suppress the CCDW, implying different mechanisms of such reported manipulations. Light or positive perpendicular electric-field-induced hole doping increases the energy of the CCDW, so that the system transforms to a nearly commensurate CDW or a similar metastable state. On the other hand, even though the CCDW distortion is more stable upon in-plane electric-field-induced electron injection, some accompanied effects can drive the system to cross over the energy barrier from the CCDW to a nearly commensurate CDW or a similar metastable state. We also estimate that hole doping can introduce potential superconductivity with a Tc of 6-7 K. Controllable switching of different states such as a CCDW/Mott insulating state, a metallic state, and even a superconducting state can be realized in 1 T -TaS2 . As a result, this material may have very promising applications in future electronic devices.

  5. Charge carrier dynamics of methylammonium lead iodide: from PbI₂-rich to low-dimensional broadly emitting perovskites.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johannes R; Flender, Oliver; Scholz, Mirko; Oum, Kawon; Lenzer, Thomas

    2016-04-28

    We provide an investigation of the charge carrier dynamics of the (MAI)(x)(PbI2)(1-x) system in the range x = 0.32-0.90 following the recently published "pseudobinary phase-composition processing diagram" of Song et al. (Chem. Mater., 2015, 27, 4612). The dynamics were studied using ultrafast pump-supercontinuum probe spectroscopy over the pump fluence range 2-50 μJ cm(-2), allowing for a wide variation of the initial carrier density. At high MAI excess (x = 0.90), low-dimensional perovskites (LDPs) are formed, and their luminescence spectra are significantly blue-shifted by ca. 50 nm and broadened compared to the 3D perovskite. The shift is due to quantum confinement effects, and the inhomogeneous broadening arises from different low-dimensional structures (predominantly 2D, but presumably also 1D and 0D). Accurate transient carrier temperatures are extracted from the transient absorption spectra. The regimes of carrier-carrier, carrier-optical phonon and acoustic phonon scattering are clearly distinguished. Perovskites with mole fractions x ≤ 0.71 exhibit extremely fast carrier cooling (ca. 300 fs) at low fluence of 2 μJ cm(-2), however cooling slows down significantly at high fluence of 50 μJ cm(-2) due to the "hot phonon effect" (ca. 2.8 ps). A kinetic analysis of the electron-hole recombination dynamics provides second-order recombination rate constants k2 which decrease from 5.3 to 1.5 × 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1) in the range x = 0.32-0.71. In contrast, recombination in the LDPs (x = 0.90) is more than one order of magnitude faster, 6.4 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1), which is related to the confined perovskite structure. Recombination in these LDPs should be however still slow enough for their potential application as efficient broadband emitters or solar light-harvesting materials.

  6. Impact of charge carrier injection on single-chain photophysics of conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Felix J.; Vogelsang, Jan Lupton, John M.

    2016-06-27

    Charges in conjugated polymer materials have a strong impact on the photophysics and their interaction with the primary excited state species has to be taken into account in understanding device properties. Here, we employ single-molecule spectroscopy to unravel the influence of charges on several photoluminescence (PL) observables. The charges are injected either stochastically by a photochemical process or deterministically in a hole-injection sandwich device configuration. We find that upon charge injection, besides a blue-shift of the PL emission and a shortening of the PL lifetime due to quenching and blocking of the lowest-energy chromophores, the non-classical photon arrival time distribution of the multichromophoric chain is modified towards a more classical distribution. Surprisingly, the fidelity of photon antibunching deteriorates upon charging, whereas one would actually expect the opposite: the number of chromophores to be reduced. A qualitative model is presented to explain the observed PL changes. The results are of interest to developing a microscopic understanding of the intrinsic charge-exciton quenching interaction in devices.

  7. Tungsten-based nanomaterials (WO3 & Bi2WO6): Modifications related to charge carrier transfer mechanisms and photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girish Kumar, S.; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2015-11-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an ideal green energy technology for the purification of wastewater. Although titania dominates as the reference photocatalyst, its wide band gap is a bottleneck for extended utility. Thus, search for non-TiO2 based nanomaterials has become an active area of research in recent years. In this regard, visible light absorbing polycrystalline WO3 (2.4-2.8 eV) and Bi2WO6 (2.8 eV) with versatile structure-electronic properties has gained considerable interest to promote the photocatalytic reactions. These materials are also explored in selective functional group transformation in organic reactions, because of low reduction and oxidation potential of WO3 CB and Bi2WO6 VB, respectively. In this focused review, various strategies such as foreign ion doping, noble metal deposition and heterostructuring with other semiconductors designed for efficient photocatalysis is discussed. These modifications not only extend the optical response to longer wavelengths, but also prolong the life-time of the charge carriers and strengthen the photocatalyst stability. The changes in the surface-bulk properties and the charge carrier transfer dynamics associated with each modification correlating to the high activity are emphasized. The presence of oxidizing agents, surface modification with Cu2+ ions and synthesis of exposed facets to promote the degradation rate is highlighted. In depth study on these nanomaterials is likely to sustain interest in wastewater remediation and envisaged to signify in various green energy applications.

  8. Experimental evidence for importance of Hund's exchange interaction for incoherence of charge carriers in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J.; Rienks, E. D. L.; Thirupathaiah, S.; Nayak, J.; van Roekeghem, A.; Biermann, S.; Wolf, T.; Adelmann, P.; Jeevan, H. S.; Gegenwart, P.; Wurmehl, S.; Felser, C.; Büchner, B.

    2017-04-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is used to study the scattering rates of charge carriers from the hole pockets near Γ in the iron-based high-Tc hole-doped superconductors KxBa1 -xFe2As2 , x =0.4 , and KxEu1 -xFe2As2 , x =0.55 , and the electron-doped compound Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 , x =0.075 . The scattering rate for any given band is found to depend linearly on the energy, indicating a non-Fermi-liquid regime. The scattering rates in the hole-doped compound are considerably higher than those in the electron-doped compounds. In the hole-doped systems the scattering rate of the charge carriers of the inner hole pocket is about three times higher than the binding energy, indicating that the spectral weight is heavily incoherent. The strength of the scattering rates and the difference between electron- and hole-doped compounds signals the importance of Hund's exchange coupling for correlation effects in these iron-based high-Tc superconductors. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations in the framework of combined density functional dynamical mean-field theory.

  9. Dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-07-28

    In this paper, we have studied the dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate. Structural and thermal properties have been examined using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. We have analyzed the complex conductivity spectra by using power law model coupled with the contribution of electrode polarization at low frequencies and high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity and crossover frequency exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and ethylene carbonate concentrations. The analysis of the ac conductivity also shows the existence of a nearly constant loss in these polymer electrolytes at low temperatures and high frequencies. The fraction of free anions and ion pairs in polymer electrolyte have been obtained from the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. It is observed that these quantities influence the behavior of the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity.

  10. The Effect of Diiodooctane on the Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Solar Cells Based on the Copolymer PBDTTT-C

    PubMed Central

    Zusan, Andreas; Gieseking, Björn; Zerson, Mario; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Magerle, Robert; Deibel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural changes and the understanding of their effect on photocurrent generation are key aspects for improving the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. We analyze the impact of a systematically increased amount of the solvent additive diiodooctane (DIO) on the morphology of PBDTTT-C:PC71BM blends and related changes in free carrier formation and recombination by combining surface imaging, photophysical and charge extraction techniques. We identify agglomerates visible in AFM images of the 0% DIO blend as PC71BM domains embedded in an intermixed matrix phase. With the addition of DIO, a decrease in the size of fullerene domains along with a demixing of the matrix phase appears for 0.6% and 1% DIO. Surprisingly, transient absorption spectroscopy reveals an efficient photogeneration already for the smallest amount of DIO, although the largest efficiency is found for 3% DIO. It is ascribed to a fine-tuning of the blend morphology in terms of the formation of interpenetrating donor and acceptor phases minimizing geminate and nongeminate recombination as indicated by charge extraction experiments. An increase in the DIO content to 10% adversely affects the photovoltaic performance, most probably due to an inefficient free carrier formation and trapping in a less interconnected donor-acceptor network. PMID:25655785

  11. Charge carrier dynamics in PMMA-LiClO4 based polymer electrolytes plasticized with different plasticizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-07-01

    We have studied the charge carrier dynamics in poly(methylmethacrylate)-LiClO4 polymer electrolytes plasticized with different plasticizers such as ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). We have measured the broadband complex conductivity spectra of these electrolytes in the frequency range of 0.01 Hz-3 GHz and in the temperature range of 203 K-363 K and analyzed the conductivity spectra in the framework of the random barrier model by taking into account the contribution of the electrode polarization observed at low frequencies and/or at high temperatures. It is observed that the temperature dependences of the ionic conductivity and relaxation time follow the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher relation for all plasticized electrolytes. We have also performed the scaling of the conductivity spectra, which indicates that the charge carrier dynamics is almost independent of temperature and plasticizers in a limited frequency range. The existence of nearly constant loss in these electrolytes has been observed at low temperatures and/or high frequencies. We have studied the dielectric relaxation in these electrolytes using electric modulus formalism and obtained the stretched exponent and the decay function. We have observed less cooperative ion dynamics in electrolytes plasticized with DMC compared to electrolytes plasticized with EC, PC, and PEG.

  12. How photon pump fluence changes the charge carrier relaxation mechanism in an organic-inorganic hybrid lead triiodide perovskite.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Piotr; Cohen, Boiko; Kazim, Samrana; Ahmad, Shahzada; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2016-10-21

    This study explores the excitation wavelength and fluence dependence of processes occurring in formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) film using time-resolved transient absorption and terahertz spectroscopies. The results indicate that second-order processes are responsible for charge carrier recombination at low fluences of the absorbed photons (below 8.4 × 10(12) ph per cm(2)). An increase in fluence leads to the appearance and successive reduction of the time component assigned to the Auger recombination of free charge carriers (240-120 ps). Simultaneously, the bimolecular recombination time decreases from ∼1400 to ∼700 ps. Further increasing the pump fluence produces an exciton population that recombines in 6 ps. The comparison of two characteristic bleaching bands located at 480 and 775 nm provides evidence for the validity of the two valence bands model. Excitation with higher fluences results in a marked difference in the probed dynamics at these bands, reflecting the action of two excited states at the conduction band. Our results demonstrate that a single model cannot be applied in characterizing the perovskite absorber transitions at all pump fluences. These findings are relevant in understanding their operating mechanism under specific experimental conditions, which should differ for perovskite based solar cells, lasing media or photon detectors.

  13. Absorption of Light by Free Charge Carriers in the Crystalline CdS Under Intense Electron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, V. D.; Yakovlev, V. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    The process of light absorption by free electrons in the crystalline cadmium sulfide under irradiation by a nanosecond electron beam with the current density of 8-100 A/cm2 is studied. A superlinear increase in optical absorption is observed if the beam current density is increased from ~8 to 12 A/cm2. The nature of light absorption by thermalized electrons corresponds to the scattering on lattice defects. An increase in the exponent of the power dependence of light absorption on the wavelength with increasing beam current density is associated with the single and double ionization of donors and acceptors. It is concluded that accumulation of charge carriers occurs without capture by traps due to their impact ionization by secondary electrons, whose energy in the thermalization stage is comparable with the band gap of the crystal. According to the results of calculations, the capture cross section of electrons by holes at quadratic recombination is ~10-20 cm2, the Auger recombination coefficient is ~10-31 cm6•s-1, and the charge carrier concentration is ~1.3•1018-1.5•1019 cm-3.

  14. Dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we have studied the dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate. Structural and thermal properties have been examined using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. We have analyzed the complex conductivity spectra by using power law model coupled with the contribution of electrode polarization at low frequencies and high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity and crossover frequency exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and ethylene carbonate concentrations. The analysis of the ac conductivity also shows the existence of a nearly constant loss in these polymer electrolytes at low temperatures and high frequencies. The fraction of free anions and ion pairs in polymer electrolyte have been obtained from the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. It is observed that these quantities influence the behavior of the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity.

  15. Contactless measurements of charge traps and carrier lifetimes in detector-grade cadmium zinc telluride and mercuric iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepper, Gary C.; Kessick, Royal; James, Ralph B.; Van den Berg, Lodewijk

    2000-11-01

    An understanding of compensation and trapping in Cd1-xZnxTe and HgI2 is necessary in order to improve the size and spectroscopic performance of radiation detectors fabricated from these materials. Although several electron and hole traps have been identified, very little is currently understood about the effect of specific carrier traps on the mean free path of the charge carriers. Characterization techniques such as Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) or Thermoelectric Emission Spectroscopy (TEES) have been used for trap identification, while time-of-flight techniques have been employed to determine carrier mobility and lifetime but it has proven difficult to correlate the results of these independent measurements. Furthermore, these characterization methods are complicated by the need to make electrical contacts to the material. Here we report on contactless, thermally stimulated lifetime measurements performed on detector-grade Cd1- xZnxTe (x approximately 0.1) and HgI2 crystals using a microwave cavity perturbation method. The microwave technique is complimentary to contact-based methods and provides both trap identification and lifetime determination in a single measurement. The results provide evidence of lifetime-limiting deep traps in these materials. The trap activation energies and the minimum detrapping times are estimated and the results are compared to previous TSC and TEES investigations.

  16. Anisotropic charge carrier transport in free-standing hexagonal boron nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Rajendra; Ahmed, Kawser; Woei Wu, Jia; Weltz, Adam; Jian-Qiang Lu, James; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2016-06-01

    The in-plane and out-of-plane mobility-lifetime products of electrons and holes in free-standing hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films are extracted from current-voltage characteristics of metal-hBN-metal structures measured under external excitations. The in-plane mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes are ˜2.8 × 10-5 and ˜4.85 × 10-6 cm2/V, measured from lateral carrier collection, whereas the out-of-plane mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes are ˜5.8 × 10-8 and ˜6.1 × 10-9 cm2/V, measured from vertical carrier collection, respectively. The mobility-lifetime product is a few orders of magnitude higher along the plane than along the out of plane in hBN films.

  17. A quantitative model for charge carrier transport, trapping and recombination in nanocrystal-based solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozyigit, Deniz; Lin, Weyde M. M.; Yazdani, Nuri; Yarema, Olesya; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Improving devices incorporating solution-processed nanocrystal-based semiconductors requires a better understanding of charge transport in these complex, inorganic–organic materials. Here we perform a systematic study on PbS nanocrystal-based diodes using temperature-dependent current–voltage characterization and thermal admittance spectroscopy to develop a model for charge transport that is applicable to different nanocrystal-solids and device architectures. Our analysis confirms that charge transport occurs in states that derive from the quantum-confined electronic levels of the individual nanocrystals and is governed by diffusion-controlled trap-assisted recombination. The current is limited not by the Schottky effect, but by Fermi-level pinning because of trap states that is independent of the electrode–nanocrystal interface. Our model successfully explains the non-trivial trends in charge transport as a function of nanocrystal size and the origins of the trade-offs facing the optimization of nanocrystal-based solar cells. We use the insights from our charge transport model to formulate design guidelines for engineering higher-performance nanocrystal-based devices. PMID:25625647

  18. A quantitative model for charge carrier transport, trapping and recombination in nanocrystal-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozyigit, Deniz; Lin, Weyde M. M.; Yazdani, Nuri; Yarema, Olesya; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Improving devices incorporating solution-processed nanocrystal-based semiconductors requires a better understanding of charge transport in these complex, inorganic-organic materials. Here we perform a systematic study on PbS nanocrystal-based diodes using temperature-dependent current-voltage characterization and thermal admittance spectroscopy to develop a model for charge transport that is applicable to different nanocrystal-solids and device architectures. Our analysis confirms that charge transport occurs in states that derive from the quantum-confined electronic levels of the individual nanocrystals and is governed by diffusion-controlled trap-assisted recombination. The current is limited not by the Schottky effect, but by Fermi-level pinning because of trap states that is independent of the electrode-nanocrystal interface. Our model successfully explains the non-trivial trends in charge transport as a function of nanocrystal size and the origins of the trade-offs facing the optimization of nanocrystal-based solar cells. We use the insights from our charge transport model to formulate design guidelines for engineering higher-performance nanocrystal-based devices.

  19. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: charge carriers and interactions derived by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Angenendt, Knut; Johansson, Patrik

    2011-06-23

    The solvation of lithium salts in ionic liquids (ILs) leads to the creation of a lithium ion carrying species quite different from those found in traditional nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes. The most striking differences are that these species are composed only of ions and in general negatively charged. In many IL-based electrolytes, the dominant species are triplets, and the charge, stability, and size of the triplets have a large impact on the total ion conductivity, the lithium ion mobility, and also the lithium ion delivery at the electrode. As an inherent advantage, the triplets can be altered by selecting lithium salts and ionic liquids with different anions. Thus, within certain limits, the lithium ion carrying species can even be tailored toward distinct important properties for battery application. Here, we show by DFT calculations that the resulting charge carrying species from combinations of ionic liquids and lithium salts and also some resulting electrolyte properties can be predicted.

  20. Charge carrier localization effects on the quantum efficiency and operating temperature range of InAsxP1-x/InP quantum well detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashisht, Geetanjali; Dixit, V. K.; Porwal, S.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of charge carrier localization resulting in "S-shaped" temperature dependence of the photoluminescence peak energy of InAsxP1-x/InP quantum wells (QWs) is distinctly revealed by the temperature dependent surface photo voltage (SPV) and photoconductivity (PC) processes. It is observed that the escape efficiency of carriers from QWs depends on the localization energy, where the carriers are unable to contribute in SPV/PC signal below a critical temperature. Below the critical temperature, carriers are strongly trapped in the localized states and are therefore unable to escape from the QW. Further, the critical temperature increases with the magnitude of localization energy of carriers. Carrier localization thus plays a pivotal role in defining the operating temperature range of InAsxP1-x/InP QW detectors.

  1. Exciton and charge carrier dynamics in few-layer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Mayoral, Victor; Vella, Daniele; Borzda, Tetiana; Prijatelj, Matej; Tempra, Iacopo; Pogna, Eva A. A.; Dal Conte, Stefano; Topolovsek, Peter; Vujicic, Natasa; Cerullo, Giulio; Mihailovic, Dragan; Gadermaier, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been applied as the active layer in photodetectors and solar cells, displaying substantial charge photogeneration yields. However, their large exciton binding energy, which increases with decreasing thickness (number of layers), as well as the strong resonance peaks in the absorption spectra suggest that excitons are the primary photoexcited states. Detailed time-domain studies of the photoexcitation dynamics in TMDs exist mostly for MoS2. Here, we use femtosecond optical spectroscopy to study the exciton and charge dynamics following impulsive photoexcitation in few-layer WS2. We confirm excitons as the primary photoexcitation species and find that they dissociate into charge pairs with a time constant of about 1.3 ps. The better separation of the spectral features compared to MoS2 allows us to resolve a previously undetected process: these charges diffuse through the samples and get trapped at defects, such as flake edges or grain boundaries, causing an appreciable change of their transient absorption spectra. This finding opens the way to further studies of traps in TMD samples with different defect contents.Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been applied as the active layer in photodetectors and solar cells, displaying substantial charge photogeneration yields. However, their large exciton binding energy, which increases with decreasing thickness (number of layers), as well as the strong resonance peaks in the absorption spectra suggest that excitons are the primary photoexcited states. Detailed time-domain studies of the photoexcitation dynamics in TMDs exist mostly for MoS2. Here, we use femtosecond optical spectroscopy to study the exciton and charge dynamics following impulsive photoexcitation in few-layer WS2. We confirm excitons as the primary photoexcitation species and find that they dissociate into charge pairs with a time constant of about 1.3 ps. The better

  2. Time-resolved measurements of charge carrier dynamics in MWIR to LWIR InAs/InAsSb superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac, Yigit

    All-optical time-resolved measurement techniques provide a powerful tool for investigating critical parameters that determine the performance of infrared photodetector and emitter semiconductor materials. Narrow-bandgap InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) have shown great promise as next generation materials, due to superior intrinsic properties and versatility. Unfortunately, InAs/GaSb T2SLs are plagued by parasitic Shockley-Read-Hall recombination centers that shorten the carrier lifetime and limit device performance. Ultrafast pump-probe techniques and time-resolved differential-transmission measurements are used here to demonstrate that "Ga-free" InAs/InAs1-xSb x T2SLs and InAsSb alloys do not have this same limitation and thus have significantly longer carrier lifetimes. Measurements of unintentionally doped MWIR and LWIR InAs/InAsSb T2SLs demonstrate minority carrier (MC) lifetimes of 18.4 micros and 4.5 micros at 77 K, respectively. This represents a more than two order of magnitude increase compared to the 90 ns MC lifetime measured in a comparable MWIR and LWIR InAs1-xSb x T2SL. Through temperature-dependent differential-transmission measurements, the various carrier recombination processes are differentiated and the dominant recombination mechanisms identified for InAs/InAs1-xSb x T2SLs. These results demonstrate that these Ga-free materials are viable options over InAs/GaSb T2SLs and potentially bulk Hg1-x CdxTe photodetectors. In addition to carrier lifetimes, the drift and diusion of excited charge carriers through the superlattice layers (i.e. in-plane transport) directly aects the performance of photo-detectors and emitters. All-optical ultrafast techniques were successfully used for a direct measure of in-plane diffusion coeffcients in MWIR InAs/InAsSb T2SLs using a photo-generated transient grating technique at various temperatures. Ambipolar diffusion coefficients of approximately 60 cm2/s were reported for MWIR InAs/InAs1-xSb x T2SLs at 293 K.

  3. Charge carrier mobilities in organic semiconductor crystals based on the spectral overlap.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Vera; Fink, Reinhold F; Deibel, Carsten; Engels, Bernd

    2016-09-05

    The prediction of substance-related charge-transport properties is important for the tayloring of new materials for organic devices, such as organic solar cells. Assuming a hopping process, the Marcus theory is frequently used to model charge transport. Here another approach, which is already widely used for exciton transport, is adapted to charge transport. It is based on the spectral overlap of the vibrational donor and acceptor spectra. As the Marcus theory it is derived from Fermi's Golden rule, however, it contains less approximations, as the molecular vibrations are treated quantum mechanically. In contrast, the Marcus theory reduces all vibrational degrees of freedom to one and treats its influence classically. The approach is tested on different acenes and predicts most of the experimentally available hole mobilities in these materials within a factor of 2. This represents a significant improvement to values obtained from Marcus theory which is qualitatively correct but frequently overestimates the mobilities by factors up to 10. Furthermore, the charge-transport properties of two derivatives of perylene bisimide are investigated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exciton and charge carrier dynamics in few-layer WS2.

    PubMed

    Vega-Mayoral, Victor; Vella, Daniele; Borzda, Tetiana; Prijatelj, Matej; Tempra, Iacopo; Pogna, Eva A A; Dal Conte, Stefano; Topolovsek, Peter; Vujicic, Natasa; Cerullo, Giulio; Mihailovic, Dragan; Gadermaier, Christoph

    2016-03-14

    Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been applied as the active layer in photodetectors and solar cells, displaying substantial charge photogeneration yields. However, their large exciton binding energy, which increases with decreasing thickness (number of layers), as well as the strong resonance peaks in the absorption spectra suggest that excitons are the primary photoexcited states. Detailed time-domain studies of the photoexcitation dynamics in TMDs exist mostly for MoS2. Here, we use femtosecond optical spectroscopy to study the exciton and charge dynamics following impulsive photoexcitation in few-layer WS2. We confirm excitons as the primary photoexcitation species and find that they dissociate into charge pairs with a time constant of about 1.3 ps. The better separation of the spectral features compared to MoS2 allows us to resolve a previously undetected process: these charges diffuse through the samples and get trapped at defects, such as flake edges or grain boundaries, causing an appreciable change of their transient absorption spectra. This finding opens the way to further studies of traps in TMD samples with different defect contents.

  5. Photogenerated charge carrier recombination processes in CdS/P3OT solar cells: effect of structural and optoelectronic properties of CdS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, H.; Pineda, E.; Campos, J.; Nicho, M. E.; Hu, H.

    2011-09-01

    Research and development activities in organic solar cells have been intensified in the last two decades, and the reported energy conversion efficiency in small cell samples is rapidly increased. However, the relation between cell performance and material preparation conditions is not fully understood. In this work charge carrier recombination processes in hybrid poly-3-octylthiophene (P3OT)/cadmium sulfide (CdS) photovoltaic cells were analyzed as a function of structural and optoelectronic properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films. The temperature of the bath solution varied between 60 and 80 °C, and the deposition time from 1 to 3 h. Charge carrier recombination times in CdS films were measured with photoconductance decay technique, whereas the same time in P3OT films was estimated by Time-of-Flight method. Charge carrier recombination rates at CdS/P3OT interface were determined by transient photovoltage technique. It is found that CdS films grown at lower solution temperature (60 °C) give a higher charge carrier recombination rate at CdS/P3OT interface and larger short-circuit current density and energy conversion efficiency values in the corresponding solar cells, in comparison with the 80 °C deposited ones. This improvement could come from the reduction of charge carrier trap density inside grains as well as at grain boundaries in lower temperature deposited CdS films.

  6. Electron-phonon interaction and charge carrier mass enhancement in SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, J L M; van der Marel, D; Grimaldi, C; Kuzmenko, A B; Armitage, N P; Reyren, N; Hagemann, H; Mazin, I I

    2008-06-06

    We report a comprehensive THz, infrared and optical study of Nb-doped SrTiO3 as well as dc conductivity and Hall effect measurements. Our THz spectra at 7 K show the presence of an unusually narrow (<2 meV) Drude peak. For all carrier concentrations the Drude spectral weight shows a factor of three mass enhancement relative to the effective mass in the local density approximation, whereas the spectral weight contained in the incoherent midinfrared response indicates that the mass enhancement is at least a factor two. We find no evidence of a particularly large electron-phonon coupling that would result in small polaron formation.

  7. Transient luminescence induced by electrical refilling of charge carrier traps of dislocation network at hydrophilically bonded Si wafers interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, Anton; Vyvenko, Oleg

    2014-02-21

    Dislocation network (DN) at hydrophilically bonded Si wafers interface is placed in space charge region (SCR) of a Schottky diode at a depth of about 150 nm from Schottky electrode for simultaneous investigation of its electrical and luminescent properties. Our recently proposed pulsed traps refilling enhanced luminescence (Pulsed-TREL) technique based on the effect of transient luminescence induced by refilling of charge carrier traps with electrical pulses is further developed and used as a tool to establish DN energy levels responsible for D1 band of dislocation-related luminescence in Si (DRL). In present work we do theoretical analysis and simulation of traps refilling kinetics dependence on refilling pulse magnitude (Vp) in two levels model: shallow and deep. The influence of initial charge state of deep level on shallow level occupation-Vp dependence is discussed. Characteristic features predicted by simulations are used for Pulsed-TREL experimental results interpretation. We conclude that only shallow (∼0.1 eV from conduction and valence band) energetic levels in the band gap participate in D1 DRL.

  8. Geant4 Simulations of the SuperCDMS iZIP Detector Charge Carrier Propagation and FET Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, R.; Brandt, D.; Asai, M.; Cabrera, B.; Leman, S.; McCarthy, K.; Redl, P.; Saab, T.; Wright, D.

    2014-09-01

    The SuperCDMS experiment aims to directly detect dark matter particles called WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). The detectors measure phonon and ionization energy due to nuclear and electron recoils from incident particles. The SuperCDMS Detector Monte Carlo group uses Geant4 to simulate electron-hole pairs () and low temperature phonons. We use these simulations in order to study energy deposition in the detectors. Phonons and electron-hole pairs are tracked in a crystal detector. Because of the band structure of the crystals, the electrons undergo oblique propagation. The charge electrodes on each side of the detector are biased at different voltages while the phonon sensors are grounded. This creates a nearly uniform electric field through the bulk of the detector, with a complex shape near the surfaces. The electric field is calculated from interpolating on a tetrahedral mesh. The resulting TES phonon readout, as well as the FET charge readout are simulated. To calculate the FET readout, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied to simulate the current in the FET. The goal of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of calculating the electric field, performing the charge carrier propagation, and simulating the FET readout of the SuperCDMS detectors.

  9. Influence of charge carrier mobility and morphology on solar cell parameters in devices of mono- and bis-fullerene adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muth, Mathis-Andreas; Mitchell, William; Tierney, Steven; Lada, Thomas A.; Xue, Xiang; Richter, Henning; Carrasco-Orozco, Miguel; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2013-12-01

    Herein, we analyze charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells and correlate them with device parameters. A low band gap donor-acceptor copolymer in combination with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or two bis-adduct fullerenes, bis-PCBM and bis-o-quino-dimethane C60 (bis-oQDMC), is investigated. We study the charge transport of polymer:fullerene blends in hole- and electron-only devices using the space-charge limited current method. Lower electron mobilities are observed in both bis-adduct fullerene blends. Hole mobility, however, is decreased only in the blend containing bis-oQDMC. Both bis-adduct fullerene blends show very high open circuit voltage in solar cell devices, but poor photocurrent compared to the standard PCBM blend for an active layer thickness of 200 nm. Therefore, a higher short circuit current is feasible for the polymer:bis-PCBM blend by reducing the active layer thickness in order to compensate for the low electron mobility, which results in a PCE of 4.3%. For the polymer:bis-oQDMC blend, no such improvement is achieved due to an unfavorable morphology in this particular blend system. The results are supported by external quantum efficiency measurements, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV/vis spectroscopy. Based on these results, the investigations presented herein give a more scientific basis for the optimization of solar cells.

  10. Influence of charge carrier mobility and morphology on solar cell parameters in devices of mono- and bis-fullerene adducts.

    PubMed

    Muth, Mathis-Andreas; Mitchell, William; Tierney, Steven; Lada, Thomas A; Xue, Xiang; Richter, Henning; Carrasco-Orozco, Miguel; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2013-12-06

    Herein, we analyze charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells and correlate them with device parameters. A low band gap donor-acceptor copolymer in combination with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or two bis-adduct fullerenes, bis-PCBM and bis-o-quino-dimethane C60 (bis-oQDMC), is investigated. We study the charge transport of polymer:fullerene blends in hole- and electron-only devices using the space-charge limited current method. Lower electron mobilities are observed in both bis-adduct fullerene blends. Hole mobility, however, is decreased only in the blend containing bis-oQDMC. Both bis-adduct fullerene blends show very high open circuit voltage in solar cell devices, but poor photocurrent compared to the standard PCBM blend for an active layer thickness of 200 nm. Therefore, a higher short circuit current is feasible for the polymer:bis-PCBM blend by reducing the active layer thickness in order to compensate for the low electron mobility, which results in a PCE of 4.3%. For the polymer:bis-oQDMC blend, no such improvement is achieved due to an unfavorable morphology in this particular blend system. The results are supported by external quantum efficiency measurements, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV/vis spectroscopy. Based on these results, the investigations presented herein give a more scientific basis for the optimization of solar cells.

  11. Geant4 Simulations of SuperCDMS iZip Detector Charge Carrier Propagation and FET Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, Rob

    2013-04-01

    The SuperCDMS experiment aims to directly detect dark matter particles called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The detectors collect phonon and ionization energy of incident particles for analysis. The SuperCDMS Detector Monte Carlo group is implementing low temperature phonon and ionization simulations in Geant4 in order to study the response of the detectors to incident events. Phonons and electron-hole pairs are tracked in a low temperature crystal detector. The resulting TES phonon readout, as well as the FET charge readout are simulated. The Geant4 framework is well-suited to these tasks. The charge transport in the presence of a complex electric field is performed by calculating a tetrahedral mesh of potentials across the crystal volume. To calculate the FET readout, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied to simulate the current in the FET. The focus of this presentation will be on incorporating and using the software package, Qhull, to calculate a tetrahedral mesh from known potentials and then using barycentric coordinates to perform a linear interpolation to calculate the field. After calculating the field at each charge carrier's position, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied and the previous triangulation technique is performed to simulate the FET response

  12. Charge carrier trapping and enhanced electroluminescent efficiency of blue light emitting polymer with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Choi, Yu-Ri; Chin, Byung Doo

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the current injection, transport, and luminous efficiency behavior of organic light emitting diode (OLED) containing the 5-10 nm-sized gold particles mixed in the polyfluorene-type copolymer. This nanoparticle-conjugated polymer mixture layer was used as hole injection, transport, and light emitting layer for various structures of OLED based on the phosphorescent and fluorescent emitters. Due to the hole trapping at the nanopaticle, carrier injection is significantly reduced while the hole transport behavior is found to be barely affected. Hole trapping of nanoparticle in light emitting layer (at 4.7 approximately 9.4 x 10(-5) w/w fraction) resulted in an enhancement of efficiency (from 5.23 cd/A to 6.50 cd/A). The existence of the outcoupling effect also supports the carrier trapping behavior, which is amended mechanism of the improved efficiency compared to previously reported mechanism of enhanced photoluminescent stability by a hindrance of photo-oxidation.

  13. Charge carrier relaxation in InGaAs-GaAs quantum wire modulation-doped heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kondratenko, S V; Iliash, S A; Mazur, Yu I; Kunets, V P; Benamara, M; Salamo, G J

    2017-09-15

    The time dependencies of the carrier relaxation in modulation-doped InGaAs-GaAs low-dimensional structures with quantum wires have been studied as functions of temperature and light excitation levels. The photoconductivity (PC) relaxation follows a stretched exponent with decay constant, which depends on the morphology of InGaAs epitaxial layers, presence of deep traps, and energy disorder due to inhomogeneous distribution of size and composition. A hopping model, where electron tunnels between bands of localized states, gives appropriate interpretation for temperature-independent PC decay across the temperature range 150-290 K. At low temperatures (T < 150 K), multiple trapping-retrapping via 1D states of InGaAs quantum wires (QWRs), sub-bands of two-dimensional electron gas of modulation-doped n-GaAs spacers, as well as defect states in the GaAs environment are the dominant relaxation mechanism. The PC and photoluminescence transients for samples with different morphologies of the InGaAs nanostructures are compared. The relaxation rates are found to be largely dependent on energy disorder due to inhomogeneous distribution of strain, nanostructure size and composition, and piezoelectric fields in and around nanostructures, which have a strong impact on efficiency of carrier exchange between bands of the InGaAs QWRs, GaAs spacers, or wetting layers; presence of local electric fields; and deep traps.

  14. Charge carrier relaxation in InGaAs-GaAs quantum wire modulation-doped heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratenko, S. V.; Iliash, S. A.; Mazur, Yu I.; Kunets, V. P.; Benamara, M.; Salamo, G. J.

    2017-09-01

    The time dependencies of the carrier relaxation in modulation-doped InGaAs-GaAs low-dimensional structures with quantum wires have been studied as functions of temperature and light excitation levels. The photoconductivity (PC) relaxation follows a stretched exponent with decay constant, which depends on the morphology of InGaAs epitaxial layers, presence of deep traps, and energy disorder due to inhomogeneous distribution of size and composition. A hopping model, where electron tunnels between bands of localized states, gives appropriate interpretation for temperature-independent PC decay across the temperature range 150-290 K. At low temperatures (T < 150 K), multiple trapping-retrapping via 1D states of InGaAs quantum wires (QWRs), sub-bands of two-dimensional electron gas of modulation-doped n-GaAs spacers, as well as defect states in the GaAs environment are the dominant relaxation mechanism. The PC and photoluminescence transients for samples with different morphologies of the InGaAs nanostructures are compared. The relaxation rates are found to be largely dependent on energy disorder due to inhomogeneous distribution of strain, nanostructure size and composition, and piezoelectric fields in and around nanostructures, which have a strong impact on efficiency of carrier exchange between bands of the InGaAs QWRs, GaAs spacers, or wetting layers; presence of local electric fields; and deep traps.

  15. Massively parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of charge carrier transport in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Kaap, N. J.; Koster, L. J. A.

    2016-02-01

    A parallel, lattice based Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is developed that runs on a GPGPU board and includes Coulomb like particle-particle interactions. The performance of this computationally expensive problem is improved by modifying the interaction potential due to nearby particle moves, instead of fully recalculating it. This modification is achieved by adding dipole correction terms that represent the particle move. Exact evaluation of these terms is guaranteed by representing all interactions as 32-bit floating numbers, where only the integers between -222 and 222 are used. We validate our method by modelling the charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors, including Coulomb interactions between charges. Performance is mainly governed by the particle density in the simulation volume, and improves for increasing densities. Our method allows calculations on large volumes including particle-particle interactions, which is important in the field of organic semiconductors.

  16. Polaron effects and electric field dependence of the charge carrier mobility in conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Mattias; Stafström, Sven

    2011-10-07

    Charge transport in conjugated polymers has been investigated using Monte Carlo simulations implemented on top of the Marcus theory for donor-acceptor transition rates. In particular, polaron effects and the dependency of the mobility on the temperature and the applied electric field have been studied. The conclusions are that while the qualitative temperature dependence is similar to that predicted by Miller-Abrahams theory in the Gaussian disorder model (GDM), the electric field dependence is characterized by a crossover into the Marcus inverted region, not present in the GDM. Furthermore, available analytical approximations to describe the electric field dependence of the mobility in Marcus theory fail to fit the simulation data and hence cannot be used to directly draw conclusions about the importance of polaron effects for charge transport in conjugated polymers. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. Impact of speciation on the electron charge transfer properties of nanodiamond drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baichuan; Barnard, Amanda S.

    2016-07-01

    Unpassivated diamond nanoparticles (bucky-diamonds) exhibit a unique surface reconstruction involving graphitization of certain crystal facets, giving rise to hybrid core-shell particles containing both aromatic and aliphatic carbon. Considerable effort is directed toward eliminating the aromatic shell, but persistent graphitization of subsequent subsurface-layers makes perdurable purification a challenge. In this study we use some simple statistical methods, in combination with electronic structure simulations, to predict the impact of different fractions of aromatic and aliphatic carbon on the charge transfer properties of the ensembles of bucky-diamonds. By predicting quality factors for a variety of cases, we find that perfect purification is not necessary to preserve selectivity, and there is a clear motivation for purifying samples to improve the sensitivity of charge transfer reactions. This may prove useful in designing drug delivery systems where the release of (selected) drugs needs to be sensitive to specific conditions at the point of delivery.Unpassivated diamond nanoparticles (bucky-diamonds) exhibit a unique surface reconstruction involving graphitization of certain crystal facets, giving rise to hybrid core-shell particles containing both aromatic and aliphatic carbon. Considerable effort is directed toward eliminating the aromatic shell, but persistent graphitization of subsequent subsurface-layers makes perdurable purification a challenge. In this study we use some simple statistical methods, in combination with electronic structure simulations, to predict the impact of different fractions of aromatic and aliphatic carbon on the charge transfer properties of the ensembles of bucky-diamonds. By predicting quality factors for a variety of cases, we find that perfect purification is not necessary to preserve selectivity, and there is a clear motivation for purifying samples to improve the sensitivity of charge transfer reactions. This may prove

  18. Charge carrier formation in polythiophene/fullerene blend films studied by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohkita, Hideo; Cook, Steffan; Astuti, Yeni; Duffy, Warren; Tierney, Steve; Zhang, Weimin; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny; Bradley, Donal D C; Durrant, James R

    2008-03-12

    We report herein a comparison of the photophysics of a series of polythiophenes with ionization potentials ranging from 4.8 to 5.6 eV as pristine films and when blended with 5 wt % 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]C61 (PCBM). Three polymers are observed to give amorphous films, attributed to a nonplanar geometry of their backbone while the other five polymers, including poly(3-hexylthiophene), give more crystalline films. Optical excitation of the pristine films of the amorphous polymers is observed by transient absorption spectroscopy to give rise to polymer triplet formation. For the more crystalline pristine polymers, no triplet formation is observed, but rather a short-lived (approximately 100 ns), broad photoinduced absorption feature assigned to polymer polarons. For all polymers, the addition of 5 wt % PCBM resulted in 70-90% quenching of polymer photoluminescence (PL), indicative of efficient quenching of polythiophene excitons. Remarkably, despite this efficient exciton quenching, the yield of dissociated polymer+ and PCBM- polarons, assayed by the appearance of a long-lived, power-law decay phase assigned to bimolecular recombination of these polarons, was observed to vary by over 2 orders of magnitude depending upon the polymer employed. In addition to this power-law decay phase, the blend films exhibited short-lived decays assigned, for the amorphous polymers, to neutral triplet states generated by geminate recombination of bound radical pairs and, for the more crystalline polymers, to the direct observation of the geminate recombination of these bound radical pairs to ground. These observations are discussed in terms of a two-step kinetic model for charge generation in polythiophene/PCBM blend films analogous to that reported to explain the observation of exciplex-like emission in poly(p-phenylenevinylene)-based blend films. Remarkably, we find an excellent correlation between the free energy difference for charge separation (delta

  19. A two-scale method for fast estimation of the charge-carrier diffusion coefficient in nano-porous semi-conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Koochi, Hakimeh

    2017-01-01

    Current numerical methods that simultaneously take into account both spatial and energy disorders in charge-carrier transport in semi-conductor nano-porous structures are exact but involve intensive computations. Here, we will describe a two-scale simulation approach that incorporates all the relevant data on the morphology as well as the microscopic transport model. To test this method, we carried out extensive computer simulations for estimation of the charge-carrier diffusion coefficient in structures of different local and global morphologies. Excellent agreement was found between the results of our proposed model and the results emerged from full-scale calculations. The speed-up in the computations is almost four orders of magnitude. As such, this method provides us with a fast and straightforward approach to separate the role of local and global morphology on the charge-carrier transport and hence might be helpful in future designing of devices like dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Effect of the carrier gas flow rate on the microstructure evolution and the generation of the charged nanoparticles during silicon chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Youn, Woong-Kyu; Kim, Chan-Soo; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2013-10-01

    The generation of charged nanoparticles in the gas phase has been continually reported in many chemical vapor deposition processes. Charged silicon nanoparticles in the gas phase were measured using a differential mobility analyzer connected to an atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor at various nitrogen carrier gas flow rates (300-1000 standard cubic centimeter per minute) under typical conditions for silicon deposition at the reactor temperature of 900 degrees C. The carrier gas flow rate affected not only the growth behavior of nanostructures but also the number concentration and size distribution of both negatively and positively charged nanoparticles. As the carrier gas flow rate decreased, the growth behavior changed from films to nanowires, which grew without catalytic metal nanoparticles on a quartz substrate.

  1. Diffusion length of photo-generated charge carriers in layers and powders of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Th.; Lang, F.; Shargaieva, O.; Rappich, J.; Nickel, N. H.; Unger, E.; Rech, B.

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion or transport lengths of photo-generated charge carriers in CH3NH3PbI3 layers (thickness up to 1 μm) and powders have been directly measured with high accuracy by modulated surface photovoltage after Goodman. The values of the diffusion lengths of photo-generated charge carriers ranged from 200 nm to tenths of μm. In thin CH3NH3PbI3 layers, the transport lengths corresponded to the layer thickness whereas in thicker layers and in crystallites of CH3NH3PbI3 powders the grain size limited the diffusion length. For grains, the diffusion length of photo-generated charge carriers depended on the measurement conditions.

  2. On the Field Dependence of Free Charge Carrier Generation and Recombination in Blends of PCPDTBT/PC70BM: Influence of Solvent Additives.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Steve; Schindler, Wolfram; Kurpiers, Jona; Kniepert, Juliane; Blakesley, James C; Dumsch, Ines; Allard, Sybille; Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos; Scherf, Ullrich; Neher, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    We have applied time-delayed collection field (TDCF) and charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) to investigate the photogeneration, transport, and recombination of charge carriers in blends composed of PCPDTBT/PC70BM processed with and without the solvent additive diiodooctane. The results suggest that the solvent additive has severe impacts on the elementary processes involved in the photon to collected electron conversion in these blends. First, a pronounced field dependence of the free carrier generation is found for both blends, where the field dependence is stronger without the additive. Second, the fate of charge carriers in both blends can be described with a rather high bimolecular recombination coefficients, which increase with decreasing internal field. Third, the mobility is three to four times higher with the additive. Both blends show a negative field dependence of mobility, which we suggest to cause bias-dependent recombination coefficients.

  3. Empirical in operando analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in hematite photoanodes by PEIS, IMPS and IMVS.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Dino; Ellis, David Shai; Dotan, Hen; Rothschild, Avner

    2016-09-14

    In this Perspective, we introduce intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS and IMVS) as powerful tools for the analysis of charge carrier dynamics in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for solar water splitting, taking hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes as a case study. We complete the picture by including photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS) and linking the trio of PEIS, IMPS and IMVS, introduced here as photoelectrochemical immittance triplets (PIT), both mathematically and phenomenologically, demonstrating what conclusions can be extracted from these measurements. A novel way of analyzing the results by an empirical approach with minimal presumptions is introduced, using the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) function. The DRT approach is compared to conventional analysis approaches that are based on physical models and therefore come with model presumptions. This work uses a thin film hematite photoanode as a model system, but the approach can be applied to other PEC systems as well.

  4. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-02-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72 mW cm-2, which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels.

  5. Charge carrier localization induced by excess Fe in the Fe1+y(Te1-xSex) superconductor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Liu, Tijiang; Ke, Xianglin; Bin, Qian; Fobes, David; Vehstedt, Erin; Pham, Huy; Yang, Jinhu; Fang, Minghu; Spinu, Leonard; Schiffer, Peter; Liu, Ying; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2010-03-01

    Iron chalcogenide Fe1+y(Te1-xSex) is the simplified version of Fe-based superconductors. Its non-superconducting parent compound Fe1+yTe exhibits an AFM structure distinct from those seen in undoped FeAs compounds. Understanding of the superconducting properties of this system has been considered critical. We have investigated the effect of Fe nonstoichiometry on properties of the Fe1+y(Te1-xSex) superconductor system by means of resistivity, Hall coefficient, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. We find that the excess Fe at interstitial sites of the (Te, Se) layers not only suppresses superconductivity, but also results in a weakly localized electronic state. Together with neutron scattering studies and recent DFT calculations, our results suggest that such weak charge carrier localization originates from the magnetic coupling between the excess Fe and the adjacent Fe square planar sheets.

  6. Dynamics of charge carriers at the place of the formation of a muonic atom in diamond and silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S. A.; Belousov, Yu. M.; Solov'ev, V. R.

    2012-11-15

    The space-time distribution of charge carriers at the place of the location of a muonic atom formed when a negative muon is captured by an atom of the lattice has been numerically simulated taking into account the self-consistent electric field. The results of {mu}SR experiments with negative muons in diamond crystals have been explained and reasons for the difference in the behavior of the spin polarization of the negative muon in boron-doped diamond and in silicon have been revealed. The condition of the validity of the analytical solution of this problem has been obtained. It has been shown that the muonic atom in diamond, in contrast to silicon, does not form a neutral acceptor center in the paramagnetic state during the muon experiment and remains in the diamagnetic state of a positive ion.

  7. The Effect of Dynamical Image Forces on The Transport Properties of Charge Carriers and Excitons in Metal-Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherqui, Charles

    We examine coupled metal nanoparticle/semiconductor hybrid nano-stuctures and analyze the effect that the surface response metal nanoparticles (MNP) has on the transport properties of the system. This analysis is accomplished by treating surface plasmons as quantum oscillators. We find that charge carriers traveling in the nearby semiconductors experience a repulsion due to the ground state energy of the quantum SP (QSP). This effect is shown to be the quantum analogue of the ponderomotive effect found in plasma physics. We then extend the theory to examine the transport properties of carbon nano-tube excitons in the presence of localized SPs and show that this system maps onto a Fano-Anderson Hamiltonian. Through numerical simulation, we show that the emission patterns of the system are severely modified by the presence of localized surface plasmons.

  8. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72 mW cm(-2), which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels.

  9. Redox-active charge carriers of conducting polymers as a tuner of conductivity and its potential window

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Saem; Ko, Seo-Jin; Park, Jeong-Seok; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2013-01-01

    Electric conductivity of conducting polymers has been steadily enhanced towards a level worthy of being called its alias, “synthetic metal”. PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate)), as a representative conducting polymer, recently reached around 3,000 S cm−1, the value to open the possibility to replace transparent conductive oxides. The leading strategy to drive the conductivity increase is solvent annealing in which aqueous solution of PEDOT:PSS is treated with an assistant solvent such as DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide). In addition to the conductivity enhancement, we found that the potential range in which PEDOT:PSS is conductive is tuned wider into a negative potential direction by the DMSO-annealing. Also, the increase in a redox-active fraction of charge carriers is proposed to be responsible for the enhancement of conductivity in the solvent annealing process. PMID:23949091

  10. Dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-based polymer electrolytes embedded with ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, we have studied dynamics and relaxation of the charge carriers in polymethylmethacrylate-lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide polymer electrolytes embedded with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid. We have analyzed the frequency dependent conductivity spectra using the random free-energy barrier model coupled with the contribution of electrode polarization in the low frequency region. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity, and relaxation time obtained from the analysis of the spectra exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behavior. The Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation is consistent with the results obtained from the random free-energy barrier model. The scaling of ac conductivity spectra has been performed to understand the effect of temperature as well as the composition on the relaxation mechanism. The analysis of the ac conductivity also clearly indicates the existence of a nearly constant loss phenomenon at low temperatures or at high frequencies.

  11. Concentration and mobility of charge carriers in thin polymers at high temperature determined by electrode polarization modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaham, Sombel; Locatelli, Marie-Laure

    2012-07-01

    Charge carrier concentration (n0) and effective mobility (μeff) are reported in two polymer films (<10 μm) and in a very high temperature range (from 200 to 400 °C). This was possible thanks to an electrode polarization modeling of broadband dielectric spectroscopy data. It is shown that the glass transition temperature (Tg) occurrence has a strong influence on the temperature dependence of n0 and μeff. We carry out that n0 presents two distinct Arrhenius-like behaviors below and above Tg, while μeff exhibits a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman behavior only above Tg whatever the polymer under study. For polyimide films, n0 varies from 1 × 1014 to 4 × 1016 cm-3 and μeff from 1 × 10-8 to 2 × 10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1 between 200 °C to 400 °C. Poly(amide-imide) films show n0 values between 6 × 1016 and 4 × 1018 cm-3 from 270 °C to 400 °C, while μeff varies between 1 × 10-10 and 2 × 10-7 cm2 V-1 s-1. Considering the activation energies of these physical parameters in the temperature range of investigation, n0 and μeff values appear as coherent with those reported in the literature at lower temperature (<80 °C). Surface charge carrier concentrations (nS) are reported and discussed for potential passivation (i.e., surface electrical insulation) applications. Polyimide films appear as good candidates due to nS values less than 1011 cm-2 up to 300 °C.

  12. Photoinduced Charge Carrier Generation and Decay in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/Fullerene Layers: Bulk Heterojunction vs. Planar Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Nardes, A.; Ayzner, A.; Hammond, S.; Ferguson, A.; Schwartz, B.; Kopidakis, N.

    2012-04-05

    In this work, we use the time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) technique to study the dynamics of charge carrier generation in sequentially deposited conjugated polymer/fullerene layers. These layers are either fully solution-processed, using orthogonal solvents for the layers of the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene phenyl-C{sup 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), or prepared by thermally evaporating a C{sup 60} layer onto P3HT films. Our work is motivated by the remarkable efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices using a sequentially processed P3HT/PCBM active layer. Here we use an electrodeless photoconductivity probe, so we can photoexcite the sample either through the polymer or the fullerene layer. We use samples with extremely thick P3HT films (2.4 {micro}m) and show that excitation from either side of both as-cast and thermally annealed sample yields virtually identical results, consistent with mixing of the PCBM into the polymer film. We also compare solution-deposited samples to samples made by thermally evaporating C{sup 60} on P3HT, and find that we can distinguish between charge generation in bulk-P3HT and at the polymer/fullerene interface. We show that, despite their morphological differences, the carrier dynamics in the sequentially processed samples resemble those of mixed, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. All of this is consistent with the idea that PCBM readily mixes into the P3HT film in sequentially deposited P3HT/PCBM samples, although the total amount of fullerene mixed into the P3HT appears to be less than that typically used in an optimized BHJ. Finally, we discuss the implications for OPV device architectures prepared by sequential deposition from solution.

  13. Charge Carriers in Planar and Meso-Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Mobilities, Lifetimes, and Concentrations of Trap States.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Eline M; Eperon, Giles E; Stranks, Samuel D; Savenije, Tom J

    2015-08-06

    Efficient solar cells have been obtained using thin films of solution-processed organic-inorganic perovskites. However, there remains limited knowledge about the relationship between preparation route and optoelectronic properties. We use complementary time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements to investigate the charge carrier dynamics in thin planar films of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x), CH3NH3PbI3, and their meso-structured analogues. High mobilities close to 30 cm(2)/(V s) and microsecond-long lifetimes are found in thin films of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x), compared to lifetimes of only a few hundred nanoseconds in CH3NH3PbI3 and meso-structured perovskites. We describe our TRMC and PL experiments with a global kinetic model, using one set of kinetic parameters characteristic for each sample. We find that the trap density is less than 5 × 10(14) cm(-3) in CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x), 6 × 10(16) cm(-3) in the CH3NH3PbI3 thin film and ca. 10(15) cm(-3) in both meso-structured perovskites. Furthermore, our results imply that band-to-band recombination is enhanced by the presence of dark carriers resulting from unintentional doping of the perovskites. Finally, our general approach to determine concentrations of trap states and dark carriers is also highly relevant to other semiconductor materials.

  14. Anomalous transition of major charge carriers from holes to electrons observed in single-crystal films of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Liu, G. Z.; Gao, J.; Wang, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten (W) films were grown on SrTi O3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that these as-grown films are highly epitaxial and single crystalline with the [00 l ] orientation. A special lattice stacking for the W/STO interface is observed to significantly reduce the lattice mismatching, which can be explained by the coincidence lattice model. The Hall effect has been investigated over the temperature range of 4-330 K. An anomalous transition of the major charge carriers from holes to electrons was observed in these W films upon cooling. The threshold temperature, in which the sign of the Hall coefficient RH was reversed, was found to increase with the film thinning. With the sample's thickness reduced to several unit cells, its major carriers remained electrons even at room temperature. Calculations using the density functional perturbation theory revealed that such a transition from p type to n type could be attributed to the appearance of an electron pocket along the M-Γ direction induced by the lattice mismatching between the W film and SrTi O3 substrate.

  15. Molecular weight dependent charge carrier mobility in poly(3,3' '-dioctyl-2,2':5',2' '-terthiophene).

    PubMed

    Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Pokrop, Rafal; LeBlevennec, Gilles; Kulszewicz-Bajer, Irena; Buga, Katarzyna; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Sadki, Said; Pron, Adam

    2006-07-13

    Poly(3,3' '-dioctyl-2,2':5',2' '-terthiophene), a polymer recently used for the fabrication of organic field effect transistors, has been fractionated into five fractions distinctly differing in their molecular weights (Mn), with the goal of determining the influence of the degree of polymerization (DPn) on its principal physicochemical parameters. It has been demonstrated that within the Mn range studied (from 1.5 kDa to 10.5 kDa by SEC), corresponding to DPn from 10 to 38, the polymer band gap steadily decreases with growing molecular weight, which is clearly manifested by an increasing bathochromic shift of the band originating from the pi-pi* transition. The same trend is observed for the HOMO level, determined from the onset of the p-doping in cyclic voltammetry, which shifts from -5.10 eV to -4.90 eV for the lowest and the highest molecular weight fractions, respectively. The most pronounced influence of DPn has been found for the charge carriers' mobility-one of the most important parameters of field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated from this polymer. A fourfold increase in DPn results in an increase of the carriers' mobility by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Comparison of these results with those obtained for fractionated regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) shows a strikingly similar behavior of both polymers with respect to the molecular weight.

  16. Structural features of the photogeneration mechanism of free charge carriers in element-containing polydisalicylidene azomethine series

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrova, E. L.; Ivanov, A. G. Geller, N. M. Shamanin, V. V.

    2010-05-15

    Photophysical properties of new polytetra- and polydisalicylidene azomethines (PSAMs) with chains containing Si, Ge, Sn, or transition metal atoms and atoms of a number of other divalent metals are studied. Based on data on ultraviolet and infrared spectra, it was found that the noncovalent transannular donor-acceptor interaction N M (M is semimetal or metal) occurs in polymers, which leads to the formation of a polymer chain of six-membered cycles. As a result, polyconjugations arise in PSAMs by a 'non-classical' mechanism. Due to multiple donor-acceptor interactions of unshared electron pairs of azomethine groups with vacant d-orbitals in metals, polymers feature conductive, photosensitive, and photoconductive properties. The photosensitivity and quantum yield of photogeneration of free charge carriers for PSAMs are close to the values characteristic of classical conducting polymers. It was shown that the PSAM properties are controlled by the azomethine fragment structure and acceptor properties of metal. A mechanism of free carrier photogeneration was suggested.

  17. Low Exciton-Phonon Coupling, High Charge Carrier Mobilities, and Multiexciton Properties in Two-Dimensional Lead, Silver, Cadmium, and Copper Chalcogenide Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek; Goodman, Samuel M; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-12-18

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has revealed novel physical properties, like high carrier mobilities and the tunable coupling of charge carriers with phonons, which can enable wide-ranging applications in optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. While mechanical exfoliation of graphene and some transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WSe2) has enabled their fabrication as 2D semiconductors and integration into devices, lack of similar syntheses for other 2D semiconductor materials has hindered further progress. Here, we report measurements of fundamental charge carrier interactions and optoelectronic properties of 2D nanomaterials made from two-monolayers-thick PbX, CdX, Cu2X, and Ag2X (X = S, Se) using colloidal syntheses. Extremely low coupling of charge carriers with phonons (2-6-fold lower than bulk and other low-dimensional semiconductors), high carrier mobilities (0.2-1.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), without dielectric screening), observation of infrared surface plasmons in ultrathin 2D semiconductor nanostructures, strong quantum-confinement, and other multiexcitonic properties (different phonon coupling and photon-to-charge collection efficiencies for band-edge and higher-energy excitons) can pave the way for efficient solution-processed devices made from these 2D nanostructured semiconductors.

  18. Correlated evolution of barrier capacitance charging, generation, and drift currents and of carrier lifetime in Si structures during 25 MeV neutrons irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Jasiunas, A.; Uleckas, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Cortina, E.; Militaru, O.

    2012-12-03

    The in situ examination of barrier capacitance charging, of generation and drift currents, and of carrier lifetime in Si structures during 25 MeV neutrons irradiation has been implemented to correlate radiation induced changes in carrier recombination, thermal release, and drift characteristics and to clarify their impact on detector performance. It has been shown that microwave probed photo-conductivity technique implemented in contact-less and distant manner can be a powerful tool for examination in wide dynamic range of carrier lifetime modified by radiation defects and for rather precise prediction of detector performance.

  19. Scaling dependence of memory windows and different carrier charging behaviors in Si nanocrystal nonvolatile memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Chen, Kun-ji; Ma, Zhong-yuan; Zhang, Xin-xin; Jiang, Xiao-fan; Wu, Yang-qing; Huang, Xin-fan; Oda, Shunri

    2016-09-01

    Based on the charge storage mode, it is important to investigate the scaling dependence of memory performance in silicon nanocrystal (Si-NC) nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices for its scaling down limit. In this work, we made eight kinds of test key cells with different gate widths and lengths by 0.13-μm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It is found that the memory windows of eight kinds of test key cells are almost the same of about 1.64 V @ ± 7 V/1 ms, which are independent of the gate area, but mainly determined by the average size (12 nm) and areal density (1.8 × 1011/cm2) of Si-NCs. The program/erase (P/E) speed characteristics are almost independent of gate widths and lengths. However, the erase speed is faster than the program speed of test key cells, which is due to the different charging behaviors between electrons and holes during the operation processes. Furthermore, the data retention characteristic is also independent of the gate area. Our findings are useful for further scaling down of Si-NC NVM devices to improve the performance and on-chip integration. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2010CB934402) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374153, 61571221, and 61071008).

  20. Evaluation of Intrinsic Charge Carrier Transport at Insulator-Semiconductor Interfaces Probed by a Non-Contact Microwave-Based Technique

    PubMed Central

    Honsho, Yoshihito; Miyakai, Tomoyo; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully designed the geometry of the microwave cavity and the thin metal electrode, achieving resonance of the microwave cavity with the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) device structure. This very simple MIS device operates in the cavity, where charge carriers are injected quantitatively by an applied bias at the insulator-semiconductor interface. The local motion of the charge carriers was clearly probed through the applied external microwave field, also giving the quantitative responses to the injected charge carrier density and charge/discharge characteristics. By means of the present measurement system named field-induced time-resolved microwave conductivity (FI-TRMC), the pentacene thin film in the MIS device allowed the evaluation of the hole and electron mobility at the insulator-semiconductor interface of 6.3 and 0.34 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. This is the first report on the direct, intrinsic, non-contact measurement of charge carrier mobility at interfaces that has been fully experimentally verified. PMID:24212382

  1. Charge carrier dynamics investigation of CuInS2 quantum dots films using injected charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (i-CELIV): the role of ZnS Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Ke; Sui, Ning; Zhang, Liquan; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Qinghui; Tan, Mingrui; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Hanzhuang

    2016-12-01

    The role of ZnS shell on the photo-physical properties within CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) is carefully studied in optoelectronic devices. Linearly increasing voltage technique has been employed to investigate the charge carrier dynamics of both CuInS2 and CuInS2/ZnS QDs films. This study shows that charge carriers follow a similar behavior of monomolecular recombination in this film, with their charge transfer rate correlates to the increase of applied voltage. It turns out that the ZnS shell could affect the carrier diffusion process through depressing the trapping states and would build up a potential barrier.

  2. Direct probing of charge carrier behavior in multilayered organic light-emitting diode devices by time-resolved electric-field-induced sum-frequency generation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamae, Takayuki; Takada, Noriyuki; Ohata, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2017-10-01

    Time-resolved electric-field-induced sum-frequency generation (EFI-SFG) spectroscopy was employed to study the charge behavior of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Through application of the square wave pulse bias to the OLEDs, compensation for the polarization charges in the electron transport layer and the generation of 4,4‧-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-N-phenylamino)-biphenyl] (α-NPD) cations were observed. When the pulse voltage was turned off, the α-NPD cations immediately disappeared, confirming that charge recombination occurs at the interfaces. We therefore concluded that time-resolved EFI-SFG is useful for directly probing the carrier behavior in OLEDs in addition to identifying the origin of the charge carriers present in OLEDs.

  3. Thermal influence on charge carrier transport in solar cells based on GaAs PN junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Osses-Márquez, Juan; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R.

    2014-10-21

    The electron and hole one-dimensional transport in a solar cell based on a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) PN junction and its dependency with electron and lattice temperatures are studied here. Electrons and heat transport are treated on an equal footing, and a cell operating at high temperatures using concentrators is considered. The equations of a two-temperature hydrodynamic model are written in terms of asymptotic expansions for the dependent variables with the electron Reynolds number as a perturbation parameter. The dependency of the electron and hole densities through the junction with the temperature is analyzed solving the steady-state model at low Reynolds numbers. Lattice temperature distribution throughout the device is obtained considering the change of kinetic energy of electrons due to interactions with the lattice and heat absorbed from sunlight. In terms of performance, higher values of power output are obtained with low lattice temperature and hot energy carriers. This modeling contributes to improve the design of heat exchange devices and thermal management strategies in photovoltaic technologies.

  4. Design of a phytosphingosine-containing, positively-charged nanoemulsion as a colloidal carrier system for dermal application of ceramides.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erol; Borchert, Hans-Hubert

    2005-05-01

    Positively charged oil/water (o/w) nanoemulsions (PN) are effective vehicles to change the permeability of the skin. This study focused on the preparation and characterisation of phytosphingosine (PS) containing PN (PPN) which serve as colloidal carriers for the dermal application of ceramide IIIB (CIIIB) and the stratum corneum (SC) lipids (PPNSC) such as ceramide III (CIII), cholesterol, and palmitic acid. The investigations were conducted using appropriate emulsification and homogenisation processing conditions to optimise PPNSC with regard to droplet size, physical stability, and solubility of PS, CIII and CIIIB. A decrease in droplet size was observed through eight homogenisation cycles at a pressure of 500 bar and a temperature of 50 degrees C. Above these optimal values, an increase in droplet size was observed. PS and ceramides have low solubilities in oil and water. When Lipoid E-80 (LE80) was added to the oil phase, the solubility of PS and ceramides increased, indicating some interactions shown by DSC measurements. SC lipids and CIIIB could be successfully incorporated in PPN without producing any physical instability. The high stability of PPNSC is probably due to the presence of a hydrophilic (Tween 80) and a lipophilic surfactant (LE80), supported by the lipophilic cosurfactant PS, at the o/w interface. It was shown that PS was responsible for the positive charge and thus supported the high physical stability of PPNSC. This optimised emulsion was selected for further skin absorption evaluation.

  5. Charge carrier transport properties in polymer liquid crystals containing oxadiazole and amine moieties in the same side chain.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Masuki; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Tomiki; Iino, Hiroaki; Hanna, Jun-ichi

    2005-05-19

    Steady-state and transient photocurrent measurements were carried out to study the charge carrier transport properties of polymer liquid crystal (LC) containing oxadiazole (OXD) and amine moieties in the same side chain. The steady-state photocurrent measurement with asymmetric electrodes of ITO and Al and a short penetration depth of the illumination light indicated that both electrons and holes can be transported in this film. The transient hole photocurrent observed by time-of-flight (TOF) experiments was dispersive at room temperature. The hole drift mobility significantly depended on temperature and electric field and was determined to be 6.1 x 10(-8) cm2/Vs at a field of 9.1 x 10(5) V/cm. According to the disorder formalism, the Gaussian width of the density of states was determined to be 170 meV for holes. Despite the indication of possible electron transport in this film, we could not determine the electron mobility by TOF experiments due to strong dispersive photocurrent. We discuss the present charge transport properties of the film in relation to a large dipole attributed to an electrical push-pull structure of p-dimethylaminophenyl-substitited OXD moiety in polymer LC and its electroluminescent properties.

  6. Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag2S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (hνth) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction.The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the

  7. Charge carrier separation in nanostructured TiO2 photoelectrodes for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Alexander J; Leng, Wenhua; Barnes, Piers R F; Klug, David R; Durrant, James R

    2013-06-14

    There is intense interest in developing new novel nanostructured photoanodes for water splitting. It is therefore important that methods to analyze the effect of nanostructuring on water splitting yields are developed in order to rationalize the relative merits of this approach for different materials. In this study the dependence of charge separation efficiency (η(sep)) on potential during photoelectrochemical water splitting at pH 2 has been quantified in a model electrode system (nanocrystalline, mesoporous TiO2) using two independent methods. These are (i) analysis of incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements and (ii) transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy measurements. The techniques provide good agreement with each other and show that a low maximum value of η(sep) (~0.18) is the primary cause of the low IPCE for water oxidation on these nc-TiO2 electrodes.

  8. Viologens as charge carriers in a polymer-based battery anode.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sujat; Saraidaridis, James; Kim, Sung Yeol; Palmore, G Tayhas R

    2013-08-28

    Viologens, either as anions in solution or as pendant substituents to pyrrole, were incorporated as dopants to electrodeposited films of polypyrrole. The resulting polymer films exhibited redox activity at -0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. The film consisting of polypyrrole with pendant viologens exhibited the best charge-discharge behavior with a maximum capacity of 55 mAh/g at a discharge current of 0.25 mA/cm(2). An anode consisting of polypyrrole (pPy) doped with viologen (V) was coupled to a cathode consisting of pPy doped with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) to yield a polymer-based battery with a cell electromotive force (emf) of 1.0 V, maximum capacity of 16 mAh/g, and energy density of 15 Wh/kg.

  9. Thermally assisted tunneling of charge carriers between trapping sites in calcite (CaCO3) mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2016-10-01

    Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL) mechanism of natural orange calcite mineral has been studied. The glow curve of X-ray irradiate sample has been studied in unannealed and 673 K annealed samples by a Computerized Glow Curve De-convolution (CGCD) technique. It has been observed that after exposure to X-ray, both the un-annealed and 673 K annealed samples show three distinct peaks at around 323, 360 and 409 K in the glow curves. Study on the effect of post-annealing treatment on the excited sample reveals that the 323 K peak can be thermally bleached by annealing at ∼340 K, however it is very significant that the 360 K TSL peak can't be bleached by increasing the post-annealing temperature up to 380 K. CGCD analysis reveals that the activation energies corresponding to the 323, 360 and 409 K peaks are found to be around 0.70, 0.60 and 1.30 eV respectively. The low activation energy peak observed at relatively high temperature and existence of the 360 K peak after postannealing the sample beyond its peak maximum temperature are due to thermally assisted tunneling of trapped charge from 1.30 to 0.70 eV trapping sites in calcite. This analysis leads to an important conclusion that though theoretically the glow peak observed at relatively high temperature should have high activation energy, but due to charge tunneling phenomenon between the trapping sites, glow peak observed at high temperature may have relatively low activation energy.

  10. Metal-Ligand Complex-Induced Ultrafast Charge-Carrier Relaxation and Charge-Transfer Dynamics in CdX (X=S, Se, Te) Quantum Dots Sensitized with Nitrocatechol.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Pallavi; Maity, Partha; Jha, Sanjay K; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2017-08-04

    The present work describes the effect of interfacial complex formation on charge carrier dynamics in CdX (X=S, Se, Te) quantum dots (QDs) sensitized nitro catechol (NCAT). To compare experiments were also carried out with catechol (CAT) where no such complexation was observed. Time-resolved emission studies suggest faster charge separation in CdS(Se)/NCAT system as compared to CdS(Se)/CAT although change in Gibbs free energy for hole transfer is less in former as compared to later. This suggests that complex formation favours charge separation. Similar studies were also carried out in CdTe/NCAT system where hole transfer process was not viable thermodynamically but due to complex formation charge separation was observed. Femtosecond transient absorption studies have been carried out to monitor charge carrier dynamics in early time scale. Transient studies show faster electron cooling in QDs/NCAT system as compared to pure QDs and has been assigned to the complex formation on QDs surface. Interestingly charge recombination dynamics is much faster in QDs/NCAT system as compared to pure QDs which can be attributed to the stronger coupling between QDs and NCAT. Our results suggest a strong metal-ligand complex formation on QDs surface that controls charge carrier dynamics in QDs/molecular adsorbate system and to the best of our knowledge it has never been reported. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Phase separation and charge carrier self-organization in semiconductor-multiferroic Eu0.8Ce0.2Mn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanina, V. A.; Golovenchits, E. I.; Zalesskii, V. G.; Lushnikov, S. G.; Scheglov, M. P.; Gvasaliya, S. N.; Savvinov, A.; Katiyar, R. S.; Kawaji, H.; Atake, T.

    2009-12-01

    The state with a giant permittivity (ɛ'˜104) and ferromagnetism have been observed above 185 K (including room temperature) in single crystals of diluted semiconductor manganite-multiferroic Eu0.8Ce0.2Mn2O5 in the investigations of x-ray diffraction, heat capacity, dielectric and magnetic properties, conductivity, and Raman light-scattering spectra of this material. X-ray diffraction study has revealed a layered superstructure along the c axis at room temperature. A model of the state with a giant ɛ' including as-grown two-dimensional layers with doping impurities, charge carriers, and double-exchange-coupled Mn3+-Mn4+ ion pairs is suggested. At low temperatures these layers form isolated electrically neutral small-size one-dimensional superlattices, in which de Haas-van Alphen oscillations were observed. As temperature grows and hopping conductivity increases, the charge carrier self-organization in the crystal causes formation of a layered superstructure consisting of charged layers (with an excess Mn3+ concentration) alternating with dielectric layers of the initial crystal—the ferroelectricity due to charge-ordering state. Ferromagnetism results from double exchange between Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions by means of charge carriers in the charged layers. Temperature evolution of frequency shifts of Ag modes and quasielastic scattering in Raman-scattering spectra agree with the pattern of phase transitions in ECMO suggested.

  12. Selective contacts drive charge extraction in quantum dot solids via asymmetry in carrier transfer kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Sero, Ivan; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Gonzalez-Pedro, Victoria; Gimenez, Sixto; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Kemp, Kyle W.; Sargent, Edward H.; Bisquert, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

  13. High-resolution charge carrier mobility mapping of heterogeneous organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Steven W.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2017-08-01

    Organic electronic device performance is contingent on charge transport across a heterogeneous landscape of structural features. Methods are therefore needed to unravel the effects of local structure on overall electrical performance. Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we construct high-resolution out-of-plane hole mobility maps from arrays of 5000 to 16 000 current-voltage curves. To demonstrate the efficacy of this non-invasive approach for quantifying and mapping local differences in electrical performance due to structural heterogeneities, we investigate two thin film test systems, one bearing a heterogeneous crystal structure [solvent vapor annealed 5,11-Bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophene (TES-ADT)—a small molecule organic semiconductor] and one bearing a heterogeneous chemical composition [p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM—a high-performance organic photovoltaic active layer]. TES-ADT shows nearly an order of magnitude difference in hole mobility between semicrystalline and crystalline areas, along with a distinct boundary between the two regions, while p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM exhibits subtle local variations in hole mobility and a nanoscale domain structure with features below 10 nm in size. We also demonstrate mapping of the built-in potential, which plays a significant role in organic light emitting diode and organic solar cell operation.

  14. Nonequilibrium green function approach to elastic and inelastic spin-charge transport in topological insulator-based heterostructures and magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad

    Current and future technological needs increasingly motivate the intensive scientific research of the properties of materials at the nano-scale. One of the most important domains in this respect at present concerns nano-electronics and its diverse applications. The great interest in this domain arises from the potential reduction of the size of the circuit components, maintaining their quality and functionality, and aiming at greater efficiency, economy, and storage characteristics for the corresponding physical devices. The aim of this thesis is to present a contribution to the analysis of the electronic charge and spin transport phenomena that occur at the quantum level in nano-structures. This thesis spans the areas of quantum transport theory through time-dependent systems, electron-boson interacting systems and systems of interest to spintronics. A common thread in the thesis is to develop the theoretical foundations and computational algorithms to numerically simulate such systems. In order to optimize the numerical calculations I resort to different techniques (such as graph theory in finding inverse of a sparse matrix, adaptive grids for integrations and programming languages (e.g., MATLAB and C++) and distributed computing tools (MPI, CUDA). Outline of the Thesis: After giving an introduction to the topics covered in this thesis in Chapter 1, I present the theoretical foundations to the field of non-equilibrium quantum statistics in Chapter 2. The applications of this formalism and the results are covered in the subsequent chapters as follows: Spin and charge quantum pumping in time-dependent systems: Covered in Chapters 3, 4 and 5, this topics was initially motivated by experiments on measuring voltage signal from a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) exposed to a microwave radiation in ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) condition. In Chapter 3 we found a possible explanation for the finite voltage signal measured from a tunnel junction consisting of only a single

  15. Ultrasonic coupling to optically generated charge carriers in CdS: Physical phenomena and applications. Ph.D. Thesis - Washington Univ., Saint Louis, Mo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Phonon-charge carrier interactions are studied as well as ultrasonic resonators. Sensitivity enhancement factors predicted by one dimensional resonator theory are verified and several sensitive ultrasonic experimental techniques are developed. Measurements are reported of an anomalous sign reversal of the acoustoelectric voltage in a CdS resonator. Applications of CdS as an ultrasonic power detector are described.

  16. Narrowing of band gap and effective charge carrier separation in oxygen deficient TiO2 nanotubes with improved visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Biswajit; Bayan, Sayan; Choudhury, Amarjyoti; Chakraborty, Purushottam

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen vacancies are introduced into hydrothermally processed TiO2 nanotube by vacuum calcination. Formation of oxygen vacancies modifies the local coordination in TiO2 as evident from Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) results. The surface area is increased from 172.5m(2)/g in pure to 405.1m(2)/g in defective TiO2 nanotube. The mid-band gap electronic states created by oxygen vacancies are mostly responsible for the effective narrowing of band gap. Charge carrier separation is sufficiently prolonged as the charged oxygen defect states inhibit facile carrier recombination. With high surface area, narrowed band gap and separated charge carriers defective TiO2 nanotube is a suitable candidate in the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) and phenol under visible light illumination. Photosensitized electron transfer from MB to the conduction band of TiO2 and the photodegradation of MB is facilitated in presence of high density of oxygen vacancies. Unlike MB, phenol absorbs in the UV region and does not easily excited under visible light. Phenol shows activity under visible light by forming charge transfer complex with TiO2. Defect trapped carriers become available at the phenol-TiO2 interface and finally interact with phenol molecule and degrade it.

  17. Effect of Fluorine Substitution on the Charge Carrier Dynamics of Benzothiadiazole-Based Solar Cell Materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Sik; Kim, In-Bok; Kim, Dong-Yu; Kwon, Seong-Hoon; Ko, Do-Kyeong

    2016-08-01

    The femtosecond transient absorption (TA) characterization of a new benzothiadiazole (BT)-based donor-acceptor conjugated copolymer, poly[(2,6-dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]thiophene)-alt-(4,7-di(4-octyldodecylthiopen-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (PBT), as well as its fluorinated derivatives, PFBT and PDFBT, is carried out. Additionally, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films consisting of the copolymers and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butylic acid methyl ester (PC70 BM) are examined using TA spectroscopy. Both the singlet excited state dynamics in the copolymers and the charge transfer state dynamics in the BHJs are investigated in terms of fluorination dependency; the fluorinated copolymers exhibit less singlet exciton recombination rate than the fluorine-free copolymer, and the BHJs including the fluorinated copolymers display slower monomolecular recombination than the fluorine-free analogue. Furthermore, the excitation-intensity-dependent TA dynamics of the copolymers and BHJs is investigated, revealing that, when sufficiently high excitation intensity is used to induce annihilation processes, the fluorinated copolymers and BHJs incorporating the fluorinated copolymers show more rapid TA decay ascribable to morphological enhancement. These TA spectroscopic findings are found to correlate with the device characteristics with respect to fluorinated content in the polymer solar cells. In particular, both the short-circuit current density and fill factor of BHJ solar cells correspond closely with the fast decay parameters of the BHJ films under high excitation intensity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Emission and Dynamics of Charge Carriers in Uncoated and Organic/Metal Coated Semiconductor Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveh Baghbadorani, Masoud

    In this dissertation, the dynamics of excitons in hybrid metal/organic/nanowire structures possessing nanometer thick deposited molecular and metal films on top of InP and GaAs nanowire (NW) surfaces were investigated. Optical characterizations were carried out as a function of the semiconductor NW material, design, NW size and the type and thickness of the organic material and metal used. Hybrid organic and plasmonic semiconductor nanowire heterostructures were fabricated using organic molecular beam deposition technique. I investigated the photon emission of excitons in 150 nm diameter polytype wurtzite/zincblende InP NWs and the influence of a few ten nanometer thick organic and metal films on the emission using intensity- and temperature-dependent time-integrated and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The plasmonic NWs were coated with an Aluminum quinoline (Alq3) interlayer and magnesium-silver (Mg0.9:Ag0.1) top layer. In addition, the nonlinear optical technique of heterodyne four-wave mixing was used (in collaboration with Prof. Wolfgang Langbein, University of Cardiff) to study incoherent and coherent carrier relaxation processes on bare nanowires on a 100 femtosecond time-scale. Alq3 covered NWs reveal a stronger emission and a longer decay time of exciton transitions indicating surface state passivation at the Alq3/NW interface. Alq3/Mg:Ag NWs reveal a strong quenching of the exciton emission which is predominantly attributed to Forster energy-transfer from excitons to plasmon oscillations in the metal cluster film. Changing the Mg:Ag to gold and the organic Alq3 spacer layer to PTCDA leads to a similar behavior, but the PL quenching is strongly increased. The observed behavior is attributed to a more continuous gold deposition leading to an increased Forster energy transfer and to a metal induced band-bending. I also investigated ensembles of bare and gold/Alq3 coated GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs core shell NWs of 130 nm diameter. Plasmonic NWs with Au

  19. Quadrimolecular recombination kinetics of photogenerated charge carriers in the composites of regioregular polythiophene derivatives and soluble fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hisaaki; Yokoi, Yuki; Hasegawa, Naoki; Kuroda, Shin-ichi; Iijima, Takayuki; Sato, Takao; Yamamoto, Takakazu

    2010-04-01

    Light-induced electron spin resonance (LESR) measurements have been performed on the composites of regioregular polythiophene derivatives and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in order to study the recombination kinetics of photogenerated charge carriers. We adopt two regioregular polymers with different side chains; head-to-tail poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) and head-to-head poly(3-dodecynylthiophene-2,5-diyl) [HH-P3(C≡CDec)Th]. In both systems, two LESR signals due to positive polarons on the polymer (g ˜2.002) and fullerene radical anions (g ˜2.000) have been observed. Quadrimolecular recombination (QR) kinetics, previously reported for RR-P3HT/C60 composites, where two positive polarons and two radical anions recombine simultaneously, has been confirmed in both systems by the observation of Iex0.25 dependence of the LESR intensity on the excitation light intensity (Iex) and the decay curve of the LESR intensity. This process implies the formation of doubly-charged states such as bipolarons or polaron pairs on the polymer to attract two radical anions. Temperature dependence of the QR rate constant, γ, in both systems has exhibited a crossover of the transport mechanism from low temperature tunneling to high temperature hopping process, as in the case of RR-P3HT/C60 composites. In the RR-P3HT/PCBM composites, γ has exhibited marked dependencies on the PCBM concentration or annealing, which may be related to the change of the crystallinity of the phase-separated polymer and fullerene domains as well as their interface structures, affecting the carrier mobilities or the trap states at the interface. Associated change of the molecular orientation of RR-P3HT crystalline domains with the lamellar structure has been further confirmed from the anisotropic LESR signals of the cast films on the substrates, exhibiting a qualitative agreement with the reported x-ray or optical analyses. In the HH-P3(C≡CDec)Th/PCBM composite, γ has been smaller

  20. Simultaneous determination of built-in voltage and charge carrier mobility in organic diodes from light intensity dependent current-voltage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fobao; Peng, Yingquan; Xu, Kun; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Sunan; Wang, Ying; Tang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Yang, Yuhuan; Liu, Guohan

    2017-05-01

    Built-in voltage (V bi) and charge carrier mobility are essential parameters of organic diodes, such as organic photodiodes, organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells. The existing methods for charge carrier mobility measurement require either expensive equipment, or stringent sample preparation. We demonstrate a method that simultaneously determines the V bi and charge carrier mobility in organic photodiodes and solar cells from incident light intensity dependent current-voltage characteristics. The V bi is determined from the saturation open-circuit voltage, while the charge carrier mobility from the space-charge limited photocurrent. The V bi for organic diodes, ‘ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP)/Al’, ‘ITO/ lead phthalocyanine (PbPc)/BCP/Al’, ‘ITO/CuPc/C60/BCP/Al’, and ‘ITO/PbPc/C60/BCP/Al’, were measured to be 0.583  ±  0.019, 0.458  ±  0.002, 0.605  ±  0.009 and 0.538  ±  0.004 V, respectively; the hole mobility of CuPc and PbPc thin films were measured to be (1.383  ±  0.367)  ×  10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and (3.675  ±  0.887)  ×  10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The measured values for V bi and carrier mobility coincide with related experimental results reported in other literature.

  1. Mean carrier transport properties and charge collection dynamics of single-crystal, natural type IIa diamonds from ion-induced conductivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sung Su

    1993-09-01

    Ion-induced conductivity has been used to investigate the detector characteristics of diamond detectors. Both integrated-charge, and time-resolved current measurements were performed to examine the mean carrier transport properties of diamond and the dynamics of charge collection under highly-localized and high-density excitation conditions. The integrated-charge measurements were conducted with a standard pulse-counting system with 241Am radioactivity as the excitation source for the detectors. The time-resolved current measurements were performed using a 70 GHz random sampling oscilloscope with the detectors incorporated into high-speed microstrip transmission lines and the excitation source for these measurements was an ion beam of either 5-MeV He+ or 10-MeV Si3+. The detectors used in both experiments can be described as metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices where a volume of the detector material is sandwiched between two metal plates. A charge collection model was developed to interpret the integrated-charge measurements which enabled estimation of the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair (ϵdi) and the mean carrier transport properties in diamond, such as carrier mobility and lifetime, and the behavior of the electrical contacts to diamond.

  2. Influence of charge carrier doping on the T^*-scale in YbRh2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegenwart, Philipp; Jeevan, H. S.; Tokiwa, Y.; Schubert, M.; McHalwat, M.; Blumenroether, E.

    2012-02-01

    YbRh2Si2 is a prototype heavy-fermion metal which displays a magnetic field-induced antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). It has attracted much attention due to an additional low-energy scale T^(B) merging at the QCP, whose origin is controversially discussed. Here, we report measurements of the electrical resistivity ρ(T,B) on different single crystalline samples of charge-carrier doped Yb(Rh1-xTx)2Si2 (T=Fe, Ni) at temperatures down to 15 mK and in magnetic fields up to 7 T. The partial substitution of Rh by either Fe or Ni introduces holes or electrons, respectively. The evolution of the single-ion Kondo scale is similar as for isoelectronic Co substitution and in accordance with the chemical pressure effect. However, while chemical pressure has little influence on T^(B), we observe a drastic reduction or increase of B^(T=0) by Fe- or Ni-doping, respectively. Most interestingly, B^(T=0) is always pinned at the field-induced AF QCP, in contrast to chemical pressure results. As AF order is completely suppressed by Fe-doping, a heavy Fermi liquid ground (without T^(B) anomaly) is observed.

  3. Photogenerated charge carriers and reactive oxygen species in ZnO/Au hybrid nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    He, Weiwei; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Wamer, Wayne G; Melka, David; Callahan, John H; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2014-01-15

    Semiconductor nanostructures with photocatalytic activity have the potential for many applications including remediation of environmental pollutants and use in antibacterial products. An effective way for promoting photocatalytic activity is depositing noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a semiconductor. In this paper, we demonstrated the successful deposition of Au NPs, having sizes smaller than 3 nm, onto ZnO NPs. ZnO/Au hybrid nanostructures having different molar ratios of Au to ZnO were synthesized. It was found that Au nanocomponents even at a very low Au/ZnO molar ratio of 0.2% can greatly enhance the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy with spin trapping and spin labeling was used to investigate the enhancing effect of Au NPs on the generation of reactive oxygen species and photoinduced charge carriers. Deposition of Au NPs onto ZnO resulted in a dramatic increase in light-induced generation of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen, and production of holes and electrons. The enhancing effect of Au was dependent on the molar ratio of Au present in the ZnO/Au nanostructures. Consistent with these results from ESR measurements, ZnO/Au nanostructures also exhibited enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. These results unveiled the enhanced mechanism of Au on ZnO and these materials have great potential for use in water purification and antibacterial products.

  4. Promoting Morphology with a Favorable Density of States Using Diiodooctane to Improve Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency and Charge Carrier Lifetimes

    DOE PAGES

    Garner, Logan E.; Bera, Abhijit; Larson, Bryon W.; ...

    2017-06-06

    Due to the inherent challenges in probing nanoscale properties within bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layers of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, the relationship between morphology and nanoscale electronic structure is not well understood. Here, we employ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) dI/dV imaging and localized density of states (DOS) spectra to investigate the influence of additives on morphology in a high-performance OPV system. In short, we are able to correlate the use of diiodooctane (DIO) additive with significant changes to the distribution of the localized DOS, most notably a broader distribution of PCE10 polymer HOMO levels and PC70BM fullerene LUMO levels, asmore » well as significantly smaller domain sizes and significantly higher overall device efficiencies. We further correlate this data with a nearly 3-fold increase in charge carrier lifetimes in the active layer when DIO is employed, determined by time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements. In conclusion, the results are consistent with the growing body of literature evidence that DIO promotes the formation of a polymer/fullerene mixed phase and therefore highlight the unique information that this combination of techniques can provide when investigating OPV active layer morphology.« less

  5. Effect of surface charge on the brain delivery of nanostructured lipid carriers in situ gels via the nasal route.

    PubMed

    Gabal, Yasmine M; Kamel, Amany O; Sammour, Omaima A; Elshafeey, Ahmed H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the nanocarrier surface charge on brain delivery of a model hydrophilic drug via the nasal route. Anionic and cationic nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared and optimized for their particle size and zeta potential. The optimum particles were incorporated in poloxamer in situ gels and their in vivo behavior was studied in the plasma and brain after administration to rats. Optimum anionic and cationic NLCs of size <200 nm and absolute zeta potential value of ≈ 34 mV were obtained. Toxicity study revealed mild to moderate reversible inflammation of the nasal epithelium in rats treated with the anionic NLCs (A7), and destruction of the lining mucosal nasal epithelium in rats treated with the cationic NLCs (C7L). The absolute bioavailability of both drug loaded anionic and cationic NLCs in situ gels was enhanced compared to that of the intranasal solution (IN) of the drug with values of 44% and 77.3%, respectively. Cationic NLCs in situ gel showed a non significant higher Cmax (maximum concentration) in the brain compared to the anionic NLCs in situ gel. Anionic NLCs in situ gel gave highest drug targeting efficiency in the brain (DTE%) with a value of 158.5 which is nearly 1.2 times that of the cationic NLCs in situ gel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dispersion of the Number of Charge Carriers in the Lax Approximation for Corpuscular-Field Effects on a Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, V. N.; Kharitonov, S. V.; Lugina, N. E.

    2017-05-01

    The paper considers the dispersion of charge carriers depending on the background noise and the electric field exposure. This dependence is obtained using the Lax equivalence theorem in terms of the step distribution of spectral density of extrinsic electronic defect states within the forbidden band of semiconductor. Instead of using quasi-Fermi levels, the paper describes the semiconductor density state under the background noise. This approach is based on `heating' the semiconductor with background noise allowing to correctly detect the Fermi energy-level within the wide range of the power of background noise. It is observed that the dispersion/voltage dependence continuously grows and saturates, while the background noise shifts this dependence to the lower values of voltage. Based on the results, it is shown that the noise minimum of n-CdSe photoresistor under the background noise and electric field exposure cannot be explained only by the assumed step distribution of spectral density of extrinsic electronic defect states within the forbidden band of semiconductor.

  7. Space charge in MNOS elements under the effect of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtov, V. A.; Nazarov, A. I.; Stepanov, V. E.

    1987-07-01

    Experimental results are presented on the formation of radiation-induced space charge in MNOS elements under applied voltage. The separation of electron-hole pairs in silicon nitride and the injection of carriers from the semiconductor electrode are investigated by varying the thickness of the SiO2 sublayer. It is shown that the radiation-induced space charge is due to nonequilibrium electrons and holes captured at deep centers in the subbarrier dielectric.

  8. Injection-modulated polarity conversion by charge carrier density control via a self-assembled monolayer for all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Taesoo; Kang, Chan-Mo; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lang, Philippe; Horowitz, Gilles; Kim, Hyeok; Lee, Changhee

    2017-04-12

    We demonstrated modulation of charge carrier densities in all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by modifying the injection properties with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The all-solution-processed OFETs based on an n-type polymer with inkjet-printed Ag electrodes were fabricated as a test platform, and the injection properties were modified by the SAMs. Two types of SAMs with different dipole direction, thiophenol (TP) and pentafluorobenzene thiol (PFBT) were employed, modifying the work function of the inkjet-printed Ag (4.9 eV) to 4.66 eV and 5.24 eV with TP and PFBT treatments, respectively. The charge carrier densities were controlled by the SAM treatment in both dominant and non-dominant carrier-channel regimes. This work demonstrates that control of the charge carrier densities can be efficiently achieved by modifying the injection property with SAM treatment; thus, this approach can achieve polarity conversion of the OFETs.

  9. Injection-modulated polarity conversion by charge carrier density control via a self-assembled monolayer for all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Taesoo; Kang, Chan-Mo; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lang, Philippe; Horowitz, Gilles; Kim, Hyeok; Lee, Changhee

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated modulation of charge carrier densities in all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by modifying the injection properties with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The all-solution-processed OFETs based on an n-type polymer with inkjet-printed Ag electrodes were fabricated as a test platform, and the injection properties were modified by the SAMs. Two types of SAMs with different dipole direction, thiophenol (TP) and pentafluorobenzene thiol (PFBT) were employed, modifying the work function of the inkjet-printed Ag (4.9 eV) to 4.66 eV and 5.24 eV with TP and PFBT treatments, respectively. The charge carrier densities were controlled by the SAM treatment in both dominant and non-dominant carrier-channel regimes. This work demonstrates that control of the charge carrier densities can be efficiently achieved by modifying the injection property with SAM treatment; thus, this approach can achieve polarity conversion of the OFETs.

  10. Ohm's Law for a Bipolar Semiconductor: The Role of Carrier Concentration and Energy Nonequilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkevych, Igor; Titov, Oleg Yu.; Gurevich, Yuri G.

    2017-01-01

    The effective linear electrical conductivity of a nondegenerate bipolar semiconductor, sandwiched between two metals, is investigated taking into account both its nonequilibrium charge carriers (both electrons and holes) and nonequilibrium temperature. We stress that even in the linear perturbative approximation both carrier concentration and energy nonequilbria arise automatically when an electrical current flows. The expression for the effective electrical conductivity is obtained and shown to depend on the electron and hole electrical conductivity, the thermal conductivity, the bandgap, charge carriers lifetimes, and both bulk and surface recombination rates. The effective electrical conductivity is equal to the classical result, i.e., the sum of the electron and hole electrical conductivities, only if the surface recombination rate at the interface is sufficiently strong or the charge carrier lifetime is sufficiently small. In this article, partial cases are considered, specifically, semiconductors with small and large thermal conductivities, semiconductors with monopolar electron and monopolar holes, strong and weak surface recombination rates, and small and large charge carrier lifetimes. Expressions for the effective electrical conductivity are obtained in all partial cases.

  11. The photovoltaic effect and charge carrier mobility in layered compositions of bithiophene or related rotaxane copolymer with C70 fullerene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostromin, S. V.; Malov, V. V.; Tameev, A. R.; Bronnikov, S. V.; Farcas, A.

    2017-02-01

    Organic photovoltaic cells with a bulk heterojunction have been manufactured in which the photoactive layer consists of a mixture of bithiophene copolymer or related rotaxane with a fullerene derivative (PC70BM). The mobility of charge carriers in photoactive layers has been determined, the current-voltage characteristics of photovoltaic cells have been measured, and the energy level diagram of cell components has been constructed. It is established that the polyrotaxane component (macrocycle) insulates a part of thiophene fragments of the macromolecule, thus hindering the transport of carriers and leading to large energy losses for exciton dissociation, which results in a decreasing photovoltaic effect.

  12. Multifluid nonequilibrium simulation of arcjet thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott Alan

    1994-01-01

    A detailed numerical model has been developed to study the gas dynamic flow in an electrothermal arcjet thruster. This two-temperature, Navier-Stokes model consistently incorporates viscosity, heat conduction, ohmic dissipation, collisional energy transfer between electrons and heavy species, ambipolar diffusion, nonequilibrium dissociation and ionization, and radiation. The fluid equations are solved by Mac Cormack's method while an iterative procedure is used to relax an electric potential equation, from which the current distribution in the thruster is obtained. Using hydrogen propellant, solutions are achieved for a range of input parameters and the underlying physics and internal structures of these arcjet flows are revealed. In particular, a mechanism for self-sustaining anodic arc attachment is identified. It is found that ambipolar diffusion from the arc core coupled with enhanced nonequilibrium dissociation and ionization in the outer flow provide enough charge carriers for the current to pass self-consistently between the arc core and the anode wall. Numerical solutions are compared with experimental results from the German TT1 radiatively-cooled arcjet thruster. Calculated discharge voltage is within 1-2% to 10% of experimental measurements, and predicted specific impulse is within 5-10% agreement over a range of applied currents and mass flow rates. In addition, flow solutions are used to explain observed trends in performance as quantities such as the specific power and mass flow rate are varied. An anode thermal model is constructed which yields more accurate predictions of the inlet gas and electrode wall temperatures, and this model is coupled to the arcjet flow solver in order to obtain a more self-consistent solution. Finally, a simplified stability analysis of the near-anode arc attachment region is performed. It is found that a localized ionization instability may be initiated in this region, but that the system is stable under the flow

  13. Nonequilibrium G W +EDMFT : Antiscreening and Inverted Populations from Nonlocal Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golež, Denis; Boehnke, Lewin; Strand, Hugo U. R.; Eckstein, Martin; Werner, Philipp

    2017-06-01

    We study the dynamics of screening in photodoped Mott insulators with long-ranged interactions using a nonequilibrium implementation of the G W plus extended dynamical mean-field theory formalism. Our study demonstrates that the complex interplay of the injected carriers with bosonic degrees of freedom (charge fluctuations) can result in long-lived transient states with properties that are distinctly different from those of thermal equilibrium states. Systems with strong nonlocal interactions are found to exhibit a self-sustained population inversion of the doublons and holes. This population inversion leads to low-energy antiscreening which can be detected in time-resolved electron-energy-loss spectra.

  14. Optical absorption and DFT calculations in L-aspartic acid anhydrous crystals: Charge carrier effective masses point to semiconducting behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Silva, B. P.; Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N.; Moreira, E.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Maia, F. F., Jr.; Caetano, E. W. S.

    2012-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) computations within the local-density approximation and generalized gradient approximation in pure form and with dispersion correction (GGA+D) were carried out to investigate the structural, electronic, and optical properties of L-aspartic acid anhydrous crystals. The electronic (band structure and density of states) and optical absorption properties were used to interpret the light absorption measurements we have performed in L-aspartic acid anhydrous crystalline powder at room temperature. We show the important role of the layered spatial disposition of L-aspartic acid molecules in anhydrous L-aspartic crystals to explain the observed electronic and optical properties. There is good agreement between the GGA+D calculated and experimental lattice parameters, with (Δa, Δb, Δc) deviations of (0.029,-0.023,-0.024) (units in Å). Mulliken [J. Chem. Phys.JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.1740588 23, 1833 (1955)] and Hirshfeld [Theor. Chim. ActaTCHAAM0040-574410.1007/BF00549096 44, 129 (1977)] population analyses were also performed to assess the degree of charge polarization in the zwitterion state of the L-aspartic acid molecules in the DFT converged crystal. The lowest-energy optical absorption peaks related to transitions between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band involve O 2p valence states and C 1p and O 2p conduction states, with the carboxyl and COOH lateral chain group contributing significantly to the energy band gap. Among the calculated band gaps, the lowest GGA+D (4.49-eV) gap is smaller than the experimental estimate of 5.02 eV, as obtained by optical absorption. Such a wide-band-gap energy together with the small carrier effective masses estimated from band curvatures allows us to suggest that an L-aspartic acid anhydrous crystal can behave as a wide-gap semiconductor. A comparison of effective masses among directions parallel and perpendicular to the L-aspartic molecules layers reveals that charge

  15. Singular effect of crystallite size on the charge carrier generation and photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Mathias; Pastorello, Murilo; Sigoli, Fernando A.; Silva, Juliana M. de Souza e.; Mazali, Italo O.

    2014-11-01

    Photocatalytic processes on nanometric titanium oxide have been extensively studied from the standpoint of solar energy utilization and remediation of water and gas streams polluted with organic molecules. It is accepted that TiO2 crystallite size and crystalline phase are among the parameters involved in the control of the photocatalytic activity. However, while changing the catalyst nanoparticle size, other attributes important to assess photocatalytic activity may be modified, making thus difficult to define to which extension the photoactivity changes are related only to size differences. Therefore, aiming at studying exclusively the size effect and the parameters directly related to size on the photocatalytic activity of nanometric TiO2, in this work it was explored a method to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles with controlled size, highly similar morphology and comparable phase and degree of crystallinity. A set composed of four samples of nano-TiO2 loaded porous Vycor glass, each sample having a specific TiO2 nanoparticle size, was tested on the photoactivated process of depollution of solutions of salicylic acid and methylene blue. The photocatalytic activity observed for the organic compounds tested was inversely proportional to the TiO2 nanoparticle size. An opposite tendency was observed for the generation of OH radicals during photocatalyst illumination, as more radicals are formed on the material containing the larger TiO2 nanoparticles. Results of this study suggest that photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2 is less favored by the enhanced light absorption response and the higher generation of oxidative species observed for the larger nanoparticles. Better catalysts were obtained when nano-TiO2 exhibited high surface-to-volume ratio and had small recombination volumes, which respectively favors pollutant adsorption-desorption on catalyst surface and reduce the number of recombined charge carriers.

  16. Tuning THz emission properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junction stacks by charge carrier injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilaslan, O.; Rudau, F.; Wieland, R.; Hampp, J. S.; Zhou, X. J.; Ji, M.; Kiselev, O.; Kinev, N.; Huang, Y.; Hao, L. Y.; Ishii, A.; Aksan, M. A.; Hatano, T.; Koshelets, V. P.; Wu, P. H.; Wang, H. B.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.

    2017-03-01

    We report on doping and undoping experiments of terahertz (THz) emitting intrinsic Josephson junction stacks, where the change in charge carrier concentration is achieved by heavy current injection. The experiments were performed on stand-alone structures fabricated from a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}8+δ single crystal near optimal doping. The stacks contained about 930 intrinsic Josephson junctions. On purpose, the doping and undoping experiments were performed over only a modest range of charge carrier concentrations, changing the critical temperature of the stack by less than 1 K. We show that both undoping and doping is feasible also for the large intrinsic Josephson junction stacks used for THz generation. Even moderate changes in doping introduce large changes in the THz emission properties of the stacks. The highest emission power was achieved after doping a pristine sample.

  17. The role of charge-transfer integral in determining and engineering the carrier mobilities of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, S. C.; So, S. K.; Yeung, M. Y.; Lo, C. F.; Wen, S. W.; Chen, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    The charge transporting properties of t-butylated 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) compounds have been investigated experimentally and computationally in relation to their molecular structures. The ADN compounds are found to be ambipolar with both electron and hole mobilities in the range of 1-4 × 10 -7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (electric field 0.5-0.8 MV/cm). As the degree of t-butylation increases, the carrier mobility decreases progressively. The mobility reduction was examined by Marcus theory of reorganization energies. All ADN compounds possess similar reorganization energies of ˜0.3 eV. The reduction of carrier mobilities with increasing t-butylation can be attributed to a decrease in the charge-transfer integral or the wavefunction overlap.

  18. Disentangling energetic and charge-carrier dynamic influences on the open-circuit voltage in bulk-heterojunction solar-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelouche, A.; Magnifouet, G.; Al Ahmad, A.; Leclerc, N.; Heiser, T.; Lévêque, P.

    2016-12-01

    A combination of transient and static techniques has been applied to bulk-heterojunction solar-cells to gain insight into the influence of charge-carrier dynamics and of energy level shifts in the vicinity of the cathode on the open-circuit voltage. Devices with a different thermal-annealing history but with similar active layer-morphology were compared. P3HT:PC60BM bulk heterojunction solar-cells with a standard ITO/PEDOT:PSS/active-layer/Al were investigated. We show that the open-circuit voltage increase that occurs when a sample is annealed before or after cathode deposition is due roughly one third to a shift between the energetics of the photoactive blend adjacent to the cathode and that in the bulk of the photoactive layer and roughly two thirds to a significant increase in the charge-carrier lifetime for this type of solar-cell.

  19. Charge-carrier mobilities in Cd(0.8)Zn(0.2)Te single crystals used as nuclear radiation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burshtein, Z.; Jayatirtha, H. N.; Burger, A.; Butler, J. F.; Apotovsky, B.; Doty, F. P.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-carrier mobilities were measured for the first time in Cd(0.8)Zn(0.2)Te single crystals using time-of-flight measurements of charge carriers produced by short (10 ns) light pulses from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). The electron mobility displayed a T exp -1.1 dependence on the absolute temperature T in the range 200-320 K, with a room-temperature mobility of 1350 sq cm/V s. The hole mobility displayed a T exp -2.0 dependence in the same temperature range, with a room-temperature mobility of 120 sq cm/V s. Cd(0.8)Zn(0.2)Te appears to be a very favorable material for a room-temperature electronic nuclear radiation detector.

  20. Non-equilibrium Majorana fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    Non-equilibrium physics of random events, or fluctuations, is a unique fingerprint of a given system. Here we demonstrate that in non-interacting systems with dynamics driven essentially by Majorana states the effective charge {e}* , characterizing the electric current fluctuations, is fractional. This is in contrast to non-interacting Dirac systems with the trivial electronic charge {e}* =e. In the Majorana state, however, we predict two different fractional effective charges at low and high energies, {e}{{l}}* =e/2 and {e}{{h}}* =3e/2, accessible at low and high bias voltages, respectively. We show that while the low-energy effective charge {e}{{l}}* is sensitive to thermal fluctuations of the current, the high-energy effective charge {e}{{h}}* is robust against thermal noise. A unique fluctuation signature of Majorana fermions is therefore encoded in the high-voltage tails of the electric current noise easily accessible in experiments on strongly non-equilibrium systems even at high temperatures.

  1. Photoconductivity of CdTe Nanocrystal-Based Thin Films. Te2- Ligands Lead To Charge Carrier Diffusion Lengths Over 2 Micrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Ryan W.; Callahan, Rebecca; Reid, Obadiah G.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Rumbles, Garry; Luther, Joseph M.; Kopidakis, Nikos

    2015-11-16

    We report on photoconductivity of films of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) using time-resolved microwave photoconductivity (TRMC). Spherical and tetrapodal CdTe NCs with tunable size-dependent properties are studied as a function of surface ligand (including inorganic molecular chalcogenide species) and annealing temperature. Relatively high carrier mobility is measured for films of sintered tetrapod NCs (4 cm2/(V s)). Our TRMC findings show that Te2- capped CdTe NCs show a marked improvement in carrier mobility (11 cm2/(V s)), indicating that NC surface termination can be altered to play a crucial role in charge-carrier mobility even after the NC solids are sintered into bulk films.

  2. The effect of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on the rotational viscosity and charge carrier concentration of a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, D. P.; Konshina, E. A.; Solodkov, D. E.

    2015-08-01

    The addition of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a core diameter of 3.5 nm at a concentration of 10 wt % leads to a 2.5-fold increase in the dynamic rotational viscosity of a 5CB nematic liquid crystal (NLC). A comparison of the diffusion currents in NLC cells filled with pure 5CB and a suspension with QDs shows evidence of an increase in the concentration of charge carriers in the latter case.

  3. Determination of charge-carrier diffusion length in the photosensing layer of HgCdTe n-on-p photovoltaic infrared focal plane array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A.; Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents jph being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at jph ≠ 0) charge-carrier diffusion length ld eff as a function of jph for jph → 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of ld eff vs jph as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.

  4. Determination of charge-carrier diffusion length in the photosensing layer of HgCdTe n-on-p photovoltaic infrared focal plane array detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A. Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2014-03-03

    In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents j{sub ph} being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at j{sub ph} ≠ 0) charge-carrier diffusion length l{sub d} {sub eff} as a function of j{sub ph} for j{sub ph} → 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of l{sub d} {sub eff} vs j{sub ph} as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.

  5. Non-contact, non-destructive, quantitative probing of interfacial trap sites for charge carrier transport at semiconductor-insulator boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Wookjin; Miyakai, Tomoyo; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Saeki, Akinori; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Seki, Shu

    2014-07-21

    The density of traps at semiconductor–insulator interfaces was successfully estimated using microwave dielectric loss spectroscopy with model thin-film organic field-effect transistors. The non-contact, non-destructive analysis technique is referred to as field-induced time-resolved microwave conductivity (FI-TRMC) at interfaces. Kinetic traces of FI-TRMC transients clearly distinguished the mobile charge carriers at the interfaces from the immobile charges trapped at defects, allowing both the mobility of charge carriers and the number density of trap sites to be determined at the semiconductor-insulator interfaces. The number density of defects at the interface between evaporated pentacene on a poly(methylmethacrylate) insulating layer was determined to be 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}, and the hole mobility was up to 6.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} after filling the defects with trapped carriers. The FI-TRMC at interfaces technique has the potential to provide rapid screening for the assessment of interfacial electronic states in a variety of semiconductor devices.

  6. The impact of Au doping on the charge carrier dynamics at the interfaces between cationic porphyrin and silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansaf, Abdulkhaleq A.; Parida, Manas R.; Besong, Tabot M. D.; Maity, Partha; Bootharaju, Megalamane S.; Bakr, Osman M.; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-09-01

    We explore the impact of Au doping on the charge transfer dynamics between the positively charged porphyrin (TMPyP) and negatively charged silver nanoclusters (Ag29 NCs). Our transient absorption (TA) spectroscopic results demonstrate that the interfacial charge transfer, the intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin can be tuned by the doping of Au atoms in Ag29 NCs. Additionally, we found that the electrostatic interaction between the negative charge of the cluster and the positive charge on the TMPyP is the driving force that brings them close to each other for complex formation and subsequently facilitates the transfer process.

  7. 47 CFR 1.1154 - Schedule of annual regulatory charges and filing locations for common carrier services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities Fee amount Address 1. Microwave (Domestic Public Fixed) (Electronic Filing) (FCC Form 601 & 159) $25.00 FCC, P.O. Box 979097, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000 Carriers 1. Interstate Telephone Service Providers (per interstate and international end-user revenues (see FCC Form 499-A) .00349 FCC, Carriers,...

  8. In-crystal and surface charge transport of electric-field-induced carriers in organic single-crystal semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Takeya, J; Kato, J; Hara, K; Yamagishi, M; Hirahara, R; Yamada, K; Nakazawa, Y; Ikehata, S; Tsukagoshi, K; Aoyagi, Y; Takenobu, T; Iwasa, Y

    2007-05-11

    Gate-voltage dependence of carrier mobility is measured in high-performance field-effect transistors of rubrene single crystals by simultaneous detection of the longitudinal conductivity sigma(square) and Hall coefficient R(H). The Hall mobility mu(H) (identical with sigma(square)R(H)) reaches nearly 10 cm(2)/V s when relatively low-density carriers (<10(11) cm(-2)) distribute into the crystal. mu(H) rapidly decreases with higher-density carriers as they are essentially confined to the surface and are subjected to randomness of the amorphous gate insulators. The mechanism to realize high carrier mobility in the organic transistor devices involves intrinsic-semiconductor character of the high-purity organic crystals and diffusive bandlike carrier transport in the bulk.

  9. Charge Carrier Density and signal induced in a CVD diamond detector from NIF DT neutrons, x-rays, and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Dauffy, L S; Koch, J A

    2005-10-20

    This report investigates the use of x-rays and electrons to excite a CVD polycrystalline diamond detector during a double pulse experiment to levels corresponding to those expected during a successful (1D clean burn) and a typical failed ignition (2D fizzle) shot at the National Ignition Facility, NIF. The monitoring of a failed ignition shot is the main goal of the diagnostic, but nevertheless, the study of a successful ignition shot is also important. A first large neutron pulse is followed by a smaller pulse (a factor of 1000 smaller in intensity) after 50 to 300 ns. The charge carrier densities produced during a successful and failed ignition shot are about 10{sup 15} e-h+/cm{sup 3} and 2.6* 10{sup 12} e-h+/cm{sup 3} respectively, which is lower than the 10{sup 16} e-h+/cm{sup 3} needed to saturate the diamond wafer due to charge recombination. The charge carrier density and the signal induced in the diamond detector are calculated as a function of the incident x-ray and electron energy, flux, and detector dimensions. For available thicknesses of polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors (250 {micro}m to 1000 {micro}m), a flux of over 10{sup 11} x-rays/cm{sup 2} (with x-ray energies varying from 6 keV to about 10 keV) or 10{sup 9} {beta}/cm{sup 2} (corresponding to 400 pC per electron pulse, E{sub {beta}} > 800 keV) is necessary to excite the detector to sufficient levels to simulate a successful ignition's 14 MeV peak. Failed ignition levels would require lower fluxes, over 10{sup 8} x-rays/cm{sup 2} (6 to 10 keV) or 10{sup 6} {beta}/cm{sup 2} (1 pC per electron pulse, E{sub {beta}} > 800 keV). The incident pulse must be delivered on the detector surface in several nanoseconds. The second pulse requires fluxes down by a factor of 1000. Several possible x-ray beam facilities are investigated: (1) the LBNL Advanced Light Source, (2) the Stanford SLAC and SPEAR, (3) the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source, (4) the ANL Advanced Photon Source, (5) the LLNL Janus

  10. Charge-carrier dynamics in polycrystalline thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic devices after pulsed laser excitation: Interface and space-charge region analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuciauskas, Darius; Li, Jian V.; Kanevce, Ana; Guthrey, Harvey; Contreras, Miguel; Pankow, Joel; Dippo, Pat; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2015-05-01

    We used time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy to analyze time-domain and spectral-domain charge-carrier dynamics in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) devices. This new approach allowed detailed characterization for the CIGS/CdS buffer interface and for the space-charge region. We find that dynamics at the interface is dominated by diffusion, where the diffusion rate is several times greater than the thermionic emission or interface recombination rate. In the space-charge region, the electric field of the pn junction has the largest effect on the carrier dynamics. Based on the minority-carrier (electron) drift-rate dependence on the electric field strength, we estimated drift mobility in compensated CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (with x ≈ 0.3) as 22 ± 2 cm2(Vs)-1. Analysis developed in this study could be applied to evaluate interface and junction properties of PV and other electronic devices. For CIGS PV devices, TRPL spectroscopy could contribute to understanding effects due to absorber compositional grading, which is one of the focus areas in developing record-efficiency CIGS solar cells.

  11. Charge-carrier dynamics in polycrystalline thin-film CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} photovoltaic devices after pulsed laser excitation: Interface and space-charge region analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuciauskas, Darius; Li, Jian V.; Kanevce, Ana; Guthrey, Harvey; Contreras, Miguel; Pankow, Joel; Dippo, Pat; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2015-05-14

    We used time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy to analyze time-domain and spectral-domain charge-carrier dynamics in CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) devices. This new approach allowed detailed characterization for the CIGS/CdS buffer interface and for the space-charge region. We find that dynamics at the interface is dominated by diffusion, where the diffusion rate is several times greater than the thermionic emission or interface recombination rate. In the space-charge region, the electric field of the pn junction has the largest effect on the carrier dynamics. Based on the minority-carrier (electron) drift-rate dependence on the electric field strength, we estimated drift mobility in compensated CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (with x ≈ 0.3) as 22 ± 2 cm{sup 2}(Vs){sup −1}. Analysis developed in this study could be applied to evaluate interface and junction properties of PV and other electronic devices. For CIGS PV devices, TRPL spectroscopy could contribute to understanding effects due to absorber compositional grading, which is one of the focus areas in developing record-efficiency CIGS solar cells.

  12. Enhanced Charge Carrier Transport and Device Performance Through Dual-Cesium Doping in Mixed-Cation Perovskite Solar Cells with Near Unity Free Carrier Ratios.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Petrović, Miloš; Peng, Shengjie; Yoong, Jeremy Lee Kong; Vijila, Chellappan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-25

    PbI2-enriched mixed perovskite film [FA0.81MA0.15Pb(I0.836Br0.15)3] has been widely studied due to its great potential in perovskite solar cell (PSC) applications. Herein, a FA0.81MA0.15Pb(I0.836Br0.15)3 film has been fabricated with the temperature-dependent optical absorption spectra utilized to determine its exciton binding energy. A ∼13 meV exciton binding energy is estimated, and a near-unity fraction of free carriers out of the total photoexcitons has been obtained in the solar cell operating regime at equilibrium state. PSCs are fabricated with this mixed perovskite film, but a significant electron transport barrier at the TiO2-perovskite interface limited their performance. Cs2CO3 and CsI are then utilized as functional enhancers with which to substantially balance the electron and hole transport and increase the carriers (both electrons and holes) mobilities in PSCs, resulting in much-improved solar-cell performance. The modified PSCs exhibit reproducible power conversion efficiency (PCE) values with little hysteresis effect in the J-V curves, achieving PCEs up to 19.5% for the Cs2CO3-modified PSC and 20.6% when subsequently further doped with CsI.

  13. Modulated two-dimensional charge-carrier density in LaTiO3-layer-doped LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Safdar; Bernal, Camille; Yang, Kesong

    2015-03-11

    The highly mobile two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the polar/nonpolar LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) heterostructure (HS) is a matter of great interest because of its potential applications in nanoscale solid-state devices. To realize practical implementation of the 2DEG in device design, desired physical properties such as tuned charge carrier density and mobility are necessary. In this regard, polar perovskite-based transition metal oxides can act as doping layers at the interface and are expected to tune the electronic properties of 2DEG of STO-based HS systems dramatically. Herein, we investigated the doping effects of LaTiO3(LTO) layers on the electronic properties of 2DEG at n-type (LaO)(+1)/(TiO2)(0) interface in the LAO/STO HS using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. Our results indicate an enhancement of orbital occupation near the Fermi energy, which increases with respect to the number of LTO unit cells, resulting in a higher charge carrier density of 2DEG than that of undoped system. The enhanced charge carrier density is attributed to an extra electron introduced by the Ti 3d(1) orbitals from the LTO dopant unit cells. This conclusion is consistent with the recent experimental findings (Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013, 102, 091601). Detailed charge density and partial density of states analysis suggests that the 2DEG in the LTO-doped HS systems primarily comes from partially occupied dyz and dxz orbitals.

  14. Distinct glycan-charged phosphodolichol carriers are required for the assembly of the pentasaccharide N-linked to the Haloferax volcanii S-layer glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ziqiang; Naparstek, Shai; Kaminski, Lina; Konrad, Zvia; Eichler, Jerry

    2010-12-01

    In Archaea, dolichol phosphates have been implicated as glycan carriers in the N-glycosylation pathway, much like their eukaryal counterparts. To clarify this relation, highly sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was employed to detect and characterize glycan-charged phosphodolichols in the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii. It is reported that Hfx. volcanii contains a series of C(55) and C(60) dolichol phosphates presenting saturated isoprene subunits at the α and ω positions and sequentially modified with the first, second, third and methylated fourth sugar subunits comprising the first four subunits of the pentasaccharide N-linked to the S-layer glycoprotein, a reporter of N-glycosylation. Moreover, when this glycan-charged phosphodolichol pool was examined in cells deleted of agl genes encoding glycosyltransferases participating in N-glycosylation and previously assigned roles in adding pentasaccharide residues one to four, the composition of the lipid-linked glycans was perturbed in the identical manner as was S-layer glycoprotein N-glycosylation in these mutants. In contrast, the fifth sugar of the pentasaccharide, identified as mannose in this study, is added to a distinct dolichol phosphate carrier. This represents the first evidence that in Archaea, as in Eukarya, the oligosaccharides N-linked to glycoproteins are sequentially assembled from glycans originating from distinct phosphodolichol carriers.

  15. Theoretical studies on the carrier tunability of oxidized oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab

    2015-10-28

    A first principles density functional theory calculation in combination with the non-equilibrium Green's function technique has been performed to show the carrier tunability of a family of thiophene-1,1-dioxide (TDO) oligomers. Our theoretical results interpret how the molecular length dictates the nature of charge carriers that has very recently been observed through thermopower measurement (Nat. Chem. , DOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.2160). Our molecular level understanding dictates that with increasing the conjugation length through the molecular backbone, it is the LUMO orbital which is stabilized more and thus participates in resonance tunneling with the gold electrode. Thus the HOMO resonating channel, which is the major transporting channel for TDO1, is shifted to the LUMO resonating channel in the case of TDO4. This carrier switching from a hole to an electron is unique for these types of organic materials.

  16. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssedre, G.; Vu, T. T. N.; Laurent, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30-60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10-14-10-13 m2 V-1 s-1 for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets.

  17. The effect of oxidation on charge carrier motion in PbS quantum dot thin films studied with Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Hoang, Lan Phuong; Williams, Pheona; Moscatello, Jason; Aidala, Katherine E.; Aidala Group Team

    We developed a technique that uses scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to study the real-time injection and extraction of charge carriers in thin film devices. We investigate the effects of oxidation on thin films of Lead Sulfide (PbS) quantum dots with tetrabutyl-ammonium-iodide (TBAI) ligands in an inverted field effect transistor geometry with gold electrodes. By positioning the SPM tip at an individual location and using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) to measure the potential over time, we can record how the charge carriers respond to changing the backgate voltage with grounded source and drain electrodes. We see relatively fast screening for negative backgate voltages because holes are quickly injected into the PbS film. The screening is slower for positive gate voltages, because some of these holes are trapped and therefore less mobile. We probe these trapped holes by applying different gate voltages and recording the change in potential at the surface. There are mixed reports about the effect of air exposure on thin films of PbS quantum dots, with initial exposure appearing to be beneficial to device characteristics. We study the change in current, mobility, and charge injection and extraction as measured by KPFM over hours and days of exposure to air. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMR-0955348, and the Center for Heirarchical Manufacturing at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (NSF CMMI-1025020).

  18. Generation-dependent charge carrier transport in Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS/ZnO thin-film solar-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichterwitz, Melanie; Caballero, Raquel; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Schock, Hans-Werner; Unold, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Cross section electron-beam induced current (EBIC) and illumination-dependent current voltage (IV) measurements show that charge carrier transport in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe)/CdS/ZnO solar-cells is generation-dependent. We perform a detailed analysis of CIGSe solar cells with different CdS layer thicknesses and varying Ga-content in the absorber layer. In conjunction with numerical simulations, EBIC and IV data are used to develop a consistent model for charge and defect distributions with a focus on the heterojunction region. The best model to explain our experimental data is based on a p+ layer at the CIGSe/CdS interface leading to generation-dependent transport in EBIC at room temperature. Acceptor-type defect states at the CdS/ZnO interface cause a significant reduction of the photocurrent in the red-light illuminated IV characteristics at low temperatures (red kink effect). Shallow donor-type defect states at the p+ layer/CdS interface of some grains of the absorber layer are responsible for grain specific, i.e., spatially inhomogeneous, charge carrier transport observed in EBIC.

  19. Review on modified TiO2 photocatalysis under UV/visible light: selected results and related mechanisms on interfacial charge carrier transfer dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Girish; Devi, L Gomathi

    2011-11-24

    Titania is one of the most widely used benchmark standard photocatalysts in the field of environmental applications. However, the large band gap of titania and massive recombination of photogenerated charge carriers limit its overall photocatalytic efficiency. The former can be overcome by modifying the electronic band structure of titania including various strategies like coupling with a narrow band gap semiconductor, metal ion/nonmetal ion doping, codoping with two or more foreign ions, surface sensitization by organic dyes or metal complexes, and noble metal deposition. The latter can be corrected by changing the surface properties of titania by fluorination or sulfation or by the addition of suitable electron acceptors besides molecular oxygen in the reaction medium. This review encompasses several advancements made in these aspects, and also some of the new physical insights related to the charge transfer events like charge carrier generation, trapping, detrapping, and their transfer to surface are discussed for each strategy of the modified titania to support the conclusions derived. The synergistic effects in the mixed polymorphs of titania and also the theories proposed for their enhanced activity are reported. A recent venture on the synthesis and applications of anatase titania with a large percentage of reactive {001} facets and their band gap extension to the visible region via nonmetal ion doping which is a current hot topic is briefly outlined.

  20. Charge carrier effective mass and concentration derived from combination of Seebeck coefficient and Te125 NMR measurements in complex tellurides

    DOE PAGES

    Levin, E. M.

    2016-06-27

    Thermoelectric materials utilize the Seebeck effect to convert heat to electrical energy. The Seebeck coefficient (thermopower), S, depends on the free (mobile) carrier concentration, n, and effective mass, m*, as S ~ m*/n2/3. The carrier concentration in tellurides can be derived from 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation measurements. The NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1, depends on both n and m* as 1/T1~(m*)3/2n (within classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics) or as 1/T1~(m*)2n2/3 (within quantum Fermi-Dirac statistics), which challenges the correct determination of the carrier concentration in some materials by NMR. Here it is shown that the combination of the Seebeck coefficientmore » and 125Te NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements in complex tellurides provides a unique opportunity to derive the carrier effective mass and then to calculate the carrier concentration. This approach was used to study AgxSbxGe50–2xTe50, well-known GeTe-based high-efficiency tellurium-antimony-germanium-silver thermoelectric materials, where the replacement of Ge by [Ag+Sb] results in significant enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. Thus, values of both m* and n derived using this combination show that the enhancement of thermopower can be attributed primarily to an increase of the carrier effective mass and partially to a decrease of the carrier concentration when the [Ag+Sb] content increases.« less

  1. Dislocation-assisted tunnelling of charge carriers across the Schottky barrier on the hydride vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Dixit, V. K.; Oak, S. M.; Sharma, T. K.

    2015-11-01

    Barrier height and Ideality factor of Ni/n-GaN Schottky diodes are measured by performing temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The measured value of barrier height is found to be much smaller than the theoretically calculated Schottky-Mott barrier height for the Ni/n-GaN diodes. Furthermore, a high value of ideality factor (>2) is measured at low temperatures. In order to understand these results, we need to consider a double Gaussian distribution of barrier height where the two components are related to the thermionic emission and thermionic filed emission mediated by dislocation-assisted tunnelling of carriers across the Schottky barrier. Thermionic emission is seen to dominate at temperatures higher than 170 K while the dislocation-assisted tunnelling dominates at low temperatures. The value of characteristic tunnelling energy measured from the forward bias current-voltage curves also confirms the dominance of dislocation-assisted tunnelling at low temperatures which is strongly corroborated by the Hall measurements. However, the value of characteristic tunnelling energy for high temperature range cannot be supported by the Hall results. This discrepancy can be eliminated by invoking a two layer model to analyse the Hall data which confirms that the charged dislocations, which reach the sample surface from the layer-substrate interface, provide an alternate path for the transport of carriers. The dislocation-assisted tunnelling of carriers governs the values of Schottky diode parameters at low temperature and the same is responsible for the observed inhomogeneity in the values of barrier height. The present analysis is applicable wherever the charge transport characteristics are severely affected by the presence of a degenerate layer at GaN-Sapphire interface and dislocations lines pierce the Schottky junction to facilitate the tunnelling of carriers.

  2. Charge Carrier Dynamics and Mobility Determined by Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy on Films of Nano-to-Micrometer-Sized Colloidal Tin(II) Monosulfide

    PubMed Central

    Alberding, Brian G.; Biacchi, Adam J.; Walker, Angela R. Hight; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2016-01-01

    Tin(II) monosulfide (SnS) is a semiconductor material with an intermediate band gap, high absorption coefficient in the visible range, and earth abundant, non-toxic constituent elements. For these reasons, SnS has generated much interest for incorporation into optoelectronic devices, but little is known concerning the charge carrier dynamics, especially as measured by optical techniques. Here, as opposed to prior studies of vapor deposited films, phase-pure colloidal SnS was synthesized by solution chemistry in three size regimes, ranging from nanometer- to micron-scale (SnS small nanoparticles, SnS medium 2D nanosheets, and SnS large 2D μm-sheets), and evaluated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS); an optical, non-contact probe of the photoconductivity. Dropcast films of the SnS colloids were studied by TRTS and compared to both thermally annealed films and dispersed suspensions of the same colloids. TRTS results revealed that the micron-scale SnS crystals and all of the annealed films undergo decay mechanisms during the first 200 ps following photoexcitation at 800 nm assigned to hot carrier cooling and carrier trapping. The charge carrier mobility of both the dropcast and annealed samples depends strongly on the size of the constituent colloids. The mobility of the SnS colloidal films, following the completion of the initial decays, ranged from 0.14 cm2/V·s for the smallest SnS crystals to 20.3 cm2/V·s for the largest. Annealing the colloidal films resulted in a ~ 20 % improvement in mobility for the large SnS 2D μm-sheets and a ~ 5-fold increase for the small nanoparticles and medium nanosheets. PMID:27766125

  3. Charge Carrier Dynamics and Mobility Determined by Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy on Films of Nano-to-Micrometer-Sized Colloidal Tin(II) Monosulfide.

    PubMed

    Alberding, Brian G; Biacchi, Adam J; Walker, Angela R Hight; Heilweil, Edwin J

    2016-07-21

    Tin(II) monosulfide (SnS) is a semiconductor material with an intermediate band gap, high absorption coefficient in the visible range, and earth abundant, non-toxic constituent elements. For these reasons, SnS has generated much interest for incorporation into optoelectronic devices, but little is known concerning the charge carrier dynamics, especially as measured by optical techniques. Here, as opposed to prior studies of vapor deposited films, phase-pure colloidal SnS was synthesized by solution chemistry in three size regimes, ranging from nanometer- to micron-scale (SnS small nanoparticles, SnS medium 2D nanosheets, and SnS large 2D μm-sheets), and evaluated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS); an optical, non-contact probe of the photoconductivity. Dropcast films of the SnS colloids were studied by TRTS and compared to both thermally annealed films and dispersed suspensions of the same colloids. TRTS results revealed that the micron-scale SnS crystals and all of the annealed films undergo decay mechanisms during the first 200 ps following photoexcitation at 800 nm assigned to hot carrier cooling and carrier trapping. The charge carrier mobility of both the dropcast and annealed samples depends strongly on the size of the constituent colloids. The mobility of the SnS colloidal films, following the completion of the initial decays, ranged from 0.14 cm(2)/V·s for the smallest SnS crystals to 20.3 cm(2)/V·s for the largest. Annealing the colloidal films resulted in a ~ 20 % improvement in mobility for the large SnS 2D μm-sheets and a ~ 5-fold increase for the small nanoparticles and medium nanosheets.

  4. Self-recovery of mechanoluminescence in ZnS:Cu and ZnS:Mn phosphors by trapping of drifting charge carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, V. K.; Chandra, B. P.; Jha, Piyush

    2013-10-01

    The long time dream of mechanoluminescence (ML) research to fabricate mechanoluminescence white light sources and mechanoluminescence displays seems to be turning into reality after the recent demonstration of highly bright and durable mechanoluminescent flexible composite films with a brightness of ≈120 cd/m2 and durability over ≈100 000 repeated mechanical stresses by using a combination of copper-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu) particles and polydimethylsiloxane. The present paper explores that self-recovery of mechanoluminescence of deforming piezoelectric semiconductors takes place by trapping of drifting charge carriers in the presence of piezoelectric field. This may be useful in enhancing the intensity and durability of ML devices.

  5. Experimental investigation of the excess charge and time constant of minority carriers in the thin diffused layer of 0.1 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Lindholm, F. A.; Sah, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental method is presented that can be used to interpret the relative roles of bandgap narrowing and recombination processes in the diffused layer. This method involves measuring the device time constant by open-circuit voltage decay and the base region diffusion length by X-ray excitation. A unique illuminated diode method is used to obtain the diode saturation current. These data are interpreted using a simple model to determine individually the minority carrier lifetime and the excess charge. These parameters are then used to infer the relative importance of bandgap narrowing and recombination processes in the diffused layer.

  6. Experimental investigation of the excess charge and time constant of minority carriers in the thin diffused layer of 0.1 Ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Lindholm, F. A.; Sah, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    The observed low open-circuit voltage in 0.1 Ohm-cm solar cells is probably related to an excessively high diode saturation current. Theoretical studies conducted by Lindholm et al. (1975) and by Godlewski et al. (1975) have shown that a high saturation current could be produced by either high recombination rates or bandgap narrowing effects. A description is given of an investigation which shows that bandgap narrowing effects have a first order significance in determining the charge carrier transport controlling the open-circuit voltage of 0.1 Ohm-cm silicon solar cells.

  7. Two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate tunnel FETs with interface trapped charges including effects of channel mobile charge carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huifang; Dai, Yuehua

    2017-02-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate (DG) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) with interface trapped charges is proposed in this paper. The influence of the channel mobile charges on the potential profile is also taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the models. On the basis of potential profile, the electric field is derived and the expression for the drain current is obtained by integrating the BTBT generation rate. The model can be used to study the impact of interface trapped charges on the surface potential, the shortest tunneling length, the drain current and the threshold voltage for varying interface trapped charge densities, length of damaged region as well as the structural parameters of the DG TFET and can also be utilized to design the charge trapped memory devices based on TFET. The biggest advantage of this model is that it is more accurate, and in its expression there are no fitting parameters with small calculating amount. Very good agreements for both the potential, drain current and threshold voltage are observed between the model calculations and the simulated results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the University Natural Science Research Key Project of Anhui Province (No. KJ2016A169), and the Introduced Talents Project of Anhui Science and Technology University.

  8. Carrier relaxation dynamics and steady-state charge distributions in coupled InGaN/GaN multiple and single quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatsevich, S.; Rich, D. H.; Keller, S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2007-05-01

    We have examined the carrier capture dynamics and excitation dependent charge distributions of coupled InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well samples. We measured the temporal evolution of time-delayed cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra to study the temperature- and excitation-dependent transfer of carriers from a surrounding confinement region into a coupled single quantum well. Samples possessing two different structures for the confinement region [i.e., number of quantum wells (QWs) and varying widths] were examined with CL. In order to study state filling of the SQW and QWs in the confinement region, we calculated the quasi-Fermi levels and carrier densities by utilizing a model that involves self-consistent solutions of the nonlinear Poisson-Schrödinger equation for wurtzite QWs including strain, deformation potentials, and polarization fields. Band-edge and effective mass parameters were first obtained from a strain- and In composition-dependent k ṡp calculation for wurtzite InxGa1-xN, using a 6×6 kṡp Hamiltonian in the {0001} representation. The model shows that the difference in the quasi-Fermi levels between the confinement and SQW regions decreases with increasing excitation and temperature. Likewise, a reversal in the relative magnitude of the carrier densities between these two regions occurs at a certain temperature and excitation. Furthermore, the results for the model describing the steady-state excitation are consistent with those for the transient excitation in time-resolved CL, which also exhibit a marked increase in the rate of carrier transfer to the SQW region as the temperature increases.

  9. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    SciTech Connect

    Teyssedre, G. Laurent, C.; Vu, T. T. N.

    2015-12-21

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30–60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10{sup −14}–10{sup −13} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets.

  10. Defect-Induced Luminescence Quenching vs. Charge Carrier Generation of Phosphorus Incorporated in Silicon Nanocrystals as Function of Size.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Daniel; López-Vidrier, Julian; Gutsch, Sebastian; Zacharias, Margit; Nomoto, Keita; König, Dirk

    2017-04-13

    Phosphorus doping of silicon nanostructures is a non-trivial task due to problems with confinement, self-purification and statistics of small numbers. Although P-atoms incorporated in Si nanostructures influence their optical and electrical properties, the existence of free majority carriers, as required to control electronic properties, is controversial. Here, we correlate structural, optical and electrical results of size-controlled, P-incorporating Si nanocrystals with simulation data to address the role of interstitial and substitutional P-atoms. Whereas atom probe tomography proves that P-incorporation scales with nanocrystal size, luminescence spectra indicate that even nanocrystals with several P-atoms still emit light. Current-voltage measurements demonstrate that majority carriers must be generated by field emission to overcome the P-ionization energies of 110-260 meV. In absence of electrical fields at room temperature, no significant free carrier densities are present, which disproves the concept of luminescence quenching via Auger recombination. Instead, we propose non-radiative recombination via interstitial-P induced states as quenching mechanism. Since only substitutional-P provides occupied states near the Si conduction band, we use the electrically measured carrier density to derive formation energies of ~400 meV for P-atoms on Si nanocrystal lattice sites. Based on these results we conclude that ultrasmall Si nanovolumes cannot be efficiently P-doped.

  11. Nonequilibrium is different

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, T. R.; Dorfman, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    Nonequilibrium and equilibrium fluid systems differ due to the existence of long-range correlations in nonequilibrium that are not present in equilibrium, except at critical points. Here we examine fluctuations of the temperature, of the pressure tensor, and of the heat current in a fluid maintained in a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) with a fixed temperature gradient, a system in which the nonequilibrium correlations are especially long-ranged. For this particular NESS, our results show that (i) the mean-squared fluctuations in nonequilibrium differ markedly in their system-size scaling compared to their equilibrium counterparts, and (ii) there are large, nonlocal correlations of the normal stress in this NESS. These terms provide important corrections to the fluctuating normal stress in linearized Landau-Lifshitz fluctuating hydrodynamics.

  12. Switching and memory effects governed by the hopping mechanism of charge carrier transfer in composite films based on conducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, A. N.; Alexandrova, E. L.

    2008-10-01

    The switching and memory effects in composite films based on conducting polymers [poly(phenylenevinylene), thiophene, and carbazole derivatives] and inorganic nanoparticles (ZnO, Si) are investigated. It is established that the introduction of inorganic nanoparticles (ZnO, Si) exhibiting strong acceptor properties into polymer materials leads to the appearance of memory effects, which manifest themselves in the transition of the polymer from a low-conductivity state to a high-conductivity state. For a number of composites, this transition is accompanied by the formation of a region with a negative differential resistance and a hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. It is demonstrated that the observed effects are determined by the mechanism of charge carrier transfer in the composite. In particular, the main mechanism of transport in films based on thiophene derivatives is associated with electrical conduction due to the tunneling of charge carriers between conducting regions embedded in a nonconducting matrix, whereas the dominant mechanism of transport in “polymer-semiconductor nanoparticle” composite films is hopping conduction, which is responsible for the effects observed in these objects.

  13. Optimization of charge carrier transport balance for performance improvement of PDPP3T-based polymer solar cells prepared using a hot solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Fujun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Wenbin; An, Qiaoshi; Li, Lingliang; Sun, Qianqian; Tang, Weihua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-04-21

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs), with poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the active layers, were fabricated using solutions of different temperatures. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs prepared using a hot solution was about 6.22%, which is better than 5.54% for PSCs prepared using cool (room temperature) solutions and 5.85% for PSCs prepared using cool solutions with a 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent additive. The underlying reasons for the improved PCE of the PSCs prepared using a hot solution could be attributed to the more dispersive donor and acceptor distribution in the active layer, resulting in a better bi-continuous interpenetrating network for exciton dissociation and charge carrier transport. An enhanced and more balanced charge carrier transport in the active layer is obtained for the PSCs prepared using a hot solution, which can be determined from the J-V curves of the related hole-only and electron-only devices.

  14. Graded morphology in bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on colloidal semiconductor nanostructures: Directed charge-separation and facile carrier transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Uttiya; Pal, Amlan J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce density gradient of p- and n-type compound semiconductor nanostructures in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The graded BHJs (GBHJs) were formed with the p-type copper-zinc-tin-sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4) nanoparticles and n-type Bi2S3 nanorods, both of which were based on nontoxic and earth-abundant elements and were grown at a moderate reaction temperature (180 °C). The concentration gradient of the nanostructures in the GBHJs provided a preferred directionality of nano-depletion regions for directed charge separation and also a controlled vertical segregation for ever-increasing carrier-transport pathways during the charge-extraction process. A comparison of solar cell characteristics having a bilayer, a BHJ, and a GBHJ structure is being presented. The performance of the thickness-optimized devices for highest efficiency shows that the GBHJ offered an improved short-circuit current as compared to the bilayer and the BHJ structures and a higher fill-factor as compared to the BHJ device. The overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of GBHJ exceeded that of the other two heterojunctions. The advantages of GBHJ structures in yielding an improved η have been explained through an increased exciton dissociation process along with a lower carrier recombination as compared to the bilayer and the BHJ structures, respectively. Series and shunt resistances, which were derived from current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy, supported such analyses.

  15. Role of Sub-Nanometer Dielectric Roughness on Microstructure and Charge Carrier Transport in α,ω-Dihexylsexithiophene Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Marszalek, Tomasz; Müllen, Klaus; Pisula, Wojciech

    2016-06-29

    The effect of dielectric roughness on the microstructure evolution of thermally evaporated α,ω-dihexylsexithiophene (α,ω-DH6T) thin films from a single molecular layer to tens of monolayers (ML) is studied. Thereby, the surface roughness of dielectrics is controlled within a sub-nanometer range. It is found that the grain size of an α,ω-DH6T ML is affected by dielectric roughness, especially for 1.5 ML, whereby the transistor performance is barely influenced. This can be attributed to a domain interconnection in the second layer over a long-range formed on the rough surface. With deposition of more layers, both microstructure and charge carrier transport exhibit a roughness-independent behavior. The structural characterization of α,ω-DH6T 10 ML by grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering reveals that the interlayer distance is slightly decreased from 3.30 to 3.15 nm due to a higher roughness, while an unchanged π-stacking distance is in excellent agreement with the roughness-independent hole mobility. This study excludes the influence of molecular-solvent interaction and preaggregation taking place during solution deposition, and provides further evidence that the microstructure of the interfacial layer of organic semiconductors has only minor impact on the bulk charge carrier transport in thicker films.

  16. Two-dimensional Mineral [Pb2BiS3 ][AuTe2 ]: High mobility Charge Carriers in Single-atom-thick Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Im, J.; Stoumpos, C.; Shi, F.; Dravid, V.; Leroux, M.; Freeman, A.; Kwok, W.-K.,; Chung, D.-Y.; Kanatzidis, M.

    2015-03-01

    We report that [Pb2BiS3][AuTe2], known as a naturally occurring mineral buckhornite, hosts 2D carriers in single-atom-thick layers. The structure is composed of stacking layers of weakly coupled [Pb2BiS3] and [AuTe2] sheets. The insulating [Pb2BiS3] sheet inhibits interlayer charge hopping and confines the carriers in the basal plane of the single-atom-thick [AuTe2] layer. Magneto-transport measurements and theoretical calculations show a property of multiband semimetal with compensated density of electrons and holes, which exhibit high hole carrier mobility of 1360 cm2/Vs. This material possesses an extremely large anisotropy 104, comparable to benchmark materials graphite. The electronic structure features linear band dispersion at the Fermi level and ultrahigh Fermi velocities of 106 m/s which are virtually identical to that of graphene. The weak interlayer coupling gives rise to the highly cleavable property of single crystal specimens, indicating a prospect for monolayer system. This research was supported by the DoE, BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357, and NUANCE Center at the Northwestern Univeristy.

  17. Multifluid Nonequilibrium Simulation of Arcjet Thrusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott Alan

    A detailed numerical model has been developed to study the gasdynamic flow in an electrothermal arcjet thruster. This two-temperature, Navier-Stokes model consistently incorporates viscosity, heat conduction, ohmic dissipation, collisional energy transfer between electrons and heavy species, ambipolar diffusion, nonequilibrium dissociation and ionization, and radiation. The fluid equations are solved by MacCormack's method while an iterative procedure is used to relax an electric potential equation, from which the current distribution in the thruster is obtained. Using hydrogen propellant, solutions are achieved for a range of input parameters and the underlying physics and internal structures of these arcjet flows are revealed. In particular, a mechanism for self-sustaining anodic arc attachment is identified. It is found that ambipolar diffusion from the arc core coupled with enhanced nonequilibrium dissociation and ionization in the outer flow provide enough charge carriers for the current to pass self-consistently between the arc core and the anode wall. Numerical solutions are compared with experimental results from the German TT1 radiatively-cooled arcjet thruster. Calculated discharge voltage is within 1-2% to 10% of experimental measurements, and predicted specific impulse is within 5-10% agreement over a range of applied currents and mass flow rates. In addition, flow solutions are used to explain observed trends in performance as quantities such as the specific power and mass flow rate are varied. An anode thermal model is constructed which yields more accurate predictions of the inlet gas and electrode wall temperatures, and this model is coupled to the arcjet flow solver in order to obtain a more self-consistent solution. Finally, a simplified stability analysis of the near-anode arc attachment region is performed. It is found that a localized ionization instability may be initiated in this region, but that the system is stable under the flow conditions

  18. Low temperature charge carrier hopping transport mechanism in vanadium oxide thin films grown using pulsed dc sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Venkatasubramanian, C.; Fieldhouse, N.; Ashok, S.; Horn, M. W.; Jackson, T. N.

    2009-06-01

    Low temperature charge transport in vanadium oxide (VOx) thin films processed using pulsed dc sputtering is investigated to understand the correlation between the processing conditions and electrical properties. It is identified that the temperature dependent resistivity ρ(T ) of the VOx thin films is dominated by a Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping mechanism [Efros and Shklovskii, J. Phys. C 8, L49 (1975)]. A detailed analysis in terms of charge hopping parameters in the low temperature regime is used to correlate film properties with the pulsed dc sputtering conditions.

  19. Charge carrier accumulation in lithium fluoride thin films due to Li-ion absorption by titania (100) subsurface.

    PubMed

    Li, Chilin; Gu, Lin; Guo, Xiangxin; Samuelis, Dominik; Tang, Kun; Maier, Joachim

    2012-03-14

    The thermodynamically required redistribution of ions at given interfaces is being paid increased attention. The present investigation of the contact LiF/TiO(2) offers a highly worthwhile example, as the redistribution processes can be predicted and verified. It consists in Li ion transfer from LiF into the space charge zones of TiO(2). We not only can measure the resulting increase of lithium vacancy conductivity in LiF, we also observe a transition from n- to p-type conductivity in TiO(2) in consistency with the generalized space charge model.

  20. Improved understanding of the electronic and energetic landscapes of perovskite solar cells: high local charge carrier mobility, reduced recombination, and extremely shallow traps.

    PubMed

    Oga, Hikaru; Saeki, Akinori; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Seki, Shu

    2014-10-01

    The intriguing photoactive features of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have enabled the preparation of a new class of highly efficient solar cells. However, the fundamental properties, upon which the performance of these devices is based, are currently under-explored, making their elucidation a vital issue. Herein, we have investigated the local mobility, recombination, and energetic landscape of charge carriers in a prototype CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite (PVK) using a laser-flash time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) technique. PVK was prepared on mesoporous TiO2 and Al2O3 by one or two-step sequential deposition. PVK on mesoporous TiO2 exhibited a charge carrier mobility of 20 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which was predominantly attributed to holes. PVK on mesoporous Al2O3, on the other hand, exhibited a 50% lower mobility, which was resolved into balanced contributions from both holes and electrons. A general correlation between crystal size and mobility was revealed irrespective of the fabrication process and underlying layer. Modulating the microwave frequency from 9 toward 23 GHz allowed us to determine the intrinsic mobilities of each PVK sample (60-75 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), which were mostly independent of the mesoporous scaffold. Kinetic and frequency analysis of the transient complex conductivity strongly support the superiority of the perovskite, based on a significant suppression of charge recombination, an extremely shallow trap depth (10 meV), and a low concentration of these trapped states (less than 10%). The transport mechanism was further investigated by examining the temperature dependence of the TRMC maxima. Our study provides a basis for understanding perovskite solar cell operation, while highlighting the importance of the mesoporous layer and the perovskite fabrication process.

  1. Formulation, characterization, and evaluation of in vitro skin permeation and in vivo pharmacodynamics of surface-charged tripterine-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhou, Lei; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Qingqing

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are attractive materials for topical drug delivery, and in a previous study, we demonstrated that NLCs loaded with tripterine enhance its deposition. However, the surface charge of nanoparticles influences percutaneous drug penetration. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the influence of the surface charge of NLCs on in vitro skin permeation and in vivo pharmacodynamics of tripterine and optimize tripterine- loaded NLCs for the treatment of skin diseases. Methods Different solid and liquid matrices were selected to prepare cationic, anionic, and neutral NLCs by the solvent evaporation method. The in vitro studies were evaluated by using Franz diffusion cells. The effect of surface-charged NLCs on cellular uptake was appraised across HaCaT and B16BL6 cells. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of surface-charged NLCs was evaluated in B16BL6 cells and melanoma-bearing mice, respectively. Results The average particle sizes of the cationic, anionic, and neutral NLCs were 90.2 ± 9.7, 87.8 ± 7.4, and 84.5 ± 10.2 nm, respectively; their encapsulation efficiencies were 64.3% ± 5.1%, 67.8% ± 4.4%, and 72.5% ± 4.9%, respectively. In vitro studies showed delayed tripterine release, and the order of skin permeation was cationic NLCs > anionic NLCs > neutral NLCs. Further, in vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that the cationic NLCs had the highest (P < 0.05) inhibition ratio in B16BL6 (melanoma) cells. Moreover, in vivo pharmacodynamic experiments in melanoma-bearing mice indicated that the cationic NLCs had significantly higher (P < 0.05) antimelanoma efficacy than the anionic and neutral NLCs. Conclusion The surface charge of NLCs has a great influence on the skin permeation and pharmacodynamics of tripterine. Cationic tripterine-loaded NLCs could enhance the percutaneous penetration and antimelanoma efficacy of tripterine and offer several advantages over tripterine alone. Therefore, they are promising carriers of

  2. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.G. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1990-11-01

    The development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is described, with emphasis on massively-parallel simulations involving the motion of millions, soon to be billions, of atoms. Corresponding continuum simulations are also discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Photoinduced charge carrier dynamics of Zn-porphyrin-TiO2 electrodes: the key role of charge recombination for solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Kang, Soonchul; Hayashi, Hironobu; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki; Isoda, Seiji; Canton, Sophie E; Infahsaeng, Yingyot; Kathiravan, Arunkumar; Pascher, Torbjörn; Chábera, Pavel; Yartsev, Arkady P; Sundström, Villy

    2011-04-28

    Time resolved absorption spectroscopy has been used to study photoinduced electron injection and charge recombination in Zn-porphyrin sensitized nanostructured TiO(2) electrodes. The electron transfer dynamics is correlated to the performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on the same electrodes. We find that the dye/semiconductor binding can be described with a heterogeneous geometry where the Zn-porphyrin molecules are attached to the TiO(2) surface with a distribution of tilt angles. The binding angle determines the porphyrin-semiconductor electron transfer distance and charge transfer occurs through space, rather than through the bridge connecting the porphyrin to the surface. For short sensitization times (1 h), there is a direct correlation between solar cell efficiency and amplitude of the kinetic component due to long-lived conduction band electrons, once variations in light harvesting (surface coverage) have been taken into account. Long sensitization time (12 h) results in decreased solar cell efficiency because of decreased efficiency of electron injection.

  4. Coupled optical absorption, charge carrier separation, and surface electrochemistry in surface disordered/hydrogenated TiO2 for enhanced PEC water splitting reaction.

    PubMed

    Behara, Dilip Kumar; Ummireddi, Ashok Kumar; Aragonda, Vidyasagar; Gupta, Prashant Kumar; Pala, Raj Ganesh S; Sivakumar, Sri

    2016-03-28

    The central governing factors that influence the efficiency of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting reaction are photon absorption, effective charge-carrier separation, and surface electrochemistry. Attempts to improve one of the three factors may debilitate other factors and we explore such issues in hydrogenated TiO2, wherein a significant increase in optical absorption has not resulted in a significant increase in PEC performance, which we attribute to the enhanced recombination rate due to the formation of amorphization/disorderness in the bulk during the hydrogenation process. To this end, we report a methodology to increase the charge-carrier separation with enhanced optical absorption of hydrogenated TiO2. Current methodology involves hydrogenation of non-metal (N and S) doped TiO2 which comprises (1) lowering of the band gap through shifting of the valence band via less electronegative non-metal N, S-doping, (2) lowering of the conduction band level and the band gap via formation of the Ti(3+) state and oxygen vacancies by hydrogenation, and (3) material processing to obtain a disordered surface structure which favors higher electrocatalytic (EC) activity. This design strategy yields enhanced PEC activity (%ABPE = 0.38) for the N-S co-doped TiO2 sample hydrogenated at 800 °C for 24 h over possible combinations of N-S co-doped TiO2 samples hydrogenated at 500 °C/24 h, 650 °C/24 h and 800 °C/72 h. This suggests that hydrogenation at lower temperatures does not result in much increase in optical absorption and prolonged hydrogenation results in an increase in optical absorption but a decrease in charge carrier separation by forming disorderness/oxygen vacancies in the bulk. Furthermore, the difference in double layer capacitance (C(dl)) calculated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements of these samples reflects the change in the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and facilitates assessing the key role of surface

  5. Reduced exchange narrowing caused by gate-induced charge carriers in high-mobility donor-acceptor copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Osaka, Itaru; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2017-03-01

    Variations in exciton absorption resulting from charge accumulation in various semiconducting donor-acceptor (DA) copolymer thin films were systematically investigated by gate modulation (GM) spectroscopy by using the field-effect transistor device structure. The GM spectra obtained for high-mobility DA copolymer thin films exhibited second-derivative like line shapes due to an effect of spectral broadening of ordinary exciton absorption spectra by accumulated charges. In contrast, the GM spectra obtained for relatively low-mobility DA copolymer thin films exhibited simple bleaching of exciton absorption spectra, as well as observed for non-DA-type polymers like poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT). From a systematic comparison of the GM spectra with temperature-dependent absorption spectra for the polymers in solution, we found that the spectral broadening observed in the GM spectra can be attributed to a reduced effect on the exchange narrowing where excitonic transitions of individual polymer chains are coherently coupled within highly ordered crystalline domains in the polymer thin films. We discuss that the gate-induced charge accumulation in the polymer films effects to suppress the exciton coherence length, which contributes to the reduced exchange narrowing. We also discuss that the whole feature of the GM spectra can be understood in terms of a decomposition into ordered and disordered polymers and that the GM spectra can be used as fine probes for a degree of structural ordering in semiconductor channels of polymer field-effect transistors.

  6. Primary charge carrier dynamics of water-solubilized CdZnS/ZnS core/shell and CdZnS/ZnS·Pd nanoparticle adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, Erik; Thibert, Arthur; Page, Leah E.; Jawaid, Ali M.; Snee, Preston T.; Larsen, Delmar S.

    2013-06-01

    The primary photodynamics of 5-nm CdZnS core, CdZnS/ZnS core/shell, and CdZnS/ZnS·Pd nanoparticle adducts are characterized with broadband ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Photogenerated excitons in the CdZnS and CdZnS/ZnS nanoparticles exhibit long-lived (>20 ns) lifetimes and further functionalizing of the type-I CdZnS/ZnS core/shells with Pd nanoparticles resulted in rapid exciton quenching (<250 ps) due to the transfer of electrons from the CdZnS core into the Pd nanocrystals via tunneling through the insulating ZnS shell. The shell-induced surface trap passivation and near-unity charge carrier injection efficiency into a platinum-group metal nanoparticle shows potential for enhanced colloidal photocatalytic applications, while enhancing photostability.

  7. Effect of Structural Phase Transition on Charge-Carrier Lifetimes and Defects in CH3NH3SnI3 Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Elizabeth S; Milot, Rebecca L; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-04-07

    Methylammonium tin triiodide (MASnI3) has been successfully employed in lead-free perovskite solar cells, but overall power-conversion efficiencies are still significantly lower than for lead-based perovskites. Here we present photoluminescence (PL) spectra and time-resolved PL from 8 to 295 K and find a marked improvement in carrier lifetime and a substantial reduction in PL line width below ∼110 K, indicating that the cause of the hindered performance is activated at the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition. Our measurements therefore suggest that targeted structural change may be capable of tailoring the relative energy level alignment of defects (e.g., tin vacancies) to reduce the background dopant density and improve charge extraction. In addition, we observe for the first time an above-gap emission feature that may arise from higher-lying interband transitions, raising the prospect of excess energy harvesting.

  8. Comparison of modification strategies towards enhanced charge carrier separation and photocatalytic degradation activity of metal oxide semiconductors (TiO2, WO3 and ZnO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Girish; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2017-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductors (TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) finds unparalleled opportunity in wastewater purification under UV/visible light, largely encouraged by their divergent admirable features like stability, non-toxicity, ease of preparation, suitable band edge positions and facile generation of active oxygen species in the aqueous medium. However, the perennial failings of these photocatalysts emanates from the stumbling blocks like rapid charge carrier recombination and meager visible light response. In this review, tailoring the surface-bulk electronic structure through the calibrated and veritable approaches such as impurity doping, deposition with noble metals, sensitizing with other compounds (dyes, polymers, inorganic complexes and simple chelating ligands), hydrogenation process (annealing under hydrogen atmosphere), electronic integration with other semiconductors, modifying with carbon nanostructures, designing with exposed facets and tailoring with hierarchical morphologies to overcome their critical drawbacks are summarized. Taking into account the materials intrinsic properties, the pros and cons together with similarities and striking differences for each strategy in specific to TiO2, WO3 & ZnO are highlighted. These subtlety enunciates the primacy for improving the structure-electronic properties of metal oxides and credence to its fore in the practical applications. Future research must focus on comparing the performances of ZnO, TiO2 and WO3 in parallel to get insight into their photocatalytic behaviors. Such comparisons not only reveal the changed surface-electronic structure upon various modifications, but also shed light on charge carrier dynamics, free radical generation, structural stability and compatibility for photocatalytic reactions. It is envisioned that these cardinal tactics have profound implications and can be replicated to other semiconductor photocatalysts like CeO2, In2O3, Bi2O3, Fe2O3, BiVO4, AgX, BiOX (X = Cl, Br & I), Bi2WO6, Bi2MoO6

  9. Charge carrier dynamics and relaxation in (polyethylene oxide-lithium-salt)-based polymer electrolyte containing 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, A; Ghosh, A

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we report the dynamics of charge carriers and relaxation in polymer electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO), lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) ionic liquid prepared by solution cast technique. It has been observed that the incorporation of BMPTFSI into PEO-LiTFSI electrolyte is an effective way for increasing the amorphous phase to a large extent. It has also been observed that both the glass transition and melting temperatures decrease with the increase of BMPTFSI concentration. The ionic conductivity of these polymer electrolytes increases with the increase of BMPTFSI concentration. The highest ionic conductivity obtained at 25 °C is ~3×10(-4) S cm(-1) for the electrolyte containing 60 wt % BMPTFSI and ethylene oxide (EO)/Li ratio of 20. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity and the hopping frequency show Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The frequency dependence of the ac conductivity exhibits a power law with an exponent n which decreases with the increase of temperature. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and BMPTFSI concentrations. We have also presented the electric modulus data which have been analyzed in the framework of a Havriliak-Negami equation and the shape parameters obtained by the analysis show slight temperature dependence, but change sharply with BMPTFSI concentration. The stretched exponent β obtained from Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts fit to the modulus data is much lower than unity signifying that the relaxation is highly nonexponential. The decay function obtained from analysis of experimental modulus data is highly asymmetric with time.

  10. Charge carrier dynamics and relaxation in (polyethylene oxide-lithium-salt)-based polymer electrolyte containing 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we report the dynamics of charge carriers and relaxation in polymer electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO), lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) ionic liquid prepared by solution cast technique. It has been observed that the incorporation of BMPTFSI into PEO-LiTFSI electrolyte is an effective way for increasing the amorphous phase to a large extent. It has also been observed that both the glass transition and melting temperatures decrease with the increase of BMPTFSI concentration. The ionic conductivity of these polymer electrolytes increases with the increase of BMPTFSI concentration. The highest ionic conductivity obtained at 25 °C is ˜3×10-4 S cm-1 for the electrolyte containing 60 wt % BMPTFSI and ethylene oxide (EO)/Li ratio of 20. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity and the hopping frequency show Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The frequency dependence of the ac conductivity exhibits a power law with an exponent n which decreases with the increase of temperature. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and BMPTFSI concentrations. We have also presented the electric modulus data which have been analyzed in the framework of a Havriliak-Negami equation and the shape parameters obtained by the analysis show slight temperature dependence, but change sharply with BMPTFSI concentration. The stretched exponent β obtained from Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts fit to the modulus data is much lower than unity signifying that the relaxation is highly nonexponential. The decay function obtained from analysis of experimental modulus data is highly asymmetric with time.

  11. Two-dimensional mineral [Pb2BiS3][AuTe2]: high-mobility charge carriers in single-atom-thick layers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Im, Jino; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Shi, Fengyuan; Dravid, Vinayak; Leroux, Maxime; Freeman, Arthur J; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri

    2015-02-18

    Two-dimensional (2D) electronic systems are of wide interest due to their richness in chemical and physical phenomena and potential for technological applications. Here we report that [Pb2BiS3][AuTe2], known as the naturally occurring mineral buckhornite, hosts 2D carriers in single-atom-thick layers. The structure is composed of stacking layers of weakly coupled [Pb2BiS3] and [AuTe2] sheets. The insulating [Pb2BiS3] sheet inhibits interlayer charge hopping and confines the carriers in the basal plane of the single-atom-thick [AuTe2] layer. Magneto-transport measurements on synthesized samples and theoretical calculations show that [Pb2BiS3][AuTe2] is a multiband semimetal with a compensated density of electrons and holes, which exhibits a high hole carrier mobility of ∼1360 cm(2)/(V s). This material possesses an extremely large anisotropy, Γ = ρ(c)/ρ(ab) ≈ 10(4), comparable to those of the benchmark 2D materials graphite and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(6+δ). The electronic structure features linear band dispersion at the Fermi level and ultrahigh Fermi velocities of 10(6) m/s, which are virtually identical to those of graphene. The weak interlayer coupling gives rise to the highly cleavable property of the single crystal specimens. Our results provide a novel candidate for a monolayer platform to investigate emerging electronic properties.

  12. Toward a theory for low-frequency spin dynamics in plane copper oxide superconductors: crossover from localized spins to weak coupling charge carriers with doping.

    PubMed

    Larionov, Igor A

    2011-06-22

    We explore for all wavevectors through the Brillouin zone the dynamic spin susceptibility χ(total)(+,-)(ω, q) that takes into account the interplay of localized and itinerant charge carriers. The imaginary part, Imχ(total)(+,-)(ω, q), has peaks at the antiferromagnetic wavevector Q = (π, π) and a diffusive-like, extremely narrow and sharp peak (symmetric ring of maxima |q| = q(0)) at very small wavevectors Q(0) is proportional to w/J ≈ 10(-6) with the nuclear magnetic/quadrupole resonance frequency ω and the superexchange coupling constant J. We demonstrate the capability of Imχ(total)(+,-)(ω, q) for plane copper (63)(1/T(1)) and oxygen (17)(1/T(1)) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate calculations from carrier free right up to optimally doped La(2 - x)Sr(x)CuO(4) and obtain the basic features of temperature and doping behavior for (63)(1/T(1)) in agreement with experimental observations.

  13. Correlation of film morphology and defect content with the charge-carrier transport in thin-film transistors based on ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Polster, S.; Jank, M. P. M.; Frey, L.

    2016-01-14

    The correlation of defect content and film morphology with the charge-carrier transport in field-effect devices based on zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated. Changes in the defect content and the morphology were realized by annealing and sintering of the nanoparticle thin films. Temperature-dependent electrical measurements reveal that the carrier transport is thermally activated for both the unsintered and sintered thin films. Reduced energetic barrier heights between the particles have been determined after sintering. Additionally, the energetic barrier heights between the particles can be reduced by increasing the drain-to-source voltage and the gate-to-source voltage. The changes in the barrier height are discussed with respect to information obtained by scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. It is found that a reduction of surface states and a lower roughness at the interface between the particle layer and the gate dielectric lead to lower barrier heights. Both surface termination and layer morphology at the interface affect the barrier height and thus are the main criteria for mobility improvement and device optimization.

  14. Charge carrier mobility in conjugated organic polymers: simulation of an electron mobility in a carbazole-benzothiadiazole-based polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaping; Lagowski, Jolanta B.

    2011-08-01

    Inorganic (mostly silicon based) solar cells are important devices that are used to solve the world energy and environmental needs. Now days, organic solar cells are attracting considerable attention in the field of photovoltaic cells because of their low cost and processing flexibility. Often conjugated polymers are used in the construction of the organic solar cells. We study the conjugated polymers' charge transport using computational approach that involves the use of the density functional theory (DFT), semiempirical (ZINDO), and Monte Carlo (MC) theoretical methods in order to determine their transfer integrals, reorganization energies, transfer rates (with the use of Marcus-Hush equation) and mobilities. We employ the experimentally determined three dimensional (3D) structure of poly(9,9'-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) to estimate the electron mobility in a similar co-alternating polymer consisting of carbazole and benzothiadiazole units (C8BT). In agreement with our previous work, we found that including an orientational disorder in the crystal reduces the electron mobility in C8BT. We hope that the proposed computational approach can be used to predict charge mobility in organic materials that are used in solar cells.

  15. Time Evolution of Charge Carriers & Phonons after Photo-Excitation by an Ultra-Short Light Pulse in Bulk Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahy, Stephen; Murphy-Armando, Felipe; Trigo, Mariano; Savic, Ivana; Murray, Eamonn; Reis, David

    We have calculated the time-evolution of carriers and generated phonons in Ge after ultrafast photo-excitation above the direct band-gap. The relevant electron-phonon and anharmonic phonon scattering rates are obtained from first-principles electronic structure calculations. Measurements of the x-ray diffuse scattering after excitation near the L point in the Brillouin zone find a relatively slow (5 ps, compared to the typical electron-phonon energy relaxation of the Gamma-L phonon) increase of the phonon population. We find this is due to emission caused by the scattering of electrons between the Delta and L valleys, after the initial depopulation of the Gamma valley. The relative slowness of this process is due to a combination of causes: (i) the finite time for the initial depopulation of the conduction Gamma valley; (ii) the associated electron-phonon coupling is relatively weaker (compared to Gamma-L, Gamma-Delta and Delta-Delta couplings) ; (iii) the TA associated phonon has a long lifetime and (iv) the depopulation of the Delta valley suppresses the phonon emission. Supported by Science Foundation Ireland, Grant 12/1A/1601.

  16. Measurement of the drift mobilities and the mobility-lifetime products of charge carriers in a CdZnTe crystal by using a transient pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Kwon, Y. K.; Moon, J. Y.; Lee, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present results on the measurement of the drift mobility and the mobility-lifetime product of charge carriers in a 16-pixellated CdZnTe detector. For the determination of an interaction position based on the pulse rise-time method in a CZT detector, it is necessary to characterize the transport properties governed by drift mobility and lifetime for electrons and holes. In order to extract the transport properties of an electron and a hole, we bombarded 5.5-MeV alpha particles from a 241Am source and 81-keV gamma rays emitted from a 133Ba source on the negatively biased contact of the CZT detector. A time-of-flight (TOF) method was used to measure the electron drift mobility at room temperature whose value turned out to be 906.4 cm2/Vċ s. With the Hecht's equation, the electron mobility-lifetime product was also determined from the bias-dependent alpha response and was equal to (9.88 ± 2.33) × 10-3 cm2/V. On the other hand, the hole mobility-lifetime product was evaluated by a model based on the average charge collection efficiency which accounts for the absorption probability with a given photon energy. By using a single parameter fitting of the model, we obtained the hole mobility-lifetime product of (8.28 ± 0.17) × 10-4 cm2/V.

  17. Measurement of the drift mobilities and the mobility-lifetime products of charge carriers in a CdZnTe crystal by using a transient pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Kwon, Y. K.; Moon, J. Y.; Lee, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present results on the measurement of the drift mobility and the mobility-lifetime product of charge carriers in a 16-pixellated CdZnTe detector. For the determination of an interaction position based on the pulse rise-time method in a CZT detector, it is necessary to characterize the transport properties governed by drift mobility and lifetime for electrons and holes. In order to extract the transport properties of an electron and a hole, we bombarded 5.5-MeV alpha particles from a 241Am source and 81-keV gamma rays emitted from a 133Ba source on the negatively biased contact of the CZT detector. A time-of-flight (TOF) method was used to measure the electron drift mobility at room temperature whose value turned out to be 906.4 cm2/Vċ s. With the Hecht's equation, the electron mobility-lifetime product was also determined from the bias-dependent alpha response and was equal to (9.88 ± 2.33) × 10-3 cm2/V. On the other hand, the hole mobility-lifetime product was evaluated by a model based on the average charge collection efficiency which accounts for the absorption probability with a given photon energy. By using a single parameter fitting of the model, we obtained the hole mobility-lifetime product of (8.28 ± 0.17) × 10-4 cm2/V.

  18. Absence of carrier separation in ambipolar charge and spin drift in p{sup +}-GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Rowe, A. C. H.; Martinelli, L.; Arscott, S.

    2015-10-19

    The electric field-induced modifications of the spatial distribution of photoelectrons, photoholes, and electronic spins in optically pumped p{sup +} GaAs are investigated using a polarized luminescence imaging microscopy. At low pump intensity, application of an electric field reveals the tail of charge and spin density of drifting electrons. These tails disappear when the pump intensity is increased since a slight differential drift of photoelectrons and photoholes causes the buildup of a strong internal electric field. Spatial separation of photoholes and photoelectrons is very weak so that photoholes drift in the same direction as photoelectrons, thus exhibiting a negative effective mobility. In contrast, for a zero electric field, no significant ambipolar diffusive effects are found in the same sample.

  19. Lipopeptide-based micellar and liposomal carriers: Influence of surface charge and particle size on cellular uptake into blood brain barrier cells.

    PubMed

    Sydow, Karl; Nikolenko, Heike; Lorenz, Dorothea; Müller, Rainer H; Dathe, Margitta

    2016-12-01

    Lipopeptide-based micelles and liposomes were found to differ in cell recognition and uptake mode into blood brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells. Here we analyse the role of size and surface charge of micelles and liposomes composed of different lipopeptide sequences with respect to uptake into human brain capillary (HBMEC) and aortic (HAoEC) endothelial cells. Comparable to the dipalmitoylated apolipoprotein E-derived P2A2, lipopeptides of cationic poly-arginine (P2Rn), poly-lysine (P2Kn) and an anionic glutamic-acid sequence (P2En) self assemble into micelles (12-14nm in diameter) with high surface charge density, and bind to small (SUVs, about 24nm in diameter) and large (LUV, about 100nm in diameter) liposomes at variable lipid to peptide ratios. The interaction pattern of the resulting particles with endothelial cells is highly variable as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) and fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) studies. Micelles and SUVs with high P2A2 density are efficiently and selectively internalized into HBMEC. P2Kn micelles strongly accumulate in both the cytosol and at the cell membrane, while the interaction of liposomes tagged with a low amount of P2A2 and P2Kn with the cells was reduced. Anionic micelles seem to dissociate in the presence of cells and P2En molecules incorporate into the cellular membrane whereas the negatively charged liposomes hardly interact with cells. Surprisingly, all poly-R-based particles show high selectivity for HBMEC compared to HAoEC, independent of particle size and peptide surface density. The P2Rn-mediated internalization is highly efficient and partially clathrin-dependent. The oligo-R lipopeptide is considered to be most promising to selectively transport different drug carriers into the blood brain barrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Strontium insertion in methlyammonium lead iodide: long charge carrier lifetime and high fill factor solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momblona, Cristina; Gil-Escrig, Lidón; Ávila, Jorge; Pérez-Del-Rey, Daniel; Forgács, David; Sessolo, Michele; Bolink, Hendrik J.

    2016-09-01

    Organic-inorganic (hybrid) lead halide perovskites are taking the lead among the emerging photovoltaics technologies, thanks to the demonstration of power conversion efficiencies exceeding 20 %. Hybrid perovskites have a wide spectrum of desirable properties; they are direct bandgap semiconductors with very high absorption coefficients, high and balanced hole and electron mobility, and large diffusion length. A unique feature of these materials is their versatility in terms of bandgap energy, which can be tuned by simple exchange of their components. In this paper we present vacuum and hybrid deposition routes for the preparation of different organic-inorganic lead perovskite thin films, and their incorporation into efficient solar cells. The influence of the type of organic semiconductors used as hole/electron transport layer in p-i-n solar cells will be presented. We also discuss their electroluminescence properties, either for applications in light-emitting diodes or as a diagnostic tool of the optical and electronic quality of perovskite thin films. Finally, the effect of additives and dopants in the perovskite absorber as well as in the charge selective layers will be described.